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Introduction to Sanskrit

THOMAS EGENES

PART ONE

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PRIVATE LIMITED.

PUBLISHERS DELI-II

First Indian Edition: Delhi, j 994 Second Revised Edition: Delhi, 1996 Third Revised Edition: Delhi, 2003 First Published: California, 1989

to THOMAS EGENES All Rights Reserved

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CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION LESSON ONE Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: The vowels in roman script The first six vowels in devanagarl How a verb is formed The singular ending for verbs The verbs --Jgam and --Jprach The word for "and" How to write simple sentences LESSON TWO Alphabet: Most of the' consonants and how they are organized The last seven vowels in devanagari Grammar: Vocabulary: Verbs in the dual More verbs The word for "where" LESSON THREE Alphabet: Grammar: The remaining letters in roman script The first ten consonants in devanagari The plural The grammatical terms to describe a verb Accent Vocabulary: More verbs

Xl

1 2
4 5 5 6 6 6

8
9

12
13 14 14

18
19

23 24 25 27 28

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--.--

..

-.-~--.-.~------CONTENTS

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LESSON FOURTEEN Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: The sandhi rules for final I}. Verb prefixes and the imperfect active More verbs

181 182 188 191 195 196 197 199 200 204 205 208 210 214 217 218 220 224 228 229 232 and tatpurusa 233 235 238

LESSON FIFTEEN Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: The sandhi rules for final m More verb prefixes The imperfect middle More verbs

LESSON SIXTEEN Alphabet: Grammar: The sandhi rules for final n Nouns in an The imperfect for ~as The dvandva compound 210 Vocabulary: Nouns in an, more adjectives

LESSON SEVENTEEN Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: The sandhi rules for final t Nouns ending in r, the future tense Nouns in

r

LESSON EIGHTEEN Alphabet: Grammar: All remaining sandhi rules Nouns in u The karrnadharaya compound Summary of compounds Vocabulary: Nouns in u, more adjectives

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ix

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES TABLES
Masculine a Neuter a Feminine Feminine Neuter an Masculine r, feminine Pronouns Verbs Prefixes Numerals sandhi

242 298 299 300 301 302 303 304

a I

Masculine i, feminine i Masculine an

r

305 306 307 312 318 319 320 328 342 352 371 376 382

Masculine u, feminine u

VOCABULARY ENGLISH-SANSKRIT VOCABULARY SANSKRIT QUOTATIONS READING FROM THEBHAGAVAD GITA INDEX OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS GENERAL INDEX

INTRODUCTION
REASONS FOR
STUDYING SANSKRIT There are several reasons to study the subtle and refined language of Sanskrit. The sound, script, grammar, and systematic nature of the language is charming in itself, something of great beauty. The study of Sanskrit creates orderliness within the mind because Sanskrit is a highly systematic language, reflecting the orderliness of nature itself. Most students who study Sanskrit also have an interest in the content of the Sanskrit literature. This large body of literature is enormously diverse, including such fields as philosophy, science, art, music, phonology, grammar, mathematics, architecture, history, education, and logic (to name just a few). The literature can be understood in greater depth when it is studied in its original language. Even a little Sanskrit will give you control over English translations of the Sanskrit literature, so you will be able to decide if a crucial word has been mistranslated. While you may not become an expert translator of the Sanskrit literature, you'll find that an introductory knowledge of Sanskrit has great worth. Even a small knowledge of Sanskrit is useful when reading Sanskrit texts in English. And who knows? The study of Sanskrit could lead to something far beyond what you anticipated. VEDIC AND CLASSICAL SANSKRIT Sanskrit (samskrta) means "perfected," or "put together" ("put,"
krta and "together," saI11). Sanskrit is divided into two principal

parts: Vedic Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit. The older language is Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic, the language of the Samhita and

xii

INTRODUCI10N

Brahrnana. Vedic Sanskrit begins with the Rk-Samhltll,
Classical Sanskrit, which includes several aspects. is the language of the Bhagavad-Glta, Ramayana, and the rest of the Sanskrit literature. This text focuses on the beginning study of Classical Sanskrit, although several of the quotations are in Vedic Sanskrit Normally, Vedic Sanskrit is studied after Classical Sanskrit is learned. TEXTS ON SANSKRIT Over the past several hundred years, few Western scholars have written grammars or introductory textbooks for Sanskrit. In the 17th and 18th centuries, a few introductory materials for Sanskrit were written by Jesuit missionaries living in India. Some 19th Century works are by: Bartholome (1801), Foster (1804), Colebrooke (1805), Carey (1806), Wilkens (1808), Hamilton (1814), Yates (1820), Bopp (1827), Wilson (1841), Monier-Williams (1846), Ballantyne (1862), Benfey (1863), Miiller (1866), Kielhom (1870), Whitney (1879), and Perry (1886). Some 20th Century works are by: MacDonell (1911), Renou (1942), Antoine (1954), Burrow (1955), Tyberg (1964), Gonda (1966), Hart (1972), Coulson (1976), and Goldman (1980). FEATURES OF THIS TEXT This text is written to fulfill a need that still remains, which is to make the introductory study of Sanskrit simple, concise, and systematic, thereby making it more accessible and enjoyable for a beginning student. The text is not a complete survey of Sanskrit grammar, or even a primer. It is meant to be a "pre-primer," a step-by-step introduction to the fundamental aspects of the language.

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INTRODUCTION

xiii

Some of the features of this text are: • Small, learnable steps • Sequential organization • A balance between alphabet, grammar, and vocabulary in each lesson • As few unnecessary complications as possible • Gradual integration of sandhi rules After completing this text, you should be able to study any of the above Sanskrit textbooks more comfortably, or begin Part II of this text. Part II will feature the reading of selected verses from the Bhagavad-Gha, accompanied by a more thorough explanation of unfamiliar rules of grammar as they are encountered in the reading. Both volumes together will cover the basic rules of Sanskrit grammar. For college classes, Part I covers the standard material for a one-semester course and Part II for the second semester. After completing Part II, the student should be able to read the Bhagavad-Clta with the aid of a Sanskrit dictionary and a word-by-word English translation. In this text, each lesson has three sections: 1. Alphabet 2. Grammar 3. Vocabulary ALPHABET 1. The study of any language begins with the study of the alphabetboth pronunciation and script. From the beginning, the pronunciation of Sanskrit should be relaxed and natural. without straining. One of the texts of Sik~a states that Sanskrit should be

students have found these rules demanding. According to Yaska's Nirukta (the Vedanga dealing with word meaning). the sandhi rules will be given in chart form. It will give you a better understanding of the tradition from which these rules came. of which the primary text is the A~tadhyayi of Panini. It will increase your vocabulary. which describe how the sounds of words change in different environments. In the past. the exercises will be given without sandhi (pada-patha). of which many use these terms. this text attempts to overcome this problem. because they cannot be used until they are memorized. and adjectives) . all Sanskrit words can be divided into four categories: verbs (akhyata). pronouns.000 siitras. which begin in Lesson 13. so that the charts can be used temporarily as a quick reference to gain understanding of the general context of the rules. norninals (nouns." It gives the details VOCABULARY 3. Beginning in 'Lesson 8. called sandhi rules. which will be useful in many areas. It will allow you to feel more comfortable when studying more advanced Sanskrit textbooks. it will be easy to memorize the rules. GRAMMAR 2. Beginning in Lesson 2. means to "put together. containing about 4. and they are difficult to memorize without being used. but will also be observed with sandhi (samhita-patha). Memorizing these terms will be useful for several reasons. By introducing sandhi in small steps that are easy to master. Many of the grammatical terms are given in Sanskrit.xiv ll~ lKUUU'-11ur~ One challenge for the beginning student is learning the rules. or aphorisms. since most of these terms are also found in other areas than grammar. The A~tadhyayi is a concise and complete grammar of Sanskrit. The study of grammar is from Vyakarana." Vyakaral)a means to "undo" or to "take apart. While samskrta of the structure of the language. After using the charts for some time.

