Product placement

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Marketing Key concepts Product ‡ Pricing Distribution ‡ Service ‡ Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising ‡ Branding ‡ Underwriting Direct marketing ‡ Personal Sales Product placement ‡ Publicity Sales promotion ‡ Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing ‡ Premiums ‡ Prizes Promotional media Printing ‡ Publication Broadcasting ‡ Out-of-home Internet marketing ‡ Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing ‡ In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador ‡ Drip Marketing This box: view · talk · edit

Product placement, or embedded marketing,[1][2][3][4] is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, "Two thirds of advertisers employ 'branded entertainment'²product placement²with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV

programming." The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said "Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from 'stronger emotional connection' to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group."[5]

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1 Early examples 2 Placement in movies o 2.1 Self Promotion 3 Sports o 3.1 NFL 4 Categories and variations 5 Measuring effectiveness 6 Consumer response and economic impact 7 Products o 7.1 Automobiles o 7.2 Consumer electronics and computers o 7.3 Food and drink o 7.4 Travel o 7.5 Tobacco 8 Radio, television and publishing o 8.1 Reality television o 8.2 Public and educational television o 8.3 Television programs o 8.4 Advertiser-produced programming o 8.5 Comic publishing o 8.6 Music and recording industries o 8.7 Payola and legal considerations 9 Extreme and unusual examples o 9.1 Self-criticism o 9.2 Faux product placement and parodies o 9.3 Reverse placement o 9.4 Virtual placement o 9.5 Viewer Response 10 Product displacement 11 External links 12 Further reading 13 References

[edit] Early examples

Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing.[citation needed] By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) he was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form; however if he was actually paid to do so remains unknown.[6] Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels. Recent scholarship in film and media studies has drawn attention to the fact that product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions that characterised the first ten years of cinema history [7] [8]

[edit] Placement in movies
Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinemas earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognised today, industrial concearns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning has described as "cinematic attractions"[9] these were short films of no longer than one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film history (18951907) audiences did not go to see films as narrative art forms but as fairground attractions interesting for the amazing visual effects they appeared to be. This format was much beter suited to product placement than the narrative form of cinema that came later when film making became a more organised industry. Taking this as a starting point, Leon Gurevitch has argued that early cinematic attractions share more in common with the adverts that emerged from the television industry in the 1950s than they do with traditional films.[10] Gurevitch suggests that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is more intertwined than previous historians have credited, suggesting that the birth of cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic kickstart that it provided early film makers.[11] Kerry Segrave details the industries that advertised in these early films and goes on to give a thorough account of the history of product placement over the following century.[12] In the 1920s, the weekly trade periodical Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice with respect to Red Crown gasoline appearing in the comedy film The Garage (1919), directed by and co-starring Fatty Arbuckle.[13] During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports frequently cited cases of on-screen brand-name products,[14] always condemning the practice as harmful to movie theaters. Publisher P. S. Harrison¶s editorials strongly reflected his feelings against product placement in films. An editorial in Harrison¶s Reports criticized the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in the film The Lost World (1925).[15] Harrison's Reports published several incidents about Corona typewriters appearing in films of the mid-1920s. Among the famous silent films to feature product placement was Wings (1927), the first film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Another early example in film occurs in Horse Feathers (1932) where Thelma Todd's character falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a life saver and Groucho Marx's character tosses her a Life Savers candy.

e. The film brought in more than $300 million dollars. where the plot revolved around. where a bottle prevented an image of the model from being pornographic. the "Flying Red Horse". sales of the car spiked. The conspicuous display of Studebaker motor vehicles in the television series Mr. depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer. The BMW car. sometimes the economics are reversed . Harpo Marx's character cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo. Ed (1961± 1966).[17] Afterwards. among other things.g. In 1995 one of the most successful movie product tie-in was when Karen sortito created a BMW campaign for the film GoldenEye. is another example of product placement.[18] A recent example is HBO's Sex and the City (1998±2004). Knight Rider (1982±1986). In other early media. programs were often underwritten by companies. where a Bulova clock is prominently seen. a Z3. Ericsson. was a new model at the time. Absolut Vodka. However. a product by KP Snacks. An early example of such "brand integration" was by Abercrombie & Fitch when one of its stores provided the notional venue for part of the romantic-comedy film Man's Favourite Sport? (1964) starring Rock Hudson and Paula Prentiss. directed by Frank Capra. In the film noir Gun Crazy (1949). When television began to displace radio. Tomorrow Never Dies. Harrison's Reports severely criticized this scene in its film review[16] and in a front-page editorial of the same issue. a television series featuring a talking Pontiac Trans Am.. Heinekin. is another example of brand integration. DuMont's Cavalcade of Stars television show was. Incorporation of products into the actual plot of a film or television show is generally called "brand integration". notable for not relying on a sole sponsor in the tradition of NBC's Texaco Star Theater and similar productions. In the film Love Happy (1949). Sponsorship exists today with programs being sponsored by major vendors such as Hallmark Cards. while the film was number one at the box office. packaged-goods companies such as Procter & Gamble or Unilever. feature real retail stores as game destinations. For the next film in the James Bond franchise. "Soap operas" are called such because they were initially underwritten by consumer. a campaign upon which one of the protagonists was working. displaying a prominent copy of National Geographic. Video games. Sortito created a $100 million promotional campaign that included tie-ins with Visa. such as Crazy Taxi (1999). L'Oréal. which was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963. the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the Armour meat-packing plant. and a billboard in Times Square. The earliest example of product placement in a computer or video game occurs in Action Biker (1984) for Skips crisps.The film It's a Wonderful Life (1946). in its era. Avis rental cars and Omega watches. radio in the 1930s and 1940s and early television in the 1950s.

combined with new rules mandating players to wear helmets (though some were grandfathered). the league allowed sponsors on the practice jerseys of the uniforms. This can be attributed to sports being prevalent on television. from professional sports to college sports. For instance.) This has subsequently followed with the uniforms the drivers themselves wear having sponsor logos. In 1991. [edit] NFL While the now-defunct NFL Europe allowed liberal use of sponsors with the team's uniforms. but not the game-worn uniforms.and video-game makers pay for the rights to use real sports teams and players. was originally built to have such advertisements. and even on the local level with high school sports. with brands and advertisers. a subsidiary of News Corporation. the main National Football League (NFL) has long been more stringent. Today. the league allowed the individual uniform suppliers to display their logo on the products they made in . product placement in sports began to rise in the 1970s. STP was a longtime sponsor for Richard Petty. In 2008. This. product placement in online video is also becoming common. Massachusetts. and several association football leagues eventually allowed sponsors of the uniforms. the league prohibits logos of sponsors painted onto the fields. The Citgo sign overlooking Fenway Park can also be considered a form of product placement. arguably gave the NHL a different look in the 1980s than compared with the 1970s. when NASCAR began to allow sponsors to cover the cars they were sponsoring with their logos. which are usually individuals. although Gillette Stadium in Foxborough. despite the Boston Red Sox having a sponsorship deal with Gulf Oil. The Green Monster at Fenway Park in Boston. (For instance. and reports from other channels are not shown. but since 1947 has largely been devoid of such advertisements. which increases exposure to these products. Outside of baseball (which had long had sponsors). Online agencies are specializing in connecting online video producers. One notable example is the film Independence Day (1996). NFL Europe. has promoted its parent company's own Sky News channel through including it as a plot device when characters are viewing news broadcasts of breaking events. [edit] Self Promotion Twentieth Century Fox. The NFL's strict policy contradicts several other policies on the uniforms. does have a disposable razor painted onto the field in honor of naming-rights sponsor Gillette.[citation needed] The newscaster or reporter in the scene will usually state that the audience is viewing Sky News. Massachusetts. The Arena Football League. The National Hockey League began allowing sponsors to line along the interior walls of the ice rinks in the early 1980s. [edit] Sports Product placement has long been prevalent in sports as well.

