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English Grammar Guide

English Grammar Guide

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English Grammar Guide

These pages are under continual development. If there is anything you would like to see included please let me know .

How to use this guide
Read This! Click here to read an explanation of the grammar. Picture This! Click here to see examples of the grammar. Test This! Click on this button to test your understanding of the grammar. Rate it - you can rate these pages.

Adjectives
Comparative Order Possessive Superlative Used to Common Adjectives Personality Adjectives

Adverbials

Adverbs
Degree Duration Frequency Manner Place

Probability Time Comparative Superlative

Articles Case
Objective/Accusative Possessive/Genetive Subjective/Nominative

Clauses Conditionals
Type I Type II Type III Zero

Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions Correlatives

Determiners

Some vs Any

Gerunds and Infinitives Nouns
Abstract Nouns Collective Nouns Common Nouns Compound Nouns Concrete Nouns Countable/Uncountable Nouns Gerunds Plural Nouns Predicate Nouns Proper Nouns

Participles
Past Participle Perfect Participle Present Participle

Prepositions
Prepositions of Movement Prepositions of Place Prepositions of Time

Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns Personal Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns

Questions
Closed Questions Open (Wh ..) Questions Tag Questions

Reported Speech Simple Capitalisation Guide Simple Pluralisation Guide Simple Prefixes Guide Simple Punctuation Guide Simple Question Guide Simple Sentence Construction Guide Simple Spelling Guide Simple Suffixes Guide Tenses Simple
Past Present Simple Present as Future

Continuous

Past Present Present Continuous as Future

Perfect
Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple as Future Present Perfect Continuous as Future

Future
The Future using going to The Future using shall/will

Verbs
Action Verbs Auxiliary Verbs Finite / Non-finite Verbs Irregular Verbs Modal Verbs Mood Phrasal Verbs Regular Verbs Conjugation and Contraction

Some Very Important Verbs
To be To do To have

Do or make Used to List of Irregular Verbs

Voice
Active Voice Passive Voice Still couldn't find what you were looking for? Why not ask on the forum? or alternatively buy one of my recommended Grammar Books
Thanks to Bharadwaj (and others) for reporting broken links.

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Adjectives
Overview | Order | Possessive | Comparative | Superlative

Adjectives describe or give information about nouns or pronouns. For example:The grey dog barked. (The adjective grey describes the noun "dog".) The good news is that the form of an adjective does not change. It does not matter if the noun being modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject or object. Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun - age, size colour etc (fact adjectives can't be argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or somebody nice, horrid, beautiful etc (opinion adjectives - not everyone may agree). If you are asked questions with which, whose, what kind, or how many, you need an adjective to be able to answer. There are different types of adjectives in the English language:

• • • • • •

Numeric: six, one hundred and one Quantitative: more, all, some, half, more than enough Qualitative: colour, size, smell etc. Possessive: my, his, their, your Interrogative: which, whose, what Demonstrative: this, that, those, these

!Note - The articles a, an, and the and the possessives my, our, your, and their are also
adjectives.

Opinion

Adjectives can be used to give your opinion about something. good, pretty, right, wrong, funny, light, happy, sad, full, soft, hard etc. For example: He was a silly boy.

Size

Adjectives can be used to describe size. big, small, little, long, tall, short, same as, etc. For example:

"The big man." or "The big woman".

Age

Adjectives can be used to describe age. For example:

"He was an old man." or "She was an old woman."

Shape

Adjectives can be used to describe shape. round, circular, triangular, rectangular, square, oval, etc. For example:

"It was a square box." or "They were square boxes."

Colour
Adjectives can be used to describe colour. blue, red, green, brown, yellow, black, white, etc. For example:

"The blue bag." or "The blue bags".

Origin
Adjectives can be used to describe origin. For example:-

"It was a German flag." or "They were German flags."

Material

Adjectives can be used to describe material.

"It was a cotton cushion." or "They were cotton cushions."

