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Applied Finite Element Analysis - Larry J. Segerlind

Applied Finite Element Analysis - Larry J. Segerlind

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Second Edition

Agricultural Engineering Department Michigan State University

New York • Chichester • Brisbane . Toronto . Singapore

To my parents T. J. and Bessie and my grade school teacher Alice Brunger

Copyright© 1984, by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:

Segerlind, Larry J., 1937Applied finite element analysis. Bibliography: p. 411. Includes index. 1. Finite element method. I. Title. TA347.F5S43 1984 620'.001'515353 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3



The finite element method is a widely accepted numerical procedure for solving the differential equations of engineering and physics and is the computational basis of many computer-aided design systems. The teaching of the fundamentals of the finite element method is rapidly becoming a necessity in those curricula which solve problems in the general areas of structural analysis, continuum mechanics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. This is an introductory textbook covering the basic concepts of the finite element method and their application to the analysis of plane structures and twodimensional continuum problems in heat transfer, irrotational fluid flow, and elasticity. The topics can be handled by advanced senior and beginning graduate students and have been taught in a course at this level for 10 years. No prior knowledge of structural analysis or the finite element method is assumed. The major differences between this book and the first edition are the organization, the inclusion of five new chapters that introduce the analysis of plane structures, an increase in the number of homework problems, and the use of Galerkin's method in conjunction with the solution of field problems. The organization of the material is unique and makes the book more useful as a teaching tool. The book consists of four parts: basic concepts, field problems, structural and solid mechanics problems, and linear and quadratic elements. The basic concepts cover six chapters and contain information needed to study field problem and/or structural and solid mechanics applications. Once the basic concepts have been completed, either Part Two, the field problems, or Part Three, structural and solid mechanics, can be studied. These two sections of the book are independent; the students can study either part or chapters from both parts depending on their interests. Part Four, linear and quadratic elements, covers general procedures for developing the element shape functions and numerically integrating the element matrices. This part can be covered after some of the continuum applications have been completed. The organization of the book offers the instructor at least three different teaching options: (1) a general finite element course with topics selected from both field and solid mechanics applications, (2) a course emphasizing the solution of field problems, or (3) a course emphasizing the solution of solid mechanics problems. The author teaches the first type of course and covers Chapters 1 through 11, 17, 18, 23, and 24 in approximately 40 lectures.

2. four computer programs have been included.5 Chapter 4 Weighting Functions The Weighted Residual Integral Evaluation of the Integral Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam Matrix Notation Problems GALERKIN FORMULATION ELEMENT MATRICES: 4. The problems are a mixture of numerical calculation. These checks are very efficient and eliminate most ~f the student-instructor contact relative to finding data input errors. The variational method is not presented correctly in most finite element books.1 3.4 4.4 Division of the Region into Elements The Linear Element A Continuous Piecewise Smooth Equation A Comment on Notation Problems 18 21 22 22 27 27 29 30 32 34 35 40 40 43 44 47 50 50 Chapter 3 A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 3.3 3. It should be noted. 2.5 Least Squares Method Potential Energy Formulations The Finite Element Method Objective and Organization Problems LINEAR ELEMENT 3 4 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 13 13 17 17 Chapter 2 ONE-DIMENSIONAL 2.4 Galerkin's Method 1. I would also like to thank my wife Donna for her patience during the writing of this manuscript.1 Variational Method 1.1 2.1 1. and the student will find that he or she has studied a method that can be used to formulate differential equations with a first-derivative term. The finite element method must be implemented on a digital computer. Galerkin's method offers two primary advantages.4 3. hence.4 1. which are never used and are somewhat difficult to explain away. therefore.3 4. Galerkin's method has been used to solve the field problems because it is an approach that is more readily accepted by seniors and beginning graduate students. however. or the evaluation of important integrals and problems requiring a computer solution.1 4.2 1.3 2. analytical derivations.5 Element Matrices Direct Stiffness Method Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam Properties of the Global Stiffness Matrix General Flow of the Computations Problems .3 1. East Lansing.2. The inclusion of derivative boundary conditions is a straightforward procedure. These programs are written specifically for the beginning user and contain diagnostic checks to detect errors made by first-time users. These students have not had any variational calculus. Their questions and suggestions were an invaluable contribution and have influenced the complete organization of the book as well as specific paragraphs within the text. The displacement method of structural analysis based on the principle of minimum potential energy is presented. I would like to thank the many students in MMM809 who used the original handwritten pages of this book as well as several typed versions. Michigan Larry J. Segerlind Contents PART ONE Chapter 1 BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 1. The number of homework problems has been increased to over 300 with most chapters having at least 10 and many having 15 or more. The disadvantage of Galerkin's method is the surfacing of the interelement requirements. that the interelement requirements also occur in the variational formulation when it is correctly applied.2 Collocation Method 1.3 Subdomain Method 1. the concept of a functional is often quite mysterious to them. A complete solution manual is available from the publisher. This formulation is consistent with the finite element analysis of elasticity problems.2 4.2 3.viii PREFACE The chapters that introduce the analysis of plane structures are included for agricultural and mechanical engineering students who need an introduction to the matrix analysis of structures but who do not have time to take several civil engineering courses to get the material.5 Solution of Boundary Value Problems Integral Formulations for Numerical Solutions 1.

3 Concluding Remarks A Computer Example Problems VIBRATIONS PART TWO Chapter 7 FIELD PROBLEMS TWO-DIMENSIONAL 7.2 15.2 11.1 14.3 Physical Reality Numerical Oscillations Lumped or Consistent Formulation? Consistent Formulation 15.3.4 8.1 10.4 BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION xi 130 132 134 138 138 142 144 145 145 148 148 148 151 .2 Potential Formulation Groundwater Flow Computer Examples 15.4 14.3 5.1 12.2 8.2 10.3.2 Lumped Formulation 15.3.2 87 87 89 91 94 97 100 100 101 105 107 109 111 Chapter 13 One.Dimensional Vibrations Problems FIELD PROBLEMS Governing Differential Equations Integral Equations for the Element Matrices Element Matrices: Triangular Element Element Matrices: Rectangular Element Problems OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS AXISYMMETRIC 13.4.2 13.3.5 Chapter 8 TORSION 8.X CONTENTS 5 TWO-DIMENSIONAL 5.5 The One-Dimensional Fin The Composite Wall The Two-Dimensional Fin Long Two-Dimensional Bodies 11 .2 Heat Flux into the Body 11. 158 158 162 164 165 165 166 168 170 173 176 Chapter Two-Dimensional Grids Linear Triangular Element Bilinear Rectangular Element A Continuous Piecewise Smooth Equation Problems SYSTEMS Chapter 6 COORDINATE 6.1 13.4.3 Summary Two-Dimensional Elements 15.5 Local Coordinate Systems Natural Coordinate Systems Rectangular Element Triangular Element: Area Coordinates Continuity Problems 11.5 General Theory Twisting of a Square Bar Shear Stress Components Evaluation of the Twisting Torque Computer Solutions for the Square Bar Problems The Differential Equation Axisymmetric Elements Galerkin's Method Element Matrices The Derivative Boundary Condition Problems Chapter 14 TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 14.2 5.4 ELEMENTS 51 51 56 61 64 66 68 68 70 73 73 78 80 CONTENTS Flow Around a Cylinder 10.Dimensional Vibrations Two.3 14.4.1 11.3 7.1 The Rectangular Element 190 190 191 194 194 195 196 196 196 Chapter 10 IRROTATIONAL 10.1 5.1 7.2 Regional Aquifer Problems Chapter 11 HEAT TRANSFER 11 .1 8.1 15.2 7.3 8.2 9.3 Derivative Boundary Conditions Evaluation of the Element Integrals Point Sources and Sinks Point Sources and Sinks FLOW 115 115 118 121 124 126 126 126 127 129 130 Chapter 15 TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 15.1.1 15.3 11.1 6.4 6.2 14.3 6.1 9.1 Streamline Formulation 10.1 Convection Boundary Condition 11.4 FIELD EQUATION Chapter 85 12 ACOUSTICAL 12.4.5 Galerkin's Method The Consistent Formulation The Lumped Formulation Finite Difference Solution in Time Heat Flow in a Rod Problems 177 177 178 180 183 185 188 Chapter 9 DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND SINKS 9.4 13.2 6.3 Flow of an Ideal Fluid 10.3 .1 10.

1 25.1 26.3 Summary Derivative Boundary Conditions Problems FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL CONTENTS 197 199 199 200 CONTENTS 21.1 22.2 18.4 17.xii 15.1 The Work Terms 22.4 238 238 240 242 244 245 246 246 247 250 255 261 261 263 263 265 267 271 277 277 Chapter 24 AXISYMMETRIC 24.2 17.1 Plane Strain 23.2 26.4 FOR STRUCTURAL 326 326 338 340 351 Program FRAME An Example Problem for FRAME Program STRESS An Example Problem for STRESS Chapter 20 A BEAM ELEMENT 20.4 TWO-DIMENSIONAL 23.1 The Structural Model Local Node Numbers Evaluating the Shape Functions The One-Dimensional Element Triangular Elements Quadrilateral Elements .3 20.2 20.4 20.3 The Structural Model The Element Matrices Analysis of a Pinned Truss Problems Chapter 25 COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND SOLID MECHANICS 25.2 23. Chapter 17 The Equations Program Listing An Example Problem PART THREE STRUCTURAL AND SOUD MECHANICS 225 Chapter 227 227 228 229 231 235 235 23 22.3.3 24.3 25.2 The Triangular Element 15.2 25.3 Chapter 202 202 203 219 22 THEORY OF ELASTICITY 22.3. Strain.5 Plane Stress and Plane Strain Plane Stress 23.2 24.1 18.2 21.2 19.5 ELEMENTS 357 359 359 361 362 363 365 Beam Chapter 21 A PLANE FRAME ELEMENT 21..3 The Stress Components ELASTICITY .3.5 The Structural Model The Strain Energy Equation The Displacement Equation The Element Stiffness Matrix Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate Problems PART FOUR Chapter 26 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC ELEMENT SHAPE FUNCTIONS 26.1 16.3 Stress.5 The One-Dimensional Model Principle of Minimum Potential Energy The Strain Energy Equation A System of Axial Force Members Matrix Notation Problems POTENTIAL ENERGY 23.3 The Element Stiffness Matrix The Internal Forces Problems xiii 278 280 283 286 286 288 289 289 290 291 292 293 293 293 294 295 297 304 305 309 314 Coordinates 314 316 317 320 322 15.1 24.5 Chapter 16 COMPUTER PROGRAM FIELD PROBLEMS The Displacement Equations The Element Matrices Element Stresses Discussion of a Computer Example Problems Chapter 18 ELEMENT MATRICES.2 22.3 26.1 19.3 18.2 16.1.2 The Element Matrices 22.4 23.4 26.1 THE AXIAL FORCE MEMBER 17. FORMULATIONS 18.3 23. and Hooke's Law The Strain Displacement Equations The Element Matrices The Strain Energy Equation 22.3 17.4.4 ELASTICITY The Axial Force Element A System of Axial Force Members A General Formulation Internal Forces Problems Definitions in Cylindrical Axisymmetric Elasticity Element Matrices Surface Loads Problems Chapter 19 THE TRUSS ELEMENT 19.1 17.1 20.

3 The Linear Quadrilateral Element The Lagrangian Element The Eight-Node Quadratic Element Problems CONTENTS 365 366 367 368 371 371 371 372 375 376 376 377 378 380 382 383 APPLIED FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter 27 ELEMENT MATRICES 27.2.4 27.2.5 Chapter 28 ISOPARAMETRIC 28.Dependent Field Problems The Computer Program ISOFLD A Computer Example REFERENCES APPENDIX APPENPIX APPENDIX INDEX 1 2 3 MATRIX NOTATION DIFFERENTIATION MODIFYING OF MATRIX EQUATIONS 414 417 421 425 THE SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS .1 28.1 One-Dimensional Integrals 27.3 28.1 26.4 28.2 28.3 27.3 Triangular Regions An Integration Example Evaluating [8] Evaluating the Surface Integrals Problems COMPUTER PROGRAMS and {f(e)} 27.1 Changing the Variables of Integration 27.2.2 26.1 One-Dimensional Integrals 27.xiv Quadrilateral Regions 27.2 27.5 Computer 387 387 389 390 391 405 411 413 Evaluation of [k(e)] Curved Boundaries Solving Time.2 Two-Dimensional Integrals Numerical Integration Techniques 27.5.

These chapters should be covered before going to the application chapters. .PART ONE BASIC CONCEPTS The first six chapters cover concepts basic to all applications of the finite element method.

It has two primary subdivisions. The finite element method is the computational basis of many computer-assisted design programs. The space exploration ofthe 1960s provided money for basic research. The first utilizes discrete elements to obtain the joint displacements and member forces of a structural framework. missiles. A general finite element computer program. It is impossible to document the exact origin of the finite element method because the basic concepts have evolved over a period of 150 or more years. provided application areas. developed.000 or more and requires the computational power of the digital computer. The method is easily applied to irregular-shaped objects composed of several different materials and having mixed boundary conditions. It yields approximate values of the desired parameters at specific points called nodes. It is applicable to steady-state and timedependent problems as well as problems involving nonlinear material properties. The second approach is the true finite element method. The method as we know it today is an outgrowth of several papers published in the 1950s that extended the matrix analysis of structures to continuum bodies. fluid mechanics. which placed the method on a firm mathematical foundation and stimulated the development of multiple-purpose computer programs that implemented the method. and have been. The design of airplanes. The number of equations is usually very large. The formulation using the discrete elements is referred to as the "matrix analysis of structures" and yields results identical with the classical analysis of structural frameworks. General computer programs that are user-independent can be. and the like. The second uses the continuum elements to obtain approximate solutions to heat transfer. its advantages are clear. User-assisting programs that generate a grid from a limited number of shape-defining points are available as well as programs that analyze the results and display them in graphic form for further study. however. space capsules. and solid mechanics problems. The increased use of computer-assisted design makes it imperative that the practicing engineer have a knowledge of how the finite element method works. The method has little practical value if a computer is not available. Although the origin of the method is vague. is capable of solving both types of problems and the name "finite element method" is often used to denote both the discrete element and the continuum element formulations. anywhere from 20 to 20. The finite element method combines several mathematical concepts to produce a system of linear or nonlinear equations.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The finite element method is a numerical procedure for obtaining solutions to many of the problems encountered in engineering analysis. .

an approximate solution is substituted into the di~erential ~quation. and some of the more popular choices have been assigned names. There are many situations. are more desirable than no solution at all. Each new function produces a new number. There are several procedures for obtaining a numerical solution to a differential equation. an approxima~e solution can be obtained by substituting different trial functions int~ the appropr~ate functional. A numerical method can be used to obtain an approximate solution when an analytical solution cannot be developed.2). The number of points selected equals the number of undetermined coefficients in the approximate solution. This is equivalent to requiring the integral of the residual to vanish over an interval of the region. The numerical value of Il can be calculated given a specific equation Y= f(x). The function that produces the lowest number has the additional property of satisfying a specific differential equation. The calculus of variations shows. The method. Galerkin's method is used to develop the finite element equations for the field problems discussed in this book. The calculated values provide important information about the physical process even though they are at discrete points. The region under consideration may be so irregular that it is mathematically impossible to describe the boundary.2) y(O) = Yo and y(H)=YH. Numerical solutions. Given a differential equation. where the analytical solution is difficult to obtain. as are equations having nonlinear terms. The configuration may be composed of several different materials whose regions are mathematically difficult to describe.Substitution gives D d2h~) +Q=R(x)=foO dx (1. The weighted residual methods require r Wi(x)R(x)dx=O (1. and (3) the methods that weight a residual. In these methods. Galerkin's Method. er~or t~rm results. Subdomain Method. This method yields the same result as the variational method when applied to differential equations that are self-adjoint. This selection is equivalent to requiring the residual to vanish at specific points. The variational method is the basis for many finite element formulations.) are selected as the weighting functions.3) since y that =h(x) does not satisfy the equation. The number of integration intervals equals the number of undetermined coefficients in the approximate solution. Galerkin's method uses the same functions for Wi(x) that were used in the approximating equation. Wi (x) = 1. and it is difficult to write general computer programs for the method. The complete solution procedure is repeated each time these parameters change. Since the approximate solution does not satisfy the equation. There are several choices for the weighting functions.4 1.4) The residual R(x) is multiplied by a weighting function Wi(x).1) The process can be reversed. These methods are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. a residual or. . To help clarify this concept.1 BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 5 SOLUTION OF BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS The best way to solve any physical problem governed by a differential equation is to obtain the analytical solution.over a specific region. This approach is the basis of the finite element method for problems involving first-derivative terms. that the particular equation y=g(x). (2) the variational method. is the solution to the differential equation D with the boundary conditions d2y dx2+Q=O (1. The methods can be separated into three basic groupings: (1) the finite difference method. Problems involving anisotropic materials are usually difficult to solve analytically. but it has a major disadvantage: It is not applicable to any differential equation containing a first derivative term. Collocation Method. which yields the lowest numerical value for Il. Variational Method The variational approach involves the integral of a function that produces a number. Impulse functions Wi(x)=J(xX. and the integral of the product is required to be zero. however. This method is useful for solving heat transfer and fluid mechanics problems and works well for two-dimensional regions with boundaries parallel to the coordinate axes. Finite Difference Method The finite difference method approximates the derivatives in the governing differential equation using difference equations. consider the integral (1. The number of weighting functions equals the number of unknown coefficients in the approximate solution. All numerical solutions produce values at discrete points for one set of the independent parameters. is rather cumbersome when regions have curved or irregular boundaries. however. Suppose that y =h(x) is an approximate solution to (1. The trial function that gives the minimum value of Il IS the approximate solution. however. however. Weighted Residual Methods The weighted residual methods also involve an integral. Each weighting function is selected as unity.

This solution is an acceptable candidate because it satisfies the boundary conditions y(O) = y(H)=O and has a shape similar to the expected deflection curve. Noting that -=-cosdx dy An nx H H nx] +MoA sin H dx d2y (1.6) is n= r Jo H [EI 2 y (ddx)2 +MoY ] dx (1.9) 1.2 INTEGRAL FORMULATIONS FOR NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS The immediate objective is to illustrate how each of the integral methods discussed in the previous section can be used to obtain an approximate solution to a physical problem. The least squares method utilizes the residual as the weighting function and obtains a new error term defined by Er= r The coefficient EI represents the resistance of the beam to deflection and M(x) is the bending moment equation.12) ~~x end moments.1 Variational Method The integral for the differential equation (1. The governing differential equation is EI dx2 . These methods can be grouped under the heading of integral formulations.11 ) Minimizing Il yields ~-----------H----------~~ M(x) and M(x)=MO LL_ (1. but it is not as popular as Galerkin's method and the variational approach. M(x) has the constant value Mo· An approximate equation for the beam deflection is y(x)=A [R(xW dx (1. The approximate solution is y(x)=4MoH2 .8) This error is minimized with respect to the unknown coefficients in the approximate solution.5) sin H nx (1.2. In this example.1. Il must be written as a function of A and then minimized with respect to A.H) (1. The exact solution of the differential equation is Mox y(x)= 2EI (x. The example is a simply supported beam subjected to concentrated moments at each end. The least squares method has been utilized to formulate finite element solutions. therefore. The beam and its bending moment diagram are shown in Figure 1.6 BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 7 Least Squares Method.13) Figure 1. A numerical solution based on an integral formulation is a new concept for many people.10) The value of A that makes (1.7) or (1. 1. To evaluate A.1. A simply supported beam with concentrated . some of the more common methods are illustrated by solving a simple problem.M(x)=O where A is an undetermined coefficient.6) we find that Il becomes n= with the boundary conditions y(O) =0 r L2 !icos H Jo rEI (An nx)2 H and y(H)=O (1.8) the best approximation to the deflection curve is the value that makes Il a minimum. nx n3EI sin H (1. The variational method and the weighted residual methods each involve an integral.

the approximate solution is MoH2 2nEI (1. Er =f [R(x)Y dx.21) After solving for A. -=---SIndx? H2 nx H When using Galerkin's method.17) y(x)=- 4MoH2 --sinn3EI nx H (1. The residual equation is (1.16) y(x) = - 4MoH2 nx n3 EI sin H (1.(x) that were used in the approximate solution. Substitution of the residual equation gives Er = Jo r [EIn2 - H 2 A sin H . H].15) and the approximate solution is (1.2. f W. Selecting x=H/2 for convenience.4 (1. therefore.ttx -Mo ] dx=O H H H Integrating yields sin~ -Mo=O Solving gives and A __ MoH2 EIn2 (1.5 Least SquaresMethod The subdomain method requires that f R(x)dx=O over as many subintervals as there are undetermined coefficients.22) .M 0 nx J2 dx Integration gives Er_A2H(EIn2)2 2 H2 e H Jo e H [ -EI An2 nx ] H2 sin H -Mo dx=O + 4MoEInA H + M2H 0 The error is minimized with respect to A producing -(2EIn) II and A=- A-MoH=O iJEr _ iJA -AH (EIn2)2 H2 + 4MoEIn H 0 (1. thus Jo R(x)dx= Integration yields A new error term. we obtain R(~)=-EI:22 i H o An2 sin-nx[ -EI-2-sin.20) Had a point other than x=H/2 would have been obtained.6). 1.8 1.3 SubdomainMethod been selected.8) into (1. In the present example there is only one unknown coefficient. The residual equation is (1. In this example there is only one weighting function. The residual is obtained by substituting (1.2. thus the interval must be [0.(x)=sin nxl H.2 Collocation Method BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 9 The approximate solution is y(x)=- The collocation method requires that the residual equation for the approximate solution be zero at as many points as there are undetermined coefficients. R(x) is equated to zero at one point between 0 and H. is formed when using the least squares method.2. 1.14) and the integral is There is only one undetermined coefficient. The user can choose how long to make each subinterval.(x)R(x) dx is evaluated using the same functions for W.14).2.18) 1. a different approximate solution This solution is identical to the solution obtained using the variational method.19) The approximate solution is y(x)=MoH2 nx -E 2 sinIn H (1. W. The result is R(x) = -EI An2 tt x H2 sin H -Mo --sin2nEI MoH2 nx H (1.14) Galerkin's Method since d2y An2.

and is identical to the solutions obtained using the variational method and Galerkin's method.25 0.16). """ . For example. The strain energy is a volume integral involving products of the stress and strain components. A contributing term to the potential energy is the strain energy. It could consist of several linear segments defined in terms of the nodal values. The method uses continuous piecewise smooth functions for approximating the unknown quantity or quantities. / / "- .' 0.. A finite element model for the beam deflection problem considered in the previous section might appear as shown in Figure 1.. This is the energy stored during the deformation process. " . (1. The integral can be evaluated when the first derivative is piecewise continuous. can be .. This does not work for many problems because of difficulties in mathematically describing the structural geometry and/or the boundary conditions. Recall the approximate solution used in the previous section.However.. The finite element method is a numerical procedure for solving physical problems governed by a differential equation or an energy theorem... "" '" __ .-----_ . it is possible to find a collocation point which produces a maximum deflection that agrees with the exact value (see Problem 1.. 'Subdomain method ~ QJ <: 0 't "0 .4 THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Figure 1.375 0..20).s • 0 .2.. 1. • . y=A sin ttxl H. The integral formulation is a basic characteristic of the finite element method.22) is more accurate than either equation (1.' '" "'" '" . the analysis of a truss or plate structure looks very similar to the variational and Galerkin approaches of the previous section. . The collocation points or subregions selected affect the accuracy of the approximate solutions. no continuity is required in the first derivative. The important point to be gained from these examples is that the numerical solution of a differential equation can be formulated in terms of an integral. method More will be said about the principle of minimum potential energy and strain energy in later chapters.2.. Percentage error for the five approximate solutions for the simply supported beam. It is not possible to state which method is the most accurate. 1.10).50 approached in several ways.~ocation . For an integral formulation such as the variational method (1. which includes the solution of two. The classical approach is to formulate the governing differential equation and obtain the analytical solution. An equation composed of several linear segments can be used as the approximating equation. This function is continuous and has an infinite number of continuous derivatives.23) a.3a. 2.16) or (1. Computationally. The finite element method uses a continuous function but a function with only enough continuity in the derivatives to allow the integrals to be evaluated. The second characteristic distinguishes the finite element method from other numerical procedures that utilize an integral formulation..125 0. the strain energy in an axial force member is A= g "QJ 1:: !:' QJ QJ Jv r UxxExx dV 2 (1. The error depends on the approximating function and the equation being solved. The important concept to realize now is that the displacement analysis of structural and solid mechanics problems combines the strain energy integral with a minimization process._-.3.3 POTENTIAL ENERGY FORMULATIONS The solution of solid mechanics problems.18)..10 BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 11 . ". Percentage error curves for the different methods are given in Figure 1...13) and (1. It appears that equation (1. as shown in Figure 1. The Similarity should be apparent by the time the reader has completed this book. A popular alternative to the classical approach is a numerical procedure based on a principle which states that the displacements at the equilibrium position occur such that the potential energy of a stable system is a minimum value. The method utilizes an integral formulation to generate a system of algebraic equations.and three-dimensional elasticity problems as well as plate and shell structures. It has two characteristics that distinguish it from other numerical procedures: 1.