for example. We look for our clients' demographics and then we tell our client this movie is available with this actor. which owned the rights to the Steelmark logo. Another variant is the widespread use of promotional consideration in which a television game show would award an advertiser's product as a prize or consolation prize in return for a subsidy from the product's manufacturer. In this case an advertisement for the product (rather than the product itself) is seen in the movie or television series. and later had "ACME PACKERS" written on their uniforms in the early 1920s after the Acme Packing Company bought Indian Packing. explains the process: "The studio sends us the script. We break it down. products used in exchange for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film's release. The Steelers later were allowed to add "-ers" to the Steelmark logo the following year so that they could own a trademark on the logo. The Packers adopted the nickname "Packers" because they were sponsored by the Indian Packing Company. Examples include a Lucky Strike cigarette advertisement on a billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement on its trailer. the league has been shown to place itself as the product. with this director. The Steelers adopted their current logo in 1962 as a productplacement deal with the American Iron and Steel Institute. two of the league's flagship teams²the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers²adopted some form of their identity from corporate sponsors. a branded entertainment company. NFL Japan was a sponsor of the football themed anime series Eyeshield 21. product usage is negotiated rather than paid for. Going the other way. and products deliberately placed into productions in exchange for fees. A variant of product placement is advertisement placement. president of Feature This!. a show's new season or other event. do you want it?" [21] . In addition. [edit] Categories and variations Actual product placement falls into two categories: products or locations that are obtained from manufacturers or owners to reduce the cost of production. with products such as props. Some placements provide productions with below-the-line savings. Reebok has been the official uniform supplier for the entire league. thereby saving them purchase or rental fees. for instance) are also common practices.[19] Sometimes.conjunction with the rest of the sports world. with. clothes and cars being loaned for the production's use. Barter systems (the director/actor/producer wants one for himself) and service deals (cellular phones provided for crew use. which ran for 145 TV episodes and a handful of specials.[20] Jay May. with this producer. and since 2002. Producers may also seek out companies for product placements as another savings or revenue stream for the movie. Product-placement companies work to integrate their client company brands with film and television productions.

However. The Writers Guild of America. paid product placement is also one of the sectors poised for the most growth. these figures are somewhat misleading in PQ Media's view in that today. a trade union representing authors of television scripts.61 billion due to severe reductions in brand marketers' budgets resulting from the difficult economic environment. depending on a specific product's degree of presence in the market. Commercial Alert asks for full disclosure of all product-placement arrangements. clearly identifiable.8% to $3. rising to $10 billion by 2010. whom it claims are easily influenced by product placement. However. when product placement is projected to be a $6. films. had raised objections in 2005 that its members are forced to write ad copy disguised as storyline on the grounds that "the result is that tens of millions of viewers are sometimes being sold products without their knowledge. video games and other media ± declined in 2009 for the first time in tracked history. long or recurrent in exposure. In these deals. 2006 product placement was estimated at $3. However. "PQ Media Global Branded Entertainment Marketing Forecast. [edit] Consumer response and economic impact As with any advertising. its effectiveness tends to be assumed because advertisers continue to use product placement as a marketing strategy.1 billion rising to $5. many product-placement and brandintegration deals are a combination of advertising and product placement. a consulting firm that tracks alternative media spending. the product placement is often contingent upon the purchase of advertising revenues. associated with a main character. with both basic quantitative and more demonstrative qualitative systems used to determine the cost and effective media value of a placement. One justification for this is to allow greater parental control for children. PQ Media estimates that product placement is closer to $7 billion in value. with PQ Media predicting the 2009 figures to more than double by 2014. When the product placement that is bundled with advertising is allocated to part of the spending. arguing that most product placements are deceptive and not clearly disclosed. sold in opaque. Media values are also weighed over time. [24] ." the research firm reported that paid product placement spending ± in television. Products might be featured but hardly identifiable.6 billion in 2010.[edit] Measuring effectiveness Quantification methods track brand integrations. some consumer groups such as Commercial Alert object to the practice as "an affront to basic honesty"[22] that they claim is too common in today's society."[23] According to PQ Media. It advocates notification before and during television programs with embedded advertisements.1 billion market. Rating systems measure the type of placement and on-screen exposure is gauged by audience recall rates.[citation needed] In a June 2010 research report. subliminal ways and sold in violation of government regulations. verbally mentioned and/or they may play a key role in the storyline. as spending decreased 2. internet.

vehicles or other products take on such key roles in the film it is as if they are another character. first an A3 and then an S8 in the final high-speed scene on the streets of Paris. Frequently. even in scenes in Thailand. and tobacco products. The James Bond film series pioneered such placement.[25] The Bond film The Man with the Golden Gun (1974) features extensive use of AMC cars. the producers returned to using the traditional Aston Martin. which enable viewers to skip advertisements.A major driver of growth for the use of product placement is the increasing use of digital video recorders (DVR) such as TiVO. a key chase scene is conducted between a brand new Cadillac CTS and a Cadillac Escalade EXT.[clarification needed] After pressure from fans. the television series The X-Files (1993±2002) uses Fords. Commonly seen are automobiles. In the film Taken (2008). In the film XXY (2007) all vehicles depicted are Toyotas. A Ford Shelby GT500 is used extensively at the beginning of the film I Am Legend (2007) along with a Ford Expedition EL. and had the steering wheel on the wrong side of the vehicle for the country's roads. where AMC cars were not sold. For example. as do leading characters on the television series 24 (2001±2010). all the important vehicles in a film or television series will be supplied by one manufacturer. Nissan cars feature prominently in the television series Heroes (2006±2010) where the logos often zoom in/out of or whole cars are shown for a few seconds at the beginning of a new scene. The chase scene also features a Ducati motorcycle in the getaway. In the film The Matrix Reloaded. the film's credits acknowledge the automaker as having funded portions of the film's production. . consumer electronics and computers. [edit] Products Certain products are featured more than others. which was owned by Ford Motor Company at the time and thus brought in more product placement. Three of the Bond films that star Pierce Brosnan feature a BMW car.[citation needed] This ad-skipping behavior increases in frequency the longer a household has owned a DVR. The Matrix Reloaded (2003) and Transformers (2007). Liam Neeson's character drives Audi cars. Almost every car was made by General Motors in the films Bad Boys II (2003). Other times. even though the film takes place in South America. France.[citation needed] [edit] Automobiles The most common products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. The two prior Bond films use vehicles from Ford or its subsidiaries.

Baby Blues. M. products that most often appear are placements for processors or graphics cards. Hewlett-Packard also put their computers in the U. even though paid placement in comics is all but unknown. BRAVIA televisions. ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. Stargate SG1 in its last seasons switched from traditional CRT monitors in the gate-rooms to Dell-branded LCDs. In the movie The Day the Earth Stood Still (2008) various Microsoft devices²including mobile phones. and Bond uses a Cyber-shot camera to take photographs. all characters use VAIO laptops. production of The Office. EA's The Sims contains in-game advertising for Intel and for McDonald's. In the film Splash (1984). Sony Ericsson cell phones and global-positioning systems.[27] In WarGames (1983). episode of the television series Modern Family the new Apple iPad was used as part of the storyline and also displayed several of the features to entice consumers. only computers produced by Dell are used. For example in EA's Battlefield 2142. 2010.[28] Other WarGames product placements include the main character's mother being portrayed as a real estate broker at the behest of marketers at Century 21. Throughout the television series Smallville (since 2001).[26] (Notably. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). recognizable Apple products have appeared in newspaper comic strips. [edit] Consumer electronics and computers The film Casino Royale (2006) features many Sony product placements throughout: A BD-R disc is prominently portrayed at one time.T. Similarly in the series Stargate Atlantis in first sessions all the laptops used were Dell Latitude and XPS laptops. and FoxTrot. Bond. In video games.S. the same Los Angeles product placement company that placed Reese's Pieces in Steven Spielberg's E. including Opus. Apple's products frequently appear in films and on television.[29] . Apple has stated that they do not pay for this. In the March 31. Hewlett-Packard computers now appear exclusively as part of photo layouts in the IKEA catalog in addition to placing plastic models of its computers in IKEA stores.) In a twist on traditional product placement. and Microsoft Surface²were used. and would not discuss how its products make their way into television and films.All the cars in the video game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Vegas 2 (2008) are manufactured by Dodge. and Tanner are seen using a Microsoft Surface to display information on rogue agents. a television set blares advertisements for (now-defunct) electronics retailer Crazy Eddie and for Bloomingdale's department store. In Quantum of Solace (2008). (It was the first Bond film to be produced after Sony acquired the Bond franchise). the use of an IMSAI 8080 desktop computer was originally proposed by Cliff McMullen of Unique Products. laptops[citation needed]. including Alienware branded equipment and in later series the XPS range. Non Sequitur. having taken over Apple's position in the Swedish furniture retailer's promotional materials several years ago.

