Ken Hultgren

Construction, Action Analysis.Caricature

\Nith 759 Illustrations


Preface Tips


O(o\lll'il'lg Animals Feeling

MQod end

The Use of Line
Action Ancly!is Brush Technique

11 15 17 19 48 57 77 82 84 86 89 92 101 10' 108 111 112 119 Animol Grouping 128




The Deer family The Cat Family

COws and 8ulls Giraffes.
Comels Gorillas

Pigs Dogs
Foxes KongO(005

Rabbits Squirrels Erephan'~
The 'Beer family Compo~ition in

Ir il well to divide part,_Forequorter,!, quorlerL it oid. Draw Since thi,i,o ,tripe in ochiev;ng in dorsa! 10 centar the body beny, noturol prope, into ond three reOf





(line of venebrae). the animal

Thil help.

Beorohova outsllghtly .





toed. The powlofrha


. Alway. indicota .hletonbonel, together. Once uae thue you el the •

MOllhoaFedonimol,oreslighrlyknock knead_more.o when they·,e young

will holdrhe,kerch ore fomilior

with the relative


part 01 th . e nose. with Bear th in mind that th e eyes ore usually on id I . dogs th'e .eyes . Draw gUide lines when constructing your With bears. . three ports also. cots.~ivide th~ skull inlo e muzz e. rcote t e base heed. Fasten ears onto the b k For simplicity indo oc h of the on oval. and are more forward. the long and the base of the skull. e s' e 0 the head.

II is well to keep mind when working about If in doubt these with a pose. and check your perspective . Note when try 10 gel ore in leg positions. - " c nirnojs. .e legs placed 01 different cnqles. sketch the addf!d th. shots.a When variety interest drawing in 0 ' i··· fff·--·:~' t /. \ . stilted pose with the legs parallel._ I I . box lightly. Y . box rough forms in ongle.In contrast with the stiff. In y~ur ..

~ ?.""'0"" o"." how '\ \\ ''\ ~~~. go tes " ° .h. .1 • 9 on individuol the slcelel~nn~!e some Foels Once you have cc .SIMPLIF Bejcre 00. concerning lED SKElETO NS . lecp pose oog.10' below. .t /~ . h.mol. "~~ .. I" stretching capable out. edge 01 the Pivolqu'r~d some knowl· a skeleton. your dPo'~ts or joints in more easily.h.'co"h. 0 f ~... . "b P"'"'' .. In general.lpf.i.d '0.f' 0. rowing will come doubling legs are very up on liable.

Keep this in mind when drawing any animol in this position. .SKETCHING IN FORMS A diagram such as the one above will prove helpful when you hove forms behind one another.



Keeping the withers high accents that effect. The whites of the eyes are seldom visible in animals except when they are extremely tense and frightened in the deer sketch. Their heods hong low. like that of the horse. tense mood in your characters. group. such as Ihol of the deer -. the stretched necks 0150 help 10 convey tension. the effect requires as much droop as possible. prepared for a quick departure if the situation warrants. At such a time. animals drop lower on their hindquarters. in that he conveys 10 the observer the mood or attitude of his animal choraclers and must feel the situation before he con put it down on paper. The ears and toil are perked up. Anirncls shift their weight from leg to leg when tired. If the mood is 0 ter-se one. In a very tired pose.MOOD AND FEELING Every artist is an actor. . then you strive for 0 lout.

ears bock. The nostrils are wide. flaring the manes of the horses was helpful. and the whites of the eyes visible. The neck muscles are loul. .To ccnvev excitement.

for ~~: best way to stage the cowermg pose . and the toils are The lions below co~tentmenl. like the~xdress 0 mood of lcz ~o::~ .yourself: Will s my staging clearz ~eonlng In silhouette" pose stronger? . . It rna .~~~:o~o".her animal resting quiet peece. The head of th faxe moods such on. gIVes the scene a o. ow can I make thiS 10 .' in cousins. with their cttenti e to keep the rear qucrters are d Ion drown up.h their loil.see It menially before sev.:'''"''d Whotever the mood .eral rough poses \be necessary to sketch which you feel. the other cot's ba:k ort.. Thefolio:::: I IS pose convey the . lioo: ese. ropped. h dogs seemed to b ecds low. The between the legs.ask . elcre you find ~~egoodtestq~e. you start to work.wi.

