GOOD SHEPHERD SCHOOLS Nursery, Primary and Comprehensive High School Lagos Campus: 3, Olayinka Street, Omoroga, Meiran

, Lagos. Ogun State Campus: 38b, FPF Avenue, Dalemo, Alakuko E-Mail: Web Site: SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE SUBJECT: BIOLOGY WEEK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SCHEDULE OF WORK Modes of nutrition Relevance of Biology Agriculture Pest of Agricultural importance Food production and storage Human reproduction Male sexual maturation Basic ecological concepts Biomes(Local and World) Population Functioning Ecosystem Examination CLASS: SS1

9 10 11

REFERENCES: Modern Biology by S.T. Ramalingem Essential Biology by M.C. Michael P/Q ISSCE, UME AND CAMBRIDGE


Week 1 Modes of nutrition • Contents • Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition • Chemosynthesis • Carnivorous plants


Overview of cycle between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Photosynthesis is the main means by which plants, algae and many bacteria produce organic compounds and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water (green arrow). An autotroph is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light (by photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water. They are able to make their own food and can fix carbon. Therefore, they do not utilize organic compounds as an energy source or a carbon source. Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide (add hydrogen to it) to make organic compounds. The reduction of carbon dioxide, a low-energy compound, creates a store of chemical energy. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide. Autotrophs can be phototrophs or lithotrophs (chemoautotrophs). Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while lithotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous iron. Phototrophs and lithotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH in order to form organic compounds.[1]

chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis. Chemoautotrophs, organisms that

obtain carbon through chemosynthesis, are phylogenetically diverse, but groups that include conspicuous or biogeochemically-important taxa include the sulfur-oxidizing gamma and epsilon proteobacteria, the Aquificaeles, the Methanogenic archaea and the neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Many microorganisms in dark regions of the oceans also use chemosynthesis to produce biomass from single carbon molecules. Two categories can be distinguished. In the rare sites at which hydrogen molecules (H2) are available, the energy available from the reaction between CO2 and H2 (leading to production of methane, CH4) can be large enough to drive the production of biomass. Alternatively, in most oceanic environments, energy for chemosynthesis derives from reactions in which substances such as hydrogen sulfide or ammonia are oxidized. This may occur with or without the presence of oxygen. Many chemosynthetic microorganisms are consumed by other organisms in the ocean, and symbiotic associations between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common. Large populations of animals can be supported by chemosynthetic primary production at hydrothermal vents, methane clathrates, cold seeps, and whale falls. It has been hypothesized that chemosynthesis may support life below the surface of Mars, Jupiter's moon Europa, and other planets.[1] Some reactions produce sulfur, such as: Hydrogen sulfide chemosynthesis': CO2 + O2 + 4H2S → CH2O + 4S + 3H2O Instead of releasing oxygen gas as in photosynthesis, solid globules of sulfur are produced. In bacteria that can do this, such as purple sulfur bacteria, yellow globules of sulfur are present and visible in the cytoplasm Evaluation(1)Explain the terms Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

Subtopic:Heterotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition is nutrition obtained by digesting organic compounds. Animals, fungi, many prokaryotes and protoctists are unable to synthesize organic compounds to use as food. They are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophic organisms have to acquire and take in all the organic substances they need to survive.[1] All heterotrophs (except blood and gut parasites) have to convert solid food into soluble compounds capable of being absorbed (digestion). When the soluble products of

digestion are absorbed they are distributed to various parts of the organism where • complex materials (assimilation) or broken down for the release of energy (respiration). • The four main types of heterotrophic nutrition are: 1. Holozoic nutrition: Complex food is taken into a specialist digestive system and broken down into small pieces to be absorbed. This consists of 5 stages, ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. 2. Saprobiontic/saprotrophic: Organisms feed on dead organic remains of other organisms. 3 Parasitism: Organisms obtain food from other living organisms (the host), with the host receiving no benefit from the parasite. 3. Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship between organisms, with each contributing and benefiting from each other. Carnivorous plant

" Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Carnivorous plants appear adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcroppings. Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875.[1]

Pitfall traps
Pitfall traps are thought to have evolved independently on at least four occasions. The simplest ones are probably those of Heliamphora, the sun pitcher plant. In this genus, the traps are clearly derived evolutionarily from a simple rolled leaf whose margins have sealed together. These plants live in areas of high rainfall in South America such as Mount Roraima and consequently have a problem ensuring their pitchers do not overflow.

Flypaper traps

Pinguicula gigantea with prey. The insect was too large and was able to escape.

The leaf of a Drosera capensis bending in response to the trapping of an insect The flypaper trap is based on a sticky mucilage, or glue. The leaf of flypaper traps is studded with mucilage-secreting glands, which may be short and nondescript (like those of the butterworts), or long and mobile (like those of many sundews). Flypapers have evolved independently at least five times.
Weekend assignment: 1. Autotrophs manufacture their own food True or false

2. Chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are examples of autotrophic nutrition True or false 3. The flypaper trap is an example of a parasite True or false 4. Carnivorous plants do not feed on flesh True or false 5. Heterotrophs depend on ready made food True or false Reading assignment: Log unto goggle and search for to search for Nutrition in plants



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS Classification of plants Botanical classification Agricultural Classification Classification based on life cycle Classification based on size CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS Plants exists in various forms and types hence, the need for classification. Plants can be classified on the following bases

SUBTOPIC: CONTENT: i. ii. iii. iv.

Botanical classification Agricultural classification Classification based on life cycle Classification based on size

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION The concept of binomial nomancleture has it that plant kingdom can be subdivided into divisions, classes, orders, families, general and species. This is based on their structures, functions and revolutionary trends. Plants are then generally classified into three brand groups (i) Thellophytes (A) (ii) Bryophytes (B) (iii) Tracheophytes (C) Tracherophytes are further groups into pteridophytes (D) and spermatophytes (E). Spermatophytes can also be grouped into gymnosperms (F) and angiosperms (G). angiosperms are subdivided into dicot (H) and Monocot (I)