Three" (1961) Stars James Cagney as a Coca Cola executive in West Berlin.[31] In addition to placing brand specific elements within the context of a given program. In the video game Burnout Paradise advertisements in the virtual Paradise City are placed as they may be in the real world. including travelling vans with advertisements for Gillette Fusion razors and DIESEL clothing. Stolichnaya vodka was included in several scenes. in the Back to the Future trilogy. [edit] Food and drink In Beetlejuice (1988). Minute Maid juice is displayed. The twist at the end is he removes a bottle of Pepsi from a vending machine at the end of the film. all of the laptops have a Dell screensaver on them and the other computers in the game also feature this screensaver.[32] in which this travelogue about wine and food features emerging destination estates and the wines they produce. Similarly.E.A. In Godzilla (1998) Pepsi. Pizza Hut's future products include an instant pizza that can be hydrated for immediate consumption. are featured in various scenes. The product placement begins with actor Dominic Monaghan stealing a bottle of the vodka. after which he and actress Megan Fox drink from it on the roof of the liquor store. and most prominently Taco Bell.R. In the television series Sex and The City.In the video game F. The film "One. [edit] Travel The promotion of individual travel destinations and services ranges from subtle to overt. Metal Gear Solid 4 features various Apple products such as laptop and desktop computers. Two. and on various billboards. . entire formats of media have been created to feature individual brands within the context of a genre. An example of this is The Corkscrew Diary (2006).[30] In American Idol Coca-Cola cups are always seen on the judges' table. In Eminem's music video Love the Way you Lie (2010). as well as featuring an in-game iPod. Hershey's. the character Carrie is shown using an Apple PowerBook G3 laptop. While the award of "an all expense-paid trip" to some destination as a game show prize or an acknowledgement in a show's closing credits that transportation for participants was provided by a specific airline had long been commonplace in commercial television. a more refined approach to promoting a travel destination is to assist and subsidise film production companies willing to set their story in or shoot footage on-location at the destination being promoted.

As an advertisement. excitement. which has a product placement for Marlboro cigarettes. 2010. one of the ships in the fleet is a "Pan Galactic" or "Pan Gal" starliner. a movie set in an individual travel destination can be a valuable advertisement.[39] The James Bond film Licence to Kill (1989) featured use of the Lark brand of cigarette and the producers accepted payment for that product placement. One of the ways it . No. was put on the map by 'The Truman Show [(1998)] Movies just keep playing year after year getting the images out there. From Russia with Love. omit the Surgeon General's Warning. and Casino Royale. The airline's logo was featured in Licence to Kill. wealth. In the sci-fi series Battlestar Galactica.While critics of competitive film subsidies cite runaway production as a pattern of filming US productions in other countries for purely-economic reasons. and power and as a means of expressing rebellion and independence. such as the youth-targeted Ramen Girl. The airline's 707 appeared in several James Bond films including Dr. sex. it's the Love Boat"[34] until 2002. where James Bond checks in for a Pan Am flight that he ultimately does not board. had a prominent role in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Most movies. a ship of the Princess Cruise Lines.[35] A fictional Pan Am "Space Clipper. CSI Miami draws people from overseas to Miami. [edit] Tobacco Tobacco companies have made direct payment to stars for using their cigarettes in films. This brought forth calls for banning such cigarette advertisements in future films. Documentation of $500. especially for video and television releases.000 in payments to Sylvester Stallone to "use Brown and Williamson tobacco products in no less than five feature films" [37][38] is accessible online as part of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library.[36] The film's sequel. Seaside. the British Medical Journal concluded: The tobacco industry recruits new smokers by associating its products with fun. generic pack. also featured Pan Am in a background television commercial in the home of David Bowman's widow. featured in the movie's poster."[33] The television series The Love Boat (1977±1986) was set aboard the Pacific Princess. The ship bears Pan Am colors and the Pan Gal logo is nearly identical to Pan American's old logo. this product placement was valuable enough that printed advertisements for the line would employ the trademarked slogan "It's more than a cruise. while a Pan Am 747 and the Worldport appeared in Live and Let Die. Later releases of License to Kill. larger-than-life ads for where they are shot. According to State of Florida film commissioner Paul Sirmons. had the Lark pack replaced with a similar-looking. "the movies create huge. The studio's executives apparently believed that the placement triggered the American warning notice requirement for cigarette advertisements and thus the movie carried the Surgeon General's Warning at the end credits of the film. Reviewing previously secret tobacco advertising documents." a commercial spaceplane called the Orion III.

"Extreme Makeover has several sponsors with prominent placement deals: Sears. encouraging celebrity use and endorsement. television and publishing [edit] Reality television Product-placement advertisements can be common in reality television shows. is not just a sponsorship. It has been claimed that the participants get paid for it. did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?" after which the camera zooms in onto the named product. -. go one step further by also providing the tools used on-air to build the individual projects. Recently in the United States series The Real World/Road Rules Challenge participants often state a similar line. previously secret tobacco industry documents made available in the USA show that the industry has had a long and deep relationship with Hollywood. Seeing the designers go off to Sears every episode and deck out the house with Kenmore appliances. price comparisons or calls to action ("Buy X now. For example the well-known Russian television show Dom-2 (similar to Big Brother) often features one of the participants stating something along the lines of: "Oh. makers of Y") is permissible and common on non-commercial educational stations. most educational television operates under a funding model in which local stations receive donations from "Viewers Like You" but do not interrupt programming directly with spot advertising. this week only!") of the form used by commercial television are expressly prohibited as a condition of the station's license. it¶s integral to the subject family getting their lives back. Placing tobacco products in movies and on television (fig 1Go). designing advertising campaigns to reflect Hollywood glamour. and sponsoring entertainment oriented events have all been part of the industry's relationship with the entertainment industry.How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood. usually pertaining to the mobile device and carrier a text message has been received. BMJ 2002[40] [edit] Radio. but requires very careful targeting to match a product to a show that naturally would already use that product. A . ten cents off. While the tobacco industry has routinely denied active involvement in entertainment programming. While the use of underwriting as a form of indirect advertisement ("Production [or local acquisition] of this programme is made possible by X. This approach is suitable both for commercial and non-commercial television. advertising in entertainment oriented magazines.has found to promote these associations has been to encourage smoking in entertainment productions.".[41] [edit] Public and educational television In the United States. Ford and Pella Windows to name three. instead of merely donating money to fund production of a popular home-improvement show.1 Exposure to smoking in entertainment media is associated with increased smoking and favourable attitudes towards tobacco use among adolescents.[42] It may therefore make good business sense for an underwriter of an educational programme to obtain greater visibility through a form of promotional consideration in which (for instance) a manufacturer of woodworking tools could.

853 Hell's Kitchen ± 1. Classical Stretch endeavours to differentiate itself from the many existing programmes in its genre by having everything take place outdoors. a long-running series of physical fitness lessons hosted by Montréal's Miranda Esmonde-White with the first three seasons distributed by New York PBS flagship station WPBS-TV.[43] As the market for physicalfitness advice is largely saturated. Nielsen Media Research)[clarification needed] y y y y y The Biggest Loser ± 6. Mexico.[44] [edit] Television programs List of television shows with the most instances of product placement (11/07±11/08. . Product placement occurs throughout the publication.371 America's Toughest Jobs ± 2. and allow for the comic's free distribution to its readers around the world. the costs of relocating production and constructing necessary facilities are readily borne by the show's underwriters. Supa Strikas receives the majority of its support from Chevron.[45][46] [edit] Comic publishing South African football comic Supa Strikas uses product placement within its pages to promote a variety of brands. In theory. television films which feature the characters using WalMart and Procter & Gamble. which sponsors the comic series through its Caltex and Texaco brands. this could prohibitively increase a non-commercial program's production costs. on a tropical beach.branded products. Non-commercial broadcasts such as PBS's The New Yankee Workshop would represent an ideal fit for power tool makers Porter-Cable.636 Extreme Makeover: Home Edition ± 3. Delta Machinery and VermontAmerican while a program like The Red Green Show could represent an once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for a manufacturer of duct tape. and through the branding of locations or scenarios. in reality.575 y y y y y Deal or No Deal ± 2.program-like commercial The Learning Channel's Trading Spaces is an ideal fit for a vendor such as Home Depot.993 Kitchen Nightmares ± 1. One unusual placement is American Public Television's Classical Stretch. on the players' shirts. with unobtrusive classical music in the background.807 [edit] Advertiser-produced programming In 2010 Wal-Mart teamed with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project.241 Last Comic Standing ± 1. through placed billboards and signage. The Jensen Project also features a preview of a not-then-released Kinect. a computing input device.807 One Tree Hill ± 2. a travel company and a luxury resort in Riviera Maya. These brands are displayed as the shirt sponsors for the Supa Strikas team across Southern Africa.248 American Idol ± 4.292 America's Next Top Model ± 2. Central America. both family-oriented. Globally. Egypt and Malaysia.