(I Fig. 2 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 is 0 good on I weight in horizontol ~ie:~o to crecte Fig. 3 Fig:. 3 Fig. 4 .

:i~~:I../ fh Ie stomach.. more movement. rt.. . /' ~~ -':. 4 . contrast r s right reor [. reverSe ~. / »->: '\l. Ir-x_t/ \_ .To creole the arc.:t'm~:~nes very i leg and the lin tee opposition. so necesso Note beer' eo else good.

ss of now al octian-like a touch of red on on cll-creen bock.e P. for they relieve the somen". both are port of the line of ectico. InlhiscoselheloiliSLJsedmonoccent Note leg leading into li.For rhythm and sweep In your drewings always establish a line of action. groLJ"d 13 . either can be used in different ways. In these two poses.e of c cncn Accents are good.asically the line af action is the flow oFo graceFul line The ned and toil are excelleot Fcr establishing this flow.. Some of the accepted lines are the.


as below. oction ANALYSIS . stress ond strain. Arrows indicate the flow of action The use practice.the bunching of forms. There is always a pivot point. where parts \5 . up and elongating taking off.ANIMATION and reaction Arcs ore important in animation. is another different irnp orpaths of tant factor in animation. as in a rabbit Overlapping of the body action.ACTION Feel weight. but even thai pivot point is movable. of reverse action is good Note . Note oction lake legs. .

lost some of its momentum. His head pulls downward. the horse in this case regains more of his norma! shape as he slows down in the roll. olthoi/gh nol as' much as in the '. . ~.l~ .loking his weight at the first shock of his fall. the horse has thrown his head bock.ACTION ANALYSIS -IMPACT like CI rubber boll which elongates in failing and squashes on impoct. his strejcbed forelegs ore reoc~ing.riginal fall. so a living body will react in comparable circumstances. since it .. and his whole body reverses as he storts his roll.". Similarly.prepore_ for the impact. The boll on the rebound elongates ogo. The legs ore First to react. cod his body elongales in his foU. In his descent.hos.

I clwovs hold my brush cs I would a pencil. using wrist oction for my brush strokes.. etc. 17 . The wetness of the brush and the pressure of the brush on the poper determine the tone value you will cchieve Regordless of the technique.BRUSH Brush and ink is on excellent medium for drawing cnimcls. Shagginess. which is a characteristic of some comeis. leoving open crecs 10 suggest high lights.. The desire here is to hove the tip of the brush not. Since the fur textures of cnimcls vary. your brush technique will vary also. dogs. t keep my brush' stroke thin. may be conveyed by a dry_brush style. with the thin edges of the hairs of the brush jusl wet enough 10 give a soft tone. and even. Here ore some proctice exercises for the two styles described II. This is obtained by thinning cut your brush on scratch paper after TECHNIQUE you have dipped it In ink. To show the high sheen of a race horse. for example. dose together.


The two high poinls ore support for leg bones. Note variety in shape. animation. \9 . Arrow points 10 socket for humerus bone. treat it. Naturally the skeleton vor· ies with the conformation of each type of animal.THE HORSE FAMILY- Bone Structure Without knowledge of the principles 01 bone structure. tapering down to a point 01 the toil end Now attach skull. or eerieetcre. for the Joke of simplicity. like a rubber hose. Next odd the verlebrae. simplified again. (here the rib Starting with the spinal column. Here is a simplified approach for the skeleton of a horse. View showing shope of skull Next attach the sccpulc. it would be difficult 10 show cons+ruction. Build on the rib cage detoils ore omitted). but there is a basic similarity in the skeletons of all animals.

Add humerus. Finished leg. view of bock plote o"d 20 . Perspective socket. as this. Note sockets for legs. For sketching of it as simply purposes. you can think Next step: odd the bock plate for rear legs. elbow. and foreleg.

Bone fits into socket. With the building downward of the reor leg. the skeleton is completed 21 .



MUSCLE STRUCTURE Note drewin since musde5 underlayer wovld be show of mUlciesleodingt (I good overth" tMarcile t the skeleton dra".i"~ it would deCl~Y wherl h WfOP around-various bon~ .