This generates one equation for each unknown nodal value. is modified using integration by parts. These steps are listed here and illustrated in the next two chapters. A good knowledge of undergraduate mathematics. The governing differential equation is E1 dx2 d2y Wx(H . Functions without continuous first-derivative terms can also be used with Galerkin's method.l. and the deflection is approximated by straight-line segments. Discretize the region. as well as specifying their coordinates values. linear or quadratic.3. (b) A quadratic finite element model.==================~ ~ t ~~z 1234567 (a) 4 2 ~ _x 4. This textbook contains many example problems and problem assignments. This gives one equation for each of the unknown displacements. Specify the approximation equation.1-1. 2. The book is divided into four parts: basic concepts. the reader may turn to either the group of chapters covering the field problems or those chapters discussing the structural and solid mechanics problems. Initial emphasis is placed on the linear elements because the matrices for these elements can be evaluated using a hand calculator. is all that is necessary to handle the material in the first three parts. Com pare the deflection at the center with the theoretical value y= -5WH4/384E1. . the equations Y= f(x) or y =g(x) would not have a continuous first derivative between any pair of adjacent elements. The finite element method can be subdivided into five basic steps. A comment on the matrix notation used in this book appears in Appendix I.x) 2 0 . Develop the system of equations.5 OBJECTIVE AND ORGANIZATION 3 5 6 7 Discontinuous slope (b) Figure 1.12 BASIC CONCEPTS y INTRODUCTION 13 r. The second-derivative term. 3. 1. Assume that the trial displacement equation is y(x) = A sin 1tx/ H. PROBLEMS 1. An equation is written for each element. This book is not a comprehensive textbook on the finite element method. In this case a quadratic equation is defined over each set of three points. It is assumed that the reader has a background knowledge in some of the application areas.5 Obtain an approximate displacement equation for the simply supported beam of length H and section property E1 shown in Figure Pl. structural and solid mechanics problems. This includes locating and numbering the node points. and the analysis of two-dimensional structural frameworks. The organization of the material has evolved over several years of teaching the material to seniors and graduate students. 5. Calculate quantities of interest. Once the basic concepts have been covered. These quantities are usually related to the derivative of the parameter and include the stress components. When using Galerkin's method. however. including some linear algebra. The interval between each node would be considered an element. field problems. (a) A linear finite element model. The numerically integrated elements can be covered after either the field problems or the mechanics problems have been studied. and numerically integrated elements. The numerically integrated elements should be covered only after the linear elements are thoroughly understood. These two parts of the book are independent. In the potential energy formulation. must be specified and the equations must be written in terms of the unknown nodal values. 1. the potential energy of the system is written in terms of the nodal displacements and then is minimized. the weighting function for each unknown nodal value is defined and the weighted residual integral is evaluated. An alternate grid could consist of three elements each defined by three node points as shown in Figure l. A limited knowledge of advanced calculus is needed to understand the numerically integrated elements. and heat flow and fluid velocities. You should.3b. d2y/dx2. The order of the approximation. In either case. be able to read and understand more advanced books and the technical literature once the material in this book has been completed. The objective of this book is to provide a basic introduction to the finite element method as it is used to obtain solutions to heat transfer. irrotational flow and elasticity problems. Solve the system of equations.

x) ~-----------H------------~ JI.14 BASIC CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION 15 w M(X)~ 1. 1.9 Obtain an approximate displacement equation for the simply supported beam shown in Figure P1.3 Evaluate A using the subdomain method.12 Evaluate A using the subdomain method.8 Evaluate A using the subdomain method.1 ll= 1.(d )2 dx+ o 2 dx I H IH/2 0 Pxy -dx+ 2 iH H/22 P -(H-x)ydx Figure P1. and (b) X= 0.10 using the trial solutiony(x)=A sin nx/H.9 Evaluate A using Galerkin's method.6-1.15 Do Problem 1.10-1. that is.( _ y""x ) - 2 1.. 1. 1. 1.X -lG Evaluate A by requiring the residual to vanish at (a) x=H/2.13 Obtain an approximate displacement equation for the simply supported beam shown in Figure P1. ~ ""I--.577H.U Evaluate A by requiring the residual to vanish at x=H/2.10 Evaluate A by minimizing the integrals ll= EI -y .1 0 M(X)~ ~x ~==========E=I=========~MO J)). Compare the deflection at the center with the theoretical value y= -0.PH 3/48EI.__--------H-----------~ 1.6 1. 1. The governing differential equation is EI d y _ Mox =0 dx? H 2 1 EI M(X:L2<:X) Figure P1.1 using the equation nx 3nx y(x)=A sin H +B sin If in conjunction with the variational method.7 r[~1 ~Y+ M. and (b)x=H/2. The governing differential equations are EI-- ~ Figure P1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Hint: II must be minimized with respect to both A and B. Compare the deflection at the center with the theoretical value of y = PH3/48EI.4 Evaluate A using Galerkin's method.6 using the trial solution y(x)=A sin nx/H. 1. 1. . A = .6 Evaluate A by minimizing the integral' I.13 Determine the collocation point for which A is equal to the deflection at the center of the beam.2 iI Wx(H .06415MoH2/EI.5 Evaluate A using the least squares method.14 Obtain an approximate displacement equation for the simply supported beam in Figure 1.1 d2y dx2 Px -=0 2 dy EI dx2 2 - P I(H-x)=O p -~x~H 2 H Evaluate A by minimizing the integral IH[~IG~Y +(WX(~-X»)y JdX Evaluate A by requiring that the residual vanish at (a) x=H/3.14 by requiring that the residual vanish at x=H/4 and n.

1). Evaluate A for the equation and beam in Problem 1.1 DIVISION OF THE REGION INTO ELEMENTS The one-dimensional region is a line segment and the division into subregions or elements is quite 'straightforward. The element equation is then generalized so that a continuous piecewise smooth equation can be written for the region. Chapter 17. The line segment is divided into shorter segments by using nodes (Figure 2.19 Both points must be used because there are two unknown coefficients.1 Division of a one-dimensional .9). Use y(x)=A sin 7tx/H as the approximate equation. (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 2 3 4 5 region into elements. 2.1) in the next chapter.16 1.18 1.1.1 that yields A=-MoH2/8EI (the correct value of the maximum deflection). Evaluate A using y(x)=A(x2-xH) for an approximate solution for the beam shown in Figure 1.1 using (1.17 1. The nodes are usually numbered consecutively from left to right as are the elements.13). There are some rules to guide the placement of the nodes when obtaining an approximate solution to a differential equation. Chapter 2 ONE-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR ELEMENT Our immediate objective is to discuss the division of a one-dimensional region into linear elements and to develop an element equation.10) and the exact solution (1. BASIC CONCEPTS 1.17 by applying the collocation method at x=H/2_ Calculate the value of Il for the beam in Figure 1. Verify that the value for Il for the exact solution is less than the value for the approximate solution (1. This element is also used to calculate the displacements in a system of axial force members. Determine the collocation points x/H for the beam in Figure 1. Figure 2. The element numbers are enclosed in parentheses to distinguish them from the node numbers.16 x=H/2. The linear element is used to obtain an approximate solution to D~:~ +Q=O (2. Use the variational method. A and B.

18 BASIC CONCEPTS ONE-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR ELEMENT 19 1. with and Equation (2.:«. The shape functions are shown in Figure 2. 2. The shape functions in (2. The second rule is necessary because integrals that include the parameters D and Q of (2.2) The coefficients al and az can be determined by using the nodal conditions at at (2. The first rule requires that the user have some knowledge of how the unknown parameter varies.6) are denoted by N. 3. «1>.8) (2. and N.2) and rearranging give (2. Equation (2. Uppercase symbols such as X. Y. 2. The origin of the coordinate system is to the left of node i.2 The one-dimensional linear element.3. The parameter 4>* varies linearly between the nodes. *The symbol rP is used throughout this text to denote a general scalar quantity.2) is a linear equation and the shape functions are linear equations.5) into (2. one at each end (Figure 2. <l>j . Place a node wherever there is a stepped change in the value of the coefficients D and Q of (2. which are called shape functions or interpolation functions.6) is in a standard finite element form.<l>i Substitution of (2. and the equation for 4> is (2. and U.6) where Xj.6) can be rewritten as 4> = Ni<l>i and also as 4> = [N]{<l>} where [N] = [N i The one-dimensional linear element is a line segment with a length L and two nodes. (2. Equation (2. .1) is needed.4) which yield al and a: as <l>iXj-<l>jXi x.1). The nodes are denoted by i andj and the nodal values by <l>i and <l>j. the resulting shape functions would have also been quadratic equations. Place the nodes closer together in the regions where the unknown parameter changes rapidly and further apart where the unknown is relatively constant. These functions are denoted by N with a subscript to indicate the node with which a specific shape function is associated.Xi has been replaced by the element length L. A third characteristic is that the shape functions are always polynomials of the same type as the original interpolation equation. Another characteristic is that the derivatives of the shape functions with respect to x sum to zero.7) + Nj<l>j (2. Place a node wherever the numerical value of 4> in (2. The integrals are easier to ·evaluate if the coefficients do not experience a stepped change within the interval of integration. A few comments about the shape functions are in order.2 THE LINEAR ELEMENT to develop the pair of equations <l>i=al <l>j=al +a2Xi +a2Xj (2. This is where engineering experience enters the solution process.1) must be evaluated.3) (2. The nodal values are multiplied by linear functions of x.2). Fugure 2. If the interpolation equation had been a quadratic model defined by three nodes. denote nodal values.: x.9) N j] is a row vector of shape functions and {<l>} = {::} 4>.5) x. ' is a column vector containing the element nodal values. Each shape function has a value of one at its own node and zero at the other node and the two shape functions sum to one.






The temperature, <p,within the element is given by (2.6)

The element data are
X;=1.5cm ~i=120°C x=4.0cm Xj=6.0em


Substitution yields

<p =(6-4)


120+(4-1.5) 4.5



The temperature gradient is the derivative of (2.6)
d<p ~r~i



Figure 2.3

Substituting the nodal values, we obtain

The linear shape functions N; and Nj•

d<p=(90-120)= dx 4.5

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE A one-dimensional linear element has been used to approximate the temperature distribution in a fin. The solution indicates that the temperatures at nodes i and j are 120 and 90°C, respectively. Determine the temperature at a point 4 em from the origin and the temperature gradient within the element. Nodes i and j are located at 1.5 and 6 em from the origin in Figure 2.4.



A continuous piecewise smooth equation for a one-dimensional region can be constructed by connecting several linear equations with the properties developed in the previous section. Each of these equations can be written as
A-.(e) _ N(e)~. 'I' I

+ Me)~ J

. J

X-Xi Xj-X;


XJ·-x Xj-Xi


N(.e) J


The superscript (e) indicates an element quantity. All that is needed to complete the process is to insert the correct values ofi,j, and e for.each ele~~nt. The values of i andj for a corresponding e are obtained from the gnd. Node liS th.e left-hand node of an element. The element information for the grid in Figure 2.1 IS

~----~----------------~--~~X Ll';_Ji I

1 1


Figure 2.4.
Nodal values for the example problem.

2 3

3 4

2 3 4 5






The equation for each element in Figure 2.1 is
4>(l)=NP)$l 4>(3) N~3)$3 = +N~1)$2


0.0 3.0 6.5 0.5 1.0

4.5 7.5 3.0 3.0



4>(2) N~2)$2 + N~2)$3 =

+ M?)$4


4>(4) Ni4)$4 + N~4)$5 =

(d) (e)

0.8 3.6 7.1 1.8 2.2

60 27 63 0 60

43 33 51 -15 67

Note that N~l) and N~2) are different equations even though both involve node two. The equations for these two quantities are and Realize that each equation of (2.13) is for a single element and is not applicable outside the element. The first equation should be written as

2.2 (a-e) Evaluate d4>ldx for the corresponding element ~n P~oblem 2.1. 2.3 The shape functions for the quadratic element shown III FIgure P2.3 are
2 Ni= L2 (x-Xj)(x-Xk) Nj=4 L2(x-Xi)(X-Xk)

but the range of x is deleted in most of the finite element literature and is deleted in this book. Whenever an element equation is given, the implication is that it is valid for only a single element.

N» =2 (x- Xi)(x-

2 L


(a) Show that these shape functions equal one at their own node and are zero at the other two nodes. Also show that the shape functions sum to one. (b) Show that the derivatives of Ni, Nj, and N; with respect to x sum to zero.



The need to denote element quantities occurs on most of the pages of this book. The following notation is used so that a superscript (e) does not have to be placed on every coefficient. 1. When brackets or parentheses have a superscript (e), that is, (G4>+ Q)(e), then every term within the brackets or parentheses should be interpreted on an element basis. 2. A quantity on the left-hand side of an equal sign with a superscript (e) implies that the quantities on the right-hand side of the sign are for a particular element. For example,


implies that N, and N, are really Me) and Nje), and that element nodal values.




are the

PROBLEMS 2.1 The nodal coordinates Xi and Xj and the nodal values of $i and $j for several linear elements are given below. Evaluate 4> at the given value of x. The x values are in centimeters, and $i and $j are in degrees Celsius.






Figure P2.3

2.4 The implementation of the finite element method .requi.res .the evaluation of integrals that contain the shape functions or their derivatives. Evaluate

(a) JXi Ni dx










XjdNidNj --dx Xi dx dx



NJ dx

al =Vi, a3 = L2 (Vj- v;)a2=(}i, a4= L3 (Vi-Vj)+


for the linear element. The coordinate s shown in Figure P2.5 has its origin at node i and a value of L at node j. Develop the shape functions Ni(s) and Nis) starting with c/>(s)=al +a2s and solving for al and a2'


L (2(}i+




L2 «(}i+(}j)

Develop the shape function equations for the interpolation equation
V(x) = NlVi+ N2(}i+ N3Vj+ N40j




Figure P2.7

Figure P2.5


The coordinate ~ shown in Figure P2.6 is a natural coordinate whose origin is at the center of the element. The value of ~ at nodes i and j is 1 and - 1, respectively. Develop the shape functions Ni(~) and Ni~) starting with c/>@=al +a2~ and solving for al and ai-

2.8 The equation for c/>(x, ) in a two-dimensional rectangular element shown in y Figure P2.8 is

Lt j {=-l





t= 1

Figure P2.6

Figure P2.8



The beam element shown in Figure P2.7 has two vertical displacements, Vi and Vj, and two rotations, 0i and OJ, defined at the end points. The displacement equation is


The coefficients are C1 =11>1>C3= L, (II>m-lI>d 1 C2=L(lI>j-lI>d,





C4=L L (lI>j-lI>j+lI>k-lI>m)
s ,


wher~ II>j, II>j, II>b and II>mare the nodal values of ¢. Develop the shape function equations for the interpolation equation ¢(x, y)= Njll>j+ Njll>j+ Nkll>k

The shape function information developed in Chapter 2 is general information that can be used in solving solid mechanics problems as well as differential equations. The objective in this chapter is to illustrate the finite element method by developing an approximate solution for the one-dimensional differential equation D dx2 +Q=O with the boundary conditions ¢(O)=¢o and (3.2)

+ N mll>m



Two physical problems are embedded within (3.1): the deflection of simply supported beams when the bending moment diagram is known and heat flow through a composite wall when the surface temperatures are known. The finite element equations are obtained using Galerkin's formulation. Evaluation of the residual integral yields a nodal equation that is applied in a recursive manner to generate a system of linear equations. The nodal equation is used to solve a beam deflection problem. The reader whose immediate interest is the analysis of structural frameworks may substitute Chapters 17 and 18 for Chapters 3 and 4. Chapters 3 and 4, however, should be read before beginning Part Two of the book.


is generated

A system of linear equations integral*

by evaluating +Q

the weighted

residual (3.3)

r - Jo


(dD ¢dx


) dx=O

using a new weighting function for each node where ¢ is unknown. Galerkin's formulation of the weighted residual method requires that the weighting functions be constructed using the shape functions N, and N]. The weighting functions in the Galerkin finite element formulation are defined as follows: The weiqhtinq function for the sth node, consists of the shape functions associated with the sth node.


"The integral has been multiplied by a negative one so that the results can be written in a more convenient form.

- i Xt [ N.28 BASIC CONCEPTS A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 29 The weig?ting function for node three of a linear grid (Figure 3. There is a problem associated with each integral in (3.2b.-01 t Then (3.7) and note that (3. The weighting functions for the first and last nodes are shown in Figure 3. = R~e)+ R~e + 1) = Figure 3.- dcfJ)<e)x.4) This function is occasionally called a hat function for reasons apparent in Figure 3. e X2~X~X3 X3~X~X4 Xr~X~Xs Xs~X~Xt (3.7).(x) is defined by two separate equations within the interval Xr~X~Xt. W(x) J::[ Ns (D ~:~ + Q) T) dx (3.9) W(x) It (b) Substituting into the integral gives (p -1) p (p -1) ~ ~x Jx . Consider the first integral in (3. the integral of d2cjJ/dx2 is not defined.10) I x (D dNs dcfJ)<e) x d dx dx Figure 3.5) The weighting function for every node consists either of Ni.6) In general. This difficulty can be circumvented. ( NsD-2 . or a combination of the two. and (c) the last node. + X.1.2 THE WEIGHTED RESIDUAL INTEGRAL After defining the weighting functions. 3.8) X r ~ L(e)-+- S L(e + 1). we find that (3. r d 2 cjJ)<e) dx=dx ( DN. the next step is to evaluate the residual integral (3.2c.2b. and x>Xt• The integral splits into two parts because w. The weighting functions for (a) the first node (b) an interior node. ~L(P-1)~ (c) Jx. and t in Figure 3.7) produces . Xs (d2cjJ )]<e+ 1) D-2 +Q dx=O dx l~ (1) (a) W(x) because w. s.2. Using the sequence of nodes r. The respective equations are and (3. The approximate solution does not have continuity in the first derivative dcjJfdx.7) The weighting function for node three. Nj. ' A similar set of operations applied to the first term of the second integral in (3. (3.3).3)becomes s.=0 for x-c X.1) consists of th shape functions for node three. dx x. (3. however. therefore. by changing d2cjJ/dx2 into a new term. The terms R~e) and R~e + 1) represent the contributions of elements (e) and (e + 1) to the residual equation for node s.2a and 3.

element (e) to give d4»(e) D QL (3.22) (3. (3. a».24) <l>r+( x~ Xr) <1>. d4> dx dx Thus dx=O -N.x) I and dNsd4> D D--dx=-(<I>.dx=T (3.18) and (3. establishes an interelement requirement.15) -(Q Lr+l) 2 . d4>(e+ I) ---=Evaluation of the integrals yields dx (-<I>s+<I>t) (3. = + 4>(e)=(Xs. The equations for the first and last nodes can be obtained from these operations and are left as exercises.24) gives the residual equation for node s I d R. The residual cannot be zero until the difference between these two quantities is zero. (3 16) and (3 17) are combined with the interelement contribution for EquatIOns .) QL (3.12) yields the residual equation for an interior node.-<I>t) x.T L (3. d4> D---N.13) Combining (3. The complete residual equation is I ( dx x.<I>.. D-- s».<l>t dN!e+ dx s (3.17) .23) I x' x.20) The pair of terms evaluated at x=X.x-Xr sL ' dMe) -dx - 1 d -(D 4>r)\ dx x=Xs L (3.18) R!e)=D+-(-<I>r+<I>. QN.16) The first terms in each of (3. d4»(e+ dx (3. QN.)2: I = _ (D d4»(e) I x=Xs x=Xs L + i I dx X s ( Proceeding with the second integral of (3.3 EVALUATION OF THE INTEGRAL Evaluation of the integrals in (3.11) and i X• r X dN. dx dx L x' (3.31 30 BASIC CONCEPTS A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE l XS x' ( N.D-2 d24»(e+ dx 1) dx=1) ( DN.-{<I>.25) and -=- d4>(e) 1 dx L (-<I>r + <1>.Q (3.=(D 4>r+ )\ dx x=Xs Thus N(e).19) x. ( 4>(e+I)= (X -x) )(e+ 1) T L ' 1 L <1>.+(x-X ) ----y.dx=T QL R!e+I)=D.d4>\ dx x=Xs D QL +:.-<I>t).10) and (3. .11) simplify because the shape functions are either zero or one at the respective nodes.Q dx dx x=Xs +(Dd4»(e+1)1 dx + X.- d4»(e+ dx 1) IX' x.) (3. Substitution of the appropriate terms and evaluating the integrals gives + J X' ( Xs D-dx dx a«.12) )(e) dx 4>(e+ = Ns<l>s Nt<l>t 1) + x.21) 3.d4> D--dx=-( dxdx D L XS -<I>r+<I>.14) -(~r) -(Q Lr) 2 <l>r+[(~r) +(~r+1)J<I>s-(~r+l) =0 <l>t (3.12) and Ns (e+O -x __ X t_ - I) L (3. Starting with element (e) 4>(e) Nr<l>r N.

obtained by evaluating the weighted residual integral is now used to obtain approximate deflection values for a simply supported beam subjected to concentrated end moments.26) can be viewed as an error term similar to the one associated with finite difference approximations. If D(e) =D(e+ 1).0Y3+2=0 R3= -2. however. has not been developed. Nzcm '. (3.26) does contain some important information. its bending moment diagram.26) can be used to evaluate the quality of the grid and to indicate where the grid should be refined. Q -106 -106 _106 -106 L 200 200 200 200 e 1 2 3 4 D 2. The interelement requirement (3.32) . Theoretically.28) Since _(Q 3.4(10)10 Rs- __ (!!_)(S L 1) <1>s-1 + [(!!_)(S L Ly) =0 1) + (!!_)(S)] L <1>s _ (!!_)(S) L <1>s+1 (3. The element data for the beam are summarized as follows (the element length must be in centimeters).2Y5 +2=0 after the 108 multiplier has been canceled.0Y3 + 3. The governing differential equation for the deflection curve is d¢ EI dx2 -M(x)=O 2 where Y has been used to denote the nodal deflection values.+1 ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Rs= L (3.0Y2 +4.27) becomes smaller as the grid is refined. (3. Writing the residual equation for nodes two.0Y3 =-2 R3= -2. assuming a sequential numbering of the nodes and elements. I.2Y4=-2 (3. the value of (3.- D(s)Y. ( D d¢)(e dx + 1) without the I _ (D d¢)(e) I x=Xs dx (3.28). and the finite element model are given in the figure. however.2Y2-2.29) with (3. and the area moment of the cross section. but it is never zero for all of the nodes.32 BASIC CONCEPTS A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 33 The usual solution procedure is to generate the system of equations interelement terms. a constant reminder that the solution is only approximate. Equation (3. A practical way to implement this idea. and writing all quantities in terms of s gives the nodal residual equation A simply supported beam subjected to concentrated moment.0Y3+3. is in N· em and y is the deflection.0(10)10 4. then the interelement requirement reduces to ( d¢)(e dx + 1) J • Figure 3.26) M(x) x=Xs can be calculated.4(10)10 4. em". Comparing (3.0(10)'0 2.2Y1 +3. dx (3. three.0Y4 +2=0 R4= -2. M(x). The beam data. Incorporation of the boundary ditions Y1= Y5=0 produces (3.3 (1) 1 106 N'cm I (3) ~ I _ (d¢)(e) I x=X. E. There must be continuity in the slopes before the residual is zero._l +(D(S-I) + D(s»Y.1) yields the relationships D=EI and Q=-M(x)= -106.30) The general residual equation. The boundary conditions are y(O) = y(800 cmj--O.0Y3-2.4 2 Ly-l) _(Q 2 Q and L have constant values.3 has been reinforced over the center one-half of its span through the use of steel plates that are welded to the basic section.2Y4-1.28) Simplifies to -D(S-I)y. The beam in Figure 3. Deleting the interelement requirement from (3. It is.31) con- (3.0Y2+4. The error term is not incorporated into the system of equations.0Y4=-2 R4= -2. and four gives R2= -1. Once the equations have been solved.25). The value of (3. em.2Y2-2. This continuity can never be attained with a linear element unless the solution is a straight line.29) where EI is a bending stiffness term composed of the elastic modulus of the material.0Y3-2. The internal bending R2= 3.27) x=Xs • 2 (2) • 3 • 4 (4) • 5 end moments.

The heat flow is given by q = .0) 1 = . {=~} (3. Y= ( 400-200 400 .2. The first calculation involves determining the deflection at x=3oo em. The constant slope property is a major disadvantage of the linear elements. the slope at node one is evaluated. Y3 = - 3. This point occurs in element two (see Figure 3. where D(e) is the thermal conductivity.200) 400-200 (.33) d2¢1dx2 =0 is applicable to each section of the composite wall shown in Figure P3.2 is called the global stiffness matrix. A couple of items are calculated here to illustrate the procedures.34) This set of equations is written symbolically Y2 = - 2. . using (2.10).0125 em/ern The slope is constant within the element. thus [Kl~H2 ~~ {Fl~ o -2 ] (3.1 This node is (a) Obtain the final system of finite element equations tions of the stepped beam shown in Figure P3.)Mo ~ H 2 :+: (3) ~--l (4) 3. It is both convenient and orderly to use matrix notation when working with a system of equations. when solved.32) are in order.35) 3.2(2. M'~ Jk = r--~ +. One way of writing (3. The terms stiffness and force come from the matrix analysis of structures.0 em.5 MATRIX NOTATION • 1 (1) • (2) 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 Some comments relative to the system of equations (3.D(e) d¢ldx. and using the calculated we find that 2 =(~3_-.50-0 200 -0. where there is a need to calculate quantities pertaining to a particular element once the nodal values are known. and Y4 would appear to end the example.JY2+(~~:2J 3 (-2. [K]. There are many situations.2 Y4 -2 0 (3. This element is covered in the structural mechanics part of this book (Part Three).32) in matrix notation is Figure P3.3).Yl + Y2) -2.2 The differential equation -2 4 -2 -~ ]{i} . There is a more efficient method that involves a specific beam element.3.0)= PROBLEMS 3. Calculate the nodal temperature values within the wall and evaluate the heat flow through each material.300) (300 .1.1 3. we obtain in (a) and calculate the deflection at x=3H/16. and y<2)=N~2)Y2 Noting that X =200 ern and X =400 em. The solution of(3.36) is called the global force vector.50cm {R}=[K]{Y}-{F}={~ where {R} is the vector of residual equations.: ~x EI 2EI .34 which yields BASIC CONCEPTS A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 35 as (3.50)+ -2.50+3. therefore. located in element one. however.50 em.{=~}={~} 3. The beam deflection problem solved in this section was selected because of the governing differential equation.32) for Y2. D(e) A unit of surface area is assumed. Y3. and Y4= -2. is symm~tric when ~he system of equations has a potential energy formulation or a Galerkin formulation of a differential equation that is self-adjoint.75 em + N~2)Y3 Y3 nodal values. The reader should not leave this chapter with the idea that all beam deflection problems should be solved this way. (b) Solve the equations y for the nodal deflec- For the second calculation. The stiffness matrix. dy<l) dx =I 1 (.

The nodes and elements are numbered as shown in Figure P3. 3.2 ern- Woe 3.6 Evaluate the residual equation for node p using the weighting f~nc(ho) (s o~n) n in Figure 3..4 Start with (3.5 Evaluate the residual equation for node one using the we ig ti~ghf(unc~i)on h) shown in Figure 3.18) with e = p .s=1.3 Perform the calculations in Problem 3. h 3. r=p-l.2 1 • 1 3.5 1.4 (1) • 2 (2) • (3) • 4 (4) • 5 D = 1 emW_oe D= 0.2a.4.5 -2.2c.28) and develop and solve the system of finite element equations for an approximate solution to the differential equation d2cjJ/dx2 + Q =0 using the value for Q and the boundary conditions given in the following table.0 D = 0. ~' Qr (e) (e + L_--~~--~---.36 BASIC CONCEPT: A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 37 Q (a) 4>(0) 0 1 4>(2) 3.7 Evaluate the contribution of to the Galerkin residual equation R.5 em. and s=p.0 0.3 em __J k-s__J •• 12 (1) (2) 1--2.2 for the configuration shown ill Figure P3.7 .3 3.L5~05~051 3 Figure P3. Note that the answer is the same as (3.0035 emW_oe (b) (e) (d) -3 -5 4 6 2 2 -1 20°C -15°C (e) 3 1. . Note that the answer is the same as (3.--~~1) ~x r s Figure P3. .2] into four elements.5 <f> •• 3 (3) 4 Figure P3. Divide the interval [0.andt=2..0 2. when Q varies linearly over an element f WQdX •• 12 (1) (2) 3 • (3) 4 • Q(x) Figure P3. 2 4 Wit e + = (1).3. each with a length of 0. t05-.

and Qt are the nodal values of Q.8.9 Use the residual equation in Problem 3.8 to obtain the nodal displacements for the beam shown in Figure P3. . The governing differential equation is EI dx2 and M(x) 2(lOlO)N' v.-D(S)Y. Note that (X a.7). The residual equation for a uniform grid and a linear variation of Q(x) between nodes is given by = ~I M(X)f ! 2 k-3m~~+E~----9m------~ (1) (2) (3) (4) 3.Xb+ 3XaX~ .. - M(x)=O Each element is 300 cm long..8 3.38 (Figure P3.8 Rs= -D(s-l)y.~ ~N. EI = crrr'.9._l + [D(S-l)+D(S)]Y. The equation for Q(x) in each element is BASIC CONCEPTS: A FINITE ELEMENT EXAMPLE 12000 N 39 Q(e) = Me)Qr + Me)Qs Q(e+l) =N~e+ l)Qs+ Nle+ l)Qt where Q" Q. ":JOOO N i 3 ~ ~ (1) 4m (2) 2 JE (3) ~ 4m (4) 4 ~I 5 M(x) Figure P3. EI = . is given in the figure.X b)3 X. The governing differential equation is d2¢ D dx2 and M(x) is given 2(lOlO)N· cm '..cm .3X. x d2¢ Figure P3.X~. in the figure.9 - M(x)=O Each element is 200 em long.+l L 0 for the beam shown in 3 4 5 _L(Qs-l+4Qs+Qs+d 6 Use this equation to obtain the nodal displacements Figure P3.

