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Basics of Fluid Mechanics
Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 606451335 email:barmeir at gmail.com
Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick BarMeir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.3 December 5, 2010)
‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”
from The Metalogicon by John in 1159
CONTENTS
Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer BarMeir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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xvii xxv xxvi xxvii xxvii xxviii xxx xxx xxxi xxxi xxxi xxxi xxxii xxxiii xxxiii xxxiii xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxv xlv xlv xlv
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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv li li 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 30 34 43 43 51 51 53 53 54 54 54 55 57 61 62 63 63 64 67 67 67 69 69 73 77
1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .
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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .
CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 81 85 87 88 88 90 92 95 95 104 111 120 132 133
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
I
Integral Analysis
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141 141 142 143 145 145 152 154 160 163 169 169 169 170 171 171 172 176 179 180 187 188 191
5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .
6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 193 193 205 206 207 207 209 209 210 210 212
7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform
II
Diﬀerential Analysis
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215 215 216 219 221 226 226 227 228 232 242 242 246 256 261 261 261 262 263 264 265 269 270 273 274 276 277 278 280
8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii 281 283 284 291 293 293 294 296 298 304 304 305 307 310 312 315 317 319 319 320 321
A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Firstorder equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index 323 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
viii CONTENTS .
. . . . . . . . . . . .18 1. . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 1. . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Rotating disc in a steady state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 1. . . . . .10 1. .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . Water viscosity as a function temperature. Surface tension control volume analysis .7 1. . . . .5 1. The raising height as a function of the radius . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Diagram to explain ﬂuid mechanics branches . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . ix . . . Capilary rise between two plates . . . .11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . .4 1. . . . .8 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. .13 1. . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 1. of inertia. . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1. .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 1. . .17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface . . . . . . .16 1. .19 1. . . . .6 1. . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 30 31 33 34 34 36 39 39 52 53 54 55 . . .22 3.
. . . . . Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4. . .10 3. . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . .4 4.3 4. . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . . . . Rectangular area under pressure . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . .19 4.23 4. . . . . . . . . .20 4.13 4. . . . . . . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . .34 LIST OF FIGURES The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. .6 4. . .33 4. . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . .21 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3. . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . . . .x 3. . . . . . .32 4. .7 . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . .29 4. .26 4. . . .9 . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 3. . Inverted manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . .27 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . .14 4. . . . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . Earth layers not to scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane . . . . . . Description of parabola .7 3. . . Tank and the eﬀects diﬀerent liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . The forces on curved area . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle . . . . .8 4.1 4. . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle .5 3. .10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube . . . . . . . .31 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclined manometer . The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area . . . . . .22 4. . . 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 62 67 70 70 71 72 74 75 76 77 80 83 85 88 89 90 90 91 92 95 96 97 99 100 103 104 105 106 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . . . . .24 4. . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . .11 4.
. .10 6. . . The work on the control volume . . . . . . .43 4. . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . .50 5. . Boundary Layer control mass . . . Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 4. .45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 4. . .5 6. . .48 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio . . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . .5 5. . . . . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . .12 6. . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 4. Boat for example 5. . . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . .3 6. .35 4. . .11 5. 197 . . . . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . 194 Discharge from a Large Container . . . .1 6. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . .10 5. . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . .14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity . . . . . . . . .6 6. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . .1 7. . .49 4. . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 6. . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . .46 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 113 121 121 122 125 125 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 135 136 137 141 142 143 144 147 150 155 160 161 162 163 164 170 173 175 177 178 179 182 183 187 189 192 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . .36 4. . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 4. . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . .4 5.47 4. Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long .
. . . . . . . . . .15 9. . .16 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . .17 8. . . . . .3 Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . .9 9. . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity.2 8. . . . . . . . .18 8. . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . .15 8. . . . . . . . .20 9.13 8. . . .2 The right hand rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . 293 A.12 9. . . . .11 9. . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow.xii 7. . . . . . . . . .11 8. . . . Flow between two plates top moving . . . 294 A. . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . 216 218 220 221 229 230 232 234 235 237 237 237 238 243 245 246 246 248 249 252 254 256 263 265 266 266 267 268 269 279 280 281 282 282 283 284 284 290 8. . . . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. .4 9. . . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . Image of countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry.5 9. . .6 8. . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . .10 LIST OF FIGURES Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . Flow in kerosene lamp .7 8. . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . .8 8.9 8. . . . . . 300 . . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . .13 9.7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . 206 The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9.1 Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . .16 8. . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . . .19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .6 A. . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . xiii 301 302 303 321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . .4 A. The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES A. . . .
xiv LIST OF FIGURES .
. . . . . .1 3. . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . .4 1. . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 xv . . . . . . . . .5 1. . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 15 23 35 41 42 48 65 66 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . continue . .6 1.2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . A. . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.7 2. . . . . . . .
xvi LIST OF TABLES .