. :... R?rt~. Filthe stomach under... end to see the relative Size ~f yorioys..".VARIOUS PARTS Thinking of the horse in separate units . 26 . Note the position of the scopulc... will help you to visualize the oni~ol es 0 solid. __" .

with rhe skull. since there are so many planes familiar _"Y 1<> i.. Once you are will be rhe fob relatively simple. Thinking of the head in two sections may help you. horse's head.. note how both the neck muscle and the bone behind the eye follow around the eor 27 . especially since much of the 'bone slrucrure of the head is very pronounced.).n '" to consider. nO eo..lock ..HEADS Th. In the lower right-hond sketch.~ .

rse 100 far check the divisions i mg In the head. ho.p:.e.S~!etive~ be sure it is in . When rou :.~ .>: ~\ 28 .per.~~. .A common mistake of b . place the eye of th egmners is to forward.

MUSCLE ACTION like 0 lout rubber bond. as in the first sketch. not only do the legs stretch cut. The neck becomes connecting 10 his head. the muscles bunch up. the muscles elongote in stretched positions. In crouched positions. When the horse pushes off with his forefeet. with a lot of tension on the under muscles 29 . but the whole forequarter section as well. longer.

toreme~b=~i. r~OdjO~nin f8octlon.' d~:~~ ~q~:f~re hare. T ey but are 51"'$$ ~nd s. been mentlo~~ worth repealing. There ore points jng uction p~ses.roin6unching of form Elongating and Weight Action Wllion' and a high foil.Tendons else pr'ay on imporlont port. 0 Ih!! imDoct hom 30 .

.. ore worth putting in once you've determined the perspective of your figure.. e Without it.. os shown below.Bo"incin.h"'_. in per$pe~li ..d. it's very eosy to miss. Arcs in perspective. . ....."'Q~<>dQ".. in keeping your figure..<. . Your eye is 0 pretty good judge..h .

ANIMATION-JUMr Animated step in perspective. 32 .

Then reverse your pose by having the horse pull ogainst the load.As 0 proctice exercise. give yourself o problem such os 0 horse pulling 0 hecvv lood forword. bockwards. 33 . Get c s much drive in the pose cs possible.

TROT lo~." ~j' """ '". l~.~~ . (.

Back to beginning of cycle 35 . right foreleg pulling body. right foreleg toking weight Note dip of reor 0$ legs pull through.CANTER Right rear leg ond left foreleg pushing off.


'Feel" YOvr drowin $1 ' plenty f renslon in rh~ "'jtched 'e9~. o"d 0 cv Is on mvsdes. PU..I .ch 10 II.. G.. 9 ..

~~e i~~~r pose mer'ltcliy befor e rcvah- ..

. For show purposes.on soddle show the between the draft of hor~o. • ... Note width of rear.fFe~enc::e ".!. 39 .f. and types The draft horse is mcssive in neck and shoulders... the legs are Feathered out..DRAFT These boxed·in in ....ize HORSES drawings end d...

slightly larger ears. end slight dome of head. keep in mind large joints on legs. Note boxed-in figures for compori$on. short toil and mane. '0 . In drawing colis. small hoofs. small muzzle.COLTS Colis ore very long-legged in pro- portion to the body.

there is on owk. word legginess to 0 colt's actions.Beeeuse he is young.solidifying drowing. os though he is never quite sure of his bolonce. Try to cectore thot ~eeling in your poses. Approoch. getting the attitude or pose and·plating pivot points Feeling form . Working in the detail of the forms. " .

the lesser ones will not be difficult . Concentrate on basic planes IN first. When doing this. Following the contours of the body. and then work to the minor ones. If the basic planes ore right. sketch in yovr lines.KING When you hove your horses sketched in and you desire tone.BLO(. block in your planes.