rather than straining and thus "programming" your mind to forget.. HOW TO STUDY THIS TEXT Review the alphabet. Shepley Hansen. Beatrice Reilly. as well as nominals. _ .. the limited vocabulary is aimed at eventually providing you with an entry into the reading of the Bhagavad-Cita and the Rarnayana._.. .. Harriet Berman. Sara Konhaus. taking a few minutes to bring the material to mind. and vocabulary frequently and in a relaxed state of mind before doing the exercises._ - -- -' . you should review as often as possible during the day. Memorization should be easy. _- ------ --- . and indeclinables (nipata)..... Dafna O'Neill. Margaret Lerom. John Kremer.'_ .. Lee Keng. Susan . Helen Ovens. and have cheerfully assisted in the preparation of this text: Bryan Aubrey. Laurie Couture. ArKNO\VLEDGEMENTS The following individuals have kindly offered inspiration and creative suggestions.. Lawrence Eyre. Patricia Oates. grammar rules. Richard Marsan.. Elizabeth Goldfinger. Robert Roney. If the exercises seem difficult. In general. David Reigle... Vernon Katz.. are systematically derived from verb roots (dhatu).. Monica Hayward. James French. The best way to memorize is to speak the words out loud. and frequent. Katherine Doak. Meha Mehta. _ . Devorah McKay.. Then the exercises will be more enjoyable. Carol de Giere. John Konhaus.._. _ . prefixes (upasarga). -- --------xv (naman). In this text. so that you will not be overburdened with learning too much at one time. Sherry Hogue... 242). Jan Houben. Beth Reilly.-------INlRODUCTION . with fewer difficult areas. _.- --. Sherry Levesque.. comfortable.. Niels Baumann. Park Hensley. The exercises in this text contain as few idiomatic Sanskrit expressions as possible. Jos Hindriks. you should review more. immediately look at the written form. John Roberts. of which there are about 2. If there is any hesitation in recall. Alicia Isen.. if possible. Jean Harrison. Robert Hiitwohl. Frederick Rosenberg. Peter Freund. -. Verbs. The answers to the exercises are given in the back of the text (p. Anthony Naylon. Craig Pearson.000. Michael Davis.. Christine Mosse. ------._--------_ .. Dawn Macheca. June French.

but will also be observed with sandhi (samhita-patha). While samskrta of the structure of the language. Memorizing these terms will be useful for several reasons." Vyakaral)a means to "undo" or to "take apart. It will give you a better understanding of the tradition from which these rules came. containing about 4." It gives the details VOCABULARY 3. this text attempts to overcome this problem. because they cannot be used until they are memorized. In the past. it will be easy to memorize the rules. According to Yaska's Nirukta (the Vedanga dealing with word meaning). GRAMMAR 2. which begin in Lesson 13. pronouns. It will increase your vocabulary. means to "put together. which describe how the sounds of words change in different environments. and they are difficult to memorize without being used. or aphorisms. It will allow you to feel more comfortable when studying more advanced Sanskrit textbooks. Beginning in 'Lesson 8. of which many use these terms. Beginning in Lesson 2. all Sanskrit words can be divided into four categories: verbs (akhyata). since most of these terms are also found in other areas than grammar. norninals (nouns.000 siitras. which will be useful in many areas. students have found these rules demanding. the exercises will be given without sandhi (pada-patha). The A~tadhyayi is a concise and complete grammar of Sanskrit. so that the charts can be used temporarily as a quick reference to gain understanding of the general context of the rules. The study of grammar is from Vyakarana.xiv ll~ lKUUU'-11ur~ One challenge for the beginning student is learning the rules. After using the charts for some time. the sandhi rules will be given in chart form. By introducing sandhi in small steps that are easy to master. called sandhi rules. Many of the grammatical terms are given in Sanskrit. of which the primary text is the A~tadhyayi of Panini. and adjectives) .

HOW TO STUDY THIS TEXT Review the alphabet. Anthony Naylon.. Dawn Macheca. Sara Konhaus. _ . Then the exercises will be more enjoyable. Robert Roney. Helen Ovens.. the limited vocabulary is aimed at eventually providing you with an entry into the reading of the Bhagavad-Cita and the Rarnayana. John Kremer. comfortable. -- --------xv (naman). as well as nominals. John Roberts. Shepley Hansen. you should review more.. Lee Keng. and vocabulary frequently and in a relaxed state of mind before doing the exercises.'_ ... Vernon Katz. _ .._. Craig Pearson. ArKNO\VLEDGEMENTS The following individuals have kindly offered inspiration and creative suggestions. Peter Freund.. Beth Reilly. Devorah McKay. Park Hensley.. ------. John Konhaus.. Meha Mehta. _- ------ --- . Patricia Oates. taking a few minutes to bring the material to mind. Jos Hindriks. Verbs. Lawrence Eyre. if possible. Jean Harrison. prefixes (upasarga)...- --. you should review as often as possible during the day. If the exercises seem difficult.. so that you will not be overburdened with learning too much at one time. Jan Houben. Laurie Couture._--------_ . _ . David Reigle. Monica Hayward. grammar rules. Katherine Doak. Michael Davis. are systematically derived from verb roots (dhatu)..... Christine Mosse. Harriet Berman.. 242). of which there are about 2.. Niels Baumann..... James French. and indeclinables (nipata).. _. In this text. -. June French. Sherry Levesque. The best way to memorize is to speak the words out loud. with fewer difficult areas. In general. Frederick Rosenberg. Susan . Carol de Giere. Beatrice Reilly._ - -- -' . The answers to the exercises are given in the back of the text (p.-------INlRODUCTION . Dafna O'Neill. ._. and have cheerfully assisted in the preparation of this text: Bryan Aubrey. Richard Marsan..000. Alicia Isen. Sherry Hogue. Memorization should be easy. rather than straining and thus "programming" your mind to forget. Elizabeth Goldfinger. Margaret Lerom. Robert Hiitwohl. The exercises in this text contain as few idiomatic Sanskrit expressions as possible. immediately look at the written form. If there is any hesitation in recall. and frequent.

Charles Lanman. Roxie Teague. University of British Columbia • Sanskrit Grammar. Monier Monier. translated by Winthrop Sargeant. Many other students who have studied this text have given valuable feedback. The Sanskrit quotations beginning on page 352 (Part One) and the verses from the Bhagavad Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Kale. Keith Wegman. Susan Tripp. V. Jan Storms. Vidhata Mishra . Teach Yourself Books. M. Sheila Terry. Hodder and Stoughton • A Sanskrit Grammar for Students. Motilal Banarsida: • Sanskrit Reader. Michael Coulson. C. An Introduction to the Classical Language. Uhlenbeck. Barbara Small. University of Michigan • Sanskrit: An Easy Introduction to an Enchanting Language. Roderick Buknell. Ashok Aklujkar. Munshiram • A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar. Geoffrey Wells. Motilal Banarsidass • A Higher Sanskrit Grammar.XVI IN1RODUCTION Rosenfield. State of New York University Press • Devavanlpravesika: Introduction to the Sanskrit Language. Peter Freund and Eric Vautier developed the devanagari and transliteration fonts used in this text. Dale Stephens. William Dwight Whitney. University of California. Motilal Banarsidass • A Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics. FOR FURTHER STUDY GIta (Part Two) are from translationsby • Sanskrit Manual.Williams. Douglas Walker. R. Agnes Maria Von Agris. Madhav Deshpande. Arthur MacDonell. Linda assisted in editing and offered continuous guidance and support. William Sands. Motilal Banarsidass • Samskrtasubodhinl: A Sanskrit Primer. K. My wife. Barney Shennan. Berkely • Sanskrit. Baroda Oriental Institute • A Critical Study of Sanskrit Phonetics. Thomas Stanley. C. Motilal Banarsidass • The Bhagavad Gltii. Abhyankar. Goldman and Sutherland. Peter Scharf. and Elinor Wolfe. Julan White. Motilal Banarsidass • A Sanskrit-English Dictionary.

From the Vedic tradition of India. Maharishi has provided the means for removing stress and suffering and for unfolding the full potential within every individual-for creating perfect health. This simple. and has been verified by more than 500 scientific studies on every continent. prosperity.lNTRODUCI10N xvii DEDICATION This book is dedicated with deep appreciation and gratitude to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. the language of the impulses within pure consciousness. cognized these impulses. natural program has brought happiness and fultillment to millions of people around the world. of which many are included in the section of this text entitled "Sanskrit Quotations. These cognitions were recorded in the Vedic literature. a vast body of beautiful expressions that embodies the mechanics of evolution in every field of life. . Maharishi has emphasized the most significant passages from this literature. Maharishi describes Sanskrit as the language of nature. Over the years. and permanent peace in the world. fathoming the silent depth of their own pure consciousness. Maharishi has brought to light practical procedures for experiencing pure consciousness and promoting evolution in daily life-Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. progress. Maharishi explains how the ancient Vedic rishis of the Himalayas." The know lege contained in these expressions can be found at the foundation of every culture and tradition. the Self.

LESSON ONE Alphabet: The vowels in roman script The first six vowels in devanagari Grammar: How a verb is formed The singular ending for verbs The verbs ~ gam and ~ prach The word for "and" How to write simple sentences Vocabulary: .

each letter represents one and only one sound (varna).2. 2. Vowels can be either short (hrasva) or long (dlrgha). In Vedic Sanskrit. SHORT Simple LONG a i a i u . and long vowels are held for two counts. and some are called complex (samyukta). or sounded) b. In English. r LONG Complex ii f LONG ai au e 0 4. Consonants (vyafijana. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. Short vowels are held for one count (matra). You may also see it marked with a long vowel: 83. Pal. there are also vowels held for three counts. For example: a3. Some vowels are called simple (~uddha).2 LESSON ONE ALPHABET: VOWELS 1. called pluta.27) compares the three counts to the calling of a rooster: u U u3. There are two basic divisions to the alphabet: a. which are marked in devanagarl and roman script by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3. but rarely in Classical Sanskrit. Vowels ~vara. or a times 3. .lini (1. but not so in Sanskrit. or manifesting) 3. In Sanskrit. the letter "au may indicate many sounds.

or a consonant or group of consonants followed by a vowel." They are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. ..LESSON ONE 3 5. is called a syllable (aksara). Here is the pronunciation of the vowels: a i like the first "a" in like the "a" in like the "ea" in like the "ee" in like the "u" in like the "00" America father heat beet suit pool river (usually not rolled) reed jewelry gate aisle pole loud . I i u ii in r like the "ri" in like the "ri" in like the "lry" in like the "a" in like the "ai" in like the "0" r I e at 0 in au like the "au" in 6. Diacritics are combined with roman letters to represent new sounds. A vowel by itself. The lines and dots are called "diacritics.' or "diacritical marks. 7.

