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Islam and Environment V1.2PDF

Islam and Environment V1.2PDF

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Published by Saeed AbdulRahim
A 41 page article with 40 topics on "Islam and Environment" with 199 References from The Quran, The Hadiths and a variety of other Resources.
A 41 page article with 40 topics on "Islam and Environment" with 199 References from The Quran, The Hadiths and a variety of other Resources.

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Published by: Saeed AbdulRahim on Feb 10, 2011
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Saeed AbdulRahim

e-Mail : Islamic_Wisdom@yahoo.co.uk web: www.scribd.com/islamicwisdom7

Islam & Environment
An Analysis of the subject drawing from two of the Main Islamic Sources, The Quran and Hadith plus additional material from a variety of on-line and other sources. __________________________________________________

All Praise be to Allah.
1. “Allah is the Light of the heavens and the ea rth. The Pa rable of His Light is
as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant sta r: Lit from a blessed Tree, a n Olive, ne ithe r of the east nor of the west, whose oil is we ll-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touc hed it: Light upon Light! Allah doth guide whom He will to His Light: Allah doth set forth Parables for me n: and Allah doth know a ll 1 things.”

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The Oneness of the Creator. Inner Truth Inherent in all that ALLAH has Created. Seven Heavens. {Multiplicity of Cosmic Systems} Heaven or Sky? The Heavens and The Earth were One Single Entity. The Heavens without any Support The SUN in Islam The MOON in Islam

11. The

Stars in Islam 12. Meteorites Astrologers, Fortune Tellers & Satan 13. The Earth in Islam 14. Attributes of ALLAH relating to the Heavens and the Earth.

Quran [24:35]



and Day 16. The WEATHER in Islam 17. How do we Compute the Years and Measure Time? 18. ALLAH is The Creator of Time 19. How do we find Our way when Travelling? 20. Accountable Living. 21. In-Exhaustiveness of God’s Words 22. Good Word and It’s Parable with a Tree 23. The Foundation of Environmental Protection 24. Embryology in The Quran 25. Water and It’s Importance 26. Seas in Islam 27. Clouds in Islamic Ecology 28. Wind and It’s Importance in Islamic Ecology 29. Mountains in Islamic Ecology 30. The Lightning in Islamic Ecology 31. The Rain in Islam 32. Plant Life and Pastures in Islamic Ecology 33. ALLAH’s Miracle-The Seed Grains 34. POLLINATION in Islam 35. Metamorphosis 36. ALLAH INSPIRES LITTLE INSECTS 37. ANIMALS and INSECTS PRAY FOR THE TEACHERS of Beneficial Knowledge 38. Conservation 39. Islam and Medical Sciences 40. Animals in Islam


2. The Oneness of the Creator.

The ―Oneness of the Creator‖ known as Tawheed which is the fundamental Article of Belief in Islam and every thing else flows from this .2n terms of the Environment, it is essential to know and realise that we, the dwellers of the Earth, do not own any thing but that ―All‖ that is in the Heavens and the Earth and in between ―Belong to GOD‖, so important is the emphasis on this concept of Ownership of everything by Allah and ―NOT by Us‖, that He has chosen to mention it in nearly 28 places in the Quran.3, what this means is, that, if we do not posses what we use, then, we cannot use it in every which way we like, but will have to account for the use of our resources to God on The Day of Judgement. This concept of ―Accountable Use‖ has an implied understanding that we are but Trustees of this Earth for all that is it and around it.

3. Inner Truth Inherent in all that ALLAH has Created.
Everything that ALLAH has created he has done so in accordance with an Inner Truth i.e. to fulfil a definite purpose Within His Planning Wisdom with the implication that everything in the Universe – whether existent or potential, concrete or abstract is meaningful, and that nothing is accidental. 4 Our Sustainer has not created anything without purpose 5 , a belief stated in another place that ―We have not created heaven and earth and all that is between them without meaning and purpose 6 The Quran states that ALLAH has created the heavens and the earth in accordance with an inner truth, and that whenever ALLAH wishes to create some thing He does not have to physically construct it, but that he but merely says to it ―Be‖ and that thing comes into existence. The Quran then states that His will be the Dominion on the ―The Day‖ when the trumpet of resurrection is blown. The Quran then asserts that ALLAH knows ―ALL‖ that is beyond the reach of the created being‘s perception as well as that can be witnessed by a creatures‘ senses or mind. 7 The presence of an Inner Truth at the Root of All Created things is stated again in the following words of The Quran.
“We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them otherwise than in accordance with [an inner] truth, and for a te rm set [by Us]: and yet, they who are bent on denying the truth turn aside from the warning which has been conveyed unto them”.8

The reference in the above verse to the ―term‖ set by God to all creation is meant to stress the ―Contrast‖ between Creation‘s finality in time as well as in space compared with God‘s Own timelessness and Infinity. 9

2 3

Quran [112:1-2] Quran [2:284; 3:109; 3:129; 3:180; 3:189; 4:126; 4:131; 4:32; 4:170; 4 :171; 6:12; 7:128; 7:158; 10:55; 10 :66; 10:68; 14:2; 20:6; 22:64; 24:64; 25 :2; 30:26; 31:26; 34:41; 42:53; 43:85; 53:31; 85:9] 4 M. Asad in his Note No.11 accompanying his translation of Quran [10:5] 5 Quran [3:191] 6 Quran [38:27] 7 Quran [6:73] 8 Quran [46:3] 9 M. Asad’s Note No. 11 accompanying his translation of Quran *10:5+


4. Seven Heavens. {Multiplicity of Cosmic Systems}
Figuratively, The Quran talks of Seven Heavens10, but in reality there may be many more or Very Many. As regards the linguistic use of the term "seven heavens", it is to be borne in mind that in Arabic usage - and apparently in other Semitic languages as well - the number "seven" is often used synonymously with "several" just as "seventy" or "seven hundred" often means "many" or "very many" This, taken together with the accepted linguistic definition may explain the "seven heavens" as denoting the multiplicity of cosmic systems. –

5. Heaven or Sky?
The Quranic term Sama' ("heaven" or "sky") is applied to anything that is spread like a canopy above any other thing. Thus, the visible skies which stretch like a vault above the earth and form, as it were, its canopy, are called sama': and this is the primary meaning of this term in the Qur'an; in a wider sense, it has the connotation of a "cosmic system". 11

6. The Heavens and the Earth were One Single Entity.
The Heavens and the earth were once one single entity states The Quran and then Allah parted them asunder and made out of water every living thing. 12

7. The HEAVENS without any Support..!
The Quran states that...
“It is God who has raised the heavens without any supports that you could see, and is established on the throne of His almightiness; and He [it is who] has made the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him]. He governs all that exists. Clearly does He spell out these messages, so that you might be certain in your innermost that you are destined to meet your Susta iner [on Judgment Day]. Le ., "so that you might realize that He who has created the universe and governs all that exists is equally able to resurrect the dead, and to judge you in the life to come in accordance with what you did when you were alive on eart h".(Quran Ref: 13:2 ) ”13

As regards the "raising of the heavens without any supports" visible to man, it should be borne in mind that the noun sama' denotes, primarily, "something that is above [another thing]", and is used mostly in its plural form samawat - to describe (a) the visible skies (as well as, occasionally, the clouds), (b) the cosmic space in which the stars, the solar systems (including our own) and the galaxies pursue their course, and (c) the abstract concept of the forces emanating from God (since He is, in the metonymical sense of this word, "above" all that exists). To my mind, it is the second of these three meanings of samawat to which the 'above verse refers: namely, to the spatial universe in which all aggregations of matter - be they planets, stars, nebulae or galaxies - are, as it were,

10 11

Quran [2:29] M. Asad in his Note No. 20 that accompanies his Translation of Quran [2:29] available at www.islamiccity.com 12 Quran [21:30] 13 Quran [13:2]


"suspended" in space within a system of unceasing motion determined by centrifugal forces and mutual, gravitational attraction.(Quran Ref: 13:2 ) 14

8. The SUN in Islam
The Quran states that it is ALLAH who has made the Sun, a source of radiant light, and the Moon a light reflected and has determined phases for them so that we might know how to compute years and measure time. None of this has ALLAH created without an Inner Truth (mentioned earlier in this article). Clearly does ALLAH spells out these messages for people of innate know ledge. 15. The concept of Various Phases of the Sun and the Moon and by extension of the other Constellations, is mentioned again in the follow ing verse of The Quran: “[At His behest] the sun and the moon run their appointed courses;”

In the Arabic Text of the above verse, The noun used for Lamp is “Diya' and and that used for light is “Nur”(some times also spelt as Noor) but these Nouns are often interchangeable, inasmuch as both denote "light "; but many philologists are of the opinion that the term “Diya” (or daw') has a more intensive connotation, and is used to describe "a light which subsists by itself, as that of the sun and fire" - that is, a source of light – On the Other hand, “Nur” or (Noor) signif ies "a light that subsists by some other thing" (Lane V, 1809, on the authority of Taj al-'Arus ): in other words, light due to an extraneous source or - as in the case of the moon - reflected light.(Quran Ref: 10:5 ) 17 . The designation of the Sun as a Lamp and the Moon serving up Reflected Light is mentioned again in the follow ing verse of The Quran: “...and has set up within them the moon as a light [reflected] and set up the sun as a [radiant] lamp?” 18 When The Quran says that ALLAH has not created this (The Cosmos, Constellations etc) otherwise than in accordance with truth" – what it is saying is that ALL the Creations by ALLAH, He has made to fulfil a definite purpose in consonance with His planning wisdom (Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi): implying that everything in the universe - whether existent or potential, concrete or abstract - is meaningful, and nothing is "accide ntal". Cf. 3:191 - "O our Sustainer! Thou has not created [aught of] this without meaning and purpose (batilan)"; and 38:27-"We have not created heaven and earth and all that is between them without meaning and purpose, as is the surmise (zann) of those who are bent on denying the truth".(Quran Ref: 10:5 ) 19. Thus, The Quran says, Hallowed be ALLAH, for it is He that has setup in the skies great constellations, and has placed among them a radiant light [Sun] and a Light Giving Moon. 20 Why is there Not a Cataclysmic Collision Betwee n The Constellations ?
14 15

M. Asad in his Note No. 4 that accompanies his Translation of Quran [13:2] available at www.islamiccity.com Quran [10:5] 16 Quran [55:5] 17 M. Asad in his Note No. 10 Accompanying his Translation of Quran [10:5] available at www.islamicity.com 18 Quran [71:16] 19 “ Note No. 11 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 20 Quran [25:61]


The Quran states that neither the Sun can overtake the Moon nor the Moon the Sun, hence the Night cannot usurp the Day nor can the Day outstrip the Night, and the reason why there is NO CATALC LYSMIC COLLISION between the various elements of the cosmos such as the constellations is, that All of them float through space in accordance with ALLAH’S Laws who made the cosmos in the first place.21 Worship of Heavenly Bodies is Prohibited in Islam. Worship of anything or anybody “Other than Allah” is strongly PROHIBITED in Islam, and this includes the worshipping of heavenly Bodies as was the practice in the days prior to the Ministry of Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh). So, The Quran calls for the Adoration of ALLAH and NOT of the Sun or the Moon, or for that matter any other heavenly body, as these are signs of ALLAH who has created them. Thus, The Quran calls for the Prostration in adoration of ALLAH as it is Him whom we should offer worship to. 22 This, according to Razi(a writer of an exegesis of The Quran), connects with the phrase "calling [one’s fellow- men] unto God" in verse 33 of The Quran. God is the sole cause and source of all that exists; and whatever exists is but a wondrous sign of His creative power. Hence, it is a blasphemy - apart from being unreasonable - to ascribe real power (which is the meaning of "adoration" in this context) to anything created, whether it be a concrete phenomenon, or an abstract force of nature, or a set of circumstances, or even an idea.(Quran Ref: 41:37 ) 23

9. The MOON in Islam
Like in all other mentions of the creation, here also, The Quran states that Hallowed be ALLAH who has setup in the skies great constellations and has placed amongst them a radiant lamp i.e. the Sun, and then has also placed in amongst the constellations a light giving Moon. 24 However, the Moon’s Light is described as a Light Reflected.25 The Quran refutes the worship offered by some to the Sun and the Moon, and states that, amongst ALLAH’s signs are the Sun and the Moon and the resulting Night and Day resulting from their celestial movements. Adore Not the Sun or the Moon, but prostrate yourselves in adoration before ALLAH, who has created them. 26