The The

A Plants B C D E G I F H

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION CHARTS A & B are non- vascular plants, C refers to vascular plants. D refers to non-flowering plants; E refers to seed plants while G refers to flowering plants proper. EVALUATION:1.(a) Outline the criteria (bases) for classifying plants (b) List the three factors upon which botanical classification is based 2. Discuss the botanical classification (using example where appropriate). SUBTOPIC: AGRICULTURAL CLASSIFICATION CONTENT: Agricultural classification of plants is based on:. i. The product obtained from the plants ii. The parts of the plant that is useful iii. The economic importance of the plants Plants are therefore classified agriculturally into the following 1. CROPS AND WEEDS: - plants that are needed on the farm are called crops while other unwanted are called weeds. 2. FOOD CROPS AND CASH CROPS: - crops grown mainly for human consumption are called food crops e.g. maize, yam etc. Those grown mainly to earn money are cash crops e.g. cocoa, coffee 3. ROOT CROPS: - are plants which store mainly starch in edible underground stems or roots e.g. yam, cassava etc. 4. CEREAL CROPS: - these are monocotyledonous plants of grass family, whose grains are eaten e.g. maize, millet, guinea corn, rice, wheat, etc. They are rich in carbohydrates. 5. FRUITS CROPS:- are rich in vitamins and minerals. Fruits are also rich in sugar. These include oranges, mangoes, avocado peers, cashew etc. whose fruits are eaten VEGETABLE CROPS: - are herbaceous plants whose vegetable (leafy) parts are eaten. They include spinach, lettuce, carrots, cabbage, okro, tomato, onion, pepper etc. They are also rich in vitamins and minerals. LEGUMES: - are plants of beans family such as cowpea and groundnuts whose seeds are eaten. They are rich in proteins 8. SPICES: Are plants whose parts are used for seasoning food such as pepper, curry, thyme and ginger. 9. LATEX PLANTS: Are plants that are grown for their useful latex (a milky fluid) e.g. rubber plants used for making natural rubber in the tropical countries 10. FIBRE PLANTS: Are plants which produce fibre for the purpose of rope making, textile and bags production e.g. cotton, hemp etc. 11. BEVERAGE AND DRUG PLANTS: - Are plants whose parts are taken as stimulants or drugs e.g. tea, coffee, cocoa and kola nut. Likewise quinine tree for medicine. 12. OIL PLANT: - Produce oil of economic value e.g. oil palm, sheanut, groundnut, coconut, castor oil plant and melon. EVALUATION: 1. (a) What are the factors considered in agricultural classification of plants? (b) Differentiate between fruits crops and vegetable crops

6. 7.

(c) (d)

In what ways are they similar? Differentiate between root and cereals crops

SUBTOPIC: PLANT CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LIFE CYCLE Based on life cycle (period or existence) plant can be classified as A. ANNUALS: - These are plants which complete their life cycle within one growing season or within a year e.g. Maize, Yam, Melon, cowpea, tomato etc. B. BIENIALS: - These complete their life cycle within two years e.g. Banana, plantain, pineapple etc. C. PERENNIALS: - These persist over (more than) two years producing their yields every season e.g. orange, mango, oil palm cocoa etc. EVALUATION: 1) Classify the following plants based on their life cycle (a) Vegetable (b) Pineapple (c) almond tree 2) Differentiate between annual and perennial crops giving two examples each. SUBTOPIC: PLANT CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SIZE CONTENT: Plant based on size fall into three categories 1) Herbs are small plants with fleshy stem e.g. Spinach, waterleaf etc. 2) Shrubs are medium – sized plants with woody stem branch very close to the ground (soil) e.g. hibiscus 3) Treews are big plants with woody trunk, which branch at the top e.g. Iroko, Mahogany, Cashew, and Coffee etc. SUB TOPIC Burning
One of the most significant effects of clearing land is loss of habitat for wildlife. When land is converted to a farm or industrial site, animals can no longer live there. Each species has certain requirements for space and resources, and clearing part of an area can still infringe on those requirements enough to drive a species away. Small patches of habitat support fewer species and are more fragile. Clearing land, especially forests, releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Even if trees are re-planted, the land takes years to fully recover. Erosion is another serious concern. Without the roots of plants holding the soil network together, huge amounts of land can wash away, clogging waterways and reducing the soil's ability to support life. If the land is mined, chemicals and toxic metals may become part of the runoff as well.


Cultivating after early rain.

Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the soil by ploughing, ripping, or turning it. Tillage can also mean the land that is tilled. There are two types of tillage: primary and secondary tillage. Primary tillage loosens the soil and mixes in fertilizer and/or plant material, resulting in soil with a rough texture. Secondary tillage produces finer soil and sometimes shapes the rows. It can be done by using various combinations of equipment: plough, disk plough, harrow, dibble, hoe, shovel, rotary tillers, subsoiler, ridge or bed forming tillers, roller. Weed plants (seeds, tubers, etc.) may be exhausted by repeated tilling. The weeds expend energy to reach the surface, and then get turned into the soil by tilling. The cycle is repeated until the weeds are dead.


Weeds killed with herbicide An herbicide, commonly known as a weedkiller, is a substance used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic "imitations" of plant hormones. Herbicides used to clear waste ground, industrial sites, railways and railway embankments are non-selective and kill all plant material with which they come into contact. Smaller quantities are used in forestry, pasture systems, and management of areas set aside as wildlife habitat. Some plants produce natural herbicides, such as the genus Juglans (walnuts), or the tree of heaven; the study of such natural herbicides, and other related chemical interactions, is called allelopathy. Herbicides are widely used in agriculture and in landscape turf management.

Ecological effects
Herbicide use generally has negative impacts on bird populations, although the impacts are highly variable and often require field studies to predict accurately. Laboratory studies have at times overestimated negative impacts on birds due to toxicity, predicting serious problems that were not observed in the field.Most observed effects are due not to toxicity but to habitat changes and the decrease in abundance of species birds rely on for food or shelter. Herbicide use in silviculture, used to favor certain types of growth following clearcutting, can cause significant drops in bird populations. Even when herbicides are used which have low toxicity to birds, the herbicides decrease the abundance of many types of vegetation which the birds rely on[]Herbicide use in agriculture in Britain has been linked to a decline in seed-eating bird species which rely on the weeds killed by the herbicides[] Heavy use of herbicides in neotropical agricultural areas has been one of many factors implicated in limiting the usefulness of such agricultural land for wintering migratory bird
EVALUATION: 1) Based on size, classify water leaf, hibiscus and oil palm 2) Differentiate between shrubs and trees Reading assignment:Chp 29 pg 360-361 of New sch. Bio by Stone and cozen WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT 1) (a) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1) 2) Which of the following is not an example of classification of plants Herbs and shrubs (b) annual and perennials (c) Graminae and enphorbinosae Plants can be classified based on all these except (a) botanical (b) based on size (c) vertebrate and invertebrate Fruits crops are rich in (a) Vitamin and Minerals (b) Vitamins and protein (c) Mineral and carbohydrate Plants can be classified on the basis of their size into the following except.(a) Herbs (b) Trees (c) Flowers Spices include (a) Pepper and ginger (b) Palm oil and ginger (c) Lettuce and carrot Theory List 7 ways of classifying plants agriculturally Outline 3 ways of classifying plants based on their size and gives one example each.