Distance
Adjectives can be used to describe distance. l -- o -- n -- g / short long, short, far, around, start, high, low, etc. For example:

"She went for a long walk." or "She went for lots of long walks."

Temperature

Adjectives can be used to describe temperature. cold, warm, hot, cool, etc. For example:

"The day was hot." or "The days were hot."

Time

Adjectives can be used to describe time. late, early, bed, nap, dinner, lunch, day, morning, night, etc. For example:

"She had an early start."

Purpose
Adjectives can be used to describe purpose. (These adjectives often end with "-ing".) For example:

"She gave them a sleeping bag." or "She gave them sleeping bags."

!Note - In each case the adjective stays the same, whether it is describing a masculine, feminine, singular or plural noun. When using more than one adjective to modify a noun, the adjectives may be separated by a conjunction (and) or by commas (,). For example:

"Her hair was long and blonde." or "She had long, blonde hair."

More examples: Adjective Example Pretty She was a pretty girl. Serious He was a serious boy. Fast It was a fast car. Quiet They were quiet children.

!Note - Adjectives that go immediately before the noun are called attributive adjectives.
Adjectives can also be used after some verbs. They do not describe the verb, adverbs do that. Adjectives after a verb describe the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun). They are called predicative adjectives. For example:

"David looks tired." The subject (in this case David) is being described as tired not the verb to look.

There is also the adjective used to, which is explained here.

Adjectives
Used to something
The use of used to do is explained here. However, used to has another meaning, it can be used as an adjective and we use it to talk about things that have become familiar, and are no longer strange or new. Used to usually comes after verbs such as be, get or become.

• • •

After a while you get used to the noise. She will become used to the smell. I was used to the web site.

You can also say that someone is used to doing something.

• •

I'll never get used to getting up at six o'clock in the morning. It took me a while until I was used to driving on the right-hand side of the road.

Adjective Order
Overview | Order | Possessive | Comparative | Superlative Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from physical size, age, shape, colour, material, to more abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose. We can use adjectives together to give a detailed description of something. Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all others, but it can sometimes depend on what exactly you want to emphasise. For example: "That nice, big, blue bag." (You like the bag.) "That big, nice, blue bag." (You like the colour.) When we group adjectives together there is a general rule for the position of each type adjective, these are:Position 1st* Opinion Nice 2nd* Size Small 3rd Age Old 4th Shape Square 5th Colour Black 6th Material Plastic 7th Origin British 8th Purpose Racing

Ugly

Big

New

Circular

Blue

Cotton

American

Running

This is just a guide as you wouldn't normally see so many adjectives in one description. For example:

"She had a big, ugly, old, baggy, blue, cotton, British, knitting bag." Is grammatically correct but a bit too long-winded.

* You might swap opinion and fact adjectives depending on what you wish to emphasise:For example:

• •

"She had a long, ugly nose." emphasising the length of her nose. "He was a silly, little man." emphasising that the man was silly.

Common Adjectives Table
(A list of English adjectives with dictionary look up - double click on any word for its definition and pronunciation) Appearance | Condition | Feeling | Shape | Size | Sound | Speed | Taste | Time | Touch

Appearance adorable alert average beautiful blonde bloody blushing bright clean clear cloudy colourful alive brainy

Condition

broken busy careful cautious clever crazy damaged dead difficult easy

concerned crowded curious cute dark dirty drab distinct dull elegant fancy filthy glamorous gleaming graceful grotesque homely light misty motionless muddy plain poised quaint scary shiny smoggy sparkling spotless stormy strange ugly unsightly unusual

fake false famous forward fragile guilty helpful helpless important impossible infamous innocent inquisitive mad modern open outgoing outstanding poor powerful puzzled real rich right robust sane scary shy sleepy stupid super tame thick tired wild wrong

