FAS Military Analysis Network

European Missiles

Aster 15 Aster 30
Eurosam is a Franco-Italian joint venture created by the French companies Aerospatiale and Thompson-CSF and the Italian firm Alenia/Finmeccanica in order to develop the anti-missile programme FSAF (Future Surface-to-Air Family), which is organised around the Franco-Italian missile Aster. This family has a naval component, the PAAMS (Horizon program) and a mobile land component to be mounted on vehicles which is currently under development. The two versions of the missile differ only in the size of their first booster stage and, consequently, their range: from 1.7 to 30 km in the case of the Aster 15, and from three to 80 km in the case of the Aster 30. When it enters service, the Aster will be the Western World's first surface-to-air missile with active guidance. The Aster is capable of load limits of 60 G in its terminal phase thanks to its aerodynamic pilot, in addition to which there are impulses from lateral jets at the center of gravity, making last-minute corrections of trajectory possible at the moment of interception. That capability makes the Aster unique in the world. In December 1997 Aerospatiale announced two significant firing tests of Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles. In the first test an Aster 15 successfully intercepted a sea-skimming target in a very high electronic countermeasures environment. The Aster scored what the French immediately called a "Hit-to-Kiss". Aster's impact point was under a meter from its target's center of gravity. On 11 December 1997, an Aster 30 ground launched missile underwent s its first validation firing against a real target. The intercept occurred at a distance of 16.2 nm. (30 km) from the launch point at an altitude of 36,000 ft (11,000 meters). The C22 target was flying at Mach 0.84 (900 km/h) and the Aster 30 intercepting the target head-on and from above at Mach 2.68. The recorded miss-distance was less than 4 meters. Aster is capable of evolving in the direction of an antiballistic role in the future. The missile would be able to deal with ballistic missiles with a range of 1,000 km as they reenter the atmosphere. The homing head would have to be made more powerful or its algorithms speeded up, considering the approach speeds involved. The field of the proximity fuze would have to be reduced from 60o to 30o to increase its sensitivity, and fragmentation of the explosive charge would have to be adjusted to produce larger fragments. The Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a new surface-to-air missile system, developed essentially to provide medium-range air defence and anti-missile protection for high-value units, such as aircraft carriers or merchant tankers, in the vicinity of the escort. The Horizon air defence frigate project involves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The program covers the ship and secondary weapon systems, and PAAMS. the PAAMS has not suffered from London's recent decision to withdraw from the Horizon frigates program. The Horizon International Joint Venture Co., the prime contractor designated

for the program, is owned by the French firm Direction des Constructions Navales (DCN) International, the British firm GEC-Maritime Ltd., and the Italian company Orrizonte SpA. The operational specifications for the frigate were set out in the "Trilateral Staff Requirements" document signed in 1992. However, the partners encountered major difficulties in their efforts to reach agreement on the operational capabilities of the missile system.

Crotale (Rattlesnake) / Shahine
The Crotale is a mobile, all-weather, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. It is designed to combat targets flying at a speed of M1.2 at an altitude of 50 to 3,000 m and an equivalent radar area of 1 m{2}. Crotale, developed by Thomson CSF Matra, has a boost/glide trajectory and can be launched from mobile launcher. Fired against targets such as aircraft and missiles, the maximum range of the missile is 8km up to 5000m altitude at the a speed of Mach 2.3. This is an all-weather, low altitude mobile air defense missile weapon system designed to counter air saturation attacks. It is equipped with digital radio command missile line of sight to target line of sight. Crotale has a single stage solid propelled rocket motor [designated R.440], and a 15 kg high explosive focused fragmentation warhead. A typical platoon consists of one Acquisition and Co-ordination Unit (ACU) and two to three firing units, with a battery having two platoons. The system cannot operate on the move, but takes less than 5 minutes to become operational once it has stopped. The missile can be launched within about 6.5 seconds after the target is detected. South Africa initiated the development of the system by the French company Thomson-CSF in 1964, and deliveries to South Africa were completed in 1973. In 1971 the French Air Force took an interest int he program, and by 1978 a total of 20 batteries had been delivered. Saudi Arabia became a customer starting in 1975. In 1975 Saudi Arabia ordered a new version of the Crotale, known as the Shahine, mounted on the chassis of the Giat Industries AMX-30 MBT. The system has a number of improvements over the standard Crotale. The Saudis also ordered the standard Crotale in late 1978 and an upgraded version in 1990 for their air force. In November 1988, at the second ASIANDEX exhibition in Beijing, the China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC) revealed the FM-80 land-mobile shelter-mounted surface-to-air missile system on two-axle trailers. The FM-80 is very similar in concept to the Crotale shelter-mounted version and its naval equivalent.

Builder Length Diameter Wing span Launch weight Propulsion Guidance 2.89 m 0.15 m 0.54 m 84 kg solid propellant rocket motor command control

Warhead Max speed

15 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing 750 m/s

Max effective altitude 5,000-5,500 m (depending upon target velocity) Min effective altitude 15 m Reaction time, sec Reload time intercept range Target altitude Single-Shot Kill Probability Radar(s) Detection range, km Emplace/displace time (min) Basic load on vehicle Support vehicles Chassis 4 (no reload missiles on board) radar vehicle 4 x 4 TEL 6.5 2 min (full 4-round load) maximum range >10,000 m minimum range 500 m (maximum) >5,000 m (minimum) 15 m 0.8 Thomson-CSF J-band monopulse radar 18.5

Air defense cannon tank Gepard Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard
Engine performance: 610 KW (830 HP) Weight: approx. 47 t Maximum speed: approx. 60 km/h Operating range: 420 km Crew: 3 Armament: Twin mounted automatic cannon 35 mm Rate of fire 550 shot for each tubing/min. Combat distance: 3,500 m

Javelin is a short-range, shoulder launched, close air defence guided weapon system. Its primary role is the protection of combat units and static locations against low level air attack. Javelin is an evolution of the Blowpipe system. It is carried in a Land-Rover and trailer or a Spartan, but is manportable over short distances. Being replaced by Starstreak HVM.
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Length 1.4m; Missile Diameter 76cm; Missile Weight 11.1 kgs; Max Range 4.5 kms; Warhead Weight 2.72 kgs; Max Altitude 3,000 feet; Max Speed Mach 1.7 +, Fuse Proximity or Impact; Guidance SACLOS; Mount Man Portable.

The Mistral, a fire and forget missile, equipped with a high technology infrared homing head, is fully autonomous after firing. Lightweight (20 kg), it reaches a speed of more than 800m/second (Mach 2.5) and its guidance accuracy, its manoeuvrability and its laser proximity or impact fuse triggered 3 kg warhead, ensure exceptional effectiveness against aircraft, helicopters and anti-ship missiles. More than 600 MISTRAL missiles have been fired under operational conditions with a success rate over 92%. Some 15,000 missiles have been ordered by eight European countries, eight in Asia-Pacific, four in South America and three in the Middle-East.

Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Fuze Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span 1988 5 km ( at 4 km effective against helicopters ) 1492 knots two stage solid propellant boost motor All-aspect Infra-red 3 kg HE tungsten ball Laser proximity 18 kg 1.80 m 90mm 180mm

Rapier Field Standard C (FSC)
The Rapier FSC system provides a Low Level Air Defence (LLAD) capability over the battlefield. It consists of a launcher with 8 ready to fire missiles and an electro-optical tracker (shown). Each fire unit can cover an Air Defence Area (ADA) of approximately 100 square kms.
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Guidance Semi Automatic to line Sight (SACLOS): Missile Diameter 13.3 cm; Missile Length 2.35m; Rocket Solid Fueled; Warhead High Explosive; Launch Weight 42kg; Speed Mach 2+; Ceiling 3,000m; Maximum Range Around 8 kms; Fire Unit Height 2.13m; Fire Unit Weight 1,227kg; Radar Height (in action) 3.37m; Radar Weight 243kg; Generator Height


The Swedish medium range RBS 23 BAMSE surface-to-air missile, developed by Bofors and Ericsson, is intended to provide air defense to vital targets such as air bases, command centers, and mobile army forces, by facing a number of threats: anti-radiation missiles and other stand-off weapons, fighter bombers, helicopters and transport aircraft. Pre-series production was scheduled to start in 1998, leading to series production being launched in 2000. The project is in jeopardy because of the austerity program, and the future of BAMSE will be decided by the cabinet. In 1993, the Swedish Government ordered full-scale development of the BAMSE Air Defence Missile System. BAMSE is a joint venture between Bofors Missiles and Ericsson Microwave Systems in which Bofors has the overall system responsibility. Series production will begin at the turn of the century. The system has all-weather capability and a missile range exceeding the stand-off distance for electro-optical controlled weapons. With an effective altitude coverage of more than 12 km and a range of 15 km, the BAMSE system is suitable not only for protection of vital military objects and manoeuvrable ground forces, but also for protection of infrastructure vital to an entire nation. In cases where a stand-off missile is released from an aircraft outside the range of the air defence system, BAMSE is still capable of defeating the attacking missile. A BAMSE battery comprises one Surveillance Co-ordination Center (SCC) and two to four Missile Control Centers (MCCs). The Surveillance Co-ordination Center (SCC) SCC has a 3D-surveillance radar with a characteristic 8 or 12 m high antenna mast which enables it to operate over terrain obstacles. The SCC includes such features as automatic tracking, continuous threat evaluation and combat co-ordination. Up to four MCCs can be individually co-ordinated by an SCC. It also has the capability to co-ordinate and control other types of Air Defence systems. The MCCs communicate with the SCC by cable, fibre optic cable or different types of radio. The distance to the SCC may vary, but 10 km can be regarded as a standard distance. The Missile Control Center (MCC) contains all the essential elements for Combat Control and Fire Control. The MCC is towed by a cross-country vehicle which also transports missiles for reloading. Deployment and fire preparations can be carried out in less than 10 minutes. The MCC Fire Control Radar, Thermal Imaging System, IFF and weather sensor are mounted on a stabilised platform on top of a raisable 8 metre high mast. Guidance of the missile in trajectory is carried out by the Fire Control Radar which is a further development of the Ericsson Eagle radar and operates on the Ka band, i.e. 3435 GHz. The capability of the MCC to acquire and track low-flying targets is considerably improved by the fact that it is possible to look over obstacles near the deployment site. Inside the NBC- and splinter-protected MCC, two operators are provided with a state-of-the-art situational awareness to enable optimal use of the system.

