First Edition·

2008

Premieraz

12· \)10(2· 72)

:-.- Us~~f ~i;~;:;l~i~-~d-l~~id-l~~-;;~;;;~~-th;~d;;.;·~-d ~;;;-~-S;~-I
[. • • • Excellent theory well supported with the practical examples and : I I ofsolved examples. teaching . plots and graphs. for easier diagrams, illustra tions, Important concepts arc highlighted using key points threugheut tho book. Large number Approach

oCthe book. re5embl.es classroom self explanatory to mathematical detailed

• ' Use of informative,

* Book provides
• Stepwise

insight into the subject. derivatiolJs

explanation

_n~_~~~:.s_t.!!1_~~_g~ nh

nn

n

n __n_n __nn_

Dest
,C-~--.;t':' __ .

of Technical
• , ...~!D~er
~

Publications
,.._. _

As per Revised Syllabus -

of VTU - 2006 Course

Y- [EEj!;]

Modem

Control Theorll lind Distribution Machines
(4)

Signal.s and Systems Transmission Linear ICs and Applications D.C. M.<1cblnes and SyncbronoWil
~...... ~-I-'<-"'-"," ~.............. .............._""~

Urheberrec htl ich gcsc hutztes M a\eria

MeeJem Control
ISBN9788184315066

Thoory

All rig .... reserved with foehni"'" Publ;amOf1 •. No po~ 01 thiS book, .hculd b. ",produced Ul O~~ form~ EIK1~ MechaNItGI. Photocopy or orry inlgrmatiao st~1D rotoOl",1 "",om """'OUI ~ission;n wriHng,/torn r..:t.nIcoi Publk.of;on., ""no.

ptlo.

OflO

Publi,hed by :
Thc.hnlc.Bl !'\IbllcaUons !'\Ine"
11,""'" R ....._. H2,

SI.ooi- p.v" p,.... 411 030. ,.... ,

Printn:
AIctt'DTPMlm Suo, , Cl'l"s;w,od Ro.d, ~-"'10 ..~

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri a

Preface
Tho imparlance 01 Control
10

Theory

is well known
0

in vorious inspired
vs

engineering
10

liol'os,

Overwhelming

response

to Our books cover Ihe key lucid langvoge ,01 e,'plcining
topics, preble

on vcrious
0 'peel.

Th e boo k is 'truet ured
The book ,provides
10

r Ihe

,ubjects

wrile lhis book.

.<) biecl

Mo de m Contro 01 lhis subject. and

I Thea ry.

uses plain, method
a

10

explain
is

lundomenlol.

The book methods

logieel

various
rns, inon

ccmpliccted

concepts

stepwise

explcin

the importrml
exo rnples

Ecch chcpter each

well ,upporled

with nece ssoIY illu,lrol'ion"

p rOdkol
10 ken 10

nd solved

All th e cho pi ers in th e boo k a re a rrc ng ed ; n 0 earlier studle s. All core
COn cep

proper sequence thai permit,

lopic 10 build upon

rnoke stu denis Co rnlortoble
not only cover, Th is makes The book

d 0 rs 10ndi ng' I ho be, iC
01 Ihe subject

I. of

In e

no,

been

,u

bi eel. of

The book th.. s ubiect. intere,ting, teoche
<S.

lhe entire scope

bUI explains

Ihe philosophy makes
10

til e un d ersl 0 ndi ng of thr, su bie (I m ore cleo rand not only 10 the students
0 nd

il more

will be very uselol
0

bul also

Ihe subjecl

The stu den Is have to

m itnoth ing

poss ibly have 10 cover n olh; ng, mare.

We wi,h to ... pre ss our profound
molity. ccccsions Techaiccl prinling. Any suggestion a pp recioted. for theimprovemenl Much neadad morel fomily. by our whole Publieefions

thonks to 011 rhosa who helped in making Ihi, book c
end uncevruqcment is provided end the on numerous 01

support

We wish to thank the Publisher

entire team

who hove loken immense

pcin 10 gel tili. book

in time with qualily

of

lhe

book

will be acknowledged

end

well

Au,ho.rs

U.,4. "A.MI ;11. "V. "A..LA!

Urroo uochtlich eschutat

"~I~·ari"

1.1 Backgrouhd 1.1.1 Limitations 01Conv~tIonal APProach 1,1.2 M~ntages of State VMable Arlali'S~ ,
.

1- 1 .,.. .. • • .. • • . . • • . . . • . • . . . . . . . .. . . . .• 1 - 1 .,. . . . : , ,
'

..' ••..••. , , , .. :

,., .•• ,., ,. .. , .' ,

,1 - 2 1-2 1- 4 _ 1- Ii , .. ,. 1- 9 1- 9 : 1 - 10 1'- 11 1- 12

1.2 Concept of State 1.2.1 Impa1ant Defi"iIlons 1.3 Stale Mytle'ff
• r,. ~.
I

, ,

,

\ 'i

:

Linear Svstems
".
: ,

1.3.1 Slate Model of Single Inpul smgle Output Syslem., •... : .•....... 1.4 Stale Diagram Representation 1.4.1 Stale Diagram 01Standanl State Model 1.5 Non Uniqueness of State, Model 1.6 Unearizalion of Slater Eguatlon
\

.

.

\

,

,

,

.

,

Review Que5llons

.."'.I

,,

:.. ,

1 -14

'2,1 Stale Varlab!e Representation using Physical Variables 2:1.1 AdVantages , , " •• , , •• ,,..,., , •..••• , ..•.•• , " , .. , , . • .. • .. , " , 2.2 Stale Space Representation using Phase Varlables 2.2.1 Siale Model fro m Differential Equation . , . , .••..•
2 2 2 5Iale MmIfll fro mTran sfe r FlUlcJion

2 ·1
2·4 2-4 2' 5 2•8 . 2 - 1a
2-18

2.2.3 Advantages 2 2 ,4 !!milatOons

:

2,3 Stale Space Representation USingCanonical Variables
2

2· 19

3 '1 J'OrdM's

Canonical

Fenn

2-23
, . . 2 - ,26 , ,• ,.,..•... ,...•. , •. , ,.. , . ,... 2 - Z6

2.3.2 Advantages of Canonl'cal Variables 2.3.3 DisadvanlJieas 01 canonical Variables •..•...

Urheberrcc htl ich gesc hutztes Materia

2.4 State Model by Cascade Programming .••....•..•...•...•.......•............•...•....... 2 - 29
Examples with Solutions Review Questions ,
.,,:

2 - 31 .• 2 -70

t1fapje.?,a;!Ma11iW~lgIIii'r1t&'D1Jj· a i:in,or.nlns~meifaW2B~{3'(,.4ii'I
3.1 Background 3.2. Definition of " ,:,.:.-.~ 3 -1 3- 1 3-2

Malrix

""

"..""

"
"

"""

"" .."""""

""" ..;"""""
_'.. : .. :

3.2.1 TypesofMltrices 3.2.2 tmpertant erminologies T 3.3 Elementary Matrix OpBra~ens .." :3 4 lnverne ora Matrix 3,4, 1 Properties of i'nverse ola Matrix 3.S.1e haracteristic Equ8~on 3.5.2 MIMO System 3.6 Eigen Values 3.7 Eisen Vectors 3 ". "." .." """ " .." , .. , , ""

-.'. . . . .. . . 3 - 3 " .."." " .." "" " .."" ......... :3 - 6 3-7 , . . .. . . .. . .. . . • .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . 3 - a . 3-9 , .. '. , .............•...•................ " ". " " " " .." " .." " " " " . , .. 3 - 10 3 -11

35 DerWalioo of Transfer FuoclioD from Slate Model

:3 - 12
". 3 - 13 3 - 13 3-14

a, Modal

Matrix M

3 8.1 Vander Man de Malib: 3.9 Dlagonallsation ..". ""","" " ..", " .."." .."."" " .." 3.10 Generalised
Eigen Vectors

" .." .."". " .•".". " .." .". 3 - 19 "." " " " .." 3 - 23 3 - 26

"

"

3.10.1 Vander Monda Matr1x for Generalislld Sge" Vectors • .. .. • .. .. .. .. . . .. .. • .. .• :3 - 24 Examples with Solutions Review Qyestions

4.1 Bac'kground

" , .. ,

" , .. , ,

"." , , .

"."

" .."

". 4 - 1 4-2
4-2

4.1.1 Homogenoous Equation,
4.1.2 NonhomagEllleOU5Equation
4 2 Review of Classical Melhod of Soh Ilion

, .•....

4.2.1 Zero Input Response

4-4
no on

4.3 Solution of Nonhomogeneous Equation

4 -4

~ rheberrec htlich gcsc hutztes M aleria

4.4 Properties of State Transition Matrix

4-5

4.5 Solution of State Equation by Laplace Transform Method
4.6 Computation of State TransItion Matrix Melhod . 4.7 Laptar:e Transform

4 -6
4-7 ".44-9

a

4 8 Power Series MethOd 4.9 Cayley Hamilton Metbod
491

, Melhod , , , ,

4 - 1.0
4.12

procedure In GalCllla!e

gAl

4.10 Similarity Transformation 4.11 Controllability

4 - 16
4 • 22

and ObselVabilily

4.12 Controllability
4.12.1 Kalman's Testfol COntrollability

4 - 23
4· 23

4..12.2 Condition for Stale Conlrollabfij!y In :;.Plane ......•.......... 4.12.3 Gilberts Test for Controllability
4.12.4 OutpuT Controllability ,.:

,

4· 26 4·25
4 - 29

,

4.13 ObselVability 4.13.1 Kalman's Tes! fer ObseMlbUiIy
4.13.2 Condition fur Complete Observab~l!y In :;.Plane 4.13.3 Gilberts Test fer Observabilily •.•.••.••.... ,..•.•......•.... ,

4 - 29
4 - 30 4 - 33 4 - 33

Examples with Solutions

4 - 35

5 1 In(roducti

0n

5-1

5,2 Pols Plar:emenl Design 5.3 Necessary and Sumr:lellt Condition for Arbitrary Pole Placement
5 4 Eya" ",tiOD of State Feedback G;:tiD Matrix K 5 4 1 lise QfIransfmm ation Maid. I

5-2 5-3
5 -15 5-15

54

2 Direct SubstituUon

Method

5 4 3 Ackerma nn's Formula

5-16 5 - 19 5-24
'n" ..

5.5 Selection of Location of Desired Closed Loop Poles 51l State Observers 5.7 Conoopt of State Observer ., '

5-25

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h "tz'te,

M aleri"

5.8 Duat Problem 5.9 Necessary 5.10 Evaluation 512 Observer

"

,

,

,

,

,

5 - 27 ""'" "" .. , " .. 5· 28 5· 28

and Sufficient Coodmen for Slate Observation. of Slate Obsarver Gain Matrix, 1<. Based ConlrOlier

5,.11 Selection of Suitable Value of Observer Gain Matrix 1<" Examples, with Soilltions ..
Review Ouestions

, 5 - 30 5 - 35 5-38
5- 57

"

_

,.-_

6.1 Background
621 Error

,

,.,

,

,.. ,

,., ., .

, "

,

6 -1
6 -1
6-2

6.2 Properties of ControtJer.............. 6.2.2 Variable Rango , ,

............................. ......

,.6-3 6,-3

6.2.3 CQn!rollerOulput Range , , , .... , .... , .

6,2A Control

lag

p

-.

.

..

....

'

,

'

'

6-3
6-3

6 2 5 Dead 70ne

63 Classification of Controllers
64 Continuous Contmlter Modes

6·4
6-4

6,5 Proportlomll
6 52 Offset

Control Moda
of Proportional

,
Mode .. , ••••••••

,
' •• ' .•••.•.••••.•••.•••.••••••.

6· 5
6•6 6-6

6.5.1 Characteristic

6.5.,3Applitations. ,.,., 6.6 Integral Control Mods

,.

p

,

p,

,

.6-7 6 -7
6-9

,
, ..•...... _ •.....•.......••.

,
, ...•......•.•.••. ,

6.6,1 Step Responseof Integral ModD •. '•.. , ..•...•.....•...•...
6.6.2 Characteris6cs of Integral Mode

_ .. , . 6 - 9

6.6.3 Applications

,

,

_.. ,

_.. , _.. _.. , .. ,

_., _.. , _.. _

6-10
6 -10

67 Oerbtalbm Control Mode 671 Cbamcte!lstics Q{Oerivativa Control Mode,., •. ,.,., ..•.•.• "'.. ''''

6-11

6.12 Appllcations

, , ,

"

, ,

6- '12

6.. Composite Control Modes 8
6.9 Proportional

6 -12
6 - 12.
6-14

+ Integral Mode (PI Control Model

6 9 1 Cba""'leristics of PI Mode

Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes Materia

6.9.2Applications 6.10 Proportional

,

,

, .. ,

,

, ,.. , , ,

, , .. ,

,

6-15 6-16

+ DerivalJva Mode (PO Control Mode) ,.. ,

, ,.6 - 15 , 6 -17 6 -17 6- 21

6 10 I Characlerisfcs of PO Mode 6.1.0,.2Applica1iOlls 6.11 Three Mode Controller (PIEl Control Mode) '6.12. Response of Controllers to Various Inputs .., 6.13 Effect of Composite Controllers on 2'"' 0rder System 6.,14 PO Type of Controller 6.15 PI TyPe of Controller , ,
on

6 - 22
,
, ,

,
on

,

,6· 23 6 - ,24

6.16 pro Type of Controller

,

,

6 - 26 6 ·26
,..6 - 28 6 - 30
6· ,31

6.17 Rata Feedback Controlier (Output Derivative CmltroHer) 6.. 8 Review of S&ond Order System Specifications 1
6.19 Steady State Error Examples with Solutions Review Questions , , ,
u ' , _ ,

6 ·48

7.1 Introduction 10 Nonlinear Svstems
7.2 Properties of Nonlinear Systems 7 3 Classification 74 Inherenl 7A lSa!lIrnticn
7 4 2 Oeadzooe of NonlinearWes

7-1 _ ,.. _ .._ _ .._ _ .._ _ .._ _

7·1
7. 2 7-2
7-3

Npnljnearities

1.4.3 On-Off Non linearity .••..•........•...•.•...•...•.•. 7.4,4 On-Off Nonlinearity with Hy;;teTesls..• ,
7 4 5 Non linaar FdcUon

,•.••..•..••.••...•.••. , •• " """"",," " , •.••.• , _ ', .. , _' , """ ,

7-4 , •• 7-4
7-5

7.4.6 Bacldasb .. " ......

" ... ".".

"". ,_

'''',,''''''',,' _ ,' ..

.. " .. " ..7 -5 ' •.•.•..• 7- 6 _.7-7 7-8 7-8

7.4.7 Nonromw Spring •.• , .•. , ....•.••.•..•• ;,5 .Abso!ute Value Nonlinearity
76 lotentional Review Noolinearlties

__ ,,_

Questions

Urhcberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes M ateri"

8"1 Introduction, 8,2 Limit Cvcle, ..,..,..,..,.." ,

8·'
8 -1

8.3 Jump Resonance
84 The Phase Plane MethOd

8- 2
8-3

6,5 Basic Concept of Phase-Plane Method
8,.6 Isocline Method for Construction of Phase Trajectory ,

6-5
8-7

8.,7Application of Phase-Plane Method to linear Control System 8.8 Second Order Nonlinear System on Phase Plane
, 8,9 Oifferent Types of Phase Portraits
8.9.1.1 Slablo Sy.lllm with Compl •• Roots. 8"9,1.2 Unslilble SvstemMth ComRiex Roots. 8,9.1.4 Stable System wfth Real Rools

8·10
, 8 ·13 ,.., ,8 - 14 , .8-14
· 8-15 .. 8-16

,

,,,,, ....
•., .

,

, ,

,,.., ,', .. ,."

6.9,1 PhllSe Pmtrails JorType 0 System . '" .. ".,."".".",

8.9.1.3 Margin3!Y S!ab:e SysJem "';!h Complex Rools

8-16
, 8-17

8.9.1.S Unstablil System with Positive Real Roots ,
8.9.1,6 Uns!alJte S)I1l!em ,.;th OIle Posmve and Dne Nll!lative Real Root .