44 .

ortion . as 0 rule.. and.. thot ~r~. II "\ \l The ccselv 10 the form drawing withou~ 0 b low was done p.vr~ e "d ccnst-ucnc out:~ee stripes follow lines.. thon thai 0 I Chorocler.. d end is higher in the hin f the horse.ulHul 0"''''01 and markings. .ZEBRAS rr. I:: of :esign b. . sh~7he ::imoL Note lorger stripes on reor... . round -bcc] h n the horse.sli:~o:: the zebra ore lorge.... .. head. smaller ho~ s to.b because ..

small muzzle. short body. tapering legs. and small feet. To suggest toll. exoggerote and try 10 keep on 011. The end of the toil is full and bushy.HORSES On the dnJft horse. The points of exoggerolion are: large ears. sleek. Nole Rare gillen to loil for a peacocklike impression. large rear. the zebra suggests cuteness and de c crotivene s s. all proportions have been kept slim and tapering. Note how small knees accent the fullness of feathering 01 the legs.around and chest short ZEBRAS - CARICATURE To me. oristocrotic thoroughbred. 46 . rather smoll.

knees with I~~~e he .1. Islenderized hi' leg' the fullness A7 . small muzzle..I large hoofs...45° protrude The Trojan to accentuate mane accents the thick neck of the hoofs. knock..h:" . at nearly Horses' a . the high crown The teeth angle. teeth do have it in this one. .. "... of the legs. ... I exaggerated the shortness and the length of the body. "!. . On and the colt.~"IY"'rb".. of the droit horse."...


. _•• bodyl 1.~ . tendon ._ .D_~·.I.I:~:':~A' _f .1..._ The leg is very thin between ond leg bone. f_c .

! ' .

. £\~-~~. . _..s.Walk DEER-ANIMATION at the nol .~!et ~igh begin- -.. __" l - ... tr~ .t~:: p .. .. ~~:r ~~I. o... /.

52 .tures reveal some very extreme positions.(~ . are Slow. Work full of for rhythm . like the one cbove.their bodies it. motion pic.

in accordance with the age and type of deer.. ..lea muscles are ~Iog is nolu- ond .. The cntlers vary in size and number of prongs. body.STAGS The bone structure of the rr..dly h~C1ViIH thM thM Its neck is thicker.~ bcood"r generally throughout th. . 6F .·e pronounced. They furnish a nice decorative occent to the drawing.. the "".htl .

leading the action.A few lines can suggest many forms It is helpful. have a strong line of 'from the rear leg to .



011 col> 0"



in;: ~'h;\:~-"~~ ::e~~o;,e~~ngb~:~~

body, with I

To get rhythm' flow of line on~n tyour cats, work for opering forms.

one graceful


For the f~e!ing of rhythm, weave


forms together. /t no: only unifies YOu~ drawing but gives It movement an grace as. well.


' . ~ .. -. . . ~ ...' -.. ...- ..\ ~~r ir: .

spotted when young. making a good visor for the eye. Difference between noses: Baby puma. lion Tiger 61 . the upper lid overhangs quite far.Particularly on the lion.

LIONESS . less brood thon the male The lioneu 15 ccelul. and looks more gr .

63 .


Head of lioness will be If the grOllndwork solid. .s right. the drawing 65 .

the shoulders ond forefeet. the bodv. Note how body is broken up into three parts..~ . like in oppearance. Lion Cub Cute and· killen. the hindquarters . the lion cub is always [un.

~k .h grow.... e ~"'~$ ... rs.. tho ".ehe'i.obe shorter·bodiedthon 67 . p .thelion appears . lion.LION T" . ~..olid. b . underside......heovyond. On on adult bock it olso lome distance on the Becou..


Note 5tr~ng line of ccticn through the whole body. Right hind leg stretches in landing. 69 . This pose would leod inlo a pose similar to number CIne if the tal were to jump ogoin.LION JUMP Body in push-off. RighI foreleg tokes weight in landing_ left foreleg stretches lor ground Hindquarters pull through from stretch position. preparing to kmd. Forelegs arch up. Forequarters drow close 10 body in forward thrust.

:~nerb~e7. following the contours of the forms.kee~ your.BUILDING A HEAD Work for brood planes at Hrst. since it.~:~tr:~. Dividing the head down the middle will help. . The lines are shaded in. See that your forms relote to eoch other.will give you a line t ~L~~~~~:..




the foreheod lorge is . the body short.As in 011 boby onimols.

I like to empho$ize the $Ie~kness and rhythm of the black panther - the long, tapering leg. ond long body.