New Moons


The Quran often talks about various matters in a conversation form of style with Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh), and, in this instance, the conversation takes the form of a predictive question, and then also gives the answer to that question in the following words: “THEY (the people) WILL ASK thee about the new moons. Say: "They indicate the periods for [various doings of] mankind, including the pilgr image." 27

21 22

Quran [36:40] Quran [41:37] 23 M. Asad in his Note No. 33 Accompanying his Translation of Quran [41:37] available at www.islamicity.com 24 Quran [25:6; 71:16]] 25 Quran [10:5] 26 Quran [41:37] 27 Quran [2:189]


The reference, at this stage, to lunar months arises from the fact that the observance of several of the religious obligations instituted by Islam - like the fast of Ramadan, or the pilgrimage to Mecca (which is dealt with in verses 196-203)- and the celebration of the Two Annauls Festivities called The Eids are all based on the lunar calendar, where the months rotate through the seasons of the solar year. This fixation on the lunar calendar results in a continuous variation of the seasonal circumstances in which those religious festivals and observances are performed (e.g., the length of the fasting-period between dawn and sunset, heat or cold at the time of the fast or the pilgrimage), and hence a corresponding, periodical increase or decrease of the difficulties involved. In addition to this, reckoning by lunar months has a bearing on the tide and ebb of the oceans, as well as on human physiology (e.g., a woman's monthly courses).28 The Quran also talks about the various phases that the Moon is commanded by ALLAH to go through 29

In the Course of the Various Celestial Movements

- None can Overtake the

The Quran states that The Sun, the Moon and the resulting Nights and Days must each float through space in accordance with the Laws established for them by ALLAH in that neither the sun can over take the moon nor can the night outstrip or outrun the day. This is stated in the following verse of The Quran:“[and] neither may the sun overtake the moon, nor can the night usurp the time of day, since all of them float through space [in accordance with Our laws].” 30 {Pl. See 6 other verses included in this footnote}

The Moon’s Light is a “Reflected” Light
As mentioned earlier, T he Quran explains that the Moon does not have any light of it’s own but merely ref lects the light of the Sun and the phases of both of them have been established so that we might know how to compute the years and measure time. None of this has ALLAH created without an inner truth and he spells out these as messages for people w ith innate knowledge. The Qura n states these facts in the following words: “He it is who has made the sun a [source of] radiant light and the moon a light [reflected], and has determined for it phases so that you might know how to compute the years and to measure [time]. None of this has God created without [an inner] truth. Clearly does He spell out these messages unto people of [innate] know ledge” 31



It may be that in the days gone by, people drew omens from the solar and lunar Eclipses, so, to set aside this erroneous belief, Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) issued a statement stating that:

28 29

M. Asad’s Note No.165 Accompanying his translation of Quran [2:189] Quran {36:39] 30 Quran [36:40; 6:96;7 :54; 14:33; 16:12;21:33; 5:5]

Quran [10:5]


“The sun and the moon are two signs of Allah; they do not ECLIPSE on the death or life of anyone. So when you see the ECLIPSE, bring Allah to remembrance and say Takbir (pronouncement that “Allah is the Greatest”), pray and give Sadaqa (Charity)." 32 In acknow ledgement of the Purposeful Creating Power of ALLAH who has created the Sun and the Moon, their various phases and movements can also bring them together and hide one behind another, that special voluntary prayers were instituted by Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) as stated in his following Hadith: “When the sun Eclipsed in the life-time of Allah's Apostle an announcement was made that a prayer was to be offered in congregation." 33 All, the Creation of the Constellations, their celestial movements and phases are a reminder to the mortal man of Who has created all of this. In this context, The Quran asks human kind to consider the Moon. 34 In the present case, the truth that has to be stressed is the imp lied statement that just as the changing phases of the moon and the alternation of night and day are the outcome of God-given, natural laws, so, too, a sinner's suffering in the hereafter is but a natural outcome of his deliberate wrongdoing in this world. 35 The following verses of The Quran are thought to refer to the Eclipses , asking us to consider: “And the moon is darkened” 36 “And the sun and the moon are brought together” 37 “And the moon, as it grows to its fullness” 38 *** “And the moon as it reflects the sun!”39

Eclipses are a Reminder of the HEREAFTER
Solar and lunar eclipses are two of the signs of ALLAH w ith which He scares His slaves and reminds them of some of the things which will happen on the Day of Resurrection, when the sun will be wound round and will lose its light and be overthrown and the stars will fall (cf. al-Takweer 81:1), and the sight will be dazed, the moon w ill be eclipsed and the sun and moon will be joined together (by going into one another, or folded up, or deprived of their light) (al-Qiyaamah 75:8-9). This is why Muslims should be alarmed by eclipses. The Prophet (peace and blessings of ALLAH be upon him) used to fear ALLAH very much, and one day he came out in an agitated state, thinking that the Hour had

Prophet Mohammad’s Teaching Statement known as Hadith, from a collection known as Sahih Bukhari Vol 2, Book 18. Eclipses. Hadith 154 33 A Hadith (Prophet Mohammad’s Teaching Statement) taken from a collection known as Sahih Bukhari Vol 2, Book 18. Eclipses. Hadith 155. 34 Quran [74:32] 35 M. Asad in his Note No. 23 Accompanying his translation of Quran [74:32] 36 Quran [75:8] 37 Quran [75:9] 38 Quran [84:18] 39 Quran [91:2]


begun, when the sun was eclipsed during his lifetime… This is indicative of the great extent to which he kept the Hour in mind and feared it. We, on the other hand, have become negligent and most people no longer think of eclipses as anything other than a natural phenomenon which they go out to watch with special glasses, carrying cameras. They limit themselves to the worldly scientific explanation without understanding the reminder of the Hereafter which it brings. This is one of the signs of hard-heartedness and a lack of c oncern about the matters of the Hereafter. It reflects a lack of fear of the onset of the Hour, and ignorance of the aims of Shari’ah and the reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings of ALLAH be upon him) used to feel fear when these eclipses happened. The Sahaabah (may ALLAH be pleased with them) used to stand to pray the eclipse prayer, because they believed that if indeed the Hour had come, they would not then be counted negligent of their prayer, and if this eclipse was nothing to do with the Hour, then they would not lose anything by praying, for they would have earned a great reward. We ask ALLAH to make us among those who fear Him and who are afraid of the Hour. May ALLAH bless our Prophet Muhammad. 40 The earliest Qur'anic instance of the adjurative particle wa used in the sense of a solemn, oath like assertion - a calling to witness, as it were - meant (as in the expression "by God!") to give weight to a subsequently stated truth or evidence of the truth: hence, I am rendering it here and elsewhere as "consider". In the present case, the truth thus to be stressed is the implied statement that just as the changing phases of the moon and the alternation of night and day are the outcome of God-given, natural laws, so, too, a sinner's suffering in the hereafter is but a natural outcome of his . deliberate wrongdoing in this world 41

11. The STARS in Islam
The Heavens and the Earth created in “ Six – Aeons” The Quran tells us that the Heavens and the Earth were created in “Six-Aeons”. It states this in the follow ing words: VERILY, your Sustainer is God, who has created the heavens and the earth in six aeons, and is established on the throne of His alm ightiness. He covers the day with the night in swift pursuit, with the sun and the moon and the stars subserv ient to His command: oh, verily, His is all creation and all command. Hallowed is God, the Sustainer of all the worlds! [Quran 7:54] The aeons are not meant to be viewed in terms of the human understanding of time but refer to six time phases in Allah’s reckoning. As a rough guide, 1 Day in the After Life is said to be equivalent to 10,000 years in human reckoning. “Verily a

Day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning .”42


Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al -Munajjid

41 42

M. Asad in his Note No.23 Accompanying his translation of Quran [74:32] Quran [22:47]


Allah has made the night and day and the sun and the moon subservient to his laws so that He can assign them to be of service to us, and in doing so, He has decreed “messages for people who use their reason. 43 Prostration and Worship of ALLAH by the COSMOS The worshipping and prostration to ALLAH by all the creation is a recurring theme in The Quran. This includes the sun, and the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees and the beasts is mentioned. Where as those that have been allowed by ALLAH to possess “Free Will” such as human beings and Jinns (genies), if they consciously defy ALLAH then they will inevitably have to suffer in the life to come. And, “ “he Whom Allah shall scorn on the Resurrection Day will have none to bestow honour on him states The Quran. For Verily Allah does what He wills . 44 STARS decorate the Skies. The Quran states that Allah has “Adorned” the Skies nea rest to the earth which means that there are Other Skies further away from the Earth and hence the point made at the beginning of this article about the Multiplicity of Cosmic Systems, with the beauty of the stars.45 Guidance for Travelle rs The use of the Stars to chart out travel directions is clearly brought out in The Quran in the following two verses: “And He it is who has set up for you the stars so that you might be guided by them in the midst of the deep darkness of land and sea: clearly, indeed, have We spelled out these messages unto people of [innate] know ledge!” 46 “as well as [various other] means of orientation: for [it is] by the stars that men find their way.” 47states The Quran The message inherent in the above two passages of The Quran is, that just as men of thinking orientate themselves using the stars, they should find their way in the overall conduct of their life through the Lord an Sustainer of the Stars, ALLAH. Ibrahim’s (Abraham) Spiritual Development A Story is given in The Quran about one of the ways how Ibra him’s (Abraham) spiritual development took place “so that he can be inwardly sure”. One evening he beheld a Star which seemed to outshine everything else that he had se en, so he exclaimed, “This is my Sustainer”, but later that evening that bright Star set, so Ibra him said, “I love not things that Set and go out!” Then, the following morning Ibra him focussed on the Sun which was bigger and many times brighter than the St ar the he had beheld the previous evening, so this time he exclaimed, “This is my Lord, this is the biggest thing ever”, but later that evening even the biggest thing that he had ever seen also Set...and then it
43 44

Quran [16:12] Quran {22:18] 45 Quran [37:6; 67:5] 46 Quran [6:97] 47 Quran [16:16]


dawned on Abraham that there is some one bigger than The Sun and all the Stars and every thing else, and when that dawned on him, he suddenly fell down in prostration and prayed: This story of Ibrahim’s Spiritual Development is narrated in the following verses of The Quran: “And thus We gave Abraham [his first] insight into [God's] mighty dominion over the heavens and the earth - and [this] to the end that he might become one of those who are inwardly sure” 48 “Then, when the night overshadowed him with its darkness, he beheld a star; [and] he exclaimed, "This is my Sustainer!" -but when it went down, he said, "I love not the things that go down."49 “Then, when he beheld the moon rising, he said, "This is my Sustainer!"-but when it went down, he said, "Indeed, if my Sustainer guide me not. I will most ce rtainly become one of the people who go astray!"50 “Then, when he beheld the sun rising, he said, "This is my Sustainer! This one is the greatest [of all]!" - but when it [too] went down, he exclaimed: "O my people! Behold, far be it from me to ascribe divinity, as you do, to aught beside God!” 51 “Behold, unto Him who brought into being the heavens and the earth have I turned my face, having turned away from all that is false; and I am not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him." 52 Yusuf (Joseph) a nd His Dream of 11 Sta rs The Quran has devoted a whole chapter, No. 12, to the Story of Prophet Yusuf (Joseph). We are told that Prophet Yusuf had a dream in which he saw the Sun, The Moon and some stars were prostrating to him. 53 As the events in his life unfolded over time – Yusuf was appointed as head-of-food and grain silos during a time of severe famine, and that was the time when his father (represented in the dream by the sun), his mother (represented by the moon) and his brothers (represented in the dream by stars), not know ing that it was Yusuf, were prostrating before him to seek his favour of generous distribution of rations. The full story of how Yusuf’s brothers conspired w ith each other to take him to a picnic with the intention of dumping and abandoning him in a well f rom w here he was picked up by some travellers and then sold to the the Vizier of a town whose wife tried to seduce him and then put the blame on Yusuf causing him to be detained in a prison for a long time, where he exhibited his in nate know ledge of inte rpreting dreams which in turn lead him back into the presence of the Vizier who then subsequently appointed Yusuf as head-of the grain and food silos in the time of an extreme famine when his