· a-18
· B-1.9

8,9,2 Forced Second Order Type 0 Syslem. " ... , , , . , , .... , ' .. , . , , ., , 8.9.3 Phase Portraits ler Type 1 System 8.9.4 Phasa Portri!ils 1cr Type 2 SYstem 8 11 Delta Melhod Examples with Solutlons Review Queslions" " ..,.." " , ' _, " ..,..,.., , , :., , ,

.. '.... 8-19

8 - 19
, .. 8 • 22

8,10 Singular Points of a Nonlinear. System

8·26
8· 27 8 - 28 8 • 39

91 lolmdllcltoo

9-1

9.2 Stability in the Sense of Uapunov ,_'",.._"" .."".",,,, ..._,_' .......... '.....,,"" 9 - 2 ..'_, 9.3 Asymptotic Stability 9.5 Inslability , ,..•,..,.", " " _."""
" .. " ,.".,,,

,

" ,,,..,,

_

,,,

,,, ,

9-3 9·3 9- 3

9.4 Asymptotic Stability In the Large
,n

,,''''''''''',.,,

'', •.,, 9 - 3
'_", .. " .. ,.,

.. ,.,,, .. _ ,,,.,,,, ..

9.6 Graphical Represantalion

,

Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia

. ..~.gfrPoSfilv.; DefiDlterness
973

19:.7':!lp~J;I(;jlIOUryortant Definilions 9..7.2Negati,ve 0 efinitenes5 .. , ..........••..•..
Positive Semjdeftnlteness

. ~ ~.

,.. i;.· . "

'"
, ,

9-4
9 -4

, .. 9-4 9-5 ,. 9-5 9-5

9.7.4 .Nega~~eSemidefinite, . ,

,

91 5 Indafinilen

ass
"

9 8 QlladR!tic; Faun 9 9 Hermitian Foun 9.10 Liapunov's Second Method 9.11 liapuno s Stabili!y Theorem

9-5 9-5

:,-.':.':.::::.<
.-.:~ . :.:: , , , , : ,.., ,

,

no

on'

9-6 9- 6

'

• 9.12 Stability of linear and Nonlinear systems, Krasovskii's Method

9 ~7
.... 9- 8 9 - 11

9.13 Construction of Liapuno ..... Functions for NonHn.earSystems by' s 9.14 The Direct Method of liapunov and the Linear System Examples with Solutions Review Qilestions , , ,,, "" " ,

9 - 1.2 9-.24

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

Matrix Algebra &. Derivation Modem Control Thoory Properties of Multiplication 1. Commutative law is not valid for the matrix multiplication.
AS ... SA

3·7

of Transfer Function

I.

2. The transpose of a product ls the product of transposes of individual matrices in the reverse order.

Example 3,3: 3 0 [

A Solution:

=

~ll [1 0 -I].
Oblilill

the mafrix ",,,Wplicatio,,.oj,

1

B=

2

0

21

0

A has order ,3 x 2 and

[I

has order 2 x 3 hence C '" A x B has order 3 ~ 3.

c

A x B'"

[ ~;~]
~
2 0 ~2

[

3X1~1"2

3><0 ~1><.1 0><0+1><1 2><0+0><1

3><~1 ~1>< 0] 0><-'1+1><0 2><-14-0><0'

0><1+1><2 2><1+0><2

3.4 Inverse of a Matrix
In algebraic calcula nons we wri te ax = y
i.e.

Similarly in matrix algebra we can write,
AX i.e.. B

where

Inverse of ma trix A

'I1u! inverse of a rnamx exists only under the following conditions,

1. The rnatrix is a square rnatrix. 2. The rnatrix is a nonsingular matrix,
Urheberrec htl lch ge5c h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control

Theory

3-8

MatrIx Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Func:ti'on

Mathematically inverse of a matrix can be calculated by the expression,
A"

_ 1 [Adjoint of A)
_,

-["AT---'---

3.4.1 Properties

of Inverse of a Matrix
A~IA"

1. When a matrix is multiplied by its inverse, the result is the idennty matrix. AA~l=I

2. Inverse

0

fin" erse of a rna trix is the matrix itself,

3. Inverse of a product of two rnatrices is the', prod uct of their individual inverses taken in the reverse order. .
(ABf
I....... ....,.. Example

,

1"

B ~I A- 1

3.4:

Fiud tll~ fllver,e of A .. '4' 1~}.' . l

f2.

Solution:

Check thai A is nonsingular.
)A) 2 14

1.,

31 =,2

- 12

= -10

[Adjoint of Al

. IAI

'.

AdjA

1Cofactor of AI T

[ 1 _4]T ,,[ 1 - 3]

[-~-~L[--{J.t
-to
+0.4

-3

2

-4

2

+0.3J -0.2

Important Observatlon: For ,2 " 2, matrix, the adjoint of the matrix can be direcUy obtained by changing the posltions of main diagonal elements and 'by changing the signs of the remaining clements,

Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem

Conlrol

Theory

3-9

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

For example,
This result is directly used hereafter while solving the problems, when matrix has an order 2 ~ 2. No!e that for any oth.,.. order of matrix the adjoin! must be obtained as transpose With of ~of3ctor matrix.

this study of rna trix algebra, let us discuss function from the state model, 3.5 Derivation of Transfer

the method

of obtaining

transfer

Function from State Model

Consider a standard stale model derived for linear time invariant system as, X(t) and Yet) AX{I) ... aU{t) C X(I) + D Uti)
... (Ja)

... (lb)

Taking Laplace transform of both sides, [s X(s) - X(O)] and
'1'(5) A Xes) ... a U(s) ... (2.) ... (2b)

C Xes) + D U(s)

Note that as the system is time invariant, the coefficient of matrices A, B, C and Dare constants. While the defini.tion of transfer function is based on the assumption of zero in!tial conditions i.e. X(O) = o. s X(.)
s X(.) - A X(s) A XC,,) + B U(s) B U(s)

Now. is an operator while A is. matrix of order n x n hence to match the order. of two terms on left hand side. multipl)! 's' by identity matrix I of the order n x fl.
sl X(s) - A Xes) [sl -

Al

Xes)

a U(5) a U(5)
[~J - A]" I BU(5) 1 [.1Af
I

Premultiplylng both sides by [sl - A]" 1, Lsi - Af J lsi - A] X(s) Now
[sl - A]" ! [sl -

Al

XC';) Substituting in the equation yes)
Yes) (2b),
1

BU(s)

..• (3)

C [sl - A]"

B U(s) + D U(s)

(e [sl - Af I II + 0) U(s)

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri"

MatriX Algebra &. Derivation

Modern Control Theory Hence the transfer function is,

3 -10

of Tra[lsfer Function

Y(,) 1 T(5) ~ U(~) ;; C 151- A]" B .. 0

.. (4.1)

Now

lsi - Arl

,'\djlsl-AJ lsI-AI

T(5.) ;; C Adj lsi-AI

Isl-al

B .. D

... (4b)

Key Point: The slale model oj a system is !lot h'Mique, but lire IroJu;j.r fllJlclirJJ! of ob(oined /m'" allY More modd is uniqu«: /I is illdepclldclII of 1/" ",""wd u~d '0 "'1're~s 'he .yslem j" .Iale model form.

3.5.1 Characteristic

Equation function .tha I the denornina lor is Isl - A I.

It is seen from the expression of transfer

Now the equation obtained by equating dcnommator of transfer Junction to zero Is called characteristic equation. The roots 01 this equation arc the dosed loop poles of the system, Thus the characteristic equation of the system is,

i5! -

AI

-0

... Characteristic equation

The stability of the system depend. On the roots of the characteristic equation. In matrix algebra, the roots of the equation 151- A'I " 0 arc called eigcn values of matrix A and the",", are generally denoted b)' )".

Il,...

Example

3.S;

COll5id.". a >ys/em havi"X Siale mudd

IXI1 ~[-~ jX2j
Solution:
T.F.

.!

-3]. [X ]+ [~] U
t

andY",,/111

2,

X2.

,~

will, D", O. Ol'lai" its T.F.

(VTU: J.nJF.b.-20011)

C[sl-A)-I

B

Adjls! - AJ I sl ., AI
s

[1 0]·, -2 -31_ ['~] •.r~2 ~[. J -c
_0 1. _~ 2 0".
i4

-3l
2

J

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M aleri"

Modem Control Thoory lsI-AI

3 ·11

Matrix Algobra & Derivation of Transfer Function

"l.+2 s-2, 3] -4
s + 2,

Adj Is! - AI

4 ]T ~ [" _ 2
4

"+2

3]

["-2 -3]
4
s+ 2
s~2 +

(s + 2) (s - 2) + 12 ~ s' - 4 + 12 ~ $2 + 8

S

T.F.

[85+1)
.' +8

3.5.2 MIMO System
For multiple input multiple output systems, a single transfer function docs not Cldsl', There exists a mathematical relationship between each output and all the inputs, Hence for such systems there exists a tr0nsfer matrlx rather than the transfer function. But the method 0 f obtaining transfer rnattix rcma ins same as before. n.. Eltample 3,.6 ,: Determine the 1,,",,"/", rnat:ri:~ /or MIMO system giwl! by,

Sol uti on ; from the given sta Ie model, A
T.M,

[ 0 3}
,-2 -5,

C[S'-Ar1B+D
s [ ,2 .+~

[.1- AI

-3]

Adj [51- A] Isl-AI

'[Cll, C1,]-T '" [S+, 5 - 2]T '" [S+5 3]
C1I C~,' 3
s -2

"

s:! + 5s+ 6 = (s + 2) (s + 3)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modem Conlrol Tlleory

3 ·12

Matrix Algebra & 'Do,iv3.tion 'of T'a lisle' F unctlon

Adj lsl-,']

[s_+;

!]

lsI-AI

(s-l-2.) (s+3)

T.M. 3Hl11
(s

[

s+S s+ 8
+ 2) (s+ 3)

35+14]

(s+2) (... 3) i.e. Y(s)

35-1-14 (5-1-2) ($+3) s .. 8 (s+ 2) (5+ 3)

1
1

T.M. Or.} [(5+2) (s+ 3) 3HH 5+8
(5+2) (5+3)

3HH

The above relation indicates !hal each output depends on be th the inputs.

3.6 Eigen Values
Consider an equation AX = Y which lndicates (he transformation of 'n x 1· vector rnatrix X into 'n " 1· vee to,' rnatrix Y by 'n ~ n' rna trix opcra tor AU there exists such a vector X such that A transforms it to a vector the solution of the cqua tion, AX i.e.
i.e. )..X-AX
)J( )J(

then X is called

[),_I- AJX

o o

... (1)

The set cf homogeneous equations (1) have a nontrivial solution only under the condition,

t

I),_,I-AI ,,0

]

... (2)

The determinant I),_ I - A I is called ~haracteristl~ polynomial while the equation (2) is
called the characteristic equation,

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ale,; a

Modam

Control

Theory

3-13

Matrix Algebra &, Deri\'~IIDn of Transfer Function

After expanding, we get the characteristic equation as,

p. I - A I =

,);n + 31

1.." -

1 + .. + an = 0

., (3)

The 'n' roots 01 the equation (3) i.e, the values 01 J.. satisfying the above equation (3) are called eigen values of the matrix A. The equation (2) is similar to 151- A I: = 0, which Is the characteristic equation of the system. Hence values of ).,satisfying characteristic equation are the erased IMp pole. of the system. Thus eigen values are the closed loop pol es of the SysteOl.

3.7 Eigen Vectors
Any nonzero vector Xi such that AX; = I, Xi is said to be eigen "ector associated with eigen valu e ).,j. Thus let A"' ).,1 Sa tisltes the equation, (All-A)
').,1

X=0 with eigen value

Then solution of this equation is called cigen vector of A essociated and is denoted as MI'

11 the rank of the matrix [1'1 I - A] is I, then. there are (0. - r) independent eigcn vectors. Similarly another importanl point is thai if the eigcn values of matrix A are all distinct, then the rank r of matrix A is (n - 1) where n is order of the system.

Mathematically,

!he eigen vector can be calculated by taking cofactors of matrix

(All - A) along any row.

r-~-----------------------'
where k " 1, 2, ... n

Thus

where Cki is cofactor of matrix (Jo. j 1 - A) of k'n row.
Key Point: 1f a,e cofactol'S nlOllg a pnrUmlar ruw gives null ~ol1"io~ i.e. ~II eleml'l1tsof C(Jrrespondi.lIg elge" vee/oTtO are 2;ero I1U:11c%dors ~lmlg any other row :must be oljltli~red,

Othmoise inverse of modnl matrix M 3,8 Modal Matrl.x M

aln not

exist.

let ).,1' )'2' .... A,n are the n eigen values of the matrix A while MI, M2, ... M", are the elgen vectors corresponding to th" elgcn values AI' ).2 ... 'An respectively. Epcl; elgen vector is of the order n x 1 and placing all the cigen vectors one after another as the columns of another matrix, n x n matrix can be obtained, Such a. matrix obtained by placing all the eigen vectors toge!her i.s called a modal matrix Or dlagenalising matrix' of matrix A.
Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes Iv! ater;"

Modem Control Theory

3 -14

Matrix Algebra'" Derivation of Transfer Function

..
The important

I

M .~Modal

MMrlx - IMl : M2 : ... : Moll
matrix is !h<lt, :

property AM

of the modal A 1M) : M2 :

M"I.
AM,,! M,,!

[AM) : AMI: [~ MI : :I..J Mz
AM Mil.

: ... : I",

where

Diagonal

matrix

r' AI0
0=

l~

0

0 0

A2 0

...

Thus premultiplying

equation

(1) by M- .

l

n
A remain

(1)

M-1 AM "" M-1M A
M - 1AM

=

iI. (Diagonal

matrix)

It can be noted that
1. Both A and A have same characteristic 2. Both A and A have same eigen values, Hence and matrix due to transformation M - IAM, eigcn form. values of matrix unchanged A gets converted to diagonal equation.

3.8.1 Vander

Monde

Matrix
i.s obtained form as, using 1 the phase variables 0 0 0
-~'n-:2

II the state model form or phase variable

then the matrix

A is in Bush

0 0
A
I

0

0 0
~~:a I 11-

0
~an

1
-0,

1 .l
~,o

And thl! characteristic F{s)

equation =

j.e., denominator

of T(s) is,

"tr + "'1

~/'11-1 + ... + art ~ 1 s + an

Urheberrec htlich gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory

3 -15

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

In such a case, modal matrix lakes a form of a special matrix as,
1

A.1
V
).."

1..'2
),~

~n

1

A;l

Such a modal matrix for matrix Mondc matrix . Example 3,7;

AI, which
\

is in phase variable form, is called Vander . . II
115,

1_

.

.

ConSIder a stateiodel

,mtl! mamx

II

.0 [

4

2 \ \ UJ o1
-34 ~9
tI) Modnl

-48

Dell'rmillc, a) Characteristic cquntiOll, L,) Eigrn va/lies c) Eigen lJeCrors and matrix. Also protJl' tim, 1'/,.. trrUis/ormqholl M - JAM /'eSlllls a diagonal matrix. Solution ;' oj The characteristic equation i~ I),I - A I = 0
0' 1 0'

A.I~

~I-I 11 !-48
0 4

2 0

-34 -2 A.
34

I )..
-4 48

J
i

o

,.+9:

-I o

I

0'

.. , (1)

:. A.z

().. +

9) + 2" 48 + 0' + 0' - 8 (A. .. 9) .. 34 A. = 0'

This is required

chaf'llctcrlstic

equation,

b) To find eigen values, test).. = - 2 for its toot.
-2 9 -2
26

24

- 14 12

0

- 24

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri a

Modern Control

Theory

3 -16

Matrix' Algebra '" Derivation of Transfer Function

i.e. i.e,

(I, + 2) (). -t 3) (11. + 4)
~'I

o
- 2, "2 - - 3

and

),.3 '" .:.

These arc t.he cigcn values of matrix A.
c) To find eigen vectors, obta in rna trix P'l I - A I fnreach cigen value of ),.in equation (1).

\\

4

alue by substi tuling

for 11.1" -2,

[A;I-AI

=~-~]
34 7

.", The common factor can be \_taken out.