Feelings - negative afraid

Feelings - neutral alright

Feelings - positive agreeable

angry annoyed anxious arrogant ashamed awful bad bewildered bored concerned condemned confused creepy cruel dangerous defeated defiant depressed disgusted disturbed doubtful eerie embarrassed envious evil fierce foolish frantic frightened grieving guilty helpless hungry hurt ill jealous lonely mad naughty

calm different fair fine OK pleasant puzzled

alert amused brave bright charming cheerful comfortable cooperative courageous delightful determined eager elated enchanting encouraging energetic enthusiastic excited exuberant faithful fantastic friendly frowning funny gentle glorious good happy healthy helpful hilarious innocent jolly kind lively lovely lucky obedient perfect

nervous obnoxious outrageous panicky repulsive safe scared shy sleepy sore strange tense terrible tired troubled unusual upset uptight weary wicked worried

proud relaxed relieved silly smiling splendid successful thoughtful victorious vivacious well witty wonderful

Shape broad crooked curved deep even flat hilly jagged round shallow square steep straight thick thin average big fat gigantic huge large little long massive medium miniature narrow petite short skinny

Size cooing

Sound

deafening faint harsh high-pitched hissing hushed husky loud melodic moaning mute noisy purring quiet

triangular uneven

small tall tiny wide

raspy screeching shrill silent soft squeaky squealing thundering voiceless whispering

Speed fast quick rapid slow swift bitter bland delicious different fresh greasy hot juicy repulsive revolting ripe rotten salty sour spicy stale strong sweet tasteless tasty terrible

Taste ancient brief. early late long modern new old

Time

old-fashioned quick short young

wonderful Touch blunt boiling breakable

breezy broken bumpy chilly clean cold cool crooked cuddly curly damaged damp different dirty dry dusty filthy flaky fluffy fuzzy greasy grubby hard icy loose plastic prickly ripe rough rubbery scratchy shaky shaggy sharp silky slimy slippery smooth soft

solid steady sticky tight uneven unusual unripe warm weak wet wooden wooly

Possesive adjectives are used to show ownership or possession. Subject pronoun I you he she it we they For example: Possessive adjective my your his her its our their

• • • • • • •

I own a laptop. = It is my laptop. You own this computer (I presume). = It is your computer. My husband owns a car. = It is his car. My sister owns a house. = It is her house. My dog owns a collar. = It is its collar. We use this website. = It is our website. Manchester United own a football ground. = It is their football ground.

Comparative form of Adjectives
Overview | Order | Comparison | Possessive | Superlative

When we compare two things or people we look at what makes them different from each other. For example: Tall / Short

The man on the left is taller than the man on the right. The man on the right is shorter than the man on the left. Fast / Slow

A car is faster than a bicycle. A bicycle is slower than a car. Comparative adjectives are used to show what quality one thing has more or less than the other. They normally come before any other adjectives. For example: Big / Small

The red bag is bigger than the blue bag. The blue bag is smaller than the red bag.

Forming the comparative
Form Rule For example

Words of one syllable ending in 'e'.

Add -r to the end of the word. wide - wider big - bigger

Words of one syllable, with one vowel and one Double the consonant and add consonant at the end. Words of one syllable, with more than one vowel or more than one consonant at the end. Words of two syllables, ending in 'y'. Words of two syllables or more, not ending in 'y'. -er to the end of the word.

Add - er to the end of the word. high - higher Change 'y' to 'i', and add -er to the end of the word. Place 'more' before the adjective.

happy - happier beautiful - more beautiful

The following adjectives are exceptions to this rule:

• • •

'good' becomes 'better' 'bad' becomes 'worse' 'far' becomes 'farther' or 'further'

!Note - When comparing two things like this we put than between the adjective and the thing
being compared. For example:-

• •

"Mount Everest is higher than Mount Snowdon." "Arguably, Rome is more beautiful than Paris.

Possessive Adjectives
Overview | Order | Possessive | Comparative | Superlative Possesive adjectives are used to show ownership or possession. Subject pronoun I you he she it we they Possessive adjective my your his her its our their

For example:

• • • • • • •

I own a laptop. = It is my laptop. You own this computer (I presume). = It is your computer. My husband owns a car. = It is his car. My sister owns a house. = It is her house. My dog owns a collar. = It is its collar. We use this website. = It is our website. Manchester United own a football ground. = It is their football ground.