WEEK 3 TOPIC: PEST AND DISEASES OF AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE AND THEIR EFFECTS CONTENT: Definition Pests of crops and their effects Pests of livestock and their effects General effects (economic importance) Prevention and control of pests & Diseases) Disease of crops Livestock diseases PESTS OF CROPS


Pests are animals capable of causing damages to crop plants, thereby reducing their yield. They occur in various types. They can be insects, birds, rodents, monkeys, man or nematodes. Their harmful effects and control can be studied using the table below. PEST 1) a. b. c. d. 2) a. 3) a. b. c. d. e. MAMALS Bush rat Grass cutter Destroy the ………… of cereals and cassava tubers Squirrel Destroy yam and cassava tubers Monkeys BIRDS Bush foul INSECTS Grasshopper Yam beetle Termite Maize weevils Beans weevils Destroy maize, banana, plantain and other crops Use of mechanical device or Destroy corn, groundnut and cassava use poisonous chemicals Use of insecticide Use of insecticide Use of insecticide Use of insecticide Use of insecticide Shooting and chasing away Proper weeding Trapping and shooting They destroy groundnut and tuber Clearing the vegetation (they crops hide out) HARMFUL EFFECTS CONTROL

Destroy the leaves of cereals Destroy yams Destroy yams & cassava They eat and damage maize grains They eat and damage beans seeds


PARASITES (PESTS) OF LIVESTOCK A parasite is an organism living in or on another organism called Host having a harmful effect on the host as a result of the association. Parasite which lives inside its host is called ENDOPARASITE e.g. tapeworm, roundworm, liver fluke. Parasite which lives on or outside the host is called ECTOPARASITE e.g. ticks, lice and mite


HOST Pig, cattle

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE / CONTROL EFFECTS A disease called TAENIASIS in Good sanitary measure men Cook meat properly - Drain pasture properly - Use lime on pasture to kill the egg - Deworm animals regularly - Good sanitary measure

Cattle, Sheep, goat Pig, cattle

- Affects digestion in animals - Result in liver rot, leading to drowsiness and death - Reduces the growth of host animals - Indigestion and Constipation - Loss of appetites - Weakness & death



Cattle, Sheep Goat

- Vectors of diseases - Suck blood leading to anemia and death- - Damage to skin of Animals

- Keep animals in good environment - Spraying animals with insecticide As in ticks

LICE Birds TSELSE FLY Cattle - Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) - Vectors of diseases - Low productivity of Animals - Clearing bushes around a farmland - Use insecticide

SUBTOPIC:- DISEASES OF CROPS A disease is a change of the plant or animal from the normal state of health, presenting marked symptom or outward visible signs in the organism. Diseases pathogens are disease-causing organisms, which include bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes and protozoan. DISEASE / EFFECTS AGENT CONTRO L

1 RICE Blast Brown spots on leaves, leaves dry up 2) MAIZE fungus Rust – premature death of leaves 3) GROUNDNUT 4) CASSAVA ROSETTE:- Plants become slow, stunted, and dies MOZAIC:- Mottling of leaves 5) BANANA 6) COCOA Bunch top disease:- Stunted growth, leaves becoming crowded at the top Swollen shoot diseases Virus - Burn all infected plant Virus - Destroy infected plant Virus - Destroy vectors (aphid) - Use of healthy seeds Virus - Use healthy cutting - Destroy vectors (white flies) fungus - Use resistant variety Apply fungicide (Bordeux -----------) - Use resistant variety - Apply fungicide (Agrosan)

LIVESTOCK DISEASES ANIMAL 1) Cattle / goat 2) Poultry 3) Cattle / Sheep 4) Cattle/Pig DISEASE Rinderpest New castle Anthrax Coccidiogrs Tuberculosis Ricket CAUSAL ORGANISM Virus Virus Bacteria Protozoan Bacteria Deficiency of Ca and Vit - D EFFECTS High fever and diarrhea Paralysis, weakness Fever Blood stool Coughing loss of weight Poor bone formation CONTROL Immunization Sanitation Sanitation Sanitation/use of drugs Immunization Addition of calcium and vitamin D to animal food

of drugs 5) Cattle/Pig 6) Sheep/goat

EVALUATION 1) What is a disease? 2) Describe the disease pathogens, effects and control of diseases of poultry and goat. SUBTOPIC: GENERAL EFFECTS/ECONOMIC (IMPORTANCE) OF PESTS & DISEASES CONTENT: 1) Reduction in yield and productivity of crops and plants 2) Reduction in quality of farm produces 3) Increase in cost of production in the course of controlling them 4) Reduction in income of farmers 5) They render farm produce unattractive and un marketable 6) They cause malformation in plants and animals. 7) They cause death of plants and animals. GENERAL CONTROL OF PESTS & DISEASES 1) Cultural control – use of farm practice to prevent or control pests and diseases e.g crop rotation, regular weeding, early harvesting, and use of resistant varieties. 2) Biological control - The introduction of natural enemies of pests to control the pests. 3) Physical control - Physical removal of pest by hand – picking, setting traps, shooting or fencing a farm with wire nets. 4) Chemical control - Use of chemicals called pesticides to control pests. EVALUATION 1) List five general effects of pests and diseases on plant and animals 2) State for ways of controlling pests and diseases. Reading assignment: Chap 7 pg 120- 126 New biology for Snr. Sec Sch by Stone and cozen.

1) Which of these is not a pest of crop a. Insect (b) Birds (c) Ticks

2) The following are viral diseases except a. Under pest (b) Coccidiosis (c) new castle 3) The following except one are cultural ways of controlling pests (a) Regular weeding (b) Setting traps (c) crop rotation 4) Which of these is not a unicellular animal – like protist (a)…………………. (b) Amoeba (c) Flagellur

THEORY 1) a. b. 2) Discuss two pests of crops and two pests of animals under the following headings Harmful effects Control Discuss with a diagram, named protozoa with plant and animal features. WEEK 4

WEEK 4 TOPIC: CONTENT: FOOD PRODUCTION AND STORAGE Effects of food shortage on population Methods of food preservation Effects of food storage Effects of over population Effects of Agricultural activities in ecological system. SUBTOPIC: EFFECTS OF FOOD SHORTAGE ON POPULATION SIZE CONTENT: There is a direct relationship between population size and food supply. As the population of organisms increases, the quantity of food produced should increase accordingly. However, when there is food shortage due to food wastage, the following result:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) High cost of food making food unavailable to the common man. Competition: - Situation in which the organisms in a population struggle for limited available essential of life e.g. food. This results in survival of the fittest in the population. Cannibalism:- This is an animals feeding on one another. Emigration:- This is the outward movement of organisms from a particular population when there is shortage of food. Increased death rate (which is called mortality):- especially of organisms which could not survive competition or migrate out.