The residual equation is further subdivided into element contributions. Third.Rp_1> Rp where there are p nodal values.3) Element three contributes nothing to the other equations because every weighting function except W3 and W4 are zero in element three. . There are three points to keep in mind as the element matrices are developed. four.1.final system of equations. The results for element three can be generalized. The system of equations is constructed by calculating the element's contribution and placing the values into their correct positions within the. The objective in this chapter is to determine the element contributions to the final system of equations and show where these contributions are located. The vector is Rl R2 {R}= Rp-1 Rp where R{J is the residual equation for node p. <l>p are arranged sequentially within an equation. the residual equations are always arranged in numerical sequence. Given an arbitrary element with nodes i and j (Figure 4. RI> R2. and an element stiffness matrix and an element force vector are defined for the differential equation analyzed in the previous chapter. The final set of equations emerges after all of the elements have been considered. Analyzing these functions from an element point of view rather than an equation point of view shows that element three contributes nonzero values to equations three and (4.4) . First.1) IX' N~3)(Dd2~ XJ dx +Q)dX (4.. .1 ELEMENT MATRICES 1 2 • 3 (3) • 4 (4) • 5 :> x Figure 4.ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION 41 Chapter 4 W1(x) lK~ ~ (2) ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION The computer implementation of the finite element method parallels the computer solution of structural frameworks. The matrix analysis of structures places the emphasis on the element.1 The weighting functions for a four-element grid.. Its contribution to equation three is R~3)=- The discussion starts by defining a column vector {R}. . The boundary conditions are incorporated after all of the equations have been developed. the nodal values <1>1> <1>2> •.. Rbe) is the contribution of element (e) to the residual equation for node p.2~ we find that it contributes R!e)=_ J:l Ni(X)(D~:~ +Q)dX (4. The weighting functions for a four-element grid are shown in Figure 4. an equation is developed for each node. For example. Second. Matrix notation is used. 4. that is. Each component of {R} represents a residual equation.2) while its contribution to equation four is Ri3) = - f:" Ni3) (D ~:~ +Q )dX (4.

12) The element nodal values. The numerical values of i andj for a specific element are written over the columns of [k(e)] and along the side of [k(e)] and {pel}. with r=.14) set of {<l>(e)} ={:J is illustrated which is the column vector of nodal values and .10) • hich is the element contribution to the interelement requirement.27). also.24). that is..9) where {R(e)} is the contribution of element (e) to the final system of equations . j (4. to equation i and (4.11) j and (4.5) to equation j. The coefficients of [k(e)] are located in columns i and j of [K] because the coefficients in the first column multiply <l>i nd those in the second column multiply <l>j.7) can be written as 4. Equation (4.18) and (3.8) states that the coefficients in the first row of [k(e)] and {f(e)} are located in row i of [K] and {F} because row i is the row associated with R~e). {R} in Chapter 3.12) are useful because they are easy to computer evaluation.26) and (3. The other vectors are k12 k22 The direct stiffness procedure matrices J i j by using the hypothetical (4.42 BASIC CONCEPT~ ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION 43 {I(e)}={W)}={ Iy) j -D- D~~'x=x'l d¢/ dx =». This contribution consists of an element stiffness matrix [k(e)] and an element force vector {fIe)}. (3.Equations (4.11) and (4. a L 2 (4.6)· (4.10) is deleted from the discussion except when derivative boundary conditions are specified at node one or p for the reason given relative to (3. The method is simple and straightforward. the coefficients in the second row of [k(e)] and {f(e)} are located in row j of [K] and {F} because this row is associated with Rje). L 1 -1 -IJ 1 (4. is equivalent to R!e+1). with s=i and t=j whereas RJe) is the same as R!e).2 -IJ{<l>i}_ 1 <l>j QL{I} 21 (4. Similarly.8) DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD R~e)} { Rje) or = {lie)} e) n +I D[ -1 1 The direct stiffness method is the name given to the procedure for incorporating the element matrices into the final system of equations.4) and (4. (4.7) Rj =-DEquations d¢1 dx x=X] D +-(-<l>i+<l>j)-- Equation (4.2. it can be quickly determined where each located in the final system of equations.18).24) gives Ri =D(e) (e) The integrals in (4. (3.6) and (4. The first integral. = [K]{ <l>} {F} - = {O} (4. Using (3. D +-(<l>i-<l>j)-- QL L 2 QL (4. {R} represents a system of equations that symbolically is The weighting functions for element (e).13) Rle).5) were evaluated d¢1 dx x=X. The element matrices are the important results and they are [k(e)]=~[ • Figure 4. and s=]. program for coefficient is The vector stiffness matrix is the matrix that multiplies the column vector of {<l>(e)}.

The method is further illustrated in the following section where the beam deflection problem of Chapter 3 is reworked.2J 4 1.3 for convenience.3 ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM [k(2)] = 108[ -2 2 3 {f(2)} = -108 {a ~ {a ! {a ~ [k(3)] = 108 [ 2 -2 4 {f(3)} = -108 The direct stiffness method is now illustrated by reworking the beam deflection problem considered in Chapter 3.0(108) 2.2 {f(4)} = -108 The global matrices [K] and [F] are first initialized with zeros and then built by adding the coefficients of the element matrices an element at a time.2(108) and assume that the numerical values of i and j are contained in the array NS~ the computer implementation of the direct stiffness method is DO 10 I _108 _108 The substitution of D/L into (4.2 1.j=3). K23• K32.2 -1. 4.2 JJ = NS (J) GSM(II. The direct stiffness procedure shows how to utilize the element matrices.2 10 II ~ NS (I) GF(II) = GF(II) + EF(I) DO 10 J = 1.JJ) = GSM(II .12). K33.2 2 -1.J) 1. Adding .2(108) 2.11) and {pel} is given by (4. F 2. 'I The direct stiffness method is easily incorporated into a computer program1 GSM for [I<] ESM for [k(e)] GF for {F} EF for {f(e)} If we use the variable names The element data in tabular form are QL 2 -108 _108 1 e 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 D L 1.44 for a linear element between nodes 2 and 3 (i=2.2 5' 2 3' {f(1)} = _108 {a ~ It is assumed that NS has a dimension of at least two and that the element has two nodes.2J 1 1. [k(4)] = 108~ 1.2 2' 3 -2J 2 4 -2J 2 3 4' 5 -1.11) and QL/2 into (4. The element stiffness matrix [k(e)] is given by (4. andj gives 3 ! BASIC CONCE~ ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION 45 Using these values of l ' 6J 2 7 3' and the location of the coefficients in [K] and {F} are 4 adds 6 adds 5 adds 7 adds 8 adds 9 adds to to to to to to K22 K23 K32 K33 F2 F3 M(J (1) 2 106 N'cm I (3) (4) 4 ~ (2) 3 ~ 5 Figure 4.JJ) 2 [k(1)] = 108[ + ESM(I .3 A simply supported beam subjected to concentrated end moments.3 are presented in Figure 4.0(108) 1. The beam and the element model in Figure 3.12) gives the element matrices = 1. and F 3 from other elements which have not been considered. The word add is emphasized because there could be contributions to K22.

The size of the system of equations differs from the three equations in (3. These equations are R2= -1. are always positive and relatively large when compared to the off-diagonal values in the same row.15) are eliminated because equations are not written for the nodes whose values are already known.4 PROPERTIES OF THE GLOBAL STIFFNESS MATRIX Adding element three gives 1. Kit. The bandwidth of [K] is related to the numbering of the nodes. This occurs in some structural problems. It is permissible to have zero coefficients within the bandwidth.2 = 108 0 0 0 -1. The diagonal coefficients.2 -2 0 0 -2 4 0 0 1 0 The addition of element four finishes the summation through the elements giving the system of equations 0 0 1. [K]. The final result is a 5 x 5 stiffness matrix [K] and a 5 x 1 column vector {F}.2 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Ys -1 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 0 0 0 0 (4.15). that is. Kii can be less than the sum of the off-diagonal coefficients of row i. To incorporate the boundary conditions.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 {F} = -108 1 0 0 0 The nodal values Y1 and Ys can be eliminated from the equations in (4.2 -2 0 0 0 -2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 {F} 2 = -108 1 0 0 1 4.4 where the bandwidth is shown by the dashed diagonal line. Another important property possessed by [K] is related to the element grid and the node numbers. This is an important fact because only the nonzero coefficients need to be stored within the computer. Consider the one- .2 -1.15) after 10 has been canceled. then .32)ecause b the boundary conditions have not been incorporated.2Y4-1.2Ys are evaluated and added to the two coefficient in the respective row.17) [K] 1.2 -1.2Y1 and .2 [K] = 108 -1. The symmetry and positive definite properties are a result of the mathematical formulation. This is illustrated schematically in Figure 4. 1980)because the system of equations is not always diagonally dominant. note that Y1 and Ys are known quantities.2 -1.2 -2 0 0 0 -2 4 0 0 -2 0 -2 3. The relatively large diagonal coefficient allows Gaussian elimination to be performed without interchanging rows (pivoting).2 3. Deleting the rerms involving Y1 and Ys yields the system of three equations R2 =3.2 0 0 0 -1.2 -1.2Y2 -2Y3 +2=0 R3=-2Y2+4Y3-2Y4 +2=0 R4= -2Y3 +3.2Y2-2Y3 R3= -2Y2 +4Y3 -2Y4 R4= -2Y3 +3. Finite element equations are usually solved using Gaussian elimination or efficient modifications of Gaussian elimination (Conte and deBoor. each is zero. Each individual equation is associated with a node. A banded matrix has the characteristic that all of the nonzero coefficients are located relatively close to the main diagonal and all of the coefficients beyond the bandwidth are zero.16) The stiffness matrix.32). Adding element two gives (4. that is. Elimination of these two equations produces three equations containing the five nodal values.2 1.2 1. The terms -1. If either or both Y1 and Y2 were nonzero values. Equations one and five in (4. The symmetry property is also important because it eliminates the need to store the coefficients below the main diagonal.2 [K]=108 0 0 0 -1. All of the other coefficients are zero. The reason for the banded property is obtained by studying a system of equations as it is constructed.2 3.1. is always symmetric and positive definite for structural problems and for governing differential equations that are selfadjoint. The C's denote nonzero terms.2 0 0 0 8 -2 -2 2 0 0 0 0 0 {F}=-108 2 2 -1. The matrix consists of the main diagonal and a diagonal on each side of it. This fact can be observed by looking at (4. The global matrix [K] is banded.2Ys +2=0 +2=0 +2=0 (4.1. Y1 = Ys =0.16) because they have known values.2 Y1 and -1.2Y1 +3.2Y4 +2=0 These equations are identical to (3.2 Ys vanish. The bandwidth of a one-dimensional grid of the linear elements whose nodes are numbered in succession from left to right is two. The nonzero coefficients in the third equation occur in the columns corresponding to the node numbers of the elements that touch node three.2 3. the third equation of a system is the residual equation for the third node.2 0 0 0 -1.46 the values of element one gives BASIC CONCEPT~ ! ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION 47 1.

here N BW is the bandwidth. " I Add [k(e)] to [K] and {fie)} to {F) using the direct stiffness procedure of Section 4. Consider the four triangles touching node 12. and four will contain nonzero coefficients..4 A banded matrix.11) and (4.18) e I Initialize [K] and {F) with zero values I Solve the system of equations for the noda I va lues I ~ DO on the number of elements I ~ DO on the number of elements I Gather element data: node numbers. A more general situation occurs in two-dimensional grids. three. <. 0 Figure 4. Elements two and three touch node three so that columns two. " -. and BW(e) is the difference between the largest and :maUest node numbers for an element. C C 0"" C 0 C 0"" C 0 0 0"" C 0 0 0 (j" <.. The bandwidth is one plus the greatest distance between the diagonal coefficient and the last nonzero coefficient in the row.. (b) a segment of a two-dimensional region. .. This is done by keeping the node numbers of each element as close as possible. Nonzero coefficients OCcurin columns 6.. BASIC CONCEPTI ELEMENT MATRICES: GALERKIN FORMULATION 49 C C 0 C C C C 0 C .5b.I C C C 0 C C C C C C C C 0 C C C C C 0 C <. element value for D I Recall or input element data (1) 2 (2) 3 (3) (4) 4 5 I Calculate [k(e)] and {fie)} using (4.5. The largest value of Bw(e) is used in the calculation. and 21.12) I Retrieve <l>i and <l>j from the solution vector (a) ~ . Columns one and five contain zero values because elements one and four do not touch node three. <. The general equation for calculating the bandwidth of [K] for a finite element grid is NBW =max [Bw(e)] + 1 (4. Figure 4.5a.10. (b) " Figure 4. / I I Output gradient value I End of loop ~21 I I / "- I End of loop " -.2 I Calculate gradient value using (2.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C"""O C <.. <. ". 10.10) . 12. nodal values of x and Q. The way to minimize the bandwidth is to number the nodes such that Bw(e) is as small as possible in each element. '. C"" C C C C C C C <. All rows must be considered in this calculation..48 I---Bandwidth-----. 0 C C 0 C C C C C C 0 C C C 0 C C <.0 <. ~ Input the number of nodes and number of elements Modify [K] and {F) to incorporate known nodal values Figure 4.. Node numbering in (a) a one-dimensional region.6 I I END I ... dimensional grid in Figure 4... 14.

4.1 TWO-DIMENSIONAL GRIDS The linear triangular element (Figure 5. Both triangular and . Once the element data are available. ·5. All of the elements in a column paralIel to the y-axis must be the same width. however. x and y. Completion of the latter step produces a set of nodal values that is one of the desired results. In some situations. These elements are then used to solve heat transfer.1 Problem 3.3 Problem 3. Good computer programs incorporate techniques that minimize memory requirements and make the program both computationally efficient and transferable. These data include the number of nodes.6 gives the general flow of the computations. As a result.1b) has straight sides and a node at each corner. another DO loop on the elements is necessary.1a) has straight sides and a node at each corner. Many general-purpose finite element programs are available for solving two-dimensional problems.1-4. Y1= -1 and Ys =0.2 Problem 3. PROBLEMS 4. The discussion of two-dimensional problems begins by considering the linear triangular and bilinear rectangular elements. and the element values of D and Q. 4. A grid of rectangular elements is easy to construct. 4. The flow chart in Figure 4. and solid mechanics problems. It should be clear that the rectangular element is best suited for square or rectangular regions. The first step is to collect the element data.50 4. All of these programs use triangular and rectangular elements or generalizations of these elements. It is not. Some convenient natural coordinate systems are discussed in the next chapter.1) which is a complete linear polynomial because it contains a constant term and alI of the possible linear terms. the element nodal values of ¢ are selected from the solution vector and the gradient value is calculated. The length is calculated from the nodal coordinates. AlI of the elements in a row paralIel to the x-axis must be the same height. a flow diagram for an actual computer program. the element matrices [k(e)] and {fIe)} are calculated. Once the element data are available. must be modified to include the known nodal conditions. Modify the system of equations to incorporate the boundary conditions and solve for the unknown nodal values.6.DI M ENSIONAL ELEMENTS A primary advantage of the finite element method is the ease with which it can be generalized to solve two-dimensional problems composed of several different materials and having irregular boundaries. 4. This step is followed by the direct stiffness procedure during which the coefficients of [k(e)] and {f(e)} are added to the correct locations of [K] and {F}. xy. 4. Whenever quantities related to the element gradient values are needed.1.2) This equation contains only one of the three possible second-order terms. The bilinear rectangular element (Figure 5. the nodal coordinates. the nodal values are all that is desired and the problem is finished.15) when the left end of the beam has settled 1em. The rectangle cannot be arbitrarily oriented because the x2 and y2 terms are not present. which include the element node numbers and the values of D and Q. Chapter 5 TWO. The shape functions and pertinent local coordinate systems are discussed in this chapter. The global matrices [K] and {F} are initialized with zero values before starting to assemble the system of equations. which exist when the direct stiffness procedure is completed. The interpolation equation for a scalar quantity is (5. The sides of the rectangle must remain parallel to the xy-coordinate system. the triangular element can take on any orientation and satisfy the continuity requirements involving adjacent elements. that is.4(a-e) Problem 3. irrotational fluid flow. The global matrices [K] and {F}.3. The interpolation equation for a scalar quantity is (5.5 Solve the system of equations (4. Generalizations of these elements are considered in Part Four of this book.4(a-e). the number OJ elements. namely. The direct stiffness construction of the global matrices is done within a DO loop over the number of elements. This modification produces a system of equations that is solved using a direct approach such as Gaussian elimination.5 GENERAL FLOW OF THE COMPUTATIONS BASIC CONCEPTI The general flow of the computations using the direct stiffness procedure is showi in the flow diagram in Figure 4.4 Develop the system of equations for the following problems using the element matrix and direct stiffness concepts discussed in this chapter. The first step of this loop is to recall the element data from memory. The computations start with the informatioj that defines the problem.2.

_ . Division using the shortest diagonal is preferable because elements close to an equilateral shape produce more accurate results than long narrow triangles. The nodes on the boundary between subregions must be identical in number and must have the same relative position.2 Regions divided into triangular elements. The dashed line is th~~ original shape and the solid lines denote the elements. The interior quadrilaterals are divided into triangular elements by inserting the shortest diagonal (Figure S. The triangular elements' are used to model the irregular boundary.52 y BASIC CONCEPTS TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 53 k j ~ (a) ~x (a) y m. The spacing between boundary nodes can be varied to produce elements of difference sizes. This property is necessary to insure the continuity of cjJ across an element boundary.2a has been divided] into nine elements after placing four nodes on a side.4. There are 2(n-l)(m-l) triangular elements in a quadrilateral. Figure 5.2b. The node spacing has been varied along the edges of the quadrilateral in order to have smaller elements in the vicinity of the curved boundary. .-------------~k . rectangular elements should be used in irregular regions. There are (n .1 The quadrilateral subregion is easily divided into triangular elements by connecting the nodes on opposite sides using line segments (Figure S. where n is the number of nodes on a side. Each of these. The number of nodes along adjacent sides of a quadrilateral subregion do not have to be the same. but the number of nodes on opposite sides should be equal unless the grid is to be refined (or enlarged). A triangular subregion is most easily: divided into elements by specifying the same number of nodes along each side and'. where nand m are the number of nodes on a pair of adjacent sides.l subregions is then divided into triangles. There is no reason why the! nodes have to be equally spaced along a side.3a). A variation in the spacing allows the! size of the elements to be changed.. . The traingular region shown in Figure S. . then connecting the appropriate nodes by straight lines and placing nodes at the! intersection points.1)2 triangular elements in 1:\1 triangular region. 11 When the triangular region has curved sides. The interior nodes are located at the intersection points.3b). The division of a curved triangular regioIlI into linear triangular elements is shown in Figure S. The application of the concepts relative to the discretization of a region are illustrated in Figure S.: The division of a region into triangular elements is most easily accomplishedl by first dividing it into large quadrilateral and triangular subregions. j (b) ~--------------------------~x (b) Figure 5.1 The linear triangular element and the bilinear rectangular element. the boundary elements model thel curvature using straight-line segments.

....6 Two sets of node numbers resulting in different band widths.. ------~ .....' .. I I I I // ..---." I/".. oIt----:4.. \ I' I (a) 6J CZJ Desirable Undesirable (b) ".. ...:J. . BW(l)=4 1 (1) 4 13 Figure 5."-----~. 15 3 6 (b) Figure 5.\ \' \ .'" I I .. ' 'I .. .<-... 12 11 (a) "1 . ~ -. \ \ Figure 5."-J.... ... A good combination is to place two nodes on one side for every three nodes on the opposite side... --. I " ".--" I\ I' I " .... I ' r I '.'" -.......'" // r.. .. . BW(l) = 13 2 (1) Figure 5.'" ". I I ~ \ --_ '. Larget elements can be used in these regions.....3 .. .. -_ J'.... "'. . .. ." . " ::. The easiest way to make a transi· tion in element size is to employ a quadrilateral region that has an unequal numbei of nodes on two opposite sides... .-------"1 \ \ // ... I . ...... I~-----"". " " " r I'. The ability to vary the element size is all important advantage of the triangular element..I - I. .....----" . \ I" \ 'I I " I 1 I \ \1 \ \ I \ I" I .... ---- . / 1 \.I \I __ I 'I .-I.5 Using an expansion region to change the element size..5.... 13 -..54 BASIC CONCE1 I '..----._ -. Such a region is shown in Figure 5... >.. Division of a quadrilateral subregion into triangular elements 6 14 ../ -/If.4 Division of a region into subregions and then into triangular elements: 2 5 14 A regular mesh with all elements the same size and shape is not necessary because there usually are regions in which the nodal variable is relatively constant."...-I . I /I I I _I- \I " I I ". / // \ --- -.

6a values of Bw(e) Substitution <p =<I>j <p = <l>k of these conditions where Bw(e) is the difference between the largest and smallest in an element. The bandwidth. into (5. The nodal values of <P are <l>j. and <l>k that is where Nj=2A 1 [aj+bjx+cjY] (5.7 Parameters for the linear triangular element. bk= Y.7 has straight sides and three nodes. (Xj.2 LINEAR TRIANGULAR ELEMENT The linear triangular element shown in Figure 5. lj Yk the system of equations [Bw(e)] +1 (5.-Xj Yj- lj. A consistent labeling of the nodes is a necessity and the labeling in this book proceeds counterclockwise from node i.4) produces <l>j=(X1 +(XZXj+(X3Y. The interpolation polynomial is [(lj-lk)<J>j+(Yk[(Xk .56 BASIC CONCEPTS TWO. is given by NBW=max e with the nodal conditions <P =<I>j at at at X=Xj. lj).Y= x=Xk.9) 1 Nv=:': [ak+bkx+CkY] 2A and (5.8) 1 Ni=x: [aj+bjx+cjY] 2A y (5. which is arbitrarily specified. . lk.3) node numbers by numbering assigning node in Figure 5. Y. (Xz. The largest are 13 and 5. as discussed in Chapter 4.Y= x=Xj. The respective bandwidths are 14 and 6.DI M ENSIONAL ELEM ENTS 57 Assigning the node numbers would be a trivial operation if the numbering did not influence the bandwidth of the system of equations. and and and Cj=Xk-Xj Cj=Xj-Xk Ck=Xj-Xj Figure 5. <l>j=(X1 +(XZXj+(X3lj <l>k=(X1 +(XZXk+(X3lk (5. lj =2A (5.1 0) x j (Xi' Yjl aj=Xj aj=Xk ak=Xj Yk-Xk Y.7) and A is the area of the triangle. and (X3 in (5. <l>j. Y. <l>j. Two different numbering schemes for a set of nodes are shown and b.. b j= Yk. Substituting for (Xj. Y.X k lj)<J>j + (X k Y.6) Yk an equation for (5.).4) X j x. .-lj)<J>k] X k)<J>j+ (Xj- + (Xj lj .4) and rearranging produces cp in terms of three shape functions and <l>j. respectively. x. and (Xb lk).. The minimization of N BW in simple regions can be accomplished across the dimension of the body with the fewest nodes when numbers.Y.-lj. x. bj= lj-lk. The values of BW(I) are 13 and 4. NBW. one at each corner.Xj)<J>j + (Xj- Xj)<J>k] where the determinant (5. and <l>k whereas the nodal coordinates are (Xj.X j Y.)<J>k] 5.)<J>j+(Y.5) which yields (Xl = 21A [(X (Xz =(X3=1 2A 1 2A j lk .Xj lk)<J>j Y.Y= Y.

8 Parameters for the example problem.8 if the nodal values are <l>j=40 Nzcm '. (-0..Xj Y. and b..X-2Y) ¢19 <1>.Xi Yk =2(0)-0(5)=0 ak= Xi Y.Y.5. A constant gradient within any element means that. There are two other important properties whose proofs are left as exercises.0) i Figure 5.5X+4Y)<I> 19 The value of ¢ at point A. The three functions also sum to one.+ .5).5 -2 2A = 1 =20-1 Substitution Xi Xj Xk =19 Y.. a shape function varies linearly along the sides between its node and the other two nodes.=0-0. Ci=Xk-Xj=2-4= Cj=Xi. N.11) but aNp ax -- bp 2A /3=i.5-5= -4.5 5 of the coefficients into the shape function equations gives ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE Evaluate the element shape functions and calculate the value of the pressure at point A in Figure 5. <l>j=34 N/cm2. For example.. and the shape functions are defined by (5.Xk=0-2=-2 Ck= X j . that is.5).5 bj= Y.=4(5)-2(0. bj.Y. (5.. = 1 1 Yk 0 4 2 0 0. -0. N.9)..5)= aj=Xk Y. are constants (they are fixed once the nodal coordinates are specified) and <l>j. The coefficients for the shape function equations ai=Xi Y. is cp= (~)40 </>= 34 . A shape function is zero along the side opposite its node. is zero along side jk. 1. that is.7).1.j.=0(0.12) Since b. Each shape function has a value of one at its own node and is zero at the other two. The pressure cp is given by (5.Yk=0. and (5.8).. I I I I I I I I (0..Xk Y.4 N/cm2 The shape functions defined for the triangular element satisfy the properties discussed relative to the one-dimensional shape functions.5)-4(0)=0 bi= Y.5 = 19 acp_ aNi <I> aNj <I> aNk ax i+ ax r+ ax <l>k -ax -- (5. First.5x-2y 19 5x-2y Nj=-19Nk= Note that Ni+Nj+Nk=1. . Ni= 19-4. l>j. (5. (5X-2Y) 19 <1>.5x+4y 19 for the pressure is k The equation _(19-4. (2. < and <l>k independent of the space coordinates.+ .. Y.=5-0=5 bk= Y. k Therefore. varies linearly along sides ij and ik. I + (~)34 + (~)46 cp=39. the derivaare tive has a constant value. This means that the gradients acp/ax and acp/ay are constant within the element.Xi = 4 . and' <l>k=46N/cm2• Point A is located at (2.10).58 BASIC CONCEPTS TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 59 are The scalar quantity cp is related to the nodal values by a set of shape functions that are linear in x and y. many small elements have to be used to accurately approximate a rapid change in cp.0 = 4 whereas -0.

Another popular coordinate system is qr. These equations are <l>i=C1 <l>j=C1 + (2b)C2 J.. Because of these properties. The other choices would replace the st term by either S2 or t'. each side. Simple ratios are used to obtain the coordinate values because the pressure varies linearly along. ILLUSTRA TIVE EXAMPLE Dete~mine the I. and m with node i always at the lower left-hand corner._.t of the first property is that ¢ varies linearly along each of the three sides.13) 46. Equation (5. The pressure contour for 42 Nzcm ' intersects sides ik and jk.10. <l>k and = C 1 + (2b)C 2 + (2a)C 3 + (4ab)C4 <l>m=C1+ (2a)C3 The contour line is shown in Figure 5.13) are obtained by using the nodal values of ¢ and the nodal coordinates (in the st system) to generate four equations. j.67 5. I I 1 1 I I I cpo = 34 J I I I I I I I .j- I~Y I k I I y x~ Figure 5. and C4 in (5. For side jk . There are at least three choices with (5. .5 Similar ratios for side ik yield x=jcm or em 4 2-x 12 -2 or y=3. The element and the important coordinate systems are shown in Figure 5. These two properties make it easy to locate contour lines as illustrated in the following example. which has its origin located at the center of the element (Figure 5.2) is written in terms of local coordinates sand t.60 BASIC CONCEPTS TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 61 A resul. The nodes are labeled i. 46-42 2-x x=2. Equation (5.3 BILINEAR RECTANGULAR ELEMENT The bilinear rectangular element has a length 2b and a height 2a. The coefficients C C 2.9 The 42 N/cm2 contour line. x Figure 5.5 cm being the most useful. Parameters for the bilinear rectangular element. k.ocation of the 42 N/cm2 contour line for the triangular element used m the previous illustrative example. the element is often said to be bilinear.13) is written relative to a local coordinate system.~ /1 . ~no~her lmp?rtant characteristic of ¢ is that any line of constant ¢ is a straight line mtersectmg tw~ sides of the element (unless all nodes have the same value).34 =2-4 and 46-42 _ 5-y 46-34 5-0.10.10). whose origin is at node i because the shape functions are easier to evaluate in this reference frame. C 3. The interpolation equation (5.13) is used because ¢ is linear in s along any line of constant t and linear in t along any line of constant s.9.