48 49

Quran [6:75] Quran [6:76] 50 Quran [6:77] 51 Quran [6:78] 52 Quran [6 :79] 53 Quran [12:4]


father, his mother and his brothers prostrated before him seeking his favours thereby fulfilling the premonition of his dream – is mentioned in Chapter12 of The Quran. SIRIUS the Brightest Star also gets a mention in the Qura n. Sirius the brightest star in the heavens is a star of the first magnit ude belonging to the constellation Capis Major gets a mention in The Quran with a rhetorical question asking “Who is the Sustainer of Sirius?”, and The Quran itself gives an answer to it’s own rhetorical question with an Idiomatic Phrase addressing ALLAH as “The Rabb (Lord) of Ash-Shira (Arabic Name of Sirius), this idiomatic phrase is used as a metonym for the Creator and Upholder of the Universe which includes the Star Sirius. 54 All Points of Sunrise In Chapter 37 after Stressing ALLAH’s “Oneness” in the following words “Verily, most surely, your God is One” 55 The Quran lays stress (again) on Allah being The Sustainer of the Heavens and The Earth and of all that is between them, but then adds another very interesting concept that Allah is the Sustaine r of A ll Points of Sunrise 56 The stress on the various "points of sunrise" (al-masha riq) brings out the endless variety of all created phenomena as contrasted with the oneness and uniqueness of their Creator. The mention of "the points of sunrise" and omission of "the points of sunset" in the wording (though not in the meaning) of the above phrase alludes, I believe, to the light-giving quality of the Qur’an spoken of in verses 1-3. (Quran Ref: 37:5) 57 ABBHORRANCE of the Occult Sciences using Sta rs a nd Pla nets Endeavours to divine the future by means of astrological speculations are strongly condemned in Islam. One of the verses in The Quran on the subject of Occult Sciences using which some people try to speculate the future events, The statement that ALLAH has made the heavens "secure" against such satanic forces58 obviously implies that He has made it impossible for the latter to obtain, through astrology or what is popularly described as "occult sciences", any real knowledge of "that which is beyond the reach of human perception" i.e. the Unknowable Unknown (al-ghayb). 59 The Quran states very clearly that those who seek to learn the “unknowable” by stealth will be pursued by a Flame of Fire. This is stated by The Quran in the follow ing words: “So that anyone who seeks to learn [the unknowable] by stealth is pursued by a flame clear to see.”60

54 55

M. Asad’s Note No. 36 Accompanying his translation of Translation of Quran *53:49+ Quran [37:4] 56 Quran [37:5] 57 M. Asad’s Note No.2 Accompanying his Translation of Quran *37:5+ 58 Quran [37:7] 59 M. Asad’s Note No. 16 Accompanying his Translation of Quran [15:17]


Thus, all attempts at predicting the future by means of astrology or esoteric calculations or at influencing the course of future event s by means of "occult sciences" either now or ever will be treated with a flame of fire.61 Those who make attempts to learn the unknowable will be repelled from all sides adds The Quran. 62 – The Quran returns to the theme of adorning the skies nearest to the earth with lights (stars) in another verse63 and here maintains additionally that they (the stars) have become the object of futile guesses for the evil ones amongst men apparently referring to the astrologers. This relates to all attempts at predicting the future by means of astrology or esoteric calculations, or at influencing the course of future events by means of "occult sciences. Their "reaching out towards heaven" may be a metaphorical description of a state of mind which causes man to regard himself as "self -sufficient" and to delude himse lf into thinking that he is bound to achieve mastery over his own fate. 64

12. Meteorites Astrologers, Fortune Tellers & Satan
The Islamic explanation of meteorites that we see falling through space is that they (the Meteorites) are lumps or bits of stellar that are ordered by Allah to be detached from the bodies of the stars and serve as missiles to drive a way the Satan who “stretches his neck” up to the skies to catch a bit of the Communication that is ongoing between Allah and the various Angels assigned to tasks in the conduct of affairs of the people and the world. It is thought that Satan who manages to catch only a little bit of that Divine Communication in the conduct of the affairs, then whispe rs what he has managed to catch into the ears of the so called Astrologers and Fortune Tellers, and that’s how these Astrologers and Fortune Tellers appear to their audience as being know ledgeable of the future, but it is nothing of their knowledge or efforts but it is merely what Stan has whispe red into their ears, and Allah has prepared for them both i.e. Satan the whisperer and the people whom he whispers to, the PENALTY OF A BLAZING F IRE. 65

Satan – A brief Description
In the context of those who indulge in or practice occult sciences strongly condemned in The Quran calling such acts as satanic deeds, it will be useful to have a brief explanation of the Islamic View of Satan. The term Shaytan ("Satan") -derived from the verb shata na ("he was [or "became"] remote") -often denotes in the Qur'an a force or inf luence re mote from, and opposed to, all that is true and good (Taj al-'Arus, Raghib): thus, for instance, in 2:14 it is used to describe the evil impulses (shayatin – plural of shaytan) within the hearts of "those who are bent on denying the truth". In its widest, abstract sense it denotes every "satanic force", i.e., every impulsion directed towards ends which are contrary to valid ethical postulates. In the present context, the phrase "every satanic force accursed (rajim)"-like the phrase "every rebellious (marid) satanic force" in a similar context in 37:7apparently refers to endeavours, strongly condemned in Islam, to divine the future by means of astrological speculations: hence the preceding reference to the skies and the
60 61

Quran [15:18, 37:9; 37;10] Quran [72:9] 62 Quran [37:8] 63 Quran [67:5] 64 M. Asad’s Note No.9 Accompanying his Translation of Quran *72:8 -9] available at www.islamicity.com 65 Quran [67:5]


stars. The statement that God has made the heavens "secure" against such satanic forces obviously implies that He has made it impossible for the latter to obtain, through astrology or what is popularly described as "occult sciences", any real know ledge of "that which is beyond the reach of human perception" (al-ghayb). 66 List of Arabic star names This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars. In Western astronomy, most of the accepted star names are Arabic, a few are Greek and some are of unknown origin. Typically only bright stars have names.

History of Arabic star names 67
Very old star names originated among people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula more than a thousand years ago, before the rise of Islam. However, many Arabic language star names sprang up later in history, as translations of ancient Greek language descriptions. The astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, who lived almost two thousand years ago in Alexandria, Egypt, collected ancient descriptions of 1,025 stars in a book called The Great System of Astronomy, Published around the year 150 A.D. Ptolemy's book was translated into Arabic in the 8th and 9th centuries and became famous under its shortened Arabic title, the Almagest. Many of the Arabic -language star descriptions in the Almagest came to be used widely as names for stars. Later Muslim astronomers introduced the use of observatories in the observation of the stars, and discovered many more stars, which they recorded in various Zij treatises. The most notable of these is the Book of Fixed Stars written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (know n as Azophi in the West), who thoroughly illustrated all the stars known to him along with their observations, descriptions, positions, magnitudes, brightness, and colour. In Europe, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, many ancient star names were copied or translated incorrectly by various w riters, some of whom d id not know the Arabic language very well. As a result, the history of a star's name can be complicated. N.B. For a full List of the Arabic Star names visit : www.scribd.com/i slmicwisdom7/arabic star names The list does not contain all documented Arabic star names • Some stars may have more than one Arabic name • Some star names may be composites of Arabic and Latin words

13. The Earth In Islam
When reading verses about the Earth in the Holy Qur'an, we find strong indications that The Earth was originally a place of peace and rest for humans:


M. Asad’s Note No. 16 accompanying his translation of Quran [15:17]


The Credits are acknowledged to the Islamic Crescents' Observation P roject (ICOP) website from: http:/ / www.icoproject.org/ star.html


Is not He [best] Who made the earth a fixed abode, and placed rivers in the folds thereof, and placed firm hills therein, and hath set a barrier between the two seas? Is there any God beside Allah? Nay, but most of them know not! [Quran 27:61]

The Earth is important to the concept of interrelation. Human beings are made from two components of the Earth — dust and water.
And Allah hath caused you to grow as a growth from the earth, And afterward He maketh you return thereto, and He will bring you forth again, a [new] forth bringing. And Allah hath made the earth a wide expanse for you. That ye may thread the valley ways thereof [Quran 71:17-20]

The measure of importance that Islam places on the subject of the earth during discourses on Environment can be gauged from the fact that the Arabic word for "earth" (ard) is mentioned twice in this short quotation and in The Qur'an as a whole the word occurs no less than ―990‖ times68 , a simple measure of its importance. The Earth is described as being subservient to humans…. The Earth is also described as a receptacle…. Even more importantly, the Earth is considered by Islam to be a source of purity and a place for the worship of God. This means that the Earth is to be used to cleanse oneself before prayer if water is unavailable…. Thus it is not surprising that the Islamic position with regard to the environment is that humans must intervene in order to protect the Earth. … For, finally, the Earth is a source of blessedness.69

14. Attributes of God relating to the Heavens and the Earth.
As stated in the very beginning. ALLAH is described as ―The Light of The Heavens and Earth‖70 The various attributes of Allah, mentioned in the Quran and in this particular context, include the ones of Him being the ―Creator (Al-Khaliq)‖, the ―Bringer into Existence (Al-Bari)‖, the ―Giver of Shape (Al-Mussawir)71‖ and ―The One To whom” is due the Primal Origins of the Earth and Heavens72.By extrapolation, all of these qualities can be applied not only to the creation of Human Beings but also to all other forms of creation. If people were to contemplate the wonders of Creation in the heavens and the earth, they might be lead to the thought that ―Not for Naught‖73 has God created all this. i.e. there is a purpose for everything. Humans are often urged in the Quran to reflect on this notion and ―therefore‖ not to violate the Balance That God has created.74 in the Universe.

15. NIGHT and DAY
With regards to the Night and Day, The Quran states that...
“Art thou not aware that it is God who makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and makes the day grow longer by shortening the n ight, and that He has made the

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www.islamicity.com and then click on the option for Phonetic Search Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society [Mawil Y. Izzi deen (Samarrai) 70 Quran [24 :35] 71 Quran [59:24] 72 Quran [2:117] 73 Quran [3:191] 74 Quran [55:8]


sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him] and that God is fully aware of all that you do? [i.e. even if you do it in the darkest part of the night]”75

The Quran then gives further explanation by stating that
“He makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and He makes the day grow longer by shortening the night; and He has made the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him]. [12] Thus is God, your Sustainer: unto Him belongs all dom inion - whereas those whom you invoke instead of Him do not own so much as the husk of a date-stone!” 76

And, then again, The Quran states that...
“Now among His signs are the night and the day, as well as the sun and the moon: [hence,] adore not the sun or the moon, but prostrate yourselves in adoration before God, who has created them - if it is Him whom you [really] worship.” 77

16. The WEATHER in Islam
Forecasting the weather does not come under the heading of astrology or claiming to have knowledge of the unseen, rather it is based on phys ical evidence and experience, and study of the natural laws established by ALLAH. The same applies to knowing the times of solar and lunar eclipses, or when there are likely to be strong winds and rainfall. The time of solar and lunar eclipses may be known from calculating the movements of heavenly bodies, from which it may also be known whether the eclipse will be total or partial. There is nothing strange about that, because this is not a matter of the unseen for everyone, rather it is only ―unseen‖ for those who have no knowledge of astronomy and it is not ―unseen‖ for those who have knowledge of this science. That does not mean that solar and lunar eclipses are not among the signs of ALLAH with which He instils fear in His slaves so as to bring them back to their Lord and to obedience to Him. 78 Forecasting the weather and predicting strong winds and storms or saying where clouds are expected to form or where rain is likely to fall is based on knowledge of the natural laws of ALLAH. One who has experience of these laws may say what he expects to happen, without certain knowledge, on the basis of scientific theories or common experience, so he expects that and predicts it on the basis of likelihood, not certain knowledge, and he gets it right sometimes and gets it wrong sometimes. An early day Islamic Scholar Shaykh Ibn ‗Uthaymeen (Blessings of Allah be on him) said: The one who speaks of that which may be worked out by calculations is not a fortune -teller at all, because there is no element of fortune-telling in that which may be worked out by calculations. If a person predicts a solar or lunar eclipse, this is not fortune-telling because it is worked out by calculations. If he says that the sun will set at a 20-degree angle at such and such a time, this is not knowledge of the unseen, because it is something that may be worked out by calculations, and predicting something that can be worked out by calculation, even if it is in the future, is not regarded as being knowledge of the unseen, or fortune-telling.