EVALUATION: 1) What are the effects of food shortage on population size? SUBTOPIC: METHODS OF FOOD PRESERVATION (STORAGE) CONTENT: The methods and principles of preserving food include. 1) SALTING:- This involves coating of the food with table salt or common salt (Nacl) Principle: The salt on the surface of the food dehydrates it i.e. it removes water from the food. This form a highly concentrated solution which has osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of the micro organisms that cause decay. The salts inhibit the growth of the microbe or kill them. This method can be used for fresh meat, fish etc. DRYING: Food such as vegetables, maize, cassava, fish, meat etc. can be preserved by drying under the sun. Principle: Drying reduces water content of the food thus making it unsuitable for the


growth of spoilage micro organisms due to increased Osmotic concentration of food. 3) SMOKING-: Involves placing the food over naked fire to dry it. Food preserved this was include meat, fish, groundnut, plantain etc. Principle:- The smoke creates an oxygen deficient environment that kills micro organism. The smoke also contains chemicals that are poisonous to the organisms. EVALUATION: 1) List three methods of preserving food 2) What are the principles of the methods mentioned above? SUBTOPIC: METHOD OF FOOD PRESERVATION CONTENT: 4) REFRIGERATION/FREEZING:- This involves keeping food in the refrigerator or freezer at low temperature. Such food includes fruit, vegetables, milk, bread, fish, meat etc. Principle: Low temperature reduces the metabolic rate of microbes. Some can even be killed thus reducing spoilage considerable. PASTURIZATION:This is the heating of some food product to a very high temperature (72oC) for about 10 minutes and its immediate cooling for the purpose of storage. Principle: - The high temperature destroys the spoilage microbes. Milk, cheese, beef can be preserved this way. Pasteurization usually precedes canning or bottling method of food preservation 6) CANNING/BOTTLING:- This is the storage or sealing of processed and consumable food in cans or bottle under special conditions for future consumption. This is used for food like fruit, meat, fish, and beans. etc. Principle: - Microbes are gradually killed, entrance of new ones is prevented and long storage is ensured. 5)


IRRADIATION:- This is the subjection of some food e.g. Milk, Canned food, tubers, fruit juices etc. to a high radiation such as ultraviolet rays. Principle: - The irradiation kills the microbes in the food and also prevents the entrance of new ones. 8) CHEMICALS:- This is the addition of harmless chemicals to food e.g. soft drink, vegetables etc. Principle: - The chemical choke spoilage organisms in the food. It also dehydrates or toxicate the microbes. EVALUATION 1. How is pasteurization related to canning or bottling method of preservation 2. Food storage reduces the effect of natural disaster, explain SUBTOPIC: CONTENT: 1) 2) EFFECTS OF FOOD STORAGE ON POPULATION

Prevention of hunger and famine – hunger or famine that would have resulted from food shortage is averted with preservation of food. Maintenance of stable price: During harvest, food is cheap. However food storage ensure the availability of food through out the year. This helps in the maintenance of stable price.


Reduce the effect of natural disaster, flood, earthquake, pest attack and even war cause farm crop failure or destroy entrance farm activities. Food already stored etc. harvest will save people from starvation in the period of scarcity. 4) Food storage provides employment for workers especially in food processing company. EVALUATION: (1)What are the effects of food storage on population? Reading assignment:New biology for Snr. Sec. Sch by Stone and Cozen. Chp3 Pg 42-47 1) a. 2) a. 3) 4) a. 5) a. 1a. b. 2. WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT The following except one results from food shortage Competition (b) Reduced modality rate (c) Emigration Food shortage: - The population size:. Increase (b) Decrease (c) Stabilizers Food storage results in - (a) stability of price (b) Natural disaster (d) overpopulation Which of these is not present in an animal cell? Cell membrane (b) call wall (c) cytoplasm The organelle responsible for storage of hereditary information in the cell is Endoplasm (b) Nucleus (c) Ribosome Theory List three methods of preserving food Explain the principle involved in the method listed above Differentiate between plant cells and animal cell.

WEEK 5 : CONTENTS HUMAN REPRODUCTION(Menstruation and Ovulation The menstrual cycle is a series of physiological changes that can occur in fertile females. Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the uterus through the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees. [1] Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle. The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It is commonly divided into three phases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase; although some sources use a different set of phases: menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase.[2] The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days.[3] Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of

menstrual bleeding. Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (= menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will break down. Evaluation:(1)write briefly about menstruation.(2)Explain the term Ovulation.

Fertile period is the period during which conception is most likely to occur, usually 10 to 18 days after the onset of menstruation. Every month, hormones from the pituitary gland stimulate the ovaries to release an egg or ovulate.This often happens around the 14th day of the menstrual cycle, although exact timing may vary among women.Once the egg is released, it travels the fallopian tube. If you need to become pregnant, it is the time to consider. The egg has about 24 hours to unite with the sperm, since sperm cells can survive in the reproductive tract for 2 to 3 days. This is the best time for fertilization. Menstrual Hygiene Personal hygiene during menstruation explored including information about bathing and showering, and buying and using sanitary protection products.It is extremely important that girls take care of themselves properly.At least they should take their birth 2-3 times daily. Evaluation(!)Explain the term menstrual hygiene. (2)State briefly, 3 ways of maintaining menstrual hygiene Reading assignment: New biology for Snr. Sec. Sch. By Stone and Cozen Chp 24 pg 306315 WEEKEND ASSSIGMENT (i)Write extensively on ovulation, menstration . (i)Explain the term Menstrual cycle

WEEK 6 : CONTENTS: • Male sexual maturation • Conception • Signs of pregnancy • Types of delivery. Subtopic: Male sexual maturation: Sexual maturity is the age or stage when an organism can reproduce. It is sometimes considered synonymous with adulthood, though the two are distinct. In humans, the process of sexually maturing is termed puberty. Most multicellular organisms are unable to sexually reproduce at birth (or germination), and depending on the species, it may be days, weeks, or years until their bodies are able to do so. Also, certain cues may cause the organism to become sexually mature. They may be external, such as drought, or internal, such as percentage of body fat (such internal cues are not to be confused with hormones which directly produce sexual maturity). Sexual maturity is brought about by a maturing of the reproductive organs and the production of gametes. It may also be accompanied by a growth spurt or other physical changes which distinguish the immature organism from its adult form. These are termed secondary sex characteristics, and often represent an increase in sexual dimorphism. For example, before puberty, human children have flat chests, but adult females have breasts while adult males generally do not. However, there are exceptions such as obesity and hormone imbalances such as Gynecomastia. After sexual maturity is achieved, it is possible for some organisms to become infertile, or even to change their sex. Some organisms are hermaphrodites and may or may not be able to produce viable offspring. Also, while in many organisms sexual maturity is strongly linked to age, many other factors are involved, and it is possible for some to display most or all of the characteristics of the adult form without being sexually mature. Conversely, it is also possible for the "immature" form to reproduce. Evaluation(1)Explain the term sexual maturity.(2)What are secondary sexual

Conception Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy), is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo. Depending on the animal species, the process can occur within the body of the female in internal fertilisation, or outside in the case of external fertilisation

The entire process of development of new individuals is called procreation, the act of species reproduction Signs of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Symptoms
. On the chart below are 25 of the most common signs of pregnancy and what they mean. . The three categories of pregnancy signs are: possible, probable and positive. Pregnancy Sign Missed period Unusual or abnormal period Just "feeling" pregnant Nausea and Vomiting Changes in libido Soreness of the Breasts Enlargement of the Breasts Frequent Urination Strange Cravings Fatigue Montgomery's Tubercules Skin Changes Stretch Marks Enlarging Uterus Movement Colostrum from Breasts Enlarged Abdomen Change in uterine shape Braxton Hicks Contractions Palpation of the Baby Positive Pregnancy Test Fetal Heart Tones Ultrasound Detection X-ray Detection Category Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Possible Probable Probable Probable Probable Positive Positive Positive

Evaluation(1)List 8 symptoms of pregnancy
Types of Delivery Options

Types of Delivery Most babies arrive within a week or two of the estimated delivery date without medical intervention. However, specialist assistance is needed for various reasons in a substantial proportion of births. Labour may be late in starting and doctors may consider that it is advisable to start contractions artificially by inducing labour. You may be too exhausted to push or your baby is becoming distressed, you may be offered an assisted birth, e.g. forceps or Vacuum extraction to help the birth.