S. leading to the creation of a number of other titles which use the same system. An investigation launched in November 1959 into allegations that some radio disc jockeys had accepted bribes in return for radio airplay[50] led to the indictment of disc jockey Alan Freed (of WABC and WINS) on May 9. Nike. Honduras and Panama). These companies include Metropolitan Life. among others. GTBank in Nigeria. Namibia. Mauritius. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be immigrant left to die in the Arizona desert by coyotes (people smugglers). Product Placement or what the music industry calls "Brand Partnerships" are becoming a more effective way to create a trend practically overnight. other brands also receive advertising in the comics and animation. This innovative approach to comic publication has seen the brand grow dramatically over the last few years. in Latin America (Brazil.In other markets²where Chevron lacks a presence²other headline brands sponsor the team's kit. Border Patrol had commissioned the compact disc with content devised by Elevación. a violation of commercial bribery laws. with Supa Strikas now reaching an estimated ten million readers a week worldwide. Réunion. the comic is available across Africa (Botswana. Uganda and Zambia). and would ultimately lose his employment in . In January 2009. in Europe (Finland. Due to the repetitive nature of a popular song and its effects on pop culture as a whole. Nigeria. Today. Uganda and Tanzania. Cameroon. including Visa in Kenya. D. which is distributed in India and Pakistan.500 to play certain songs. South Africa. 1960. leading marketers in some cases to attempt to get advertisers' brands mentioned in lyrics of popular songs. Norway and Sweden).[47] The Supa Strikas model has shown considerable successes.[49] [edit] Payola and legal considerations Much of the current body of broadcast law pertaining to the obligation of licensed broadcasters to disclose to audiences when they (or their staff) receive money or valuables in return for on-air promotion of a product dates to the payola scandals of 1950s broadcast radio. Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency. with their logos included as both billboard and background advertising. producers of printed or recorded works are not. In addition. he would be fined for accepting $2.[48] No disclosure was made to the radio stations that the U. Colombia. El Salvador. Ghana. and New York City. Guatemala. Tanzania. Kenya. A recent popularity of product placement in music videos and actual song lyrics can be accredited to The Kluger Agency. and through the branding of locations and scenarios. a Hispanic advertising agency based in Washington. a baseball comic based in Panama.C. an album Migra Corridos with five songs including accordion ballad "El Mas Grande Enemigo" had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. These include cricket comic Supa Tigers. [edit] Music and recording industries While radio and television stations are at least in theory strictly regulated by national governments. and Henkel's Loctite brand in Brazil. and Strike Zone. Egypt. and Asia (Malaysia).

that is payola..S.[57] A recent EU directive would have allowed it. that is their business. makes heavy use of product placements for Converse trainers. as the case may be.commercial radio.S.such as embedded within a portion of a programme's closing credits. and for a time it appeared likely that the UK would introduce laws to fully outlaw it. Robot. Audi. ." with similar and related provisions reflected in Federal Communications Commission regulations as CFR 47.[51] While these provisions have been taken into legal consideration in subsequent payola investigations. vintage 2004. the Audi RSQ. a broadcaster will claim to have complied with the regulation by placing some form of acknowledgement of promotional consideration in an inconspicuous place in a broadcast . FedEx. going so far as to create a special car for the film. Ovaltine. be announced as paid for or furnished. but will remain in force in children's TV and on the BBC. Audi invested the most on the film. remains open. 1960.[55] According to Adelstein. whereas in the past it was only regulated by OFCOM. including one 2005 investigation by New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer into Sony BMG and other major record companies. and JVC among others.[57] However in September 2009 it was announced that the OFCOM ban would be lifted in an effort to raise funds for commercial broadcasters. by such person."[59] (the year of the film's release)."[54] In 2008. the Federal Communications Commission gave notice of proposed rulemaking. One particularly infamous scene borders into an actual advertisement in which a character compliments Will Smith's character's shoes to which he replies "Converse All-Stars. shall. and that is the FCC¶s business. Often. "You shouldn't need a magnifying glass to know who's pitching you."[56] Within the United Kingdom. A crawl at the end of the show shrunk down so small the human eye can't read it isn't really in the spirit of the law. or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid. however. government acted to ban payola in broadcasting.. including that of the use of product placement by advertisers in broadcast programming. though set in the future. Section 317 of the Communications Act[clarification needed] states that "All matter broadcast by any radio station for which money. from any person. at the time the same is so broadcast. on the grounds that "some will tell you that if broadcasters and cable companies insist on further commercialising new and other shows alike. the U. the station so broadcasting. product placement is currently banned.1212. . It was expected that the placement would increase brand awareness and raise the emotional appeal of . Section 73. in which it proposed to require more disclosure of product placement. The question of whether adequate disclosure is being provided.[53] the issue was raised in 2005 by FCC commissioner Jonathan Adelstein. or promised to or charged or accepted by. all of them introduced within the first ten minutes of the film. law. On September 13. But if they do so without disclosing it to the viewing public.[58] This news has been greeted with enthusiasm by British media companies like Independent Vision who are looking to further enhance the current business model for Advertiser Funded Programming. however culture secretary Andy Burnham refused to accept it. [edit] Extreme and unusual examples The film I. Under current U. Dos Equis.[52] it is probable that a regulation requiring advertisements and advertisers to be clearly identified has far broader implications in many areas. service.

shoes.[66] Bill Cosby's film Leonard Part 6 was widely criticized for its Coca Cola product placements. The 2001 film Josie and the Pussycats featured a large amount of blatant product placement for brands such as Puma.[60] The Audi RSQ is seen during nine minutes of the film. chips. as the plot of the film revolves around subliminal messages in advertising. including cars. Despite the fact that the series is set in an alternate reality.[64] In the movie's DVD Commentary track. The movie contains possibly the first instance of an actual television commercial in a movie. The Japanese animated series Code Geass is sponsored by the Japanese branch of Pizza Hut. It was intended to mock the controversy with NASCAR fans under the Unified Television Contract 2001-06 where they criticised the excessive number of commercial breaks during races. The film The Island. Target. at least one main character is depicted ordering and receiving a Pizza Hut pizza on several occasions. The 2001 film Evolution features product placement integral to the entire film. The producers neither sought nor received compensation for featuring the brands in the film. The comedy film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby also contained a high amount of product placement. had insisted on the line's inclusion.the Audi brand. The company's logo also appears throughout the series. Robot was ranked "the worst film for product placement" on a British site. stereo systems. the Audi TT and the Audi A2 can be seen sprinkled throughout the film. and even a search engine. beer. an official sponsor of the Bond franchise. bottled water. directed by Michael Bay. as was The Wizard for Nintendo products. Michael Bay claims he added the advertisements for realism purposes. Characters repeatedly mention brands under the disguise of NASCAR sponsorship. objectives that were considered achieved when surveys conducted in the United States showed that the Audi RSQ gave a substantial boost to the image ratings of the brand. McDonalds and TJ Maxx." he replies suavely. ice cream.[62] The film 17 Again makes heavy use of product placement featuring cereals. It is not clear whether Omega. "Omega.[61] I. which is poisonous to the creatures.[63] The film was highly criticized for this. although other Audis like the Audi A6. credit cards. sandwich fillers. When mutated lifeforms attack earth." she purrs. the characters use a large amount of Head & Shoulders dandruff shampoo as a source of selenium disulfide. . "Beautiful. and auto mobiles. The film Catch Me If You Can makes heavy handed use of a Sara Lee placement by mentioning it six times throughout the movie. This appears to be done ironically. The film's general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one.[65] The film Casino Royale features peculiarly blatant product placement during a exchange between James Bond and Vesper Lynd in which she enquires seductively whether he wears a Rolex watch. features at least 35 individual products or brands.