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Quran [31:29] Quran [35:13] 77 Quran [41:37] 78 Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa‘imah as quoted in answer to a question and available on www.islam-qa.co m


Is twenty-four hour weather reporting such as we have now fortune-telling? The answer is no, because it is also based on scientific data which is describing climatic conditions, because climatic conditions have to do with precise measurements that are known to them. Thus they may predict that certain conditions are likely to produce rain or not. That is like the primitive predication that we make when we see clouds forming, and thunder and lightning and thick clouds, and we say: ―It is going to rain soon.‖ What matters is that what points to physical phenomena is not knowledge of the unseen, even if some of the common folk think that these things are matters of the unseen and say that believing in them is like believing in fortune-telling. 79 . And Allah knows best. Islam Q&A

17.How do we compute the Years and Measure Time? ALLAH Says in The Quran
about how He has made the Sun a source of Light and the Moon a reflected Light and has determined for them their phases so that we might know how to compute the years and measure time - stated formally in the words:
“He it is who has made the sun a [source of] radiant light and the moon a light [reflected], and has determined for it phases so that you might know how to compute the years and to measure [time]. None of this has God created without [an inner] truth. Clearly does He spell out these messages unto people of [innate] know ledge?” 80

18. ALLAH is The Creator of Time
In the early days before the advent of the Ministry of Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh), people use to curse the Time because of the occurrence of some misfortune. In view of this, people usually quote a Hadith (Tradition) of Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) in which he is quoted as saying ―Do Not Curse Time...‖81 However, the precise word used in the Hadith is not waqt (= time), but dahr (= time, vicissitudes of time).82 Other Narrators have related this Hadith using the following words : ―Do not inveigh against time (al-dahr), for ALLAH is time‖ ―Let not any one of you say, ‗Woe to time,‘ for ALLAH is time‖ ―ALLAH says, ‗The sons of Adam offend Me and say, Woe to time, but they should not say Woe to time. I am time, I alternate the night and the day, and if I willed, I could seize them both.‘‖ With regard to an explanation of this Hadith, an early day scholar Imam al-Nawawi has said:

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al-Qawl al-Mufeed Sharh Kitaab al-Tawheed ― Quran [10:5] 81 www.islam-qa.com/en

Hadith No. 5827 taken fro m a Collection of Hadiths by the Scholar Imam Muslim (5827) .


This is a metaphor, because the Arabs used to inveigh against time when disasters such as death, old age, loss of money, etc., happened. They would say, ‗Woe to time‘ and other phrases cursing or inveighing against time. So the Prophet (peace and blessings of ALLAH be upon him) said: ‗Do not inveigh against time for ALLAH is time‘, i.e., do not inveigh against the One Who brings about those disasters, for that will be directed towards ALLAH, for He is the One Who causes them to happen. Time (al-dahr) means al-zamaan (time) which cannot do anything in and of itself, for it is just one of the things that have been created by ALLAH The phrase ―For ALLAH is time‖ means that He is the One Who causes those events and accidents to happen, and He is the Creator of all that happens. And ALLAH knows best. It should be noted that ―time‖ (al-dahr) is not one of the Names of ALLAH; it is attributed to ALLAH in the sense that He created it and is controlling it, i.e., He is the Creator of time. Different narrations of the same Hadith have some phrases which indicate this, as when He says, ―It is in My Hand, I alternate the night and the day.‖ The One Who alternates and the thing which is alternated cannot be one and the same; there is the One Who alternates – i.e., ALLAH – and the thing which is alternated – i.e., time, which ALLAH controls as and when He wills. 83 Some other early day Scholars including Al-Shaafa'i, Abu ‗Ubaydah and others said, in their commentary on the Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings of ALLLAH be upon him), ―Do not inveigh against time for ALLAH is time‖ – During the Jaahiliyyah {Days of Ignorance}, if some difficulty, trial or disaster befell them, the Arabs would say ‗Woe to time‘, attributing those events to time and inveighing against it. But the One Who brought those events to pass is ALLAH, so it was as if they were inveighing against ALLAH, may He be glorified, and because in fact He was the One Who caused those things to happen. So it was forbidden to inveigh against time in this manner, because ALLAH is Time, i.e., He is the One l Who is controlling it, but the Arabs were attributing those events to Time. This is the best of the comments made in the Tafseer (Exegesis) of this Hadith, and this is what is meant. And ALLAH knows best. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 4/152) Another early days Scholar Shaykh Ibn ‗Uthaymeen (may ALLAH be please with him) was asked about the ruling on inveighing against time. He replied: Inveighing against time may be divided into three categories : 1. Where the intention is to convey information without blaming or condemning. This is permissible, such as when a person remarks, ―We are suffering from the heat (or the cold) today‖ and the like, because deeds are judged according to their intentions, and in this case a person is merely describing what is happening without expressing discontent. 2. Where a person inveighs against time as the cause of events, as if by inveighing against it he means that time is what causes things to alternate between good and bad. This is shirk Akbar (major form of shirk) because when a person attributes events to something other than ALLAH, this means that he believes that there is another creator alongside ALLAH. 3. Where a person inveighs against time but believes that the One who causes things to happen is ALLAH, but he inveighs against time because of the bad things that happened. This is not permissible


Fataawa {Religious Opinion} al-‘Aqeedah by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 1/163: www.islam-qa.com/en


because it is contrary to the Islamic notion of sabr (patience) that is required, but it is not disbelief because the person does not inveigh directly against ALLAH. 84 Other reprehensible expressions which people utter include cursing the hour or the day on which a certain bad thing happened, and so on. This is a sin because it is cursing and improper speech, and because this is cursing something which does not deserve to be cursed. What has the hour or the day done wrong? Nothing apart from the fact that the events happened then, but they are only created things which have no control over anything and cannot be held to blame. If a person inveighs against time, this reflects on the Creator of time. The Muslim should be above speaking in such a foolish and improper manner. And ALLAH is the One whose help we seek. 85

19.How do we find our way when travelling?
The Quran also tells us that one of the Purposes of ALLAH creating The Stars is, so that we may find our way when travelling in the midst of deep darkness on land or sea. God has spelt out these inherent messages for people who have the gift of innate knowledge which is another of God‘s gift to human kind. This is stated more formally in the following words:
“ And He it is who has set up for you the stars so t hat you might be guided by them in the midst of the deep darkness of land and sea: clearly, indeed, have We spelled out these messages unto people of [innate] know ledge”! 86

20. Accountable Living.
Those who think that the ―Life of this World‖ is the only Life to Live for, and that once this Life ends no one will question them about what they did and how they Lived, believing further, that, they along with their ―Good and Bad Deeds‖ will vanish and disintegrate into the earth should take note that ―every small and big thing‖ about them is being recorded in a ―Book of Deeds‖, and that They will be ―re-created‖ on ―The Day of Reckoning‖ when their Book of Deeds will be brought before them as Evidence. Those who doubt the ―Day-of-Reckoning‖ should take heed of the Quranic Assertions that on that Day our own Consciences will be given the power of speech and they will accuse us of the deeds that we did against any of God‘s Creation, and our own subconscious will cause our short comings and failings to become apparent.87 And, if there is ―still‖ some question left in the minds of those who doubt that we can ever be ―Resurrected‖ after our bones have disintegrated into the dust of the earth, should take note of the Quranic Assurance that God will recreate us to the ―exactitude of our finger-tips.‖88

...Continued on next page
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Fataawa al-‗Aqeedah, 1/197: www.islam-qa.com/en Islam Q&A 86 Quran [6:97]: Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid 87 Quran [75:2] 88 Quran [75:4]


21. In-Exhaustiveness of GOD’s Words
To give a sense of the Size and Magnitude of the Immense vastness ‘s of ALLAH‘s Words The Quran Tells us that
“And if all the trees on earth were pens, and the sea [were] ink, with seven [more seas yet added to it, the words of God would not be exhausted: for, verily, God is alm ighty, wise. 89

The Vast In-Exhaustiveness of God‘s words is emphasised again in another verse of The Quran which states as follows:
“ SAY: "If all the sea were ink for my Sustainer's words, the sea would indeed be exhausted ere my Sustainer's words are exhausted! And [thus it would be] if we were to add to it sea upon sea." 9 0

22. Good Word and It’s Parable with a Tree
The Quran often employs the technique of setting forth Parables, and in this instance, a Good Word is described as a Good Tree which is firmly rooted, and the benefits of a Goodly Word spread out far and wide just like the branches of a Tree91 In its wider meaning, the term "word"(kalimah in Quranic Arabic) denotes any conceptual statement or proposition. Thus, a "good word" circumscribes any proposition (or idea) that is intrinsically true and - because it implies a call to what is good in the moral sense - is ultimately beneficent and enduring; and since a call to moral righteousness is the innermost purport of every one of God's messages, the term "good word" applies to them as well. Similarly, the "corrupt word" mentioned in verse 26 applies to the opposite of what a divine message aims at: namely, to every idea that is intrinsically false or morally evil and, therefore, spiritually harmful. 92

23. The Foundation of Environmental Protection93
Mawil Y. Izzi Deen (Samarrai) is Assistant Professor, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, consultant to the Saudi Arabian Centre for Science and Technology, and co-author of Islamic Principles for the Conservation of the Natural Environment. He writes as follows: In Islam, the conservation of the environment is based on the principle that all the individual components of the environment were created by ALLAH, and that all living things were created with different functions, functions carefully measured and meticulously balanced by the Almighty Creator. Although the various components of the natural environment serve humanity as one of their functions, this does not imply that human use is the sole reason for their creation. …The legal and ethical reasons for protecting the environment can be summarized as Follows:

First , the environment is God's creation and to protect it is to preserve its values as a sign of the
Creator. To assume that the environment's benefits to human beings are the sole reason for its protection may lead to environmental misuse or destruction.
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Quran [31:27] Quran [18:109] 91 Quran [14:24] 92 M. Asad’s Note No. 36 in his Translation of Quran *14:24+ 93 Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society [Mawil Y. Izzi deen (Samarrai)


Second, the component parts of nature are entities in continuous praise of their Creator. Humans may
not be able to understand the form or nature of this worship/praise, but the fact that the Qur'an describes it is an additional reason for environmental preservation: The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise Him, and there is not such a thing but hymneth his praise; but ye understand not their praise. Lo! He is ever Clement, Forgiving [Quran

Third, all the laws of nature are laws made by the Creator and based on the concept of the absolute
continuity of existence. Although God may sometimes wish otherwise, what happens happens according to the natural law of God (Sunnah), and human beings should accept this as the will of the Creator. Attempts to break the law of God must be discouraged.

Fourth, the Qur'an's acknowledgment that human-kind is not the only community to live in this
world — "There is not an animal in the earth, nor a flying creature flying on two wings, but they are peoples like unto you" [Quran 6:38] — means that while humans may currently have the upper hand over other "peoples," these other creatures are beings and, like us, are worthy of respect and protection.

Fifth, Islamic environmental ethics is based on the concept that all human relationships are
established on justice ('adl) and equity (ihsan): "Lo! Allah enjoins justice and kindness" [Quran 16:90]. The prophetic tradition limits benefits derived at the cost of animal suffering. The Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) Instructed: "Verily Allah has prescribed equity (ihsan) in all things. Thus if you kill for food, kill well, and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters."