22). page 47 The shear stress Tenser.0).43). page 67 Body force.0). page 277 The area of surface. see equation (2. see equation (4.38). page 171 The velocity taken with the direction.1). see equation (9. see equation (5. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. page 43 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.9). see equation (1.26). see equation (2. see equation (2. page 170 Units length.17).136). see equation (4.23). see equation (6.7). see equation (2. see equation (6. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum.6).11). see equation (6. see equation (6.v. page 187 viscosity at input temperature T. page 44 xvii . see equation (1.1). page 45 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. Ti0 .3). see equation (2. page 47 Internal energy. page 44 Internal Energy per unit mass.17). page 142 Speciﬁc pressure heat. see equation (2. page 104 The acceleration of object or system. page 47 Speciﬁc volume heat. page 169 Martinelli parameter..
page 12 velocity . see equation (3. page 44 Speciﬁc gas constant. see equation (2.2). see equation (4.104). page 48 Entropy of the system. page 44 The gravitation constant. see equation (1.1. see equation (2. page 64 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin.0). page 86 general Body force. see equation (2.17). page 12 Torque. page 142 .42).2). page 44 the coordinate in z direction.24).13). see equation (4.4). see equation (4. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 46 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 46 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. see equation (1.27). page 44 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (2. page 97 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. page 44 Work per unit mass. page 46 Speciﬁc enthalpy.3).xviii Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i.6). see equation (3.17). page 69 Subscribe says. see equation (4. page 67 Enthalpy. page 194 Angular momentum. page 47 Fluid thermal conductivity.18). see equation (7.6). see equation (2.2). see equation (2. see equation (5. page 63 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.17). page 44 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (2. see equation (2.18).40). see equation (2.0). see equation (1. see equation (2.67). see equation (2.14).
additional examples in mass conservation chapter.artofproblemsolving.3 M 378 pages) Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system. Version 0.3 M 362 pages) Further improved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.1 Nov 12.0. Addition of several examples.3.2 Nov 19. Brought the mass conservation chapter to code. 2010 (3.3 M 358 pages) Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. 2010 (3.3 Dec 5. Version 0. xix .The Book Change Log Version 0.0.3. Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus.0.com. 2010 (3.3. Improve English in several chapters.
Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan). Add several examples on surface tension. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter.0. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure.2.xx LIST OF TABLES Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation. 2010 (3.0 Oct 24. Version 0.3.1 Oct 11. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter.2. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations. Version 0. Improvement of properties chapter. . Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. Version 0. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. 2010 (3.9. Add example. Improve English in several chapters.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. 2010 (3. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations.9 Sep 20.
Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter. 2009 (2. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. Add example about the the third component of the velocity.artofproblemsolving. 2010 (2.2.9 Dec 01. Corrections to Static Chapter.4 March 01.2.com. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0. 2010 (2.6 March 10. English corrections. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. .artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.com. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.com. 2010 (2. English corrections.1. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. Version 0. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.3 Jan 01.2.
1. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books. 2009 (2.8a July 5. Version 0.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0. Version 0. Add an example to mechanics chapter. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title.5 Nov 01. 2009 (2. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.8. Version 0. 2008 (2.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). English corrections.1 Sep 17. 2009 (2.xxii LIST OF TABLES Add the open question concept. Add some examples to static chapter.8. Two open questions were released. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperaturevelocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter.1.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.1. .1.8 Aug 6.
. 2008 Version 0.1. Version 0. 2008 (1. 2008 (1. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid.4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.1a April 23.1. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. Minor corrections for all three chapters. (thanks to Tousher).1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter. 2008 (1. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter. 2008 (1. Version 0.1a April 23.1.LIST OF TABLES xxiii Version 0.1 May 8. Version 0. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).1. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.5 Jun 5. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).5a Jun 11. Version 0. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene).6 Jun 30. The mechanics chapter was released.
xxiv LIST OF TABLES .
November 2002 Copyright ©2000. Preamble The purpose of this License is to make a manual.Notice of Copyright For This Document: This document is published under modiﬁed FDL. MA 021101301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document.2002 Free Software Foundation. Boston. 51 Franklin St.2.2001. with or without modifying it. textbook. ”If you print more than 200 copies. The change of the license is to prevent from situations that the author has to buy his own book. Fifth Floor.” Version 1. but changing it is not allowed. or other functional and useful document ”free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the eﬀective freedom to copy and redistribute it. GNU Free Documentation License The modiﬁcation is that under section 3 “copying in quantity” should be add in the end. either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily. this License preserves for the author and xxv . Inc. The Potto Project License doesn’t long apply to this document and associated docoments. you are required to furnish the author with two (2) copies of the printed book.
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just smaller in the sense of less text changed. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Minor contributions (typo corrections. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. contact info. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. etc. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). Dec.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. 2009 xxxiii . time.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. date. etc.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.
Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here.net . Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Contact at: my email@provider. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Eliezer BarMeir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Dan H.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. describing how you contributed to the book.
(Nov 2010) . January 2008.38) by Michal Zadrozny. review of statics and thermo chapters. Gupta. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan.CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. Corretion to equation (2. Tousher Yang April 2008.
xxxvi LIST OF TABLES .