The missile launcher is located on the roof of the MCC and contains four ready-to-fire missiles. Complete reloading takes less than 3 minutes. The BAMSE missile has high acceleration and subsequently maintained high velocity, resulting in short time-of-flight, even at long ranges. The missile will maintain its high manoeuvrability right up to the range limit. The high velocity missile has a proximity fuze and an impact fuze. The warhead provides lethal effect against all types of aerial targets, from small, high velocity targets such as cruise missiles and anti-radiation missiles, to large low-speed targets such as transport aircraft.

Contractor Entered Service BAMSE SCC Function Cabin Protection Crew Radar Frequency Instrumented range Altitude coverage IFF Radar Surveillance and Combat Co-ordination Truck-mounted 20 ft (ISO) standard container Against splinter and NBC 1-2 Ericsson Giraffe AMB 3D radar C (G) -band 30, 60, 100 km More than 20,000 metres Mounted back-to-back on radar antenna

BAMSE MCC Function Cabin Protection Crew Tracking radar Frequency Range Other sensors IFF Combat Control & Fire Control Towed, air, sea and land transportable Against splinter and NBC 1-2 Based on Ericsson Eagle radar Ka (K) -band 30 km Thermal Imaging System, Weather Sensor Built-in IFF antenna.

BAMSE Missile Velocity Manoeuvrability High velocity out to effective range Very high within effective range

Effective missile range 15 km (+) Effective missile altitude coverage Guidance Warhead Fuze Target types Up to 15,000 metres Command to Line-Of-Sight (CLOS) guidance Combined function of fragmentation and shaped charge Proximity fuze and Impact fuze Attack aircraft, bombers and transport aircraft, combat and transport helicopter, stand-off missiles (CM, ARM, etc.) and guided bombs

RBS 70
The RBS 70 is one of Bofors most well-known and established air defence system ever. This air defence missile system is operational in 13 customer countries all over the world. In addition to the Army system, it is also operational in some countries in other services as Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. The RBS 70 has been under constant improvement adapted to the most sophisticated future threat and using the latest solutions in missile technology. The RBS 70 was initially developed for the Swedish Armed Forces requiring:
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Long intercept range in the head-on sector High accuracy and kill probability Immune to all known hostile and natural jamming Down to the ground capability Command to Line of Sight Growth potential to night capability

Bofors selected laser guidance solution in order to fulfil these essential requirements. RBS 70 was the first laser guided defence missile system in the world, which means we have a long experience in this technology. From the very first, the RBS 70 was developed as a complete missile system and also given a potential of integration with most wheeled and tracked vehicles. The RBS 70 is superior to competitive man-portable air defence missile systems. Because of its 7 km intercept range in the head-on sector range it really belongs to a class other than the VSHORAD. In its basic configuration the RBS 70 comprises a tripod, sight and missile. In a complete system configuration several fire units can be connected to a surveillance radar enabling all C3I functions. A number of radar options with ready interface are available. And automatic threat evaluation is a part of the combat control at two separate levels. If RBS 70 isn’t interfaced with a surveillance radar it can operate autonomously. In the RBS 70 VLM (Vehicle Launched Missile) for wheeled and tracked applications, the RBS 70 can easily be dismounted and used independently. With a Clip-on Night Device, designated COND, the RBS 70 can operate 24 hours a day. A complete RBS 70 fire unit consisting of the weapon itself, COND and Battlefield Management Terminal (BMT) requires only batteries as power supply. No cooling gas is required. The Missile Mk 2 operates with the most modern control method in missile guidance, the Linear Quadratic Method, based on the Kalman Theory. The missile’s shaped charge is surrounded by more than 3 000 tungsten pellets. The jet of the shaped charge can penetrate any aerial threat. And if the target is carrying armour the penetration will be followed immediately by a severe behind the armour effect. In some intercept situations the combined effect of shaped charge and tungsten pellets will cause a devastating effect. The laser operated proximity fuze is, like the rest of the system, unjammable. The high system reliability with the latest missile is more than 0.93 verified by big customers as the Swedish and Norwegian Armed Forces.

Guidance method Effective range Height coverage Deployment time Reloading time incl. new firing Propulsion Fuze Warhead Kill probability Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Speed Radar(s) 4-5 Mach 1.6 Ericsson PS-70R Giraffe G/H-band radar Laser beam riding missile 7,000 m 4,000 m 30 sec Less than 7 sec Booster and sustainer with smokeless solid propellant Laser proximity fuze with impact function. Disconnectable by operator. Combined with prefragmentation and shaped charge (armour piercing) >90 % in the head-on sector.

Emplace/displace time 1 min (min) Support vehicles Chassis Weight sight stand missile (in container) Night Sight (Clip-on Night Device) 35 kg 25 kg 26.5 kg Easy mechanical clip-on with same system performance as during daytime. No alignment. Closed-loop cooling system. 8 -12 m m IRwavelength. Can be connected. Interface with automatic queries included in design. Various C3I-concepts available. 4 x 4 radar vehicle Tripod firing stand


The ROLAND 2 weapon system is intended for anti-aircraft defence of armoured and mechanized the units to counter aircraft flying to nearly Mach 1.5 and hovering helicopters. ROLAND is generally employed either in complement of the coverage of HAWK defense of zones and corridors not defended by the HAWK, or in prolongation of the HAWK front. ROLAND ensures the overall defense of a zone of 100 km2 vis-a-vis a threat consisted by a patrol of 4 planes or 2 patrols acting at more than 20 second intervals. Deployed on a tracked vehicle derived from the tank AMX 30, it comprises a radar with a range of 16 km, a sighting tube with an infra-red locator that measures the difference between the missile in flight and the line of sight of the fire control radar, and a computer antenna for remote control Two arm-beams for launching carry each one a missile in its launching tube, and two ammunition stores for munitions each contain one 4 shot mechanism forautomatic unloading of the arm-beam. The crew of the vehicle consists of three man. Three operating modes are available in the ROLAND 2: the optical mode; the mode radar; and the optical mode recopy-radar or radar-recopy-optics. Whatever operating mode is chosen, the target is detected by the radar, search in site and the continuation of the target after acquisition is carried out manually in radar mode. In the third mode, one of the means of continuation is controlled to the different one, which facilitates their communication. After the firing, the optics or the radar remain pointed at the target, the computer generates the commands for guidance by using two different groups of measurements: starting from the measurement angular velocities of pointing and programmed values of the distance precise alignment is obtained while adding to the result preceding the commands necessary to the correction by the real variations of the missile compared to the axis of aiming measured by the infra-red goniometer (optical mode), or compared to the direction of the target the commands are transmitted to the missile by the transmitter of remote control. The missile is ready with the shooting inside its container (tactical packing), itself placed under the arms launchers of the tank. The vehicle has two missiles ready for firing and eight in the trunks. The American ROLAND program was canceled in September 1981. Previously, low-rate production (LRP) had been approved in FY 79 and FY 80. The initial LRP contracts were let in October 1979, with planned procurement based upon the eventual production of fire units and missiles to support a four-battalion force structure concept. Subsequent budget decisions by President Carter reduced quantities at first to a two-battalion force, then to one battalion. The DOD budget approved by President Reagan in March 1981 originally redirected the program back to four battalions, until it was decided to terminate this effort.