Y.17) gives the shape functions in terms of q and r for <1>knd <1>m a and solving gives s = 1.18) of (5. . 5)Dk (8.2~) 2~) c1>m=46°C. The lengths of the sides are 2b=Xj-Xi=8-5=3 2a = Ym . A contour line in a rectangular element is generally curved. This procedure is illustrated in the following example. The intersection of the contour line with the edges can be obtained using linear interpolation. Nj=}(l-~) The shape functions for the bilinear rectangular element have properties similar to those possessed by the triangular element. Nodal coordinates for the example problem. Each shape function varies linearly along the edges between its node and the two adjacent nodes.b) })(10 D.) (5.16) Determine three points on the 50 e contour line for the rectangular element shown in Figure 5.~) = ~ ( 1+ t)( t)(1 I I (5.3 = 2 (5. = 5 .11.18) into (5. a Along side km. <1>j 54°e. y Ni=~ Nj (1- t)(1- ~) 1. The nodal values are <1>i =42°e.b)(I(1.15J 1 C 3 = 2a (<1>m <1>. The transformation equations between the qr and st coordinate and systems are Nm=~(1-0 Inspection reveals that the 50 e contour line intersects the sides ij and km. 3) }_s (8. Each shape function is also zero along the sides its node does not touch. we need to assume values of t and calculate values of s.4ab Nm=.19) I (5.) - C4= 4ab (<1>i-<1>j+<1>k-<1>m) Substitution where of (5.0.11. that is. t =0 and 'I' A.62 Solving gives BASIC CONCEPn TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 63 C1=<1>i CZ=2b 1 (<1>j-<1>. therefore.1' Substituting for <1>i and <1>j nd solving gives s = 2. N. <1>k 56°e.b N _ st .16) for the other coordinate value.19) are useful because they lead to a natural coordinate system that allows the rectangle to be deformed into a general quadrilateral.17) Substituting these values into (5. = (1 . 5) N k = ~( 1 + Nm=~(1- t)( +~) +~) 1 (5. N. is zero along sides jk and km.3 <1> 3 <1> 50 = J I . ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE (5.3) L-------------------------~x Figure 5.17) gives the shape functions k. The easiest method for obtaining a third point is to set s or t to zero in the shape function equations and solve (5.15) into (5.2. and = = 0 ¢ = Ni<1>i+ Nj<1>j+ Nk<1>k+ Nm<1>m Ni=(lNj=.1') +.a (1- Ni=(1. t = 2a = 2 and s=b+q Substitution ¢=~<1>k+(1Substituting ~)<1>m=50 t=a+r (5.13) and rearranging gives 1 The shape functions defined by (5. The linear variation of ¢ along an edge of the rectangular element and an edge of the triangular element means that these two elements are compatible and can be used adjacent to one another. For example. Along side ij. varies linearly along sides ij and im.

5).64..21) are a function of the global coordinates and the specification of i. The area.2. 5 Figure 5. 0). 0 To obtain the third point._--~ _s (164.0) (2) 2 . 2).64.20) the nodal values gives 6' (-42 s + 54+ 56 -46)+2 1 (42+46)=50 ¢(l)=NP)<I>l + N~1)<I>4+ N ~1)<I>5 N~1)<I>2 + Solving yields s = 1. Consider.. 3 7 .13. The xy coordinates of these points are (6. assume that t =a -I.21) 5. 1) (2. A. 1) and (2. 3)._-------(1) .12). and k or i.4 A CONTINUOUS PIECEWISE SMOOTH EQUATION The interpolation equation for element four is The element equation for ¢ defined by either (5.s'<I>k+~(l3 '6J6 23m .Y7 C~4)=X7-X sincej=3 andk=7.2) (4) -------. 4) and (7.3) passes through the point (6. N~4).13 is ¢(4) = N~4)<I>8+ N~4)<I>3+ N~4)<I>7 The shape functions in (5. (1. Note that the element node numbers are no longer consecutive.(a~4) + b~4)X+ C~4)y) 2A e 1 2 3 4 j k 5 m where a~4)=X 3 1 2 3 8 4 2 3 Y7-X7 3 Y3 5 6 6 7 b~4)= Y3 . for example. This is the usual case with two-dimensional elements. The 50 contour line.+. The st coordinates of the three points are (from top to bottom) (1. and k immediately indicates which coordinates to use. 4). is that of element four.s')<I>. . A straight line from (6. 5) to (7.2.+. j. Any node of a triangular element may be node i.=~(1'f'2 Substituting = 1.64 BASIC CONCEPTS TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 8 7 65 t I (12.s'<I>. The element nodal data for the four-element grid in Figure 5.s')<I> =50 The interpolation equation for element one is (5.60.17) are a function of the global coordinates only in the sense that 2b=Xj-Xi=X4-XI and 2a= Ym- Yi= Y2 . j. then Figure 5. Node i of the rectangular element is always at the origin of the st coordinate system. The shape functions in (5. (6.64. therefore. * _---------~4 A four-element grid with node numbers. and m. j.2.Y1 (5.7) or (5. Using (5. the contour line is not straight (Figure 5. An asterisk is used to distinguish it from the other nodes.16) can be used for any triangular or rectangular element by specifying the numerical values 'of i.12. k.8) gives 1 N~4) =.

50 0. Also check those given by (5. Verify that the shape functions for the triangular element sum to one.42 0.00 0. Illj Illk Point A Illi x y Contour line . Determine the xy coordinates where the specified contour element boundaries. Each column of values is associated with an element and a specific problem.01 70 Xi Verify that the shape functions for the rectangular element given by (5.13 0.1a is zero everywhere along side jk.5 Determine the requirement that the shape functions must satisfy in order to correctly model the condition that 4> equals a constant within an element.13 0.25 140 115 104 124 0.03 180 5. Each column of values is associated with an element and a specific problem. Ni+Nj+Nk=l.25 115 85 76 105 0.8 0. that is.01 0.13 0.13 0.47 0.00 0.31 0.31 0.03 76 54 60 80 0.18 0.25 0. (iii) Ci+Cj+Ck' 5.66 PROBLEMS 5.38 0. Evaluate o4>/ox and o4>/oy within the element.6 Verify that a line of constant 4> in a rectangular element is in general not a straight line. Comment on the behavior of the following summations: (i) ai+aj+ak' (ii) bi+bj+bk.7-5.13 0.4 Illj Illk Illm Point B Xj Ym Illi li x y Contour line Element Quantity 5.19).25 0.13 0.28 0.22 90 Problem Number 5.06 0.14 0.19 125 92 86 116 0.06 0.38 43 60 52 0.38 0. (a) Calculate (b) Determine (c) Evaluate the value of 4> at the coordinates three sets of of point B.10 0. Hint: Write an equation of the form y =d + mx for side jk and substitute for yin (5.44 0. 5.10 154 5.26 0.19 0.13 0.13 158 130 125 150 0. 84>/ox and xy 84>/8y coordinates at point B.06 0.13 170 5.50 0. Verify that N. (a) (b) the (c) Calculate the value of 4> at the coordinates of point A.25 0.31 0..20 0.25 0.8).13 0.15 0.18 0. Element Quantity 5.12-5.25 0.06 170 Problem Number 5.15 100 5. line intersects 5.09 110 5.18 0.25 0.35 0.30 55 Xi Xj Xk li }j Y.12 0.31 0.44 0.1 5.07 194 160 158 0.11 0. for the triangular element is equal to one at node i and equal to zero at nodes j and k.00 0. for the triangular element in Figure 5.34 0.40 0.38 0.13 130 94 125 0.19 185 151 160 0.25 0.2 BASIC CONCEPTS TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS 67 5.20 0.13 190 160 185 0.16 The nodal values for five different rectangular elements are summarized below.31 0.7 0.22 130 5.09 0.31 0.16 0. 5.17) sum to one.9 0.11 The nodal values for five different triangular elements are summarized below. for the specified contour line.3 Verify that N.25 0. Under what conditions will it be a straight line? 5.36 0.

2) Integrals similar to these occur in the consideration of both field problems and solid mechanics problems.6) relative to the coordinate systems in Figure 6. and (b) Figure 6. (6.5). x = g(p).seful only if a change in the integration variables is performed. This substitution produces Ni(s)= Xj-x L = Xj-(Xi+S) where the coordinate variable q ranges from .1) by replacing x by x = Xi + s. The change of vanable formula from integral calculus (Olmstead.3) and (6. These are general equations valid for all linear elements regardless of their location.1). The objective of this chapter is to discuss several coordinate systems that can be used to eliminate some of the difficulties associated with finite element integrals. These systems are discussed relative to the one-dimensional linear element.1 LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS in Chapter and The linear shape functions developed X·-x Ni(x)=_J_ L 2. The shape functions for a coordinate system located at node i are obtained from (6. f(x)dx= r 1961) is [2 f(9(p){d(~~»JdP (6. This type of system is called a local coordinate system.3) follows. where x = Xi +S . are u. 'Some of these are easily evaluated while others are very difficult.1). The two sum to one as did the pair in (6. The integrations in (6.1 Local coordinate systems for the one-dimensional element. The difficulties associated with evaluating an integral can often be decreased by changing the variables of integration. 6. For the coordinate s. Many are impossible to evaluate analytically so that numerical techniques are employed.5) (6.COORDINATE SYSTEMS 69 Chapter 6 SYSTEMS (a) COORDINATE All finite element solutions require the evaluation of integrals.~ L L (6.6) relating x and p. The shape functions for a coordinate system located at the center of the ele~ent are obtained from (6. This involves writing the integral in a new coordinate system. NAx)=--' X-Xi Nj(S)=-L-= Xi+S-Xi L =I S (6.1) are for an element in which the origin of the coordinate system is to the left of node i.2) are simplified by developing new shape functions defined relative to a coordinate system whose origin is located on the element. as well as the pair in (6. The shape functions relative to this origin are Ni(q)=G - r j Ni(x)Nj(x) dx or J: j Ni (X) dx 2 i) and (6. and then the two-dimensional triangular and rectangular elements. Local and natural coordinate systems are discussed in this chapter.L/2 to L/2. The shape functions. Interpretation variable and g(p) is the equation of (6.4).1 goes as 1. !he d~sadvantage of these shape functions shows up when evaluating integrals mvolvmg products of the shape functions such as Note that each shape function equals one at its own node and is zero at the other node. where p is the new coordinate that is. The two most common local coordinate systems for the one-dimensional element have the origin located at node i or at the center of the element (Figure 6.1) by replacing x by x=Xi+(L/2)+q.4) x-x L (6.

where x = Xi + L/2 + q f(x)dx= by iq2 r(q) d(X·+L/2+q) I Xi ql dq dq = fLIZ -LIZ l ~~--J (a) f= 1 r(q)dq (6. The new shape functions are and The change of variables in the integration f -LIZ r(q) dq L IZ yields d~ (6. The usefulness of (6. Another interesting natural coordinate system consists of a pair of length ratios.2a).S-------.1 to + 1 limits of integration. then {I and {z are defined as the ratios and {z=- only after a rather complicated expression is recognized as being L3. A natural coordinate system is a local system that permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number whose absolute magnitude never exceeds unity.7) and (6. s=L{z.10) which involve the product of shape functions.11) and (6.L 3 Figure 6.12) is that {I and {z are identical to the shape functions defined by (6. + 1 interval. .8) where r(q) is f(x) written in terms of q. Using the coordinate variable s. 1980).70 BASIC CONCEPTS COORDINATE SYSTEMS 71 J J Xj Xj f(x)dx= Is2 SI d(X+s) Xi ds ds = i L h(s)ds 0 (6.2 il r. The change of variable rule and the relationships Ni(s)={J.4).2 NATURAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS L (6. which has the sampling points and weighting coefficients defined on a-I.9) {I +{z=1 The most important characteristic of (6. The usefulness of these coordinates is associated with the evaluation of integrals of the type r N~(s)NJ(s)ds (6. Figure 6. Most computer programs use numerical integration techniques to evaluate the element matrices. we obtain iL()Z 1-~ 0 L ds=.2b. The shape functions in (6. and ds/d{ 2 =L give (6.L=-__ J _ (b) J J Xj Xj NiZ(x)dx= iL N/(s)ds= 0 Xi Using the q coordinate.. F or the coordinate q.13) = f~2 g(~) d(~L/2) d~ ~I ="2 Lfl -I g(~) d~ (6. If s is the distance from node i.5) can be written in terms of ~ by replacing q by q = ~L/2. Nj(S)={2.1 and form the ratio q/(L/2)=2q/L=~.11 ) This pair of coordinates is not independent because (6.3) and (6. The length ratio coordinates result in a simple formula for evaluating an integral similar to (6. Start with the q coordinate in Figure 6.12) The local coordinate systems sand q can be converted to natural coordinate systems. The limits of integration were obtained substituting Xi and Xj for x in x=Xi+s and solving for s.1 to + 1 (Figure 6.8) comes when integrals such as are evaluated. we obtain fLIZ -LIZ from LIZ NiZ(q)dq =f -LIZ (~_ Natural coordinate systems for the one-dimensional element. A numerical integration scheme used in finite element programs is the Gauss-Legendre method (Conte and deBoor. L/3. is obtained The advantage of the coordinate variable ~ is the . s 6. The coordinate ~ varies from .13).7) f=-l where h(s) is f(x) written in terms of s. NiZ(x)dx= Xi 2 i)Z L dq=~ 3 The result.14) where g(~) is r(q) written in terms of ~.

It is located at the center of the element and the coordinates are the length ratios ~=9__ Equation (6. The shape functions converted to the natural coordinate system. Starting with b and r 1]=- a (6.15) is of the same form as The coordinate systems. Thus eaeb de =L r(a+ l)r(b+ 1) 12 2 r(a + b + 1+ 1) alb! =L~~~(a+b+ 1)! (6. s. Evaluation of a pair of integrals illustrates the usefulness of (6.17) is useful because it states that a rather complicated integral can be evaluated using an equation which involves only the length of the element and the powers involved in the product. and L3 shown in Figure 6. The results are N. they have the same advantage as observed for the one-dimensional formulation.3.12) gives 1]=1 Table 6. They are more convenient for both analytical and numerical integration.I 72 The integral on the right-hand side of (6. The natural coordinate system for the rectangular element is shown in Figure 6. A natural coordinate system for the rectangular element.4 TRIANGULAR ELEMENT: AREA COORDINATES ~ [2 J Ni=-(J-O.1. 2 6. Nk=i(l It should be clear that ~ and +~)(1 +1]).1 Coordinate Systems One-Dimensional Element Type of System Coordinate Variable and Limits of Integration for the Shape Functions Limits of Integration e= -1 ~----------+-~f f=l 1]=-1 Global Local Local Natural Natural x s q X'-x Ni=--y-' N=1-. I] Nj=t(l +~)(1-1]) (6.19) Nm=t(l-~)(1 +1]) range between plus and minus one.15) «. that is. Each coordinate is the ratio of a perpendicular distance from one side. L Xj L L Figure 6. (6.17). 1964).3 RECTANGULAR ELEMENT where r(n+ 1)=n! (Abramowitz L Jo e and Stegun.18) in (5.~)(1 -1]). A natural coordinate system for the triangular element is obtained by defining the three length ratios Lh L2.5_ I Nj=x-Xi Nj=s L Xi. =t(1.16) 1 o 1 t 1(1Z - t)w-l dt 6.19) are easily where q and r are the local coordinates.14) can be changed to L (l-e2)ae~ BASIC CONCEPTS. 0. to the altitude. and (6.3.12). of that . and limits of integration dimensional linear element are summarized in Table 6. The integral in (6. h. shape functions.i COORDINATE SYSTEMS 73 r Another example is (6. r(z)r(w) r(z+w) Jo r L N?(s)N](s)ds=L Jo elelde2=L(3+~~1)!=60 e 3'2' L for the one- using (6.17) Natural coordinate systems can be defined for two-dimensional elements. 0. L' L' L N=(!_i) 2 I N=(!+i) L }2 J Nj=-(I +~) 2 Nj=[2 2' -1.4a. 2 Ni=[j.

Multiplying the top and bottom by two gives (6. The area of the complete triangle . k) is (b) Al='2 k bs (6. are shown in Figure 6. is A and is given by B. The lines of constant L.5.4.4c. L2.24) Figure 6. and L3 are called area coordinates because their values give the ratio of the area of a subtriangular region to the area of the complete triangle. A triangle divided into the areas corresponding to the area coordinates. Each coordinate is a length ratio that varies between zero and one. same side.74 k BASIC CONCEPTS! COORDINATE SYSTEMS 75 (a) Figure 6. The coordinates l-i.21) can be reworked into another form.20) Forming the ratio A l/A yields (6. j.5. Similar equations can be written for L2 and L3 giving and Since A 1 + A 2 + A 3 = A.5 to the total area.22) (c) (6. y s A=~ bh 2 whereas the area of the shaded triangle (B. is the ratio of the shaded area in Figure 6.21) The area coordinate L.23) An equation relating the three coordinates was expected because the coordinates are not independent.4b. The three area coordinates for a triangular element. is measured. The location of a point can be specified using two of the coordinates. Equation (6. (6. Each of these lines is parallel to the side from which L. Consider point B as shown in Figure 6. This is illustrated in Figure 6.

Consider point B on the side ij (Figure 6.34).6). and Nj.8). eland e 2.26) (6.29) product (6.35) 1 The importance of the relationships in (6. This integral equation is related to (6.29) can be illustrated L by evaluating the shape function -=1-b b s (6. defined by (6. =e 2 side j-+k side k-« i (6. respectively.34) (6. Using the one-dimensional natural coordinates.3) and (6. If the coordinate of point B is s.25) into LJ =2A [(Xj}kEquation Xk}j)+ (lj-}k)x+(Xk- XJy] (6. then 2h(b-s) 2 2 The area coordinate L2 is L2=S i L A b a!b!c! L~L2L3 dA =( b 2). and the two sets of quantities can be interchanged. thus Ll=Ni (6..35) is that any integral over the edge of a triangular element can be replaced by a line integral written in . y)dA over the area of a triangle. the area coordinates become and The relationships for the other two sides are L2 =e L3 =e 1 12 side i-+ j (6. Since Nk was not in the product. The area coordinates for a point on the edge of a triangle. L3 is included to the zero power. The incorporation of derivative boundary conditions or surface loads into a finite element analysis requires the evaluation of an integral along the edge of an element..24) yields the coordinates 1 of B in Figure 6. (6.6. which is parallel to side ij and measured from node i. and L2 can be substituted for N.4). and L2 reduce to the one-dimensional shape functions Ni(s) and Nj(s) defined by (6. and (6. (6. The and and L3 =e 2 L.27) A similar analysis for L2 and LJ shows that and (6.30) t.26) is identical to (5.25) where x and yare (6.32) LiL1L~ dA 1!1 to! 2A =- 2A 4! (1+1+0+2)1 c.28) Figure 6. The advantage of using the area coordinate system is the existence of an integration equation that simplifies the evaluation of area integrals (Eisenberg and Malvern. 1973).5. and the length of the side is b.33) The area coordinates L.33). These integrals are easy to evaluate once it is known how the area coordinates behave on an edge.76 Using the determinant expansion for 2A 1 BASIC CONCEPT~ COORDINATE SYSTEMS y 77 produces x 2Al or y =1 1 (6.2A a+ +c+ . The area integral is NiNjdA = L b (6. Substituting (6.31) Ni(x. Define the coordinate variable s.11). Zero factorial is defined as one. =-2A-=-2-bh- 2Al b+s The use of (6.17) and is coordinate L3 is zero and L.-------c-~c-c =- A The area coordinates L. The area coordinates for the linear triangular element are identical to the shape functions. is the ratio of the shaded area to the total area. y)NAx.

This ensures that only finite jump discontinuities exist in the nth derivative.7. (6. (6.78 terms of s or BASIC CONCE~ COORDINATE SYSTEMS 79 t 2. but its derivatives do not have to be continuous. thus are equivalent.33) using (6. All of the integrals in this book. each defined over a single element. contain first-derivative terms Therefore. The integral 4>(1) = Njl)<I>1 +N~I)<I>3+Nil)<I>4 4>(2) = NF)<I>1 + N~2)<I>2 N~2)<I>3 + (6. Jrf(L1. Recalling the equality between the shape functions and the area coordinates. allows (6. l-s =t 1. and L3 =t 2.<1>2.23). since two adjacent elements have a common node.36J of a twO' and evaluated using the factorial formula dimensional element is denoted by F. L2 =0.Lj2»<I> 3 (6.38) can be reworked into (6. This requiremenl means that the first derivative of the approximating function must be continuous between elements if the integral contains second-derivative terms. A point on the common boundary is shown in Figure 6. Defining the distance from point B to node three as c . 1961).35) and then (6. A two-element grid. and <1>4' The equations for 4> are 6.7) with the coordinate system originating at node one.L2.37) to be written as dn4> -d ndx ox 4>(1) = Ljl)<I>1 + Li1)<1>3 4>(2) = Li2)<I> 1 + L~2)<I>3 Remember that the subscripts on the area coordinates numbers.<1>3. exercise. that is. Continuity in 4> along a common boundary between two rectangular elements is relatively easy to prove and is left as an 4>(1) = Ljl)<I>1 +(1-Li1»<1>3 4>(2) = Li2)<I> 1 + (1 .28). Continuity of 4> along a common boundary of two arbitrarily oriented triangular elements is more complicated and is considered here.37) I The properties of the shape functions indicate that N~2)=Nil)=0 along the common boundary. Consider two adjacent elements (Figure 6. (6.8 with the areas associated with Li1) and Li2) shaded. The boundary ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE element.5 CONTINUITY The function for approximating 4>(x. n = 2. The need to integrate this piecewise smooth function places a requirement on the order of continuity between elements.38) are not related to the node is defined only if 4> has continuity of order (n -1) (Olmstead.17). Continuity in the derivative is required for the beam element.17).27) and (6. Since L~I)=Li2)=0. using (6. except the beam element. Evaluate f r [NY dr over side ik of a linear triangular The integral is y since the linear triangular shape functions and the area coordinates Along side ik. Figure 6. The proof is completed when it is shown that Lil) = Li2). 4> must be continuous between elements.L3)dr= r g(s)ds=L f h(t2)dt2 (6. y) consists of a set of continuous piecewise smooth equations. The nodal values are <1>1. Continuity of 4> in the one-dimensional element is assured.

2 Do Problem 6. The area coordinates L. Develop the shape functions in terms of r : Ni=(1- ~)(1-f).8. Write these shape. functions in terms of the local coordinate q.1 The shape functions for the three node one-dimensional quadratic element (Figure P6.1 for the natural coordinate (Figure P6. 6.80 y BASIC CONCEPT~ I COORDINATE SYSTEMS 81 Figure P6.4 . Nk= Nj= ~ (1.1 for the natural coordinates eland e 2 (Figure P6.2 k LI 2A~I) -2-_ =2A(1)=2bh(I)-b Figure C 2 and 2ch(2) LI (2)_ 2A~2) _-2-_ c _ -2A(2)-2bh(2)-b-L1 (I) Do Problem 6.f) ~I 13 2S(s_~)2 ~I:~-----L------~~~I Figure P6.2). and the length of side 1-3 as b.1) relative to the local coordinate s follow. ~t Figure 6.1 6.') and L.4 A local coordinate-system r has its origin at the one-third point of a linear element (Figure P6.3). 2 The proof is complete. Figure P6. 2ch(1) (I) I: 6.3 PROBLEMS 6.2) along a common boundary.4).3 L 2 ~I L j ~I P6.

82 (a) Starting with the x-coordinate system. (b) Starting with the s-coordinate system. (c) Starting with the q-coordinate system. 6.5





Verify that ¢(1)=¢(2) along the common boundary between the trian~ular and rectangular elements in Figure P6.1l. Hint: Use the st-coordmate system for the rectangular element.

The integration of d¢/dx occurs in many finite element applications. Whel N; and N, are written in terms of a new coordinate variable, d¢/dx mus be evaluated using the chain rule, that is, for the local coordinate s,
d¢ ds


dsb dx
dx ds


d¢ -_-dx ds dx/ds



Show that the following relationships hold for the one-dimensional co ordinate systems studied in this chapter.
d¢ ds d¢ dx ' dq dx




Figure P6.11


The quadratic shape functions given in Problem 6.1 are 6.12 when written in terms of the natural coordinates eland equations for the shape functions and (6.17),evaluate



Using these


Show that the shape functions for the rectangular element, (6.19), reduce to the linear shape functions, (6.9),along side ij. The three shape functions along one edge of a quadratic triangular element are given in Figure P6.13. Show that these equations reduce to th~ sha~e functions for the one-dimensional quadratic element that are given m Problem 6.6.

6.7 6.S 6.9

Verify that L2 = N} for the linear triangular element. Verify that any line of constant ¢ in a triangular element is a straight line Hint: Investigate the value of ¢ along the side of a triangle when two node have the same value. Evaluate the following integrals using (6.29).
(a) L N; Nk dA (c) L(N;2+Nj)dA (b) L N;NjNk dA (d) L(NjNk+NJdA

N, = Lj (2L1 Nj Nk




4L1L2 L2 (2L2 - 1)



Verify that ¢(1)=¢(2) along the common boundary between the two reo tangular elements shown in Figure P6.10.


~x Figure P6.13






Figure P6.10

Chapters 7 through 16 cover the finite element solution of steady state and time-dependent field problems. Specific application areas include heat transfer, irrotational flow, and acoustical vibrations. Thereader whose interest is in structural applications can go directly to Part Three, which covers structural and solid mechanics applications.

The implementation of the finite element method can be subdivided into three broad steps: (1) establishing the element interpolation properties, (2) evaluating the element matrices, and (3) solving an actual problem. We have discussed the properties of a pair of two-dimensional elements in Chapters 5 and 6. Specific applica tion areas are considered in the next several chapters. Our immediate objective is centered on the discussion of the element matrices associated with the twodimensional field equation: D'; ox2 +Dy oy2 -G<jJ+Q=O





We start by briefly discussing the governing differential equations for several physical problems embedded within (7.1). The emphasis in the remainder of the chapter is on the derivation of the integral equations for the element matrices and the evaluation of these equations for the linear triangular and bilinear rectangular elements.