For '"2'" - 3, p'; I - Al

'"

[=: =~-~]
.18 34 6
~2 -4

\

\

..
For 1..3 '" - 4,

M2

'"[~::l'["-li4] '" HJ

[Ai I-A]

-[~

48 34

-;]

..

M3

'"[~::l'["-m '"[-:J
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

MI, Ml and M] are the etgen vectors corresponding 10 the elgen values 11.1' 11.2 and 11..;.

Modem Control

Theory

3 ·17

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

d) The modal matrix is,
M '" 1M!:

M2 : MJI

,,[-~

-2 let us prove M -lAM is a diagonal matrix.
M -!
"'

1Mi"

Adj [M]

[Cofactor

of MIT

IM[

Adj 1M]

[

-.10 +8 _7.]T [-10 -7 -1]
-7 6 -5 = 8 6 1 -1 1 -1 -7 -5 -1

Adj[Ml_ """TMI -

[
.

-S
7

10 7 1]
-{i

_

1

..

5

AM

M-'AM

[:8 [10 -8

2
0 7
-{i

-34 -9
-1

~]-~ 2 [
-2
2
-{i

I-

-3

-'2" 4

1] [-22
4

-{i

9

-3

1][-2
4

9

-4]
8 -16·

-1:

-4]

)I"

Thus M-1AM is a diagonal matrix.
Example 3.8:

n

7

5 0 -3 0

1

-3

0] " [i'0l o
-4 0

0

AZ
0

~ ]" Ie]

A

OblaiM the Eigm ml ....., fig'M veeto.r. and Modal malrit for the matrix

1 0] o
1 -11 -6
Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

·~ ..
Matrix A1ge bra & Derlvatio n Modem Control Theory

3-18

of Transfer Function

Solution:

Eigen values are roots of 1,)'1-

AI=O
=0

I).I-AI"
i.e..

A [
0 6

-i ),-1: 11

Q]

),+6,

o
0-+ 1){1_+ 2) ()..+ 3)

o

)'1 '" -,1, 1..2 ,,-2,

1.. = -3 are "igen values, J

To find Eigen vector,
Lei
),_

..

[1..1 I-A]

[~I ~11
-1 11

A, =-1

-1

Ml

e [C12] e13
K_2

n

where C = Cofactor

Mi

[~l
[~2
C [C
11 12]

l.e,

M1=H]

For 1..2=-2 [1..2 I-A]

-I

-2
II

~l ]

M2

en

(Q,K-l

=[~~]

=[+]

For 1..3 =-3 [") I-A}

[~

-1 11

":3

~]
Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M aleri"

Matrix A1gabnl & Derivation of Transfer Function

Key Point: The coj.clors aboul any row om be obI/Ii/led. :. Modal matrix M

=

[MI: M2 : MJ]

M [~l ~2~]
U can be easily checked that,

M- AM
1

=h

=

[~l ~2

~3l

3.9 Diagonalisation
The diagonal matrix plays an important role in the matrix algebra. The cigen values and inverse of a diagonal matrix can be very easily obtained just by an inspection. Thus in state variable analysis, if the matrix A is diagonalised then it Is very easy to handle mathematically. Whe!1 matrix. A Is dlagonalised, then the elements along its principle diagonal are the elgcn values. The eigen values are the dosed Joop poles or the system, from which stabillty of the system can be analysed. The diagonal matrix A indicates nenlnteraetton of various state variables. The derivative of one stale variable is dependent on the corresponding state variable alone and other state variables do not interact in it, when A is diago.naJ matrix. This is practically important from con trolling point of view. Due to all these reasons, the diagonaHsation of matrix A is always motivated. The lechnlques used to transform the general state model into diagonal fcrm i.e. canomeal (ann an! called dla80nal~tlDn techniques. Consider n U> order state model in whlch matrix A is not diagonal.
X(I) A X(t) + B U(I) C Xli) + 0 U(I) ... (1)

Y{I)

... (2)

Let Z(t) Is new stale <'ector such that the transfonnalion is,
X(I) ~ MZ(t)

..• (3)
Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! aleri a

. Mallix Algebra & Derivation Modern Conllol Theory
Here

3 -20
Moda I rna tnx of A M let) (1) and (2),

of Transfer

Function

M
XC!)

... (4)

Using equations

(3) and (4) into equations AM Zet} .. B U(t} CM Z(t} .. DU(t}

MZ(I) and Prernultiplying Y(I) equation

... (S)
... (6)

(5) by M -1 on both sides, M- .1AM Z(t) + M-l M-l B U(I) U(I) ... (7) ... (a)

2(1) and Y(l)

.

AM Z(I) + M-1B

CM Z(t) .. D U(I)

diagonal

The equations (7) and (8) gives the canonical matrix denoted as A. . M which transforms
A into diagonal as,

state model

in which

M - lAM is a
or

The matrix modal matrix.

form is called diagonalising- matrix

The new canonical sta tc model is represented
2(t) yet) where A A Z(t) ..

II U(t)
matrix

... (9)
.... (10)

C 2(t)
M-1B

.. 0 U(t)

M - 1 AM = Diagonal

B

I..,

The method of obtaining modal matrix M is already discussed transformation M -lAM is called diagonalisation of matrix A. Example matrix A, 3.9:

in the last section.

The

Rtduce ti,e given stale model into its ",nonical form by d~gcmalising

x(t)

[

~

-1~

-6 -11

-!]
5;

X(t) .. (~] U( I)

1

and

Y(t)

11

0 O} X(I)

Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory Solution:

3 -21

Matrix Algebra & Derivation oJ Transfer Function

From the given stare model,

A ~ [j =~~ B~m, C~[1 -i],

001

Let us find eigen values, eigenvectors and modal matrix of A.

IJ..

..

I:

-1 J..+11 11

-6 . 1 ~.-5

I~

0

:. J..(J..+ 11) (J..- 5) + 36 + 66 - 6 (J,.. + 11) + 6('.-

5) + 66 l = 0

o
(A+ 1) (J..+ 2) p.+ 3)

o

Thus cigen values are, Al = - 1, A.2~ - 2, "3 = - 3 To find elgen vectors,
For AI = -I,

[)'J 1- AJ

Ml

For).,=-2, [".21- A]

n -~l [ell] nn n -~]
-1 11

10

-6

Cl2 Cn

=~; = 0 01

-1

9

11

-7

M2

l1 [C 12 C
CIJ

]_[+3]_n
,-

+6 - 2
4

12

Urheberrec htllch gcsc h(jutes Iv! ateri"

Modem Control Theory

3 ·22

Matrix Algebl'l & Derivation of Trlln.fer Function

Fori..] .. - 3, Ii..~ 1- A)

MJ

M

[MI ' M2:

M3) = [~

!:]

= Modal matrix

M-IAM

n -~_~]~
A

WhIle

il

M-1B

Adj[MJ

[~ : ~]T [~_! ~]
4 -6 -14 2 -2 -32 . -14

---rMI
[ 0.428.5 -0 A285 0.1428

.0. 3.571 -o. 2857 ..] -{)5714 + 0 .4265 0.2142 -0.1428

M -lB ~ [:~.~. ], .. {-~] -0. t428 -1

-r- Multiplying by 7

and

C"
Z'(t) and Y(t)

eM" [1 1 1)

ThU! canonical state model is,

=

It. Z(t} + BU{t)

C Z(t)

where X(I) " M Z(t)

Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri"

Modern Control

Theory

3·23

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

3.10 Generalised Eigen Vectors
The gen!'ralis~d eigen vectors are the eigen vectors corresponding to repeated cigcn values. Uptill now, it is assumed that the eigen values are distinct but if an cigen value 1..1 is repeated for r times then the corresponding eigen vectors are called generalised eigen vectors.

by,

If a particular elgen value )..1 is repealed r limes then the rank of n ~ n rna trix [11.1.1.- Al is n - 1 and there is only OnCindependent cigen vector associated with A] given

... Ckn are cofactor" about klh row

tmportant Note.: II cofactors along a particular row gives all values zero l.e, eigen vector as null matrix, then eofactors along other row must be cbtained. I'or remaining (r - 1) eigen vectors for r - 1 times repeated value :I.], generalised eigen vectors must be used as,
ilCxl

1'

dX1
~ uCkn
'il:l.
l '

21 M3",
2! '1 2!

U<CI<I

i))'i
il2Ck2 ilA.t

M2

{lCIa

I!

1!

a2 ~

e

(l1..i

(r-l)!

o,-I(C.I)
ij),.~-I

M,

i;I,-I(CjU) (r-W 1 ([-I)! d~-I o,-l(Ckn)

a).'j"'l .

The modal matrix M then can be obtained by placing all the cigcn vectors one aher the other.
Note that in such
1I

case, M - ]AM matrix

is not diagonal but consists of a particular elgen value.

of a r ~ r Jordan

block in it where

r is the order of repetition

Urheberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M ate,i"

Modem Control Theory

3 -24

Matrix Algebra & Oorivat.ion of Trans'fer Function

3.10.1 Vander Monde Matrix for Generalised-1Egen

Vectors

If matrix A is in phase variable form "J,d,!~n. ,cig.n value ,A 1 is repeated fur r times, then n elgen values arc AI' Al ... '.", f"r --+ 1, ,,,I, len. The corresponding modal matrix i5 Vander Mondc matrix in modified form as,

o

o
()

o
(I, "', ,,,

:1..'+1

o -..

),n-I 'I

... A~,~\
Find I),e ~ig~n vaIlles. eigen nectors and modal matrix

I..,.

Example

3.10;

t(}T,

Solution : Find eigen values which are roots of

I Al (I

A

I

=

(I

A [~

I

o ()

(I

~] -[

~

~

~]

1

-8

-2

-5

II
1

_; 1

~

-~

o o o
B -1 4 -4 4 4 -4

+S

2 1..+5

1..2 p.+ S) + 4 + 81.. 1..3+ 5A2 ... 81.. + " Try 1..= - 1
-1

[£]

(7-.,+ 1) (1..2 + 41..+ 4) (I.. + 1) (A + 2)2

0
0 Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ate,i a

Modem Control Theory

3 ·25

Mallix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

Thus '- 2' is repeated twice hence it is necessary to use generalised eigen vector •..

Now J.. 2

=-

2 is r"Pea ted twice.

[J..z'

- AI

= [~~

~2

B

2

M,

[en 1 en.
C 13 "2,-2

=

[ 'l·'~
2)'2 +10 -4 -8),.,

~[~~l=nl
n
and M3
1! dCll d)'1 dCI2 di..:z dC)J 1! dl.., = -1

L,
=

[2)'~+5] _
).2--2

u]

Thus MI, M2 and M3 are the required eigen vectors. :. Modal matrix M

=

(MI:

M2 : M31 =

[

:

-1 1]
1 2
2 -8

Urheberrechtllch qeschutztes ~lalcrial

Moclam Control

Theory

3 -26

Matrix Algebra & Dorivation of Tran sfurF un ctlo n

Examples
I ....

with, Solutions
FitII'I tlte T.1". of tire sy~tfln ImviMg
stQle

Ellamplu3.11:

mod.l,

X~
Solution:

. [0

-2-3.

"I] X.+[1] U 0

and

Y = [1 OJX

From the given model,

A - _-2 -3 ' T.F [sl -AJ

[01]·

B '" 0 ,C '" [1 OJ, D '"

[1] _

°

Y(s) 1 U(s) = C lsi - A]" B + D

Ad;

1~'...,A1
1_1- AI
. T.F.

... Change diagonal elements and change SIgns of other elements .
.~ (s + 3) + 2= .1 + 30 + 2 =. (s + l) (s ... 2)

C Adj [sl-A)

B

n

O[

[S~23:][~]

lsi-AI
(s+3) (s+I) (5+2)

(s+1)(s+2)

,....

Example 3.12;

fi!!d th~ T.F. of the system lraving stal« modtl,

X.

. __[-3
-2

11. of

+

[0] U
1

and

Y

= [1 o[

X

'QlutJon : Prom the given model, A =-2 T.F. lsI -

[-3 1]
1,

0 ' B", I '

[0]
O.

C" [1

OJ, D

=0

T(s) = C Is! _ AI" 1 B + D U(s)

AJ

S[1 0]_[-3 1]=[5+3 -1] o >
-2 2 Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes /vi ate,i a

Modllm

CO,ntrol Theory

j

3·27

",.trix Alaobra II! D!1liva~ilm

ofTnmsfer

Fllfl~QI1

/ Adj [51- Al .Iil- AI s(s .. 3) ... 2 ;: .2 .. 3s • 2 = (s .. 1) (5 ... 2) CAdj[sl-AII!
[1

T.F,

.

lSi-AI'

01[_; .:3J [~]
(5+1) (H2)

1 (9+1) (5+2)

1""/

Examplll 3.13: model,

Obl~jll lhe Itmu;ftr lune/ion matrix for tilt MIMO syslom Iuroing slul.

X

[

~, -1

-11 ~] X .. [-11 01 .0

aud

y=

G ~ ~] X

i Solution:

From the given stale model,
A

C

1 1 0] [1 0 1 ' C· [I"-A]-la, s

D=0

Transfer matrix

... -.

D_CAdj[sI-AIB

lsI-AI

I.I-AI

s ,[~ ~ ~] _[ ~

o
(5_1)2

-1 ~] [S~12.-1 _~]
= 0 1 1 0 s-1

01

-1

5-3
(.8-2)(8-1)

Adj [sl- Al

-11+ 1 [

-2

2(5-2)

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jules Iv! ateri a

Modem

Control

Theory
5 [ 1

3-28

Matrix. Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

-2"+1 "-3

...,,+1
s2

-3.+2

5-1
2+s- 1

1.1- AI

(s - 2) (s - 1)"53 -

4.2

...

55 - 5
~+1
51

SI -. 2.+1

Adj [.1- AlB
[

5-3 s-1
...,,2 ... S

-35+2 1

2s-4

-2 1[-1 0]
10
2 .0

91-3>+3

[

.2 -.4s+5

...,,+2

2S2

-4 4.-8 -6s+6

1

..

C Adj lsI - A] B

-35+5 [ ...,,2+2 -3>+5. [ --.;2 +2

4S-12]

2s2 -6 .... 2 2s1 -6s+ 2

4.-12]

Transfer matrix

~

l-.

".1 -4s1 +6.-5

Example

3.14:

Obtai" the eigm va/lies, eigm vectors ami modal matrix

fo~,

A

[-1~_~ i]
= i\ = Diago"al
matrix.
(VTU, JulyIAug .•200',JrnJFeb .•1008) =0 0

and prove thai M - lAM Solution : For eigen values,

1),.[- AI

I

-~ -)~ ~21
12 7 )..... 6

Urheberrechtl lch gesc hutztes M ateri"

Matri x Aigeb ra & Derlvatlo n
Modem Control Tileory
..2(1..+

\

"

3·29
+

of Transfer

Function

\

\

6) + 24 -3 .. -18
3 1.. + 2

14..

=

0
0

6 .. + 11'- + 6 "

\

Test

.. = -1,
-1

\

e
0
-1

11

6 -6

-

5 6

5
,.

[£}

{.. + 1)

0.2 +

5....

6)

0
0 2, "3 " - 3

i.e,

(..... 1) (..... 2) (.... 3)

Bence eigen values are, Al " - 1, For the eigen vectors,

"2 " AJ

"I = - 1,

r"l. r-

-1 -I [

-3 -1
12 7

-~1·
5 ,. ,-9

[~:;]. [-;]
,.
Co

[-:]'
,-1

'[-2 -1 0]
-3 -2 -2 ,12 7 4

4, =- 3, \

[43 1 - AJ

MJ

[ell]' [5] [1]'
Cll ,= ,-15 = -'3, C 13 '.'. 15 3'
Modal matrix = -1

M

[

1 2 1]
-4 -3 -1 1 3' Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri"

3·30

MalrlxAigoJra & Dorivatiori of Trilnsfor Furictlon

M-I

IMr
-

Adj IM1

-2 2 -2 = ;=....._--..,,-2~'-

[

-9 6 _S]T
-5 4 -3

[-: ~

-2 -3 -2
-2

-~]
,

[4.5 -3 2.5

2.5
-2 1.5 1

-~]
2 j 3. -1 1

AM

..
Thus,
1111"

M-1AM

OJ[ B9 2 -11 -4 -3.. [-' -4 1.] '] 1 -2 /-9 -6 -1 [4.5 2.5 1] [-1 -4 -3] = [-1 0/ ol _:\ 9 0 -2 OJ

[)2
2.5

0 -7

-2

1.5

1

1

-2
8

-9

0

M - lAM

= A = Diagonal matrix Fi.Md I/o! rig"" IMIlles,

I

P

-3

Example 3.15:

tiS"" t>fctors alld nofa! molrh: for,
I I

[~-~I]
Solution : .For eigen values,

(VTU: j"anJF.I>.-100S)

1:l.I-AI

0

··1 '1-._-14~
-1 ..