The different delivery types are shown below:

Induction Caesarean Section Episiotomy Forceps Ventouse - Vacuum Extraction Induction The length of pregnancy is 40 weeks from the first day of your last menstrual period. However, you are not regarded as being overdue until after week 42. If the pregnancy lasts longer than 42 weeks, the placenta may not be able to function efficiently, so the doctor may decide to start labour by 'Induction'. The main reason for inducing a baby is that the baby is overdue. Other reasons for inducing labour are: Pre-eclampsia Multiple-births Labour is progressing too slowly Waters break early leaving the baby exposed to infection Gestational diabetes - baby is growing too large Placenta is detached from the wall of your uterus Labour can be induced by rupturing the membrane surrounding the baby (breaking you waters).This can be done during an internal pelvic examination, and usually leads to contractions starting within 12 hours. Or the cervix maybe softened by gel or pessaries containing prostaglandins (a hormone-type substance), which are inserted into the vagina. Another method involves injecting small amounts of the hormone, oxytocin (Syntocinon) very slowly into an arm vein. Induction may make labour faster and more painful, so pain relief may be needed. It's also more likely to mean further intervention such as a forceps delivery, so it's important that you understand why it's being suggested, and that it really is the best option for you and your baby in the circumstances. Caesarean Section A caesarean section may be performed to deliver your baby if a normal delivery is considered impossible or too dangerous. The Caesarean Section operation does not take very long (45-60 minutes), but the baby is delivered within the first 5-10 minutes. Small horizontal incisions are made in the mother's abdomen and the baby is removed. Following delivery of the baby, the placenta is removed and the incision is closed carefully in layers of tissue. If the operation can be planned in advance, it may be possible to arrange for epidural anaesthesia, so that the mother remains awake throughout, but will be shielded by screening curtains from the operation. Where caesarean section is carried out as an emergency procedure, a general anaesthetic is necessary unless the mother is already having epidural anaesthesia. A 'planned' caesarean means you know in advance that your baby will be delivered this way, and can prepare yourself. The main reason for acaesarean section is that you or your baby are at risk. These situations include Foetal distress Labour is taking a long time

Pre-eclampsia Cord Prolapse There are many more reasons for a caesarean section aswell as those listed above Episiotomy This is an incision made through the perineum and the vaginal wall. It is done if the vaginal opening isn't stretching enough to let the baby emerge and it is likely to tear. A tear can be ragged and more difficult to repair than a short, straight cut of an episiotomy. A local anaesthetic is given to numb the area, unless the woman has had an epidural. The doctor will stitch the episiotomy and any tears in the cervix or vagina after delivery. An episiotomy may be required if: Birth is imminent and your perineum hasn't had time to stretch slowly. Your baby's head is too large for your vaginal opening. You cannot control your pushing and push gradually and slowly. Your baby is in distress You may require a forceps or vacuum delivery Your baby is in breech presentation and there is a complication during delivery. Forceps Forceps are like metal tongs with two large spoon shaped edges that fit around the baby's head. They are inserted into the vagina to grip the baby's head and speed up delivery. This technique may be used if the baby's heartbeat slows down during a slow delivery of the head, or to ensure its safe delivery during a breech birth. Forceps can reduce the need for caesarean section. It requires an episiotomy. Forceps are used when the mother is unable to push because she has had an epidural injection or because labour is not progressing well or if the baby is in distress. Forceps deliveries are becoming less common, as many doctors prefer the alternative technique of vacuum extraction which works in a similar way. Where delivery is delayed and the baby's head remains high up in the pelvic cavity, Caesarean section is likely to be considered a safer option. Forceps can bruise your baby's head, and his/her head may appear elongated or an odd shape, but any bruising or swelling will usually subside within a few days and will have disappeared within a couple of weeks. Ventouse - Vacuum Extraction Vacuum extraction (ventouse) is a gentler alternative to forceps. It consists of a metal plate or cone-shaped cup of synthetic material. The suction cup is placed over the top of your baby's head and using an attached pump a vacuum is created. This instrument then becomes a handle which the doctor can use to rotate the head and pull while you push. Ventouse can bruise your baby's head, and his head may appear elongated or an odd shape, but any bruising or swelling will usually subside within a few days and will have disappeared within a couple of weeks. After the birth, the doctor or midwife will carefully stitch the episiotomy or any tear. Evaluation:(1)List and explain the types of delivery we have. Reading assignment: New Biology by Stone and Cozen Chap 24 pg 305-322 Weekend Assignment: Project : In not less than 300 words discuss fully puberty in male and female human beings

WEEK SEVEN ………………………


BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS CONTENT - Definition of Ecology. - Branches of ecology ( Autecology and synecology) - Ecological terms ( environment, Biosphere, Habitat, Ecological niche, Population, community, Ecological system, Biome) BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS. DEFINITION OF ECOLOGY Ecology is the study of plant and animals (as well as microorganism) in relation to their environment. As a practical science, ecological studies involve:i. Studying the distribution of living organisms ii. Finding out how living organisms depend on themselves and their non-living environment for survival. iii. Measuring factors affecting the environment. BRANCHES OF ECOLOGY Depending on whether the organisms are studied alone or in groups, ecology is divided into two: a. AUTECOLOGY This is the study of an individual organism or a single species of organism and its environment e.g the study of a student and his school environment. b. SYNECOLOGY This involves studying the inter-relationships between groups of organisms or different species of organism living together in an area e.g study of fish, crabs, seaweeds, etc in a pond UNIQUENESS OF ABIOTIC FACTORS Abiotic factors can be; Common to all habitats; these include temperature, rainfall, light, pH, wind, and pressure. b. Unique to aquatic habitat; these are salinity, density, turbidity, water flow (current), waves, dissolved gases etc. c. Unique to terrestrial habitat; these are relative humidity, soil or edaphic factors like texture, topography etc. MEASUREMENT OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS (ABIOTIC FACTORS) Ecological factors that are measurable include temperature, rainfall, light, wind, turbidity etc ECOLOGICAL TERMS The various concepts closely associated with ecology include; 1. ENVIRONMENT This includes external and internal factory living or non living which affect an organism or a group of organisms. These include the habitat (with its peculiar physical conditions eg light) ,food, water, air, the animals preying on other animals or the diseases affecting the organism. 2. BIOSPHERE (ECOSPHERE) This is the zone of the earth occupied by living organisms so as to carry out their biochemical activities.