The general field equation, (7.1), has many important applications in the physical sciences. A few of these applications are discussed in this section. Since our objective is to establish the usefulness of (7.1), a discussion of the boundary conditions is deferred to the application chapters that follow. The first application area is the torsion of noncircular sections. The governing differential equation is

1 02<jJ 1 02<jJ --+--+2e=0 9 ox2 9 oy2


where 9 is the shear modulus of the material and is the angle of twist. Equation (7.2) is obtained from (7.1) by noting that Dx=Dy=l/g, G=O and Q=2e. The variable <jJ is a stress function, and the shear stresses within the shaft are related the derivatives of <jJ with respect to x and y. Several fluid mechanics problems are embedded within (7.1). The streamline and potential formulations for an ideal irrotational fluid are governed by


02<jJ 02<jJ ox2 + oy2 =0








021jJ 021jJ oy

02W 02W 4n2 w-O h ox2 +h oy2 +gT2 -


respectively. The streamlines, 1jJ,are perpendicular to the constant potential li ¢, and the velocity components are related to the derivatives of either </J or IjJ wl respect to x and y. Each of (7.3) and (7.4) are obtained from (7.1) using Dx=Dy';" and G=Q=O. ' The flow of water within the earth is governed by equations that are embedd within (7.1). The seepage of water under a dam or retaining wall and within confined aquifer is governed by

is the water depth at the quiescent state, w is the wave height above the where h level 9 is the gravitational constant, and T IS t h e peno 0 f OSCI'11' tiion . iod . nt a qUlesce , . A fluid vibrating within closed volume IS governed by

02 P 02 P w2 -+~+2 p=O ox2 oy C


where P is the pressure excess above ambient pressure, ~ is the wave frequency, and c is the wave velocity in the medium. The waves descnbed by (7.10) would not be a function of the z-direction. , . Equations (7.2) through (7.10) describe nine different physical problems that are contained within the general differential equation (7.1). It should be clear t~at a discussion of applying the finite element method to solve (7.1) is worthy of our time.

02¢ 02¢ Dx~+Dy~=O
ox uy where D'; and D; are the permeabilities of the earth material and ¢ represents t piezometric head. The water level around a well during the pumping process' governed by

02¢ 02¢ Dx ox2 +Dy+ oy2 +Q=O
where Q is a point sink term. The other coefficients are the same as defined f , (7.5), and the aquifer is assumed to be confined. There are two heat transfer equations embedded within (7.1). The heat transf from a two-dimensional fin to the surrounding fluid by convection is governed b

Our immediate objective is to derive the integral equations that define the element matrices for the group of problems embedded in (7.1). The element contribution to the system of equations __ {R(e)} is given by

r [N]T JA

(D 02¢ x ox2

+D a ¢ Y oy2


+ Q)



02T 02T 2h 2hTf Dx;)z+Dv;;z - ~ T+--=O
ox ' uy t t The coefficients D'; and D; represent the thermal conductivities in the x and directions, respectively: h is the convection coefficient; t is the thickness of th' fin; Tf is the ambient temperature of the surrounding fluid; and T is the temperatu " of the fin. Relating (7.7) to (7.1), we find that G =2h/t and Q = 2hTf/t. The fin of (7.7) is assumed to be thin and the heat loss from the edges is neglecte .' When the body is very long in the z-direction and the temperature is a function 0 only the x- and y-coordinate directions, the heat transfer is governed by

where [N] is the row vector containing the element shape functions. Since the interpolation function, ¢(x, y), does not have continuous derivatives between the elements , the second-derivative terms in (7.11) must be replaced by firstderivative terms. The second-derivative terms in (7.11) can be replaced by applying rule for differentiation. Consider the quantity the product

O !__([NY ¢) ox ox
Differentiation gives


02T 02T Dx~+Dy~=O


where Dx, Dy, and T represent the same variables as given for (7.7). Heat transfer by convection is related to (7.8) through the boundary conditions. When G in (7.1) is a negative coefficient and Q equals zero, the differential equation is called the Helmholtz equation. A negative G leads to the sol ution of an eigenvalue problem. A couple of physical problems governed by the Helmholtz' equation are the Seiche motion of water and acoustic vibrations. Seiche motion, which describes the standing waves on a bounded shallow body of water, is governed by

!__([NyO¢)=[Ny02</J ox ox
Rearranging and substituting


+ o[NY o¢
ox 2



for [NY 02 </J/ox in (7.11) produces

- /. [NY


o. ox2



= -- JA o, 'ox [NY oX





+ JA o, --a;- ox





The first integral on the right-hand side of (7.14) can be replaced by an integral around the boundary using Green's theorem (Olmstead, 1961). Application of the

The transpose of [B] contains two columns and is given by (7. it is easy to verify that {R(e)}=-1 [NY(Dx~: cosO+Dy ~~ sinO )dr O~~] + o. (7.11 A similar set of operations starting with o¢ o¢ . Substitution of (7.20: and the individual integrals are denoted in this book by (Dx o[~y +(t G[NY[N]dA which has the general form where ) {<I>(e)}_ Q[NY dA L [k~)] and [k~)].28). The first integral in (7.30) (7.18~ is close to the desired form.3 (7. where (7.27) Q[NY dA Eq~ation (7. TWO_DIMENSIONAL FIELD EQUATION 91 (k(e)] = JA (7.21] {R(e)} = {](e)} + [k(e)]{<I>(e)} {fIe)} _ 7. the second row is the derivative of [N] with respect to y.17) into (7. and (7.24) The variable ¢ in (7.26) r -1 Dy[NY A 8"2dA=Y 02¢ ir ~([NYO¢) oy oy Dy[NY o¢ -sinOdr+ oy 9.28) ¢(e) = [N]{ <I>(e)} Substitution and rearranging gives (7. row of {gv} is the derivative of [N] with respect to x.23) r is the element boundary.16) and (7.14) gives the final relationship r (D x ~[ox NY o[ N] + D o[ NY o[ N]) dA + G[N]T[N] ox y oy oy JA r dA (7.25) in detail in Chapter by defining (7. occurs in the derivative boundary . The firs.19 If we use (7.1 wh~re 0 is th~ angle to t~e outward normal and tuting (7.31) [k(e)] = [k~)] + [k~)] (7.26). It can be put in a final form by substl tuting for ¢ using the relationship. .90 theorem yields FIELD PROBlE.22) was not replaced because the quantity D. [NY o¢ cos 0 st:+ o.15) mto (7. [NY r produces ~2~ ox dA = - Jr r o.JA o.29) The stiffness matrix for field problems is usually written as (7.i da- t ~1{t~~l if} [BY =[O[NY oX O[NY] oy ($("] ~[B1W"] (7.18 + + r (Dx o[NY G[NY¢ {g. o[NY aX JA oX r o¢ dA ox (7. o[~Y O~~]) ) dA {<I>(e)} +( t JA r [BY[D][B]dA= JA r (DxO[NYO[N]+DyO[NYO[N])dA oy oX ax oy (7.22) ELEMENT MATRICES: TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS Our objective for the rest of this chapter is to evaluate the element matrices for the two-dimensional elements discussed in Chapter 5. ax cosO+Dy oy smO conditions and is considered (7.23) can be written more compactly JA r o. o[NYo¢ 8y dA oy (7. SubS1 for the second-derivative term I and (7.11) gives {R(e)} = -1 t JA ([NY (Dx ~: cos O+Dy ~~ sin oX o¢ +Dy o[NY o¢)dA ox oy oy 0) dr (7.1 and the gradient vector [D]=[.27).

30) involves the shape functions. =Dy =0. I~ .40) [k~)] = [BY[D] [B]A Expanding the matrix product yields ILLUSTRA TIVE EXAMPLE Heat transfer from a two-dimensional fin is governed by (7. OY bj Cj ONj ox e». Using the integration equation [k~)] = or f [BY[D][B] A dA = [BY[D][B] f dA A (7. and the evaluation of (7.24) is quite similar to the evaluation of [k~)J.37) 1 1 (ak+bkx+CkY) 5.38).92 The scalar quantity cjJ is defined over a triangular region by FIELD PROBl TWO_DIMENSIONAL FIELD EQUATION 93 where NiNj Ni=2A Nj=2A Nk=2A 1 (ai+bix+CiY) (aj+bjx+ Cjy) N2J NjNk LIL2 L~ (7.30).7). ( oY aN'] ox 2 f <l>(e)} (7.3 or f (gvf 1 The element stiffness matrix for the triangular element is the sum of (7. t=0.1 d ! 11 bi= -4.38) (7.29) to evaluate each integral yields 1 Using the factorial a~d the a.39) =. bj=5. The gradient vector fI L2L3 since Ni=Lb Nj=L2.5. bkJ {<l>(e)} = [B]{ <l>(e)} Ck assuming that Q is constant (6. and Nk=L3 for the linear triangle.8 when D'. b. this integral becomes . The band C coefficients for (7. respectively. These values are (7.and this element IS C coefficients were defined in Chapter f (gv} = ONi OY [aN. ox e». The element force vector also involves the shape functions.5 W [cui-C. If we assume that constant within the element.36) were calculated in the example associated with Figure 5.01 W/cm2-C. ci= -2.1 [bi 2A c.36) and (7. h = 0.8.5 em. Ci= -2.38) when G is nonzero.36j I I IS . and Tf=10C. Substitution gives (7.29) produces within the element.36) and (7. The element stiffness matrix [k(e)] is given by (7. The secon~ i~tegral of (7. . Calculate the element matrices for the element in Figure 5. formula (6. where [k~)] and [k~)] are defined by (7.

12(0.5) -1.01)(9.47) . y) dx dy= t j(s.5 2. this presents a minor problem.36) and (7.25 ] [ -2. 7 and r: f:b Jo n.17) were developed relative to the st-coordinate system. Considering the third coefficient gives QA _ 2hcPfA _ 2(0. Q = 2hcP fit. The easiest integrations are associated with {j(e)}. The change of variables equation for double integrals is discussed in detail in Chapter 27 with regard to quadratic elements.5) -0.0132 20.40).5 cm '.38) gives [k(e)] as 0. Since the st-coordinate system is parallel to the xy-coordinate system and a unit length in either s or t is the same as a unit length of x or y.2.5) = .12t Substitution of the band and (7.0132 0.5 25 . The application of this equation The integral associated with [k~)] is NiNk NjNk N~ NkNm (7. Each coefficient involves integrating a polynomial over an area.250 4 4 -8 -8 16 -8] The shape functions (5.and xy-coordinate systems.46) Evaluation of the element matrices for the rectangular element cannot be performed as quickly as the integrations in the previous section.45) {J(e)} = l.41) The chain rule gives (7.3 -22.213 -0.50 2.17) are s Nj=2b st . -0.27 { 1. a rectangular element defined relative to an st-coordinate system can be sum~arized as follows. r) ds dt (7.384 0.44) The element force vector thus {J(e)} is given by (7.01)9.107 -0.4 ELEMENT MATRICES: RECTANGULAR ELEMENT {f(.213 0.))~Q: m (7.27 The other three integrals yield the same result and 7.50 +0. dt ds= 8ab 0 f:b r: 2b -st212a ds= J2b -ds=as 2b (7.278 [k(e)] [ - 0.4ab -8 ~] = The evaluation of [k(e)] and {f(e)} is illustrated by considering in each case.5 _ 03 . The shape functions in (5. o. 17 coefficients into (7.19).0442 {f('))~ L b = Q[NydA~ r r l~lld) Q a 4~b dt ds A 4 0 a specific integral which is (7.0132 2(0.27} 1.25 1 2 or Equally important is the relationship oNp ox between the derivatives.5 0 t j(x.36] 4 4 0.94 The area was also calculated and is 9. = 4A = 4(9.107 0. The parameters matrices in (7.17) because of the similarity between the st. The integrals can be evaluated using the shape functions given by either of (5. the gradient matrix [B] has coefficients related to the derivative of the shape functions with respect to x or y. In this example. In particular.38) are 4A FIELD PROBLEMl TWO_DIMENSIONAL FIELD EQUATION 95 multiplying the o.22.446 -0. and oNp oy oNp ot c coefficients and the calculated as oNp [ .0442] -0.42) GA _ 2hA 12 .5)(10) _ 2 33t 3(0.17) or (5. We will use (5. All of the integrals are defined relative to the xy system.

(7. Write the transformation equations that apply between the xy.53) to Dxa Dyb 3b +3.24) when element. column 4.1 2 4 Evaluate one of the following integrals rectangular element. es. oNpox oNpoy -=--+--ot ox ot oy ot [k~)l~ D""[. (7. (a) Row 1. ox oNp oq and en. column 3.b2(2a-t)2dtds+1 a Q(s.46).55). one of the following integrals related to [k~)] for the rectangular [BJ = ox' ONi oy r N e».7 to verify the relationships given in (7. that is.and stcoordinate systems of the rectangular element.96 Selecting the FIELD PROBLEM! TWO.2 Evaluate element. (b) Row 2.49.51) after the 7. 1 2 2 4 1 7. y) is given by Q(x. Use these equations and the chain rule equations e».5 (7.6 D.~ 6b -1 -2 2 -1 1 2 -2 -2 -}D~ [ : 6a-1 2 -2 1 2 -2 -1 -2 2 1 -1 -1 =] (7. -oy oNp or . Q(x.and qrcoordinate systems. -t S [BJ=_l [-(2a-t) 4ab -(2b-s) (2a-t) -s (2b-s) J (7.42) allows DIfferentIatIOn of the shape functions gives [BJ to be written in terms of sand t. 7.50] 7. t)=NiQi+NjQj+NkQk+NmQm I 7.6 to show that -- en.54) Write the transformation equations that apply between the xy.55) 7. t QNi dA (b) t QNj dA T~e evalua~ion of [k~)J gradient matnx [BJ is involves the derivatives The 7. [k~)] for the U~ing th~ r~lationships given in (7. Q(s. This coefficient is 16a2b2 and the associated 2b 12a 1o which integrates 0 Evaluate the coefficients in (7. (a) related to the force vector for the 2 1 2 11 of the shape functions.. t) is given by Q varies linearly over a rectangular integral is D 16 . (2 a-t )2 + 16a2b2 (2b-s)2 2b 2a 0 0 o. y)=NiQi+ NjQj+ NkQk o. that is. Use these equations and chain rule equations similar to those in Problem 7. Ox oNj oy ONk ox ONk oy mOl ox oNm oy (7.49) and (7. oy -=--+-os ox os oy os The complete result for [k~)J is en.24) when Q varies linearly over a triangular element. column 4. we have Jo Jo I" [2a (_!!__)2 dt ds = 4ab Jo Jo [2b [2a ~ 4ab 16a2b2 dt ds =9=9 A The element stiffness matrix [k(e)] for the rectangular element (7.48 PROBLEMS The complete set of coefficients is [k(e)J G = GA 36 f.DIMENSIONAL FIELD EQUATION 97 is the sum of Nf term.3 Evaluate the integrals for one of the following coefficients in rectangular element.52) Evaluate the coefficients in (7.co~ffi~ient in t~e first row and first column of [k~)J is available multiphcations [BJ [DJ[BJ have been performed.4 The .42). (c) Row 4. 2 (2b-s)2dtds 16a b (7. The element force vector is given by (7. ox es. (7.

Q = 5. (b) Dx=Dy=O.13 e + act> sin e) dr ax oX act>+ o[NY oy oy oct» dA ax and the coordinates are those given i' Evaluate 7.7. G=2. and the coordinates are those given in Problem.5.25. (c) Dx=Dy=2.12 for the one-dimensional linear element. Show that t . Q=6. The mixed-derivative term 02ct>/OX oy occurs in some two-dimensional differential equations. G=10.8. 5. Given the definitions ct>(e) [N]{ <1>(e)}and = dct>(e)= deN] dx dx start with {<1>(e)}= [B]{<1>(e)} ~ r (O[NY 2 JA given that ct> = [N]{ <1>(el} and [N] consists of the shape functions for the linear triangular element.9.{fee)} [keel] and = r dct>1 -Ddx X.12. G =4. and the coordinates are those given in Problem 5. G=6. Q=40.98 7. Calculate [keel] and {fee)} for a bilinear rectangular element when (a) Dx =Dy = 1.JA [N] r T 02ct> dA oxoy (act> cos oy =~ 2 JA r (O[NY aX act>+ o[NY oy oy act» dA ax _ Jr [NY r 7. (b) Dx=Dy=O. .11 and obtain the general form {R(e)} where D ~~IX.8 7.13. G=6. Q[ NY dx 7. Problem 5. Q =6.10 (c) Dx=Dy=2. and the coordinates are those given in Problem 5.Xi = {I(e)} + [k(e)]{ <1>(e)}.51) that applies in the q coordinate system.14. . and the coordinates are those given in Proble 5. Q=3. 7. and the coordinates are those given in Problem.Xj j D[ BY[ B] dx {feel} = J:j.9 TWO_DIMENSIONAL FIELD EQUATION 99 Develop a relationship for [B] similar to (7. G = 12. Calculate [keel] and {pel} for a linear triangular element when (a) Dx =Dy = 1. 5. Q = 5.

y) is known.j -a x 2 +-a. Both theories are discussed by Fung (1965). (Nzcm "). T is calculated using g. T. =Dy= I. ¢ is zero on the'. ! The shear stress components in a noncircular shaft subjected to a twisting1 moment T about the z axis (Figure 8.2)l I Figure 8.1a) can be calculated using l LZX (b) a¢ =ay and differential equation is (8. and the angle of twist per unit length. Prandtl's theory is used In' this chapter.4) 8.2) are the shear modulus. We will! calculate the shear stresses in a square steel bar subjected to a twisting torque. ¢ =0 (8.1 GENERAL THEORY z . y) is a stress function. L ¢dA (8. (N . Venant developed one theory. This shaft has four axes of .2 TWISTING OF A SQUARE BAR The square shaft (Figure 8. 0. Application of this information to obtain a1 numerical solution of a realistic problem is discussed in this chapter. The torque is proportional to the volume under the surface while the shear stresses are related to the surface gradients in the x and y coordinate directions.2) is usually written as where ¢(x.2 +2g0=0 y when the shaft is composed of a single material. The torsion of noncircular sections has been selected as the initial application area: because it has the simplest of the possible boundary conditions. The physical parameters in (8. Instead.lb). Equation (8. (a) The shear stress components in a noncircular section subjected to a torque loading.3)1 a¢ a¢ 2 2 on the boundary.l Prandtl's formulation does not have the applied torque. boundary. The governing g ox 1 a2¢ 1 a2¢ --::.5) from Q =2g0.TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 101 Chapter 8 SECTIONS --6 z T TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR The element matrices for the linear triangular and bilinear rectangular elements were evaluated in the previous chapter.~+--+20=0 2 g ay2 with . T=2 once ¢(x. (rad/cm). There are two theories for calculating the shear stresses in a solid noncircular1 shaft subjected to torsion. St..1.2a) is used to illustrate the evaluation and the assemblage of the element matrices into a set of linear equations. G =0. This equation is obtained (7. ' 8. (b) The if> surface and related shear stress components.1) by noting that Ir. and (8. em) in the govern-j ing equation. and Prandtl proposed' the other. The stress function represents a surface covering the cross section of the shaft (Figure 8.

Substituting these values into (8.25 0] 8 [0 ~ + 16 ~ o -1 k 4 5 6 m after noting 4 o ±-h.25.6) = 0.8) also incorporates the fact that element 0. g IJ = = 0.2 Element subdividion for the torsion of a square shaft.25. Equation (8.Y4= -0.6) for elements one and three. only one-eighth of the cross section needs to be analyzed.25--1 two is square.7) (a) for the triangular 6 element and (3) 5 (2) (1) 2 -t _l I [k"'] ~~ and 0. [k)))] = 4A b.11) Elements one and three have the same orientation therefore. b'1)= Yl. The element node numbers are e 1 j C~l)=Xl -X4= -0.Yl =0.25 C~1)=X2-Xl =0.b. The band C coefficients are Figure 8. -1 .10) 2 3 2 4 2 3 5 and the bjbj.9) 3 for the rectangular 1--025 >~ (b) element.25 em r=~ -1 4 l-l -2 -1 4 -1 -2 -11 -2 -1 4 (8. bjbk c. CjCrtype products are either zero or the two matrices yields -1 and the same dimensions. 2 (8.01 degree/em 8(106) N/em2 1 [b. The matrices become CjCj The shaft is 1 em square. We shall now evaluate (8.102 FIELD PROBLENij TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 103 The matrices for the triangular element are given by (7. The calculations have three significant digits of accuracy.46) and (7. This fractional portion is divided into three elements (Figure 8.25em (8. their matrices are identical. Three elements are not sufficient to obtain an accurate answer.55). Adding that 1/4A(1)=8 -:J (8. W)= Y2 .40) while those for the rectangle are given by (7.Y2=0. 2a = 2b. The element area is -b and 4A(1)=~. b~l)= Y4 . but they are enough to illustrate the calculations. therefore.2b).0001745 rad/em and (8.36) and (7. 2 (8.8) -1 0.6) gives -1 1 C\l)= X 4- X 2 =0 symmetry.

13) since A(2) =~ and 2gB is 2790.6l2 43.0) = 2790 <PI = 217 = l"2 into (8. Substituting the values given in Figure 8.16) and H Solution yields -3 10 -4 -~]{::} ={~} -{~~!} 10 <1>4 611 0 <1>2 159. is readily obtained once the 2g0 parameter been evaluated. Columns three. five.2 produces 2g& =2(8)(106)(0. = and Adding the element contributions using the direct multiplying through by six gives the system of equations 3 -3 0 0 0 0 -3 10 -1 -4 -2 0 -2 -1 0 10 0 0 r 175 436 262 436 175 -1 The nodal values <1>3. a therefore. The element matrices are summarized below.1 29. [k'''] ~~ [ -l 0 -4 4 -2 -4 4 5 -1 2 -1 -:J 0 -2 -1 -4 10 -3 3 -3 0 0 0 0 {f(3)} = 29.17) 0 0 61f o[ The ¢ surface for this set of nodal values is shown in Figure 8. and <1>6re on the external boundary and each is zero.7) gives 29. 8. The shear stress components and the twisting torque are of interest in the present example. [k"'] ~ 2 [k'''] ~ 6 I[_: Ir-~ 1 0 2 -2 -1 2 -1 2 -1 3 -1 4 -1 -2 -n 5 -2 -1 4 -1 6 4 {f(1)] = 29.18) .61 43.15) Figure B.6 3 5 4 <P6 =0 ' \ 1-143.3. The node numbers indicate th~ rows and columns of [K] and {F] to which the individual coefficients add.6 43.6 43.6 (8.8).3. The evaluation of these quantities is discussed in the next two sections.104 FIELD PROBLEMS TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 105 The element force vector.14) -Il 4 -2 -1 4 [ 43. is [j(2)} T = [43.01) Substitution of 2790 and A( 1) has C .1 4 r /(2)1 _ y (8. and six are eliminated.9).l tl} 4 5 29. {f(1)}. are important components are related to these gradients by Tzx=- o¢ oy and !zy= -- o¢ ox (8. Since <1>3 =<1>5 =<1>6 =0.6] (8. and six must be incorporated into {F}. The rj.6 43.3 SHEAR STRESS COMPONENTS because the shear stress The gradients of the nodal parameter. The force vector.1 tl} I 2 29. ¢. <1>5. surface for the torsion problem.1]={f(3)? (8. equations three.12) The stiffness matrix for element two is given by (8. (8. but there is usually a set of element quantities that must be calculated once the nodal values are known. they contribute nothing to {F} and the modified system of equations is l~f <1>2 1 01 0 0 (8.1 6 stiffness procedure (8.1 {f(1)}T=[29. five. The determination of the nodal values is a major part of the solution.

The shear stress values calculated for each triangular element are constant within the element and are usually assumed to be the values at the center of the element.. Thus w can calculate the shear stress components at node three. Tzy c.21) A(e) . 2~----- 0 -1 OJ {217} ={-232} 159 -136 1 125 . There are at least two ways to improve the stress values obtained for this example.t) -s s (8.10). Differentiation will then yield gradients that are a function of the location within the element.-=232 ox The stress components for element three are calculated !~~)=O and !W=500 Nzcm? The gradient values are not constant within the rectangular element.106 The gradient vector for the triangular FIELD PROBLEM TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS Positive shear stress components 107 element is given by (7.gv r (2)_16[ -1 -4 0 -1 ~]{~J -~36} 8..4 The shear stress values for the square shaft. which is where the larges value of r.20 y 568 The area as well as the band C coefficients are the same for both triangula elements and they were evaluated prior to (8.4). Using these values and the calculated values for <1>[. occurs. <1>2. First.. This integral is equivalent to T The integral or {gV(2)} = [-4 0 4 -4 0 4 ~J ~ ={ 125 r} = e= f 1 21 <jJ(e) dA (8. the existence of a constant value within the element becomes more realistic..34) as {gv} The gradient 1 =_ 2A [b. An alternative approach is to use elements with more nodes and a quadratic or cubic interpolating polynomial.4 EVALUATION OF THE TWISTING TORQUE is the twisting Another quantity of interest in the analysis of a torsion member torque T defined in (8. I (8.. 3 i~ x Figure 8.25. a larger number of elements can be used. als 2a=2b=0. !zy (1) o<jJ = . and <1>4 gives {gv(l)} and =- 16[-1 4 1 fI------ 68_j 636 . The gradient vector is 0 I. !zx (1) =-= o<jJ oy -136 N/ em 2 N / em 2 in a similar manner givin and and The shear stress values calculated above are shown in Figure 8...51) as {gv} = 4ab -(2b-s) 1 [-(2a-t) (2a.19 6 vector for the rectangular element is given by (7.4 along with the values of !zx and !Zy at the center of the rectangular element. As the element size decreases. The local coordinates of node three are s=2b and t=O.

4 +<1>5 +<1>6)=2.60 T(1)+ T(2)+ T(3) or 8. The accuracy of this result is questionable.88 + + + = 10. Thus the torque acting on square bar is 8(21. In fact. I · The first grid consists of SO elements and is a mixture 0 t e mear tnang e sect Ion. .5). our answer is 11 percent below t theoretical value* of 196 N . T. equation 170.01)=0.88 +2.9 N· em The three-element grid discussed in the previous sections i~ the s~al1est number of ts that can be used to solve the torsion problem involving a square bar.1. One gnd has three elements.60=21. A 50-element grid for the square shaft. I eemenaccurate values for 0 and the shear stresses are b taine d usi M using gnld s ith a ore mber of linear elements or by using elements with a higher level of interlarger nu . a f h I' .etual/Tcaleulated' F··· example. The calculated value of the torque seldom corresponds to the actual appJi value because we have guessed at the angle of twist. suppose that the torque applied to the shaft in Figure 8.1406g0=196N·cm.0143 rad/cm Tzy The shear stress values are scaled in the same way. I t takes a torque of 175 N· em to produce a twist of 1 in a l-cm square st shaft that is 100 em long. 50 elements Figure B.108 is JA(e) FIELD PROBL TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 109 r 4>(e) dA = i (<1>i+ <1>j <I>k) + 3 the actual applied torque is !zy= (Tact) Teal Tzy for the triangular element and JA(e) r 4>(e) dA =~4 (<1>i+ <1>j <1>k+ <1>m) + =(250) (636)=909 175 N/cm2 (8. p. are mixtures of the quadratic triangular and quadnlateral elements. 49 nodes.2 was 250 N . . the other seven. em. For our exampl 20=1 and T=0. howey because of the coarseness of the grid. The 50-element grid is a definite improvement over 0 ":1 (8.1406g0(2a)4 (Timoshenko and Goodier.4+8. .5 COMPUTER SOLUTIONS FOR THE SQUARE BAR T(1)=2(i2)(~)(<1>1 =is(217 T(3)=ls(<1>4 The torque is T= T(2) = 2(1o)(j:)(<1>2 <1>3 <1>5 <1>4) 8. Tz and 0 are obtained by scaling the calculated value by the ratio T.26) for the rectangular element The torque. !he ot er two igure '.9)= 175 N· ern. 1970. O. The correct values of Tzx. The maximum shear stress and the maximum value of 4> for the vanous gnds are summarized in Table 8.S. The largest value of fo <Pmax = 208.6 *The relationship between the applied torque and the angle of twist for a square of dimension 20 given by T=0. The true angle of twist is 0 or 0tTue 250) = ( 175 (0. 313). is the sum of the element contributions T= The element contributions are +<1>2 +<1>4) + 159 + 125)= 10. d ] thi ti n Three computer solutions for the square bar are summanze m IS poI 10 . h (F' 8 6) and the bilinear rectangular elements (Figure 8. This torque acts on one-eighth of the cross section.

which is 5. 3 elements grid is within 6 percent of its theoretical value. Use 2g() = 2790. Set up the equations.esults for the quadratic grids indicates that additional elements are nd needed. but it should be kept in mind.5 percent below the theoretical maximum. solve for the nodal values of </1.2 Solve the torsion problem for a square shaft using the four rectangular elements shown in Figure P8. It took 50 elements to obtain the same accuracy in a derivative quantity that three elements produced in the nodal values.6a Figure 8.1 Square Bar Grid Figure 8. Note that <l>max for the three-elemen ~IE~------lem--------~>~1 Figure P8.1. Table 8. Set up the equations.6b Theoretical Computer Solutions Torque 175 192 196 196 196 <lImax 217 212 206 206 207 'tmax 640 893 928 937 945 4>max = 206.2.1 Solve the torsion problem for a square shaft using the four triangular elements shown in Figure P8.1 also emphasizes a fact that should be kept in mind when constructin the grids for a finite element problem. The grids with the quadratic elements. 4>max = 206.. This ratio will not be the same for all problems. A comparlso of the . A rather coarse grid gives good results] we are only interested in the nodal values. If we are interested in derivativerelated quantities.2 24 nodes.___ _ 6 t 0.5 Figure 8.1 8. The maximum shear stress for the 50-element grid is 893 Njcm '. and calculate the maximum shear stress at node three. PROBLEMS 8.2h. then we need a fine grid of linear elements or several quadratic elements. Fewer elements means less work preparing the element data.1 indicates why the higher-order elements are included in many CODl mercial computer programs: Greater accuracy can be obtained with fewer el ements. Use 2g() =2790. .2 14 nodes.25 em Figure 8. 7 elements ~5+ elements to solve the square shaft L. and calculate the maximum shear stress in element three.6.2b Figure 8. solve for the nodal values of </1. problem. Two grids using quadratic 3i _j 0.25em 0.110 FIELD PROBLE~ J TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 111 of a Table 8.. howeve give more accurate results than the grid with 50 linear elements. Table 8.5em the 3-element grid of Figure 8.