Here are six vowels in devanagari. 10. writing the bar last. (Alternate forms for a and a will be learned in Lesson Seven.) a a 1 . Practice for small amounts of time. The small numbers inside each letter indicate the order in drawing the various parts of the letter. 1 . Sanskrit is written in the devanagari capital letters. The word devanagari means the "city (nagari) of immortals (deva). and putting it on a flash card (devanagar] on the front and roman on the back). u u . script. The ideal way to learn the script will be to memorize approximately one letter each day. top to bottom. writing it 20 times or so." There are no 9. write left to right.4 LESSON ONE 8. In general. Continue to practice regularly with your flash cards throughout the course. several times a day.

because it is in the present tense. Third person Second person First person ~. or it you I 3. Root go gaccha gacchati ___ 11_1 Stem Verb go he. and first (uttama. second (madhyama.) Third person Second person First person he. and the stem adds an ending (tin) to form a verb (tinanta). she. (Students in the West have learned these upside down. This foim is called the present indicative. and it indicates.LESSON ONE 5 GRAMMAR: VERBS 1. We will study the four classes whose stems end in a.. The root (dhatu). or last). gaccbati (gaccha + ti) gaccbasi (gaccba + si) gacchami (gaccha + a + mi) she goes. but the ending changes for each person. or middle). written with'" before it. Verbs are in three persons (puru$a): third (prathama. he goes you go I go . she. It is singular (eka-vacana). forms a stem (anga). Sanskrit roots are divided into ten classes (gana) in order to form the present stem. or first). The stem stays the same. or it goes Stem +Ending (ti) 2.

The stem can be found by removing the endings. and intetjections. You go and you ask. sing. (or) You go and ask. A few nouns (like svasti) are also treated as indec1inables. Included as indeclinables are: prepositions. she goes and (placed after the last werd of the series. followed by the third person singular fonn. SANSKRIT ENGLISH he goes. conjunctions (like ca). particles. He asks and I go. and so are called "indeclinable" (avyaya). Here is the vocabulary in Sanskrit and in English. adverbs.6 LESSON ONE VOCABULARY 1. sing. (or) I am going.) he asks.) ca (indeclinable*) *Some words do not have endings. Here are some sample sentences: gaechami prcchati gacchiimi ca I go. 2. Each verb appears in its root form. or after each word) (never first in a sentence or clause: "prach (root) prcchati (3rd per. prcehati ca gaechami ca gacchasi ca prcchasl ca . He asks and I go. she asks "gam (root) gacchatl (3rd per.

4. He goes and you go. I go and you go h. f. prechami gacchasi ca d. e. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. prcehatl ca gacchmni ca 6. prcchati precham! ca f. 2. You ask. . second. d. and third person singular verbs in the present indicative. Translate the following sentences into English. Memorize the vowels and their order in roman script. Compare with the correct answers given on page 242. gaccham] prcchami ca e. Learn to write and recognize the first six vowels in devanagari. He goes and asks.LESSON ONE 7 EXERCISES 1. I ask and you go. h. 5. g. You ask and he goes. 3. Memorize the vocabulary. gacchasi ca gacchati ca c. prechasi ca gacchati ca b. c. both before and after translating. gacchasiPfccharnica h. Learn to pronounce them correctly. prcchati ca gacchati ca g. I go and I ask. Pronounce each sentence several times out loud. Memorize the forms for the first. He asks and you go. a.

._-- LESSON TWO Alphabet: Most of the consonants and how they are organized The last seven vowels in devanagarl Grammar: Vocabulary: Verbs in the dual More verbs The word for "where" ._-------------_---------_---- --.

The first 25 consonants. For example.LESSON TWO 9 ALPHABET: CONSONANTS 1. called stops (sparsa). are arranged according to five points of articulation (sthana): Roof (mfirdhan) Teeth (danta) Palate (13lu) Lips (ostha) Throat (kantha) 2. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation. arranged according to point of articulation. Here are the five sets (varga). The labial row is pronounced at the lips.are pronounced in the throat. all the consonants in the velar row (ka varga). 1st Velar (kal)thya) Palatal (talavya) Retroflex (murdhanya) Dental (dantya) Labial (osthya) 2nd 3rd 4th 5th lia ka ca ta kha cha tha ga ja 43 da ba gha jha 4ha dha bha I_I fia I}a na rna 1__ 1 ta pa tha pha I - Aspirated Aspirated Voiced Nasal .

The sound ga is called gakara (''ga" maker). It is the aspirated.1. For example. Some sounds are aspirated (mahii-pral)a)-:rllOre breath is used in pronouncing these sounds.10 LESSONlWO 3. The sound ka is called kakara ("ka" maker). 6. 4. but just ra or repha. 7. ka.' lesson we will learn ra. ii. Some are unvoiced (aghosa). Each set of English ietters represents one Sanskrit sound. Some are unaspirated (alpa-prana). and m are called nasals (anunisika). gh is one sound. g gh n j.) (In the next 5. Some are voiced (ghosavatj-e-the vocal chords are used in pronouncing these sounds. Here is how the consonants are pronounced: k kh like the "k" in like the "kh" in like the "g" in like the Ugh" in like the "n" in like the "c" in like the "ch" in like the "j" in like the "j" in like the "n" in skate bunkhouse go loghouse smg cello charm (using more breath) just just (using more breath) enjoyable n. the fourth (caturtha). ta. For example. and pa are all first in their rows. the third (trtiya). "snarl. n. the second (dvltlya). voiced velar. The 1. and the fifth (paiicama). ca. c ch jh ii . Each row is divided into five sounds: the first (prathama). and so on. The only exception is that ra is not called rakara. ta.

as in the diagram on page 9. In Vedic Sanskrit. the white changes its color slightly. For example. when da has a vowel on both sides. whenda or dha have vowels on both sides. Therefore. The example used is that when white has crimson on both sides. . t th like the "t" in like the "t" in like the "d" in like the "dh" in like the "n" in like the "p" in like the "ph" in like the "b" in like the "bh" in like the "m" in stable (tongue at base of teeth) table (using breath. tongue at base of teeth) dynamic (tongue at base of teeth) redhead (using breath. it changes to Ia. we normally pronounce "t" and "d" somewhere between these two groups (retroflex and dental).LESSON1WO 11 t th (I like the "t" in stable (for this group the tongue is touching the hard palate. they may become la or [ha. tongue at base of teeth) gentle (tongue at base of teeth) spm shepherd beautiful clubhouse mother d dh n p ph b bh m 8. agnim i<Jeis found in the ~k Sarphitii as agnim lIe.) table (using more breath) dynamic redhead (using more breath) gentle like the "t" in like the "d" in like the "dh" in like the "n" in (lh I} In English.

12 LESSON TWO 9. r . o au . Here are the remaining vowels in devanagari: r . 1 . e al .

when. In English.) 2. interrogative words usually begin with "wh. For "Where he goes?" you must write "Where is he going?" or "Where does he go?" . interrogative words usually begin with k. For example: kutra gacchati Where is he going? 3. Literally it would then be translated as "Where he goes?" However. it is important to form correct English sentences. In Sanskrit." such as where.LESSONlWO 13 GRAMMAR: DUAL VERBS 1. (See the following page for an introduction to sandhi. This change is because sandhi is applied. The other words do not need to be rearranged to make a question out of the sentence. Unlike English. etc. Sanskrit has dual verbs. The word for "where" is kutra. first write "where" for kutra and then write "he goes" for gacchati. Note that the ending tas becomes tal) when it forms a verb. To translate kutra gacchati into English. It is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. The dual (dvi-vacana) is formed like this: Third person gacchatah (gaccha + tas) those two go Second person gacchathah (gaccha + thas) you two go First person gacchaval) (gaccha + a + vas) we two go We will learn the pronunciation of 1) in the next lesson.