G. All the models have practical applicability. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP970489 and PB980007. For example. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). British industry. xxxvii . As the change in the view occurred. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. BarMeir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. Eckert. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. books and software. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue).E.D. Dr. In the area of compressible ﬂow.About This Author Genick BarMeir holds a Ph. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. Currently. BarMeir was the last student of the late Dr. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. and Canada. Spain. In his early part of his professional life. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. Now. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD972333 grants for minor aspects of that models. in GM. R. Moreover. the author’s models were used in numerical works. BarMeir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability.
The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. BarMeir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. practically from scratch. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. the author just know to learn quickly. The author lives with his wife and three children. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. . He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. A past project of his was building a four stories house. BarMeir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. While he is known to look like he knows about many things.
particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. one of this author’s sages. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.harvard. However.org/wiki/Main Page). On one hand. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. the creation of the POTTO Project. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. like an open source. As individuals we have to obey the law. As R. There is always someone who can add to the book. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States).law.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). is a new idea3 .Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. one should increase wisdom. Kook.wikipedia. Hence. xxxix .
Thus. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. Whatever the reasons. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. For some contributors/authors. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. Nigel R. The answer varies from individual to individual. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution.uk/bugclub/raiders. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. For some authors. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. The social function can have at least two components. 77:139. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. Thus. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. It is not just for experts to contribute. 1989 (see for information http://www. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. In these cases. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. For others. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections.” American Scientist. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. one also begins to better understand the material. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. While one can be as creative as possible. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics..ac. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better.html) . the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors.ex. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. In a way. For example.
other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. while in other cases only the gate keeper. Gas Dynamics Calculator (PottoGDC). Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. But more than that. graphs and etc. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. These data (tables. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. Even if not complete. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. Nevertheless. etc. For example. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. Unlike a regular book. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). In addition.CREDITS xli process. NASA Langley Research Center. Farassat.000 copies a month. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book.” In this process. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. It is hoped that the books will be errorfree.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. Thus. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). Thus. Additionally. . some errors are possible and expected.
0.) are already presented.01 TelAviv’notes 0.0.0.8.1 0. Books under development in Potto project. and all of the examples and data (tables. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.0 0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status.3 0.0 0. However.1.4.2 0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0.1 0.0. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).0. but it has roots in the way science progresses.xlii Table 1.0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. a process in which books . The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. etc. and special cases. advanced topics. ﬁgures.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0.0.0.0 0.0 0.
such as OpenOﬃce. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. But more A than that. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. writing examples. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. and Microsoft Word software. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. Again. A new version is created every several years. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. and perhaps troﬀ. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. Schlichting. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. only LTEX. are not appropriate for these projects. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. which include the actual writing of the text. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. because of the open nature of this project. i.. Further. Abiword. 6 Originally authored by Dr. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. especially LTEX. However. Word processors.CREDITS xliii have a new version every a few years. many of whom volunteered to help.e. . The text processes. who passed way some years ago.
xliv LIST OF TABLES .
2008 pages 189 size 2. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. Version 0.Prologue For This Book Version 0.8 August 6. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. it is very satisfying for the author. 2008 pages 151 size 1. aerospace engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering.1. in this version. In fact. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. and civil engineering. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xlv . Even in this early development stage.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. and electrical engineering. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students.1 April 22. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. This author was bothered by this explanation. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. chemical engineering. so much energy). Now. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations.
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previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).
How This Book Was Written
This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. In writing this book, it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The approach adapted in this book is practical, and more hands–on approach. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. So, issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. Otherwise, this book avoids this kind of issues. The structure of Hansen, Streeter and Wylie, and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.” Later, multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. Of course, this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The graphics were done by TGIF, the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The spell checking was done by ispell, and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell, a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick BarMeir, and is copyleft by him.
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Preface
"In the beginning, the POTTO project was and void; and emptiness was upon the face and files. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. And the Author there be words, and there were words." 8 . without form, of the bits moved upon said, Let
This book, Basics of Fluid Mechanics, describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus, physics, etc. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. For example, if you need information about, say, statics’ equations, you can read just chapter (4). I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. However, this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook, and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are, rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped.9 Reading everything will, naturally, increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. Like all volunteer work, there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. Moreover, due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations, the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. Nevertheless, I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. This book contains many worked examples, which can be very useful for many. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book, marked with a Mata mark. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future.
the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is only to explain his power. the present, the book is not well organized. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress.
9 At 8 To
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Furthermore, I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. Incorrect language, errors, ideas for new areas to cover, rewritten sections, more fundamental material, more mathematics (or less mathematics); I am interested in it all. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. If you want to be involved in the editing, graphic design, or proofreading, please drop me a line. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail.com”. Naturally, this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). This material never went through a close content review. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. In practice, this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . Several people have helped me with this book, directly or indirectly. I would like to especially thank to my adviser, Dr. E. R. G. Eckert, whose work was the inspiration for this book. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices, ideas, and assistance. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. There are also notes in the margin, but those are solely for the author’s purposes, ignore them please. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing, editing, graphic ability, LTEX knowledge, and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. If you have Internet email access, you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.com”.
10 Dr. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well, literature review is always good, isn’t it?). Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction, it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. However, other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated.