Superlative Adjectives
Overview | Order | Possessive | Comparative | Superlative The superlative is used to say what thing or person has the most of a particular quality within a group or of its kind. Superlative adjectives normally come before any other adjectives.

Snowdon is not the highest mountain in Britain, Ben Mount Snowdon is 3,559 feet high. Ben Nevis is 4,408 feet high. Nevis is.

Forming the superlative
Form Words of one syllable ending in 'e'. Rule For example

Add -st to the end of the word. wide - widest big - biggest

Words of one syllable, with one vowel and one Double the consonant and add consonant at the end. Words of one syllable, with more than one vowel or more than one consonant at the end. Words of two syllables, ending in 'y'. -est to the end of the word.

Add - est to the end of the word. high - highest Change 'y' to 'i', and add -est to the end of the word.

happy - happiest beautiful - the most beautiful

Words of two syllables or more, not ending in Place 'the most' before the 'y'. adjective.

The following adjectives are exceptions:

• • •

'good' becomes 'the best' 'bad' becomes 'the worst' 'far' becomes 'the furthest'

For example:

• • •

"Jill is the best student in the class ." "Jack is the worst student in the class." "In our solar system the planet Pluto is the furthest planet from the Sun."

!Note - superlatives are usually preceded by 'the'.
For example:

• • • • •

"The Rio de la Plata river, on the southeast coastline of South America, is the widestriver in the world." According to the List of World records Carol Yager (1960-1994), from Michigan, is thefattest person ever to live, weighing 725 kg (1,600 lb). "Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world." "I think that Castle Combe is the prettiest village in England." "Arguably, Rome is the most beautiful city in the world."

You can find a list of irregular adjectives here.

Irregular Adjectives
Adjective bad Comparative worse Superlative the worst Example Historians say that Hitler was worse than Mussolini. He was one of the worst dictators the world has ever seen. far good old (age) further better elder the furthest the best the eldest Mars is further from the Sun than Earth. Pluto is the furthest world from the Sun. Her English was better than the teacher's. She was the best English student in the class. My elder sister Karen is the eldest in our family.

Personality Adjectives Table

(A list of English adjectives used to describe people's personalities with dictionary look up - double click on any word for its definition and pronunciation) Positive | Negative

Positive
a-e adaptable adorable agreeable alert alluring ambitious amusing boundless brave bright calm capable charming cheerful coherent confident cooperative courageous credible cultured dashing dazzling debonair decisive decorous delightful determined diligent discreet dynamic eager efficient fabulous fair faithful fantastic fearless frank friendly funny generous gentle good happy harmonious helpful hilarious honorable impartial industrious instinctive jolly joyous kind kind-hearted knowledgeable likeable lively lovely loving lucky mature modern nice f-p quiet receptive reflective relieved resolute responsible righteous romantic sedate selective self-assured sensitive shrewd silly sincere skilful splendid steadfast stimulating talented thoughtful thrifty tough trustworthy unbiased unusual upbeat vigorous vivacious warm willing wise q-z

enchanting encouraging enduring energetic entertaining enthusiastic excellent excitable exuberant

obedient painstaking peaceful perfect placid plausible pleasant plucky productive protective proud punctual

witty wonderful zany zealous

Negative
a-e abrasive abrupt abusive aloof ambiguous angry annoyed anxious arrogant awful bad belligerent boorish boring callous careless clumsy combative confused cowardly crazy creepy cruel fanatical fierce finicky flashy flippant foolish forgetful frantic fretful frightened furtive greedy grieving grouchy gruesome grumpy guarded gullible helpless hesitant horrible hurtful ignorant f-p q-z quarrelsome repulsive ruthless sad scary secretive selfish silly slow sneaky snobbish spendthrift squeamish stingy strange sulky tacky tense terrible testy thick-skinned thoughtless threatening

cynical dangerous deceitful defective defiant depressed deranged disagreeable disillusioned disturbed domineering draconian embarrassing envious erratic evasive evil

irresolute jealous jittery lacking lazy lonely malicious materialistic mean mysterious naive nasty naughty nervous noisy obnoxious outrageous over zealous panicky pathetic possessive

tight timid tired tiresome troubled truculent typical uptight vague vengeful venomous volatile voracious vulgar wary wasteful weak wicked worthless wretched