For example.. The Sanskrit word is samdhl. In Sanskrit. are . we will have an introduction to sandhi (samdhi). sing.. Just observe the sentences in parentheses. and notice that these sentences are written slightly differently with sandhi." or "combination. In English. sing. all of these changes are written. you do not need to learn these rules. The rules for these changes are called sandhi. Some sounds are modified according to their phonetic environment. many sounds make these same changes. "the house" and "the other house .) he lives he remembers "smr SANDHI (root) smarati (3rd per. in Lesson 2 the sentences would be written differently if they were to appear in a Sanskrit text. The exercises in Lesson 1 written the same even after sandhi rules have been applied. However. he becomes (you are. I am) "vas (root) vasati (3rd per. depending upon the following word. sing." "putting together. and unlike English. which means "junction. however. the rules for how sounds are combined.) ENGLISH where he is." Sandhi is now an English word and appears in most English dictionaries.) Before doing the exercises." The word "the" is often pronounced differently. we say "an apple" but "a pear. At this point.14 LESSON TWO VOCABULARY SANSKRIT kutra (indeclinable) "bhii (root) bhavati (3rd per.

vasaml smaratah ca (vasaml smaratas ca) d.) Answers are given on pages 243 and 244. voiced palatal is jha.. 5. kutra bhavami (kutra bhavami) g. 2.---------..--. Translate these sentences.. bhavasi ea bhavavah ea (bhavasi ea bhavavas ca) c. Learn to write the last seven vowels in devanagar].. a. using the summary sheet on page 17. Learn the vocabulary. Learn the dual endings for verbs. 15 EXERCISES 1.---. prcchathah ca smarati ca (prcchathas ea smarati ca) e. (See page 14. --~-~ .LESSON1WO . 3. -----. and their pronunciation. the aspirated.. Be able to identify each consonant by its classification. For example. Just observe the sentences in parentheses with sandhi.. Learn the five sets of consonants. their order.. kutra gacchavah (kutra gacchavah f. kutra gacchami (kutra gacchami) .. 4.. kutra vasavah (kutra vasavah) h..---.

We two ask and those two remember. g. d. e. Where is he going? . Where am I going? f. vasasi ca gacchavah ca (vasasi ca gacchavas ca) J.16 LESSON TWO h. Where are you? (Use the singular. You go and he goes. c. I am and you two are.) h. Where are you two going? b. prcchami ca smarati ca (prcchami ca smarati ca) i. kutra gacchasi (kutra gacchasi) 6. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. I live and those two live.

. she goes he asks he is he lives he remem bel's bhavati vasati smarati INDECLINABLES kutra ca where and ... VERBS . Singular gacchaval.Jbhii ... she goes) gacchatah (they two go) gacchathah (you two go) Second gacchasi (you go) First gacchami (I go) --_....Jprach ..1 (we two go) Dual -----..Jsmr gacchati prcchati he goes.LESSON 1WO 17 SUMMARY SHEET Third gacchati (he.Jgam ..Jvas .

LESSON THREE LESSON THREE Alphabet: The remaining letters in roman script The first ten consonants in devanagarl Grammar: The plural The grammatical terms to describe a verb Accent Vocabulary: More verbs .

ra. The remaining letters are consonants. The aspirate (voiced. They are voiced. They are called fi~man. 2. and so are called antahstha. sa 4. but not voiced. They are aspirated. la. but they allow more flow of air. or "heated": sa. The sibilants are formed by "half contact" (ardha-sprsta). or "in-between": ya. sa.LESSON TIIREE 19 ALPHABET: THE REMAINING LETTERS 1. but sometimes classified as a sibilant) is: ha 5. There are four consonants. formed by "slight contact" (i~at-spnta). va 3. They are formed by "complete contact" (sprsta). Here is how these sounds are pronounced: y r I like the "y" in like the "r" in like the "1" in like the IV' in yes red law victory (but closer to a "w") v . The previous consonants are sometimes referred to as "stops:' because they stop the flow of air. but not aspirated: They are considered to be between vowels and consonants. called semi-vowels.

I = = ibi uhu (ll) is sometimes used in place ofa visarga ThejihviimiiJlya place of a visarga before ka or kha.. dictionary. The anusvara sound according to the following sound.---------------------. the anusvara which it refers. . used more in Vedic Sanskrit. The visarga C1. These letters. indicate a subtle difference in the breath before ka and pa. it is found in the dictionary before ka.I). If the anusvlira In the is found in the same place as the nasal to comes before a semi-vowel or sibilant. For example.. The upadbmanlya O:!) is sometimes used in before pa or pha. salJ1khya is pronounced similar to sankhya. It may sound like the nasal of the set to which the' sound following it belongs. For example. The anusvilra (1. as an echo of the vowel before it... 8.---_ 20 LESSON THREE S ~ like the "sh" in like the "c" in like the "s" in like the "h" in shine efficient (similar to the s) sweet hero ('!1) and the visarga s h 6.or visarjaniya. is an unvoiced breathing that occurs in many contexts instead of an s or r. In modern India it is often pronounced. at the end of a line. After an i it would be a short hi: aJ:1 i~ = aha u1. 7.-------------. (m) causes the last portion of the vowel before it to changes its be nasal (like the French word "bon").I). which is like breathing through the throat (b) or breathing through the lips (h). after an a it would be a short ha. Two additional sounds are the anusvara which both follow vowels.

ka ca ta ta kha cha tha tha pba ga Ja (la da ba . rik Sankara. There are other ways of representing some letters. chandra r n eha ea as ebha as eha " 10. . The sounds 0 of a and u) and au (composed of a and u) are both velar and labial. Also. We have now learned all the letters in their transliterated form (their roman letter equivalents). shantl rk. At times you may see: sa as as as sha ri ii santi. the sound va is both dental and labial. gha jha (lha dha bha ita fia I}a oa rna ya ra Ia va ha sa ~a sa au pa The complex vowels are pronounced at two points of contact: The sounds e (which can be said to be composed ofa and i) and ai (composed of (composed a and i) are both velar and palatal. Safikara ehandas. ar . All the sounds can be classified according to the part of the mouth they come from: Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial a I . ehhandas eandra.LESSON THREE 21 9. a •e I rf u fi 0 .

au !p Nasalization (anusvara) Aspiration (visarga) CONSONANTS (vyafijana) Velar (kapthya) Palatal (talavya) Retroflex (murdhanyajta Dental (dantya) Labial (osthya) Semi-vowels (antahstha) Sibilants (u$man) ta J. I a n f .l ka ca kha cha ga ja Qa da gha jha Qha dha bha la ria fia pa na rna tha tha pa pha ya ba ra va sa ~a sa ha . r Complex (samyukta) e 0 al . Here is the entire alphabet: VOWELS (svara) Simple (suddha) a i U .22 LESSON THREE 11..

For example. Here are the first ten consonants in devanagarl script Each symbol includes the sound a.·--~-----LESSON TIIREE 23 13. ka and not just k is meant by the first symboL ka kha ga gha na . ca cha jha na .

Here is the plural (bahu-vacana) Third person Second person First person gacchanti for the verb . It would be better to follow the system of India and memorize horizontally (for both verbs and nouns).. Now we have the complete conjugation (or verbal paradigm) for the present indicative (lat): gacchati gaccbasi gacchami gacchatah gacchathah gacchanti gacchatba gaccbamab gacchavah he goes you go I go those two go you two go they all go you all go . we all go Plural Students of Sanskrit in India memorize these conjugations horizontally.J gam: they (all) go you (all) go we (all) go THE PLURAL (gaccba ~a + anti) gacchatha (gaccha + tha) gacchamah (gaccba + a + mas) Notice that the third person is gaccha minus a plus anti.------. 2. .24 GRAMMAR: 1. Students in Europe and America have learned them vertically. we both go Dual Singular .

All the verbs we have learned so far are usually . In Lesson 9 we will which takes middle endings.---------------~~---_. usually in one voice. Here is a simplified overview: Tense/Mood: lakara. Voice (upagraha). but slightly different from. This is similar to. how verbs are classified in English. and the conditional (lrn). Here are the standard endings: 3rd 2nd 1st ti tas thas anti si mi I tha mas I-.I -I vas I - I Singular Dual Plural Note that when a word is formed. when the fruit of an action comes back to the agent Oltman). the aorist (lun). When the fruit of an action goes the parasmaipada is used (although this and some distinction does not seem to be strictly followed in the literature). Other tense/moods the periphrastic future (Jut). the atmanepada to another person (para). learn the middle voice (atmanepada). because they are each abbreviated by PaQini are the perfect (lit). the optative or potential (lin). (parasrnaipada). final s becomes J:t due to sandhi. GRAMMATICAL TERMS 4. person. Usually. We have learned the active voice which takes active endings. Verbs Can be classified in four basic ways: tense/mood. Some roots are conjugated in both voices (uhhayapada) seen in the active voice. The tenses and modes are grouped together in the ten or "I" sounds." We have learned the present indicative (abbreviated as lat). -- 25 3. the imperfect (Ian). with a word beginning with the letter "I. is used. and number. __ _ LESSON THREE . the imperative (Jot). the SUbjunctive (let). the simple future (lrt). voice.