The film's producer (portrayed by George Clooney) steps in. However. The television show Kannagi: Crazy Shrine Maidens poked fun at its sponsor Sony in one episode. and Lexus. The film Fight Club. including Pepsi. suggesting product placement as a way to recoup the losses. In a similar vein. including a Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain's mansion. [edit] Self-criticism The pilot episode of the NBC sitcom 30 Rock featured the General Electric (and 80% owner of NBC) Trivection oven. again with the line "It's a Sony". Before the car crashes. by having one character give another a Blu-Ray disk with the tagline "It's a Sony". Examples include the scene where the Apple Store is broken into. in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes an old corvette. [edit] Faux product placement and parodies . the film Mr. The film Minority Report. shows every resident in town driving VW New Beetles. Director Steven Spielberg also uses one scene to demonstrate the potential intrusion of one-to-one electronic advertising: the main character (Tom Cruise) is harassed by personalized advertisements calling out his own name. clearly pointing out the anachronistic inclusion of a Taco Bell in the film.[70] The 1988 film Return of the Killer Tomatoes utilised the concept in a parodic manner²at one point. as money to produce it ran out. bit the hand that fed it by depicting acts of violence against most of the products that paid to be placed in the film[citation needed]. which was viewed as product placement by some[68] but said to be a joke by the show's creator.The 2009 film Star Trek. the scene in which Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a new Volkswagen Beetle. and trying to blow up a 'popular coffee franchise'. in Looney Tunes: Back In Action the main characters stumble across a Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and get all necessary supplies for their endorsement of the company.[69] The show has gone on to parody product placement. Similarly. the film stops. a thinly veiled dig at Starbucks. directed by David Fincher. he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. makes heavy use of product placement. it is possible that this was done for comic effect. The Finnish phone maker is even offering Star Trek applications. starring Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon. The comedy film Kung Pow! Enter the Fist also attempted to spoof its product placements. only for them to complain that they don't have a Blu-ray player. The film Superstar. Gap.[67] The film The Cat in the Hat (2003) contained product placement where all residents of the town drive a Ford Focus. audiences will hear the Nokia trademark ring tone. This was followed by several scenes with blatant product placement. to which the character responds by producing a copy in Betamax. Deeds shows the main character Adam Sandler purchasing a Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town.

etc. which feature fictitious stores such as Ammu-Nation. This practice is also common in certain "reality-based" video games such as the Grand Theft Auto series. [edit] Reverse placement . The film's premise. The 1998 film The Truman Show utilized the concept. Jack Rabbit Slim's Restaurants. smiling widely. Gash (spoofing Gap. Discreeto Burritos Quentin Tarantino ± Red Apple Cigarettes. the choice of the Cigarette Smoking Man. such as Svetlana Chmakova's Dramacon. The 1992 film Wayne's World included a parody in which both Wayne and Garth decry product placement while at the same time blatantly promoting many products by looking directly at the camera. Examples include: y y y y y y y y Kevin Smith ± Nails Cigarettes. Big Kahuna Burger Robert Rodriguez ± Chango Beer Pixar Animation Studios ± Pizza Planet. Chewlees Gum. which Sailor Moon was spun off of. Another spoof was made in GTA: San Andreas with Zip). His wife places products in front of the hidden cameras. which includes numerous references to the series Codename: Sailor V. a 24-hour television broadcast called "The Truman Show" that focuses on the life of Truman Burbank. going so far as having an animator on a Codename: Sailor V feature film be a victim in one episode. even naming certain products in dialogue with her husband. The TV series X-Files (1993-2002) frequently featured the fictional Morley brand of cigarettes. (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack "Pocky".For further information. uses faux product placement. Mooby Corporation. holding up the product. The company producing Morleys was also involved in a cover-up conspiracy in episode 18 of season seven. Pizza Boy. see Fictional brands. popular among the anime and manga fan community in which the story is set) or Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon. Some filmmakers have responded to product placement by creating fictional products that frequently appear in the movies they make. the anime makes further use of this meta-referential gag. and sometimes giving a thumbs-up. all of which increases Truman's suspicion as he comes to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated. Vinyl Countdown. which makes several product-placement-esque usages of "Pawky". Brand X (Original Air Date²16 April 2000). The 1984 film "Ghostbusters" had a Faux product in the climax of the film when the team faces the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man. although in a manner different than other films. Dinoco Warner Brothers ± Acme Corporation Coen Brothers ± Dapper Dan Hair Wax JJ Abrams ± Slusho Drinks Spike Lee ± Da Bomb malt liquor This practice is also fairly common in certain comics.

Acme Communications was created as a chain of real television stations. In the 1984 cult film Repo Man. UHF.[73] That name. "Drink".[citation needed] First generation virtual product placement has tended to be based upon sports arenas where the geometrical relationships of camera and the surface of the flat area onto which the billboard is projected. As of 2007. selling some real-life versions of products seen in episodes of the Simpsons such as Buzz Cola and Krusty-O's cereal. psychographics or behavioral information about the consumer. appeared in 1984 as advertising placement in Splash. can be easily calculated. "Dry Gin" and "Food . completed the circle by depicting a Crazy Ernie using a hard sell of "buy this car or I'll club a seal" as a TV ad campaign.[71] For example. marketers gain the ability change displayed in-game advertisements on the fly.[72] In 1997.Meat Flavored"). startups are offering or developing the ability to switch product placement. In 1949. Third generation virtual or dynamic product placement allows targeting of customers with different products that can be dynamically switched based upon such factors as demographics. with an exaggerated form of 1980s era generic packaging used on products prominently shown on-screen (these include "Beer". [edit] Viewer Response This means of advertisement triggered an unusual viewer response in April.[77] The movement . Where game software has access to a user's Internet connection. Second generation product placement or dynamic product placement is more focused upon commercial products. the firm is named for the fictional Acme Corporation of Warner Brothers fame. by creating products in real life to match those seen in a fictional setting. Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional car dealer in the film A Letter to Three Wives. when fans of the television series Chuck took advantage of product placement in the series by the restaurant chain Subway as part of a grassroots effort to save the show from cancellation.[74][75] As of 2007. a new trend is emerging in product placement. notable in televised at baseball and hockey games.So-called "reverse product placement" takes "faux product placement" a step further. 7-Eleven rebranded 11 of its American stores and one Canadian store as "Kwik-E-Marts". in 2007. the development of capabilities that permit dynamic or switchable product placement. a 1989 parody.[76] Also of interest are hypervideo techniques that can insert interactive elements into online video. such as individual player ID's and data about what was on the screen and for how long. [edit] Virtual placement Virtual product placement uses computer graphics to insert the product into the program after the program is complete. 2009. bestowed in 1971 upon a real-life electronics chain in New York City. More controversially. Previously post production tools have permitted one time insertion of new product placement images and billboard advertising. in-game advertising vendors such as Microsoft-owned Massive Incorporated may use software to transmit user information to their servers. a reverse form of product placement is used.

comment on the disproportionately common on-screen reference to the cigarette brand Marlboro Lights in the same film. 143-158. Siva K. portions of the defunct Dixie Square Mall in Harvey. Leon.[80][81][82] [edit] Product displacement According to Danny Boyle. "Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship". Issue 57. however. 23 (4). New York. 29±46. 367-385. Online Journal AFI/RMIT. director of film Slumdog Millionaire (2008). James Karrh and Hemant Patwardhan (2006). Liverpool. Journal of Advertising.[78][79] and garnered significant attention in online media. (2010). Journal of Television and New Media. Signage belonging to tenants of the mall when it was operational (1966±1978) was in some cases removed and replaced with that of other vendors. Boyle did not. Forthcoming (December) in Senses of Cinema Journal. (1994). Balasubramanian. Gurevitch. they objected to their products been shown in a slum setting. Liverpool University Press.[83] Similarly. Gurevitch.gained support from several cast and crew members. Sage Publications. in the film The Blues Brothers (1980). This forced the makers in post-production to remove logos digitally. 115±141. 2 (2). Leon. Melbourne. the makers had to resort to something he calls "product displacement" when companies such as Mercedes-Benz refused to allow their products to be used in non-flattering settings. (2010). (2009). While they did not mind having a gangster driving their cars. Journal of Popular Narrative Media. United Kingdom. for instance. leading some commentators to question whether there was significant funding from the said company for the film. Illinois. Siva K. . Vol. "Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues". 11 (5). a Walgreens would become a Toys " " Us. "The Cinemas of Transactions: The Exchangable Currency of Digital Attractions Across Audiovisual Economies". "Audience Response to Product Placements: An Integrative Framework and Future Research Agenda". 35 (3). costing "tens of thousands of pounds". Gurevitch.[84] [edit] External links y y Changes to UK Product Placement Rules Twentieth: Placing More Product [edit] Further reading y y y y y Balasubramanian. with series star Zachary Levi leading hundreds of fans to a Subway restaurant in Birmingham. Leon.Journal of Advertising. were reconstructed in façade and used as the scene of an indoor car chase. The Cinemas of Interactions: Cinematics and the µGame Effect¶ in the Age of Digital Attractions.