-~ '1-.-3

I

0

), ('1-..-4) ('I-. - 3) - 2-

2+

n-)..3 ..
2

+ 21.- 8", 0 0 0 0 = 1')..l
'"

..
.. ..
•.

)? -

n

+ 1St. - 9

(i. - 1) (1._2 - 6A. + 9) (A.- 1) (/.._ 3)2
. )..2 '" .)..J

1
I

!

31.; = 3 ,

Now used.

3 is repeated twice hence for )..2 ..

3, tf'c generalised cigen vectors must be

Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modern Control Theory

3· 31

MatrbtAlgebra" Dativallbll DI Tran.fer FuMlion
-1 _~] -2

For )'1" I,

[=~
-1
l3

[~:~ 0.l' " [.~] C
As it Is a null matrix, calculate cofactors about other row,

1..z-3

-2 2

1

,I 1!

dCIi
d)'2

Ii

del2
dl..2

" [2A~-3] _
)'2-3 '2~ 3

"m

n
Hence the modal matrix Mis,

dCIl
d"2

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory I'"

3·32

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

Example 3.16; 1110 Fig. 3.1 sbows .III. block diog"'''' of. ,,",111'01 system using stal. mriablc [e.<llnn); and in/,'/,,,., COlltro/. The st.l. modd "f plan! is,

Y"

[0

IJ

[~~]

;) Derive the slale model of Ih. ellli... syslem. ~
ii)

Dorive the trmls[n function

Y(5)!U(5).

U(I) _"~()--"'_-I

y(t)

Fig. 3.1 Solution:
i) TIle input of integrator shown is

Xl'
... (1)

x,
and
r(t) From the plant model

- 1 ~ [U(t) - Y(t)1 " Y(t) - U(t)

- .3.5 X3 - 2X1 - 1.5 Xl given, - lXI + 2X2 .. r(t)
4 Xl - 5 Xl

. (2)

x,
and
Y(t)

. ~
Xl

... (3a) . ..(3b) ... (3c)

Xl

Using equation (2) in equation (30) we get,
-

ax! .. 2X2

- 35 X3 - 2X1 - 1.S X2

., (ota)
... (4b)

Substituting equation (3<:) in equation 0), ;S " X2
-

U(t)

... (40) U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modllm Control Theory

.

3 ·33

Matri>: Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function ... (4d)

and

Y(I) " ~
Xl X2
XJ

Thus equations (4a) 10 (4d) give stall.' model of the entire system,

.

[-J
[0 1

0.5

~<i -35][X 1

I] [0]

~ • _~~_ + _~. U(!)

and

Y(I)

0] [~~] and y '" CX with D ~ 0 is.
I

i.e.

X ~ AX + BU

ti) The transfer function Y(s)!U(s)

Y(s) '" C lsi - A]" U(s) lsi _ A[ '"

B+ D

S [~

~

~]_[-:

~.:

-~.5] '" ["_+4
0 0

5 -0.5
s+5
-1

0010

Adj [sI- A] '"

[ .' .5,
0.5.-3.5 -3.5(s+5)

45
.2 +55

5+5

-14 O.Ss -3.5 ,2 +5s s+5

(s+5)2 -2

·r
-14

"

[ ,"5,
4~

-3.5.-17.5
.2 +10.+23 + 23s + 14

4 lsi-AI
VIs) U(»

]
_-1

'" s (s + 5)2 + 14 - 2s " 53 + loi CAdj[sl-A]B lsI-AI an d·"
D -0

52 +55 C Adj [si - A]

a

0.5.-3.5
,2 +5s s+5

,,[0

1 0] ~s
[

-14
,2

-3.55-17.5][ 0] 0
+10.+23;

" 14 Y(s) V(s) 14 14
s3

"'lsI-AI"

+Ws2 +23s+14 Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri a

Modern Control Theory

3·34

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of T ra ns Ie r F u netion

14

I,..

nus

is the required transfer func~(m_ Far the mattix A ~ [_~ ~

Example 3.17:

-3

~·.l·

Find the eigen values, eigm vectors and molial matrix M.
Solution : .!'or eigen values,

..
.. ..
Test

I~
-1 4

lid-AI
10..
-1
K

0 0 0
-2

10..+3

01 0
1o.. 2

{10..+ 3) + 2 + 4A. '"
2

...3+310.. +410..+2 10.. - 1, =
-1

-

-.1

"

2

-2

~
(10.. 1) (10..2+ 210.. + 2) +
0 0

.. ..

(10.. I) (Io.. + 1 + j1) (Io.. + 1- j1) + 10..1

-1,

10..2'" - 1 - jt,

)'3 '" -

1 + jt

Calcula Ie- cigcn vectors.

For 10.. 1

'" -

1,

1'.11- AJ

[~:~l-H]-H]
Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

n

=}

-f]

Modern Control Theory

3·35
-1

Matrix Algebra '" Derivation of Transfer Function

For

-I-jl 4

For 1..3 = -1 + jl, [1..3 I -

Al "

- +j1
I

... Choosing 3td row to calculate cofactors,
-I

r

0 2

-1+11 4

o -1
2+jl

]

II.,..

Example 3.18:

For a "!Is/em will, s'ate model matrices.

A {:

~

:l" me, [:r
fVl1.1: March-20(1)
S+1 0 5+2 "-1 [

Obtain tM system tnmsfu function.
Solution: The T.F. js given by, T.P. " C[sl-ArIB

[51-A]

o

a

Adj[sl-AI

[Cofactor 51-A[T
(5+2)0(5-3) [ -+{s+2) (5-3) (s+1) (5-3) +1

Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri"

Modem Control

Theory

3~.36
(8+Z) (5-3) [ (s -3) 0 (~+llls-3)

Matrht Algebra & Dorivation of Transfer Function (s+2) (S+I)\""2) ] :

o

0

lsi-AI
[sl-Art

(5 + 1) (5 + 2) (s - 3)
Adj[sl-AJ

lsi-AI
5+1

o

1
(s+l) (5+2)

o
s+,1 1 0[: (5+1) (H2)

(HI) (s-3) I (s+l) (s+2) (5-3) 1

s-3

o
1 (H2)

o
(5+1) (5-3) 1 (5+\) (H2) (5-3) 1 0

T.F.

[I

1

o

o
(s'; I) (s- 3) !
1 (5-3)

"-3

[1

1

O[ (.... 1) (5+2)(s-3)

(,...I/(S-3) (5+3)

+ (5+1) (S~2) (5-:3)

1'"

(5+1) (s+2){s-3)

Example 3.19: Find the 'r~nsformalioM n1Jltrir P which will IMtrir A 10 dillgon.1 form. Th« eigen 1Joiul!SMe .nd."3.

"1' "2

Cllllveri

lhe following

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory
Solution: The matrix AI - A is, '[ A = •. 0 . at -1

3-37

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Tnlnsfer Fun~ol1

p..I-AJ

I..

-1

a2

1o.+a~

o1

To find P, means to find eigen vectors and modal matrix,
For A: ).." [).., 1- A] =

[)~I
aI

-1

To find eigen vector, find cofactors about 3rd row.

U rheberrec htl lch

gC5C

hutztes M ateri a

Modern Control

Theory

,3 ·38

Matrix Algebra & DlJriyalion of Transfer Fllnction

Hence transforma lion rnatrL" Pis,
I

r

)'1 ).2 I

).1

).1 )..l

).1

J form, 0 0 0

Thus if matrix

A is in phase variable

A

lin
1

r

0

1

0

0
0
-fln_

0
t
--('/,Ll-2

-ctl as above that

And the cigen values are distinct the d iagon.., I ising matrix is,

as ).1' ). 2' ... An then ;1 'an be proved

1

P

r

1..',1

A, J..~
2

An
A~l

"1
~'h.. l

,,!

~·fl-1 """2

1..,-1

Key Point; Note IIml while filldillK II.. rigt'll! .... lors J'"d Ihe cO/4ciors am",l lasl row. c II..... Example 3.20:

Del .. min« Ih~ trQIIsft. mll/rir for the ")Is/em.

_ [~I]i[=; ~J[~:]+[~ ~] [~:] .[~:]~[~ -1,J [~;]

(VTU; Ju.ly/Aug."2005)

Sollliion : Prom the given state model, A

=

[=~ ~],
~_.'\.I
Adj[SI-A'I!
'IS -2 8+3 [,'

B = [~5 60 ,Sl-AI:,

J. g -:l
C: [5+3
2

D - !0 I

-1.1. ""

Adj [sl-A)

J'T

:

["

-2 s+3

1]

Urhcberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control

Theory

3 -39

MatrIx Afgsbra & Oerlvallon of Transfsr Funcllon

T.F.

[1 -I] [43-5
B 1 93+18

-53- 23 -12

681
J
9
,,+1 =

(3+1)(5+2) 63+ 12

... ~ ("+1)(5+2) .. T.F. 27,- 63 . . (s+1)(s;-2)
[

(st l)(st2)
~8s-12 (>+1)($+2)

1

273-63 [ (s+J)(s;-2)

.+1 6 48.-12 (s+1j(s+2)

1

I"

This is the n~ry Exampte 3.21 :

transfer matrix.
COIIVt'I"/

the ftll!Jwing stn/~ mood into m~onjCIIIjon».
(VTU,

JulyiAug.-2005)

Solullon

: From the given model.

A'" [1 -4} 6 '" [.0] ' C" [1 3 -6 -1
IH-AI
.. (l-l){>"+ 6)+12
(A+2)(>..+ 3)

0.1

Let us find the cigcn values, eigen vectors and model matrix of A

!

bo[l° 0]_[..3 -4] ..1=1)·-1 1 - 6! -3 1
i.e, AI =-2., )'l ,,-3

o

To lind elgen vectors. For AI =-~ 1.1'11- A]

= [=~:] i.e. Ml = [~:~J =[~]
Urheberrec htl lch ge5c h(jutes M ateri"

Modam Control

Theory

3.40

Mallil( Algol1ra & Dorivatlon of Transfer Fun.:tion

For

)..2 ~

-3, 11'21-

II J" ,-3 4] rl-t 3

i.e,

Mr-

[C 11 J ",[3]'. .
C12.3

"1'.],
LI

M " lM1; Md" [~
..
While 1I.rlAM

~J"

Modal matrix

[~2 OJ
-3 M-"IS

"II

Ii
M-1

AdjM',,-34

IMI

[1 -1J ,,[1 -1]
~

..

B

[11 ] [~l],,[~]
-3 4 AZU) + BI!

~I

~1 4

The canonical sl<llc model is,
1.(1)

Y(!)

C Zit)

where XU) '" M Zit)

I'",

Q

Examp!e 3.22: (",,<'Crt the fol/Qwillg squtlrt matrix A 1.'/0lord"" canon ,cal form uS;IIg suitable "on-sills"l.r Imn.sformntioll malrix P. (VTU: July/Aug.. '20(5) A"

r0

!)

:I

l-4

0
-9

Soluti on : Find the cigen val ues 01 A.

I)·I-AI "

I,~
'4

-1 1.. 9

~1 1..+6,

.1"

0

.. (1..+4)('-+

l){)..-rl)

,,0

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory

3 -41

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

o -1

]

"l. +6,

l
1 I! 1!

rell]
C1J

Cl2 J.
k-l

=.

.[),.~6'.2 +9] +
-4 . -4)'2·
~h-!

_[ 4]... [ I] _ --4.--\
4 1

As A, ,,-1 is repea led twice,
dCIi d),.2 dCI2

del]
dll.l

&2 -

M

[Mj:M2:M3J

'"

Ad;

r~

[~--~;

~:r
Il

f~ 1

0 4 -1 -I .16

1]

"[~24

M-l,,~~~ = [~24~r7-;J
9

-17 - 3·· 4] 15

2

1 1 1] [-4 -\ 0
16 I -1 U rheberrec htl lch
gC5C

hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory

3 -42

.

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

..... Diagonal

matrix with Jordan block

)I", Example 3.23 : Consider ,Ihe ","lri:.:

(V11J: Jan.JFeb.-2006)

A"

[

2 -2 3]:
1 1 1 J 1 -I,

i) F.ind Ihe eigrn values IUId eiger" vectors .of A. ii) Wrile the modal matrix.

iii) Shaw Ihal the modal motrixind~d Solution : For eigen values I),J -A

diag(ma/izes A,.

:~;-2 J "
1..:1 -3 -1 1..+:1
AI ~+1" A,~=-2.

I"

0

0

1

i.e, p.-l)(l+1){) .. 2) + 2-9- 3(/..-1)+2(/..+1)-3(1..-2)",0 i.e (/..-1)(1..+2)(/..-3)=0
.. }"J ,,3

For /.., "L [1.1- Al

For A.:! =-2, CAl - A)

A. Cll

'"

e'l"

Ctl '" 0, calculate co/actors about ether row.

Urhcberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ate,i a

Modem Control Theory

3 ·43

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Transfer Function

[}J-A]

[

-J -1

1 2 - 3].

2, -1 .. M} '" CIZ," - 3 4, C I~

[C II] I,.~ [I] rs]
[s
".1 1

M

11 1]
1 1

-14
M-I Adj M

J'

1M!
--=-- ()
-30

1 [15 - -25 1 [15,-25
0 -15

2

l~

j.

~15 - 3

-12

- 30

-2 -3

1~][~ -2 ~ ] [~1\1
-12 1 3 -1 1 - 36 1 - 14 1

~]

- 14 1

- 30

1 .[15 - .. -4 ] [_I 11 1] 25 10 1 {) 1
1'

-35°
Thus mod al matrix indeed I,.... Ex.mpJo 3.24,

[~~
- 45 -9
{)

60

U

o]~

[1 {)

o
-2

0

n

-9().O A.

o

diagonalizes

Gi'",,~ ;tate model X=i\)('-Ihl,y "ex fI,"

(vru,

'anJFeb .•2006)

where

A '" [~

10 ~ -1 - 2 -3

1' [~l
B '" 1

and C '" [I 0 0]

j) Simulat« ii} Determine

and find the transfer Ole Iram!er fi",clioll

fullC/iOM~::; I,sing
from
I}",

Maso/l's

gai'" formula.

Slate model formulation.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Matrix Algobra Modem Solution; Control Theory

& Dorlvation

of Transfer Fun..tion

XI=X.,

.

The state equations MC,

X."'X3'

.

X3"'-XI-2X?-3XJ·H~y=XI

.

Hence the signal flow graph is,

Fig. 3.2

Here K ~ 1.• The various loop gains are,

6
-J

l~-7
F1g. 3.3 All loops are touching 10 each other.

-,

..
~K.

~ '" l-[Ll

+L:2 +L31 = 1+~+
s

S

22+..!..
53

Elimina.ting all loop g~ins from 1Iwhich are touching 10 KIh forward path

..

1I1
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Thoory

3 ·45

Matrix Algebra & Derivation of Tran.fer Funl:tion

Yes)
U(s)

Now let

US

use the state model method of finding the transfer function.
Yes)

..

OM
[~I~Al

C[sl-Ar'B+O

... ",0 0

[~
S2 [

-\ 2

-\

o]

s +3 -\ s(s+3)

+35+2

~+3

-25-1
s2

-5

].T = [,2. +3.+2 ~I
'-s 5+3 s(s+ 3)

5+3 s(s+3)

-25-\

,;

I.]

s
s

1]

Adj [sl-Al IsI-A

-2.-1

I
s+ 3 5(5+3)

Yes)
U(s)

[1

0 0] -1 .
_,;

[" .~.,

-2s-1
.3 <-3sZ

g.l

:][:]
1

+2.+1

Y(s) U(s)

...Same as obtained above

)....