is present indicative. 1st per. All we need to determine is the person and number. since all verbs so far are present indicative and active. pres. we could identify gacchati as: pres. or it you I Number: We have learned the three numbers (vacana): Singular (eka) Dual (dvi) Plural (bahu) 5. 6. singular. act. active. 18t per. gacchati (he goes). act. indic. Using abbreviations. dual .) 7. she. indic. 3rd per. Each verb may be classified according to these categories. sing. For example. 3rd per.-present indicative. called parsing codes. act. pI. indic.26 LESSON THREE Person: We have learned the three persons (purusa): Third (pratbama) Second (madbyama) First (uttama) be. singular. act. pres. third person. active. indic. Here are some examples: gacchami bhavanti pfcchaval} I go they are we both ask pres. (This isn't as hard as it may seem. third person. sing.

and the svarita is marked by a high vertical bar. PaQini does not give rules forstress accent. 2. an unraised tone (anudatta). an important rule for proper pronunciation is to maintain a clear distinction between the short and long vowels (discussed on pages 2 and 3). a mark is placed over the udatta for Vedic words only. the accents are not marked. For example: ~flItficZ 9)n~d ~~~ ~qqf(qJ'{ - In classical Sanskrit texts. For now. In most Sanskrit dictionaries. .· LESSON THREE 27 ACCENT 1. unmarked. In the Rk Samhita the udatta is is marked by a low horizontal bar. 4. For example: Manu madhu ratna 3. the anudatta and a "moving" tone (svarita). There is a raised tone (udatta). Accent consists of higher and lower tones (svara).

the entire alphabet (in transliteration. Be able to give the parsing code for each form we have learned. sing. ~An additional rule you'll need to know to do these exercises is that if a member in a series has more than one word (such as na gacchati). sibilants. he speaks -Vstha (root) tisthati (3rd per.) he stands All vocabulary is given in the order of the Sanskrit alphabet. devanagarl. . and visarga. Learn the first ten consonants in 2. For example: gacchami na ea gaeehati I go and she does not go. and learn the nine endings. or roman script). sing. 4. in correct order. Learn the pronunciation and order of the semi-vowels.) he says. For example: gacchami na gaechati ea I go and she does not go. Write. Conjugate each verb we have learned. anusvara. ea usually comes after the first word. 3. You may also see ea at the end of a clause (less often). EXERCISES 1.---~-----~ 28 LESSON THREE VOCABULARY: MORE VERBS SANSKRIT na ENGLISH not (placed before the verb) ~ vad (root) vadati (3rd per.

ti~thamaJ:tgacchamah ca ca (tlsthantl gacchanti cal h. Translate these sentences into Sanskrit Unless "two" is used. na ca prcchatl na ca vadati (tisthamo gacchamas cal (na ca prcchati na ca vadati) 6. I ask and they remember.LRc\SON THREE 29 5. Just observe the sentence with the sandhi. kutra bhavasi cal (vadathah smaratas cal c. g. We do not speak. bhavathah ca vasathah ca (bhavathas ca vasathas f. We are not going. using the summary sheet on page 30. (Answers are on p. Where do those two live? f. ttsthantl gacchanti (na gacchaoti) d. Translate the following sentences into English. vadathah smaratah ca e. 245. h.) a. na gacchanti (kutra bhavasi) g. Where are they going? b. He asks and they speak. a. c. vadati na ca vadami (vadati na ca vadami) b. Where are we standing? e. d. it will be understood that the plural forin is intended. Underneath each sentence is the sentence with sandhi. Where are we? .

. he says he lives he stands he rernem bers INDECLINABLES kutra ea where and not oa ...fvas ...J sthii .fvad .Jgam ..fbhfi .fprach .Jsmr gacchati prcchati bhavati vadati vasati tisthati smarati he goes he asks he is he speaks....... she goes) gacchatah (they two go) gacchanti (they all go) gacchatha (you all go) Second gacchasi (you go) gacchathah (you two go) gacchavah First gacchami (I go) Singular gacchamatI (weal1 go) Plural (we two go) Dual VERBS .30 LESSON TIIREE SUMMARY SHEET Third gacchati (he..

--~------ LESSON FOUR Alphabet: Grammar: Ten more consonants in devanagarl The nominative case The accusative case Nouns that end in short a Vocabulary: .

tha c. na ta tha da dha na 2. 11.) The [a is written as: '00 The Jha is written as: OO~ . (See p.la dha . There are two additional consonants. Here are ten more consonants to learn: ta . fa and [ha.32 LESSON FOUR ALPHABET 1.

as in "He goes to the city.-- -------------------33 LESSON FOUR GRAMMAR: 1. as in "Rama is the kins. or "naming" case. words are normally cited independently in the nominative.." the word "man" would be in the nominative and the word "horse" would be in the accusative: The man goes to the horse. "The man goes to the horse.. We will learn two cases. The accusative (dvltiya) is the direct object. (nominative) (accusative) 4. depending upon their role in the sentence. as in "Rfuna goes. The s changes to . root NOUNS (dhatu) forms a stem (pratipadika). Here is the formation of masculine nouns whose stems end in a: Stem: nara (masculine) man Nominative Accusative naral_1 naram Singular I---." The nominative case is also used for a predicate nominative identified with the subject. Sanskrit nouns are formed in a similar way as verbs-the added to form a noun (subanta).I narau narau naral_1 naran I I _-Dual Plural (bahu-vacana) (eka-vacana) (dvi . 2. in the sentence.------~-----~-~--------. For example." 3. .vacana) Notice that narah is formed by nara +S. and endings (sup) are Nouns are in various cases (vibhakti.----------------.." In India. because of sandhi. The accusative is also the object of motion. division). The nominative (prathama) is used for naming the subject.

which is like an active construcition. (Subject and verb are plural. then the verb must also be singular: The man goes to the horse. Here the agent of action (kartr) is in the nominative. 7. Articles. the boy. (Subject and verb are singular. While English relies on the order of the words. we know that it is the man who is doing the going and not the horse. We are learning the rules for the agent construction (kartari prayoga). The normal word order is: subject direct object verb naral) (naro asvam 'svaqt gacchati (without sandhi) gacchati) (with sandhi) goes the man to the horse Because narah ends in I). 8. 9. For example. and the object of action (karman) is in the accusative.34 LESSON FOUR 5. the boy." both "Rama" and "boy" are accusative. For example. such as "Rama. such as "the" or "a. Sanskrit relies more on the word endings for meaning. . The verb and subject must agree in number in both English and Sanskrit." is put in the same case as the noun it follows.) 6. A noun in apposition. in the sentence "She speaks to Rama. The direct object need not agree with either the subject or verb. if the subject is singular.) The men go to the horse." must be put in the English translation as needed.

may be connected with ca and va.----------------------LESSON FOUR --------------35 VOCABULARY SANSKRIT aSva\l (masculine) gaja\l (masculine) narah (masculine) putrah (masculine) mrga\l (masculine) ramah (masculine) va (indeclinable) ENGLISH horse elephant man son deer Rama or(usedlil(e ca)(never first in sentence or clause) Nouns will be cited in the nominative case because traditionally that case is used for citing words independently. as well as verbs. he goes" is narah gacchati (with sandhi. when there is a subject. the "he" is dropped. For example: asvah gaja~ va gacchanti (without sandhi) (asvo gaja va gacchanti) (with sandhi) The horse or the elephants go. . ''The man. the verb agrees with the nominative closest to it. When two nominatives are connected with va. Nouns. narah gacchati (naro gacchati) would be translated as ''The man goes. naro gacchati)." Always write English sentences using the rules of correct English. Therefore. "He goes" is gacchati. However. as in English.

4. 3. and plural forms for the masculine nouns ending with a short a (like nara) in the nominative and accusative. narau ram am vadatah (narau ramam vadatah) e. Continue to learn the consonants in devanagarl. using the summary sheet. putrah smarati prcchati va (putrah smarati prcchati va) f. ramal} asvau gacchati (ramo 'svau gacchati) c. if any. 2. ramal} mrgam gacchati (ramo mrgam gacchati) . narah mrgam smaranti (nara mrgam smaranti) b. kutra gaja~ vasanti (kutra gaja vasanti) d. dual. Translate the verb first. and then the accusative. Memorize the singular. then the nominative. a.36 LESSON FOUR EXERCISES 1. Learn the vocabulary and continue reviewing all vocabulary from past lessons. Translate the following sentences into English. Continue to observe the sandhi. These should be learned horizontally.

Rama speaks to the horses. . h. Rama and the son go. The son goes to the horse and stands. MVaU na vadatah (asvau na vadatah) h. Rama speaks and the son remembers. Where is the elephant? g. They stand or they go. The men speak to the deer. d.LESSON FOUR g. (one deer) b. Where are the horses standing? f. ramal) putram vadati (ramal) putram vadati) 5. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. k. i. Rama or the son goes. Where does Rama stand? J. c. Elephants do not remember. e.

. ramam prcchami (ramam prcchami) . putral) mrgan na smaranti (putra mrgan na smaranti) g. ramal}. ca gajal} ca gacchanti (kutrasv3S ca gajas ca gacchanti) c. mrgah aSval.1 gajah ca gacchanti (mrgo 'svo gajaS ca gacchanti) f. Translate the following sentences into English: a. narau putram vadata .putrau vadati (ramal} putrau vadati) e.38 LESSON FOUR 6. kutra narau vasatah (kutra narau vasatah) h. (narau putram vadatah) b. kutra aSvaI.. aSval}mrgah va gacchati (asvo mrgo va gacchati) d.