The ecosphere consists of 3 major portions:A: Lithosphere:- this is the solid portion (the outer-most zone) of the earth which is made up of rocks and minerals. This zone forms 30% of the earth surface and it is the basis of human settlement. B: Hydrosphere:- this is the liquid (aquatic) part of the biosphere. It covers about 70% of the earth’s crust. It consist of water in various forms; solid acid, liquid or gas (water vapour), hydrosphere includes lakes, pools, spring, oceans, ponds, rivers, etc. C: Atmosphere: - this is the gaseous portion of the earth. It contains of three main gases; nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and carbon (iv) oxide (0.03%). There are also 0.77% rare gases. 3: HABITAT: This is a place where an organism is naturally found. Habitat is always affected by environmental factors. Habitat can be divided into three:I: Aquatic habitat: this is where plants and animals (as well as micro organisms) live in water E.g Sea, ocean, lagoons, streams, etc. II: Terrestrial habitat: this is where the organisms live on land e.g, forests, grassland, (savanna), desert etc. III: Arboreal habitat: These include tree trunks and tree tops where some organisms (usually animals) are naturally found. EVALUATION 1a Define ecology b list various experimental activities carried in ecological studies. 2a state the two branches of ecology b Differentiate between the two branches stated above. 3. Write a short note on ecosphere. 4. 2/3 of the earth is made up of water, explain. 5. Differentiate between a habitat and an ecological niche. 6. With two examples each, state the three subdivisions of habitat. 7. Differentiate between ecosystem and biome. READING ASSIGNMENT MB: Basic ecological concepts, chapter 5, page 88-91. EB: Basic ecological concepts, chapter 5, page 76-77. Weekend Assignment. 1. Which of the following is not classified as a terrestrial habitat ( a) forest b) guinea savanna c) literal zone d) desert. 2. The activities of an organism which affect the survival of the another organism in a habitat can be described as a) biotic factors. B) Abiotic factors c) climatic factor d) edaphic factors. 3. The number of individuals of the same species interacting in a habitat at a particular time best describes a) community b) ecosystem c) population d) biome. 4. A biotic community with its physical environment (abiotic factors) defines a) ecosystem b) population c) habitat d) biosphere. 5. The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is a) oxygen (b) nitrogen (c) co2 (d) a rare gas. THEORY Define i) Biotic community ii) habitat iii) an ecosystem Write short notes on the three major portions of ecosphere.

1. 2.



-BIOMES -LOCAL BIOMES: Mangroves, tropical rain forest, savanna, -World biomes: temperate forest, coniferous forest, temperate grassland, savanna, desert, tundra, mountain vegetation. BIOMES Biomes are large natural terrestrial ecosystem, identified by their dominant vegetation. They are terrestrial Because plants form the bulk of the community in any ecosystem e.g., a forest biome has densely packed tall trees while grasses and few scattered shrubs are found in a savanna bio climatic factors determine the type of vegetation in a biome. These factors may include rain fall irrelative in humility, temperature, wind and light LOCAL BIOMES The local biomes particular to Nigeria include the following: 1 mangrove swamp 2 tropical rain forest 3 savanna (northern and southern Guinea savanna, Sudan savanna and sahel savanna) MANGROVE SWAMPS These are found in the tropical along Coastal region and river mouths, mangrove swamps are forest of small, evergreen, broad-level trees grouping in shallow, brackish water or wet soil. Many mangrove trees have pop roots and breathing roots called pneumatophore the climate here is hot and wet, with total annual rain fall of above 250cm and temperature, (260c) in Nigeria, mangrove swamps are found in the delta region of Lagos, Delta, Rivers and Cross rivers states. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST: This occurs in the region that has .between the equator and the latitude 50-100N and S. It has the following characteristics: 1 the forest are mainly lowland 2 the climate is hot and wet 3 it consists of broad leaved trees that are mostly ever green, the leaves are gradually shed through out the year and replaced by new ones. 4 The trees form canopy strata with their interior having low light intensity, high humidity and damp floor. 5 Possession of thin bark. 6 The forest is rich in epiphytes and wood climbers 7 The annual rainfall and temperature are 200cm and 270c respectively. In Nigeria, tropical rainfall is found in Edo, Delta, Ondo, Imo, Lagos, Rivers state e.t.c. These are tropical grassland in Africa. They are usually flat for miles at a stretch and made up mainly of grasses. The savanna region have a hot and wet seasons (290c) which alternate with a cool and dry season (180c) .the total annual rainfall around 50cm-150cm. During the dry season, the grasses are usually dry and brown and bush fire is common occurrences. South Guinea savanna (the largest of all the biomes in Nigeria) has tall grasse with scattered, deciduous trees. It is found in Enugu, Kogi, Benue, Kwara, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, State e.t.c . Northern Guinea Savanna has scattered, deciduous trees, sometimes with thorns and tick barks. Grasses are short and numerous. it is found in plateau, Kaduna, Bauchi, Niger, Kano, Adamawa states e.t.c. Sudan savanna has the shorter grasses fewer trees which are more scattered. It is found in Kano and parts of Borno, Sokoto, Niger, Bauchi states e.t.c Sahel savanna has high temperature and low rainfall with short and scanty grasses as well as short and tough shrubs or trees. The plants are drought-resistant. It is found in Borno, Kastina, Sokoto, Yobe, Kano, Jigawa states etc .

WORLD BIOMES Of all abiotic factors affecting ecological system, temperature and rainfall determine the world biomes. The biomes include: tropical rain forest, temperate forest, coniferous forest, temperate shrubland, savanna, temperate grassland, desert, and tundra and mountain vegetation TEMPERATE FOREST These are forest with the following characteristics they are -mainly of broad leaves deciduous tree which shed their leaves during winter - Possession of moderately wet climate with a dry or cold season CONIFEROUS FORESTS These are characterized by: - needle –leaved evergreen confers such as pines , firs - possessing few trees - possessing tall tree forming upper storey - the forest floor being covered with a thick layer or conifer needles - possessing cool temperature climate with light rainfall and snow TEMPERATE SHRUBLAND These are forest with the following characteristics - they are of broad leaved deciduous trees which shed their leaves during winter - possession of moderately wet climate with a dry or cold season - It consists of drought –resistant shrub , animatic plants and dwarf trees ,often fire – resistant e.g marquis - It has temperate climate with low rainfall. TEMPERATE GRASSLAND -perennial grasses grow on very fertile soil to support herds of grazing mammals - It has moderately dry climate with a cold winter and a hot summer SAVANNA -this is tropical grassland with scattered trees and often infertile soil - It has a moderately dry climate with a warm dry season and a hot rainy season DESERT - This has very sparse vegetation, with succulent perennials that have deep root systems - Tropical temperate and afro-alpine regions with less than 25 cm annual rainfall TUNDRA - This is a treeless marshy vegetation composed mainly of dwarf shrubs, grasses ,lichen and moss with very few plant types - There is cold climate with long icy winter and very short summer with an average temperature of 100c MOUNTAIN VEGETATION - this has evergreen rainforest on slopes of mountain ,these forest are less luxuriant than the tropical rainforest - Afro alpine vegetation occurs at heights above 3000m on mountain, vegetation consists mainly of health, grasses and sedges. EVALUATION 1. What do you understand by the term biome? 2. State the local biomes found in Nigeria 3. Distinguish between the three major biomes in Nigeria (in a tabular form) using the following factors: i. total annual rainfall ii temperature iii region found 4. State the four savannas present in Nigeria 5. What are the two factors that determine the world biomes? 6. State four of these world biomes with two characteristics each