Surface to Air (SAM) Range Altitude, (m) Basic load on vehicle Detection range, km Reaction time, sec Firing time, sec Speed Reload time Probability of hit Warhead Command guidance Radar(s) Emplace/displace time (min) Support vehicles Chassis

Roland II maximum: 6 000 m minimal: 700 to 2 000 m according to the Ceiling 5,500 10 missiles (2 per launcher) 16.5 4-10 1st shooting: 8 to 10 seconds later shooting: 2 to 6 seconds Mach 1.6 approximately 10 second 80% HE hollow charge RF SACLOS or CLOS Siemens/Thomson-CSF D-band pulse-Doppler search radar, Thomson-CSF J-Band monopulse Doppler tracking radar 3 None AMX-30 , Marder APC, trucks, or in fixed shelters

Sea Wolf
Sea Wolf is a high speed close-range anti-missile with a guidance system of semiautomatic command to line of sight with radar and/or infra-red missile and target tracking. Seawolf is the only widely used missile in the world that was designed specifically to kill incoming anti-ship missiles. This closein defense system is designed to handle antiship missiles in speeds up to Mach 2. The Seawolf missile has successfully destroyed the Exocet missile. It is fitted in Type 22 (Batch 1, 2 and 3) Frigates. The Duke Class Type 23 Frigates have had BAe's vertical launch Seawolf system installed and tested. The missiles are fitted into sealed canisters in a 32cannister silo. Missile exhaust gases are directed up and out the sides of the canister. The missile uses a thrust vectoring boost motor for getting the missile up, out and turned over, then the main motor ignites. The thrust vector and boost motor unit is jettisoned and thereby increases per missile firing costs a compared to other missiles. It is expected that this VLS will be installed on all Type 23 frigates. In late 1997 the MoD invited initial expressions of interest in a proposed Seawolf mid-life update.

Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Mach 2+ 6.5km (4.04 miles) or 10km (6.2 miles) in vertical-launch 4.7-3050m (15-10,000ft) altitude limit 1.90m (6ft 2.8in) 0.30m (11.8in) 0.45m (1ft 5.7in) Total round 82-kg (180.4-lb) HE-fragmentation

Starstreak HVM
Starstreak HVM (High Velocity Missile) continues the development path of both Blowpipe and Javelin. It can be shoulder launched, fired from the Lightweight Multiple Launcher (LML) or vehicle borne on the Alvis Stormer APC which has an 8 round launcher (12 reload missiles can be carried inside the vehicle). Starstreak is designed to counter threats from very high performance low flying aircraft and fast pop-up type strikes by attack helicopters.
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Missile Length 1.39m; Missile Diameter 0.27m; Missile Speed Mach 3+; Max Range 5 kms; Min Range 300m

The missile is boosted to maximum velocity by a two-stage propulsion system at which point three darts, each with an impact fuze, are released and are guided on to the target by the operator. HVM offers a high kill probability against fixed- and rotary-wing targets including pop-up helicopters. While the SL and LML configurations provide great flexibility in terms of deployment options, the Army’s highly mobile, armoured vehiclebased SP version has been specifically designed to provide close air defence of armoured formations.

Air Defence Alerting Device
The Air Defence Alerting device is a passive air defence alerter designed to work in conjunction with the HVM missile system. Operating as an infra red search and tracking system in the 8 - 14 micron waveband, the alerter is designed to operate against low and fast moving fixed wing aircraft, as well as the latest generation of attack helicopters. The alerter can be ground mounted to support shoulder launched / LML HVM or vehicle mounted on the Stormer HVM vehicle.

Aspide Mk1/Mk2
The Italian Aspide, basically a licensed version of the American Sparrow, is similarly employed as both an air-to-air and surface-to-air missile, and in the later role it is launched from both ships and ground platforms. The AIM-7E Sparrow entered service in 1962 and was widely used as a standard for other variants such as the Sky Flash (UK) and Aspide (Italy). Alenia Difesa offers a complete range of systems, including the air to air and surface to air systems based on Aspide missile (Spada, Skyguard, Albatros, ARAMIS). The Chinese PL-11 medium-range AAM is based on the Aspide, which was acquired by China in the late 1980s for use in the air-to-air roles, and as with the American and Italian version, subsequently in the LY-60 system modified for both ground and naval air defence applications. In reaction to the Tiananmen Square massacre, the European Council--an EU decision-making body comprised of ministers from EU member countries--imposed several sanctions in June 1989, including "an embargo on trade in arms with China." The deliveries of Italian Aspide air-to-air missiles appear to have been made in connection with pre-embargo agreements. Although a contract for the Aspide system has been signed with Italian firm Alinea, the government in Rome had not given its permission to export the missiles to Cyprus, fearing the deployment would only fuel existing tensions. Through Alenia Difesa, Finmeccanica offers a complete range of systems, including the surface to air systems based on the Aspide missile (Spada, Skyguard, Albatros, ARAMIS);

Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Ceiling/b> Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Selenia 1987 75 km 8000 m above the launch point Mach 4 / 4680 km/h One SNIA-Viscosa solid-propellant rocket motor Selenia monopulse semi-active radar homing 72.75 lb ( 33 kg ) SNIA Difesa e Spazio blast/fragmentation : doppler proximity- and direct action-fuzed 485 lb ( 220 kg ) 230 kg 12 ft, 1.67 in ( 3.70 m ) 3.65 m

Diameter Fin Span

8 in ( 203 mm ) 210 mm 3 ft, 3.4 in ( 1.00 m ) same

Specifications - Skyguard SAM
Capacity discovery radar N. fire channels N. ready missiles to the launch Time reaction arranges The maximum capacity Minimal capacity 20 Km 2 12 11 sec 10 Km 750 m

The maximum quota 3.5 Km approximately Guidance system Weight of the missile maximum speed of the missile Single-shot hit probability (SSKP) homing semiactive 220 Kg approximately 650 m/sec 80%

Aspide Mk1/Mk2
The Italian Aspide, basically a licensed version of the American Sparrow, is similarly employed as both an air-to-air and surface-to-air missile, and in the later role it is launched from both ships and ground platforms. The AIM-7E Sparrow entered service in 1962 and was widely used as a standard for other variants such as the Sky Flash (UK) and Aspide (Italy). Alenia Difesa offers a complete range of systems, including the air to air and surface to air systems based on Aspide missile (Spada, Skyguard, Albatros, ARAMIS). The Chinese PL-11 medium-range AAM is based on the Aspide, which was acquired by China in the late 1980s for use in the air-to-air roles, and as with the American and Italian version, subsequently in the LY-60 system modified for both ground and naval air defence applications. In reaction to the Tiananmen Square massacre, the European Council--an EU decision-making body comprised of ministers from EU member countries--imposed several sanctions in June 1989, including "an embargo on trade in arms with China." The deliveries of Italian Aspide air-to-air missiles appear to have been made in connection with pre-embargo agreements. Although a contract for the Aspide system has been signed with Italian firm Alinea, the government in Rome had not given its permission to export the missiles to Cyprus, fearing the deployment would only fuel existing tensions. Through Alenia Difesa, Finmeccanica offers a complete range of systems, including the surface to air systems based on the Aspide missile (Spada, Skyguard, Albatros, ARAMIS);

Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Ceiling/b> Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Selenia 1987 75 km 8000 m above the launch point Mach 4 / 4680 km/h One SNIA-Viscosa solid-propellant rocket motor Selenia monopulse semi-active radar homing 72.75 lb ( 33 kg ) SNIA Difesa e Spazio blast/fragmentation : doppler proximity- and direct action-fuzed 485 lb ( 220 kg ) 230 kg 12 ft, 1.67 in ( 3.70 m ) 3.65 m

Diameter Fin Span

8 in ( 203 mm ) 210 mm 3 ft, 3.4 in ( 1.00 m ) same

Specifications - Skyguard SAM
Capacity discovery radar N. fire channels N. ready missiles to the launch Time reaction arranges The maximum capacity Minimal capacity 20 Km 2 12 11 sec 10 Km 750 m

The maximum quota 3.5 Km approximately Guidance system homing semiactive Weight of the missile 220 Kg approximately maximum speed of the missile Single-shot hit probability (SSKP) 650 m/sec 80%

The Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) is a state of the art, highly manoeuvrable and combat effective weapon. Many combat aircraft are currently equipped with radar-guided AIM-120 AMRAAM for long range engagements and the AIM-9 Sidewinder for close combat. The two missiles are an ill-matched pair, since nearly four decades separates their origins. construction. While AMRAAM is highly effective at ranges between 5-50 kilometers, its usefulness diminishes rapidly at a shorter ranges. A rival to the American-built AIM-9X Sidewinder, ASRAAM is equipped with a Raytheon-Hughes infrared seeker which is the baseline for the company's AIM-9X seeker. The company developed an infrared seeker featuring a unique sapphire dome as part of an engineering-manufacturing-development and production effort valued at $215 million. This ASRAAM seeker played a part the company's competitive win of the AIM9X missile contract that could lead to some $5 billion in business over the next 20 years. ASRAAM was initiated in the 1980's by Germany and the United Kingdom, but the two countries were unable to agree on the details of the joint-venture. Germany left the ASRAAM project in the early 1990s, and in the spring of 1995 initiated an improved version of the Sidewinder, the IRIS-T (Infra Red Imagery Sidewinder-Tail controlled) built by Bodensee Geraetetechnik GmBH (BGT). This decision was largely motivated by new insights into the performance of the Russian AA- 11 Archer missile carried by the MiG-29s which Germany inherited during reunification. The Luftwaffe concluded that the AA-11's performance had been seriously underestimated -- the AA-11 turned out to be superior to the Sidewinder AIM-9L in all respects: homing head field of view, acquisition range, maneuverability, ease of designation, and target lock-on. The Germans concluded that the ASRAAM demonstrated a serious lack of agility compared to the Russian Archer. The British Government has spent 636 million pounds (about one billion dollars) since 1992 developing and industrializing ASRAAM. The first ASRAAM was delivered to the RAF [Royal Air Force] in late 1998. It will be used to equip the RAF's Tornado F3 and Harrier GR-7 before the missile becomes the British Eurofighter standard short-range weapon. In January 1995 British Aerospace Dynamics, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England, was awarded a letter contract with a ceiling amount of $10,933,154 for foreign comparative testing [FCT] of the ASRAAM Missile. The purpose of the testing is to gather data to determine if the missile meets AIM-9X operational requirements. Work was performed in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England (50%), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (25%), and China Lake, California (25%), and was completed by June 1996. The tests focused on the risk areas of the ASRAAM: focal plane array effectiveness, seeker signal processing, warhead effectiveness, rocket motor testing, and kinematic/guidance ability to support the lethality requirements of the AIM-9X. After several modifications to the scope of the FCT, the program assessed four ground-to-air sorties, 19 air-to-air captive carry sorties, four programmed missile launches, eight static warhead tests, and four rocket motor case