To Do List and Road Map
This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Nevertheless, there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. At this stage, many chapters are missing. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. These omissions, mistakes, approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this
Meta
sample this part.
Meta End
You are always welcome to add a new material: problem, question, illustration or photo of experiment. Material can be further illuminate. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand.
Properties
The chapter isn’t in development stage yet.
Open Channel Flow
The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces, motions, and statical conditions in continuous material. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension, ﬂuid statics, ﬂow in enclose bodies, or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise), ﬂow stability, etc. In fact, almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. Furthermore, the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.). For example, glass appears as a solid material, but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp, the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics)
1
1. Moreover. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. For example. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. Or. 1. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. air with dust particle).2 CHAPTER 1. http://ekkinc. engineers in software company (EKK Inc.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a .
turbulence. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. there isn’t a clear winner.C. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. Euler. Later. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be . When cities increased to a larger size. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. Before dealing with the boundaries. and continue with Empirical Analysis. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment.2. 1. At some point. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained.) on the principles of buoyancy. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. For example. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. For example. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. As in thermodynamics. Torricelli.1. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. to be followed by stability. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. aqueducts were constructed. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. Yet. Thus. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. and D’Alembert. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. Bernoulli family. After his initial work. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. Naturally. conﬂicts with the reality. Newton. etc.
However. Rankine. Hagen. Hydraulics. and the KuttaJoukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. This problem led to two consequences. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. Chezy. the way how it was calculated changed. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. and many others. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. In the middle of the nineteen century. and Poisseuille. von Karman. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Stanton. resistance by Darcy. Thus. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. after World War Two. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Meyer. The experimentalists. Bhuckingham. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Rose. Therefore. mainly in pipes and open channels area. La Grange. Gas Dynamics. people cannot relinquish control. On the “experimental” side. But. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. Bossut. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Helmhoitz. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Prandtl and his students Blasius. At the end of the twenty century. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld.4 CHAPTER 1. as in thermodynamics. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. for example. Ganguillet. and Manning. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Fanning. Coulomb. The NavierStokes equations. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). Thus. and Aeronautics. Fabre. Weisbach. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. Dupuit. and Kelvin. Dubuat. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Rayleigh. Kirchhoﬀ. d’Aubisson. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. On the theoretical side. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. Taylor. were Brahms. there are many .
This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. For the discussion here. Later. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. The second quantity discussed here is the area. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. For example. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. these programs are as good as the input provided. then the change of volume is at best 5%.1. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. But below the critical point. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. The area is measured in [m2 ]. Hence. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. e. The traditional quantity. Inc). and it is referred to the direction of the area. which is force per area has a new meaning. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). under certain limits. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. It must be remember that force is a vector. The pressure component in the area .1). the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. The unit used to measure is [N]. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. Thus. For example. for most practical purposes considered. So. EKK.g it has a direction. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. the emphasis is on the physics. In this book. 1.3. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). In the best scenario. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. Thus. no shear stress is applied. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. In gaseous phase. the pressure has three components. This diﬀerence can be.
. thus the small distance analysis is applicable.2) Where A is the area. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. the density remains constant. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. the density is deﬁned as Fig. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. (1. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics.3). In this discussion. it was shown that when the force per area increases. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ].4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. From solid mechanics study.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. U0x F However. F. h) (1. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. the F denotes the force. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1.3. isn’t it?). In solid mechanics. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. Thus. h is the distance between the plates. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. here it will be treated as a separate issue. 1. Diﬀerent from solid. 1.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. the velocity of the plate increases also. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. Figure 1. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force).2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property.6 CHAPTER 1. After certain sample size. When this assumption is broken.2. (1. that is. 1. then.
6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length. d = U δt = h δβ (1.9) with equation (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. Hence.8) From equation (1. δt is d = U δt (1.11) .4 it can be noticed that for a small angle. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.1.4.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.4.3) (1.9) Combining equation (1.4) and (1. 1. In steady state.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.5) From equations (1.4) (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.7) From Figure 1.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). the regular approximation provides Fig. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.
The property of viscosity. the following can be written (see equation (1.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid.2[m] and 0.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction.5 A µU ∼ = 53.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. water etc. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow.45[N ] h 0. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.1[m] diameters with height of 0.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin.069 × 0. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. Example 1. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.8 CHAPTER 1. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Thus. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. when the outer cylinder remains stationary.01 End Solution Example 1.6)) F = 1 × 1. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly. In fact. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. Solution .5 m/sec. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Assume steady state conditions.1 [m]. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. Equation (1.
Thus. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases.5. and it resists the ﬂow. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics.13 h 0. However.986 0. the Fig.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature.5 Viscosity 1. In liquids. In gases. in gases. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n rP hi as lip po ff di la ta nt . Thus.1 × 12/60 = 0. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. thus. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow.4 ¡ M= ∼ . 1.1. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. The same way as in example (1. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. while in the dU liquids.1). ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible.5.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus.5.