LESSON FOUR 39 i. C. j. The son does not speak to the horses. The elephant does not remember. Rama is going to the horse. The two elephants remember the man. The son goes to the horses and the elephants. kutra mrgaJ:t bhavanti (kutra mrga bhavanti) 7. You go to the horse. d. Where is Rama going? b. Where do the two deer live? f. You are all speaking to the elephant. Translate tbefollowing sentences into Sanskrit: a. . 1. Where are we standing? h. e. g. narau putran na vadatah (narau putran oa vadatah) j.

narau nariJ} narau naran _ Singular Dual Plural ca na and not va or .40 LESSON POUR SUMMARY SHEET VERBS Third Second First gacchati (he. he says he lives he stands he remembers tlsthatl smarati NOUNS aSval) horse gajal} elephant narah man putrah son mrgal} deer ramalJ Rama INDECLINABLES kutra where Nominative I narah (subject) I I Accusative I naram (object) I 1. she goes) gacchatal_1 (they two go) gacchathah (you two go) gaccbanti (they aU go) gacchatha (you all go) gacchimall (we all go) gacchasi (you go) (l go) gaechaml I gacchava{l I (we two go) Singular Dual I I Plural ""gam "prach \lbhii vvad ~vas ~stha ~smr gacchati prcchati bhavati vadatl vasati he goes he asks he is he speaks.

_- LESSON FIVE Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary.--- -----_._---------_. The rest of the alphabet in devanagari The instrumental and' dative cases More nouns that end in short a .

Here are the last five stops: ~ pa pha ba bha rna \. Here are the semi-vowels: ya fa la va .42 LESSONFlVE ALPHABET 1. 2.

ah . Here are the sibilants and aspirate: " sa sa . sa ha 4. Here is the anusvara and visarga following a: • am . If followed by ka or kha. Here are the jlhvamnllya (l!) and upadhmanlya (h). • • 5. They are usually written the same way.LESSON FIVE 43 3. it is a jihvamiiliya. it is an upadhrnanlya: h h v The upadhmsnlya (h) may appear as o . If followed by pa or pha.

f Da 0- da ba ~ dha tf pa (f ya W·sa 'Cf) pba "{ ra q 1f q ~ bha va 1:f rna Semi-vowels Sibilants ala tf ~a "ff sa ha . Tt ~ ka ca ~kha ~cha (3" tha ~ tha 1f ga 'Ef gha Sita \lfja It"jha G dha ~iia Retroflex Dental Labial ta ta S da ~ 1lT na '. Here is the entire alphabet in devanagar] script: Vowels ~ a ma t -aC1 'tt u ~ i u '5fl r ~ .1) Velar Palatal q:.fl f e 0 m ~ it m ai au am (m) ~: a~ (J.44 LESSON FIVE 6.

gacchati) (with sandhi) Rama goes to the horse for the son. We will nowleam dative (caturthi)." example: For ramal) putraya asvam gacchati (without sandhi) (ramal) putraya§VaIp. For example: gajena saha ramah gacchati (without sandhi) (gajena saha ramo gacchati) (with sandhi) Rarna goes with the elephant. (instrumental) The word saha." is sometimes used after the instrumental to indicate accompaniment. two new cases: the instrumental (trtiya) and the 2.. 3.) For example: or "by means of.lputraya pustakam pathati (without sandhi) (ramal. putraya pustakam pathatl) (with sandhi) Rama reads the book to the son. The instrumental is used for accompaniment. The dative is used for the indirect object. Theinstrumental is also used to express instrumentality. It shows "purpose. "together. it is used Iwrite with a pen. (dative) . (dative) ramaf. --~~--~~--- ." (Although this usage is derived from the first. more frequently.LESSON FIVE 45 GRAMMAR: INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE 1. (instrumental) 4.

gajena.) 6.46 LESSON FIVE 5. and the dative goes before the verb. when a word contains an r or following n to Q. mrgena. r. Usually the person addressed is placed closer to the verb. The word order is not rigid in Sanskrit. (More will be said about word order later. For now. 7. . Usually the instrumental goes near the word most closely associated with it. The verbs vadati (he says) and prcchatl (he asks) often take a "double accusative": the object talked about and the person addressed. But asvena. Here is how they are fanned: Stem: nara (masculine) man Instrumental Dative narena= narabhyam narabhyam naraih narebhyah Plural naraya 1 1 Singular Dual *"with the elephant" is gajena (See below. it often changes the For example: narena.) 8. ramel)a. For example: ramah mrgam putram vadati (without sandhi) (ramo mrgam putram vadati) (with sandhi) Rama speaks to the son about the deer. We will learn the following sandhi rule in more detail in Lesson 11. The context will give you the correct meaning. putrena.

--. ·f!'!. Even more than English.--.) saba (indeclinable) Remember that word order is less rigid in Sanskrit than in English.----------. LESSON FIVE _. together (sometimes used after the instrumental as a marker of accompaniment) vlrah (mas. _ . words can be placed in several different orders and still be correct._------_._---47 VOCABULARY SANSKRIT ENGLISH tatra (indeclinable) nrpah (mas.) balal) (rnas.-----~ ._.--~------.) there king boy hero' with.

Translate the following sentences. mrgena saha ramah vasati (mrgena saha ramo vasati) f. asvena saha vlrah nrpan gacchati (asvena saha vlro nrpan gacchati) e.48 LESSON FIVE EXERCISES 1.l saha bala gacchanti) g. 4. nrpah asvam gacchati (nrpo 'svam gacchati) d. gajail} saha bala1. 2.ltisthanti (kutra vIras tisthanti) b. Learn the vocabulary and keep up with all past vocabulary. By now you have learned four cases. narah putram vadanti (narah putram vadanti) . balau gajena saha tatra bhavatah (balau gajena saha tatra bhavatah) c. Learn the forms for the instrumental and dative. 3. (Remember that more than one word order will still be correct in Sanskrit as well as English.l gacchanti (gajai1.) a kutra viraJ. Learn the alphabet in devanagar].

The king or the hero speaks to the boy. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. The boy asks the king and the king remembers. b. viral) mrgan ramam prcchantl (same as 5b. There are no elephants with the son. The son asks the king about the deer. d.-------_ LESSON FIVE . J. f. The hero goes for the boy. 1._. 1. 49 h. .. (double accusative) c. The elephants are there with the horses. I remember the king. Where does Rama live? h.. The hero lives with the son. k. below) (vira mrgan ramam prcchanti) 1. tatra balah nrpaya gacchati (tatra balo nrpaya gacchati) 5. -. The king remembers the man. You are going there with the boy._._--_----_. g. ". The boys go to the horses. e..

asvaih saba viraJ:tgacchati (aSvaiJ:t aba viro gacchatl) s b. mrgaih asvaih ca saha gajal) vasati (mrgalr asvais ca saha gajo vasati) J. tatra nrpaya narah gacchanti (tatra nrpaya nara gacchanti) c. mrgal} tatra vasanti (mrgas tatra vasanti) e. virau tisthatah vadatah ca (vlrau tisthato vadatas ca) d. vlrah "roam balam vadati (vlro nrpam balam vadati) i. kutra baJabhyam saba nrpah gaccbati (kutra baUibhyarp saba nrpo gacchati) f. ramaJ:tasvam put ram prcchatl (ramo 'svarp putram prcchati) g. Translate the following sentences into English: a. tatra gajal} na ttsthantl (tatra gaja na tlsthantl) h. kutra tlsthamah (kutra tisthamah) .50 LESSONFlVE 6.

51 7. d. The boy does not remember the king. . Where are we standing? h. e. 1. g. f. The man asks the boy about the horse. Rama goes there for the man. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a.lESSON FIVE . The king lives there with the two boys. Where are all the deer? J. I am speaking to the king about the two elephants. The king goes to the horse for the son. b. Where are you going with the elephants? c. The man goes there for the horse.

-----LESSON FIVE 52 SUMMARY SHEET VbKB~ Third gacchati (he.smr tisthatl smarati . _-...gam gacchati prcchati bbavati vadati vasati .Jprach "bhfi "'. she goes) gacchatah (they two go) gacchathah (you two go) gacchanti (they all go) gacchatha (you all go) Second gacchasi (you go) First gacchaml (I go) 1_____ ' gacchaval} .--he goes he asks he is (we two go) gacchamaJ._--------.vad "vas he speaks. he says he lives he stands he remembers "stha "'.J (we all go) Plural Singular Dual "'..

together (used after instrumental) ca tatra oa va saha .) INDECLlNABLES kutra where and there not or with. balena (See page 46.TPSSON FIVE S3 NOUNS Nominative I narah (subject) aSva\! gaja\! naral} nrpal) putrah bala\! mrgal} rima\! vlra\l horse Accusative elephant (object) man king son boy deer Rfuna hero Dative (for) naraya narlibbyim narebbyaJ} naram narau naran narau oara\! Instrumental I narena= narabhyam (with) narm\! Singular Dual Plural *gajeoa.