Example 3.25:

The vee/or

[ I]
-1

2. is

UI)

<'igm oector of A =

[-2
-1

:< _ :

~ ~] Fmd III Ulgen

",,/,," of A correspandlng Solution:

10 rh. vector gw.m.

(VTU: JulyIAug.-Z006)

The eigen vector is thai vector whjd\ is non-zero such thai
AX) J'i X) = Eisen vector =

where

Xi

r ~]
l-1
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control

Theory

3 -46

Matrix Alge bra & Derivation of Tmnsfer FLlnctlon

Ai

Eigen value '" To be obtained

[~o]" [~~i]
-5-),.i )..i "

~ ~] ~] [-~-1 -2 ~:] [ -1 ~ A,[ -\ 0

S

...Corresponding eigen value.

Review Questions
1. D<rl"" .J. Dtfin.

v'" ''''''''for "Indio"

,rom s!aI, "",del.

2. What is ,h.,adtfistic

'is.,, ",,1"<5

"'IIUII;"" a"d

.i:e" _tors of a """FIX.
dillgon4li<nIi""

of.

systtm "",Irix"

?

4. Whrn to, gencmJisd 6.
7. 8.

,iso" IJ<dors or< US<d ? HIlW to "'" trnon ?

.5. Whol is nwdol .'o/.rix ? 51.,. il' imporl.=.

St.,. .d...n'.s," of
the 1'1"", to Redu,,, !he

",nla!, di"S"""/isali'",
g;"""
stat,

",,,,101

of "",1m"
X + [:]

0'

a maIm. ?

in di4gonal jo.rm, U(IJ and '1(1) '" [1 OJ X(I)
'tVh.iJt

X " [~ ~]
10. Fiwd tlte T.F. Df tlte

9. What I:f VRndu MOlldt! m.alriz. 'I' W/W11it exists?

'yo!'"''

is its imparlllnct 7

with foil",";,,!

oi
bl

X
X•

[_~ _~] X +
[~ ~~] X +

r~] [~Ju.

51.1.

IntHM.,

11. Y" /1 01 X
b 10 1/ X

<J

X

[~_~

~~lx+[~lu.
_!]
stal. n""ul. X(I) + [~] U(I)

Y~ll

0

O/X

11. Ob.W" lite T.F. Df lite X(I) Y(t)

,yo/,,,, having
~ [: [1 2) X(t)

'( - ",.. (5+ 2)(8+ 4)

A'

125+ 59

J

000

Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri"

4
Solution of State Equations
4.1 Background UptiU now the methods of obtaining state model in various forms and obtaining transfer function from the state model are discussed. It is seen that the output response depends on the state variables and their initial values. Hence it is necessary 10 obtain the state vector X(t) which satisfies the state equation X(I) '" A X(I) + B U(I) at any time r, This is called solution of state equations, which helps to obtain the output rcsponsl' of a system. Consider the state equario n of linear time invariantsystem
X(t) "

as,

A X(t) + B U(t)

The matrices A and B arc constant matrices. This state equation can be of two types,
1. Homogeneous and 2. Nonhomogeneous

4.1.1 Homogeneous

Equation

If A is a constant matrix and inp,·t control forces ore zero then the equation takes the form,
X(I) '" A Xl!)

.

. .. (1)

Such an equation is called homogeneous equation. The obvious equation is if input is zero.how output can exist 7 In such systems, the driving force Is provided by the initial condltlons of the system to produce the output. For example, consider a series RC circuit in which capacitor is initially charged 10 V volts. TIle current is the output. Now there is no input. control force Le.. external voltage applied to the system. But the initial voltage on the capacitor drives the current through the system and capacitor starts discharging through the resistance R Such a·system which works on the initial conditions without any input applied to it is called homogeneous system.

(4·1)

Urheberrec htl lch gcsc h(jutes Iv! ateri a

Modem Control

Theory

4·2

Solution

'of State Equation.

4.1.2 Nonhomogeneous Equation
If A is a constant matrix and matrix U(t) Is non zero vector i.e, the input control forces
are applied to the system then the equation takes nonnal form as. X(I} A X(I)
oj.

B U(I)

•.. (2)

Suth an equation is called nonhomogeneous equation. Most of the practical systems require inputs to drive them. Such systems are nonhomogeneous linear systems. The solution of the state equation is obtained by considering basic method of finding the solution of homogeneous equation.

4.2 Review of Classical Method of Solution
Consider a scalar differential equation as,

Cit -

dx

ax

where

x(O)

= Xo

... (1)

This is a homogeneous equation without the input vector, Assume the solution of this equation as, x(l)
At t ~ 0, x(O)

bo

oj.

bit

oj.

h:!r

oj.

...

+ ~~

... (2)
,.. (3)

The solution has to satisfy

the original differential equation hence using (2) in (1),
oj.

d dt

rbo

oj.

bl! + .,.

bkl

~

I

8

[bo

+ bit

oj.

•••

oj.

bkt

k

I

For validity of this equation, the coefficients of various powers of '1' on both sides. must be equal. .

..

..

bl bl b2 b3

abo- 2b2 abo

-

abl,

.••

kbk

~

abk

_1

.!. a hI = .!. ibo
2 2

= 2.
2!

i bo
.!.. a3 bo
31

1. a b2 = _1_
3

3x2

a~o =

bk

_!_ ak bo k!

and

x(O)

=

bO

Urbebcrrechtllch

qeschutztes

Materia

State Variable Analysis and Design

1.1 Background
The conventional systems, systems transform analysis uses arc modelled approach using to input, used to study or frequency transfer negl~cting associated function the behaviour domain approach. of linear which function time invariant ratio control lhc

the time domain

methods. conditions.

In all these is the Thus

methods,

of Laplace

of output

all the initial

this conventional

[aces all the limitations

with the transfer

approach.

1.1.1 l.imitations of Conventional Approach
Some of its limitations can be stated as : in obtaining approach. precise solution of any system, solution Output 1) Naturally, sign.i.fi.can! initial conditions loose. their importance in corwcntional 2) 11'e method is insufficient of higher order systems. 3) !t is not very much systems. 5) It is only applicable (,) The classical procedures method. which

and troublosome

10 give complete of Muluple

time domain Input Multiple

convenient

for the analysls

4) It giv~'S analy>.-;s of system

for s"m~ specific

type'S of inputs System s.

like Step. Ramp etc,

to Linear Time Invariant like Root locus, foil to give the optimal

Bode plot solutio"

etc. are basically' required.

trial and error

Hence it is absolutely nc«>ssary to USe a method of analysing systems which overeomee most of the "hove said diffi cul tics. 1110 modem method discussed in this chapter uses the concept of total internal state of the system con..idcring all .initial conditions. This technique which USCs the concept of state is called State Variable

Analy~15 Or SI~te Space Ana.ly$is.
Koy Point, Slale var;abl, " n,,/y.,;s is cllSc"liolly a time domain urProach bill il has ",,,,,ber of advQ,,'ages comp<lm;l 10 CO'IV",,/imwi '''<lhods of a>lllly.,;s.

(1 - 1) Urheberrec htl lch
gC5C

hutztes /vi aleri"

Modem Control

Theory

1·2

Slale

Variable

Analysis

& Design

1.1.2 Advantages
The various I) The method

of State Variable Analysis
of state variable analysi, are, takes into account to nonlinear npplied the effect of all in!tinl condi Iiens, as wen as time varying to Multiple Input sy"t~. Output systems,

advantages

2) II can be applil!d

3) It can be convenlently 4) The system em modern method.

Multiple conditions

be designed

for the optimal

precisely

by using

this

5) Any type of the inpu t can be considered

for designing

the system. adopted for the digital of the of the

6) As the method ilwolvl'S matril< algebra,
computers. 7)Th c state system. 8) The vector system .. variables matrix selected notation need greatly

can be ccrwerucntly

not necessarily simplifies

be the physical

quantities

the mathematical

representation

1.2 Concept
Consider Instant from

of State

a foutball match. Thescore in the football match must be updated at every the knowledge and Informa tion of the total score before that Instant. Thi.s

procedure of upd aring the score continues ti II the end of the rna tch when we get exact and p~ score of the entire rna teh, This upda ting proced urn has main importance in the understating Consider of the concept of state, as shown in th"Fig.

th" network

1.1
To find V nu\' the knowledge initial ca paci tor vol tago must be of the known

Fig. 1.1

Only information about Vln will not be sufffcient to obtain precisely the Vout at any time t 2: O. Such systems in which the output is not only dependent on the input but also on the initial conditions are called the

f""",~_

/77/7/7~
Z""'~ictiO!l

J
Flg. 1.2

systems wit/r t"tmory or d!fllllmic

sy5ltmS.

V ValOO<ty X Displacement

While if in the above network 'C is replaced by another resistance output will be depend en ! only applied Vin. Such systems system in which

capaci lor 'RI' then on the input of the

the output

depends only on the inpu t applied at I '" 0, are called sysltlllS with uro memory or

sl., ic systems ..

Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem

Control

Thoory example to Newton's

1·3 of simple mechaJrical
law of motion,

StateVarllble AnalysIs & Oe.tgn
system

Consider

another

as shown in the Fig. 1.2

Now according

.F
a

Ma. Acceleration of mass M Mdt
d

..
i.e.. Now velocity

F v(l)

«o»
1(lldl

kJ
M

at any time 'I' Is the result

of the force F applied
1 +1\11' 1(1)dt '0

10 the particle

in the

<mtirc past, v(t)

J

,

I(t)dt

1 M

'f·

/(1) dt

where t o '" lnltial time.

Now

~

J

fit)

dt

'" v(IO)

v(l)

v(lol +

, J
'0

I(t).dt

From the above values v(to)· of the velocities

equation

it is dear

that for the same input upon
01U"

fit), we get the different 10 and thevalue of

v(l) depending

choice of parameter

U v(tu) is known
unique

and the input

vector

from '10' 10 'I' is known
t

then we can obtain

a

value of the output

v(l) at llI\y time

e- to. ,haracterisatiOfl and

Ka.y Point ,Thus "",/inl ClmdilioM5 Le. memory affects tlur ~Ie.n sub,>tqllcnt beht!viou r,
Thus initial conditions descnbc the status

or slate of the system at t '" t I,. The state

can be regarded as a comp~ct and concise representation of the past hi.lory of the syst..m. So the state of the system in brief scvarates the future from the past 50 that the state contains all the information required to determine the response The state of the system concerning the past history of the system necessarily of the system for any given type 01 input. the combined effect of the values of

at any lime 'I' is actually

all the different elements of the system which are esscciat ..,d with the initial conditions of the system. Thus the complere. state of the sysrem <an be <onsldet<!d to be a ,,"ector having components which are the variables of syst.em which are.-tlosely ~od .. ted with

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control

Theory

1 ·4

State Variable

Analysis

& Design

Initial conditions. So slale can be defined as vector XII) called slate vector, This X(I) i.o, stale al any time ·r is ·n· dimensional vector i.e, column matrix n x 1 as indicated below.

X(I)
X,,(tj

Now these variables X 1(I) , X2 (I) called the stal.variables of tire systrm.

,

X" (I) which constitute the stale vector X(I) are

If stale al I ~ tl is 10 be decided then we must know X(tolondknowledge of the input applied between 10 ->11. This new state will be X(II) which will ad as initial slate to find out the stale at any time I > tl.This is called the updating of the slate. The output of the system at t "' 11 will be the function of X(t1) and the Instantaneous value of the Input at t .. t I' if any. The number of the state variables for a system is generally equal to the order of the system. The number of independent state variables is norm.ally equal to the numbee of energy storing elements (e.g.: capacitor voltage, current in indudor) contained in the system.

1.2.1 Important Definitions
1)

Slale:!he slale of a dY""mic system is defined as a minimal set of-variables such thai the knowledge of these variables at I .. to together with the knowledge of the inputs for , ;0, '0' completely determines the behaviour of the system for I >,t o. the slate 01 a dynamic Xn (II am nolhing bul the state variables. These are normally the energy storing elements eontalned in the system. Stale Vl!dor: The 'n' state variables necessary to describe the complete behaviour of the system can be considered as 'n' components of a vector X(I) called the state vector at lime T. The slate vector X(I) is the vector sum of all the stMe variables.
.0..

2) Siale Variables: The variables involved in dcl.ermining system X(I), are called the state variables, X I (I) , X2 (I)

3)

4) Siale Spaoe : The space whose co-crdtnate axes are noth",g but the variables wi!h time as the implicit variable is called the state space.
5) Stall! Tnjl!dory

'tate

: It is !he locus of the tips of the Slate vectors, with lim.e a. the

Implicit variable.

Urheberrcc htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri"

Modem Control Definitions

Theory

1·5
by considering second

State Variable order system

Ana.lysls & Design ;

can be expllined
$0

number of stale variables required is .2 say Xl (t) and X2 (t). State vector will be the matrix of order 2 x 1. Order is .2
X(I)
-t

[XlV)]
XZ(t) Xj(l)+

Le,

Xl!)

-+

X2(1)

-+

(vector addition)

The state spa"" will be II. plane in this case as the number of vlll'izlbies are two. Thus 8tale space can be shown as in the Fig, 13.

x, (I)

(0.0)

L",(,
Flg. 1.3
t= tt X(t])

X,(I)
X., (I,) X,(II

XI(I,I Fig.

1.4

NoW' consider

-+

= Xj(II)+X2(111

-+

-+

x, (I)

• X, ("I)

Fig. 1.5

Fig. 1.6

Now consider I = 12
X(!2J

-+

= XI('t)

-+

+ X2(!1)
Vl•

-+

The state trajectory can be shown by joining the tips of the two stale
and X(II)

xtoes i.e. X(I!)

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory

1." 6

Slate Variable Analysis & Design

1.3 Stats Model of Linear Systems
Consider Multiple Input Multiple Output, nth order system as shown. in the Fig. 1.7. Number of inputs Number of outputs m p

Slate ""'lable.

Fig. 1.1

Ul(l) U{I) :

u,m}
X(I) =

XI(t) Xl(l)

YI(I) Y1(1)

,Y(!) =
Xn(t) Yp(t)

U.,(t)

All are column vectors having orders m xl, n x 1 and p x 1 respectively. For sum a system, the slate variable represents lion can be arranged in the Eorm of •n,' first order differential equations.

--at '" Xl(l)
-d-tdX2(1)

dX1(I)

m

II (Xl'

X2 "

X~, UI ,Uz

Urn)

Urhcberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modern Control Theory

1 ·7

State Variable AnalySiS & Design

Wheref: fn

is the functional

operator.

Integra ring the above Xi(l)

equa tion,

=
n,

Xi (10) +

f I; rx.: X,
'0 stat e vector

,

X" U1 '

u,

LJlnl dl

where Thus uniquely.

i = 1, 2, 'n' state

variables

and

hence

at any

time

"t' Can be determined

Any "n' dimensional

time invariant

system

has state

equations

in the functional

form

as,
X(t) While outputs inputs. :. Functional = f (X, U) on the state of system and instantaneous

of such system nrc dependent

output yet)

equation ..

can b. wrltten where

as, operator.

g(X, U)

"g' is the functional

For time variant system, X{t) Y{t) Diagramatically

.

the same '"<luation.