There is a large class of materials which shows a nonlinear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. 1. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity.5. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines.13) are constant. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. From the physical point of view. Not all the materials obey this relationship. 1.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. On the liquid side below the critical point. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. K) in equation (1. Well above the critical point. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.7.10 CHAPTER 1. 1.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow.6. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig.5). Figure 1. both materials are only a function of the temperature. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn .
Mindess and J. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.0024 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.003 0.0006 0. 1 C.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. When n is below one. In the simple case.0014 0. VISCOSITY 11 always positive.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature. cosity is deﬁned as 0. When n.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. for most practical purposes.5. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. is above one. However. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. S. Skalny. Martys.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress. Ferraris. F.. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form.0026 0.7. [m2 /sec]. For example. The kinematic vis. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. 1. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. However. eds. the liquid is dilettante. de Larrard and N. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if τyx  > τ0 (1.e05 0.0002 5.002 0. 215241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1.0028 0.8.0018 0.0012 0.of the temperature.14) dUx =0 dy if τyx  < τ0 (1.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.1.0016 0.000025 0.0022 0. This fact explains Fig. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms).000015 0.0004 0. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. Materials Science of Concrete VI.e06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.5.5). according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. 1.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.0008 0.
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.710−5 .555 × 524. For isothermal ﬂow.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. Water viscosity as a func1. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. .12 CHAPTER 1. 2008 0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. For many gases.9.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.07 3 2 ∼ 2. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.1 Example 1. T T0 3 2 (1. have expressions that provide an estimate.002 0. Use the data provide in Table 1. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.00001827 × × 0.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.07 + 120 µ = 0. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.9.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.1. 1.5.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.001 0. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.8 and Fig.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth .
05 528.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.0001781 0.0002018 0.67 528. Viscosity of selected gases. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.93 540.00001480 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table 1.5. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.99 526.07 527.00001720 0.0000109 0.1.00001827 0.0000203 0.0000146 0. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.1.0000076 0.00000982 0.0001254 Table 1.67 518. .67 524.0000876 0.2.
098 0.072 0.54 1. .001194 0.01915 0.05 0.3.150. Viscosity of selected liquids.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.084 0.001547 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.000647 0.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table 1.000946 0.6 0.14 CHAPTER 1.200 0.000245 0.986 520 0.
01 32.8823 73.358525 48.83865 46.Fig.5 2. 1. Atomic Energy Commission AECD3646 U. May 1995 p. The lower pressure is.9696 2. In Figure 1. Washington D.4 49.1. Furthermore.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.5. this graph also shows the trends.3 28.47 2. Government Printing Oﬃce.183 39. Vol.40685 22.9 15 Table 1.5 1.8 132 304. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.3 5. The lines of constant relative pressure. Tr .4 or similar information. 19.10.636 58. Furthermore. In this graph. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.865925 50.289945 27.256425 48.3 19. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.944 131. then the critical . 258.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.6 26.0 18.0 15.97 44. ∼ 1[bar].S.C. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. other points can be estimated.54 15.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. if one point is well documented.4 305.5 151 289.4 190.7 647.07 16.0 21. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.7685 36.2 154. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.0 0. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.00 30. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.003 20. Figure 1.016 4.26 44. The second way. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”). for practical purpose.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.4. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.04 Tc [K] 33. cation (mushy zone).
18) The third way. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.15 ∼ 2. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1. 2 1956. In this book. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].35[Bar] Tc = 154.41 154.4 50.2 = 21. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. Example 1.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. 26 No.11 (1.35 373. Even for homogeneous mixture.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. when none is available. Rev.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. Makita. . For most 3 Kyama.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.
21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. 2008 Fig. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. .22) Here. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.2 Pr=0.5. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 twophase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. cases.1. 1. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. xi is the mole fraction of component i. and µi is the viscosity of component i. The subscript i should be used for the j index. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components.11.
2 Tr=1.12.8 Viscosity. µ 0. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. M 32.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2. x 0.4 Tr=1. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen.0000203 0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. Example 1.18 6 CHAPTER 1.1 Tr=1.2 0. 2008 Fig. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.00001754 . 1. Mole Fraction. 28.
0 1. m2 Figure 1.157 .0215 N sec .24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.8 × 0.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.0000181 0. This equation (1. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress.8 × 1. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.996 + 0. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0. in theory.00105 N sec . m2 m2 and τs = 0.2 × 0. µ0 = 0.0 1.2 × 1. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.875 1.0 1. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.0024 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0. An example for values for this formula.001 kN .23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.0000073 kN .143 0.2 × 0.0 + 0. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.0024 0.5.0000203 0. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.8 × 1.86 1.25) .0 19 µmix ∼ 0.0 Φij 1.0000182 . For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.1.0 µi /µj 1.996 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. End Solution In very low pressure.
VI.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0.26) Example 1. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1. dU ∼ 0.a) .2 = dr End Solution dU dr (1. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.4 revolution per second.1[m/s] (1.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.101 − 0.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.1 − 0 (1.2 [m]. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick.c) Example 1. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero.VI.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0.1 × π × 0. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. hence.VI.20 and CHAPTER 1. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec].6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.VII.7: A square block weighing 1.