7. 306±318. "Consumers. Robot" Movie Car: Audi RSQ See more » . and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects". 73±92. 35 (1). Cristel Product Placement mit Startschwierigkeiten (Matthias Alefeld) http://www. 2010. 29 (3). Journal of 7± 18. and Michael Belch (2005) "A Managerial Investigation into the Product Placement Industry". Realistic Product Placement 4. 6. Mark Crispin (April 1990). Fribourg 2007 Russell. Russell (2002) "Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude".de/#presse Inside this Article 1. Journal of Consumer Research. The Atlantic. "Hollywood: The Ad²The Techniques and the Cartoon-Like Moral Vision of Television Advertising Are Exerting More and More Influence over American Moviemaking". and Barbara Stern (2006). Product placement blurring the editorial line http://www. Russell. What is Product Placement? 3. 5. Cristel Retrieved September 4.y y y y y y y Miller. http://www. Cristel A. 45 (1).. Characters. Introduction to How Product Placement Works 2.thedrum.productplacement.theatlantic. Pascal Schumacher: Effektivität von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement. Arranged Product Placement Product Placement in the Movies The "I. Journal of Advertising Research.

radio. Even television networks that depend on advertising dollars to stay in business know that it can be useful to ditch the interruptions and present a show without ads from time to time.where ads are imitating the practice of product placement. less advertorial. More and more ad-space is popping up every day. Movie Making Image Gallery Photo courtesy Amazon. every day.we see ads all day. See more movie making pictures. Today's consumer is inundated with advertising everywhere: television.latest trend in advertising is to make it. the Internet. magazines. where the product is the star. to ads on the ATM screen as we wait for it to dispense our cash -. .com The DeLorean played a prominent role in the "Back to the Future" movies. The ABC network did it for "Gideon's Crossing" in 2000 and for "Alias" in 2001. to flyers on our cars and in our mailboxes. This may seem a bit confusing. to mini-movies or quasi-documentary vignettes that feature "real-life scenarios" with the product(s) hovering in the background. FOX did it for its hit series "24" in 2002. buses. The tendency is to move away from in-your-face ads. billboards. And these are just the usual suspects.. Some would argue it's a sort of "art imitating art imitating life" scenario -. it's quite simple.. newspapers. well. The majority of us are getting tired of ads. From people walking down the street wearing signs. but really.

Ford sponsored the show with two three-minute spots opening and closing the episode. then you've been the victim of bad product placement.not to mention in video games and even books. There's certainly . Once mainly found only on the big screen. If you watched that "ad-free" version of "24" you know what we're talking about. And.networks turning down cold. So. hard advertising cash? That doesn't sound quite right.the main character. we'll explain what product placement is and examine how it is used in movies. drives a Ford Expedition. In this article. television shows and other media. does it? Of course they don't drop the advertising dollars all together. What is Product Placement? Have you ever watched a television show or a movie and felt like you were watching a really long commercial? If so. Jack Bauer.Photo courtesy Isabella Vosmikova/FOX Apple laptop computer on "24" Wait a minute -. product placement has been making quite a few appearances on TV -. Ford vehicles have been integrated into the show -. when is an ad not an ad? When it's a product placement.

Since then. Product placement is something that dates back to at least the early 1950s when Gordon's Gin paid to have Katharine Hepburn's character in "The African Queen" toss loads of their product overboard. A slightly more recent and easily as effective example is the placement of Red Stripe. They want their products to be visible within a scene. there have been countless placements in thousands of movies.S. The product needs to fit. this prime spot essentially catapulted these tiny peanut butter morsels into mainstream popularity. television show. Red Stripe sales saw an increase of more than 50% in the U." Originally intended for another product (they melt in your mouth. but not in your hand). Photo courtesy Isabella Vosmikova/FOX Perhaps the producers of "24" did not find a phone company that wanted to sponsor this episode. Think about it. Clever marketing folks try never to cross that line. When done correctly. One of the most commonly discussed is the placement of Reese's Pieces in the movie "E. product placement can add a sense of realism to a movie or television show that something like a can simply marked "soda" cannot. . You can probably remember quite a few examples. a Jamaican-brewed beer. but not the focus. almost seamlessly (almost being the key word here) into the shot and context of the scene." According to BusinessWeek Online. or music video.a line that can be crossed when presenting brand-name items as props within the context of a movie. in the movie "The Firm. market in the first month of the movie's release.T.

It's arranged. said the company was not approached about the use of their product and they would not have given it a thumbs-up. exactly? It's actually pretty simple. product placement is a vehicle for everything from foodstuffs to electronics to automobiles. Repo Man . A set dresser. there are three ways product placement can occur: y y y It simply happens. Realistic Product Placement A worldwide trend in advertising." The poisonous prop was used in a particularly violent fight scene in the show. or even an actor might come across something he thinks will enhance the project." genericized foodstuffs and other consumables rule. According to The Internet Movie Database. drink certain ant killer made by the SC Johnson company -. These fragrant props hang in just about every Photo courtesy moving vehicle in the movie -..the four-wheel drive would come in handy when visiting building sites. eat certain foods. According to an article in USA Today. and a certain amount of the product serves as compensation. Therese Van Ryne. the company that makes the air fresheners was one of the sponsors of the movie. If the Shoe.Now that you have an idea of what product placement is. products necessarily come into play. Car or Soda Fits. successful." "Whiskey. a spokeswoman for SC Johnson. Shirt. producer. let's take a look at some of the basics involved in leveraging a product placement arrangement. He'd read particular motorcycle has an episode of the popular HBO series "The Sopranos. So." and "Beer" appearing in most scenes.. it's obvious that the producers had almost no luck with product placement deals.. From this description. and there is financial compensation. it's easy to start thinking up things to enhance the feel of this character. With plain blue and white labels that simply read "Food.even the police Amazon. Basically. One example can be found in the surprising use of a can of RAID -. we can create a less controversial scenario.. Maybe he'd drive an SUV -. Sometimes product placement just happens. Let's say the main character in a program or movie is an unmarried. Usually this has to do with boosting the level of credibility or realism of the story being told." "Cigarettes. The one uber-evident product that is placed in frame after frame are tree-shaped air fresheners. In making the character's life seem real. For illustrative purposes throughout the rest of this article. how does it work. In the 1984 cult classic "Repo Man. It's arranged. director. welltravelled architect in his thirties.