tests. The resulting assessment was that the ASRAAM (as is) could not meet the AIM-9X operational requirements in high off-boresight angle performance, infrared countercountermeasures robustness, lethality, and interoperability. Subsequently, Hughes and BAe proposed an improved "P3I ASRAAM" using thrust-vectoring to provide increased agility and to carry a heavier warhead. In February 1998 the British-French Matra British Aerospace consortium [formed in 1996] won a multi-million dollar contract to supply the ASRAAM missile to the Australian Air Force to be used on the F/A-18 Hornet. marking the first export sale. The first missiles should be delivered between 1999 and the year 2000.

Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span British Aerospace 1998 ? 8 nm ( 300 m to 15 km ) Mach 3+ One dual-thrust solid-propellant rocket motor strapdown inertial and Imaging Infrared 22.05 lb ( 10 kg ) blast/fragmentation 220.5 lb ( 100 kg ) 8 ft, 11.5 in ( 2.73 m ) 6.6 in ( 0.168 m ) 17.7 inches ( 45 cm )

Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM)
Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM) is intended to be the principle airto-air weapon system for Eurofighter. The combination of Eurofighter and a missile whose range and no escape zone exceeds any other current or projected system over the next decade will ensure the enhanced capability of the RAF in any future conflict. BVRAAM is designed to provide performance, particularly kinematic performance, several times that of existing Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (MRAAMs). The increased performance will enable pilots to fully exploit the capabilities of their new aircraft and dominate long range air defence engagements in a manner that no lesser a solution can achieve. There is no active radar guided air -to-air missile in service with the Royal Air Force. Sky Flash is a semi-active missile and requires the launch aircraft to illuminate the target throughout the time of flight of the missile, which makes it vulnerable to counter attack. Although Eurofighter will enter service with an AMRAAM capability, BVRAAM will give Eurofighter the capability to engage multiple targets simultaneously, independent of parent aircraft manoeuvre, at greater range than AMRAAM and in all weathers day or night. The UK’s Eurofighter partners (Germany, Italy and Spain) and Sweden have an interest in procuring a missile meeting these requirements and have been fully involved in the tender assessment, with representatives collocated at Abbey Wood. A single fighter, equipped with an operational load of BVRAAM missiles, has the potential to destroy even the most maneuvrable of fighters well before they reach combat range, and simultaneously engage bombers at long range. Targets are prioritised prior to launch, and the missiles are fired towards the predicted interception points. Meanwhile target information can be updated, via the data-link, throughout the initial flight - either from the launch aircraft or from a third party such as AWACs. Tactical information on the missile can also be received by the controlling aircraft. At the appropriate time, BVRAAM’s active radar seeker autonomously searches for and locks onto the target. The missile is now fully autonomous, making its own decisions to home in on the target, despite any evasive manoeuvres, or decoys or sophisticated electronic countermeasures. The BVRAAM Invitation to Tender (ITT) was issued in 1995. Bids were received from two consortia: one led by BAe (now Matra BAe Dynamics Ltd (MBD)), offering a new system called Meteor and one led by Hughes UK Ltd (now Raytheon Systems Ltd (RSL)), offering a development of the Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (AMRAAM) called Future Medium Range Air to Air Missile (FMRAAM). The Meteor prime contractor is MBD with partners Alenia, CASA, DASA-LFK, GEC Marconi and SAAB. The FMRAAM prime contractor is RSL with Raytheon Missile Systems, Aerospatiale, RO, Fokker and Thomson Thorn. Raytheon offered FMRAAM (Future Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile) for the full BVRAAM requirement. Moreover, at the MoD's request for a lower cost and lower risk

staged-approach to BVRAAM, Raytheon have offered ERAAM (Extended Range Air-toAir Missile) which provides 80% of the performance of BVRAAM at 50% of the price. Raytheon has also offered an upgrade path for the AMRAAMs that the MoD will purchase to initially arm Eurofighter, called AMRAAM B+. Meteor had been bid by Matra BAe Dynamics [MBD] to meet the UK MoD’s Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system. Meteor is being offered as a pan-European solution for the EF-2000 and Gripen. The Meteor team comprises Matra BAe Dynamics as the Missile Prime Contractor, with Marconi Electronic Systems taking responsibility in the guidance systems as the Seeker Prime Contractor. The active radar seeker is the brains of the missile, and is the result of Dynamics Division’s experience in high technology guidance systems. Other industrial partners are Alenia, Marconi’s Italian joint-venture partner, DASA LFK of Germany, SAAB of Sweden and CASA from Spain, making it a truly European project. As such, by sharing development and aircraft integration costs Meteor provides a reliable and cost effective solution to Europe’s requirements for BVRAAM and MRAAM (Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles). There have been a number of changes to the Meteor configuration, the most obvious being the addition of mid-mounted wings. Meteor will be fitted with a solid propellant variable flow ducted ramjet which the Meteor partners see as essential in delivering the performance characteristics necessary to meet the threat. The initial tender assessment identified significant risks within both proposals that precluded down selection and award of a Development and Production Contract. A 12month Project Definition and Risk Reduction phase was introduced with each bidder, at a total cost of £10 million, and contracts were placed in July 1997. Revised proposals were received in May 1998 and assessment is underway with contract award scheduled for late 1999. In May 1998 Secretary of Defense, William Cohen gave assurances to British Defence Secretary, George Robertson that the US would ensure a fair international competitive environment for future fighter competitions and that the US would allow the marketing of AMRAAM-based BVRAAMs on Eurofighter to any nation approved for AMRAAM.

Magic R.550
The largest single competitor for Sidewinder in Western Europe, the Matra Magic R.550 has better design and performance requirements. It can be fired at any speed (no minimum), meaning that it is a prime candidate for the arming of attack helicopters. Magic is slightly larger in diameter than Sidewinder, but the launch installation components in the carrying aircraft were wisely made interchangeable. The tail fins of the R.550 are free to rotate around the rocket's nozzle, providing of spin-stabilization. The warhead weighs 12.5 kg, and can be delivered at ranges of more than 6.2 miles.

Major operational capabilities : Builder : In-service in the French Air Force : Propellant Propulsion time : Range Speed Length / Diameter : Weight Warhead Payload : Guidance Fuze Main user nations : Possible carrying aircraft : All-directions missile Matra 1988 Solid propellant 2.2 s 8 miles Mach 2.7 / 500 m/s in addition to carrier’s speed 2.75 m / 0.16 m 196 lbs / 89 kg HE blast fragmentation 12.5 kg (fragmentation) all-aspect infrared radio frequency (RF) proximity Greece, Egypt, Spain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates All French Air Force and Navy fighters

The Matra BAe Dynamics Mica is an innovative lightweight missile that can both intercept incoming missiles and fire at multiple targets. The Mica is an advanced medium-range missile that is the French counterpart to the more capable American AMRAAM missile. Variants include active radar and infra-red homing, providing a unique ability to select target-engagement options for both short and medium-range intercepts. The 4A active anti-air seeker was developed by Dassault Electronique within the framework of a European cooperation, both for the Mica air-to-air missile and, in a slightly different version, for Eurosam's Aster surface-to-air missile.

Guidance Propellant Fuze Range Speed Length Weight Warhead Command, inertial and Active radar or imaging IR Solid propellant Active Radar 50 km / 28 miles Mach 4 10 ft 243 lbs 12 kg HE blast fragmentation

Skyflash is a medium-range radar-guided air-to-air missile. Designed to operate in severe electronic countermeasures conditions, the Skyflash is the RAF's major air defence weapon. Four are carried by the Tornado F3 under the fuselage. The Skyflash was a development of the AIM-7E2 Sparrow, retaining its aerodynamics, with a cruciform of delta control wings mounted on the mid-point of the cylindrical body. It also features a compatible cruciform of delta stabilising surfaces at the tail. The weapon entered RAF service in 1978, originally for use by the Phantom.

Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Propulsion Guidance Warhead Launch Weight Length Diameter Fin Span British Aerospace 1978 28 miles ( 45 km ) Mach 4 One Aerojet Mk52 Mod 2 or Rocketdyne Mk38 Mod 4 solid-propellant rocket motor Marconi XJ521 monopulse Semi-Active Radar Homing 87 lb ( 39.5-kg ) HE fragmentation with contact, delay action fuses. 425 pounds ( 192.8 kg ) 12 ft, 1 in ( 3.68 m ) 8 in ( 0.203 m ) 3 ft, 4 in ( 1.02 m )

Super 530D
This missile, with its unusual fin configuration, was capable of outflying any other air-toair missile of its day with the sole exception of the Phoenix. Its Butalane composite propellant rapidly accelerates this missile to an incredible Mach 4.5, and sustains this speed for four seconds until burnout. At this speed the long low-aspect wings are not necessary, as maneuvering is performed by the rather strangely shaped tail surfaces. It is the heavyweight of the Matra line, weighing approximately 529 pounds at launch. Matra is now working to replace the Super 530D with the similar, but much slimmer, Matra MICA.

Manafacturer Date Deployed Range Speed Guidance Warhead Propulsion time Launch Weight Length Diameter Tailspan Matra 1988 37 km Mach 3.7 EMD Super AD26 semi-active radar homing 66.1 lb ( 31 kg ) HE fragmentation with radar proximity fuze ( active radar fuze for D model) 8 seconds 275 kg 3.81 m 0.26 m 2 ft, 1.2 in ( 0.64 m ) forward fins 2 ft 11.4 in ( 0.88 m ) aft fins

ALARM (Air-Launched Anti-Radar Missile)
The ALARM (Air-Launched Anti-Radar Missile) is designed to destroy ground-based air defence radars and surface-to-air missile radars, thereby providing support to attack aircraft while penetrating hostile air defences. It does this by homing on to radar transmissions and following them down to their source. It entered service in the early 1990s and proved very effective in the Gulf War. A Tornado GR1 can carry seven ALARMs. One unique feature is the optional capability to loiter over a target area while continuing to search for targets. It provides attack aircraft with an on-board suppression capability which will enable them to press home attacks against heavily defended targets with a high probability of success. When fired at an enemy radar source, the enemy can often detect the incoming missile and switch off their equipment, thereby depriving the missile of a target. ALARM will ascend to 40,000 feet from where it will deploy a parachute and descending slowly, using its seeker to search for any radiation source. Once the target has been acquired, the missile released the parachute and falls under gravity to the target. One other advantage with this system is that if the target shuts down before the missile has destroyed it, the missile remembers the location and will still hit the target. ALARM also has several direct modes, the an one allowing the missile to be fired directly at the SAM once the emitter has been located. Manufacturer: British Aerospace / Marconi Length: 13' 9" /4.24 m. D: 23 cm. Span: 73 cm. Weight: 200 kg.

Exocet AM.39 / MM.40
Exocet missiles started in development in 1967, originally as the ship-launched variant MM 38 which entered service in 1975. The air-launched version, AM 39, was developed later starting in 1974 and entering service with the French Navy in 1979. The missile is designed to attack large warships. A block 2 upgrade programme was carried out from the late 1980s until 1993, and introduced an improved digital active radar seeker and upgraded inertial navigation and control electronics. The Exocet has four clipped delta wings at mid-body and four raked clipped-tip moving delta control fins at the rear. The missile is 4.7 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm and a wingspan of 1.1 m. The missile weighs 670 kg and has a 165 kg HE shaped charge fragmentation warhead. Guidance in the mid-course phase is inertial, followed by an active radar terminal phase. There is also a radar altimeter to control the sea-skimming trajectory, at around 10.0 m until the terminal phase when, in calm sea conditions, the missile can descend to 3.0 m or so. The solid propellant motor gives Exocet a range of about 50 km, but when released from 10,000 m (32,800 ft) the range achieved was reported to be 70 km.

Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Service France, Pakistan, Abu Dhabi, Argentina, Singapore, Brazil, Oman, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Aerospatiale 1977 580 cm 34.8 cm 113.5 cm 855 kg impact with delay- and proximity-fuzed high-explosive shaped charge, 165 kg : Condor solid propellant booster, 2 s burn; Helios solid propellant sustainer, 150 s burn Mach 0.93 65 km ESD ADAC X-band monopulse active radar homing


APACHE is Europe's first operational conventional warhead air-to-ground missile which can be launched from outside of the range of all anti-aircraft defences. It can hit a variety of targets, day or night, and is fired from 140 km away thus reducing the dangers for the pilot and crew. This stealthy air-to-ground standoff missile can be launched from the Mirage 2000, or the Rafale, both aircraft of the French Air Forces to neutralise enemy air bases and ensure the control of the skies necessary for troop deployment. The APACHE AP weighs 1,230 kg and is powered by a TRI 60-30 turbojet, and is designed for carrying and ejecting ten KRISS sub-munitions to neutralise airfield runways. The detonation of each of the ten KRISS sub-munitions, which are designed to penetrate concrete, can be programmed in order to prevent repair work being carried out and thus neutralise the airfield for a longer period of time. The APACHE AP is a stealth missile, with a low level of vulnerability achieved by its radar and infrared profiles (materials, shapes and propulsion), its contour hugging flight at very low altitude (weak signature "drowned out" by ground echoes) and the optimisation of its flight path with regard to defence systems (extremely detailed mission planning). The quality of its navigational abilities combine with its terminal accuracy to make it extremely effective. The APACHE IZ (Interdiction area) also forms a part of the 1997-2002 national military plan. On October 30, 1997 Matra BAe Dynamics (a subsidiary of the Lagardère and British Aerospace groups), Europe's leading company in guided weapons, won an order worth approximately 1.5 billion francs from the French Ministry of Defence's Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (DGA), for one hundred APACHE AP missiles. The assembly of the missiles will take place in France at Matra BAe Dynamics' Selles Saint-Denis (Loir-et-Cher) site, with its La Croix Saint-Ouen (Oise) and Salbris (Loir-et-Cher) sites supplying components. The firing tests at the Landes Test Centre (France) and in Sweden represented the culmination of the development phase, which began in 1989. The first qualification firing was successfully carried out in Sweden in August 1997.

Country of Origin Similar Aerial Platform Role Armament Length Span France Tomahawk, AGM-86 Cruise, air-to-ground attack Submunitions and HE warhead 16 ft, 4 in (5.01 m) 8 ft, 3 in (2.53 m)

AS 37 Martel AS 37 Armat AJ.168 Martel
The AS 37 is the product of a collaboration between the British firm of Hawker-Siddely, and Matra in France. The AS.37, employed by both the British and the French, uses a movable receiver aerial to lock onto the hostile radar emission and send guidance signals to the small set of control fins behind the wings. Length of the AS.37 version Martel is reported at 412 centimeters, and it weighs 1213 lbs. at launch. Speed is high subsonic, although it is claimed to break the sound barrier in a steep attack. The updated version of the AS-37, known as the Armat, was introduced in 1984 using the same airframe but with an updated radar seeker. The somewhat shorter, television-guided AJ.168 version of the Martel is used only by the British. The firms Electronique Marcel Dassault (France) and Marconi (UK) took part in developing the missile. The former created the guidance system for the AS- 37 version and the latter the electronics for the AJ-168 version.

Contractor Year Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Service Matra 1984 standoff anti-radar missile 1.2 m 3.9 m 0.40 m 550 kg 1025 km/h 120 km two stage solid propellant rocket motors, 2.4 s boost, 22.2 s sustain passive radar homing proximity-fuzed with delayed impact high-explosive blast fragmentation, 150 kg France, Kuwait, Iraq.

AS.15 Specifications
Contractor Year Type Modifications Service Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Aerospatiale 1985 standoff anti-ship missile AS.15 - basic missile AS.15TT - all-weather version France, Saudi Arabia. 0.58 m 2.3 m 0.18 m 100 kg 1000 km/h 15 km smokeless nitramite solid propellant rocket motor, 45 second burn radio commands impact-fuzed with delay high-explosive, 30 kg

The AS-30L missile (launch weight 520 kg, warhead weight 240 kg) has a maximum airspeed of Mach 1.5 and a range of fire from 3 to 10 km. The power plant is a solidpropellant missile engine with two degrees of thrust. Missile control is hydrodynamic with the help of jet stream reflectors. Employment of the missiles from French Jaguar aircraft in the Persian Gulf war proved very effective. In the course of combat sorties, AS-30L launches usually were made from a dive at an altitude of 1.3 km (dive entry altitude 2.2 km).

Aerospatiale Year In-service in the French Armed Forces : Type Typical mission Modifications Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Ceiling Minimum range Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Ignition : 1973 1985 (on Jaguar), 1993 (on Mirage 2000D), 1995 (on upgraded Super Etendard) short- to medium-range standoff missile Bombardment of targets requiring high precision AS.30 - basic missile AS.30L - laser-guided version [Data for AS.30L] 1.0 m 3.7 m 0.34 m 520 kg 1700 km/h 10000 m 3 km 11 km two stage solid propellant rocket motors, composite booster, double-based sustainer semi-active laser homing impact-fuzed high-explosive semi-armor piercing, 240 kg Can pierce 2 meters of concrete before blowing up Impact fuse with possible retarded spark

Special related equipment :

Laser pod Atlis (Thomson-CSF) Laser designation pod with thermal camera (Thomson-CSF)

Major operational capabilities :

High accuracy on target (1m) with ground or airborne laser lightning (pod Atlis or PDL-CT) Success rate of 97% for about 60 missiles launched in the Gulf in 1991 and in Bosnia in 1995

Number of units produced : Possible carrying aircraft : Service

More than 900 Mirage 2000D, Mirage 2000-5, F 16, Jaguar, Mirage F1, upgraded Super Etendard, Rafale France, Great Britain, South Africa, Egypt, Iraq, Germany, Peru, Switzerland, India.