Sixth, the balance of the universe created by God must also be preserved. … Seventh, the environment is not in the service of the present generation alone. Rather, it is the gift of
God to all ages, past, present and future. …

Finally , no other creature is able to perform the task of protecting the environment. God entrusted
humans with the duty of vice regency, a duty so onerous and burdensome that no other creature would accept it: "Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man assumed it" [Quran 33:72]. http://www.mbcru.com/Texas%20Tech%20Mypage/Conservation%20Biology/Assignment%202/Izzi DeenIslamicEcol.pdf

24. Embryology in The Quran
The Process of The Earthly Embryological Development of Human Beings is described in the following verse of The Quran...
“O MEN! If you are in doubt as to the [truth of] resurrection, [remember that,] verily, We have created [every one of] you out of dust, then out of a drop of sperm, then out of a germ-cell, then out of an embryonic lump complete [in itself] and yet incomplete, so that We might make [your origin] clear unto you. And whatever We will [to be born] We cause to rest in the [mothers'] wombs for a term set [by Us], and then We bring you forth as infants and [allow you to live] so that [some of] you might attain to maturity: for among you are such as are caused to die [in childhood], just as many a


one of you is reduced in old age to a most abject state, ceasing to know anything of what he once knew so well. And [if, O man, thou art still in doubt as to resurrection, consider this:] thou canst see the earth dry and lifeless - and [suddenly,] when We send down waters upon it, i t stirs and swells and puts forth every kind of lovely plant!” 9 4

25. Water and It’s Importance
Water occupies a Very Central Role amongst the various elements of Ecology and Environment in Islam, indeed, this vital role that Water plays in the creation of different things is emphasised in the Quran in the following words: “....And [that] We made out of “Water” every living thing? Will they not, then begin to
understand and believe? 95

And, again, the Quran says:
“..And it is God who has created all animals out of Water [i.e. seminal fluid]; and [He has willed that] among them are such as crawl on their bellies, and such as walk on two legs, and such as walk on four. God creates what He will: for, verily, God has the power to will anything. 96

And, yet again, regarding the creation of Humans, the Quran says: “...And He it is who out of this [very] Water [seminal fluid] has created man, and has endowed him with [the con-

sciousness of] descent and marriage-tie: for thy Sustainer is ever infinite in His power. 97

The Rain is described in the Quran as pure water that descends from the sky through which Allah brings dead land to life and thereby also gives to drink thereof to many of the creation, beasts as well as humans.98 As befits a faith born in the desert, water is honoured as ―the secret of life‖. Islam forbids the wastage of water and the usage there of without benefit. Cyclical Transformation of Water- Allah‘s Creativeness is evident from the Cyclical Transformation of Water – it‘s evaporation from the seas, followed by a formation of clouds, their condensation into rain and its return to the rivers, oceans and seas. We are also reminded of God‘s limitless ingenuity when we see two great bodies of water – the one sweet and thirst allaying, and the other salty and bitter, and who it is except God who has caused them – as if by an invisible barrier to remain distinct in kind despite their continuous meeting and mingling in the Ocean.99 Widely Differing Tracts of Land – We are also asked in Islam to reflect on the fact that on Earth there are many tracts of lands neighbouring one another, yet they differ widely amongst each other with some having vineyards, and fields of grain and date palms. Some of the PLANTATIONS grow in clusters from one root whilst some others stand alone all being watered with the same water (rain) and yet have the variation in the type and quantity of yields which is described as ALLAH‘s favour on some above others by way of food that the lands produce for man and beast, whilst the

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Quran [22:5] Quran [21:30] 96 Quran [24:45] 97 Quran [25:54] 98 Quran [25:48-49] 99 Quran [25:53]


lands in some other parts do not produce. Verily, in all these differences there are messages indeed for people who reflect.100 Parables of Scum and things of Benefit – God sends down water from the sky and the once-dry river-beds then run high according to their measure, the stream carries scum on its surface whilst the water beneath remains clear. Similarly, when metals are smelt in the fire in order to make ornaments and utensils, there also, the scum rises to the surface leaving the purified metals beneath. In this way God sets forth the parable of truth and falsehood: for, as far as the scum is concerned it passes away as does all dross, but that which is truth and of benefit abides.

Shari’ah, the word for Islamic Law, Literally means a Way to the Water?
Muslim scholars have found it difficult to accept that the the term Shariah means "Islamic Law," since "law" implies a rigidity and dryness alien to Islam. They prefer the Arabic word Shari'ah {Shariah) which literally means the "source of water. Or a way to the Water". Thus, The Shariah is considered as a source of life in that it contains both legal rules and ethical principles for the conduct of life. This is indicated by the division of the Shariah relevant to human action into the categories of: obligatory actions {wajib), those which a Muslim is required to perform; devotional and ethical virtues {mandub), those actions a Muslim is encouraged to perform, the nonobservance of which, however, incurs no liability; permissible actions (mubah), those in which a Muslim is given complete freedom of choice; abominable actions (makrilh), those which are morally but not legally wrong; and prohibited actions (haram), all those practices forbidden by Islam. 101

26. SEAS in Islam
Grateful Thanks are due to ALLAH, who has provided us with Seas as one of the means of conveying us as we travel on board ships. ALLAH’s favours in this aspect are not limited to providing us with just the “Seas” only, because we would not be able to travel on ships without the additional Divine Blessings of the Winds in order to propel us, and, to ensure that we don’t just sail “aimlessly” on the seas assisted by t he winds, ALLAH gives us an additional tool of the”stars” to help us chart our travels even in the midst of deep darkness. All of these favours of ALLAH have been given to us not without any purpose, but these favours are meant to convey some of Allah’s messages to us. 102 These messages from ALLAH are of allegorical nature and convey a lesson of general validity for areas of life where the same nuances exist. 1 0 3 The benefits of the Sea as provided to us by Allah don’t just end with the purpose of enabling us to travel so that we might be able to go forth in quest of His bounties, but ALLAH grants us additional benefits to be derived from the Seas in t hat they also “serve” us as another means for us to source our food in terms of Fish meat, and then Allah continues to shower us with his blessings from the Seas that we draw from them “Gems” (Pearls) to adorn ourselves and our places of dwellings so that we might have cause to be grateful to him. 1 0 4 ..

100 101

Quran [13:4] Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society [Mawil Y. Izzi deen (Samarrai) 102 Quran [ 6:97; 10:22; 17:70] 103 M. Asad in his Note No. 34 to his translation of Quran [ 10:22] 104 Quran [16:14; 45:12]


All these blessings of ALLAH should remind us that, He indeed is indeed a dispenser of Grace to us.105 And, should we fail to Notice, that all of these Blessings are indeed from ALLAH, then, the same Seas which assist us and convey us on our travels and the same favourable winds can turn into a torment of massive waves and into a raging storm surging from all sides which give us the fear of being encompassed by death, then all the powers that some human beings invoke beside Allah forsake them and these people then find none to uphold them against ALLAH – Such is the requital from Allah for ingratitude towards Him. 106 Words of ALLAH: This allegorical reference t o the Seas with reference to ALLAH’s words has been mentioned elsew here as well in this article, and it would not be out of place to make another mention of this and quote the relevant verses when discussing the subject of Seas in Islam...These specific verses state as follows: SAY: "If all the sea were ink for my Sustainer's words, the sea would indeed be exhausted before my Sustainers’ words are exhausted! And [thus it would be] if we were to add to it sea upon sea." 107 “And if all the trees on earth were pens and the sea [were] ink, with seven [morel seas yet added to it, the words of God would not be exhausted: for, verily, God is alm ighty, wise.” 108 Depths of darkness upon an abysma l sea. Some people ’s bad deeds are so covered with layers upon layers of “Ignorance” and “Arrogance” and by wave billow ing over wave and above all of this there is another level of darkness with black clouds above them all, in short, total darkness, where if one were to hold one’s hand up he can hardly see it. The MESSAGE underlying this allegorical reference to the darkness of the Seas is that, “those from whom GOD Withholds Light, No Light whatever have they”109 Where the Two Seas Meet – A Ba rrier The Quran preceded the modern science and said that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. 1 1 0 Modern Science has confirmed what The Quran said over 1400 years ago that in the places where two different seas meet up, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density. For example, Mediterranean Sea water is warm, saline and less dense, compared to Atlantic Ocean water. When Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic, it moves several hundred kilometres into the Atlantic at a depth of about one kilometer with its own
105 106

Quran [17:66] Quran [10:22; 17;67; 17:69] 107 Quran [18:109] 108 Quran [31:27] 109 Quran [24:40] 110 Quran [55:19-20]


warm, saline and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier. 111

27. Clouds in Islamic Ecology
The most poignantly descriptive verse of The Quran that deals with the subject of Clouds describes their movement with ALLAH‘s Will who then joins them together, then plies them up in masses till such time that we see rain coming forth from their midst. God then causes these clouds to be charged with hail and lightning. All this is stated formally in the following words:
“Art thou not aware that it is God who causes the clouds to move onward, then joins them together, then piles them up in masses, until thou can see rain come forth from their midst? And He it is who sends down from the skies, by degrees, mountainous masses [of clouds] charged with hail, striking therewith whomever He wills and averting it from whomever He wills, [the while] the flash of His lightning well-nigh deprives [men of their] sight”112

The Lightning alluded to in the above verse is seen in another verse of The Quran as a means of giving rise to hope and fear by the same means, and then causes heavy clouds to come into being. ―Hope‖ in the sense that Lightning is often seen as a forerunner of rain which in turn symbolizes faith and spiritual life. Fear – because the Thundering sounds that accompanies lightening instils fear which in turn symbolizes fear of what may happen to us if we deny the truth and do not live a goodly life whilst on this earth..Al of this gives evidence of a purposeful creator who has consciously devised a plan in all that he has created. This is stated more formally in the following words:
“HE IT IS who displays before you the lig htning, to give rise to [both] fear and hope, and calls heavy clouds into being” 113

The Clouds are also seen in Islam as a way of giving us comfort with their shade 114. Indeed, in the Clouds that ―...Run their appointed Courses between the Sky and Earth‖ {as in the creation of the heavens and of the earth, In the succession of night and day, in the waters that God sends down from the sky thereby giving life to the earth, in all the living creatures that multiply on earth, in the change of the winds etc} 115 there are messages for people who use their reason and reflect, says The Quran. Parable of God’s Power to recreate us after Death God uses the Parable of winds moving heavy clouds towards dead land and then causing water to descend as a means of explaining His Exclusive Power to give us ― 116‖117 . By exercising His LifeGiving Power whereby God causes the Plants to grow, He will likewise resurrect the dead after the


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112 113

Quran [24:43 ; 30 :48] Quran [13:12] 114 Quran [2:57] 115 Quran [2:164] 116 Quran [18:109] 117 Quran [7 :57]


end of time. This parable can be extrapolated by likening those whose hearts are open to the truth to fertile earth, and those who are bent on denying the truth are likened to a barren earth.118 The 12 springs of Moses The Quran tells us about the occasion when Moses lead his followers to safety away from the persecution of the Pharaoh and his hosts, his people asked him for water, so, ―..God inspired Moses to Strike the rock with his staff, where as 12 springs gushed forth from it so that his people knew whence to drink from, and then God caused the Clouds to comfort them with their shade...‖119

28. Wind and It’s Importance in Islamic Ecology
The Quran often uses the Wind as a figure of speech, hence the denotation of ―The Wind‖ as a carrier of ALLAH‘s message, often as a carrier of Glad Tiding and of God‘s coming grace 120 . This symbolic definition of Wind is used again in verse 27:63 & 30:46 of The Quran. The “Wind” therefore has a figurative or a symbolic significance in Islam, namely spiritual life and hope whilst the “Rain” often has a symbolic connotation of Spiritual Grace attached to it in The Quran. The Wind is thus regarded as one of ALLAH‘s wonder so that He might give us a taste of His grace [through life-giving rains], and cause the ships to sail at His behest because of the Wind, and that we might go about in quest of some of His bounties, and that we might have cause to be grateful. 121 God causes the Winds to ―fertilize [plants] by pollination 122 and also causes them to play a vital role in the raising of clouds and spreading them under the skies as He wills and then causes the clouds to break up issuing rain from within them. 123 Conscious Purposeful Creator – There is a Phenomenon in Islam which is called Razi, namely The life-giving function of the combination of wind, clouds and rain - pointing, symbolically, to the miraculous creation of life as such and, thus, to the existence of a conscious, purposeful Creator .124 Another metaphorical definition of The Wind is that it is regarded as the separator of the right from the wrong with all clarity.125 Wind and the Tilth – The parable of what is spent on the life of this world is described by The Quran as an icy wind that smites the Tilth of the people who have sinned against their own souls 126 . If the Tilth {gainful achievement} of those who deny the truth is lost, it is said to be lost forever in its entirety with nothing remaining to them in this world ; while on the other hand, the ―tilth‖ of a believer is never lost in its entirety, for even if it is seemingly lost, there remains to him the expectation of a reward , in the life to come, for his patience in adversity.‖127