. The movie people approach the Honest Tea folks with a proposal and a deal is made.'s character makes disparaging remarks about the company. It turns out that someone on the crew knows someone who works for Honest Tea. the wristwatch casually appears in several scenes. a gift of the product isn't an appropriate form of compensation. Tag Heuer manages to reap the benefits of conventional advertising without being overly obvious or intrusive to the audience/consumers. Getting the Job Done Before product placement really saw a surge in the mid 1980s. the camera pauses just long enough for you to really see the wristwatch. This will come across rather strongly over the course of the program (because the character even collects the drink's labels) -. After switching from the actor's face to the face of the wristwatch. Imagine that the marketing team at Tag Heuer has heard about this project and feels that. in exchange for the airtime. this project would be a great vehicle for showcasing its product. given the starpower of the actor playing The Architect. It's a Miss! Like lots of advertising methods. Eventually. they come to an agreement. The camera pans down to show a slight tap of the actor's foot. it moves up and zooms in to show him checking his wristwatch for the time. Someone from Tag Heuer approaches the set dresser with a financially lucrative proposal. the advertised product's role is to be part of an ensemble cast rather than the (obvious) star.the integration of the Tag Heuer product is a success. One particular example of product placement gone awry is the Reebok/Jerry Maguire fiasco.. Sometimes. stainless steel Tag Heuer luxury sports-watch.Arranged Product Placement As we mentioned earlier. Remember. Reportedly. Reebok had a placement agreement to integrate one of its commercials at the end of the film "Jerry Maguire." The commercial didn't make it to production -. Consider this scene: Our male character (The Architect) stands outside a movie theater waiting to meet a friend. He's wearing a link-style. During the next hour of the program. The camera pans out and swings around. Cuba Gooding Jr. let's say the production team wants The Architect to display a quirky affinity for a particular type of beverage. Using our existing example. In a pivotal scene. so money powers the deal. Some larger corporations will dedicate personnel to scout out opportunities for product integration or . Next. Now there are specific corporate positions and entire agencies that can handle the job. product placement can be hit or miss. introducing a beautiful woman into the scene. Both teams are happy -. the cast and crew are provided with an ample supply of various Honest Tea drinks at work.but something else regarding Reebok did.which means the chosen product could get a lot of air time. it was pretty much a DIY effort. arranged product placement deals fall into two categories: y y Trade-off of integration or placement for a supply of product Financial compensation for placement or integration The most common type of deal is a simple exchange of the product for the placement.

Target. Evian. It's highly likely that you'll see one of the major soft drink companies represented." In Wayne's World. try to keep an eye out for products or brand-names you recognize. Starbucks. smiles straight at the camera. here's a taste of what you can see in just the trailer alone (Keep in mind that the trailer is only two minutes and twenty-five seconds long!): America Online. everything is Taco Bell. Motorola.Pepsi and Starbucks Cast Away . Sprint." he is opening a Pizza Hut box and pulling out a slice of pizza. A send-up on the music industry. You'll probably recall at least a few of these now-famous product placements: y y y y y y y Risky Business . Two movies that do a good job of this are "Wayne's World" and "Josie and the Pussycats.America On-Line (AOL). Pizza Hut and Reebok.. Bugles. television shows and even games and music. Is it Coke? Pepsi? Snapple? Once you've spotted something. Entertainment Weekly Magazine. Sega. "How. Mercedes Benz. holding the slice of pizza lovingly beside his face. and T. McDonald's." you'll wonder. Gatorade. Puma.J. Coke. Kodak. Maxx. Pepsi.FedEx and Wilson Men in Black II . including Nuprin. IBM and Starbucks Austin Powers .. As Wayne says "Contract or no. the Love Bug RoboCop Car Volkswagen Beetle Ford Taurus .Taco Bell (In the future. Krispy Kreme.Pepsi products Demolition Man . see how many other scenes include that product. You'll start to see a trend. American Express. The amusing part about this is that the product placement vignette takes place while the characters Wayne and Garth are lambasting the very thing they're doing. Steve Madden. Campbell's Soup. "Josie and the Pussycats" manages to satirize name-brand integration throughout the film. I will not bow to any corporate sponsor.Ray-Ban sunglasses Back to the Future . Billboard Magazine. Ray-Ban.placement within films. The movie "Josie and the Pussycats" takes the joke several steps further. Product Placement in the Movies The next time you watch a movie. Bebe. The camera lingers on the Pizza Hut logo and Wayne. This site provides suggestions on how to pick a product placement agency.Ray-Ban sunglasses. Pepperidge Farm Cookies. Ford. Milky Way. the two main characters hawk a variety of stuff. Burger King Product placement in movies is so ubiquitous that it's even become something to parody on the big screen. Cars in the Movies Movie Herbie. "can the actor hold the Coke can just the right way every time so that the logo is perfectly visible?" Take a minute to comb through your movie memories. Pringles. Apple. logos and products this movie is. Pizza Hut. To get an idea of just how saturated with brands.) You've Got Mail .

"The Jeep Wrangler Rubicon is the most capable Jeep ever built.. Robot" Movie Car: Audi RSQ In 2004. We have created a 360-degree integrated marketing campaign around the movie and the debut of the Wrangler Rubicon Tomb Raider model.Back to the Future Smokey and the Bandit The World Is Not Enough Lara Croft: Tomb Raider DeLorean Pontiac Trans Am BMW Z8 Jeep Wrangler Rubicon Photo courtesy DaimlerChrysler According to a 2003 Chrysler press release. ROBOT. so the heroic and extreme environment in which Lara Croft uses her custom Wrangler Rubicon in Tomb Raider is accurate. This is more than just a product placement." .. product placement reached a new level with Audi's involvement with the movie "I." The "I.

And since this custom job was also a product-placement job. the car had to fit seamlessly into the movie world while still screaming "Audi.Photo courtesy The Audi automotive brand has been involved in movies before." and "Mission Impossible II. So how is this different from the placement of the BMW Z8 in "The World is Not Enough" or the DeLorean in "Back to the Future"? Audi didn't just place the RSQ in the movie. Photo courtesy Audi. though. it wasn't just a question of promoting the right car in the right movie. Audis have been featured in such movies as " Will Smith and the Audi RSQ The Audi RSQ concept car plays a central role in the futuristic action film." This time. It was a full-blown custom job. Audi created the RSQ for the movie." ." "The Insider.

com The RSQ is not just a movie car -. Audi put the same amount of thought and detail into designing the RSQ as they do into designing any other concept car. It has a fully developed interior and exterior.those have been done before. with movie designers creating a car and simply attaching the highest-bidding car logo to the hood. .Photos courtesy Audi.

Alex Proyas. and with set designers to achieve a concept that both Audi and the movie people were happy with products that are not simply chosen to fill a role that benefits both parties. a color-changing. Photo courtesy Audi. spherical wheels. sleek profile. butterfly-action doors. most In the creative partnership between a carmaker and Hollywood. The result of the collaborative effort is the futuristic RSQ sports coupe. featuring. luminescent paint job and a low. but products that are created to fill that role. we may be looking at the future of this type of advertising -. mid-engine design. Product Placement on TV Back to Basics Radio and television dramas .com The carmaker worked with the director of the movie.Audi designers toured the movie sets and got their hands on the futuristic props used in the film.Photo courtesy Audi.

this process has to share its advertising space with traditional advertising. Photo courtesy Ray Mickshaw/FOX L-R: Judges Simon Cowell. But.and now a word from our sponsor -. both are a means to a similar end. advertisers have shelled out the big bucks to promote their products and brands. Paula Abdul and Randy Jackson In the "elimination episodes. The 30-second spot has been the reigning champion for a very long time. In addition to the standard 30second spots -. the current trend is a combination of the two.Each of the three judges sits behind large red cups emblazoned with the Coca-Cola logo. Here are some examples: y Coca-Cola . Since the beginning of televised programming. This trend can in large part be attributed to many of today's reality-based television shows. Does that mean there can only be one winner in the television advertising arena? Not necessarily. but some of these companies' brands and products are evident (REALLY EVIDENT) in each episode. the folks at AMC opted for cosmetics. instead of soap. AT&T Wireless. also known as the 30-second spot. In a story-line that spanned several months." contestants nervously await their turn in the Coca-Cola room. In fact. but it is a rapidly growing industry. . known as soap operas acquired their moniker from the products advertised during their shows. Old Navy and Ford. The very best example of this is the popular talent show "American Idol. famous cosmetics company Revlon was front and center in Pine Valley's plotline. One of today's most popular soap operas. There's a big difference between product integration and a standard 30-second advertising spot. More commonly referred to as product integration in this medium. Yes. which seem to be a perfect match for product integration.Product placement is not quite as widespread in TV land as it is in the movies.the products were often integrated into the story line. but that doesn't mean there's only room for one of these vehicles on the advertising block." Not only are segments of each episode sandwiched between ads for Coca-Cola. "All My Children." recently managed to revisit its advertising roots. perched on a Coca-Cola sofa.