LESSON SIX Alphabet: How vowels are formed when they follow consonants Grammar: The ablative and the genitive 'The use of iti Vocabulary: More nouns in a .

A consonant without a vowel following it is written with a short stroke (virama) beneath it For example: pa k p is written in 3. The vowel characters learned so far are used only when they are the first letter of a word. The a is replaced by other vowels. Here are the vowel forms: ga ga TIT gu gil .LESSONSlX S5 ALPHABET: VOWELS AFI'ER CONSONANTS 1. When a vowel follows a consonant. Words are formed by putting letters together. the vowel contracted form. For example. eka (one) is written: ~ eka 2.

For example: . When written by hand.fr go gau 4. and aspirate. sibilants. even though the i is sounded after the consonant.56 LESSON SIX gr lJ gf ge gai 1! it . the curved line on top should touch the vertical line of the consonant. including the semi-vowels.. For example: 5. These vowel signs may follow all consonants. For example: Often. the i will not touch at all. Note that the sign for the i is written before the consonant. due to typesetting.

~ '1 'i JU •• Jl ~ • JU -- 'l jf jr ~ ~ ~ je jai jo jan 6. Here are more examples of how words are formed by putting letters together: gaja vira vasati .. Sometimes these signs are put in different places.LESSON SIX 51 ea ci Ctl cil ee cai co cau \3fT ja ja ~ JI . For example: ru is written: Iii. 7. is written: hr is written: 1i ~ ~ We will learn more of these forms in the next lesson.

It usually means "from. Now we will learn the ablative (pancaml) and genitive (~thI) cases (vlbhaktl). (genitive) 4. such . The genitive is used for possession. (ablative) 3.1 (narasyasval) ) the horse of the man. The genitive is sometimes used as a substitute for other cases. For example: narasya aSval. The ablative is used for origin or source. For example: gajat agacchati (gajad agacchatl) GENITIVE He comes from the elephant.58 LESSON SIX GRAMMAR: ABLATIVE AND 1. (ablative) One learns from practice. 2." It is also used for comparison. (ablative) He is taller than sbe. The genitive is always used in relation to the noun which follows it For example: ramasya putrah the son of Rama (or Rama's son) (ramasya putrah amrtasya putrah sons of immortality (amrtasya putrah) 5.

When translating from English to Sanskrit. Here is the formation of the ablative and genitive: Stem: nara (masculine) man Ablative Genitive narat narasya narabhyam narayo1}." he says." says Rama.) ITI 7. Dual narebhya\t nariJ}im* Singular Plural *gajanam. Notice that iti is a convenient point to break the sentence down into smaller. more manageable parts. indirect quotations must first be turned into direct quotations before iti can be used. Now we willleam the use of iti. (indirect quotation) "1 am going. For example: He says that he is going. (direct quotation) gacchami iti vadati (gacchamltt vadatl) Notice that the change from an indirect quotation to a direct auotation changes the clause from "he is going" to "I am going:' . balanam (See page 46. For example: asvah gacchati iti ramah vadati (asvo gacchatlti ramo vadati) 'The horse goes. 8. This important particle is used at the end of a quotation.lESSON SIX 59 6.

" . It changes the meaning of gaccbati from "he goes" to "he comes.60 LESSON SIX VOCABULARY SANSKRIT atra (indeclinable) a + -Jgam (root) agacchati iti (indeclinable) ENGLISH here * he comes indicates the end of a quotation gramaJ} (mas.) village *Note that a is a verb prefix.

bhavavalJ h. vasati . va 1. gaja e. guru r. gupa c. devata o. iti b. using the summary sheet. gram at putrah agacchati (gramat putra agacchati) . nara g. 2. balasya gaja~ gramam gacchati (balasya gajo gramam gacchati) b. Translate the following sentences into English. r~i n. vadasi 1. Remember to read each sentence out loud several times. deva k. ramasya putrah asvam gacchati (ramasya putro 'svam gacchati) c. ram a d. vira f. Write the following words in devanagar]: a. nrpa~ na J. 3. atra asvab bhavati iti nrpah vadati (atrasvo bhavatiti nrpo vadati) d.LESSON SIX 61 EXERCISES 1. jaya q. Learn the forms for the ablative and genitive. ea 4. Learn to recognize and write the devanager] for vowels that fo11owconsonants. a. m. p.

.l vadanti (atra vlra vasantlti nara vadanti) h. R~a says that he is going to the village." the son says." says the king. "llive here. "The hero goes to the village. h. The son of the king lives here. b.62 LESSON SIX e. f. c. atra vIral} vasanti iti naral. d. e. "Do you remember the men?" the king asks the boy. kutra gajal} tisthanti iti nrPal} prechatl (kutra gajas tisthantfti nrpah prcchatl) f. Where does the hero go? g. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. Milal} nrpasya gram am gacchati (balo nrpasya gramam gacchatl) g. The horses and elephants are coming from the village. "1 am going to the village for the boytsays Rama. kutra gacchasi iti ramal} prcchatl (kutra gacchasfti ramal) prechatl) 5.

narau grarnat agacchatal). (narau gramad agacchatah) b. The man speaks to Rama about the elephants. rarnam srnarasi iti balah nararn prcchanti (ramam smarasiti bala naram prcchanti) h. The king's sons come from the village. gramah tatra bhavati iti putrah naram vadati (gramas tatra bhavatiti putro naram vadati) . Translate the following sentences into English: a. J. atra bhavamiiti balal). kutra gramah bhavati iti narah putram prcchati (kutra gramo bhavatiti narah putram prcchati) 1. atra vlrasya gajah bhavati (atra vlrasya gajo bhavati) g. 6.nrpam vadati (atra bhavamiti balo nfPaJTIvadati) c. ramena saha atra vasami iti putrah vadati (ramena sahatra vasamlt] putro vadati) e. kutra vasasi iti vlrah put ram prcchati (kutra vasasltl vlrah putram prcchati) d.LESSON SIX 63 1. narasya putrah tatra tisthanti (narasya putras tatra tisthanti) f.

The king' s two horses are there. b." the boy says. "I am going to the horse. The king of the villages speaks to the men. The king says that the boys are standing there. J. gajaya gramam gacchami iti narah vadati (gajaya gramam gacchamlt! naro vadati) 7." says the son of the hero.64 LESSON SIX j. The two boys are coming from the horse and the elephant e. "Where are you going?" the king asks the boy. "Here are the sons of Rama. . "I am going to the village. f. d. c. h." says the hero. The two horses are coming here together with the two deer. 1. g. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. The boy lives with Rama.

LESSON SIX 65 SUMMARY SHEET Third gacchati gacchatah gacchanti (he. he says he lives he stands he remembers .Jsmr . (we two go) Dual (we all go) Plural Singular VERBS i+vgam vgam vprach vbhii vvad vvas vstha agacchati gacchati prcchati bhavati vadati vasati tlsthati smarati he comes he goes he asks he is he speaks. she goes) (they two go) Second gacchasi (you go) First gacchaml (they all go) gacchatha gacchathah (you two go) gacchaval) (you all go) gacchiimal} (I go) [..

gajaniim (See page 46. together . (for) Abl. (with) Oat. (of.§val} gajal} horse elephant village man king son boy deer Nom. (from) Gen. (object) Inst. 's) narau narii\l Darin narail} narebhya\l narebhya\l nariI}am* Plural gramah narah nrpah putrah balal} mrgal} ramal} vira\l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I naram narel)a* naraya narilt narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh Dual narasya Singular Rfuna hero *gajena.66 LESSON SIX NOUNS a. I nara~ (subject) I Acc.) INDECLINABLES atra iti kutra ea tatra na va saba here end of quote where and there not or with.

LESSON SEVEN Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: Conjunct consonants The locative and vocative More nouns in a .

We will now learn how to write two or more consonants without a vowel coming between them. Some clusters are written on topof each other. remove the vertical line from the t. To write tva.68 LESSON SEVEN ALPHABET: CONJUNCT CONSONANTS 1. For example: lava "(fq SIT tva that are written 2. For example: dva dda iIga ddho . Here are examples of other clusters of consonants side by side: trna sya sya tya bhya ~""'lf nta 3.

5. For example: rpa rmya rya rgo Notice that the r is placed as far to the right as possible. They will be learned most easily by close observation to their formation as we continue with the exercises. Consonant conjuncts are read left to right and top to bottom. the r takes the form of a small hook above the consonant. When the semi-vowel r comes immediately before another consonant. meaning "stick").LESSON SEVEN 69 4. 6. if there is a vertical line. When r immediately follows a consonant. the r takes the form of a small slanted stroke. written near the bottom of the vertical line (danda. For example: pra bra sra gra mra dra .

f) hva The ' represents a missing a. It is written in devanagarl as Forexample: ~~ vedo 'ham S . Some forms are completely different than the two letters that make them up.sg (or) ~ ~ (or) dya kta CRf tta ~ (or) ~ bma ~ kra ?f)(or) .70 LESSON SEVEN 7. These must be learned: tra jfia ddhya~ sva .