118 119

Quran [35:9] Quran [7:160] 120 Quran [25:48; 27:63] 121 Quran [30:46] 122 Quran [15:22] 123 Quran [30:48] 124 M. Asad’s Note No. 1 to his Translation of Quran *51:4+ 125 Quran [77:4] 126 Quran [3:117] 127 M. Asad’s Note No. 86 to his translation of Quran *3:117+


For people who Use Their Reason – In Summation, the Quran states that : ―... Verily, in the
creation of the heavens and of the earth, and the succession of night and day: and in the ships that speed through the sea with what is useful to man: and in t he waters which God sends down from the sky, giving life thereby to the earth after it had, been lifeless, and causing all manner of living creatures to multiply thereon: and in the change of the winds, and the clouds that run their appointed courses betwe en sky and earth: [in all this] there are messages indeed for people who use their reason. 128

The above passage is one of the many in which The Quran appeals to ―those who use their reason‖ to observe the daily wonders of nature and reflect upon the many indications of a Conscious and Creative Power pervading the Universe. Life of this World - [it is says The Quran] like the water which God sends down from the
skies, and which is absorbed by the plants of the earth: but [in time] they turn into dry Stubble which the winds blow freely about. And it is God [alone] who determines all things. 129

Life after Death – The Quran urges us to reflect upon the fact that it is God ―...who sends forth the
winds as a glad tiding of His coming grace-so that, when they have brought heavy clouds, We may drive them towards dead land and cause thereby water to descend; and by this means do We cause all manner of fruit to come forth. Even thus shall We cause the dead to come forth: [and this] you ought to keep in mind 130

Thus, by the Life-Giving power by which God causes the plants to grow, He will resurrect the dead at the end of time. The parable of those whose Hearts are open to the voice of truth is that of the Fertile earth, whilst those who are bent upon denying the Truth are likened to the barren Earth.131 SOLOMON and the Winds – Prophets in Islam are often identified with some miracles gifted to them by God. The Quran tells us that God had made the Wind subservient to Solomon. It would blow at his command and the expanse of the lands under Solomon‘s rule was such that it would take the winds a month‘s travelling in the morning and evening to cover it. 132 Air Pollution Air is the Property of ALLAH the Exalted, ―Hence, contaminating the air with smoke and other discharges is an encroachment on nature and a threat to the life of humankind and all other living creatures.133

29. Mountains in Islamic Ecology
Mountains are mentioned in the Quran where they are seen symbolically as “Pegs” (Equivalent Arabic Word is “Awtad”) holding down the Earth firmly preventing it from swaying. This is apparently an allusion to the fact that the mountains owe their rise to the gradual balancing process to which the solid crust of the earth is subject -a process which, in its turn, is the result of stresses and disturbances due to the cooling and hardening, progressing from the -surface towards the centre, of the presumably molten or perhaps even gaseous matter of which the earth's interior
128 129

Quran [2:164]; [13:4] Quran [18:45] 130 Quran [7:57] 131 M. Asad’s Note No. 44 to his Translation of Quran *7:57+ 132 Quran [34:12; 38:36] 133 Gar Smith quoting Mufti Tajuddin H. Hilaly at www.earthisland.org


seems to be composed. It appears that part of this interior is kept solid only by the enormous pressure of the overlaying material, of which the mountains are the most vivid evidence: and this explains the Qur'anic reference (in 78:7) to mountains as "pegs" (Awtad), i.e., symbols of the firmness and relative equilibrium which the surface of the earth has gradually achieved in the course of its geological history. Notwithstanding the fact that this equilibrium is not absolute (as is evidenced by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), it is the solidi ty of the earth's crust - as contrasted with its possibly fluid but certainly very unstable interior - which makes life on earth possible: and this, to my mind, is the meaning of the phrase "lest it sway with you" (or "with them") occurring in the above verse as well as in 21:31 and 31:10.(Quran Ref: 16:15 ) 134 This is stated summarily in the following verse:
“And he has placed firm mountains on earth, lest it sway with you, and rivers and paths, so that you might find your way,”135

The Mountains along with Other of ALLAH The Blessed‘s creations such as Running Water, Plants and the alternation of Night and Day are seen as conveyors of God‘s messages for those who choose to reflect on them as stated in the following verse :
“And it is He who has spread the earth wide and placed on it firm mountains and running waters, and created thereon two sexes of every [kind of] plant; {See explanation under the section on Pastures and Plants] [and it is He who] causes the night to cover the day. Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for people who think!” 136

We are asked in The Quran to Not Violate the Balance that ALLAH has created in the Cosmos. This is stated in a very well known chapter of The Quran called ―The Most Beneficent‖ where ALLAH is described as being the One who has raised the skies High and has devised for all things a measure; The Quran states this in the following words:
“And the skies has He raised high, and has devised [for all things] a measure ”1 3 7

And the Purpose of this divinely created balance in the cosmos is to give us human beings a message so that we too also strike a balance in our lives. The Quran States this in the following words:
“So that you [too, O men,] might never transgress the measure [of what is right ]”1 3 8

It is not just in the Cosmos that we see the divinely created balance, but see it also in every kind of life that ALLAH has caused to grow on the earth. The Quran talks about this balanced growth on earth in the following words:
“And the earth -We have spread it out wide, and placed on it mountains firm, and caused [life] of every kind to grow on it in a balanced manner ” 1 3 9

134 135

M. Asad in his explanatory Note No. 11 accompanying his translation of Quran [16:15] Quran [16:15, 78:7,79:32, 88:19, 31:10] 136 Quran [13:3,50:7] 137 Quran [55:7] 138 Quran [55:8] 139 Quran [15:19]


Garme nts and Other Items that we dra w from the Env ironment

The Quran also mentions Mountains as being places of shelter, and amongst many objects of ALLAH‘s creation includes the garments which protect us from heat and cold with the original item of the garments being drawn from the environment we live in such as cotton, wool fur etc. Just in the same way we humans develop garments,[Coats of armour] for our protection the basic ingredient for which is similarly drawn from the environment such as metals of different kinds. The Quran states these factors of benefits that we draw from the environment in the following words:
“And among the many objects of His creation, God has appointed for you [various] means of protection: thus, He has given you in the mountains places of shelter, and has endowed you with [the ability to make] garments to protect you from heat [and cold], as well as such garments as might protect you from your [mutual] violence. In this way does He bestow the full measure of His blessings on you, so that you might surrender yourselves unto Him” 1 4 0

This concept of the Mountains serving as places of dwellings is spelt out in another verse of the Quran as follows:
“and that you will [always be able to] hew dwellings out of the mountains with [the same] great skill?” 1 4 1

The skills mentioned here is a A reference to the elaborate rock-dwellings or tombs-to be seen to this day-which the Thamud carved out of the cliffs west of Al-Hejaz, in northern Hejaz, and embellished with sculptures of animals as well as many inscriptions attesting to the comparatively high degree of their civilization and power. In popular Arabian parlance, these rock-dwellings are nowadays called Mada'in Salih ("The Towns of Salih") {M. Asad’s Note No. 59 accompanying his translation of Quran{7:74}}142 The valleys and mountain tracks that appear naturally are there to help us find our way says The Quran:
“And [are they not aware that] We have set up firm mountains on earth, lest it sway with them, and [that] We have appointed thereon broad paths, so that they might find their way,”143 Man Took on the Trust which the Earth, Mounta ins and the Heavens had polite ly declined.

Before creating Life on Earth as we know today, ALLAH had offered the Trust of Reason and Volition to whoever was willing to take it. This Trust being such a heavy obligation that the earth, mountains and the heavens declined, but man out of his foolishness took it on, but then failed to measure up to the moral responsibility arising from the reason and the comparative free will with which he has been endowed" This ambivalence of Man is described in The Quran in the following words:
“Verily, We did offer the trust [of reason and volit ion] to the heavens, and the earth, and the mountains: but they refused to bear it because they were afraid of it. Yet man took it up - for, verily, he has always been prone to be most wicked, most foolish.” 144

140 141

Quran [16:81] Quran [26:149] 142 www.islamicity.com 143 Quran [21:31]


With regards to the concept of Trust and Trusteeship, M. Asad, a translator of The Quran mentions that The classical commentators of the exegesis of The Quran give all kinds of laborious explanations to the term Amanah ("trust") occurring in this parable, but the most convincing of them (mentioned in Lane I, 102, with reference to the above verse) are "reason", or "intellect", and "the faculty of volition" - i.e., the ability to choose between two or more possible courses of action or modes of behaviour, and thus between good and evil.{M. Asad in his Note No. 89 to his translation of
Quran{33:72}}145 Mountains that Sang With David

The Quran talks of the Miracle that God Vouchsafed to Prophet Dawood {Biblical Equivalent= David} whereby he caused the Mountains to sing with David in extolling God‘s Limitless Glory at Eventide and at Sunrise. The Quran mentions this in the following words:
“behold, We caused the mountains to join him{Dav id} in extolling Our lim itless glory at eventide and at sunrise” 1 4 6 Discourse by Which Mountains could be moved.

Some People are so bent upon denying the Truth that even if one gives a scintillating discourse which moves Mountains and by which the dead are made to speak and by which the Earth is cleft asunder, the ―Deniers‖ will Still NOT believe. The Quran describes such a situation in the following words:
“Yet even if [they should listen to] a [divine] discourse by which mountains could be moved, or the earth cleft asunder, or the dead made to speak - [they who are bent on denying the truth would still refuse to believe in it]! Nay, but God alone has the power to decide what shall be. Have, then, they who have attained to faith not yet come to know that, had God so willed; He would indeed have guided all mankind ar ight? But as for those who are bent on denying the truth-in result of their [evil] deeds, sudden calamities will always befall them or will alight close to their homes; [and this will continue] until God's prom ise [of resurrection] is fulf illed: verily, God never fails to fulfil His prom ise ! 1 4 7 Mountains Prostrate themselves be fore God.

The Mountains along with the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and the Trees, the Beast and all ―things and beings‖, as mentioned before, Prostrate themselves before God. The Quran describes this in the following words :
“ART THOU NOT aware that before God prostrate themselves all [things and beings] that are in the heavens and all that are on earth the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts? And many human beings [submit to God consciously], whereas many [others, having defied Him,] will inev itably have to

144 145

Quran [33 :72] www.islamicity.com 146 Quran [38:18, 21:79] 147 Quran [13:31]


suffer [in the life to come]; and he whom God shall scorn [on Resurrection Day] w ill have none who could bestow honour on him: for, verily, God does what He wills .” 1 4 8

What is meant here by the Mountains, Heavens, Earth etc Prostrating themselves before God, is that, there is a complete submission by them and all things and beings to ALLAH‘s Will, that is to say, they obey the Natural Laws decreed by him with reference to their Existence and Death and this applies also to Every thing that Exists. 30.

The Lightning in Islamic Ecology

Like for everything else, The Quran states that, it is ALLAH who brings about Lightning calling in heavy clouds to give us both Fear and Hope 149 . Thus, the Lightning also serves as a metaphor for other things, Fear of His Displeasure and the punishment that might ensue because of that, and Hope of Rain, which in The Quran often symbolizes ―Faith and Spiritual Life‖. With this verse of Chapter 13, the discourse returns to the theme enunciated at the beginning of the Chapter [and elsewhere in the Quran] namely, to the evidence of a consciously devised plan and purpose inherent in all nature and, thus, of the existence of ALLAH‖150 The Quran asserts the Glory of ALLAH in the very next verse when it states that the ―Thunder‖ that accompanies Lightning extols His limitless Glory and praises Him, as do the Angels in awe of Him. Lest people forget, The Quran reminds us that it is ALLAH who lets loose the ―Thunderbolts‖ and strikes with them whom He wills.151 The Quran states that people argue about ALLAH notwithstanding all evidence that he alone has the power to contrive whatever his unfathomable wisdom wills. The Quranic expression for this Power of ALLAH is ―Shadid al-Mihal‖ signifies ―Powerful in Contriving‖ in a manner hidden from man, that wherein wisdom lies. 152 However, inspite of this magnitude of ALLAH‘s Glory people still argue about His transcendental existence or the Quality of His Being. 153 Lest people forget what has already been said about Lightning and Thunder, The Quran states that again in a later Chapter reminding us that Among ALLAH‘s Wonders are that He displays before us Lightning [and the accompanying Thunder] in order to give rise to both ―Fear and Hope‖ and sends down rain from the skies which gives Life to the otherwise dead earth, and in all this says The Quran ―are messages indeed for people who use their reason‖154 [ Rain symbolizes Hope, an oft recurring theme in The Quran Signifying Faith and Spirituality] 31. The

Rain in Islam

There are close to 40 Verses in The Quran that talk about Rain in various contexts. The most abiding contextual meaning of Rain [as mentioned earlier] is that it symbolizes Hope which is an oft occurring theme symbolizing Faith and Spirituality.