The open mouth at the left gives a comic effect. In this sketch, J mode the mouth brood at the top and narrow at the bottom to give variety of shcpe, and to emphasize the open, stretched position.

~: ob'toin


bove I emphcsiz ed In th~ comic ~Phee:d, m~ne, ond chest ore .exogeris full the tip of the tcil Hore effect.

the stze of ~I~in whiskers








built th





o:,;p,,01 ,olomo.
y prominent

c~rry a






COWS. . in the stomach. 1111prolrudlng deal of bulk # bone areas and ~ basket-like drew.. T eests the monne~ in ing at the SUhQ n s from the spinal 10: Moking the lip of the loil full gives a .e:.CARICATURE They're very onguIO. nice accent.

BUllS .

and the tip of the tail I. For on incongruous effect.BULLS-CARICATURE Here I hove forequarter dwarFed the size of the legs to give more bulk to the body. mode very full 10 serve as on accent. The length of the horns is emohasil"l!d 'ecliol1 and the ne<::~ ond exaggerated. I hove used very thin legs on the choracters below. 81 .

The upper lip is 5pii!. 82 . v.shcpe d nose. with a wide . and the eyes protrude .omewhot from the side of the heed The hindquarter section is set low. in contrast to the high withers.ow and 0 pointed.The 9lratfe is very angular onimol.

Spread horns Long neck ery angular nock-knees Split Ihi~ h at the shoulder Very 19 Very low in rear Flared toil _ong split hoof 83 .Paints of exaggeration.

lie is a very leggy animol with a deep chest. The eyes ore wide-set. Tome. the angle of the eye is different from thot of the mouth. 84 . and protrude from the head. his most unusual feature is the very small area on which the hindquarters ore set. somewhat like those of the giraffe. Unlike most animols.CAMELS A come] has many dominont chcree- rertsucs.

The hump is 0 fotty subs+once not attached to the b·ockbone. hump (occentuoted by making it wider at top. camels are comparotively eosy. ond is CAMELS -CARICATURE Being caricatures in themselves. long lower lip. I emphasize the following points: very smoll pelvic region where hind legs attach tc body.) .

..vecnd barrel. like body..GORILLAS M".

The cheekbones are very pronounced. the eyes deep and inset. the nostrils wide. . and the forehead law.

The points which I believe give this drawing 0 siUy appearance are: the long upper lip. The small crown helps to accentuate. J hove exaggerated the size of the chest and arms. the mcssfveness of the body. To convey the feeling of formidable power to this "menace" type.shoulders end arms. in relation 10 the small Jegs.GORILLAS-CARICATURE For the comic type. . end long arms in ccmrcst tc short legs. by contrast. brood mouth. t hove' exaggerated his powerful . small pointed crown. The heod is buried right in the body. and the size of the mouth is exaggerated.

89 .

From the resembles bock the wart hog the common pig. The nose is longer.WART HQG~ The bone structure is very similar to thot of its domestic cousin. the ears ore more erect. closely 90 . There is hair funning from the forehead olmost 10 the middle of the bock. end do nol hong like the domestic pig's.

as well os smell eyes ond heavy. On the pig below the narrow' shoulders emphasize. In "menace" wort hog type. the top of the head is small 50 thot the curls will hove more flore. mcke use of controsting types as much as possible. On the dowoger type cbcve.PIGS-CARICATURE· Jowls and cll-crccnd beefiness ere good points of exaggeration. . floppy eors. note volume of chest and how head is buried right in the chest In caricature. by contrcsf the size of the stomach. Contrast establishes types more definitely.

. the long bock and shorl legs of 0 dachshund contrasted with the relative short squereness of on English bull.for excmple. They ore kept the some except for relative size of port. but are closely alike in mony respects. Keep in mind the chorocler of the dog .DOGS Dogs 'lory in conformation and size. of the skeletons. Below ore two simplified skeletons for two different types.


features. Note the bowlegs.~NGLISH !lULL The English bulldog is brood of chest with 0 flat nose and over-oil blun. .

. the bone structure is very pronounced. They are extremely flexible in body.GREYHOUND 111 the greyhound ond whIppet br"ed~.


97 .