16 to P8.3 Do Problem 8.3em J IkE--------1em------ 1 0. Use 2ge = 27S 1 [ 4>=-G8 1 [ 2(x 2 +y)2 1 2a(x 3 -3xy). Use a minimum of 30 elements. 8. Also calculate the element contribution to the twisting torque T 8.19 Obtain finite element solutions to the torsion problem for the cross sections shown in Figures P8.19 using the computer program TDFIELD (Chapter 16). = G~a at the middle of each side 8.15 8.5em 3 ~ Figure P8.4-8.112 7 8 9 FIELD PROB~ TORSION OF NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS y 113 (3) 4* (1) (4) 5• (2) 2 1 • • r.11 and calculate the values of T zx and T zy "or t 11 element. ~----~-----a----~~ (4) 5• (2) 3 6 4• 1 (1) • 2• k02~03-~ -t t 0. Use 2ge=2790.3.5em 4>=- G8a b (a2 + b2) 22 (~+~-1) a2 b2 2G8a2b Tm"=(a2+b2) at y=rxb P8.15 ha analytical solutions.2 2 na 2J Tm.3 Use the nodal coordinates and ¢ values for the triangular elemer given in Problems 5..0._ kIE~------6em--------~>~1 Figure P8.2 0.25em 3em II 1 2b 1 0.16 .14 and P8.2 y 8. I _~I} t____.15 The twisting of the shapes shown in Figure P8.5 Figure P8.25em 0.12 to 5.16 and calculate the values of Tzx and Tzy at t center of the element.2 using the four-element 7 (3) 8 grid shown in Figure P8.7-5.16-8.25'_ 31 _j 9 6+ t0.25+0.13 Use the nodal coordinates and ¢ values for the rectangular elerner given in Problems 5.9-8. Also calculate the element contribution to the twisth torque T'".14 1--0. Compare the maximum values of ¢ and the she stress for the finite e!ement solution with the analytical values. Obtain finite element solutions for these problems usli the computer program TDFIELD (Chapter 16) and a reasonable numb of elements (20 to 50).8 Figure P8.14-8.

When Dx=Dy. and values related to the derivatives a¢/ax and a¢/ay are specified on other parts of the boundary. ~ -+ + --f-12cm 11 1 11 k ___l 16cm Figure P8. The values of ¢ are specified on part of the boundary. In each case.18 t 12 ~ 9. Most physical problems have a mixture of boundary conditions.1.1) reduces to (9. The objective in this chapter is to discuss the concepts related to derivative boundary conditions and sources and sinks before we begin the study of irrotational flow and heat transfer.2) where a¢/an is the derivative normal to the boundary. In this situation. I'2.19 . ay sm(}=O (9.3) and (9..1) and (9. ¢b represents the value of ¢ on I'2 and is unknown. Physical examples of a sink and a source include the pumping of water from an aquifer and heat generated by electrical lines embedded within a material. ax cce G-i-D. Q is concentrated at a point. Equations (9.-3 2~ _j_ 1< 7cm Figure P8.2) simplify to D..1 DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS The two types of boundary conditions for two-dimensional field problems are shown schematically in Figure 9. y) is specified around the entire boundary.1) Dx a¢ an x = -M¢b+S (9. call it I'l s ¢ is specified. (9. A boundary condition of the type r l 4cm t y a¢ a¢ DXaxcosO+DYaySinO=-M¢b+S is specified on the rest of the boundary. a¢ a¢ . This latter situation occurs in both fluid flow and heat transfer problems.17 i -i 4cm 3cm I 3cm Chapter 9 DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND SINKS The torsion of noncircular sections is a unique two-dimensional problem because the value of ¢(x. We cannot discuss either of these topics until we have studied how to handle derivative boundary conditions.4) . Another phenomenon that occurs in fluid flow and heat transfer problems is the point source or sink. Over part of the boundary.I: Figure P8..

8) produces (9. The two components in {Il~)}in (9. =M<f> -8 b fI(e)) l where 1- .14) it should be with the evaluation -D of the element integrals.The other adds to {J(e)}.11) can be defined as when M =S=O. .2. The two types of boundary conditions for field problems.: and rbc is the side of the element over which the boundary condition is specific e The vector )} contains the integrals of (9. One component adds to [k(e)] because it multiplies {<l>(e)}. The integral in (9.9) {Ib~)} = which can be separated r2 Dx-cosO+Dy-sinO=-M¢b+S Jrbe r [NY(M[N]{ <l>(e)} S) st: - (9.P. The integr~ls. are zero. also possible. are different from those previously encountered because they are line integrals instead of area integrals. ~owever.22). Using our definition for {Ib~)} and substituting the relationship in (9.116 <f> known on is FIELD PROBLE~ DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.1. This situation occurs on insulated or impermeable boundaries. The situation where either M or S. =M<f>b-S ax {Ib~)} = r [NY(M<I>b-S)dr Jrbe D a<l>=M<f>b-S Yay Figure 9. The derivative boundary conditions for a hollow rectangular region. Yay i!!E. on axes of symmetry. The boundary condition produces two components. We shall separate {I(e)} into two components JrbC r S[NY dr (9.5). This vector is l {Il:)} = [k~]{ <l>(e)} {J~e)} where (9. : The inclusion of the derivative boundary condition into the finite eleme analysis of field problems is done using the interelement vector {I(e)} given 1 (7. =M<f>b-8 x ax Dx i!!E.10) {Ib~} o¢ on I". =( r into Jrbe M[NY[N] dr) {<l>(e)}- JrbC r S[NY dr (9.9) into (9.13) {I(e)} = - Ir [NY (Dx ~~ cos 8+Dy ~. These integrals lead 1 the interelement requirements that must be satisfied before Galerkin's residual.5) is the sum of three integrals (one for each side) when int grating around a triangular element and the sum of four integrals for the rectan~ lar element. which occur on the element sidj that do not have a boundary condition specified on them. ay =M<f>b -S -D x ax a<l>=M<f>b-S -D x i!!E.i zero. sin 8) dr (9j {J~e)} Before we proceed = where the integral is around the boundary of the element in a counterclockwt direction.11) o¢ OX oy Figure 9.1) gives {n D'!.12) [k~J = and Jrbe r M[NY[N] dr (9.{I(e)} be + {I(e)) i I (9~ (9.POINT SOURCES AND SINKS 117 r1 where <l>b is given by the element equation <I>(e) [N] {<l>(e)} = Substituting (9. but not both.

SLkmt~}l' 2 1 and (9.23) becomes [kWl~ Evaluation (9. If we assume that M is specified over side ij. We shall start with (9.u: =Lij In S {Ni} ~~ 1 de 2 (9. .13) and (9. Remember that is the angle from th4 x-axis to the outward normal.».Nk NjNm u.19) for the qr-coordinate system. sin e) c The evaluation of (9. N2 [ N~:Vj M o Jb(b-q)2 -b --2- o o o (9.19) follows Immediately. I Nk=Nm=O and (9. The integral in (9.1~ are given in Figure 9. J b N. ' {fI"}~sHl s~"m. jk. The major difference is that there are more terms to consider. The results are (9..1) takes on different forms as we traver~ . They are not the area coordinates. If S is specified on more than one side of ~ element..118 FIELD PROBLE~ noted that the boundary condition (9. .20) Since N k is zero along side ij.18) r. one for each of the remaining three sides.18).m [k~]= The quantity S is multiplied by the length of side ij.14) and the rectangular element because this combination is the easiest to evaluate.«.ngths of the respective sides. ~. u.~ }dq~ S~)j m r:~:. as follows.22) where the shape functions are those defined by (5.2 EVALUATION OF THE ELEMENT INTEGRALS The integrals in (9. and the result m (9. The integr~tion is along a Ii~e. The various forms f<>1 i DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND SINKS 119 _ (Dx ~fos e + o. (9.17) and (9.k NiNm u.23) element.19) is obtained . these for the linear triangular and bilinear rectangular elements that were studi~ in Chapter 5. The sign associated with M and S must be determined relative to the information contained in Figure 9. however.' There are three other evaluations for the surface integral. the values for {fJe)} for the appropriate sides are added together. respectively. NiNml dr (9.13) expands into {fje. We shall evaluat. and ik.».2.} ~ r. The first result of (9.. Lij' which is 2b and divided equally between the two nodes on side i]. The area coordmates have numerical subscripts. . The quantities Lij' Ljk' and Lik are the le.14) are valid for any two-dimensional element an~ can be evaluated once the element shape functions are known.14) for the triangular element gives results that are very similar to those in (9. dq= 2 -b 4b dq_ _2b_Lij 3_ 3 .2. l Assuming that S is specified over side ij and that the element has a unit thickness gives l tbe S[NY . {fJe)} =Lij because the shape functions t 1 {N S ~j i} de 2 =Lij and r 1 {e I} Jo S e~ de 2 (9. respectively.19) e for sides ij. N.16) 'j Ni=L1=e1 Nj=L2=e2 (9. i the outside and inside of a rectangular region with a hole. thus we can use the factorial formula (6.«. that Nk=Nm=O along side ij.25) of the individual coefficients after noting r = for sides jk. along side ij.I h The integrals associated with [k~] are evaluated in a manner identica to t. Note. km. then {n~}~ . Substituting for the nonzero shapd functions and noting that r = _ a.21) N. ose just discussed. and N. It is left as an exercise to show that the other results fOJ"I for the rectangular i Ni2 N·N· [be M [ N~NJ .. NjNk N~ N kN m n. reduce to (9. Given Side 9. .24) o _ a gives (9. NJ NJ. {fJe)} = and s~"m Ij.17). and im. This fact was discussed in Chapter 6. This determination is illustrated in the application chapters that follow.

32) [kl1l~ MLj'[~ 6 and 0 (9. we can write (9.21 Using these results. Examples of line sources include steam and/or hot water pipes within the earth and conducting electrical wires embedded within a product.29 {jIP} = (9. A source or sink is said to exist whenever Q occurs over a very small area. but the procedure can be quickly modified to handle the one. In each case.36) [kl1l~ M 6 L. Q is no longer constant throughout the element but is a function of x and y.31] y [kl1l~MLf 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 ~] rJ k (9.3 POINT SOURCES AND SINKS fb N~d J -b q =fb _b (b+q)2d 4b2 q_ 3 _ 3 _2b_Lij (9. the cross-sectional area of the pipe or conductor is very small compared with the surrounding media.or three-dimensional element. becomes t Q[NY dA (9. 6(x-Xo) and 6(y _ Yo) (Kaplan.34) ~--------- ~x Figure 9. Our discussion is structured around the two-dimensional element. Using unit impulse functions. we have 1 [k~] = MLijl~ 6 0 o o o 0 2 o o o o 0 2 iJ (9. Yo)· Since the source is located at a point.2t and 9.28 There are three other results for results are [k~].·l~ 0 1 6 0 0 (9.3. Lkm. .35) The integral (9. and Lim are the lengths of the respective sides.3 with a source Q* located at (Xo. An element with a point source or sink. 1962).'[~ 6 0 0 1 0 ~] (9. one for each of the other sides. Consider the triangular element in Figure 9. TheS4 [kl1l~MLjr 6 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 [kl1l~ M6 0 L'-l~ 0 and 0 0 0 0 0 0 f] ~] An important physical situation is the concept of a point source or sink.37) 0 0 where L jk.30. Sources and sinks occur often enough in the real world to warrant our attention. The evaluation of (9.13) for the triangular element leads to ~J (9. Point sinks occur in groundwater problems: They are pumps removing water from an aquifer.33) [kl1l~ ML.120 FIELD PROBLEM DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND SINKS 121 (9.

however.2] = 6 13 Nj= /3[6 +5 . however. evaluated using the coordinates of the point source. b. Nj(Xo. 2) in the element shown in Figure 9.3) ~. yo) YO)} (9. must be modified when the source (sink) is shared by more than one element. " Substituting x=X 0=5 and Y= Yo =2 produces N. A point source at a node.38). = /3 {fJe)} =Q* { Ni(X 0. The shape function equations aj=6.~ _. If we assume that the source is at node j (Figure 9. /"\ \ \ _ j x Figure 9. yo) Nk(XO. and N. is equ~ to the quantity evaluated at X 0 and Yo. A point source in a triangular element. j.I.~~ / (3. Since til shape functions sum to one at every point within the element. The values of the a.5. The proportion of Q* allocated to each node is based on the relative values ~ Ni. bk=3 ck=4 (fJ"H' {I} (9. bi=-4. ( fJ.5).40) f\---- _ I _J.3(2)] = /3 to nodes i. The correct equation for element (e) in Figure 9. and c constants are ai=28. then Ni=Nk=O and A line source Q* =52 W/cm is located at (5.122 FIELD PROBLE~ DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND SINKS 123 The integral of a quantity multiplied by an impulse function. 5 13 and A..5 is r rle)1 UQ J = rxQ* {~. we are not allocati~ more than Q*..~ Determine the amount of Q* allocated to each node.. Ci= -1.4.21 + 3x+4y] y o I (9.39) can be written after recalling that ai+aj+ak=2A = 13 The equations are Ni=ti[28-4xNj=-fJ[6+x-3y] y] The magnitude of Q*. Therefore. Figure 9. This location changes the result given in (9. N].I \ \ \ ____ / / /. Therefore. and k by the fractions I Nk=-fJ[ -21 +3(5)+4(2)]=A The value of Q* is allotted respectively. Cj= -3. The magnitude of the source is divided among the elements joining at the node. . as= -21 bj=l.} 360 N« =-fJ[ . 52 {fJe») =13 ~ = {24} 2~ {6} ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE The best location for a source or sink is at a node. The source is allocated according to the ratio of the angle in the element to 360.3~ [28 .4(5).

o¢ ox =6¢b- 3.4-9.14) for: element. (a) Side jk of a rectangular (b) Side km of a rectangular (c) Side im of a rectangular (d) Side jk of a triangular (e) Side ik of a triangular 9.11. 2 Side 1 Figure P9.___ _I Sid.3 (a) Side jk of a rectangular (b) Side km of a rectangular (c) Side im of a rectangular Evaluate the integral in (9.1 The boundary condition around the outside of a rectangular region foil OWl Determine the magnitude and sign for M and S on each of the sides. A source i positive whereas the sink has a negative sign. the element contributions at thi node add to Q*. (a) D'. element. 9.12 to 5. side 2 side 1 side 4 side 3 Side 3 (b) D. element.7-5. When the equations al assembled using the direct stiffness method. Side 41 L___. 9. element. element. element. ox =5¢b+2. element.2 Evaluate the integral in (9. element. UJe)} UJe)} PROBLEMS 9.13) for .8 Evaluate for a point source. oy (c) Dx o¢ = -4¢b+6.16.. An easier procedure for implementing a node source is to add th value of Q* to the row of {F} corresponding to the node number. element.9-9.. oy =8¢b-4.1 9. o¢ o¢ (d) D. Q* =40 W/cm. th sides are labeled as shown in Figure P9. Q*=40 W/cm. (d) Side jk of a triangular (e) Side ik of a triangular element.13 Evaluate for a point source. located at point A for the corresponding triangular element in Problems 5. located at point B for the corresponding rectangular element in Problems 5..1.124 FIELD PROBLE~ DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: POINT SOURCES AND KINKS 125 There is no need to evaluate o: for the various elements.

between an. Qij.1. are not the sam and this difference leads to different calculated values. .. Ideal irrotational flow is an approximation.2 Potential Formulation in the potential Vx=formulation Vy=are related to <p by (10. assumes that no friction occurs between the fluid and a surface (ideal) and that n rotation or distortion of the fluid particles occurs during the movement (irro tional). The analysis of groundwater flow is an important aspect regional planning because many regions within the country depend wholly or part on groundwater for their water supply. obtained from the calculated values of i/J using and The velocity components (10.lrrotatlOna! flow. Fixed boundaries as well as an axis of symmetry parallel to the flow are streamlines because there is no fluid velocity perpendicular to them. Vx is a uniform 5 cm/sec. The above implies no flow perpendicular to a fixed boundary and.: The assumption of an ideal fluid implies that the motion of the fluid does not penetrate into the surrounding body or separate from the surface of the body and leave empty spaces.2. On the left boundary.are called streamlines. These conditions imply that the component of the fluid velocity normal to the surface is equal to the velocity of the surface in the same direction (Duncan et aI.1.2j at1 j (10.1.1 FLOW OF AN IDEAL FLUID The two-dimensional flow of an ideal fluid can be formulated in terms of a stre fun~tion i/J or a velocity potential function <p. . 10. Th equations are and (10. '!!I! =0 iJx ax =0 Figure 10. Both of these formulatio are discussed in this section. therefore. no velocity perpendicular to the boundary. The flow of water through and und dams as well as into underground drains are some other important areas that be studied using the theory.1.1 respectively. however.3) that oi/J/ox=O on this edge. it is concluded from (10.iN yox o<p ox and o<p oy . The boundary conditions for streamline flow are discussed relative to the problem illustrated in Figure 10. The upper streamline can have any nonzero value. The volume flow rate.2.1 Streamline Formulation Li~es of consta?t i/J . Flow around a cylinder 1/1= 30 <lob The irrotational flow of an ideal fluid has been studied extensively because of t information that can be obtained about flow around corners. an appropriate value is 30 because the flow rate is 30 cm3/sec for a unit thickness (one-half of the total flow).. T~e flo~ of water through the earth can also be closely approximated by ass mg. The four boundary conditions are shown in Figure 10. and about airfoils. The horizontal axis of symmetry and the cylinder boundary form a streamline as well as the upper boundary. pair of streamlines IS equal to the difference in their values. Lines of constant i/J are perpendicul to lines of constant <p and the governing differential equations are identical. Boundary conditions for streamline flow around a cylinder. Since Vy=O.4) Qij=i/Ji-i/Jj There is no flow perpendicular to a streamline. The boundary conditions for i/J and <p. throu constructions.1 I The velocity components v. The same boundary condition applies to the right-hand vertical side because it is an axis of symmetry and the streamlines must be symmetrical about this edge. over weirs.IRROTATIONAL FLOW 127 Chapter 10 FLOW Vx = 5 em/sec 12 em IRROTATIONAL Figure 10. 10. A zero value is assigned to the lower streamline. 1970). 10.

5).1 when D'. = 1. The value does not influeol the results. and should be evaluated using the concepts discussed in Chapter 9. The boundary conditions associated with (l0. The numerical value of the flux boundary condition along the left edge is dete mined by comparing the actual boundary condition with the theoretical bounda1 condition.4). Equating the second of (l0.3.8) represents a point sink.8) <1>= 50 ~ =5 a¢ an a¢ =0 where Dx. when no other conditions are specified. We draw upon our knowledge that potential lines are perpendicular streamlines to establish the last boundary condition. are the coefficients of permeability (m/day) and cp is the piezometric head. 10.4. on each side of this gap. ocp/on =0 along ~ cylinder. IRROTATIONAl FLOW 129 Relating these to the flow around the cylinder (Figure 10.5. and a zero seepage condition on the other boundaries (Figure 10.5.5) gives S = . At this point. and D.6) with (l0. 11 boundary conditions are shown in Figure 10. When the body is irregular in shape. measured from the bottom of a confined aquifer. . The boundary conditions generally consist of known values of cp beneath the water.7) ocp =5 Ox and the theoretical equation (see Figure 9.2 GROUNDWATER FLOW There are two important groundwater The first is the seepage of groundwater problems governed by the field equation.=0 ay '!:!!_ =0 ay b <I> = Constant Figure 10. A impermeable vertical wall beneath the dam is modeled by using a narrow gap for the wall.7). It is assigned an arbitrary value of 50.P. The actual boundary condition is side of the shape until a uniform velocity is again attained (Figure 10. and cp are the same as defined for (10.8) consist of known values on all ay =0 for potential flow around a CYlind~ <I>=b Figure 10. ocp/on =0. -Dx-=S ocp Ox or -=-S acp Ox (10.3. The governing equation for a confined aquifer is D'. since the velocity components are related to the gradient values. =0 ay where D'.2) is (10. The boundary condition cp = 50 on the right edge of Figure 10.3 is a specil case. Dy. the grid must include the downstreai iJ. Boundary conditions for groundwater seepage under a dam. Boundary conditions a¢ GO . under dams. Since the velocity normal to the cylinder is zero.1) gives o</J/ox = 5 on tl left-hand edge and ocp/oy =0 along the horizontal axis of symmetry and the upp boundary. The right-hand edge must be potential line because it is an axis of symmetry and all the streamlines are pc pendicular to it. Boundary conditions for potential flow around an irregular shap~ Figure 10.128 FIELD PROBlE. The finite element method automatically enforces the impermeable boundary condition. The governing equation is Dx ox2 +Dy 02cp 02cp oy2 =0 (10. in meters. The Q term in (l0. The best results occur when the well is located at a node. the well. The second groundwater problem is the calculation of the drawdown at a well that is removing water from an aquifer. a2cp 02cp ox2 +Dy oy2 +Q=O (l0. constant potential lines are perpendicular to the flow and cp can be given an arbitrary value.

8 10.1 26.01 14.0 0.30 -10.7 2.0 0.~ The fluid velocity components 'I !.3 21.0 0.0 7.0 10.7 10.32 110.6 4. Seepage is described by the derivative boundary condition.9 7.0 0.5 6.47 10.0 6.5 4.16 4.7 2.8 30. The grid consists of 38 elements and 37 nodes.66 15.3 22.6 36.0 6.4 10.1 38.0 0.0 7. Contour lines for various values of cP and t/J are shown in Figure 10-7.0 0.3 COMPUTER EXAMPLES The computer solutions for two problems using the steady-state field program TDFI ELD given in Chapter 16 are discussed here.5 30. em -------------~ Finite element grid for irrotational flow around a cylinder.0 10. 6em 3~----------~-------+----~~~ ~--------------8.5 y 0.130 FIELD PROBLE~ IRROTATIONAL FLOW 131 or a part of the boundary and/or the seepage of water into the aquifer along t~ boundary.7 22.5 6.1.0 6.0 10.0 1.64 10.0 0.04 4. The cP =0 contour line is not vertical so that a uniform velocity.0 0. Vx.~ -(Dx ~! cosO+Dy ~~ sinO)=s are calculated using Darcy's law (10. (10.5 21.2 28.8 110.5 4.2 2.0 0.3 10.6 4.0 4.5 28.0 4.5 7.5 10.86 1.6.5 6.0 50.7 3.10 4.25 3. 10.0 10.25 8.0 0.8 21.3 41.0 rf> -10.0 0.9 30.41 4.9 20.5 3.0 50.10] Coordinate Data and Results Table 10.1 50.9 22.7 2.0 0.0 8.2 7.0 4.08 3.7 4.8 22.8 6.6.5 30.0 1.1 Flow Around ACyl inder ~ A grid consisting of rectangular and triangular elements for the configuration it1 Figure 10. yeThe nodal coordinates and calculated values of cP and t/J are given in Table 10.0 2.5 6.0 0.2 is shown in Figure 10.25 Figure 10.0 0.8 30.26 4.33 -10.9 24. does not exist along the left edge.1 30.0 4.43 14.5 37.3 110. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 .0 6.7 2.3.5 4.0 50.91 10.0 1.0 0.0 0.5 4.0 21.5 6.0 0. The length of 8.8 6.3 4.19 -10.5 3.25 10.3 33.7 8.5 10.0 6. The first problem involvel ideal flow around a cylinder as shown in Figure 10.3 110.5 6.5 6.59 2.1.24 -10.0 6.0 1.8 26.42 8.0 0.9 7.0 7.0 22.0 i/J 0.0 0. The second involves th4 pumping of water from a confined aquifer.25 em from the cylinder represents a guess as to where a uniform locity exists on the upstream side of the cylinder.0 1.1 for Irrotational Flow Around a Cylinder Node X 0.0 30.3 30.5 30.0 0.5 3.2 8.5 3.5 10.6 10.0 2.

The permeabilities.5 / I .1 /1 .. are 15 m/day. The nodal values and. . I : 1643.. '1165.~200m -1 2000 m I /..168.5 o= 200 180 • /(/>=170 I :=200m 2000~ pump·T 177 9.3.·/·162 \166.184..4 / / / / / ·171.. 200 . -159. 124.7 I 160 cJ>= "'1'5'-7-\ / 9. The maximum drawdown 200 179.7 168.3 ·165. \ \ \ • 166.. \... D'. The nodal values of X and Y as well: as the calculated values of ¢ are given in Table 10. The pump has a' 3 capacity of 1500 m /day.9. .2.9.8 // " .-.2 169 / / 185.10..5 200 A pump in a regional aquifer.7 172.183.9 I I I 1500 m L~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ t-</-E..." cJ>=180 I . cJ>=10 cJ>=25 :1 Streamlined and constant potential lines for irrotational flow arourJ4 10.2 Reg ional Aqu ifer Figure 10.1'69.10. Impermeable 5000 m------~)o.. Figure 10.':.4 . A small regional aquifer (Figure 10.. and the left and right edges are far enough' from the pump so that a constant head of 200 m is maintained.1 168.3 I .179. I' . The grid used to solve the problem is shown in Figure 10.4 I / I 179..' " / " cJ> 150 = I .7.'.-----Figure 10.. I .6 I I . Nodal values and contour lines for the regional aquifer.2¥ ·-~:.5 I .8..7· I 3000 m r I I< I'E~--- 3000 m-----i)o""l1 Impermeable 179. Finite element grid for the regional aquifer. upper and lower edges are impermeable. 160.9 ~I 200 :.3 200 . and D.200 I .8 I I I I 169..8) has a single pump removing water. contour lines for ¢ are given in Figure 10.36 Figure 10. a cylinder.. _ .178 I I I \\ • -.8 . \.l I _1. I I I I \ 180.. The... . \ \ " -.160.