PDL-CT (PDL-CT S) Thermal camera laser pod
Builder : In-service in the French Air Force : Length : Weight : Thomson-CSF Optronique 1993 (1999 for the PDL-CT S) 2.85 m 340 kg

Related armament : Major operational capabilities : Number of units produced : Main user nations : Possible carrying aircraft :

AS-30 laser ; 1,000-kg BGL ; GBU Detection, target identification, night and day laser guidance of weapons 50 planned for 2000 Italy, Saudi Arabia Mirage 2000D, Tornado

AS.34 Kormoran
The Kormoran combines range, accuracy, and hard-hitting power in one smooth, aerodynamic package. Air launched against ships or land targets, the Kormoran employs inertial guidance for cruising. When it reaches its target at the end of its 23 mile range, active radar homing takes over. Kormoran's 352 lb. warhead is delay fused, to allow it to penetrate up to 90mm of steel plate before detonating Kormoran 2 is the upgunned version of the successful Kormoran 1 guided missile. It has been adapted to the German Navy plane Tornado and can be deployed as a standoff weapon against surface vessels. The system utilizes top-notch seeker technology for target selection and works on the fire-and-forget principle; the range exceeds 30 kilometers.

Length Diameter Span Weight Speed Range 4.4 m. 34.4 cm. 100 cm. 600 kg. Mach 0.9 Up to 23 miles

BRIMSTONE utilises a mmW active radar seeker providing all-weather, 24 hour a day operation, whilst having virtually undetectable transmissions. The missile carries a high-lethality, tandem shaped charge warhead, capable of defeating all currently anticipated threats, including Main Battle Tanks (MBT’s) fitted with the latest Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA). The Royal Air Force needs a replacement for BL755, a weapon that was becoming increasingly ineffective against modern armour. It was to be carried on Tornado GR4/4A, Harrier GR7/T10, and Eurofighter, and be capable of defeating the present and future battlefield threat. The store had to be totally autonomous after launch (fire and forget), and operate by night or day in all weather conditions. The Staff Target for an Advanced Air-Launched Anti-Armour Weapon was originally endorsed in 1981. An Invitation to Tender followed, leading to a Risk Reduction Programme for two solutions. As a result of Options for Change and Treasury intervention however, the program was cancelled in 1990, only to be reinstated in 1992, following a study into the entire UK anti-armour capability. The requirements were presented to industry via a Cardinal Point Specification which, while demanding compliance against certain essential features, gave scope for innovation, novel ideas, or possibly off-the-shelf procurement. Five different compliant solutions were proposed by industry, comprising two unpowered glide dispensers, two missile-based weapons, and one a hybrid of both technologies. Bid assessment took place between June 1995 and February 1996, following which the Equipment Approvals Committee recommended that GEC-Marconi Radar and Defence Systems Ltd (GMRDS) should be awarded a contract based on their Brimstone weapon. Brimstone beat off competition from some of the best-known names in the international defence market. Hunting Engineering and Texas Instruments proposed SWAARM and Griffin 38 respectively. These were both glide dispensers that flew un-powered towards the target before deploying a large number of small munitions overhead to defeat intended targets. The British Aerospace proposal was a weapon system named Typhoon and was based on the ASRAAM air to air missile. The final contender was the Thomson Thorn TAAWS weapon, based on BL755 but with a small rocket motor on each submunition to accelerate it away from the aircraft. Brimstone is derived from the US Army Hellfire AGM-114F missile, with a weapon comprising three missiles and a launcher. Powered by a rocket motor it can seek and destroy targets many kilometres from launch point. A millimetric wave radar seeker developed by GMRDS achieves ground acquisition and target recognition, while

steerable fins guide the missile towards the target, with final impact causing a tandem shaped charge warhead to detonate. The first, smaller warhead nullifies reactive armour, allowing the follow-through warhead to penetrate the main armour. The contract value is £700 million with the total through-life cost of the weapon coming to just over £1 billion. The weapon enters service with the Royal Air Force in October 2001. Contractual milestones appear periodically throughout development to mark major achievements, such as design reviews and successful completion of trials. The prime contract and weapon Design Authority is Alenia Marconi Systems (formerly GEC-Marconi) based in Stanmore and, while experienced in defence programmes, this is their first time as a weapon prime contractor. Their major sub-contractor is Boeing North American based in Duluth, Georgia who supply the missile bus and launcher electronics assembly. Flight Refuelling Ltd is the Design Authority for the launcher structure with Air Log Ltd, producing the missile container. Development activities continue through to an in-service date of October 2001, and weapon deliveries run from early 2001 until mid 2006. In October 1998, it was announced that Brimstone had been nominated as one of the defence programs to become a pilot Integrated Project Team. Carrying a mandate to investigate gainsharing opportunities, the prime objectives being developed are to identify and capture significant performance, time and cost benefits over the life of the project. It was recognised fairly early in the process that due to the maturity of the design, increased performance would be difficult to achieve without additional risk. Efforts have therefore been concentrated on cost reduction and optimisation of timescales. The key issues currently being addressed in pursuit of the time/cost aims are restructuring inservice support, rationalisation of performance requirements, optimisation of capability for ISD, and minimising the impact of closure of the Boeing plant in Duluth with transfer of work to St Louis.

Storm Shadow SCALP EG Conventionally Armed Stand Off Missile (CASOM)
The Matra BAe Dynamics (MBD) Storm Shadow missile system has been selected for the RAF to meet SR (A) 1236, the Conventionally Armed Stand Off Missile (CASOM). The contract was awarded to MBD in February 1997 after an international competition with six other companies. The Storm Shadow missile system proposed by MBD is based on the flightproven Apache air vehicle, and is optimised to meet UK requirements. The Storm Shadow system will provide long range firepower for the Royal Air Force's Tornado, EF 2000 and Harrier GR7 aircraft, ensuring aircrews no longer to enter heavily defended enemy airspace in order to destroy high value targets. The French SCALP EG (Emploi Général / General Purpose) is the same weapon as Storm Shadow apart from national aspects related to both countries. The two similar, but not identical, Government technical requirements have been fully harmonised into a single common technical solution. The design was selected by the French government in December 1994 (APTGD programme) after a competition between Matra Défense and Aérospatiale. In January 1998 Matra BAe Dynamics (a subsidiary of the Lagardère and British Aerospace groups) received a major contract from the French Ministry of Defence for the mass-production of 500 SCALP cruise missiles. The SCALP E.G. will give Mirage 2000, Rafale and Eurofighter aircraft unprecedented stand-off fire power. The Storm Shadow is a stealth cruise missile of around 1,300 kg carrying a powerful conventional warhead. Storm Shadow is an air-launched, conventionally-armed, longrange, stand-off, precision weapon, which is deployable at night or day, in most weather and operational conditions. It will be able to destroy sensitive and highly protected targets (command bunkers, communications centers, etc.) with very great accuracy, with a range of over 250 kilometres after an entirely autonomous terrain-following flight at very low altitude. It is being developed to attack and destroy a wide spectrum of static, high value targets as listed below:
     

C3 (Command, Control and Communication) facilities airfield facilities port facilities ASM/ammo storage ships/submarines in port bridges.

Storm Shadow will be integrated onto Tornado GR4/4A, Harrier GR7/T10 and Eurofighter. It will be capable of employment in all theatres of conflict, and the warhead is optimised for use against hardened targets. The Storm Shadow missile requirement embodies the following key features:
       

very long range fire and forget, with fully autonomous guidance low level terrain following stealth design effective penetrator warhead high reliability all up round [ensures high system readiness] low cost of ownership.

The Storm Shadow weapon system comprises:
   

The operational missile and its All Up Round Container (AURC) Mission Planning Infrastructure Data Programming System the Ground/Air Training missile (GATM) and its AURC.

The Storm Shadow missile is derived from the Apache Anti Runway missile. Key elements of this proven technology have been retained for Storm Shadow, but the following major modifications are being introduced to meet the particular Storm Shadow requirements:

new guidance and navigation based on TERPROM [TERrain PROfile Matching] terrain navigation with an integrated GPS;  terminal guidance using imaging infra-red sensor and autonomous target recognition system;  the high lethality of the system is achieved by the use of a BROACH [Bomb Royal Ordnance Augmented CHarge] unitary warhead. The missile weighs approximately 1,300 kilograms and is just over five metres long. Its maximum diameter is under one metre, and with its wings deployed, under three metres. The first phase of the mission planning regime ensures that the missile navigates to the target with maximum survivability and then enters a robust target acquisition and terminal guidance phase. For complex and pre-determined missions, much of this data would have been pre-prepared earlier at the Command Headquarters. Following an Air Tasking Order, the Squadron would prepare the mission data file with the pre-planned data, together with the latest operational intelligence. On approaching the terminal phase, the missile will initiate a bunt manoeuvre, preselected during mission planning, to obtain the best combination of acquisition probability and lethality against the target. As the missile climbs, it will jettison its nose cover, thereby enabling the missile high resolution imaging infra-red sensor to view the target area ahead.