Bill Carter writes: Searching for ways to thwart any trend toward skipping commercials on programs recorded on personal video recorders like TiVo. on the Coca-Cola couch y AT&T Wireless . Now." According to AdAge magazine. In an article for the New York Times. Coca-Cola. Ford Motor and Coca-Cola. the phrase "millions of dollars" mentioned above actually refers to about $26 million per integration/sponsorship deal. they have AT&T wireless. Fans can submit their vote as a text message if. that means that EACH of the companies -. you may be wondering "product placement on a Web site?" "Isn't that just an ad?" Well. In fact. though. These companies do get a lot of bang for their bucks.AT&T Wireless. after visiting the "American Idol" Web site. for example. There are actual sections of the Web site that integrate the brand or sponsor's name entirely: y y y y Coca-Cola Behind the Scenes AT&T Wireless Old Navy Fun and Games Section Herbal Essences Music Section Cars on TV .Photo courtesy Ray Mickshaw/FOX Contestants in the Coca-Cola room. and only if. Yes. it makes you wonder if the product placement there is included in that bill.dished out 26 million dollars. the networks are increasingly integrating their sponsors and their products into the shows themselves. rather than limiting their presence to commercials. are two of the advertisers that have paid millions of dollars to have their logos prominently displayed during episodes of "American Idol. not exactly.Host Ryan Seacrest mentions AT&T wireless each time a contestant finishes his/her song. no. and Ford -.

Here are just a few examples of what you can find at your local library or bookstore: y Skittles Riddles Math. Roger Glass . one of the largest genres to feature product placement is children's learning books.I. Bulgari. Undoubtedly." has met with skepticism and praise from Weldon's colleagues and fans You'll find it in books. especially if you haven't seen it. The displaying billboard-style ads for pens and Pipercommissioned work was to be given as a present to an elite group Montblancchampagne in his Heidsieck of Bulgari clientele. Weldon has set a precedent that other authors and publishers will follow. paid noted British author Fay in the theater community by Weldon to write a novel that would feature Bulgari products. product placement in a The headlines might have read book or a video game is pretty difficult to imagine. Starsky & Hutch Dukes of Hazzard Knight Rider Charlie's Angels Hardcastle & McCormick 24 Car Ferrari Testarossa Lotus 8 Ferrari 308i Ford Grand Torino Dodge Charger Pontiac Trans Am Ford Mustang Cobra DeLorean Coyote Ford Expedition Product Placement in Books and Video Games Product placement isn't just for movies and television anymore. The world. Where exactly "Product placement takes Broadway by storm" when Baz would they place the products? It turns out there's plenty of opportunity for this manner of advertising. Let's start with books. "The Bulgari Connection" Bohème. by Barbara Barbieri McGrath. Not only did Weldon agree to the deal. Luhrmann surprised many famous jewelry company. music videos. Sound a bit far-fetched? It's not.TV Show Miami Vice The Prisoner Magnum P. It turns out that even a modest amount of investigation can unearth several other productprominent published works. Actually. but stage production of "La she eventually took her work public. Romeo + Juliet. Read All About It! Acapella Advertising To some. Puccini brand and products. video games and on the Internet. Let's take a look at how product placement is being used in these other arenas. Luhrmann (Strictly Ballroom. Moulin Rouge!) -->Imagine a well-known company commissioning an equally decided to perform a little renowned author to write a book that prominently features its product placement.

According to AdAge. it does the same thing in the video game -. product placements in video game software have been around since the 1980s. Sega was placing banners advertising Marlboro in its auto-racing arcade games. Zog's Sex Wax. Back then. a surfboard wax. In "The Oreo Cookie Counting Book. According to USA Today.until there are none! A quick flip through the pages confirms that Oreo cookies are indeed featured prominently on every page! Product Placement in Video Games As they continue to become more and more realistic... UbiSoft's Surf Riders has G-Shock watches and banners for Mr. Product Placement in Songs On the Flip Side In an interesting turn of events. Rob Bolster The Cheerios Christmas Play Book.making the "environment" of the game more lifelike. by Jerry Pallotta. In Sega's Super Monkey Ball. Dive into Die Hard: Nakatomi Plaza. it's actually pretty easy to understand the advertising possibilities available within today's video games. and stacked one by one..y y y y The Hershey's Kisses Addition Book. the bananas sport Dole Food Company stickers. Sega's still onboard with product placement. The USA Today article What's in a name: Product placement in games states: Play Crazy Taxi and a lot of your passengers will ask you to take them to Pizza Hut or KFC (both owned by Tricon Global). this kind of product integration isn't about the cash.possibly not even incorporating the product into the content of the book. music artists who have been promoting products on television are using those promotions to their own advantage. you may be assuming that the companies are merely sponsoring the book and that the content is pretty standard fare -. by Lee Wade After reading these titles." the back cover reads: Children will love to count down as ten little OREOs are dunked. by Barbara Barbieri McGrath Twizzlers Percentages Book by Jerry Pallotta. artists such as Dirty Vegas and Phil Collins are clueing consumers in on their product-endorsement pastimes by placing "as seen in . Apparently. Surprisingly.. Think again. Just as product placement in movies promotes credibility and realism in the movie. Rob Bolster The M&M's Brand Counting Book.and you'll see Zippo lighters and Motorola cell phones.

One of the earliest examples of product placement within a song TV commercial" stickers on their albums. appearing in the title. If they don't win it's a shame. root. Not only did it have its little toy surprise going for it. check out the links on the next page. For it's one. As products are finding their way into movies. Since then. two. Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack. handling and using products of all kinds on the big and small screens for years to come. At the old ball game. brother of Joseph Simmons -. This relationship has had a significant boost on sales of the Allied Domecq brand. Cracker Jack also had a memorable mention in the chorus of this (now) immortalized melody. Whatever the future holds. For example. television. For more information on product placement and related topics. Take me out with the crowd. While Adidas didn't commission Run DMC. many products have popped up in tunes around the world -. Island Def Jam Music Group [incidentally. I don't care if I never get back. Run-DMC was giving a lot of air time and screen time to the fashionable footwear. Consider Run-DMC's track "My Adidas" from their multiplatinum album. creative predilection and not because of a record label dictate to appease an advertiser. They weren't only singing about their Adidas. a brand has found its way into a rap song because of artist preference or through an organic. Raising Hell. Let me root..some have even garnered top billing. according to the company. Def Jam Music was founded by Russell Simmons. But with digital technology continuing to skyrocket in both form and function. there's a seemingly endless stream of new and innovative ways to put products in front of potential consumers. books and video games. the chorus goes like this (feel free to sing along. in an unprecedented paid product-placement deal. Long before Biggie Smalls and Jay-Z were giving props to Cristal champagne. not until Busta Rhymes' recent single "Pass the Courvoisier Part Two" moved a healthy number of units was a promotional deal with Allied Domecq completed. can be found in Take Me Out to the Ball Game. music.. According to AdAge: Marketers Explore Product Placements in Music: In an attempt to further leverage its diverse artist roster. there's no doubt you'll continue to see many of your favorite stars holding. AdAge also reports: In almost all cases. . you're out. it would seem like there's nowhere else to go.): Take me out to the ball game. root for the home team. many of today's music professionals are striking deals and getting paid. three strikes. the tennis shoes were a prominent element in their dress. Written in 1908 by Jack Norworth and later scored by Albert Von Tilzer. and Norworth and Tilzer weren't paid to promote Cracker Jack.Run of Run-DMC] is in formal talks with Hewlett-Packard Co.

2010 Studio: Warner Bros.. Royal Enfield. 2010 Studio: Fox Weekend gross: US$ 594 M Featured brands: Jujubes. Samsung.4 million (two-weekend gross) Featured brands: Amaretti Del Chiostro. a wheelbarrow displaying the Sunlight Soap logo and accompanied by a tuxedoed Lavanchy Clarke. Source: Institut Lumiere in Lyon / Jay Newell. from a product placement perspective. U. Sanyo Comments: The penultimate installment in the Harry Potter films had a blockbuster opening weekend and brought limited love to muggle brands ² except for Harry Potter's leather jacket-maker. the film is forgettable as the the only notable product placements are t-shirts that underscore character development.Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1Date: 19-28 Nov. Jenny Parkham. Nike. Marlboro. Avon Tires. In the film titled "Défilé du 8e Battalion" (Girel. 1896). Belstaff. The business of product placement had begun. is placed in the foreground between the camera and the parade. Weekend gross: $175. Special K.S. Marine Corps Comments: Though Avatar breaks ground in the realms of special effects and visual technology. Avatar Date: 29 Jan-1 Feb.. Did we miss something? Product placement originates back to its film debut in the 1800's. Stanford University. Iowa State University / iTVX Product Placement Measurement .