C"n be writ.ten as,

fiX, U, t) ... , State equation g(X, U, tj .. Output equation

thls can be represented

as in the P,ig, 1.S.
U(I) Ins!an

tencoos lnpllt

It'lPul

UtI) - .......---<..,

YI!)
OIJ'!Put

XI~J
1fl.I\iat !tate

Fig. 1.8 Input-output

statl!

description

of a system

Urheberrec htlich gcsc h(jutes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory
The functional equations
COIn

Slate Variable

Analysis

& Design of system

be expressed

intarms

of linear

combination

states and the input as,

X\ "

au XI + ")2X2 ........

aln~

... hl\UI

... hl2U2 .........

bl", U",

""I XI+ a""X" + bn.l VI ...br>lU2 ......... b"", U", For the linear time invamnt systems, the coefficients all and bij are constants. Thus all the equations can be written in vector matrix form as,

Xn '"

"nlXz ......... X<tJ
X(I) U (I)

A X(t) .. B U(tl
Slate vector

I
0

matrix of order

x 1,

Inpul vector matrix of ord er m .x 1
Syslem matrix

A B

Or

Evolution

matrix of order n x n
In

Input nulrix

or eontrol

malri_x of order n x

SimllaJ"ly the output variables at time t can be expressed as the linear combinations of the input vartables and state variables at time t as,
YI(t) '" Cn XI(!) ... _ ..... Cln Xn{t) ... dll UI(t) ... " .... dim Um(t)

Yp(t) ~ "pI XI(I) ......... cpl X"{t) ... dp1 UI(t) ......... dpm Um(t) For the linear time invariant systems, the rocfficlenis Cij and d;j arc constants. the output equations can be written in vector matrix form as,

Thus all

yet) " C X(l) + 0 U(t)
where yet)

Output vector matrix of order p .x 1 Output matrb or obsetvatlon matrix of order p .x n
Di...,d lral1.!imi... ion matrix 01 order

C

o
The two vector eq\Ultions

p"m gyslem.

together

is called the state D10del of the linear

X(I) .. A X(t) Y(I) " C X(I)

B 0(1) D U(t)

... State equation

... Output equation

this is state model of a system.

Urheberrec htllch gcsc h(jutes Iv! at<:ri"

Modern

ControlTheory

1·9

Stale Varillble Anlllya'" & Design also lime dependent.

For linear lime-variant systems, the matrices A, B, C and Dare Thus,

X(I) = A(t) X(t}+ B(t} U(t)} For hnear time variant system Yet) = CIt) X(t) + D(t) U(t)

Consider a single Input .ingle output· system t.e. m = 1 and p = 1. But its order is 'n' hence n statl! variables are required to deflne state of the syslem. In such a case, the slate mod,,119
)«1)

1.3.1 State Model of Single Input Singht Output System

.

A X(I) + B U(t) C X(I) + d U(t) n ~ n matrix, B " n x 1 matrix 1 x n matrix, d " constant single scalar input variable

yell where
and A
C

U(t}

In general remember the orders of the various matrices. A " Evolution matrix
D '" Control => n " n

matrix

~nx

m

C " Observation matrix => p " n 0= Transmission matrix

=p"m

1.4 State Diagram Representation
It is the pictorial representation of the state model derived for the gtven system. It forms a close relationship amongst the state model, differential equations of the system and its solution. It is basically a block diagram type approach which is designed from the view of programming of • computer. Th.1> basic advantage 01 state diagram is when it is Impossible to select the state variables as physical variables. When transfer function of 5ystem is given then state diagram may be obtained firsl. And then by ASSigning mathematical state variables there in. standard state model can be obtained.

State diagram of a linear time invariant continuous system is discussed hero for the sake of simplicity. It is a pr"per interconnection of three bask units.
i) Scalars

ill Adders

iii) Integrators

Urbebcrrechtllch

gcschutztcs

Material

Modem Control Theory Seal aI'S are nothi ng bu I Ii Ire a mplifiers

1.10

StaUt Variable gain.

Analysis

& Design

haVing required

Xz(I)_TC~'{t)-Xz(')'Xl(l)

XiI)

(a)Sealar Fig. 1.9 AddLTS are nothing Integrators to obtain required but summing

. ,(blAdder

points. in"'grale the differentiation
Now Laplace integrators transform. are 01 state variable a.' 1/";' in of any of any

arc fur, cl=nts

which actually

state variable .. denoted So transfer the state functlon diagrams

X,II)-----rn------:

)(.,(1)

-I X,(I) dt

i_ntegr~lor ;,j always lis. W, th these three basic
units we can draw order systcID.

Fig. 1.9 (e) Key 'Po;nt:

The

Q~tpllt

of each
stir.t,a

inlegrQtor

i.~the sltlle ruTiable.

1.4.1 State Diagram of Standard Consider ~tandard

X(I) Y(t) So its state diagram

.

Mpdel

state model
A X(I) + B U(I) C XU) '. 0 U(I) will be as in ihe Fig. 1.10. and

Fig. 1.10 Stale diagram
The thick arrows indicate that there

01 MlMO sy,stem number of input, output and sla",

are multiple

variables, There must be n parallel integrators for n stale variables-The output of cad> integrator is a sepe zrate state vaneble. If such a state diagram for the system is obtained then thl! slate model from the diagram can be easily obtained.

Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes Iv! ateri a

Modem

Control Remarks

Theory

1 ·11

StII!t8Variable Analysis & OHi9n

1. To obtain the state mode! from state diagram, always choose oUIp"t of each integrator as a stale variabl e. Number of integrators always equals the order of the ~ystcm i.e.. "n' .

n..

2. Diffcr,.".tiators arc not used in the stale diagram as they amplify the inevitable noise. Exlllmpt" 1.1 : ObW" the s/Qte diJlgrmrl of 5150 system reprmllted I>y eqlUltilmS.
XIW

=

"t Xt(I)+
Ct

bl

urn.
Xl

X2W"
Xl.

"1. XI{I)+aJ

X2(t)+

b2 Uit)

QM Solution:

y(t) "

Xl(t) + c2 X2(t)

As there are 2 state variables

(t) and

(I). the tIVO lnll.:graJors nrc required.

U(I)

Y(1)

Fig. 1,11

1.5 Non Uniqueness of Slale Model
Consider a standard ,stale model for a system
X(t) y(t) A X(t) + B U(t) C X(I) + 0 U(I) (1) (2)

lei X " M Z where M is a nun si~gular cnnstantmatrix. Key Point: A matrix wh_ the original sill te variables.
ddmniruml is
IlQ"zntI

is called llollsi.lIgu!ar malrix.

This means Z Is new set of state variables which Is obtained by Uncar combinations of

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

Madam Control Theory
Xt>1Z hence

X '" MZ

..
1.12

State Varlabla Analy.11I & Da.lg"

Substituting in a stall' model
M~t) Y(I) :. Prcmulliplylng AM 2(t) + B U(t) CM Z~I) + 0 U(t) (3) by M- I ... (3) ... (4)

..
wJ.re

Z{I)

.

equation

M-1AM Z(I) + M":j B

vm

M-1 M
Z{t)

I l.e. Identity

matrix ... (5)

..
wmro

Ji.. Z(I) + fiV(t) M-iAM M-1 B
(:Z(I) CM a new stare model of the system.

A
fl
yet)

and

+ D U(t)

... (6)

Wh"",
Equations This shows
(5)

t

and (6) forms

that state model

ts

not a unique

property.

new

KIIY Point: Ally iillN' combilU!lious of .Ihe original set of slale lklriables results buo a IkIlid sd of state lltlriablos.

1.6 Linearization
Any general time

of State Equation
invariant system is sa ld to be in equilibrium, at a point

("0.

when.

Uo)

I
has a tcnde.m:y

X·~

f (Xv- Vol

A

0

I
are zero a t a poinl of equi llbrium. The system d lsturbed,

The derrva lives of all the sta te variables to lie a I the equilibrium

point unless and un lill it is forcefully

equilibrium

The state equation X(t) = f (X. 0) Can be linearized point (Xa, 0U). This is possible by expanding
only first order terms, neglecting

for small

deviations order

about an
Taylor

the state equation and higher

using

series and ronsidcring

second

terms,

U rheberrec

htl lch gcsc h (jutes

M ateri"

Modem Control Theory So expanding kth state equa tion,
~ = fk (Xc- Uol + . I~I
• _

1 ·13

-'"

SlatiiVariable Analysis & Design

a f/(X, U) ~>-ax--I XoXO . I
n V-UO

(X1-XIO)+

2:>--aU-;=-1 i

il fk(X.

U)I
X~XQ
U-U O

(Ui -

Up)

Now

fk(X",

Uol

=

0 at the equilibrium point

And let the variation about the. operating point is. X Iand
Hence

Xro

hence X = ~

!

Uj - UjO the kth state equation can be linearized as.

Xk

.In this equa.tionXk•
matrices of order

Xl and Uj are the vector matrices and the remaining terms are the
Hence

n " rn respectively. expressed in the vector rna trix form as,

n " nand

the linearized

equation

can be

z

X = AX + all

nu
ill! (ixz
.. ,

vx;ill, where
A <h1

ax.
illn

af2

-;r;;
ilf.

illl

-~h;;,."

is n x n matrix

~

ill"

iJx2
ilf1

~

of"

aUI aU1
B (JU1

ilfl

alz

au",
(JUm alz

illl

afl

ilU2
eln

Is n 'x m rna trix

ilfn
<lU,

auz

aUn,

<lIn

Urheberrcc htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modern Control

Theory

1 ·14

State Variable .Analysls & Design

All the partial derivatives 01 the matrices A and B arc to be obtained at an equilibrium state fX(p U~) Such matrices A and B defined above interms of partial denvanves are called the Jacobian matrices, Review Questio"s
1.

I'.>:pl.",

I"" <"""pi
l1nd

oi,IOIf.

2. lJr_fwe
Q.

i.·xpiain drL~' olltn.'~ing terms, f
b. SInle
V4't(;lJ'"

ShU( :t}Ilrinhle.5

c. SInh" i ntje.'Clory
i. SI'PIIf:

d. Sta'~
f{t,.vrn~itJnlll

ifwa ant'"

.1:, 1):p,ll1Ii~ adwmlll,g,~ of stale mt.,il1b!c mdlwd ~
4.

Writ,,,
1.1

,;Itorl "01" ,u;lU

on od"""I.S'" ."d Um;/aJum,,oj.,Me ."ria.!. 'pp,,,,,(.h. oj flit! sImI!,?
mod_tl.

5. Wrill"
6. l'rtlVt'

Ojl Jipjt.~rlur.timl of !talc .eqlUttlor1~.

Ore'

,rlO"W_IJ1l4IIf'P1j_'S9

DOD

Urheberrec htl lch

gC5C

hutztes Iv! ate,i"

State Space Representation
2.1 State Variable Representatron using Physical Variables
The' state variables are minimum number 01 variables which are associated wilh all Ihe

inilia] conditicns of the system. As their sequence is not important, the state model of the system is no! unique. But for all the stale models it is necessary that the number of sl"te variables is equal and minimal. This number 'n' indicates the order of the system. for
second order system minimum two state variables arc nc<;css"cry and So on. To obtain the state variables, Many II times, state variables. model for a given system, il is necessary to select the state the various physical quantities 01 system itself arc selected as the lhe currents must through va.lious inducto

for the electrical
across network the varieus analysis,

.y.stems,

rs and the voltage
by any method of state variables, foO'n so

"padtors

arc selected to be the state variables.TIlen
be written intcrms The equations must be rearranged

the equations and the inputs,

of the selected

thcir derivatives

in the standard

as to obtain the required

stale model.
QIi"

Key Point: It ;s import'''''1 0.,1 11u:<qualiou for dif/erm/jatiOll uf 1101;"''''(,''' tilt aif/erc"l;atioM of a"!loJher slale "",jable.
In Ihe mechanical such "S spring In gene.rat are responsible system.
Ill....

s/ak'Nlrmblc

,/,auld

systems

the displacements

and veloduos

of "nc'1:Y storing

clcm~'t1ls

and friction the physical

arc selected variables conditions,

as the slate variables. associated arc selected wilh energy storing clements, which

for iniHal

as the stale

variables

of the given

Eumple

2.1

Obl"j" 0"

stOle

mod,,1 of Ihe gi"",! cltlClrii:D1system. l

R
v,~t)

l

~t)_.J
Fig. 2.1 (2.1)

T

-I
(\Il·U :

JulyIAull.·200&)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ate,; a

Modem Control Tlioory

State Space Representation

Solution: There arc two energy storing clements L and C. So the Iwo state variables are current Ihrough inductor i(f) and voltage across capacitor i.e. vo{t).

XI(I)
i\iId U(I)

itt)

and

X:z(t) "" Yo(l)

y,(I) ~ Input

variable

Applying KVL to the loop.

vittI ~
Arrange it for di(O/dt.

itt) R + L

~F

di (t)

+

volt)

-<1";-'
t.c,

di (I)

XI(I) Y,,(I)

R 1 - --.XI(t)--X2(1) l. L

+- U(I)

1 L

•.. (1)

While

Voltage across capacitor =
~ i(l)

~Ji(l) dt
... (2)

..
i.e.

-crt
~(t)

dVo(t)

.

but

~vo(t) dt

= ~ (I)

~

t Xl(t)

J

The equations OJ and (2) give required ~tate equation. ~I(t)]
X 2(1)

[ i.e.

[-[h -I]
0

[Xl Xl(tJ

(t)] + [-I:]
0

U(!}

X(I) = A X(I) + B U(I)

While the output variable

Y(I) = vo(l) '" Xl(l)

..
i.e,

Y(I)

[0 I] [~~] + (0) U(I)
and D '" [01

YII) "" C X(I)

This is the requlred state model. As n '" 2, it is second order system. Nole : The order of the state variables is not important. XI(t) con be v,,(t) and
Xl(t) can be i(l) due ttl which state model matrices gct changed. Hence 51lt'C model is not the unique property of the system.

Urheberrechtllch

geschutztes

Material

Modem CO!llrol Theory

2-3

State Space Representation

I...,.

Exampl", 2.2:

Obl~ill

the slale """lei of Ihe give" e/"'Iricai lit/work jll II'I~ ssandard

form

R;t

8,,(t)

__----~----~--~4
Fig. 2.2 ~: U(t) " input" el(!)

Yet) " output"
Stat" variables : XI(I) " itt!),

e,,(l)
XJ(t) = ve(l)

Xl(!) " i,(l),

Writing the equations: ~~(l) i.e. dill!}

Ll dt
.LC;(l)

dill!)
+vc(t)

.

"aT-

1.1

- ._1._ ve(1)

1.1

1 1 U(t) -~ X}(t) Ll LI

... (1)

Then.,

L2

----.it + '2 (t) R,

di,(t)

..

1 R;a L2 "c(l) - 1.2 i2(1) ... (2) dvc(t) Cd(

and

---.rt
Xl(l)

dvc(t)

C'lt -C'.

1 . (.)

1, ()
t

.. ' (,3)

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztcs Iv! ateri"

Modem Control Theory Xl

2-4
0 0

State Space Representation

Xz
XJ

.

0

-~
1

1

C

1

- Lz

R2 f

Lz
0

[;:]+ ~.j
Xl. ~ [i

U(I)

-C

l.e,

X(t)

AX(t) .. BU(t)
i2(1) Rz X2(t)

and

",,(t)
Y(t),

Rz

Y(t)

[0 Rz 0] [~:]
~ eX(f) .. DU(t)

i.e,

Y(t)

where D ~ O. This Is the required state model, 2.1.1 Advantages The advan.!agcs 0,/ using available physical variables as the state variables are, 1. The physical variables which are selected quantitiCll and can be measured .. as the state variables are the physical

2. As state variables can be physically measured, the Iecdbaek may consists the information aboul state variables in addition to the output variables. Thus design with sta Ie feedback is possible.
3, Once the slate equations are solved and solution is obtained, directly the behaviour of various physical vanables with time is available.

But the important limitation 01 this method is that obtaining solution of such slate equation with "tate variables as physical variables is very difficult and time consuming .

. .2 State Space Representation 2

using Phase Variables

Let us study how to obtain state space model using phase variables. The phase vilrlables arc those state variables which are obtained by assuming one of the system variable as a stille variable and other stale variables are the derivatives of the selected, system variable, Most of the lime, the system variable used is the output variable which is US(.'<i to selc-ct the state variable. Such set of phase variables is easily obtained if the differential equation of the system !s known (If the system transfer function is available,

Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory 2.2.1 State Model from Differential

2-5

State Space Repntaenbltion

Equation by n'h order dHli'1'elltiai equatien

Consld.er a .linear continuous t:i.nm system represented
yn .. al\_lyn-l .. an_2 yn-2+,..+

a I 'l·+-aQ Y(t)
. n

;:;;: boU+bJ. U+~~.+bm_lum"_I +bmUm

." (1.)

In the equation, '{ (tl = -.-- .. ~ n . ill" Fot time Lnvariant constants. For the system, Y(t) U(I)
'l(OJ, YtO), ... Y(O)"-'

dY"ro

~..

denvattve of Y(tl. .