5 200.1 30'Cm 10.8 172.3.0 180.3 168. Use the computer program TDFIELD discussed in Chapter 16 to analyze thei following problems.4 160.6 178.0 159. but this occurs only because the pump is at a node.4 124.1 Determine and plot the location of several streamlines and equal potential lines for the flow of an ideal fluid about the elliptical shape shown in Figure PI0.1 for the rectangular shape shown in Figure PI0. 12 em 50 em/sec 1_ Figure P10.5 184.3 Do Problem ml for the junction region shown in Figure PIO.0 200.7 169.2.0 200.7 169.3 12 em __l .5 179.2 179. L Figure P10.7 165.3 162.0 177.5 171.I.7 168. 32 em occurs at the pump as expected.0 200. The greatest drawdown occurs at the node closest to the pump when the pump is not located at a node.136 134 Table 10.3 165.8 160.0 200. I .2 24 em 10.0 200.3 183.9 179.8 166.7 185.1 164.2 Do Problem 10.4 179. PROBLEMS 407nVsee\ ---JFigure P10.1 169.9 168.0 166.2 Coordinate Data and Results for the Regional Aquifer Problem Node I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 X 0 0 0 0 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1500 1500 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2500 2500 2500 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 4000 4000 4000 4000 5000 5000 5000 Y 0 1000 2000 3000 0 500 1000 2000 2500 3000 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 2000 2500 3000 0 1000 1500 2500 0 1000 2000 rf> 200.0 15 em 40 em/sec FIELD PROBLe4 IRROTATIONAL FLOW 10.9 159.

..•..•. Two pumps are located in the confined aquifer shown in Figure PIO. .. =Dy = 30 m/day. ·•.. = 20 m/day and ¢ = 300 m at a dista far removed from the pump..•.. ..•..•....•. ...8 Repeat Problem 10... ..7 Impermeable ~<~-------------5000m--------------~~~ I Figure P10. The lower layer is impermeable. ~J Jem 30em m L20<m-J Impermeable Figure P10.•.7.:l00m • D.... Calculate the drawdown at each pump and plot some of the contour lin The pumping rates are 600 m 3/day for pump I and 400 m 3/day for pump The permeabilities are D'.•. and ¢ is maintained at 100 m on the other two sides. 1 J 3000m 30m Figure P10.4. The permeabilities are Dx = 20 m/day and D. 1m 15 em 50 em/see r 1~.•. An impermeable wall 30 m deep has been placed on the upstream side of the dam.1 for the triangular FIELD PROBL~ IRROTATIONAL FLOW 137 region shown in Figure PIO.7 for the region shown in Figure PIO..· . .••...136 10.6 Pump 2 Q = -400 m3/day (2000...5~0~0~)~~~~~~~ I 10.•... The bottom layer" impermeable.•.7 10.•..6 Determine the location and plot some of the equal potential lines for t~1 groundwater seepage problem shown in Figure PlO.•.8...•.. = D. 2000) ..•..•......5 Determine the drawdown at the pump in an infinite media when the pu is removing 2500 m 3/day.4 10...•.. The region is impermeable two sides. : 30 mid" Pump 1 Q: -600m' /d. .•. Impermeable Figure P10.... 10. : D.•.•. The permeabilities are Dx=Dy=20 m/day.4 Do Problem 10.•. = 15 m/day.•..8 ~~~=~~10~0~m~~~~~~~(3~0~0~O~. · ·. D'.

}+ o {_Dd~1 } dx x=Xi (11. The second integral in (11. {I(e)}.8) The governing differential dimensional fin is where [k~)] is given by (4.I dx x=X] D ~~ IX=X. [NY D dx2+Q dx+ Jx. 11.)]){ <D(e)} . and Q=hP¢f.1) are usually a specifi temperature at x =0 ¢(O)=¢o and convection heat loss at the free end +k A dx =hA(¢b-¢f) ~J (11. where ¢b is the temperature at the end of the fin and is not known prior to solution of the problem. P is the distance around the fin.1 THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL equation FIN for steady-state heat transfer from a 0 {R(e)} = _ =- r [NY (D d2~ -G¢+Q) dx Jx.HEATTRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 139 Chapter 11 The governing differential equation d2¢ (11. A is the cro sectional area. we find that f: i G[NY dX=(J:i G[NY[N]dX) {<D(e)} (11. it is a part of the element stiffness matrix. (11. and can be split into "f f l(en = { d¢ -D.7) {R(e)} = {I(e)} + ([k~)] + [kl..10).6) Since the integral multiplies we define {<D(e)}.' solution of the heat transfer problem becomes input to the stress analysis probl and the same grid can be used to solve both problems.1) has the general form (11. The third is analysis of a composite wall.5) The first integral in (11. temperature has a single value for all points on the cross section for a particu value of x. It is left as an exercise for the reader to show that (11. G[NY[N]dx (11. The boundary conditions associated with (11.5) is the one we studied in Chapters 3 and 4 and is equivalent to {I(e)}+ [k(e)]{<D}_{f(el}.12). G[NY¢dx Xi Xi 2 Xi (11.4) to the Galerkin D--G¢+Q=O dx2 where D=kA. residual equation {R(e)} is The element contribution HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION One of the first applications of the finite element method to nonstructural probl was in the area of heat transfer by conduction and convection (Visser. G=hP. and ¢ is the temperature. This vector is. h is the convection coefficient. We shall discuss the solution of four different heat transfer problems in t chapter.3) is incorporated formulation using the interelement vector.11) and {fJe)} by (4.11) .5) is a new quantity that needs to be evaluated. The integral in (11. dx r (d ¢ ) r Jx. If [k~)]= then J:i . where k is the thermal conductivity.10) d¢ atx=H (11.. solution of heat transfer problems using the finite element method is particul popular with individuals responsible for analyzing thermal stress problems.3) mayor may not the same as the one in (11. Two of these problems involve heat transfer from a fin. The convection coefficient in (11.9) into the The derivative boundary condition defined by (11. {I(e)}={D~~lx=x. 7) is most easily evaluated in either the s or f b f 2 coordinate systems discussed in Chapter 6. and the fourth is the classical two-dimensio problem with convection boundary conditions. . (4.{fJe)} (11. Recalling that ¢(e) = [N]{ <D(e)} and substituting this into the integral. 1965).1).J (11.

!~ kM = [0 hA' 0J r ds(e)} = { hA<pf 0 } for where the third matrix in [k(e)] and the second vector in {fIe)} are applicable for element four. of the fin is insulated.667J 6. is the left-hand si (11.1(4)=0.666 -5.. The fin is modeled matrices are by four elements each with a length of 2 em.667 0 0 0 .5.1·· .28 -IJ 1 r l + hPL[2 6 1 and h~J hA<Pf 0 } for element four.{fJe)} . The values of the various parameters are only (11~1 {I(e)} in (1.· kA=3(4)=6 L 66°C 2 The complete and is residual equation is obtained by substituting W °C 0.5..33 .5.1(10)2 {R(e) = {I)e)} + ([k~)] + [k~)] + [kW]){ l1>(e)} . The assembly of the element matrices using the direct stiffness procedure produces the system of equations 6.666 . A rectangular fin. The fin is rectangular in shape.400 hPL<p f = 0. and is 8 em 1o.1.5.{f~e)} = [kW] (11.667 0 0 0 .33 .140 which is equivalent to HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 141 {I(e)} = {Ile)} + {Ibe)} where {Ile)} is the interelement requirement and {I~e)} is associated with boundary condition.667 0 0 0 . [kW] is zero if the. 4 em wide.33 .1(10)(20)(2) 2 2 (lq The contribution of [kW] to [k(e)] occurs only for the last element of the fin ~ only when h is nonzero for the end of the fin.667 0 0 0 -5. since <Ph is the same as I1>j. Equation (11. . Assume that convection heat loss occurs from .{f~e)} Neglecting the interelement requirement (1L .1..666 k =[ -5.5. two.667 13.~ {Ile)} gives hA =0.667 6.1 .667 13.667J 7. The nonzero term in {I~e)}. The eleme for elements one..~ [ (e)] hA<Pf=0. For example. I' The element quantities ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE .12) is equivalent to T r-- 4em ---1 {Ib )} where [(e)] e =[~ 0 (2) 2 3 (3) 4 (4) 5 h~J{:J-{hA°<pJ { l1>(e)} .3).. however. and 1 em thick.333 W W 0C 20 W W .•• hPL = 0.066 ' r _{20} d (enf.667 13.5.~ 1 J ~ Figure 11.667 6.. end of the fin.5.006 11>1 11>2 11>3 11>4 11>5 20 40 40 40 28 pe)}=hPL<Pf{I}+{ 2 1 .1(4)(20)=8 are -5.667 7. · properties given in Figure 11. Thus ~C_~_ f-oElc(c---~(1) 8em'---~~ lem l~ I (11. and three and [ (e)] k =[ -5.666 ' d r (e)} ={20} 20 Calculate the temperature distribution in a one-dimensional fin with the Phyi .

~ 'I.667 -5.2 THE COMPOSITE WALLi differential equation for element two is kA = 0. The convection boundary conditions are] kA ~~ =hA(¢b-¢f) and atx=H The element stiffness matrix is given by [k(e)]=k:[ = [k~)] _~ at x=O (11. results from the convection boundary condition at node i and the third matrix. •• 12 Figure 11.142 FIELD PROBLEJ HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 143 The temperature at node one is known.1 -O. results from the convection boundary co dition at node j and is the same as given in (11. ~ [k(1)] The parameter =[ 0.2(1) =01 W L 2 .33 -5. A composite . o!>.33 -5.3] 0C -0.06(1 LO.01 [ (2)]=[ k -0. [k~J. 1973).06 cmWoc 0} hAj¢f where the first vector comes from (11.2 2-47 in (Kreith. Ute)}. The new system of equations iSl 13. The element force vector is I Ute)} ={hAi¢f o }+{ k = 0.~.8 30.1(1)(-5)= r obtained o o o ]{<1>211493} :: = :~ <1>5 28 1 o The nodal values are {<1>}T =[80 which compares very favorably 53.2.667 13.01 ]{<1>1} {-0.667 13.17~ ~ and where either ¢ is known at one or both surfaces or convection heat loss occu~ from one or both surfaces.21 -0.667 .6] and {<1>th}T =[80 using equation 33. and [K~j] are neglected when temperature' specified at both surfaces.OlJ 0.33 -5.3 40.19 The quantities.667 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE o -5.1 hA¢f=0.5} <1>2= 0 0.10 -0.5 W W with the theoretical 54.20 [ -0.21 <Pf= -5°C + [k~.10 0.01 gives 1 ~ 'J I Assembly of the element matrices 0.J.2 when convection heat loss occurs on the left surface.01 using the direct stiffness procedure <~ .9 32. [k~.18 0. Assume a unit area.14).2 -0.1(1)=0.18) and the second vector from (11.01 <1>3 0 -~J+[h~i~J+[~ h~Jj (11.J. The parameters for element one are kA = 0. °C hA =0. [K~. ~ 80'C. (1) (2) • 3 wall.J + [k~J where the second matrix.066 l Determine the temperature distribution through the composite wall shown in Figure 11.01 -O.19~ o o -0.9 39. thus the first equation m~ be deleted and the others modified.667 7.1J 0. (11.1 ' 11.2 values of 30.Ol W L 6 °C The governing for heat transfer through a composite wall ~ kA d2¢ -2 dx< =0 (11.

26) 1 (l1... convection heat transfer. The parameters for (7.t cos 0+ k. 'd>(I') SP:cified and the element matrices developed in Chapter 7 are applicable. The item that makes heat transfer in a long body different from that in a fin is the boundary conditions.24 ) {<I>} = [ ..20 [ . and ¢f is t~ temperature of the surrounding fluid. where k. which changes the derivative boundary condition (9.26) is embedded within (7. =k. The heat transfer in the fin is a two-dimensional problem because the fin is too thin to develop a temperature gradient in the z-direction. are the thermal conductivities in the x.. h is the convection coefficient.1 0 and the nodal values are OJ I} 1 . 1 11.. .. The governing equation (11.27) y ". Dy=tky. convection losses from the edge can be neglected. The possible boundary conditions are shown in Figure 11. Q=2h¢f (11. - ..3.1)are Q=Q 01.00 ~ 0 A two-dimensional fin and boundary conditions. and k..~ .and y-directions. and ky are the thermal conductivities and Q is an internal heat source or sink.1 Convect ion Boundary Cond it ion The objective here is to determine the parameters that comprise M and S in (11.25) The calculated values are also the theoretical values because the solution of t~ differential equation consists of straight-line segments.cos 8+kyt -a sin 8=0 ax y ={ - 0. The internal source or sink must exist along the entire z-direction for the heat transfer to be two-dimensional. HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 145 three is deleted and the second equation .2l.1 :1 .144 Since <1>3 = 20°C.21 <I>2 is modifi~ 0.... In this situation.66 -0.50} 0..3.2.1 {<I> 0.4 and consist of prescribed temperature values.\ I \ \''') .4 LONG TWO-DIMENSIONAL BODIES A two-dimensional fin is a thin piece of metal attached to a hot water or st~ pipe as shown in Figure 11.31 20J along the outer edge.28) as well as the signs on these two quantities for the convection boundary .1 Figure 11. however. The boundary conditions are along the pipe boundary a2¢ a2¢ k... The element matrices for an element in a fin were calculated in the Illustrative Example in Section 7.28 ) k. 11.20 (11.·. Heat is transferred from the pipe to the fin by co~ duction and from the fin to the surrounding media (usually air) by convectloi Convection heat loss occurs from both faces of the fin and the edge. 11.. equation The final system is FIELD PROBl..1 and a¢ a¢ kxt . G=2h. res~ tively. the temperature gradient in the zdirection is zero and the governing differential equation is (11. is small compared to the area of the two faces and '.. The latter two conditions were treated in general terms in Chapter 9.. We shall now look at these conditions relative to heat transfer and assume that k.0.1 ~ ..0. The surf a. =k ..4.1) where Dx=tkx.1) to (11.22) has a form identical to (7."" '~'\ "' . The latter condition is the insulated boundary condition..1).! The governing differential equation for the two-dimensional fin is 1 ~ ~ Another form of two-dimensional heat transfer is that which occurs in long bodies of constant cross section subjected to the same boundary conditions along the entire length of the body.~ where k.3 THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIN The element matrices developed in Chapter 7 are applicable without modification. and surface heat fluxes. A two-dimensional problem exists because the temperature can vary in the xy plane. ax2 +ky ay2 + Q =0 (11. The differential equation (11. area of the edge.. -. t is the thickness of the fin.3 and should be reviewed at this time.

Types of boundary conditions for the classical heat transfer probl condition.3j. If heat is leaving. o¢ on -h¢b+h¢f and d M =h and S=h¢f (l1.28) gives k-= and we conclude that Figure 11. .30) in the form of (11. The gradient o¢/on is positive. is always directed away from the surface.5a. Convection heat transfer at a surface. (b) Rewriting (11. Consider the convection condition shown in Figure 11.~ the bO~ " . theref -kA On =hA(¢b-¢f) o¢ (11:-.35) now consider the convection situation when heat is entering (Figure 11. then the gradient o¢/ox must be negative and heat conducted to the surface is The heat conducted to the surface must equal that leaving the surface. '!'Ie o¢ qc=kA on A negative sign. Equating (11. The above analysis assumes that a positive outward normal. where heat is lea the body.4. is not needed because the gradient to the heat commg to the surface gives is positive. These results hold for exterior surfaces and interior surfaces such as those in a chimney.5. therefore. We shall consider two situations: heat leaving the body and entering the body. n.:jj We again conclude that and (11.36) (l1.5b).146 Prescribed temperatures FIELD PROB~ HEATTRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 147 Surface heat flux (a) Convection heat transfer Figure 11. ! The conclusion of the analysis is that M = hand S = h¢f regardless of whether heat is coming into or leaving a body during the process of convection heat transfer.

31 (IUS where q* is the heat flux per unit area. Heating cables within a conducting media. for the flux condition.28) yields M=O and S=q* o¢ -=q*A On Figure 11.3 Conclud ing Remarks ~~ 1 W~ 2 33) (36) 45 (38) 48 40 43 Convection heat transfer and a flux boundary condition are incorporated int~ finite element analysis using the element matrices developed in Chapter 9. (11.g cables. If heat were being removed from the bo~ then S= -q*.38) and (11.2 Heat Flux into The Body FIELD PROBLE~ l HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 149 The situation where heat is applied to a portion of the boundary is sho~ schematically in Figure 11. The coefficient M is zero when a heat flux occurs.8. . The cables are 4 em on center and 2 em below the surface.148 11. exposed surface (Figure Wjcrn .--1 4cm o¢ on (11. ' the case of convection heat transfer. The finite element grid for the heat transfer example. • Region to be analyzed • 6 t. The conductives are k. Heat into the body is considered positive for both q* and 11. =ky =0.4. Heat is positive if it is moving into the body and negath if it is being removed. A heat flux applied to a surface.31 Insulation The heat applied to the surface is q*A and equating heat flows gives kA Equating (11. The slab rests on a thick layer of insulation and the heat loss from the bottom can be neglected. A grid of heating cables have em bedded in a thin concrete slab for the purpose of melting the snow on 49 Figure 11.7. M =h and S=h¢ f whereas M =0 and S= ±. 36 11.6. The heat must be conducted away from the boundal'l Thus qc=kA /Heatin.00340 Wjcm2 ."C. The latter corresponds to about a 30-35 krn/hr wind velocity.7).°C and the surface convection coefficient is h =0. The objective is to determine the surface 2 (1) 6 (5) 11 (9) 16 (13) 21 (17) 26 (21) 31 (25) 27 (22) 32 (26) 37 30) 17 (14) 22 (18) 28 (23) 33 (27) 38 7 (6) 12 (10) 18 (15) 23 (19) 29 (24) 34 (28) 39 13 (11) 19 (16) 24 (20) 30 25 (2) 8 (7) 14 (12) 20 3 (3) 4 (4) 9 (8) 5 10 15 35 Figure 11.5 A COMPUTER EXAMPLE (35) 44 46 (37) 47 We close this chapter with a computer example. The conclusion of this analysis is that a heat flux on the boundary does havel sign associated with it.

4 2.0 0.3 2.5 2.2 4.5 2.1 5.4 2.2 Verify that [k~)] as defined by (11.0 6.5 1.5 4.3 3cm---1 .8 4.0 0.0 1.1 °C justifying the use of large elements.5)= -0.5 3.4 3°e 2.1 11.1 at x=O 11.3 4.0 3.5 4.0 4.0 3.1 5.5 2.3 2.0 1.0 1.5 2. FIELD PROBlE HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 151 when the cables produce 0.6 5.5 2.0 3.1 5.8 4.1 5. The lower part of the region is a uniform 5.2 5.5 5.4 2.3 3. The grid for this region (Figui 11.0 3.4°C.0 2.0 3. PROBLEMS 11.0 0.0 0.9 4.7).0 2. Some contour lines and nodal temperature values are shown in Figure 11.4 2.5 2.8) consists of 38 elements arranged so that node 21 is located at a heating cab Larger elements are used in the lower portion of the grid because previous e.1 5.5 2.3 5. Figure P11.0 5.1 3. (3).0 s.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.OO340 and S=h¢ f=(0. (2).5 3.0 5.0 1.0 1.6 4.0 6.0 0.0 5. rP 2.1 5.0 4.0 2.7) is equal to (11.5 4.5 2.0 5.0 0.5 1.1 5.0 0.1.0 6.5 Node X y rP 5.1 5.1 7.0 2.9 4.5 1. Temperature contour lines and some nodal values for the heat transfer example.1 5. The valu~ of M and S in each case are .0 5.0 0.3 5.9 3.0 6.0 5.7 3.0 1.5 5.5 1. Evaluate [k~] and u~e)} for the derivative boundary condition Dd<P =hA(<Pb-<Pf) dx 5.3. perience indicates that the temperature probably does not vary a great deal the.1 5.5 2.5 3.5 3.3 Determine the temperature distribution grid shown in Figure Pl1.3 4.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.8 5.0 2.5 5.5 1.1 Node X Coordinate Data and Results for the Heat Transfer Example y The repeated symmetry in the problem reduces the region to be analyzed to 0 which is 2 em wide and 6 em deep (Figure 11.1 2.6 3.0 0.3 5.0 3.6 4. The top surface is close to a uniform value of 2.5 2.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 4.1 3.0 0.1 5.5 2.5 4.0 5.4 2.0 0.0 4.0 1.050 W fcm of heat and the air temperat Table 11.5 1.s 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0.9.0 The nodal coordinates and calculated temperature values (to two significant digits) are given in Table 11.0 1.0 3.5 1. Elements (1).' M=h=0.9).0 3.0170.9. (1) 2 (2) for the fin in Figure 11.1 using the (4) 4 (3) 3 5 Figure 11.9 3.0 0.0 0.5 2.0 1.0 0.2 5.OO340X .0 2.0 1.0 0.2 5.5 5.0 4.150 temperature is -5°C.1 5.5 3.5 5.0 4.0 6.0 0. and (4) have the convection boundary condition.5 2.0 0.0 0.5 4.

(1) 6cm~.5 em· ~ 'e h=0.10 h = 1.6 when the surface temperature on the left side is specified at 11.5 Determine the temperature distribution in the circular fin of Problem nl using the three-element grid shown in Figure Pl1.6 when the surface temperature on the right-hand side is specified at 30°C.1 OT 5 I 11. k =2 w'e' ern- h = 0. y (4..f= 15'C y L.1) q.6 Figure P11.12 Evaluate [k(e)] and {f(e)} for the triangular elements shown in Figures Pl1.S.~ Convection heat transfer occurs on both surfaces.9 2 3 4 Q*= 1O~ em Figure P11.12.7 Calculate the surface temperature at x = 4 in Problem 11. The conductivities arekx=ky=2W.2 em2. • (1) • 1 2 I (-2. Include the convectlq heat loss from the end of the fin.152 11.2) Figure P11.9-11.8 Calculate the surface temperature at x=O in Problem 11.~ Q* = 5 '!!_ em (2) (3) (4) 2 3 4 Figure P11. (1) (2) (3) L.'e' W 50oc~f-------_____.9 through Pl1.~ L.4 \ FIELD PROBLEfIl HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION 153 Determine the temperature distribution in the circular fin shown in Fig~ PIIA.S T 11. Assume a unit of surfac area. y j 1(10.11 .05 ~e em· q. ~. Include the convection heat loss from the end of the fin. I.4 11. -2) Figure P11. 11..f= 20'e Figure P11.6 Calculate the surface temperatures for the wall shown in Figure Pl1.oC-cm soc.

1) Figure P11.9 and 11. -: / J (5..12 and h =0.. .14 Use the computer program TDFIELD. to analyze Oi of the two-dimensional fins shown in Figures P1Ll3 and P1Ll4. 11. Tl physical parameters arekx=ky=3 W/cm_oC.15-11. Chapter 16.14 1< ~20+-60---\ 5 Insulated 10 1.OlO W/cm2_oC.and <PI: 20°e. = 50°C kx q. to analyze O! of the long two-dimensional bodies shown in Figures PILlS to P1U The physical parameters and the boundary conditions are defined in d respective figures.19 Use the computer program TDFIELD. = 200°C = ky = 3 cm_OC W 80em T 1< 10em Figure P11..13-11.2 W/cm2_ e.5em 5 q. .3 em thick.. The heat sources. h=O. are line sources. The pipe temperature is 8S°e. Each fin is 0. 0 Figure P11. 154 FIELD PROBL~ / 'i .15 1 . 11. Chapter 16. Q* in Problems 11.13 >1 160em Figure P11.

.C <Pr= w ro-c All exterior surfaces kx = ky= L.18 Insulated h = 03 'f'c' crrr- <Pr= 25ce --.16 Figure P11.17 Figure P11. 2 em Diameter of the outer cylinder.~~· Figure P11.em·'f'c <Pr= 20'e h=1.! 2 Material kx=k.5 h = 0.r-- 4cm t ~ foo!<E----------30 cm 2 l <p = 60ce 50cm ----~~~I W --em-DC Material! kx=k}'=O.19 .3 cm2. y 2 em~C Boundary of the inner cylinder is at 140 C Diameter of the inner cylinder..=4 W --em-DC ~~J '-- <p = IO'C 50 Insulate~1 100 cm---------. 8 em Figure P11.

9) are distinct. w is the wave fl'Ci quency. III (12. We start by considering the one-dimensional problem because ~ calculations can be done by hand. .1 where [k(e)]=[_~ -~J-ze ~J (12. {f(e)} Th fi . and positive numbers and the corresponding eigenvectors {tl>}. are the values of Z that make the determinant of (12. consists of zeros. Figure 12:1. yields the Helmholtz equation nonzero terms III . ' The solution of the Helmholtz equation is the topic of discussion for this chapte Acoustical vibrations is the subject matter area used to illustrate the solutio! technique.1.1 an d G - W2/C2 ACOUSTICAL [k(e)]=~[ _~ -~J-:~. The eigenvalues.. and c is the wave velocity in the media.3 ~-----------H----------~~ The one-dimensional analog to (12. .e ~J .8) (12. Equation (12.2) is d2cjJ w2 -d 2+2:cjJ=0 x c with dcjJ/dx=O at each end.7) Physical problems governed by (12. The natural frequencies and vibration mode for a two-dimensional problem conclude the chapter. f (125)· is given by (11. WI. . The condition to be satisfied 01 each boundary is [KG] is positive definite whereas Eigenvalue the?~y states that all of the eigenvalues. that satisfy (12. The global system of equations has the form [K] {<I>} = {O}. real.4 (1) 2 (2) 3 d2cjJ D--GcjJ=O dx2 (12.1) include the wave motion for shallow bod~ of water and acoustical vibrations in closed rooms or compartments. The problem under consid~ration is the closed pipe element model consists of two elements.1 ONE-DIMENSIONAL VIBRATIONS The governing differential equation for the pressure field associated with acoustlcs vibrations in a two-dimensional room with rigid boundaries is (12. d cjJ/dx . (12. . Substituting multiplying through by H/2 gives . e nite H/2 for L III (12.10) 12.b (411) The contribution of the . The solution of the Helmholtz equation results in the need to solve an eigenvalu problem because the boundary conditions are such that the global force vecto {F}. is zero.5) and the dcjJ/dx=O boundary conditions (both ends) do not generate any ( A zero value for Q and a negative value for G in the steady-state (7. . Zi.GcjJ term to the element stiffness matnx isglven Y . A two-element grid for a one-dimensional pipe.9). [KD] and [KG]' are symmetric.ACOUSTICAL VIBRATIONS 159 2 Chapter 12 VIBRATIONS field equatloi The element stiffness matrix for the first term.6) The element force vector..2 where cjJ is the change in pressure from some ambient value. c£<E=o dx l_ ~ ~=o ocjJ=0 on (12. The complete element stiffness matnx or . .' Figure 12.1). are independent.9) or (12.6) and 02cjJ 02cjJ D.4) has the general form (12. ox2 + D. Zi. Both matrices.9) [KD] is semidefinite (it has a zero determinant). {le)}. IS -·thD. oy2 + GcjJ =0 (12. since there is no source term in 12.