More about adjectives

Adverbials
Adverbials modify or tell us something about the sentence or the verb. It may be a single adverb, a phrase, or a prepositional phrase, or a clause element. When an adverbial modifies a verb, it changes the meaning of that verb. For example:The students looked at me. The students looked at me anxiously. (The verb looked suddenly has a very different meaning). When an adverbial modifies a sentence, the meaning of the sentence changes. For example:I passed all of my exams. Surprisingly, I passed all of my exams. Word groups that are also considered to be adverbials can also modify verbs: a prepositional phrase, a noun phrase, a finite clause or a non-finite clause. Multi-word adverbials are sometimes called an adverbial phrases. For example:I ran as quickly as I could, but I missed the bus. If a whole clause acts as an adverbial, it's called an adverbial clause. For example:I'll go to bed when the film ends.

Adverbs
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time |Comparative | Su perlative Adverbs can tell you where, when, how, why and to what extent something happens. There are several different classes of adverb (see above). They are often formed from adjectives or nouns be adding the suffix -ly. For example: Quick becomes quickly, sudden becomes suddenly, intelligent becomes intelligently, . . . To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -y change the y to i before adding the -ly. For example: angry becomes angrily, busy becomes busily, . . . To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -e drop the -e before adding the -ly. For example: feeble becomes feebly, true becomes truly, . . . Some adjectives ending in -ly need no changes. For example: heavenly, . . . However there are exceptions. For example: sly becomes slyly, shy becomes shyly, . . . Some adverbs do not end in -ly. For example: fast, hard, straight, . . . Adjective Example Adverb Example Pretty She was a pretty girl. Prettily The bird sang prettily. Serious He was a serious boy. Seriously The policeman spoke seriously. Fast It was a fast car. Fast Quiet They were quiet children. Quietly

Schumacher drives The woman spoke fast. quietly.

Adverbs can modify adjectives An adjective can be modified by an adverb, which precedes the adjective. For example:That's really nice.

Adverbs can modify adverbs Some adverbs can modify others. As with adjectives, the adverb precedes the one it is modifying. For example:She did it really well.

Adverbs can modify nouns Adverbs can modify nouns to indicate time or place. For example:The concert tomorrow. The room upstairs.

Adverbs can modify noun phrases Some adverbs of degree such as quite, rather, so, such ... can modify noun phrases. For example:We had quite a good time.

They're such good friends.

Adverbs can modify determiners, numerals and pronouns Adverbs such as almost, nearly, hardly, about, etc., can be used: For example:Nearly everyone, who was invited, came to the party.

Adverbs can modify sentences Some adverbs modify a whole sentence, not just a part of one. For example:Luckily the car stopped in time. In this sentence luckily modifies the whole sentence, it shows that it was good luck that the car stopped in time.

Adverbs of Degree
Overview | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time Comparative | Superlative Adverbs of degree tell us the strength or intensity of something that happens. Many adverbs are gradable, that is, we can intensify them. Basically they answer the sort of question that asks How much ...? or How little...? Adverbs of degree include; adequately, almost, entirely, extremely, greatly, highly, hugely, immensely, moderately, partially, perfectly, practically, profoundly, strongly, totally, tremendously, very, virtually etc. For example:The man drove badly. = The man drove really badly. - In this sentence really shows us just how badly he drove.

They enjoyed the film. = They enjoyed the film immensely. - In this sentence immenselyshows us how much they enjoyed the film. These intensifiers are not gradable though, you cannot say The man drove extremely very badly.