A vertical line (danda) is used as a period at the end of a sentence." .. .a or . For example: 9. It is also used to mark the halfway part of a verse.. There are other ways of forming certain letters..LESSON SEVEN 71 8. Two vertical lines mark the end of a paragraph or the end of a verse.. which you should be able to recognize: 8 or Ii m or r or f or jha or .

The vocative is used for address. but a modification of the nominative.1 ----I Plural .1 narau ---Dual naresu naral. He stands on the elephant. The vocative often. The locative case is used to express location. Now we will learn the locative (saptami) and vocative (sam bodhana-"a wakening. 2. 4. For example: grame vasati gaje tisthati (same with sandhi) He lives in the village. or naming case. (locative) (locative) 3. but not always. Here is the formation of the locative and vocative: Stem: nara Locative Vocative (masculine) man nare nara ---.72 LESSON SEVEN GRAMMAR: LOCA TIVE AND VOCATIVE 1. you are coming (vocative) (rama atragacchasi) here. For example: rama atra agacchasi o Rama." "arousing"). begins a sentence. Indian grammarians do not consider the vocative a true case (vibhakti) like the seven other cases.I Singular narayol.

pI. there is a parsing code.) (n.) (dual) (pl.) (inst. accusative. ace.) (acc.) (voc.) Number (vacana): Singular (eka-vacana) Dual (dvi-vacana) Plural (bahu-vacana) (sing. The word narah would be classified as masculine. or way of classifying nouns. nominative.) (gen. . They are classified according to: Gender (linga): Masculine (pum-linga) Feminine (stri-linga) Neuter (napumsaka-linga) Case (vibhakti): (mas. singular. Its parsing code would be mas. Like verbs. The word naran would be classified as masculine.) (loc.) 6.LESSON SEVEN 73 5.) (dat. nom.) Nominative (prathama) Accusative (dvitIya) Instrumental (trtiya) Dative (caturthi) Ablative (paficami) Genitive (~a~thI) Locative (saptaml) Vocative ~arrabodhana) (nom. plural.) (abl.) (fern. sing. Its parsing code would be mas.

on) Vocative .ru: narat.I m Darayot. gajanam (See p. I narau Dual Singular Plural *gajena. narau -.rr: narah m m . 46.fU: nari.am* ~ .74 LESSON SEVEN 7.. 's) Locative (in.it Dare ~ ri: (0) nara I--. naresu '. "1~I1\ naran naram narau 1'TI~l(I~ narabhyam -. Here is the entire short a masculine declension: Stem: nara (masculine) man Nominative (subject) Accusative (object) Instrumental (with) Dative (for) Ablative (from) Genitive (of.R~c:r: narebhyas "i~f4 narasya ri: narayo~ "1 ~I(Jill{ naril}.) .ft-: naralh naref.la* =i~llI naraya "=i'TI~l(lq " narabhyam ~<a:f: narebhyah "i~1('1.rn~~ narabhyam -. narat .w:r ~ <.

..) teacher ~: candrah (mas.) moon " cint (root) cintayati he thinks "pa~ (root) paSyati he sees to be the root.1 ~16l1 : ~: vina (indeclinable) without (used like saba) si~yal} (mas..) (V drs is also considered Fcl .LESSON SEVEN 75 VOCABULARY SANSKRIT ENGLISH "iR IT.) sun .) student siiryal} (mas.lI4: aciryal} (mas.

. Parse the following words and give their meaning: a.76 LESSON SEVEN EXERCISES 1. mrgena g. acaryaya . 3. Put these words into roman letters (transliterate them): 2.l b. VI ran - gramesu j. naral. nrpat e. gajail. Learn the examples given for consonant conjuncts. 1. Learn the forms for the locative and vocative. balanam d. hastau c. . ramaya f.l h.

LESSON SEVEN 77 4. and then compare: si~yal) candram silryam ca pasyatl (si~yaS candram siiryam ca paSyati) rama gaja~ grame tisthanti (rama gaja grame tisthanti) vira~ grame vasati iti acarya~ sisyam vadati (viro grame vasatity acarya~ sisyam vadati) kutra candrah bhavati iti putrah prcchatl (kutra candro bhavatlti putrah prcchati) . (Use the summary sheet. Translate the following sentences into English.) Cover the devanagarl with a sheet of paper. write it yourself.

llstharl vadati ca t (adiryasya si~yas ti~~hati vadati ca) ramena vina vlraJ:tgramat agacchanti (ramena vina vira gramad agacchanti) grame vasami iti virasya balah cintayati (grame vasamlti virasya bala§ cintayati) .78 LESSON SEVEN tatra gaje balau tisthatah (tatra gaje balau tisthatah) putra kutra candrah bhavati iti vlrah balam prcchati (putra kutra candro bhavatIti vlro balam prcchati) acaryasya si~yaJ.

6. The king tells the hero that the boys are going to the village. The teacher tells the student that the sun is not the moon. He asks the son of the hero where the men are. Translate the following sentences into English: ramel}a vina bala\l gramam gacchati (ramena vina balo gramam gacchati) . There are the elephants of the king. the boys come. e. "Where am I?" thinks the boy. d.LESSON SEVEN 79 5. Without the king. . The king lives in the village . Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: a. In the hand of the hero is the son. b. g. f. c.h.

1 si~yan vadati (acaryah si~yan vadati) candram pasyami iti bala~ cintayati (candram pasyamiti balas cintayati) atra grarnanam nrpah agacchati (atra grarnanam nrpa agacchati) .80 LESSON SEVEN kutra nrpasya gaja~ bhavanti (kutra nrpasya gaja bhavanti) atra bhavami iti balah naram vadati (atra bhavarniti balo naram vadati) siiryena vina can dram na pasyasi (siiryena vina candram na pasyasi) acaryal.

b. Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit.1 naram na smaranti (si~ya naram na smaranti) 7. writing first in roman script and then in devanagarl. The teacher speaks to the hero's son. "Where are you going?" the boy asks the king's son.lESSON SEVEN 81 nrpah vlrasya asvam paSyati (nrpo virasya§vaIp pasyati) 1 F ~: "iI~: g+J?§fal T. c. The two deer are in the village. a.f 1"Iqd: ~ ~1C1: kutra siirya\l candrah ca bhavatah iti bala\l prcchati (kutra silryas candras ca bhavata iti balah prcchati) si~yal. .

The teacher lives in the village with the students. J. "We live in the villages." the boys say. 1. . f. g. Without the sun we do not see the moon. The hero is on the elephant of the king. h.82 LESSON SEVEN d. "Where are we going?" the boy asks the king. Rarna goes from the horses to the elephants. e. The king sees the sun and the moon.

19. ~ 24. ~ 23. f4 POf r· 12. :. ~R1[J1 ~o4Cfd ~H{!II SMI ~'1 15. 18. 4. 20. ~:~ 22. c:*f 21.lf 17. ~ 16.JJ(1~:t 14. 7. srr ~~B~ q. \3qf4 tts: 11.LESSON SEVEN 83 8. ~ . SMFI~ SM~I'Wlfll( -. 5. 6. 10. Transliterate the following: 2. (r~"Ift:I '11"1 ~q 9. <.

.Jtha s .J rs) p d ...Jint c .Jvad ...J am g ..Jbhii ...J am g .Jmr s agacchati gacchati cintayati pasyati prcchati bhavati vadati vasati tisthati smarati he comes he goes he thinks he sees he asks he is he speaks.J as (.84 LESSON SEVEN SUMMARY SHEET Third gacchati (he.. he says he lives he stands he remembers ...Jprach ....... she goes) gacchatah (they two go) gacchathah (you two go) gacchavah (we two go) _ 1 - gacchanti (they all go) gacchatha (you all go) Second gacchasi (you go) First gacchami (I go) 1 gacehamah (we all go) Singular VERBS Dual Plural a + ......Jvas .

(object) lnst. gajanam siiryalJ. (from) Gen. Plural (See page 46. on) Voe.J:i naran naraih narebhyah narebhyah naranam" naresu naralJ. (with) Dat (for) Abl. 's) Loc. *gajena. nrpa\l putrah balah man king naraya narat narasya nare nara Singular narabhyam narabhyam narayol) narayol) narau Dual son boy deer Rama hero student mrgah ramah vlrah (0) si$yalJ.LESSON SEVEN 85 NOUNS Nom. (of.) asvaJ:i horse Acc. (in. aciiryaJ:i teacher gajah gramah elephant village candraJ:t moon naralJ. sun hastah hand INDECLINABLES atra here ' end of quote iti kutra ca tatra na va vina where and there not or without (used like saba) with saha . (subject) naraJ:i naram narena" narau narau narabhyam nar3.

LESSON EIGHT Alphabet: Grammar: Vocabulary: The sandhi rules for combining vowels Neuter nouns in short a Neuter nouns .