Rotating disc in a steady state.1 × 30.1.a) T = 0 2 r τ dA = 2 0 2µr ωr 2 π r dr δ (1. In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius. The rest of the properties lumped into this section. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r.VIII.c) End Solution Example 1.b) The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1. 1. The edge eﬀects can be neglected.6. .c) End Solution 1.VII.6 Fluid Properties The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. r and expression has to be developed for it. U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3 21 (1.VIII.VII. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as R R (1.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap.VIII.13.b) (1. Solution δ Fig.
The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1.IX. it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank.b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2.IX.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C.22 CHAPTER 1. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.IX. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2. Examples to described usage of property are provided.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 .d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume.IX.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. State your assumptions.6. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1.a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 (1.c) E − ∆P E (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. For this example. Example 1. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric.e) . Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C.IX.IX.
80 1.228. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data.10 1.6.6.09 1.62 1.74 [MPa] 4.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.97 2.28 2.60 1. The .49 [MPa] 6. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.5. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.5 0.152. Table 1.34 1. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.3 [Mpa] nf 7.00 [MPa] Est 78.1.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law). chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.79 K na 647.064 [MPa] In the literature.034.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.52 26.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.32 1.5 2.5 [Bar] 172. FLUID PROPERTIES 23 1.06 1.109 [MPa] na 22.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.5.3 4.20 1.49 0. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.096 K Pc 57. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries).
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.24 CHAPTER 1. . The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer. These deﬁnitions are related to each other.33) From equation (1. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1. and therefore equation (1. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.35) The last equation (1.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v dv dT =− P =const v (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).34) T Equation (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1. dP = 0.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. In contrast.32) On constant pressure lines.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.
15 109 .00035 End Solution Example 1.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].01 = 2.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Two liquid layers under pressure. FLUID PROPERTIES 25 Example 1. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.14. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.XII. State your assumptions.1.14. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 .a) air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig. Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1. The new pressure is P1 .714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases.XII. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1.6.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. .12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1. 1.
e) Equation (1. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure.XIII. It is convenient to change further equation (1.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.13: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.12.c) Combining equation (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored.XIII. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers).XIII. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom.c) yields m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx 0 V −V BT Equation can be rearranged to be m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx V 1− BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT x (1. calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods.e) to 1− 4 Under g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.XIII.XIII.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .f) construction .26 CHAPTER 1.XII.a) The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.XIII.XIII. .b) with equation (1. For this example.XIII.d) ρ(x)dx 0 (1.XIII. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.XIII.c) End Solution Example 1. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.
XIII.e) is ρ0 BT ρ0 =⇒ ρ= g (1.XIII.g) (1.XIII. the salinity can be complity ignored. FLUID PROPERTIES 27 The integral equation (1.XIII.XIV.XIII.j) The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ 0 x + BT (1.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propogate from the surface to a depth D penpendicular the surface.XIII. .1. For constant bulk modulus.XIII.l) BT ρ0 BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1. Assume that no variation of the temperatuere.14: Water in deep sea undergoes compresion due to hydrostic pressure.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.h) The solution is (1.XIII. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1.6. the density at the bottom using equation (1. That is the density is function of the depth.XIII.k) In the “constant” density approach.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1. For the purpose of this excerss.i) or rearranged as ρ= (1.
However.XIV.XIV. is c= BT = ρ0 B T BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.XIV. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added .b) The time the sound travel a small intervel distance.2.c) The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of inﬁnitesimal time D dx t= (1.28 Solution CHAPTER 1. x.d) BT − g ρ 0 x 0 ρ0 The solution of equation (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point. The speed of sound at any depth point.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D = √ t= BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard caclulation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure.f) (1.6.XIV. the desnitsy is diﬀerent for evry point since the density varies and the desnity is a function of the depth.XIV.XIV.g) 1.XIV. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented.
another approach with taking into account the energyvolume is needed.36) The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present.37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. FLUID PROPERTIES 29 in special way.39) Where x1 . x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V . In case the total change isn’t.6.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.38) (1.36) into equation (1.42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v (1.43) End Advance material .39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.40) Rearranging equation (1.37) Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. Thus. in special mixture. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1. Hence.41) Equation (1.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = (1.1.27) or (1.
dℓ2 The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. In the vertical direction. Thus. The second with two equal radii. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and bubbles. 1.45) Equation (1.30 CHAPTER 1. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . The relationship between the surface tension and the pres2dβ1 sure on the two sides of the sury face is based on geometry. Furthermore. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. Thus. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?).44) For a very small area.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. When the surface tension R1 is constant. Con2dβ2 sider a small element of surface. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius.15. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. In many (physics. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1.46) . the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. the equation (1. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). Surface tension control volume analysis describing principals radii. the horizontal forces R2 dℓ1 cancel each other because symx metry. The forces in Fig. surface tension.
47) Where R is the radius of the sphere. inner and outer.021[m]. Glass tube inserted into mercury.c) b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W ∼0 (1.48) Example 1. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C. The inner diameter is 0. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.XV.d) . SURFACE TENSION 31 Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.45) is reduced to ∆P = 2σ R (1. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.02[m] σ 1.XV.16.15: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury.7. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.XV. It can be assume that the h 0.1. A soap bubble is made of two layers. However. 1.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled.XV.5 Fig. Estimate the depression size.16).02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0.b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 (1.