The missile’s image processor will compare the actual image features with a reference set of features, determined during mission planning. When a feature match is achieved the target will be acquired and the required aim point selection tracked and used as the reference for the missile terminal guidance. As the missile closes in on the target the acquisition process will be repeated with a higher resolution data set to refine the aim point. Tracking will continue against this refined aim point until the precise target location is identified. When engaging hard targets, such as Hardened Aircraft Shelters or bunkers, the missile will strike the target at the estimated optimum dive angle, selected during mission planning. On impact the detonation sequence commences. The precursor charge will perforate the target structure, and any soil covering, and the follow through penetrator warhead will continue to penetrate inside the target to be detonated after a pre-selectable fuse delay. Should the mission be against a target with potential high collateral damage, the mission will be aborted if the target identification and acquisition process is unsuccessful. In this case the missile will fly to a predetermined crash site. Major milestones in the future are:
   

air carriage clearance - July 1999 first guided firing - July 2000 design freeze - January 2001 In Service Date - Late 2001

The contract for the development and production of Storm Shadow was placed with Matra BAe Dynamics (UK) Ltd in February 1997 after a competitive tender exercise. This was one of the first contracts to be placed with this contractor. Matra BAe Dynamics (UK) Ltd is a subsidiary of Matra BAe Dynamics SAS, a company jointly owned by BAe plc and Lagardere SCA. Matra BAe Dynamics (France) Ltd has won the SCALP EG contract from the French Government. The two parts of Matra BAe Dynamics act as separate Prime Contractors and hold the individual Storm Shadow and SCALP EG contracts for their respective national Governments. This has resulted in an industry collaborative programme that has undertaken certain aspects of the work normally handled by both Governments, such as the harmonisation of national requirements and the merging of national procurement methods. These aspects are exclusively carried out by Matra BAe Dynamics by a fully integrated French and UK management and engineering team. This common solution is shared by the subcontractors’ base who only have a single subcontract which embraces the joint requirements. This has resulted in a collaborative programme which is largely transparent to both Governments, and attracts little of the procurement overhead often associated with Government collaborative programmes. This approach has also had the added benefit of driving down costs and enabled both Governments to obtain more weapons for their money.

KEPD 150 KEPD 350 MAW Taurus
KEPD 150 is a member of the TAURUS family of advanced long range, high precision stand-off weapon systems. It will provide the JAS 39 Gripen with an enhanced strike capability against a broad target spectrum. The accuracy and stand-off capability ensure highly effective weapons delivery while minimising the threat to aircraft and crew and largely avoiding collateral damage. The KEPD 150 successfully performed its first captive flight test on JAS 39 Gripen at the FMV Test Center in Linköping, Sweden, on 27 August 1998. The test was part of the definition phase contracted by the Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV). The KEPD 150 can be operational with the JAS 39 Gripen within five years. KEPD 150 has a high degree of commonality with the MAW TAURUS – KEPD 350 being in full scale development at TAURUS Systems GmbH for the German Air Force TORNADO under contract from the German BWB. The Swedish defense contractor Bofors is working with DASA on the development of a new cruise missile - the MAW Taurus KEPD 350, which will be fitted on the Tornado aircraft of the German Air Force. It can also be adapted for the Eurofighter. Delivery is scheduled for 2001. The project is managed by TAURUS Systems GmbH, a joint venture company owned by Dasa/LFK-Lenkflugkörper-systeme GmbH (67%) and Celsius AB, Bofors Missiles (33%). Whether the Taurus will be developed also for Sweden, which currently does not have any cruise missiles, is yet to be decided. The Taurus KEPD 350 is the first European Global Positioning System guided missile with large range (over 350 kilometers) against surface and point targets. The MAW Taurus possesses a modular avionics system, an infrared seeker, a Penetrator (Mephisto), and a turbo-fan engine for speeds greater than 0.8 Mach.

Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode turbo-fan 0.8 Mach over 350 kilometers Bofors + Chrysler-Daimler-Benz 2001

Single-shot hit probability

The Saab RBS15 family of long-range anti-ship missile systems is designed to meet future requirements in a variety of operational circumstances in open-sea engagements, anti-invasion defence and littoral warfare close to land or among islands. RBS15, which is in service in Sweden and with a number of export customers, can be easily installed on naval craft ranging in size from fast patrol boats upwards, on highly mobile and rapidly deployable trucks, and on aircraft. In all three cases, the missiles have the same intelligent, frequency-agile radar seeker, advanced navigation, guidance and altimetry electronics, and powerful defence penetration and hit capabilities. RBS15 is a fire-and-forget anti-ship missile with all-weather, day and night operational capability. The new-generation RBS15 Mk3 offers extended range and increased tactical flexibility compared with earlier versions. The system's features operational and tactical versatility with a very flexible trajectory, including a flight range of more than 200 km a large number of waypoints and altitudes extremely low sea-skimming with sea-state adaptation. It provides sophisticated target discrimination and selection with high resistance to electronic countermeasures and easy engagement planning with extensive decision support.

Sea Skua
The Sea Skua anti-surface missile was launched 12 times during the Gulf War - and registered 12 hits. Able to fire the Sea Skua, which was so successful during the Gulf war, the Lynx forms an integral part of the ships detection and weapon system and can project the influence of a ship over great distances with the key element of surprise. In addition to the Sea Skua the Lynx has the Sting Ray torpedo and the older technology but nevertheless most effective depth charge for anti-submarine warfare. The UK Ministry of Defence has problems maintaining three types of naval missile made by British Aerospace (BAe), the Sea Dart area air defence weapon, the Seawolf point defence missile and the helicopter-launched Sea Skua light anti-ship missile. These missiles all have problems with ageing components.

Contractor Year Type Wingspan Length Diameter Launch weight Max. speed Minimum range Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Service British Aerospace 1982 helicopter-launched anti-ship missile 0.72 m 2.5 m 0.25 m 145 kg 1050 km/h 2 km 25 km solid propellant rocket motor booster and sustainer I-band semi-active radar guidance delayed impact-fuzed high-explosive armored, 28 kg Great Britain, Germany, India, Turkey.

Eryx is a Short Range Anti-Armour Weapon (Heavy) or SRAAW(H). It is a portable system including the firing post, the tripod, the Mirabel thermal imager and the missile tube. It provides the infantry section and the armoured reconnaissance assault troop with an improved capability in accuracy and penetration. Fired from the shoulder or using the tripod, Eryx can defeat all modern static or moving tanks. With its tandem high explosive warhead, it is effective against bunkers, earth works, and armour targets even when equipped with explosive reactive armour (ERA). Eryx can operate in all weather conditions, in normal battlefield smoke and at night. Its high flexibility allows it to operate in open ground, wooded zones or an enclosed space in built-up areas. It can be transported in most Canadian combat vehicles. A practice inert missile is also available for training. Basic training is conducted by using the Eryx video interactive gunnery simulator (EVIGS). The Eryx precision gunnery simulator (EPGS) is another simulator used for advanced training.

1 gunner and 1 loader

Calibre missile: main warhead: Warhead: Weight firing post: tripod: thermal imager: missile tube: in tactical container: Range: Time of flight to maximum range: Guidance: Control:

137.4 mm 136 mm Tandem shaped charges high explosive (HE) 5 kg 5 kg 3.5 kg 12.5 kg 50 m to 600 m 4.3 seconds optically tracked, single wire semi-automatic command to line of sight thrust vector controlled

Missile velocity at launch: at 600 m: Rate of fire: Operating conditions: Sights: Manufacturers Eryx: Mirabel thermal imager: EVIGS: EPGS:

18 m/s 245 m/s 5 missiles in two minutes -31°C to +51°C optical and thermal imagery

Aerospatiale, France TCO/Asaca, Montreal, Canada Simtran, Montreal, Canada Lockheed Martin Solartron Systems, United Kingdom

The joint venture Euromissile was created in 1972 by Germany's Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA) and France's Aerospatiale SA. Since the mid-1970s, and to this day, its Milan and Hot anti-tank weapons and the Roland surface-to-air system have been highly successful. The Hot anti-tank system was developed by Euromissile for the French and German armies for use on land vehicles and helicopters. Hot was officially selected in 1997 by France and Germany to be mounted on the new Franco-German Tiger helicopter.