7. using their characteristics, differentiate between savanna and desert. 8. Describe Tundra as a world biome. READING ASSIGNMENT MB , Aquatic and Terrestrial ,chapter 17 ,page 335 -357 EB, Terrestrial Habitat, Chapter 20 ,pg 250 -257. WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT 1. How is savanna plants protected from bush fires? They have (a) sunken stomata (b) thorn bark (c) thick barks (d) soft leaves 2. Which of the following limiting resources is competed for by organisms in the desert? (a) Light (b) oxygen (c) temperature (d) water 3. Which of these is not a true characteristic of the tropical rain forest? (a) Vegetation consists predominantly of tall tree with thick canopy (b) forest is rich in epiphytes and climbers (c) annual rainfall is less than 100 cm (d) annual temperature is 270c 4. Which of the following does not describe the coniferous forest? (a) needle leaved evergreen conifers (b) broad leaved evergreen conifers (c) possessing few trees (d) possessing cool temperate climate 5. mountain vegetation is described by the following except (a) treeless marshy vegetation (b) evergreen rainforest on slopes of mountain (c)( forest are less luxuriant than tropical rain forest (d) afro alpine vegetation at heights above 300m on mountain THEORY 1. Outline the properties of the savanna as a world biome 2. Explain and give examples of: (a) Local biomes (b) World biomes.

WEEK 9: POPULATION CONTENTS: Population studies Factors that affect population • Simple measurement of ecological factors. Population density:- this is the number of a particular organism per unit area or volume of the habitat. Therefore population density = population size / area of habitat. Determination of population density of an Organism. i. The organisms must be collected e.g. use of a sweep net. In collecting insects in a field ii. Sampling approach is adopted in a habitat with many organisms e.g use of quadrant sampling. A quadrant is a rectangular or square frame made from thick wire, with wooden edges. A quadrant is thrown at random, several times. The are covered for • •

each landing is observed. The type of species and their number within the quadrant are recorded. The average number of times each species appears is calculated and the most frequent species is calculated and the most frequent species is determined. (b) Population frequency:- this is the number of times an organism occurs within a given area or habitat. (c) Percentage cover:- this refers to how much space or area an organism occupies its habitat (d) Population growth rate:- this refers to the net result of the influence of natality (birth rate ) and mortality (death rate) of organism in a given habitat. FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION The population of organisms in a give habitat is affected by the following (i) Natality; Ability of organisms to reproduce to increase its population (ii) Mortality; Rate at which organism from different habitats into a new habitat and this increases the population of the new area, decreasing the population of the former habitat. (iii) Immigration; Movement of organisms from different habitats into a new habitat and this increases the population of the new area, decreasing the population of the former habitat. (iv) Emigration; Movement of organisms out of a habitat due to unfavourable conditions e.g food scarcity etc. This reduces the population of the habitat. (v) Availability of food; Animals tend to migrate to where there is plenty of food, thereby increasing the population of such places. (vi) Seasonal climatic changes; Whether the change is favourable or not determines the stay or migration of organisms into or out of a habitat. (vi) Breeding season; Some organisms move out of their habitats during this season (e.g fishes); hence the population drops. (vii) Natural disasters; Like fire, drought, floods, earthquakes etc lead to a decrease in population through the death of organisms out of such habitat These factors can be measured using some instruments as shown below. INSTRUMENTS USES (a) Photometer Light intensity (b) Hydrometer light intensity in water (c) Wind vane Direction of the wind (d) Anemometer Speed of wind (e) Rain gauge Amount of rainfall (f) Hygrometer Relative humidity (g) Barometer Pressure (h) Glass thermometer Temperature (i) Colorimeter or pH Acidity / Alkalinity (j) Secchi disc Turbidity (k) Sweep (insect) net Catching insect EVALUATION 1. State the two components of an ecosystem 2. With two examples each, discuss the various biotic components in an ecosystem. 3. Define the following terms i. Population ii. Population size iii. Population frequency iv. Population density. 4. How do you determine the population density of insect on a piece of land? 5. State three factors that : a) increase the population of a habitat b) decrease the population of a habitat. 6. State two Abiotic factors unique to: a) aquatic habitat b) terrestrial habitat.

7. List five measurable ecological factors. 8. State the ecological instruments used in measuring the factors listed above. READING ASSIGNMENT: MB ; Basic Ecological concepts; components of an ecosystem, chapter 5, page 91; Population studies, chapter 5 page96-113 EB; Basic ecological concepts; components of an ecosystem, chapter 5, page 77-78; Population studies, chapter 5, page 83-96. WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT. 1. Climatic factors in an ecosystem include the following except a) light b) wind c) temperature d) Oxygen. 2. Organic part of abiotic component of an ecosystem includes the following except a) water b) carbohydrate c) Protein d) Lipids 3. The ratio of population size to the area of the habitat is a) population size b) population density c) population frequency d) population cover. 4. Habitat factors include all the following except a) biotic b) abiotic c) edaphic d) nature. 5. Population means the a) number of organisms in a habitat b) total number of organisms c) total number of organisms of the same species d) total number of organisms of different species. THEORY 1. List five ecological instruments and their uses 2. Give two examples each of the following: a) Biotic factors b) abiotic factors c) Edaphic factors.

WEEK 10 ………………………


FUNTIONING ECOSYSTEM CONTENT Autotrophs and heterotrophs - Food chain - Food web - Energy transformation and laws of thermodynamics FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS Since all living organisms must obtain energy and nutrients from environment in order to remain alive ,they are into feeding relationships.This makes an ecosystem a functional unit. The organism fall into one of the three major groups of biotic community, namely: a. producers (autotrophs) b. consumer (heterotrophs) c. decomposers the autotrophs provide food for other organism in the habitat. In terrestrial habitat, they include grasses, trees and shrubs while aquatic autotrophs include phytoplankton, sea weeds etc The heterotrophic include: i. herbivores (called primary consumers) feeding on plat ii. Carnivores (called secondary consumers) feeding on primary consumers iii. Omnivores is other animals called (tertiary consumers) that feed on secondary consumer or on both Terrestrial heterotrophs include cow, dog, lion, man etc while water fleas, tadpoles, larvae of insect and fishes are aquatic heterotrophs Decomposers like termites ,larvae of housefly (maggot) ,bacteria and fungi break down dead organic matter to release simple chemical compounds which can absorb and use again.