11 Third mode It is left for the reader to show that the third eigenvector {<1>H =[1 1] (l2J~ Figure 12. The theoretical and calculated shapes for the first mode coincide. are obtained by substituting the roots Z b Z 2.8) and solving for w n. "'(xl ---Calculated --.The calculated values of IV.928e compare fairly well with the theoretical There is an eigenvector. nne The theoretical values for the natural w. The theoretical mode shapes and the calculated eigenvectors are shown in Figure 12. -0 W2 =--H 3.<1>2 2 (12.(1 + Z) (2-4Z) -(1 +Z) FIELD PROBlE.13)..l~ I IV1=0.142e considering the grid consisted of only two elements. Pipe. ACOUSTICAL VIBRATIONS 161 frequencies._ .1 which has the roots and (12. It is impossib L to uniquely determine the three components of {<1>} because the set of equatioi i is homogeneous.<1>2 2 The first and third equations Using <1>1 1 as the arbitrary = state that <1>2 =0 while the second yields <1>3 -cJ)1 = value.I .(x) {<1>H =[1 o -1 -1] is (12. The theoretical and calculated node shapes for the one-dimensional . states that <1>2 =cJ)1 .2.160 zero. (12. The usual procedure is to assign an arbitrary value to one con ponent and solve for the remaining components in terms of the assigned value.11). and Z 3 given by (12. are given by (12. = Substituting Z 2 into (12.464e W2=~' and values of and IV3=~ 6.<1>2 =0 -<1>1 +2<1>2-<1>3=0 -<1>2+<1>3=0 The first equation says that <1>1 =<1>2 while the third equation thus <1>1 =<1>2 =<1>3 and the eigenvector is (121.. we obtain 3 ".' The eigenvector {<1>}1 is determined by substituting Z1 =0 into (12. {<1> . The theoretical mode shapes have the general form P=cos(nnx/H).._ First mode ~~x {<1>}f = [1 when <1>1 1 is used as the arbitrary value..19) o (12.Theoretical <1>1.. Combining the two matrices gives (1-2Z) [ The determinant -(1 +Z) ..11) gives 1] (12.1 w·=H is The calculated values for w.1! ". 3.13) into (12. associated with each root in (12. n resulting equations are IV1-.1~ .(x) =i 3 .2.

150. Figure 12. A four-element gird for a two-dimensional room.24) The five eigenvalues and eigenvectors Zl::::0.38) for the triangular element.2 </>(x.4. Zs::::0. -1. reasonably 1] 0] 0] 0] -0. (12. Bathe and Wilson (1976) present a comprehensive discussion c eigenvalue calculations relative to finite element problems. ([KD]-Z where [KG]){<I>} ={O} -3 0 3 10 -10 25 0 25 100 50 50 50 50 50 200 3 -10 -10 -10 -10 40 (12J 'J The calculated eigenvalues of Z well with the theoretical 10 [KD] =g 1 -3 -10 100 -10 3 0 -3 3 10 0 -3 0 Z2 =0. Z3::::0.y) Dashed lines are in the xy plane. I{<I>H -0. 1. is divided into four triangular elem~ (Figure 12.20) are 1. Mode shape {<I> 14 The second and fourth mode shapes for a two-dimensional room.5. 1. 20 m by 10 m. Z2::::0. -1. Z4::::0.5. =I which are 1. -0.162 12.450.3). . y) eo::::-------_~2J Figure 12. -0.49) and (7. we find that the global system of equations i$ ( {<I>H=[I.0247. 1.3). ACOUSTICAL VIBRATIONS 163 for (12. (12j and Z5 =0. 1. Defining Z = W2/C2. A rectangular room. [KD]-Z[KG]) 4~--31 Mode shape {<I>12 </>(x.2 TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIBRATIONS FIELD PROBLEIl i .55) for ~ rectangular element.2) and (12. 10 -10 0 25 100 25 50 25 100 25 0 50 [KG] =(. -1. compare -1. 1 25 0 25 50 4 and {<I>}T =<1>1 Hand <1>2 <1>3 <1>4 <1>5] (12.5. {<I>}I [1. 1] values (12.36) and (7.2: 3 computation of the values of Z that makes the determinant 4 zero is unreasonable. The element matrices for this equation are th1 given by (7. The two-dimensional acoustical vibration equation and its boundary conditia were given in (12. -1. a computer program should be use Discussions of direct and iterative methods of evaluating eigenvalues are given I many textbooks. and (7.395 Each of the mode shapes can be illustrated graphically as was done for the onedimensional case. {<I>}r=[I.5.03O. = {<I>H =[1. The mode shapes corresponding to {<I>} and {<I>} are shown in 2 4 Figure 12.3. -1. 2 ::::W2/C .4.120.

3 12. The boundary conditions associated with (13.-z+-.1) reduces to (13. z) is The field equation in a cylindrical 02¢ Dr o¢ De 02¢ 02¢ Dr-.-z+--. where P is the buckling load and EI is a section property. on a part of the boundary. (J.. r 2' Both of these conditions must be independent of the circumferential direction.3) assuming that Dr is a constant.l Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the one-dimensional problel in Figure 12. 13.8) is governs by the differential equation Chapter 13 AXISYMMETRIC PROBLEMS FIELD d2y dx2 + EI y=O P There is a group of three-dimensional field problems that can be solved using twodimensional elements.18). Equation 13. .6 12.. The acoustic field in an automotive compartment is an important applies tion area for acoustical vibrations.4 12. Construct and analyze a grid simila to that given by Shuku and Ishihara (1973) using linear triangular 3.8 usi~ (a) two equal-length elements and (b) three equal-length elements.1 using several elements and! computer program to evaluate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. These problems possess symmetry about an axis of rotation and are known as axisymmetric problems.5 12. Verify the mode shape {<I>h given in (12.8 12.5) on the rest of the boundary.4 ) ¢(r) = specified values call it r band z Dr o¢ a.-z+Q=O uz (13. Verify the mode shape {<I>h given in (12. .:.: cos (J+D o¢ OZ sin(J=-M¢b+S (13.7 FIELD PROBLE~ I 12. The boundary conditions as well as as the region geometry must be independent of the circumferential direction.24). Evaluate the eigenvalues and eigenvector for the four-element grid shown in the figure.1 12.1) and the numerical values for M and S are determined similar to the examples in Chapters 10 and 11. The Galerkin formulation and the element equations are similar to those for two-dimensional field problems.1 ) 02¢ Dr o¢ Dr .8 Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the one-dimensional problej in Figure 12.2) (2) (3) (4) which can also be written as ~[Dr~(r r or Figure P12. The derivation and results differ enough from those in Chapters 7 and 9 to warrant the special consideration given in this chapter.1 using one element of length H. . O¢)J+Dz or ~2~ oz +Q=O (13.3) are (13. Verify the mode shape {<I>L given in (12.Ili 1 bilinear rectangular elements.)+--y ::l(J2 +Dz~+Q=O Or r ur ru uz An axisymmetric problem is independent of(J.1 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION coordinate system (r. but they do differ in some significant ways. Compare the calculate critical loads with the theoretical values given by Pcr=n2n2EI/H2.9 Calculate the critical buckling loads for the column in Figure P12.164 PROBLEMS 12.24).5 is similar to (9.-+Dz ur r ur (1) 02¢ .1 using three equal length elements. thus (13.2 12. The boundar conditions are y(O) = y(H)=O. j Solve the vibration problem in Figure 12. The buckling load of a simply supported column (Figure PI2..

bk=Zi-Zj. RiZk. however.2. ..I z . Noting that r=Ri+s Figure 13...3.. _ j~ A single triangular element in the r . ci=Rkcj=Rick=Rj-Ri R.9) with x and y replaced by rand j where 1 Ni=2A (ai+bir+ciz) 1 N J.3 because they must be referenced relative to the origin of the r-z coordinate system. TI. are different from those given in Section 5.3.2. z and (13.7) through (5...1.6) The variable ¢ and the triangular The axisymmetric element is obtained by rotating a two-dimensional elem~ about the z-axis to obtain a torus..2 AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS FIELD PROBLENI AXISYMMETRIC FIELD PROBLEMS 167 shape functions in the new coordinate system are (13.8) j --j Z Figure 13..z plane is shown in Figure 13. The axisymmetric triangular element in the r-z plane.(a·+b·r+c·z) J 2A J J (13. The shape functions.3.--------- . The idea is illustrated with the triangular elemCl1 in Figure 13. z The axisymmetric triangular element.. A single rectangular element in the r-z plane is shown in Figure 13.1.. element is identical to the triangular element discussed in Chapter 5 except that ~ coordinate variables are rand z instead of x and y. ZiT r The axisymmetric rectangular element in the r-z plane.10 and was discussed in Section 5.=. This element is similar to the one III Figure 5. Figure 13.7) where ai=RjZkaj=RkZiak=RiZjRkZj.166 13. R. The element shape functi~ are identical to those given in (5.. All of the rectangular shape functions in Chapter 5 were written relative to local coordinate systems. RjZi' bi=Zj-Zk> bj=Zk-Zj.

20) giving (13. Rearranging gives {R(e)}=( Jv r (Dr o[NY Or dV O[N]+Dz o[NY Or oz O[N])dV) oz \ f<l>(e)) f (13.18) The complete residual integral is Nm= 4ab (Rj-r)(z-Z.Iv Q[NY .11) is replaced once it is determined that (13. AXISYMMETRIC FIELD PROBLEMS 169 Substitution of (13.19) can be reand (13. thus it is the element stiffness ~atrix.1' Rearranging gives .1: The first term in (13.15) into (13.3 GALERKIN'S METHOD integral for an axisymmetric field problem is the vol~ The weighted residual integral i f. reduces iIi: manner identical to (7.17) gives the rectangular coordinate system Jv r (Dr o[NY Or o<jJ Dz o[NY o<jJ-[NYQ)dV + Or oz oz oz (13. = placed by (13.19) Since <jJ(e) [N]{ <I>(e)}.Jr [NY (Dr ~~ cosO+Dz ~~ sinO)dr (13. The general form of {R(e)} is (13.21 ) [NY (!~ O<jJ))=!~ Or ([NYr (r r Or Or r The first integral in (13.) Ir (~r Ii (13.21) multiplies {<I>(e)}.17) which Simplifies to (13.12).) 13.11) produces s=r-Ri and t=Z-Zi (1~ shape functions in the ~ {R(e)}= and substituting for sand t in (5.16) using N·=I 1 4ab} (R--r)(Z 1 m -z) -z) _ Jv (Dr~([NYro<jJ)+Dzj_([NyO<jJ))dV r r or Or oz The second volume integral can be transformed Gauss's theorem (Olmstead. The product rule for differentiation gives o<jJ/or and o<jJ/oz in the first integral of (13.1.168 rearranging into FIELD PROBL.~ ([NYr ~~) cos + Dz[NY 0 ~~ sin 0) dr (13. 1961). The result is into a surface integral N·=-(r-R-)(Z } 4ab Nk= 1 4ab 1 I m (r-R. while the surface integral is the IOterelement requirement for interior element boundaries and the derivative boundary conditions for element boundaries on I" 2.22) O<jJ)_ o[NY o<jJ Or Or Or (13Ji .1~ .~ The derivative terms must be transformed into lower-order forms using the prod~ rule for differentiation and Gauss's theorem.)(z-Z.i (13.13) and (13. The term involving D. The integral containing Q becomes {f(e)}.

The shape functions in (13. as given by (13. where r is the radial distance to the centroid of the area.20).b. bf J +-4A' 2ttr z [ -D C.4 has a uniform heat generation of Q = 3 W/cm3.2~ can be written in the compact form 'f The radial distance to the centroid of a triangular element is [k(e)] = where Iv [BY[D][ _ Ri+Rj+Rk r 3 The element force vector UJe)} is (13. Each node receives an amount related to its radial distance from the origin.4 b.23 (13. [k(e)] = Iv [BY[ D][ B] dV V = [BY[ D][ B] Iv dV = [BY[D][B] (13. and (13. The integrals for the rectangt lar element are usually evaluated using numerical techniques. ] b b.c.34) can be replaced ordinates. Cj bkJ Ck (13.170 where {I(e) FIELD PROBLEM! AXISYMMETRIC FIELD PROBLEMS 171 =Jv [k(e)]= and r (Dr o[NY Jr r [NY Or (Dr 0<jJ cos or O[N]+Dz or e + D.b.34) (13.33) B] dV (13.36) [B] =_1 [bi 2A c. This produces a matrix identical to the one in (7. cf c. bibk 2 -s». ] CjCk (13.2 [D]. The discussion is limited to the triangular eleme! because the integrals are relatively easy to evaluate. . The contribution of the derivative boundary condition to these integl'lll is discussed in the next section. Cj 2 c.2~ [k(e)] =4:.~ (13. constant coefficients'!l Since b. given in Figure [k(e)] and UJe)} . Each coefficient in [B] is a constant.~ since dV=2nrdA.5 W/cm_°c.32) CjCk d The terms in the integral for [k(e)] are similar to those in (7.28). o[NY oz 0<jJ sin oz e) dr The volume of an area revolved about the z-axis is V =2nrA.c.29) produces 2 (13. also consistSQ ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE n j( A uniform Q within the element is not distributed equally among the nodes as occurred with the two-dimensional element. Calculate WhenDr=Dz= 1. - [bf bibj b~ J bjbk b. The coefficients in [B] are obtained by differentiating the shape functio! relative to rand z.c.4 ELEMENT MATRICES UJe)}=2nQ t The immediate objective is to evaluate the volume integrals that give [k(e)] Ill! {pel}.~ Ll(Ll Ri+ L2Rj+ L3Rd} L2(LIR+L2Rj+L3Rk) { L3(L1R+ L2Rj+ L3Rk) products dA Evaluating the integrals of the area coordinate 1 using (6.35) 13.31 ) O[N])dV oz UJe)} = Iv Q[NY dV (13.34) .C· J c. and the radial distance r can be written as by area co- and r=NiR+NjRj+NkRk and the integral for UJe)} is =LIR+L2Rj+L3Rk (13.~ An aXisymmetric triangular element with the nodal coordinates 13. The element stiffness matrix is (13.2~ This matrix product [k(e)] =2nrA[BY[D][B] is easily evaluated to give (13.

7). sum to this value. ¢b. therefore.39) are surface integrals and are evaluated similarly to those discussed in Chapter 1O.5 W is not distributed Figure 13.5) is specified..37) 2n(3)(9) 12 The element stiffness matrix is [k(e)] = 2n . These contributions are considered in this section. The element contributions due to the derivative boundary condition come from the interelement vector (13. 13. ~15). there are additional contributions to [k(e)] and Ute)}.5 n {Ib~)} = - Jrbc r [NY( . (22. are valid for interior elements and boundary elements when ¢(r.M¢b+S) dr (13.= -4. the total heat generated is Iv Q dV =Q Iv dV =2nrAQ=1296n The components of UJe)} equally among the nodes. the determinant b. When the derivative boundary condition (13. The integrals in (13.6) and (13. [lb~)l =( lbc r M[NY[N] dr) lbc r S[NY . but the quantity By using (13.32) and (13. c. the second is part of [fie).u: (13. equation bj=5.23) after substituting the relationship in (13.10) .2~ or [ 16 -20 25 -5 -:]+2' [ : 1 -8 -32 58 -26 -26 -8 34 4 4 -8 -8 -8] 16 [lb~)}=r lbc M[NY¢bdr-r lbc {<l>(e)} - S[NYdr (13. respectively. 2n(24)(1.4D 32 The element force vector is -8] The first integral contributes to [k(e)].33) gives bk=-1 THE DERIVATIVE BOUNDARY CONDITION The element matrices (13. Both integrals in (13. [: 2 m~J and (13. z) is specified on the boundary.38) The value of ¢ on the boundary.5). Since Q is a constant within the element.39) are (13. Assuming that rbe is the surface of the element with the boundary condition 2n or r= and _ 22+26+24 3 2A =18 em? 24cm The multiplier coefficients are 4T 4T2nQA 12 2nr Dr 2nr o. is given by ¢(e)=[N]{<l>(e)}. since it multiplies {<l>(e»). (5. The triangular element for the example problem.36) for [k(e)] and UJe)} .40) 1 {fo"} ~4.=-2.4.172 z FIELD PROB" j AXISYMMETRIC FIELD PROBLEMS 173 i>.41) .39) [k(e)] = n [ .5.5) 2(18) 4.

o o o (13. Substitution for r in (13. {N k Jo r I s {LI} L2 L 3 Znr dt 2 (13..40) becomes in a similar manner. respectively. L2 =f band along this side [{se~(}6'34)] and the integral J beCO'. L ~:. The pertinent quantities are and Lij=.12 em 13. + 3Rj=22 R.~ {fd )} e = 2n~Ljk {2Rj: Rj+2Rk The other two results for {fde)} are (13.50) (f!"») ~ 2. respectively.k 0 12 (Rj+Rk) for sides ij and ik.41) is the easiest to evaluate giving FIELD PROBlE .14)(3)(4.41 II o (3Rj: Rk) (Rj+Rd . and f~ are evaluated using (6. fIt 2.: Rd] (Rj+3Rd (13. (13.44) for r and using the factorial formula (6. f~ Rk} (13.12)=862 12 .~ since Ni=O.1 i'~ 2 ML.174 The integral in (13.22)2 + (11-10)2 =4. (13. :n~~.14)(4)(4. Considering : sidi 2nSLij 6 while 3Ri+ Rj=3(22)+26=92 R. R +l . .~ )~ Evaluate [k~J and {fde)} for side ij of the element shown in Figure M=4 and S=3.'.12) 6 29 1.j::::::.49) The other two results for (13.62 [ 4~ 48 100 0] ~ =2nMLjk t1[0 ~ o [793 = 41~ 414 862 o ~] . u~e)} =s Jrbc 2 r Ni} dr =Ljk n. The surface integral (13.40) are (3Ri+Rj) [k~J=2n~Lij [ (Ri~Rj) (13. The final result is.40) is evaluated jk.4~ r for sides ij and ik.51) r {fl(fIR~+f2Rd}df2 o e 2(f I Rj+f 2Rd (13. [(3Ri+Rd [k~J= n . J Theradialdistanceto:::::. 2(3.4 when The integrals of ti.4 = 2n%L jk [~ assuming that the integration L3 =f is along side jk. AXISYMMETRIC FIELD PROBLEMS 175 Substituting (13. The area coordinates reduce LI =0. l «. + 2Rj=22 r The element quantities + 3(26)= + 2(26)= 100 74 2Ri+ Rj=2(22)+26=70 are 92 [k~J = 8.17).R.J(26 The multiplying coefficients are 2nMLij 12 2(3.•.+ Rj=22+26=48 R.43) produces {f~e)}=2nSLjk (13.SL j. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE .17) yields [k~J .

9 2 40 8 13.41) for side ki of a triangular element.13 13. By rearranging (14. Use the element data for Problem 13.11 The nodal coordinate and coefficient values for five axisymm elements follow. We shall see that it behaves the same in each dimension so that a discussion of (14.9l ~4 = 19~5 r Ud e)} Chapter are not.5 TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The field problems considered in the previous chapters were steady-state problems. An equally important set of physical problems are those that are time-dependent.15 12 16 6 10 10 12 8 02¢ 02¢ .14 13.33) w nodes j and k are on a vertical side.2 13. The finite element solution of time-dependent problems is introduced in this chapter with the primary emphasis placed on the theoretical aspects.s». Ass that 13.176 and FIELDPROBl" Ud Note that the diagonal same. This yields a system of differential equations that are solved to obtain the variation of ¢ with time.19) and (9.40) for side km of a rectangular element. ox aA.49) behave similarly to (9. 14 14 Use the element data for Problem 13.1 13.1 ) plots 13. e )} po 1 J j903\ = 12. at (14.x oy ut (14.1) and (14.6 Verify that (13. Evaluate (13.7 2 20 2 4 3 0 0 4 13.o¢ Dx~o 2+Dy---.7-13. ' Use the element data for Problem 13.. Evaluate [k~)] and {fJe)} for one of the elements. The discussion in each chapter is build around the one-dimensional equation o. 13.40) for side jk of a triangular element.25) for a rectangular element using the defined by (13. The two-dimensional time-dependent equation is 14 14 10 12 10 Zk 13. Some practical aspects of solving time-dependent problems are discussed in Chapter 15.---y-G¢+Q=A:.41) for side km of a rectangular element. Problem Number Element Quantity Dx D~'I'+Q=Je~ 2 a2A.1) into (14. 14 values in [k~] as well as the values in PROBLEMS Evaluate (13.8 13. = Ri: 13.2) is to evaluate the Galerkin residual integral with respect to the space coordinate(s) for a fixed instant of time. Evaluate (13.10 and the values M =6 and S:=:-: Evaluate [k~] and {f~e)} along side jk.1 GALERKIN METHOD The general procedure for analyzing (14. that is.4 13.10).8 and the values M =10 and s:=:l e Evaluate [k~] and )} along side ik.2) The only new term in each of(14. The governing differential equation for a radial symmetric problem is Ud s~J 14.10 4 50 20 20 16 20 24 24 13.7 and the values M=6 and e Evaluate [k~] and )} along side ij.3) the residual integral is Ud 02¢ Dro¢ Dr~o 2 +--0 +Q=O r rr Obtain the general equations for [k~)] and UJe)} by evaluating the residual integl1 {R(e)} = _ r [NY JA 2 (Dr a ¢ or2 + Dr ?__~+ r Or Q) dA {R(e)}=_ J Xj Xi [WY (02¢ 2 D~+Q-JeaX a¢) ot dx (14.3 13.1) or (14.. Evaluate (13.11 5 60 6 10 Q Zj Ri Rj Rk Zi 3 30 10 because the numerical calculations are relatively easy and three-dimensional of ¢-x-t can be constructed.12 13. Evaluate (13.2) is Jeo¢/ot. R.46) and (13.4 ) .1) is adequate.

If we denote tb nodal values of o¢lot by $b $2.$p. [C]{$} + [K]{<I>} -{F} ={O} (14.11) (14.4 separatt 1 .10) that is.yields the same integrals tb) were analyzed in Chapter 3 and ~ (14. 1 ~J (14. the linear variation of o¢/ot within a q. The 8lj>/8t as a function of x.2 THE CONSISTENT FORMULATION (14.9) Of (14'1 or {R(e)]f=( fR(e)]s + (fR(e)]f o A (14. The parameter o¢/od shown schematically in Figure 14..17) . The vector {<I>} is f [K] and {F} (14. t (14.. Defining [WY =[NY in the first integral of (14.~ element can be written as (14... is usually called the capacitance matrix.13) where [N] contains the triangular or rectangular shape functions. We immediately conclude that [c(e)]= for the one-dimensional A~G linear element.• 0<1> in pJ The new matrix [C]." If we also use the linear shape functions for the weighting [WY = [NY. the residual integral is {R\\)} coefficients.178 where [WY into contains the Galerkin weighting functions. The integrals that define [c(e)] are the same as those associated with the G term in the steady-state form of the differential equation. We sha consider each of these solutions starting with the consistent formulation.12) Equation 14. .5).1.8 has two different solutions. (14. 1 TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 179 14.15) l $1 T = [0<1> J in I 0<1> 2 ot .2) yields 14.1. One equation that defines the variation stan that the time derivative varies linearly between the nodal values.' J:i =( J:i A[NY[N]{<I>(e)} A[NY[N] dx dX) {<I>(e)} (14.f . One solution is called the conslstei formulation and the other is referred to as the lumped formulation.14) where the boundary conditions in {I} have been incorporat~d into and the interelement requirements discarded. the final result is a system of firstorder differential equations given by A set of weighting functions and the variation of o¢/ot with respect to x must b defined before the integral in (14.i The only new term is {R~)} = = J:i [WY (~ ~~) dx (14. Equation FIELD PROBlE".8) can be evaluated. When [c(e)] is combined with the other element matrices and summed over all the elements using the direct stiffness procedure. = [c(e)]{$(e)} A similar analysis for (14.16) 2 Figure 14..

The quantities multiplying be thought of as new shape functions.22) Returning to the residual integral. (b) for a grid.[N*Y[N*] dS) {$(el}=[c(el]{$(el} matrix is defined by [c(el] = which is easily evaluated 2 Figure 14.19) 2 4 2 2 JJ x (14. namely [NY. (7.20) and s is measured from node i.[WY[N*]{$(el} ds for (14.2a for a single element and in Figure 14. Nt=1-h(S-~) (14.1 14.The same set of weighti functions.[N*Y[N*] ds (14. and using (14. The formulation discussed in this section is called the consistent fOrmUlatii" because the linear variation of a<p/at with respect to within an element is identi . Nt and st.25) because I ) 4 5 N*N*=N*N*=1 J I and The element capacitance matrix is a </1/ at as a function of x (a) within an elemen1 [c(el] = A~ [~ ~J (14.38). is used in both of the integrals in (14. ' or consistent with the linear variation assumed for 4>(x).26) .49)]..180 for the two-dimensional triangular element.5).22) gives x a4> A[WY ~dx x. {Riel} = J = Using the same functions in (a) [Riel} =( The element capacitance at act> r r {Riel}.1.2.21) Upon using this concept. where $i and $j in (14.19) becomes a4>_N*a$i+N*a$j=[N*r<D(en at at J at I l f (14.9). This conceQ is shown schematically in Figure 14. (14.23) [WY that are used in the relationship a4>/at gives (14. and FIELD PROBLE~ TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 181 The variation functions 2 4 of a4>/at within an element can be written explicitly using step (14. at J }. . i' where for the two-dimensional rectangular element [see (11. and (7.24) }.3 THE LUMPED FORMULATION I (14.~ for a grid of five elements.19) can An alternate approach to defining the variation in a4>/at with respect to x is tC assume that it is constant between the midpoints of adjacent elements. The step variation of 3 (b) r }.

The value of ¢ at t =a.29) y x // (a) Rearranging gives d¢ (~)=¢(b)-¢(a) dt I'1t (14. The' shaded region for Nt' has corners at node i.30) is not known. These equations must be solved before the variation of ¢ in space and time is known.30) m Nt(x.28) o o Nt(x. y) y where I'1t=(b.30) ¢(¢)=¢(a)+ ¢(b).(~) dt (14.a) is the length of the interval.29) and (14. Given a function ¢(t) and the interval [a. There are several procedures for numerically solving the equations given by (14.182 FIELD PROBLEMS: TIME-DEPENDENT FIELD PROBLEMS: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 183 for the one-dimensional linear element. Defining the functions in this manner produces N: N] products whose value is zero. The generalization of the step function variation for two-dimensional problems is accomplished by defining functions similar to those shown in Figure 14. at the midpoints of the sides that touch node i and at the center of the element. We shall concentrate on the methods associated with the solution of heat transfer problems that use a finite difference approximation in the time domain to generate a numerical solution.a) dt (~-a) j k dt (~) d¢ (14. can be approximated as shown in Figure 14. which means that [C] is also diagonal. This aspect will be dealt with in a few moments. it i$ usually referred to as a lumped formulation.14).4. (a) ~ e as (14. ¢(a)=¢(~)Rearranging gives d¢ ¢(~)=¢(a)+ (~. The resulting diagonal matrices are for the triangular element and 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ['(')l~': [~ ~J (14. Since the formulation produces a diagonal matrix.¢(a)=(bd¢ a) .31) (~) (14. .3. It is a diagonal matrix.4 FINITE DIFFERENCE SOLUTION IN TIME The finite element solution of time-dependent field problems produces a system of linear first-order differential equations in the time domain. call it ~.34) Figure 14. b].32) y and after substituting (14. we can use the mean value theorem for differentiation to develop an equation for ¢(t). The location of ~ in (14.27) 14.¢(a) (¢ -a) I'1t (14. ¢(a). y) 1 O~] (14. The step-function vanation for two-dimensional triangular element. The mean value theorem states that there is a value of t.3. such that ¢(b).33) x k (b) If we define the ratio elements. (b) A rectangular element.

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