.

system, the coeffidenls "n _ t. an _ 2' . . . ao-

bo-

b"

. .. bm are

Output variable
Input variable

represent !he initial conditions

01 !he system.

Consider the simple case of the system in which derivatives of the control forCe U(I) arc absenl ThU!l
U(t)

:. yn .. lin _ 1 Y"

-

! ..... + al

Y + ao '((t) = hoU(t)

... (2)

Choice of state varlable Is generally output variable 'l(t) variables nc derivatives of the selected state variable '((t).
,.

illielf. And other state

X,(tj X2(1) X3(t)

Y(t) Y{t) = X,(I) Y(I) " XI(t)." X.(I)

Thus the various state equations are,
~(I) ~(t)

.

x. _ I(I)
x,,(I)

)(,,(1)

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory Note that only n variables x,. -I (I) gives nth slate variable Important
original

. State Space Repruentltion
arc 10 be defined
to

keep their number minlmum.

ThU!l

".,(1). Bul to complete stale model x,.{I) l, necessary, the selected stale Ivariables In the

: x,.{I);S 10 be obtained by substituting
equation

differential

(2). We have Y(I) '" XI' ),1) ..

x,_,

:';(1) " X~ . ..

\,,,-1 (I) = ".,(1), yn(I)
:. \t(I)

= x,,(I) 1<" _1(1) "
an_2
... + aJ X21+ ao XI(I) " bo Uri)
3n_l

+ an _ I x.,(I) .. an _ 2

:. J<;,(I);: -

ao

Xl

- 31

x,_ ... -

1<,,-1-

X""

bo U(I)

••• (3)

,Hence all the equations now can be expressed

in vector matrix form as,

Le.

r~:1 u. -II,
o
X

o

.

AX(I) .. BU(I) is e.. lledset of phase va.ri"blci. i variable

Such set of alate variables

The matrix A is called matrix inphase
aU elcmen.t!I as 1. 2) All other dements

form and il has following features,
contains

1) Upper off diagonal i.e, upper paralic! row 10 \he rnnin principle diagonal
except las I row arc zeros. of the coefficients

3) Last row consists of the negatives differential cnuation.

conlain<><l by the original

Such a form of matrix A is abo called Bush form or Compa.nion fonn. method Is aIso called companion form rcallZiltion_

Hence the

The output equation is,
Y(I) ~ Xl(!)

"tt)

[1

0 •... 0] X,,(I)

l.e,

Y(I)

eX(I)

where D ~ 0

Urheberrec htllch ge5c h(jutes M ateri"

Modem Control Theory

State Space Representation

This model in the Bush form can be shown in the state diagram as in thc
Fig,23.

Output of each integrator is a .tate variable.

U(')

Fig. 2.3 State dIagram for phase variable form Observe that the transfer function, of the blocks in the various feedback paths arc the coefficients existing in the original differential cqua tion. If the diffcrcnllal equation consists of Ihe derivatives of the input control fo"", U(t) then this method L~ not u se ful. In such a case, the sta Ie model is to be obtained from the transfer function. 1" Example 2.3; Construct the $tnfe model using pl'Q.le mriQbles by Ihe diffat71 tilll eqUIIlion, d yW + 4 d Y!I! + 7 dY(t) + 2Y(t) " sum dl·l dl2 ,It
2 2

if

"'e 5)I"leI"

is rit$cribed

Draw

Ihe sMte diagram.

Solution; ChI>QSeoutput Y(I) as the state variable XI(I) and successive derivatives of it give us remaining stale variables. As order of the equation is 3, only 3 stale vari.bles .,re
.Uowl'd. Xj(l)

Y(I) • • XlII) " yet)
~(I} "

..
and Thus

Xit)

"

CIt

dY(I)

U
Jt,(t)

Yet) "

2 d Y (t) 2 dt
•._ (1)

X2(1)

Urheberrec htllch ge5c h(jutes M ateri"

Modlltm Control

Thoory

2-8

Statu Space Ruprosentailon .,. (2)

To obtain Xj{t), substitute state variables obtained in the differential equation. d3Y(tj
"dll' =

•••

Y(I)=dt[Y(!)j~dt=:S(t)

d'·,

dX)'

;. XJ(t) ... 4X:J(t) .+ 7 Xz(t) .. 2)(1(t) "' 5U(t) ~(1) '" - 2X1{t) - '7 Xz(t)-

4Xl(t) + 5 U(t)

... (3)

The l'qU"tion5 (1), (2) and (3) give us required state equation.

..
where

X(t)

AX(t) + BU(\)

A

[-~
X1(t)

1

0

-7

i]
=0

and

B

= [~]

The output is, yet} yet} where
C

CX(t) + DU(t) 1100], D

This is the required state mood using phase vanJlb les,

Fig. 2.4 2,2.2 State Model from Transfer Function Consider a system characterized by lim differential equation containing derivatives of the input variable U(t) as,

Y"

+ an _ 1 y" - 1 + .. , + at

Y + au yet)

"' boU + b1

U+

... + bm ~ 1 um - 1 + bm Um .. , (1)

Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri"

Modern Control Theory

2·9

Slate Spa~e Representation

In such a case, ;t ;s advantegcous to obtain the transfer function, assuming zero initial conditicns. Taking Laplace transform of both sides of equation (1) and neglecting initial ccnditions we get,
Y(s) [5n +

a" _ 1 sn

- I + ,. _ + al s + "01 '" [bo + sbl + _.. + bm _ 1 sm- 1 + bm

sotl

U(s) ... (2)

Y(s)
U(.)

Practically in most of the control systems m " n put for general
m
e

Cl$C,

let us assume

n,

From such a transfer function, state model can be obtained and then zero Initial condltions can be replaced by' the practical initial conditions to get required result, 'There arc two methods of obtaining state model (rom the. wunsfer function, 1) Using signal flow graph approach
2) Using direct decomposition of transfer hmcli,,,, 1) UsIng Signal Flow Graph Approach

The Mason's gain formula fur Sign.! [lew graph slate.s thae, T(s} where
II

!:T,". ---;:,-

Gain of k'h forward path System dotcrminant
1-

{l: "II loop gains}

+ "II corniJinati("'_' \ non -touching

1

r ~ Goi;, x (iain product locps

on
j

<,Itwo ~ - ...

1Ik

Value of "cUimlnating

those loop gains and

prod \1cL~which are touchi ng to k t" forw atd path

Aecordtng 10 thiS formula, construct the signal [low graph from the transfer function. From (he si""",l now graph .. state model can btl obtained. While obtaining si!,';noJ now graph, try to get the gains af branches as, 'l/s' representing the inlegralL>rs. This helps to obtain tho required slate model. To clear this idea, Jet us consider the system having transfer function,

Urheberrec htllch gC5C hutztes Iv! aleri"

Modem Control Theory - T(s)
bu +sbj +slbz a'o,";'5a1 +s2a2

2 • 10
+s~b3 +S3 Y(s) U(s)

State S pace Representation

lilll +'[2112+T)"') +14t14

1 -[LAil joopg~insl

4- [L Gain

products of 2 non" touching loops J......

Assuming that there arc no combinations of 2 and more non-touching' loops. Loop gains an" And let II, ~ 1I2 ~ 63 =
L\~ ~

1 i.e. all loops are touching to all the forward paths bz ~ ...,-, T3 = s bl bo

Hence forward path gains are,
1'1

=

b:l>Tz

-1' s

T4 '" s3

Involving various branches having gains 2, tho signal flow graph can be obtained as, s .

Fig. 2.5 Each brancl- with gain!
s

represents an integrator. Output of each integrator is a state

variable. According to signal flow graph, value of the variable at the node is an algebralc

Urhcberrec htlich gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory

2.11

Slate S pate Representation

sum of all the signals entering at that node. Outgoing branches docs not affect the value 01 variable. Hence Irorn signal flow grnph.
Xl b2U + X. - "2 Y bIt! t X] - al Y

X-.!
and

~
Y

bot! - ao Y b], U + Xl

Substituting

Y in all the equations,
X! ... (In) ... (Ib)

x

],

... (lc)

These "'lUll lions give the required slate model.

where

and
where

Y{t)

ex(t) + DU(t) [1 0 OJ,

Now as Y(O), Y{O), Y(O), U{O}, U(O) and V(O) arc the known inilial condltlorus, using the derived state model. the initial conditions Xt(O), X2(O) and X3(O) can be obtained. llJ+ Example 2.4: A feedback !IIjStl'11lis ch"'nel ..../ud Uy I/Ie closed loop IrmlSfer functkm.

.

C

.

D = b3

Draw a suitable signal flow gr~ph alld ob,a;"
Solullon : Divide N and D by s3 ~+~+,~ s S2 s
~2

",e slale model.

1

3

3
~J 53

T(,5)

1+':;'~.2+_!_

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control ..

Theory

2 ·12 2 - s'

Stale Space Representation

LI TI

- S:'

And til - 4.2 - '4.3 - 1 with no combinations of non-lo,;<Nng loops. 'There are many sign" I flow graphs which can be obtained 105' tisfy above transfer functiun. MeUtod 1 : The signal flow graph is ... shown in Ihe Fig. 2.6. s

Fig. 2.6

From signal flow graph, Y Xl

x,
X2 .. U - 2Y - -2X1 + X2 .. U
X3 .. 3U - 3Y ~ - 3X1 .. Xl .. 3U 3U - Y - - Xl .. 3U

x.z
X3

Hence the state model is,

l.e,

X

AX(t) .. BU(t)

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

Madem

Control

Theory

and

yet) ~ [1 0 OJ

[;~l

2 -13

State Space Representation

i.e.

Y(t)

'" X(t)

with D = 0

Method. 2, When m ~ n and. m <; n then signal flow graph can be constructed So asto obtain matrix A in phase variable form. This is shown in the Fig. 2.7.

-1

Fig. 2.7
From the signJI flow graph,

and Hence sin Ie model has,

A = [~ 0 B = [~} -1 -3 ':2J I D=0 Thus the rnatrix A is in phase variable form.

n

C" [33

11 and

Note: Whcnm c n, then transmission matrix D =

o.

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri a

Modern Control

Theory

., of Transfer Funttion

Slate Spate Representation

21 UsIng Plrect Deo:.omposilion

This is also called d lrect
function is rearranged

programming,

i.n a speclfle

fonn. To, understand

clement with transfer function

:;-+,,_

In this method. denominator of transfer the rcaITangcmen I" consider an

From block diagram algebra, the transfer fUIlction of

minor feedback loop is 1 +~H for negative feedback.
G l+GH

Let

s+a

where

G

! = integra lor s

and H = a

The feedback is nega Iive and the transfer function can be sirn ula ted as shown in th" Fig, 2.B. wi th a minor feedback loop.
H

Flg,2.B

Now if such a loop is added in. the forward path of Mother such loop then we get !he block diagram ns shown in the
Fig. 2.9.

r~--~----~-~------------, , ,, , , , , ,

s+a

,

b

Fig. 2.9
The transfer function now becomes,

Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri"

Modern Control

Theory

2 ·15 [s ... 0)

Slate Space Representation

where

x~

U now the entire block shown in the fig. 2.9 is added in the forward path of another minor loop with an integrator and feedback gain 'c', we gct the transfer /unction as. ~ sY"'c where Y = sX ... b
Thus the denominator of transfer 1

/unction becomes
programmed as discussed above.

s (sX + b) =

Is

(s

Is ....

j ... b)] = 5~ ... as' ... bs

Thus denominator
52 ...

of any order Can be directly Is (5 ... a) .. b]

as ... b ""

i ...,2 a

+ bs .. c ""

lI(s + ill s .. b] s + c)

s4 ... as2 ... bs2 ... cs ... d => 1([ (s ... a] S ... b] s ... cJ s + d) and So on.

Now if numerator is b1s + bo and dcncnunator. Simulation
the block diagram is as shown
-

is obtained dln.'dly then.

in the Fig. 2.10. But -

5~

_jd~which is differentiator and is .• ,I

not used to obtain slate model. In such a case. take off point 't' is shifted before t.hc last
integrator block.

Fig. 2.10 (a)

U(s)

,, , , ,~ - ~ - ~ ~ - -~- - --,"

-~-[>-Fig. 2.10 (bl

I-",","{Xl--_Y(s)

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ate,; a

Modem Control

Theory

2-16

State Space Represo ntali on

1---00---

YI.)

, ,.... ~ ~ .... ~~

.;.;

- '" - .. -~,
.....

Fig. 2.10 Ie) According 10 block diagram reduction rule, while shifHn~ take off point before the block. the lake off signal must be multiplied by transfer function of block before which it is to be shifted. Thu.s we get block of bl with take off from input of last mtegrator. Similarly if there is a term b2s1 in the numeral;'; fuerishlft lake off point before one more integrator as shown in the Fig. 2.10 (d).

~--~--.