Adverbs of Duration
Overview | Degree | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time | Comparative |Superlative Adverbs of duration tell us how long something happened. They include; briefly, forever, long, shortly, permanantly, temporarily . . . For example: "They were occupied." = "They were briefly occupied." - In this sentence briefly shows us the duration. "The phone was out of order." = "The phone was temporarily out of order." - In this sentence temporarily shows us the duration.

Adverbs of Frequency
Overview | Degree | Duration | Manner | Place | Probability | Time Comparative | Superlative Adverbs of frequency tell us how often something is done. These include; always, constantly, continually, frequently, infrequently, intermittently, normally, occasionally, often, periodically, rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, . . . For example: I always do my homework on time. - In this sentence always shows us the frequency. She goes out occasionally. - In this sentence occasionally shows us the frequency. Most frequent always constantly nearly always almost always usually generally

normally regularly often frequently sometimes periodically occasionally now and then once in a while rarely seldom infrequently hardly ever scarcely ever almost never Least frequent never

When something happens regularly at a fixed time we can use the following as adverbs:Every day Every week Ever fortnight (two weeks) Every month Every year For example: I get a newspaper every day. = I get the newspaper daily. I pay my rent every month. = I pay my rent monthly. = Daily = Weekly = Fortnightly = Monthly = Yearly/Annually

Adverbs of Manner
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Place | Probability | Time | Comparative| Superlative Some adverbs tell us how an action is or should be performed. Often these adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the end of an adjective.

Adjectives ending -l add -ly ; careful-carefully. Adjectives ending -y change to -ily ; lucky-luckily Adjectives ending -ble change to -bly ; responsible-responsibly adjective anxious bad beautiful capable lucky quick weak For example: The little girl ran quickly. In this sentence quickly modifies the verb ran (to run). adverb anxiously badly beautifully capably luckily quickly weakly

Adverbs of Place
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Probability | Time |Comparative | Superlativ e Adverbs of place indicate where something happens. These include; abroad, anywhere, here, outside, somewhere, there, underground, upstairs ... For example: My passport is here in my bag. Place Upstairs Example The children were playing upstairs.

In London The people demonstrated in London. Outside The children were playing outside.

English Grammar
Adverbs of Probability
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Time | Comparative |Superlative Adverbs of probability tell us the likelihood of something happening. If you imagine playing dice, what's the likelihood (probability) of rolling a six? It's possible, but it's not certain. You'll certainly throw something between one and six, but your not likely to throw two sixes.

English Grammar
Adverbs of Time
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of time
Some adverbs tell us when something happened. These include:afterwards, later, now, soon, yesterday, . . .. For example:Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away. - In this sentence yesterday shows us when. Other adverbs of time include:Time Saturday, Sunday ... Today Yesterday Next week/month/year Last week/month/year Finally Eventually Already Soon Example I am going to the shops on Monday. I've been to the shops today. I went yesterday. I am going next week. I went last year. I finally went. I eventually went to the shops. I've already been to the shops. I'm going to the shops soon.

Just Still

I'm just going to the shops. I'm still at the shops.

Adverbs of Comparison
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time |Superlative When we compare what two things or people do we look at what makes one different from the other. Adverbs of comparison are used to show what one thing does better or worse than the other. When an adverb ends in -ly, more is put in front of the adverb. For example:-

"Jill did her homework more frequently."

The rule for forming the comparative of an adverb is if it has the same form as an adjective add the suffix -er to the end. For example:-

"Jill did her homework faster."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions to this rule:

• • •

'well' becomes 'better' 'badly' becomes 'worse' 'little' becomes 'less'

For example:

• • •

"Jill was better." "Jack was worse." "To lose weight you need to eat less."

When comparing two things you need to put than between the adverb and what is being compared. For example:-

"Jill did her homework faster than Jack."

"Jill did her homework more frequently than Jack."