Of all the three biotic groups, consumers have better chance of survival than any other in an ecosystem. TROPHIC LEVEL In an ecosystem, energy and nutrients are transferred step by step among organisms along a feeding path way.The feeding pathway in all ecosystem follows a similar pattern which is as follows: a. it begins with a producer e.g green plant like grass b the producer is eaten by a primary consumer e.g Zebra , goat c. the primary consumer is eaten by a secondary consumer e.g. lion d. decomposer convert the remains of dead producers and consumers into simple inorganic substance which return to the non –living environment. The difference in the feeding pathways within an ecosystem or between different ecosystems is the termination of the pathway. Some may end at the primary consumer step or may go on to secondary consumer, tertiary consumer etc Trophic (feeding) level: is each step along a feeding pathway.The order in which the trophic levels are arranged gives the path of energy (food) flow among the functional groups of organisms. The trophic level are numbered in ascending order, starting from one to indicate the path of energy flow. Trohic level 1 always consists of producers or autotrophic Trophic level 2 always consists of primary consumers which may include: i. herbivores e.g cows ,goats ii birds and insects that feed on pollen juices, leaves seeds and fruits of plants. Iii parasitic organism e.g ustilage , a parasitic fungus that causes maize smut Above trophic level 2 , consumers could be : i. carnivores e.g dogs ,lions etc ii parasitic organisms e.g ticks ,flukes etc iii. scavengers (e.g vultures ,hyenas ) .these feed on dead animals. The final consumer eventually die and are fed upon by decomposer FOOD CHAIN This is the feeding relationship involving the transfer of energy through food from producers to consumers in a linear form In a terrestrial habitats are: i. grass ------------- zebra-------------lion (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) ii Guinea grass ---------grasshopper ------toad---------------snake---------------hawk (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer) in aquatic habitats are: i. spirogyra-----------tadpoles---------------carps------------------kingfish (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer) ii. Diatoms------mosquito larvae-----Tilapia fish---------whale (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer) therefore , in a food chain ,food energy is transferred from one organism to another in a linear form.Most food chains begin with producers but few of them start with dead plants or animals e.g Humus-----earthworm------------domestic fowl------man Numerous food chains are present in an ecosystem FOOD WEB This is a complex feeding relationships among organism in the same environment with two or more inter related foood chains Food web therefore contains more organisms than food chain.A single plant could be fed upon by more than one or two organisms In its ecosystem , a consumer has a better chance of survival because it feeds on different types of plants or animals in a food web e.g in a terrestrial habitat DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB


FOOD CHAIN FOOD WEB A linear feeding relationship A complex feeding relationship Involves food chain per time Involves two or more food chains Involves fewer organisms Involves many organisms Organisms have lesser chance Organisms have greater of survival chance of survival EVALUATION 1. State two examples each of the following in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat(a) Autotrophs (b) heterotrophs (c) Decomposers 2. how do the three groups of organisms in one above relate? 3. describe the pattern that feeding pathway follow in all ecosystems 4. what do you understand by feeding level? 5. what is a food chain?

SUB-TOPIC: LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS CONTENT Thermodynamics simply means heat change. Heat as a form of energy that is subject to change in living organisms is governed by two laws (1) First law of thermodynamics: states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, although it can be changed from one form to another. E.g. chemical energy in food is converted to kinetic energy and heat energy in our muscles when we walk or run. (2) Second law of thermodynamics: state that in any conversion of energy from one form to another, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. That is to say, no transformation of energy from one state to another is ever 100 percent efficient. During metabolic activities, some chemical energy is constantly lost as heat energy from the body of an organism. As energy is converted from one form to another, there will always be its loss. SUB-TOPIC: PYRAMID OF ENERGY & LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS CONTENT (i) Using the first law: energy is transferred from one trophic level to another. The energy of the producers of the base of the pyramid is higher and it is gradually transformed from one stage of the trophic level to another. The sun total of energy is constant through it from one from to another. (ii) Using the second law: as the energy is transformed from one trophic level to another, part of it is converted into heat it is lost, among a progressive drop in energy in successive trophic levels. ENERGY FLOW AND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS (i) Using the first law: As the producers convert the solar energy to useful energy, the energy is progressively transformed from one trophic level to the next. The energy then flows from producers to 10 consumers, then chain to 20 consumers and finally to 30 consumers in a food chain. The energy flow in a food chain is therefore in one direction only. (ii) Using the Second law: Energy transfer between trophic levels is not 100%. Successive levels have less useful energy and so can only support fever organisms. 10 produce (green plants) have the highest amount of energy. When herbivorous feed on the plants, the energy level is reduced. When carnivorous consume the herbivorous, the energy level is reduced. EVALUATION 1. State the laws of thermodynamics and explain.


Nitrogen Cycle
This cycle describes the changes in the forms of nitrogen that occur in nature. The cycle is essental for the survival of organisms. Bacteria play a large role in this cycle

Nitrogen (N2) is a vital component of amino acids and proteins. Enzymes (protein) control metabolism in all living organisms. 80% approx of the atmosphere is made up of N2 gas. In this form it cannot be used by plants or animals. Bacteria in the nitrogen cycle convert N2 gas to Nitrates (NO3-). Nitrates are then absorbed by the roots of the plants & used to make plant protein. Animals consume the plants, converting them to animal protein.

] Nitrogen Fixation
is the term given to the conversion of N2 to NO3- . It is brought about by 2 different types of bacteria. 1 of the types of bacteria is found on the Nodules of the roots of Legumes. It fixes N2 for the plant, the plant in return supplies sugars to the bacteria. This relationship between 2 different organisms living together is defined as Symbiosis. The association between the 2 is beneficial to both so it is known as Mutualism.

EVALUATION 1. Explain pyramid of energy using the first law of thermodynamics 2. Explain energy flow using the law of thermodynamics Reading assignment: NSB by stone and cozen Chp 5 pg 91-95 WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT 1. The ultimate source of energy in nature is ________ (a) green plans (b) moon (c) star (d) sun 2. The usable form of energy in animals is ______ (a) chemical energy (b) kinetic energy (c) potential energy (d) ATP 3. Available to photosynthetic plants is ________ of the solar energy (a) 1-5% (b) 2-5% (c) 5-15% (d) 1-10% 4. As energy is changed from one form to another, there is a ______ in the amount of useful energy (a) increase (b) stability (c

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