Contractor Year Type Modifications Wingspan Length Diameter (HOT) Diameter (HOT 2) Launch weight (HOT) Max. speed Minimum range Maximum range Propulsion Guidance Warhead Euromissile 1978 anti-tank missile HOT - basic missile HOT 2 - larger warhead, introduced in 1986 0.31 m 1.3 m 0.14 m 0.15 m 23.5 kg 900 km/h 0.075 km 4 km two stage solid propellant rocket motors line of sight via wires impact-fuzed high-explosive hollow charge, 3 kg (4 kg in HOT 2) France, Germany, Great Britain, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Egypt, Qatar, Morocco, Iraq, Spain, China, Cameroon, South Africa, Gabon, Kuwait


The joint venture Euromissile was created in 1972 by Germany's Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA) and France's Aerospatiale SA. Since the mid-1970s, and to this day, its Milan and Hot anti-tank weapons and the Roland surface-to-air system have been highly successful. Milan is a second generation anti-tank weapon, the result of a joint development between France and West Germany with British Milan launchers and missiles built under licence in the UK. The Milan consists of two main components, the launcher and the missile; these are simply clipped together to prepare the system for use. On firing, the operator has only to keep his aiming mark on the target and the Semi Automatic Command to Line of Sight (SACLOS) guidance system will do the rest. The missile is guided for its entire trajectory by an automatic device of remote control using the infra-red radiation (MILAN 1) or an electronic-flash lamp (MILAN 2). Milan, which was initially developed for the French and German infantry, is now in service in 41 countries all over the world. The new-generation weapon Milan 3 has been in service since 1996.

Contractor Entered Service Max Range Min Range Length Weight Diameter Wing Span Rate of Fire Warhead Firing Post Weight Length Height Width Armour Penetration Time of Flight to 16.4kg; 900mm; 650mm; 420mm; 352mm; 12.5secs; 2,000m; 400m; 918mm; 6.73kg; 125mm; 267mm; 3-4rpm; Weight 2.70kg; Diameter 115mm; Explosive Content 1.79kg;

Max Range Missile Speed Guidance 720kph; Semi-Automatic command to line of sight by means of wire guidance link.

Milas torpedo carrier missile
GIE MILAS, a joint venture company formed by MATRA BAe Dynamics France and Alenia Difesa of Italy, originally designed, developed, and built the MILAS system to launch the MU 90 Franco-Italian torpedo. GIE MILAS is pursuing the adaptation of the Mk 46 torpedo into the MILAS ASW Missile System in order to offer the MILAS system as a stand-off ASW weapon systems capability to the 24 navies that carry the MK 46 torpedo. Raytheon signed a $1.7 million engineering development contract in October 1997 with GIE MILAS to support the integration of the Mk 46 torpedo into the MILAS Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Missile System. In April 1998 France decided not to produce or acquire this system, which was developed in a Franco-Italian cooperative arrangement.

Next Generation Light Anti-Armour Weapon (NLAW)
NLAW is a man-portable, shoulder-launched, short range, light anti-armour weapon effective at short and very short ranges against modern armoured vehicles. Bofors CarlGustaf SAB of Sweden are offering the MBT LAW and Matra Bae Dynamics UK Ltd, based in Stevenage, are offering the Kestrel weapon system. The Project Definition phase will last around 22 months, during which both companies will develop their proposals for the Full Development and Production phase. The contracts will also include development work and demonstration of the proposed solutions, together with other risk reduction activities. Following an assessment of the resulting proposals, a single contract for Full Development and Production is expected to be awarded in 2002. The NLAW project has a total value in excess of Pounds Sterling 300m. It is expected to enter service around 2006 and will replace the current light anti-armour weapon, LAW 80, which was last produced in 1993.

Pansarvarn RBS 56 BILL
The Bofors BILL 2 multi-mission guided weapon is a further development of the highly successful BILL system. In BILL 2 Bofors has refined the Overfly Top-attack technology (OTA), already proven to be the only effective tank killing method for the future, enhanced the capability with a dual-warhead, and created new modes for different target types such as non-armoured vehicles and soft targets. In the Basic Mode the missile flies 1.05 meters above the Line-Of-Sight and attacks the target from above, avoiding the heavily protected frontal arc. And to increase combat flexibility the gunner has two more firing modes at his command. The warhead arrangement, with its vertically striking shaped charges, compensated for dynamic effects, have demonstrated BILL 2’s very high Single Shot Kill Probability (SSKP). Any MBT, old or new, whether equipped with the most advanced add-on/integrated protection or not, will be effectively and immediately put out-of-action. The effective combat range for both static and moving targets is 150-2,200 meters and the flight time at maximum range is 13 seconds. BILL 2 has a SACLOS guidance system and the missile is wireguided. The guidance system contains a flight simulator with a computerised model in the sight, simulating the whole target engagement. A parallel engagement simulation in real time is created via the continuous comparisons made between simulation and reality, using processed in-put signals from the missile tracker and the angle indicator. The laser beacon in the aft of the missile transmits individually coded laser signals back to the sight (missile tracker), making the system immune to jamming. The missile system incorporates both an interactive, dual-purpose sensor system and an impact fuze. The Warhead Initiation Function consists of: Optical sensor; Magnetic sensor; Impact fuze; and Proximity fuze algorithms. The optical sensor is, in effect, a range finder, which measures the distance from the missile to the surface below, profiling it simultaneously. And as the transmitting signal is coded, the optical sensor is in-possible to jam. The magnetic sensor measures the characteristic signatures from specifically defined metallic objects and discriminates whether they are relevant or non-relevant. The inertial impact fuze is used for direct attack. The gunner can select any of the three firing modes before missile launch: Basic Mode; Non-Armoured Target Mode; and Soft Target Mode. In the basic mode all sensors are activated and the missile flies with an elevated flight path with warhead initiation algorithms optimised for the BILL 2 defined threat. In the non-armoured target mode all sensors are disconnected and the missile flies on the Line-Of-Sight using the Impact Fuze function. In the Soft Target Mode the Magnetic Sensor is disconnected and only the Optical Sensor activated and the missile flies with an elevated flight path with special warhead initiation algorithms. BILL Night Sight is an add-on thermal imaging night sight, primarily for use with the BILL portable medium-range anti-tank missile system, made by Bofors Missiles and intended for use in darkness and under poor visibility situations. The Bill Night Sight is mounted on top of a day-sight with the thermal picture mirrored into the front lens of the day-sight.

Performance Guidance system Effective Combat Range (stationary and moving target) Operational temperature Shelf life Weight Day Sight Thermal Imaging System Tripod Missile in launch tube Missile in flight Magnification Day sight Thermal Imaging System Time-of-flight 150 m 300 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m 2,200 m 1.3 sec 2.1 sec 5.2 sec 7.9 sec 11.4 sec 13.0 sec x7 x1 6.0 kg 8.5 kg 11.8 kg 20.0 kg 10.5 kg SACLOS, wire-guidance 150 - 2.200 m

-30°C – +60°C >15 years

Trigat is a European missile program involving France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The missiles are being developed by the Euromissile Dynamics Group, a consortium composed of Aerospatiale (France), MBD/UK (United Kingdom) and Daimler Benz Aerospace (Germany). The missile has a tandem, high explosive hollow charge which can defeat modern Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA) equipped targets. Its general arrangement is similar to Milan and is equipped with a Thermal Imaging sight to allow engagement to maximum range by day or night, in all weather conditions. TRIGAT is being developed in two variations, TRIGAT-MR for medium range applications and TRIGAT-LR for long range applications. The missile is also known as PARS-3, Panzerabwehr Rakensystem 3 (Armour defence rocket system 3 in the German language), and AC 3G, AntiChar de 3e Generation (Anti-tank of the Third Generation in French). The development of the Trigat (medium-range) continues, but France has withdrawn from the Trigat LR (long-range) project. Long Range Trigat is a ten year development project. This means that the original contract money ensures only that the missile will be developed (to the stage of manufacturing design), not that it will necessarily go into production. MR TRIGAT is a crew portable MR ATGW system which will replace MILAN in the armed forces of the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. France and Germany have already signed the MOU for the next phase. The British Army will get the Medium Range (MR) TRIGAT project to provide its principal Medium Range Anti-Tank Guided Weapon System (ATGWS), in collaboration with France, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. The UK is also considering procurement of a lighter system for deployment with airborne and commando units. Once the contract has been let, the programme will transfer to management by OCCAR, the armaments co-operation organisation formed in 1996 by the UK, France, Germany and Italy. MR TRIGAT industrialisation and production has a total value to the partner nations of about Pounds Sterling 1bn. The British Army will buy 45% of all the systems produced, with the signing expected to spur action by Belgium and the Netherlands, according to manufacturers Matra BAe Dynamics, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace/LFK, and Aerospatiale Matra Missiles. The companies will make 1,600 firing units, 1,200 thermal sights, and more than 35,000 medium-range Trigats, with a global value of more than 8 billion French francs, about $1.33 billion U.S. at current rates of exchange, over a 10-year period.

Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 2000 meters Laser Beam Riding SACLOS Missile Launch Weight 18.2 kgs; Firing Post Weight 16.5 kgs; Thermal Sight Weight 10.5 kgs;

The Polyphem missile system is under development for Germany, France and Italy by the Euromissile consortium consisting, respectively, of DASA, Aerospatiale Missiles and Consorzio Italmissile. The optic fibre-guided Polyphem missile is intended for two kinds of mission: isolated strikes from light land vehicles against long-range targets or from small ships or helicopters against land-based targets. The Polpyhem optics guided missile system provides combat support and permits highly precise artillery operations against point targets over long distances. The system can also be deployed from ships. The range amounts to 60 kilometers. Polyphem features an imaging infrared seeker as well as a multipurpose warhead.

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