..
~~~

,

~

- --

- --

-

b,

-

-..- ..

..In : r
I, I:

t

[
....~~ ~~~_I

_ .. .....;
; ,,,

!. i-,

~

:

....

:5,

.. '
~,

no>

....::

:

I'Il.1mer;Mor

Sm".:I1IOfl'of Dc, • b .!5i, • :b~

Fig. 2.10 Cd) Thus for any order of numerator, complete simulation of the transfer function can be
achieved.

Then assigning
phase variable

output of each integrator as the atate v..rI~bl", stale model in the

form can be obtained.

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory

2·17

Stats Space Representation method of a ~slem w/wse

I.....

Example 2.5:
transfer funcuon

Obtai" state model by direct d~cumpositioll
is 552 +65 + S ,3 + 3s' +75 + 9

Y(s) U(s)

Solution:
,3

Decompose denominator as below, + 3.' +7s+ 9 = {([s+3]s+7h+ 9}

Its simulation starts from (5 + 3) in denominator

Fig. 2.11 To simulate 'numerator, shift take-off point once lor 65 and shift twice lor 5,2. Therefore complete state diagram can be obtained as follows.

UII)

V(I)

Fig. 2.12 Assign output 01 each integra tor as the state vari~ble.

U rheberrec hit lch

gC5C

h utztes M ateri"

Modem Control

Theory

2 -18
U(I) ~ 9X) (I) ~ 7X~ (I) - 3X 3 (I) 8Xt(l) + 6X1(t) + 5X)(I)

State Spaco Re presentation

x,
While output, .', Sta te model Y(I) ~" X(I) and y(!) ~

AX(I) + BU(t) eX(t) + DU(!)

where

A

o [010J -70 -9

1, -3

B~

-raJ0

II
form.

C~18651,
The matrix 'A' obtained is in the Bush form or Phase Variable

2.2.3 Advantages
The various advantages implement. variables the the hence mathernaucally function design.nd powerful lime of phase variables ;.(". direct programming method
"T'<',

I, Easy

10

2. The phase variables need not be physical 10 cbtain slate model. 3. It is easy to establish the link between domain design using phase variables. 4, In many obtained, simple cases, just by inspection,

transfer matrices

A, II, C and

D can

be

2.2.4 Limitations
The various ltnutattons of phase variables arc, hence hence they loose not the practical for the I, The phase variables arc not the physical varieblcs significance, They have mathematical importance, 2. The phase measurement variables are mathematical point of view, are not available variables

available

3. AL.,Q these vadi\blcs

[rum 1.'(U'!,trol oint of view. p arc the

4, The phase variables are the output and H~ derivatives, if derivatives or input absent, But it is difficult to obtain second and hig.hcr derivalives of output.

5. The phase
mathematical

v",iable form, thollgh special, analysis point 01 wicw. canonical

docs

not offer arc very

any

advantage used

from

Due to all these disadvantages. the state model,

variables

popularly

to obtain

Urhcberrec htl lch gcsc h(jutes M ate,i a

Modem ContralTheory

2 ·19

Stale Space Representation

2.3 State Space Representation using Canonical Variables
This method of obtaining the stale model using the canonical variables is also called programming method and matli" A obtained u:;ing this method is said to have canonical form normal form Of Foster's form, The matrix A in such a case is a diagonal matrix and plays an imporlant role in the slate space analysis.
parallel

The method is basicall}' function T(s).

based

on Partial

Fraction

Expansion

of the given

transfer

Consider the transfer function T(s) as, ~ bus"' + b1s",-1 + b2."'-L+ ..• +bm T(s) ~ (s+a j)(s+A2) ..,,(s+lIn) Case 1 :
partial fraction
J.{

the degree 'm' is less than 'n' (m < n), then T(s) can be expressed using
expansion as,

Now each grOllp ~ shown in the Fi g~2.13.
, I I

s+n]

can be simulated

using the minor loop in state diagram as

-------------------t

I I

The outputs

to be added
output.

of all such grouP" are to obtain the resultan t

~-----------------,
Fig. 2.13 as,

,

To add the outputs, all the groups must be connected in parallel with each other. The input U(s) to all of them is same. Hence the method is called parallel programming. The overall state diagram is shown in the Fig, 2~ 14 the state equations

Then assign output of each integrator as a state variable and write

X,

.

-

a)

X,

+

U

While X AX + BU

and Y =

ex

+

DU

Urheberrec htlich gesc h(jutes M ateri"

Modem Control

Theory

2-;Z0

Slale Space Represenlation

tJ(.)

Yeo)

, , , ,
I

L_

:

~--

..

Fig. 2.14 Fostat's

form simtilation

0

where

A

""'2

0 .. 0 .. 0

,

,

[1
~

0

...

j ,{]
and D~O
ci
I

C

lei c2 ..... 0;,1

Case 2 : If the degree m = n i.e. numerator and "the denominator have same degree then first divide the numerator by denominator and then obtain partial fractionS of remaining factor.
T(5) N(s)

D(s) = Co"

i=-l·

I

I,

'$-+3,

where

Co ~ Constant obtained by dividing N{s) by D(s),

In such a case, the state diagram for partial fraction .terms remains same as before and in addition to all the outputs, Co U(I) gets added 10 obtain the resultant output as shown in the Fig. 2.15.

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri"

Modern Control
U(.}

Theory

2·21

Slate Space Repl1lSentation

Addl Uonel "Iemen!

Fig. 2.15 State diagram for Tis) with m .. n Thus the state model consists of the matrices as,

C '" [tt

Cz ...

c.,J,

0

= Co
roots

Key Point: 11msfor m .. "., direct tram;mission matrix D aists in the state ,"odd.

When the denominal~r DCs)of the transfer function T(s) hasnon-repeated then the matrix A obtained by parallel programming has following reatures.
1. Matrix A is diagonal i.e.. in canonical form or normal form.

2. The diagonal conststs of the c!cmcnts which are the gains of all the feedback paths associated with the integrators.
3. 11t" diagonal eletn~nts are the poles of the tr.nsfer fundi on T(~I.

1_

Example 2.6:

Db.!";n tile slote model by FO$I$r'$fonn oj a >yslem wlltJSe T.F. is.

($+1)(. + 1)(> +3)

Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory Solution: Find out partial. fraction expansion

2-22 of It

State Spaco Reprosontatlen

(• .;.1)

(s-" zf(, + 3)

S:~

+

4

~

2.5 S ----s+l

,+2

65 +-,+3

:. Total state diagram

is as shown

in the Fig. 2.16.

U(I)

FI,~.2.16 U(I) - Xj(t) , X2 = U(I) -2)(2(1) ,

U(I) - 3X3(t) y(tJ
.. and State model is, X y 2.5X 1 (I) - 8X2 (I).;. 6.5X 3 (I)

AX+BU

ex+

DU

where

A

-I O. 0] [ o -2 0 o
0-..1

e

12.5 - 8

6.51 0 = 0

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control Theory

2 ·23

Stilte Space Representation

2.3.1 Jordan's

Canonical

Form
of T(s) arc the par~lIcl

In the Foster's form it is assumed IhM the <00'" 01 denominator non-repeeted, simple and distinct. But ,if the roots <lTC repeated then programming results matrix A in a form called 1ord"n', Canonical form. Let T(s) has pole at
T(s)
S" -

a] which is repeated for , limes as,

~

. ... . N(s) (H," ]J'(s+" 2) ... (s+n n) fraction for such a case is,
Co

The method of obtaining: partial
T"(s) " __ '_1_. + '2 (s +all' ('+<1"1)'-1 If the degree of N(.)

...···... (5+a I) + (s'+a ~) ,. ....... (s+a n)

',',,·1,.

... m cn

nnd D(s) is same i.e. m " n we gel ndditlcnnl

constant Co as,
.,_ Ol.;;;;;;n

This can be mathematically "><pTCSSed as,
'" rn < n

... m~n Key Point: Note tlmt in partial fraction expansion, a srp~rllt£ eoeffieitlll
far eou/, paWtn' af repea ted fnctor. is 0,55111".01

10 simulating such an equation by parallel programming,. 1 connecting (s ...a I) groups, r times in series fitst

(Hal)'

1__ is simulated by

While all other dis tinct factors are
S+tJ'l

simulated by parallel programming as before. The components of each power of _(..1 ) 10 be added toget output is 10 be taken from output of each integrator which arc connected in series, This is shown in the Fig. 2.17. Now assign state variables al the output of each intcgratur. For series inlegrat!>no, assign. the stale variables .from right to left, as shown in. the Fig. 2.17"

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jules M ateri a

Modern Control Theory

State Space Representallon

\ , \,,,
, ", , , , ,

, ,
,

l
ill" __

, , ,

"--I
~ .. _L

:, , ,

, , , , , , ,

~.. .!

.f

: ,
,

: :

c v

,s
.E

E

-rl

or

t,,
:

!
, , ,
I I

!

}

.;
A
E

~

" ~
.!!

'" ..,

~

!

.

..

"' ::

Do ~

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c h(jutes M ateri a

Modem Control For series

Theory the state equations

2 ·25 arc,

State S'pace Representation

integrators,

While for parallel

integrators,
'"

the slate equations + U(I)

are,

x:,. + I

-;12, X, +1

While

Y(I)

CtXl'i'-

("2X2 + ,.. +

c[" Xt +

(':r

+

1

Xr

1

+ ...
Key Point, Hence

oj.

c-ri Xn

YW !u.s .ddirimwl cD urI) term
has matrices

if m

= 11-

the state model

in the fQrm,

=a1forrtlme5~

I-a"
o
?,
,

r
I

Ele,,-,en\
lfbrr~'1.1imes 0 0 --------,,--···0

0 , .... 0

o o o
0
0

-a,
0

0
0 A= Jordan blOck 0

" . "".
-a,
----·1

1 .---- 0

0

0 -------··----··0
0·----·· , .. 0

O'-""-a'1

0 ,-,-, 0 0···,· 0

-,

,
0

0 ---------··0

~iEl:l

",············0

0

0

0

: ······0

a. ~9. l
~

;
:

""---"0

~
OJr\

0 ... only d'agonal

~

etcmerus

Fig. 2.18
Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ale,i a

Modem Control Theory

2 ·26

State Spece Representation

0)
o
: I
1

,-1 rimes

B

0 1

The matrix 0 is zero jf m " n and is 'CO'if m " n, The matrix A in such a case has a Jordan block for th~ repeated factor and many times A is denoted as /' X(t) " JX(t) .. BU(t) The matrix A '" J has the following features.,
1. The principle diagonal consists of aU the poles of transfer function with repeated

... For repeated

roots

pole 'r' times and other ncnrcpeated poles. 2. Upper off dlagonal consists of (r - 1) times unity element, as indicated in the Jordan block. 3. All the remaining elements are zero, N ole that the matri~ II has 'r - I" zeros and all other clements as uni ty. The rna trlx C has all partial frnction CQ(!fflcicntscl' c~ _.. <;,_ 2.3.2 Advantages of Canonical Variables

The main advantages of canonical variables are 1. The matrix A is diagenal
2. The diagonal dement is very important in the mathematical

analysis.

3. Due to diagonal feature, the decoupling bclw~n

the stale variable is possfble. This

means all 'n' differential equations arc independent IIf each other. Thus

Xl

depends

on XI

alone,~ depends on X~ alone and so on. Such decoupling is important in system dcstgn from controlltng point of view. 2.3.3 Disadvantages of CanonIcal Variables

The main. disadvantages of canonical variables is slrnilar to the phase variables. These arc not the physical variables helta' pmdic"lly dJJfkuJt to measure and. coruroi, Hence such variables arc not prnclical1y advantageous, though mathematicallyare very important,

Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Modern Control Theory

2-.27

State Space Representation w/,o,;e T.F:

lno+

. 1 ,S~-=~~ (5+1)2 (.s+"l)

Example 2_7:

Obrllin. II,e s/al'

"'VIM in lo,d","~ catronirul farm of a syslt'"

Solution

: Finding partial fraction expansion, T(s) "' ~ .. _. _8_ + C (S+ 2)2 (H 2) (s + 1)

Take LCM on right hand "ide and equate numerator with numerator of T(s),
;.A(s + 1) + B(s .. 2) (s .. 1) +

Gs + 2)2

"' 1

Equate coefficients of all powen< of s on both sides, a+c A+31l+4C
A .. 2B+4C

0, 0,

... from power of

sl

'" from power of s ... from constant term

Solving we gel, A" - 1.. B" - 1, C" 1

Simulate first term by series integrators while other nonrepeated integra tors.
U(I)

terms by parallel

V(IJ

Total simulaUon is,

Xl

.

Fig. 2.19

Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri"

Modern Control Theory

2 ·28
AX. BU and

State Space Representation

:. Stale model is ,X
A

y

=

ex.

DU

C

=

[-I

-I

Ij,

D= 0

The rna trix A consists of J orda n block. Noto: If some of the poles of T(s} are complex in nature .• then a mixed approach can be used. The quadrauc or higher order polyncmlalhavmg complex roots can be simulated by direct decomposition while real distinct roots can be simulated by the parallel programrnmg using canonical variable, the example .2.8 below explains this procedure. Important

11* Examplo 2.8: C()mbilmliOlI oJ Direct D«omposiliOlI modd JOT the g iVl'n 1·.FT(s) ~ . 2 ... (, + 3)(~2 +2s +2)

and I'osltr·s Form. Ohtuill 1/,. stase

Sol uti on ; Obt..in partial frocticns as,
"1"(") = (~+ 3)(.2 .2 +2s+2) ..

....A... +
.+3

. [I....C s:z+2s+2

Find LCM on right hand side and equate numerators of both sides,
.. A(,l

+2s+2)+(Ils+C)(s+3)=2

As' Equating

+

2As+.2A + Bs~ +C:s+ 3B.+ 3C = 2

coefftctcnrs of .11 powers of s.
Ai" B 0 0 0 C A .2 "5 ' 2 B=-"5'C=S
-c="S+3

2A+C+3B",O

.2A + 3C ",.2

2A + C - 3A C-A

..

2A + 3A = .2

S<)lving,

A

2 2
S

"1"(5)

=

2 5 + (5+ 3)

2

s'

+20+:2

_L + .+ 3

2

-sS+:s

.2

.2

{(s i" 2)" + 2} directly.

The quadratic

s2 ..

2s .. 2 having

complex roots is decomposed

Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M aleri"

Modern Control

Thco.ry
~$

2 -29

Stale Space Representation

:.Complcu, "tau, diagram is

shown in the Fig. 2.20

U(I)

Fig. 2.20

X3 and Y(t)

U(I) - 2X2 - 2)(.3 ~ XI(t) + ~ Xl(f) - ~XJ(t) AX .. BU and Y ~

:.Stnte model is, X whore A

ex

[

-~

o -2

~

~] , B -

-2

[~l
1

e '" [-.;.-.; ~.D"'Q ~] ~ -~
Note tha t in such a case matrix A does not ha ve any speci fie form.

2.4 State

Model

by Cascade

Programming

Form or Gullemin'.s Form. This can be effectively used when both. numerator and denominator can be factcriscd.
In sum form, group n pole and zero together and arrange given transfer function as the product 01 011 such groups. Then simulate each group separately and conned all such simulations in cascade to gel complete simulation. Then assigning output of each tntegratcr as a stale variable obtain a stale model in standard form.

This is .1,0 ca.lle-dl'ole-Zero

Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes M ateri a

Modem Control

Theory
_ s+ n

2 - 30

State Space Representation

Simula non of group , Consid er ,." b First simulate denominator _1---.:. s in the Fig 2.21 (a) and then as discussed earlier a
se o
(5

simulate the numerator
f:""'_ , ,_ --

+ a)
-.,. I I

J5

shown, in. the Fig. 2.21 (b).

,

r , ~ ~ ~-__ ~ ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ __

{al

s

1

~

,
(b) ~:~

b

Fig. 2.21 Simulation of a group of pole-zero '... Example 2.9 : Oblain II,. .Ial. model of asyslem [unc! ion is by cascade programming ·who.... tnmsfer

T(~! '"
Solution:

Y(s}" Uis)

(5+ 2)(5+ 4] s (5+ 1) 15+ 3)

Arrange the given T.f. as. below
Yrs) Uj~) 2) (;'+1)
(5+

(s + 4) (.+ 3) Group 2

J.. Group 1

~

Group 3

J.

Now simulate each group as discussed and connect all of them in series to obtain T(s). The complete simulation is shown in the Fig, 2.22.

'. -,

Fig. 2.22 Now

Xz"

.

-

3X:1 +2XJ

+X)

.

Urheberrec htllch gcsc hutztes Iv! ateri"

Modem Control Theory and Substituting X 3 into Xl equation,

2·31

State Space Representation

Model

becomes,

'[0 - 3I 0,
o
and
i.e, Y(t) Y(f)

1:

t] [XI]
Xl XJ

+,

[11',V(t) I
.'I.

0 -1

XI(t)
(1 0

OJ [;~ ]
XJ

So

A

C

-

[~
(1

··3 0

11 B-1 11 -IJ

n

1

001

D-0

Feature of A: Feature 01 Matrix A is it, principle dlagonal contains gains of all feedback paths associated with all Integrators i.e, 0, -3, -1 in above problem. All terms below principle diagonal are zero. Thus the features of A having all poles of T(s) in its principle diagonal still continues in this method of programming.
This method

is also known

as Iterative

programming.

Examples with Solutions
110+ Example A~""n e 2.10:

Oblain tile Mate model of Ihe give" "./work ill lile slandl1rd form.
Rt=l!l C!=lF 211 = 30 C, = 1 F

R2
R,

Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ate,i"

Modem Control Theory

--~~----------------------~--~-----+Q_~R' • .. +

2 • 32

State Space RepresentatJon

'nput UII) I

_!

.."?. "~'"
R2

.~T-

~f

"2 {II)
QUIPU!

Fig. 2.23 Solution: Selecting sill!" variables as voltages across capacitors R,
Cj

C\ and C2

i.e, c1 ~nd c2,

Xj(t)

c2 Applying

~ X2(t)

U(I)

Kirchhoff's laws,

0------'-----'----0

',I)

.
t
{II) Fig. 2.23 (a) ... (I)

U(t) - i I R I .• C I - R, (i I - i 2) ~ 0 U(I) = i,R1"'cl+R2(il-;,)

for second loop

J

~, - ;) I<·.l -

c, -

(i 2 - ; I) RI

0

... (2)
Solving sirnultuncously U(t)
{,',I

equations

(1) and (2) i2 R] + ci

;1 (R] + R,l~

i I R;2 ... lJ (R~

R J}''_

c:]

Substituting

the values, Uil) illl +2)-lil·,c1
. .. (3)

i.e...

U(t)

... (4) Multiply equation (~l by 2 and equation (4) by :>

2 U(I)

3~,
3 Uri) + 30,

- oil

:1-

'15i2 + 3('2

and adding

lH~

+

x2

+ 2111

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M a\eri a

Modem Control Theory

2 ·33

State Space Represenbltion

-.. (5) Now from equntion (3)
U(I) '" 3'1 - 2il -l- c1

Substituting i1 from equation (5)

O(t) ". (6) ...Capac!", current is C ldvc/dtl

,., (7) and
__ de.,

Cl(f!

.. .Capecrtor current is C [dve/atl

C2
d~l

dt
X2

IT U t) + IT XI -

3 - ('

1-

3X ITl

.. , (8)

and

y(t)

., State model is, X where
A

AX +

nu

and Y "
1, '6" 3'

ex

+ DU

[

-33 1

12 1.;1-] [33_" 8]
IT -it

n

3

C " 10 ,11 D"

I

0

I

Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! ateri"

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