148 149

Quran [22:18] Quran [13:12] 150 M. Asad in his Note No. 27 Accompanying his translation of Quran [13:12] 151 Quran [13:13] 152 M. Asad in his Note No. 29 Accompanying his translation of Quran [13:13] 153 M. Asad in his Note No. 28 Accompanying his translation of Quran [13:13] 154 Quran [30:24]


The Quran tells us again, that the Earth is a resting place for us and the sky serves as a Canopy over the Earth. And, from that Canopy ALLAH sends down Rain from the Sky which then brings forth the ―various fruits for our sustenance‖, hence, no one should then claim that there is any power that could rival God when we know from all of His Blessings that He is the One and Only One with No comparable being.155 Among the Fruits that the Rain helps bring forth, The Quran lists Verdure, Grain, P alm Tree, Dates in Thick Clusters, Gardens of Vines, Olive Tree and Pomegranate, [ to name just a few] which are alike and different even though they come out of the same earth and have been fed by the same rain. Once again The Quran points out that in a ll these similarities and variations alike, there are messages for People who believe in ALLAH as being the One and Only Creator.156 Giving even more examples of the fruits that accrue due to the Rain The Quran talks about Verdure, Close-Growing Grain, Palm Trees, Dates, Vines, Olive Tree, Pomegranates. 157 Another nuance of Rain as a Blessing which The Quran alludes to is that ―it causes all manners of living creature to multiply on earth‖158 The Rain giving life to a dead earth is used by The Quran as a Symbol reminding us of Allah‘s Power of recreating us even after we are dead and gone. 159 Hence, we are asked to propound the parable of ―Life of This World‖ as being like the Rain that ALLAH sends down from the Skies, which is absorbed by the Plants of the Earth which in time turn into dry stubble which the winds blow freely about. 160 Parable of The Life of This World and People’s Boastings The Quran tells us of a parable where it equals the Life of this world and people‘s boastful vying with one another in greed as being similar to a Rain that brings Life in terms of growth which in the end crumbles to dust. It states this in the following words:
“KNOW [O men] that the life of this world is but a play and a passing delight, and a beautiful show, and [the cause of] your boastful vying with one another, and [of your] greed for more and more riches and children. [29] Its parable is that of [30] [life-giving] rain: the herbage which it causes to grow delights the tillers of the soil; [31] but then it withers, and thou canst see it turn yellow; and in the end it crumbles into dust. But [the abiding truth of man’s condition will become fully apparent] in the life to come: [either] suffering severe, or [32] God’s forgiveness and His goodly acceptance: for the life of this world is nothing but an enjoyment of self-delusion. 161

The Quran points out that we do not have the power to cause even one single tree to grow. It states this in the following words:
“Nay - who is it that has created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you [life-giving] water from the skies? For it is by this means that We cause gardens of
155 156

Quran [2:22] Quran [6:99] 157 Quran [6:99] 158 Quran [2:164] 159 Quran [7:57] 160 Quran [18:45] 161 Quran [57:20]


shining beauty to grow - [whereas] it is not in your power to ca use [even one single of] its trees to grow! Could there be any divine power besides God? Nay, they [who think so] are people who swerve [from the path of reason] 162

Once again, we are reminded of the cycles of transformations and the miraculous cycle of life and death that it highlights. The Quran states:
“ART THOU NOT aware that it is God who sends down water from the skies, and then causes it to travel through the earth in the shape of springs? And then He brings forth thereby herbage of various hues; and then it withers, and thou canst see it turn yellow; and in the end He causes it to crumble to dust. [26] Verily, in [all] this there is indeed a reminder to those who are endowed with insight!” 163

32. Plant Life

and Pastures in Islamic Ecology

The Term Pasture known in Arabic as Mur’a metonymically connotes all herbal produce suitable for consumption by humans or animals 164 . In terms of the Grain we eat, and other flora the Quran reminds us that it is: ―... ALLAH is the One who cleaves the grain and the fruit -kernel asunder,
bringing forth the living out of that which is dead,”1 6 5

Although, we can sow the seeds, water the fields and Plough the lands, but, in the Final Analysis, It is ALLAH who causes that seed to grow into a Grain or Fruit or Flower bearing Plant, But, the Effort is needed anyway on our part, for if we did not make the effort, than what should ALLAH Reward us for? Most of the fruits, grains and flowers have much in common in terms of the cycle of Life and Growth and yet they are so different in physiology, texture and taste. This variation in appearance despite the commonality of the principles of growth is highlighted by the following verse of The Quran:
“And He it is who has caused waters to come down from the sky; and by this means have We brought forth all living growth, and out of this have We brought forth verdure. Out of this do We bring forth close-growing grain; and out of the spathe of the palm tree, dates in thick clusters; and gardens of vines, and the olive tree, and the pomegranate: [all] so alike, and yet so different! Behold their fruit when it comes to fruition and ripens! Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for people who w ill believe!” 166

Prophet Mohammad’s Guidance Regarding Plants HADITHS . Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh)’s Life is descriptively encompassed by an
umbrella term called Hadith. Within this there are ha diths which refer to his verbal teaching statements, Sunnah his life-style and his Approva ls of other’s {his companions} conforming statements or deeds. In his verbal teaching statements called hadiths he has said the follow ing regarding plants and plantations:

162 163

Quran [27:60] Quran [39:21] 164 M. Asad in his Note No. 14 to his translation of Quran [79:31] 165 Quran [6:95] 166 Quran [6:99]


(a ) If any Muslim “Plants any Plant” and a human being or an animal eats of it or takes

shade under it, he will be rewarded as if he had given that much in charity ."167

(b) If any of you, he said, has a shoot in hand which they Plan to Plant and The Last

Day starts to unfold, then even in that extreme of circumstances, they should notwithstanding, continue to plant that shoot....That is how important pla nting and sowing of seeds is in Islam. 168
(c) " Muslims will always earn the reward of charity for planting a tree, sowing a crop and

then birds, humans, and animals eat from it” 169

(d) “Whoever reclaims and cultivates dry, barren land will be rewarded by God for the

act. So long as men and animals benefit from it He will record it for him as almsgiving” 170(e) “The reward accruing f rom some things continue to reach the person concerned even after death e.g.: Knowledge he has taught, water he has provided for the public benefit, any well he has dug, any tree he has planted, a and children who 171 pray for him after his death”

Two Sexes of Every Kind of Plant – The Quran uses an interesting term

―zawjayn ithnayn” {Zawjayn = Gender & Ithnayn = Two} when talking about Plants invariably signifying that God has Created a ―Pair Comprising Both Sexes‖ for each Plant, a statement fully in accord with the modern day knowledge of Botanical Science. Usually, the male and female organs of reproduction exist together in one and the same flower of a particular plant, e.g., cotton; A More ―Detailed‖ Explanation of of this concept of ―two sexes‖ of Plants is given by M. Asad a Translator of the Quran as follows: Lit., "and out of all [kinds of] fruits He made thereon (i.e., on earth] pairs (zawjayn ithnayn)". The term zawj denotes, according to the context, either "a pair" or "one of a pair". Whenever the dual form zawjan is followed by the additional numerical definition ithnan ("two"), it invariably signifies "a pair comprising both sexes". Thus, the above phrase states that there are two sexes to every kind of plant: a statement fully in accord with botanical science. (Usually, the male and female organs of reproduction exist together in one and the same flower of a particular plant, e.g., cotton; alternatively, they are placed in separate flowers of one and the same plant, e.g., in most of the cucurbitaceae; and, in some rare cases, e.g., the date-palm, in entirely separate, uni-sexual plants of the same species.)(Quran Ref: 13:3) 172 Alternatively, they are placed in separate flowers of one and the same plant, e.g., in most of the cucurbitaceous; and, in some rare cases, e.g., the date-palm, in entirely separate, uni-sexual plants of the same species173 The verse of The Quran that highlights this occurrence of Pairs of the two sexes in plants states this in the following words:
“And it is He who has spread the earth wide and placed on it firm mountains and running waters, and created thereon two se xes of every [kind of] plant; [and it is He who]
167 168

Taken from the Compilation by Imam Muslim of Prophet Mohammad’s Pronouncements ,Hadiths“ “ “ “ “ “ Ahmed “ “ “ “ 169 “ “ “ “ “ “ Muslim and Bukhari “ “ 170 al-Munawi, Fayd al-Qadir, vi, 39; Haythami, Majmau al-Zawaaid, iv, 67-8. 171 al-Munawi, Fayd al-Qadir, iv, 87. 172 www.islamicity.com 173 M. Asad in his Note No. 7 accompanying his Translation of Quran [13:3]


causes the night to cover the day. Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for people who think” 174

The Earth and its connection with Plantations and Pastures are once again focussed in two further verses of The Quran as follows: ―It is Allah who sends down water from the sky, and therewith we bring forth buds of
every kind. We bring forth the green blades from which we bring forth thick-clustered grain, and from the date palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant bunches, and gardens of grape, and the olive and the pomegranate .‖ “And the earth - We have spread it wide, and set upon it mountains firm, and caused it to bring forth plants of all beauteous kinds.” 175 “And We send dow n from the skies water rich in blessings, and cause thereby gardens to grow, and fields of grain,” 176 “..and tall palm trees with their thickly clustered dates”177

33. ALLAH’s Miracle-The Seed Grains –178. The seed-grain and the date-stone are
selected as types in the vegetable kingdom, showing how our physical life depends on it. The fruits mentioned later (in chapter 6 verse 99) start another allegory which we shall notice later. Botanists will notice that the seed-grain includes the cereals (such as wheat, barley, rice, millet, etc.) which are monocotyledons, as well as the pulses (such as beans, peas, gram, etc.) and other seeds which are dicotyledons. These two represent the most important classes of food-grains, while the date-palm, a monocotyledon, represents for Arabia both food, fruit, confectionery, thatch and pillars for houses, shady groves in oases, and a standard measure of wealth and well being. "Split and sprout": both ideas are included in the root falaqa, and a third is expressed by the word "cleave" in the next verse, for the action of evolving day-break from the dark. I might almost have used the word "churn," familiar to students of Hindu lore in the Hindu allegory of the "churning of the ocean." For vegetables, "split and sprout" represents a double process: (1) the seed divides, and (2) one part shoots up, seeking the light, and forming leaves and the visible parts of the future tree, and the other part digs down into the dark, forming the roots and seeking just that sustenance from the soil, which is adapted for the particular plant. This is just one small example of the ―Judgement and Order” of God

34. POLLINATION in Islam
How Pollination takes place is described by the following verse of The Quran:
“And we let loose the winds to fertilize [plants] and We send dow n water from the skies and let you drink thereof: and it is not you who dispose of its source-“179

...Continued on the next page
174 175

Quran [13:3] Quran [50:7] 176 Quran [50:9] 177 Quran [50:10] 178 Quran [6:95] Commentary No. 919 179 Quran [15:22]


This definition of Metamorphosis comprises things physical and spiritual: waters disappearing underground and reappearing; the metamorphosis of seed into plant, and of decaying plant into oil and coal; traces of old artefacts and entire civilizations buried in the earth and then reappearing within the sight and consciousness of later generations of men; the transformation of dead bodies of animals and men into elements of nourishment for new life; the ascent of earthy vapours towards the skies, and their descent as rain, snow or hail; the ascent towards the heavens of men‘s longings, hopes and ambitions, and the descent of divine inspiration into the minds of men, and thus a revival of faith and thought and, with it, the growth of new artefacts, new skills and new hopes: in short, the endless recurrence of birth, death and re-birth which characterizes all of God‘s creation . 180