Superlative form of Adverbs
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time Comparative The superlative form of an adverb is used to say what thing or person does something to the greater degree within a group or of its kind. Superlatives can be preceded by 'the'. In general the superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for superlative forms of adjectives. The rule for forming the superlative of an adverb is if it has the same form as an adjective add the suffix -est to the end. For example:-

fast - "Jill ran the fastest."

When an adverb ends in -ly, most is put in front of the adverb. For example:-

Frequently - "Jill did her homework most frequently."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions:-

• •

'well' becomes 'the best' 'badly' becomes 'the worst'

For example:

• •

"Jill did the best in the test." "Jack did the worst in the test."

Picture This - Adverbs of Manner - Comparative/Superlative Greedy

He ate his dinner greedily.

Comparative Superlative

He ate more greedily than usual. He ate the most greedily.

Loud

She played the radio loudly.

Comparative Superlative

She played her radio more loudly than usual. She played the radio the most loudly.

Fast / Slow
Cheetahs run fast. .

Hedgehogs walkslowly

Snails crawl veryslowly. Cheetahs runfaster thanhedgehogs. Cheetahs movethe fastest. Hedgehogs walk more slowly than cheetahs. Snails crawl more slowly thanhedgehogs. Snails move most slowly.

Comparative

Superlative

Articles
General | A/an | The | No article

Articles
First the good news:There are only three articles in English: a, an and the. There are two types of articles indefinite 'a' and 'an' or definite 'the'. You also need to know when not to use an article. The bad news is that their proper use is complex, especially when you get into the advanced use of English. Quite often you have to work it out by what sounds right, which can be frustrating for a learner.

Indefinite articles - a and an (determiners)
A and an are the indefinite articles. They refer to something not specifically known to the person you are communicating with. A and an are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before:For "I saw an elephant this morning."

example: "I ate a banana for lunch." A and an are also used when talking about your profession:For "I am an English teacher."

example: "I am a builder."

Note!

You use a when the noun you are referring to begins with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y or z), for example, "a city", "a factory", and "a hotel". You use an when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) Pronunciation changes this rule. It's the sound that matters, not the spelling.

If the next word begins with a consonant sound when we say it, for example, "university" then we use a. If the next word begins with a vowel sound when we say it, for example "hour" then we use an. We say "university" with a "y" sound at the beginning as though it were spelt "youniversity". So, "a university" IS correct. We say "hour" with a silent h as though it were spelt "our". So, "an hour" IS correct. (Lots of people get this wrong - including native speakers.)

Definite Article - the (determiners)
There are two ways to pronounce "the". One "thuh" and the other "thee". To learn when we use them see the pronunciation files: How to pronounce "the".

Strong pronunciation

Weak pronunciation

You use the when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing you are talking about. For "The apple you ate was rotten."

example: "Did you lock the car?" You should also use the when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about. For example:

"She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen."

We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe. For example:

the North Pole, the equator

We use the to talk about rivers, oceans and seas

For example:

the Nile, the Pacific, the English channel

We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing. For example:

the rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House etc..

However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an. "I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing." "What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future ahead of her."

For example:

The is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation: "Harry's Bar is the place to go." "You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"

For example:

!Note - The doesn't mean all:For example: "The books are expensive." = (Not all books are expensive, just the ones I'm talking about.) "Books are expensive." = (All books are expensive.)

No article
We usually use no article to talk about things in general:Inflation is rising. People are worried about rising crime. (Note! People generally, so no article) You do not use an article when talking about sports.

For example:

My son plays football. Tennis is expensive.

You do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them generally. Information is important to any organisation. Coffee is bad for you.

For example:

You do not use an article before the names of countries except where they indicate multiple areas or contain the words (state(s), kindom, republic, union). Kingdom, state, republic and union are nouns, so they need an article. No article - Italy, Mexico, Bolivia, England For example: Use the - the UK (United Kingdom), the USA (United States of America), theIrish Republic Multiple areas! the Netherlands, the Philippines, the British Isles

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