17: . The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . The reversible process requires very slow compression.49) The minimum work will be for a reversible process. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.16: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.XV.32 Or after simpliﬁcation CHAPTER 1. End Solution Example 1. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P .50) Where. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv rf r0 w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1.e) End Solution Example 1. that is the work is done on the system. r. It can be noticed that the work is negative. It is worth noting that for very slow process. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 2σ gρr h= (1.47) for reversible process.
It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curveture on the upper part. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1.001[m].1.17. Cumpute the value for sufrace tension of 0.05[N/m].XVIII. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise. Solution In Figure 1. Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force). 1.18: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders. SURFACE TENSION Calcualte the rise of liquid between two dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1.17 exhibits the liquid under the current study.51) resutls in h= 2 × 0. Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which diﬀerent from simple one dimensional case.001 × 9. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ.17. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwords) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1. The question when the curveture should be ansered in the Dimentional analysis and for simpliﬁcation this eﬀect is neglected.b) (1. the contol volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected.7.52) Example 1.51) (1. 33 ℓ h Fig.8 × ×1000 End Solution 2σ ρg (1.XVIII. Thus.05 = 0. the pressure above and below and surface tension.a) . the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0. Capilary rise between two plates.
19.53) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞.53). For example. The surface tension forces must be balanced. and gas can be ignored.34 CHAPTER 1. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. conG sider the point where three phases became in contact. Thus. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig. . This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary.54) into equation (1.XVIII.7. Forces in Contact angle. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. the solid phase. liquid.18. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. Thus.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. thus.XVIII. a contact angle is created to balance it. The surface tension is a molec. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.18.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. equation (1. the solid reaction force must be zero. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids.Fig.54) (1.53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. 1.55) (1. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1. 1. In Figure 1.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1.
I.T. SURFACE TENSION 35 The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. J.. chemical component Steel Steel. M. I. E.Nickel Nickel Nickel ChromeNickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. Heat Transfer. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. however.. gas medium and the solid surface. No 12. For example.83 π/3. and Ostrovsky.74 π/4. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. On the other hand. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).19).1. The contact angle for air.6. Y. Vol.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. V.4 π/3. G.7. Pages 509 .N. pages 14651470. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.5 π/3. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is nonwetting.517. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer.7 π/6 to π/4. . And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting.76 to π/3.83 π/4. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. This statement is correct in most cases. E. So. Siegel. and Rohsenow W. Aladev O. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface.7 π/4. vol 1 pp 365 .” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. 1117 1(7) In Russian. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting.372. 9.74 to π/3. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. 1975 2 Bergles A.I. 4 Arefeva E.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. 3 Tolubinsky. Table 1. ASME.
h = h(x). and Westwater. Description of liquid surface.20). N. x+dx. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1..20 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. Equation (1. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. The pressure. J. Appalling equation (1. 6 Basu. 1. No 1.56) The radius of any continuous function. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. (1993). pp.. R. 56. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.46) is applicable to it. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. A.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. Symp. 7 Gaetner. 659669 To explain the contour of the surface. Ser.. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.. 8 Wang.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. Prog. W. Energetika I transport.20. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). Heat Transfer 115. C. Warrier. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. and Dhir. 124. the Figure 1. K. V. is the atmospheric pressure. on the gas side. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. H.36 CHAPTER 1. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.. F. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Labuntsov D. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. V. In Figure 1. R.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields 0 0 0 g h(x). and Dhir... K..20. Eng. ρ = σ R(x) (1. . (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . G.” Chem.” J. Vol. papes 717 728.
62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1.60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1. SURFACE TENSION Substituting equation (1. constant = −1 . The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. The diﬀerential dh is h.58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1.63) At inﬁnity.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1.60) dh (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.62) After the integration equation (1.59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.7.57) into equation (1.58) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 37 (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence.1.61) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.64) .
therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. . This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . 1.1. This book is introductory.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.70) Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube.68) Equation (1. Shamefully.64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 (1.67) = dx −1 (1. otherwise it will not be there. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1. Equation (1. Furthermore.64) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 . this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.7. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Equation (1.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp −1 (1. 5 This p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant.68) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp  (1.38 CHAPTER 1.
4 0. 1.6. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible.21.7.71) indicates that the function of the radius. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1. high height which indicates a negative pressure. actual However.3 0. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 15 [mm].71). For a small tube radius. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. In that case equation (1.9 1.22.6 (1.2 1.0 Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.71) is shown in Figure 1. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. for ex. However. Equation (1. The raising height as a tremely small radii equation (1.1.7 Radii [cm] May 29.21. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.71) Figure 1.71) with a minus sign.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. . For large radii equation (1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The height based on equation (1. Furthermore.2 1.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect). In conclusion.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.” The depression height. there are information about the contact angle.0 0.22 exhibits the height as a function of Capilary Height the radius of the tube. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. On the other hand. 1.2 0.1 2. The raising height as a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. This angle is obtained when a Fig. equation (1. 1. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. function of the radii.22. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.Fig.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { 0. in reality there is no readily information for 0 R contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. However.0 0.5 1. SURFACE TENSION h 39 But this simplistic equation is unusable and Theory useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. h is similar to equation (1.6 0. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1.8 Height [cm] 0. 2008 6 Actually.8 2.21 as blue line. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.7.4 2. The actual height is shown in the red line.