Two Truly ―Amazing‖ Examples of how GOD Inspires seemingly Tiny Insects to construct masterpieces are that of the Bees and the Spiders with works of art like the Honeycomb and the Spider‘s web. Considering the Bees, there are two verses of The Quran that highlight this miraculous relationship between Divine Inspiration and the resulting works of truly amazing proportions are:
“And [consider how] thy Sustainer has inspired the bee: "Prepare for thyself dwellings in mountains and in trees, and in what [men] may build [for thee by way of hives];” 181 “.... [And lo!] There issues from w ithin these [bees] a fluid of many hues, wherein there is health for man. In all this, behold, there is a message indeed for people who think!” 182

The Quranic expression "He has inspired" (awha) is meant to bring out the wonderful quality of the instinct which enables the lowly insect to construct the geometrical masterpiece of a honeycomb out of perfectly-proportioned hexagonal, prismatic wax cells - a structure which is most economical, and therefore most rational, as regards space and material. Together with the subsequently mentioned transmutation, in the bee's body, of plant juices into honey, this provides a striking evidence of "God's ways" manifested in all nature . 183 The Quran quite often uses parables to make a point, and in this case, it uses the Spider‘s web as a parable to indicate the frailty of those who take beings or forces Other than God for their protectors 184


The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A learned person is as much above a worshipper as I am above the least of you. He adde d: ALLAH, His angels and all those in Heavens and on Earth, even the ants in their hills and the fish in the water, call dow n blessings on those w ho instruct people in beneficial knowledge. 1 8 5

180 181

M. Asad’s Note accompanying his translation of Quran *34:2+ Quran [16:68] 182 Quran [16:69] 183 M. Asad’s Note No. 77 accompanying his translation of Quran *16:69+ 184 Quran [29:41] 185 Taken from a collection of Prophet Mohammad’s Teaching Statements ,Hadith- Compiled by Imam Tirmidhi, No. 422


38. Conservation
Prophet Mohammad‘s entire Life serves as a Guiding Light for Muslims and in the Implementation of The Quran. On migrating to Medina, God‘s Messenger (PBUH)186 organized the planting of trees and of date groves. He made the forests and green spaces conservation areas, where every sort of living creature lived. These were called sanctuaries (hima). For example, a strip of land approximately twelve miles wide around Medina was proclaimed a sanctuary and made a conservation area. He is also thought to have proclaimed other areas, similar to this, as sanctuaries. All these show the paramount importance Islam gives to nature conservancy and protection of all of nature‘s living creatures.187 In the centuries following Prophet Mohammad‘s passing away, Islamic Scholars introduced the idea of ―hima‖ - a protected zone, and many Islamic countries have continued with this concept and set aside certain wild areas that cannot be developed or cultivated thus giving birth to the modern day concept of wildlife reserves.188 The preservation of water for the drinking of humankind, animals, birds and vegetation is a form of worship which gains the pleasure of Allah 189 Such is the Importance of Conservation, that Islam prohibits the destruction of Crops, Vegetation and Live stocks even in the midst of a war.

39. Islam and Medical Sciences1 9 0
The reason for including the Topic of Islam and Medical Sciences in this Article on Islam and Environment is, that, Islamic Medicine, Treat ments and Cures are infor med by the Envir onment and what it contains. Rhazes Anatomy of Smallpox Antisept ic Psyc hosomatic Medicine The Paradise of Wisdom (Firdaws al-hikmah ) by 'Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari, who synthesized the Hippocratic and Galenic traditions of medicine with those of India and Persia. His student, Muhammad ibn Za kariyya' a l- Razi (the Latin Rhazes), was one of the greatest of physicians who emphasized clinical medicine and observation. He was a master of prognosis and psychosomatic medicine and also of anatomy. He was the first to identify and treat smallpox, to use alcohol as an antiseptic and make medical use of mercury as a purgative. His Kitab al-hawi (Contine ns) is the longest work ever written in Islamic medicine and he was recognized as a medical authority in the West up to the 18th century. The Canon of Medicine and Meningitis The greatest of all Muslim physicians, however, was Ibn Sina who was called "the prince of physicians " in the West. He synthesized Islamic medicine in his major masterpiece, alQanun fi'l tibb ( The Canon of Me dic ine), which is the most famous of all medical books in history. It was the final authority in medical matters in Europe for nearly six centuries and is still taught wherever Islamic medicine has survived to this day in such lands as
186 187

PBUH (An Acronym for Peace Be Upon Him) http://www.123muslim.com/islamic-articles/3937-earth-day-islam-hadiths-prophet-environment.html 188 Gar Smith www.earthisland.org 189 Gar Smith www.earthisland.org 190 www.alim.org One of the Most Useful of Collections on Islamic Knowledge


Pakistan and India. Ibn Sina discovered many drugs and identified and treated several ailments such as meningitis but his greatest contribution was in the philosophy of medicine. He created a system of medicine within which medical practice could be carried out and in which physical and psychological factors, drugs and diet are combined. Pulmonary Circulat ion After Ibn Sina, Islamic medicine divided into several branches. In the Arab world Egypt remained a major center for the study of medicine, especially ophthalmology which reached its peak at the court of al-Hakim. Cairo possessed excellent hospitals which also drew physicians from other lands including Ibn Butlan, author of the famous Calendar of Health, and Ibn Naf is who discovered the lesser or pulmonary circulation of the blood long before Michael Servetus, who is usually credited with the discovery. Gynecology As for the western lands of Islam including Spain, this area was likew ise witness to the appearance of outstanding physicians such as Sa'd al-Katib of Cordoba who composed a treatise on gynecology, and the greatest Muslim f igu re in surgery, the 12th century Abu'l-Qasim al-Zahraw i (the Latin Albucasis) whose medical masterpiece Kitab al-tasrif was well known in the West as Concessio. One must also mention the Ibn Zuhr family which produced several outstanding physicians and Abu Marwan 'Abd al-Malik who was the Maghrib's most outstanding clinical physician. The well know n Spanish philosophers, Ibn Tufayl and Ibn Rushd, were also outstanding physicians. Islamic medicine continued in Persia and the other eastern lands of the Islamic world under the influence of Ibn Sina w ith the appearance of major Persian medical compendia such as the Treasury of Sharaf al-Din al-Jurjani and the commentaries upon the Canon by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi. Even after the Mongol invasion, medical studies continued as can be seen in the work of Rashid al- Din Fadlallah, and for the first time there appeared translations of Chinese medicine and interest in acupuncture among Muslims. The Islamic medical tradition was revived in the Safav id period when several diseases such as whooping cough were diagnosed and treated for the first time and much attention was paid to pharmacology. Many Persian doctors such as 'Ayn al-Mulk of Shiraz also travelled to India at this time to usher in the golde n age of Islamic medicine in the subcontinent and to plant the seed of the Islamic medical tradition which continues to flourish to this day in the soil of that land. Major Hospitals The Ottoman world was also an arena of great medical activity derived from the heritage of Ibn Sina. The Ottoman Turks were especially known for the creation of major hospitals and medical centers. These included not only units for the care of the physically ill, but also wards for patients with psychological ailments. The Ott omans were also the first to receive the influence of modem European medicine in both medicine and pharmacology. In mentioning Islamic hospitals it is necessary to mention that all major Islamic cities had hospitals; some like those of Baghdad were teaching hospitals while some like the Nasiri hospital of Cairo had thousands of beds for patients with almost any type of illness. Hygiene in these hospitals was greatly emphasized and al- Razi had even written a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Some hospitals also specialized in particular diseases including psychological ones. Cairo even had a hospital which specialized in patients having insomnia.


40. Animals in IslamThe Arabic term for the "animal" (i.e. haywan) with it’s
limited meaning is said to appear once in the Qur'an which instead chooses to use another word dābba which has a much wider range of meanings depending on the context of it’s use and refers varyingly to all livi ng creatures, beasts of all kinds, animals, moving creatures, creatures, worms etc. There are approximately 22 verses of the Quran which use this term dābba when dealing with the subject. The degree of importance given to Animals in Islam can be gauged form the fact that 6 of the Surah(s) [Chapters] of the Quran take their name from names of non-human creatures like Animals and Insects. These are [Ch2] Al-Buqara –The Calf; [Ch6] Al-An’am-The

Cattle; [Ch16] Al-Nahal -The Honey Bees; [Ch27] Al-Naml -The Ants; [Ch29] Al-Ankabut –The Spider; [Ch105] Al-Feel – The Elephant.
Whether we are considering insects, animals, humans or inanimate objects like the Sun, The Moon and the Stars in our reflection on the subject, the important thing to bear in mind is that ALL bar-None offer SERVITUDE to GOD and prostrate themselves in His Worship. The form and language of worship may not be the same that we human beings recognize and is most probably different for different form of creatures, but nevertheless ALL Worship ALLAH and those that defy ALLAH’s Lordship will inevitably have to face His scorn on Resurrection Day. The above contention is specifically highlighted in verse [22:18] of The QURAN w hich States it in the following words: “ART THOU NOT aware that before God prostrate themselves all [things and beings] that are in the heavens and all that are on earth the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts? And many human beings [subm it to God consciously], whereas many [others, having defied Him,] will inev itably have to suffer [in the life to come]; and he whom God shall scorn [on Resur rection Day] will have none who could bestow honour on him: for, verily, God does what He wills .” The Following Significant Verses of the Quran repeatedly talk of the Creatures.

LIVING C REATURES ARE SIGNS OF ALLAH Quran [42:29] and among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the ea rth, and the living creatures that He has scattered through them: and He has power to gather them together when He wills- This is referring to the belief in Islam about the coming of “The Day of Reckoning” and hence the concept of Accountable Living. The Quran states that: “and in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith.” 191


Quran [45:4]


The Quran states further that: “Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the ea rth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of m ankind; in the rain which Allah Sends dow n from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of a ll kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.” 192

Animal Welfare in Islam
There are many stories from the Life of Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) w hich highlight the heavy responsibility that Islam places on the shoulders of human beings for Animal Welfare. One such familiar story recounts how during a journey, one of Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh)’s companions had removed a baby pigeon from a nest which caused immense distress to its mother. Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) ensured that the baby bird is returned to its nest, declaring that For Charity shown to each creature with a wet heart, the re is a re wa rd Islam forbids “factory outpours to go to waterways or to the seas and oceans, as this would pollute the water and threaten marine life.193 Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) said also that: He who is kind and me rciful towards anima ls, Alla h will be Kind and Merciful towards him 194 The Messenge r of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sa id: “ Do not use anything in which there is a soul as a ta rget. 195 The Messenge r of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sa id: Islam Forbids the shooting of tied or confined anima ls 196 The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Islam forbids the beating of Animals o n the face or ca uterization on the face. 197 The Messenge r of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade inciting animals to fight with one another. 198

192 193

Quran [2:164] Gar Smith quoting Mufti Tajuddin. H. Hilaly at www.earthisland.org 194 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 195 A Quotation from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) Taken from a Collection known as “Sahih Muslim” Hadith No. 1957 196 A Quotation from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) Taken from a Collection known as “Sahi h Bukhari”, Book No., 67, Hadith No. 421 197 A Quotation from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) Taken from a Collection known as “Sahih Muslim” Hadith No. 996


The Messenge r of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sa id: There is a re ward for se rving any animate 199 The Messenge r of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sa id : Fea r GOD in treating dumb animals. Ride them when they are fit to be ridden and get off them when they are tire d. Tradition has it that if someone kills a bird for amusement, the bird will demand justice from ALLAH against that pe rson on judgment day.

Two Opposite Stories.
A Prostitute’s Sins Forgiven.
In one of his anecdotal teaching Statements known as Hadith, Prophet Mohammad(Pbuh) said, "A prostitute was forgiven by ALLAH, because, passing by a panting dog near a well and seeing that the dog was about to die of thirst, she took off her shoe, and tying it with her head-cover she drew out some water for it. So, Allah forgave her because of that."

A Locked up Cat causes its owner to enter Hell Fire.
In another anecdotal narration from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) a story is given of a woman who had locked-up her cat in a room, and held back food from it – not allowing it to go free to fetch food and feed itself, and because of this one act of cruelty to a small animal like a cat, ALLAH has reserved a place in the Hell-Fire for that woman.




A Quotation from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) Taken from a Collection known as “Tirmidhi” Hadith No. 1110 199 A Quotation from Prophet Mohammad (Pbuh) Taken from a Collection known as “Sahih Bukhari”, Book No., 40, Hadith No. 551


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