21: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.0002 End Solution Example 1.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.0728 = ∼ 2.0[N/m2 ] r 0.20: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1.40 CHAPTER 1. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.001 [m]. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].22: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Example 1.19: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. Neglect the weight of the ring.0728 ∼ .04 × 0. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0. End Solution Example 1.47). However. Therefore. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.02 cm. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0. Estimate the surface tension? Solution . the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.
SURFACE TENSION To be continue End Solution 41 Table 1.40 32.0 22.0890 0.30 23.1484 0.1291 0.20 47.0920 0.1011 n/a 0.3 22.0 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C  correction mN mK n/a 0.90 43.20 43.88 39.7.1295 0.1159 0.70 38.0773 0.048.8 32.1063 0.1160 0.067 .70 58.60 27.4 28.95 34.1177 0.1117 n/a 0. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.12 425465.1085 0.1211 0.1120 0.0 0.30 43.50 28.10 22.1037 0.1191 0.50 36.10 32.70 26.1.50 24.1160 0.15 43.2049 0.00 45.7.0832 0.20 24.0598 n/a 0.0966 0.0842 n/a 0.1308 0.1066 0.1484 0.95 36.6 5.20 ∼ 21 64.1118 n/a n/a 0. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Surface Tension 27.60 22.12 33.50 41.1094 0.6 25.10 29.
60 n/a 5469 28.50 23.85 11.1372 0.80 30.00 36.7. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table 1.1514 0.00 41.1100 n/a n/a 0.70 38.10 28.0935 0.91 14.90 0.1101 0.4 27 72.42 CHAPTER 1. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water oXylene mXylene Surface Tension mN m T 25◦ C  correction mN mK 12.0777 0.1104 .0902 0.0972 0.1189 n/a 0.1172 0.
a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). Two. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. Work In mechanics. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In this deﬁnition. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. 43 . So. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. 2.
Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2. The statement describing the law is the following. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. etc. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. The “new” internal energy.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.2) The system energy is a state property.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. The kinetic energy is K. is the internal energy per unit mass. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. = mU 2 2 (2. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.44 CHAPTER 2. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration).E. chemical potential. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. . A common body force is the gravity.6) 2 (2. For such body force. potential energy (gravity). work. Eu . REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. the conservation is applied to all systems.3) Interesting results of equation (2. and electrical energy.
2. Bf . δQ =0 T (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS 45 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. the integral is independent of the path.13) . D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. These states are independent of the path the system goes through.1. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.12) The last integral can go though several states. Hence.9) (2. choosing any point in time will make it correct.10) The time derivative operator. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. If there is no lost. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition.7) In the same manner.8) For the case were the body force. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass.
The equation (2. it still remail valid for all situations. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . Thus.17) (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. Thus. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. h.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. isn’t correct.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. Furthermore.46 CHAPTER 2.21) ρ .15) (2.16) into (2. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. the enthalpy of the system.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.18) For isentropic process. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.20) (2.18) the (2. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.19) (2. equation (2.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy.16) (2.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2. For reversible process equation (2.
” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. pressure.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.3145 kj kmol K (2. Normally the relationship of temperature.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. 47 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. k. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases.2.24) For solid. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v.1. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.26) .
6385 0.18855 0.3122 1.7662 1.400 1.07279 0.948 58.51835 0.7165 0.7113 0.5482 5.12418 0.054 4.393 1.400 1.07 28.0413 1.1.8723 0.7354 0.183 28.14304 0.1.289 1.126 1.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.5734 0.29683 0.400 1.409 1.4909 1.124 44.667 1.29) (2.28700 0.01 28.48 CHAPTER 2.7448 1.5203 1.48152 1.27650 0.6179 0.327 From equation (2.013 114.0035 0.29680 0.237 1. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.0299 1.7164 0.044 1.186 1.4108 1.0416 1.1156 10.970 39.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.8418 1.2537 1.6794 1.25983 0.003 2. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.20813 0.6618 1.01 30. Table 2.6529 0.2091 2.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.230 31.07703 4.7445 1.299 1.667 1.0849 1.999 44.097 18.667 1.2518 3.29637 2.41195 0.016 16.1926 14.28) .091 1.04 20.18892 0.4897 1.9216 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.
30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.36) (2.1). These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 49 (2.1.32) (2. k value ranges from unity to about 1.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.667. of Classical thermodynamics.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2. ∆s = 0.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.30) Utilizing equation (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.38) . The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.2.
This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.39) .50 CHAPTER 2. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.
R . The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 51 .CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. t in a location.2) Example 3. 3. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results.
a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3.c) These nonlinear equations (3.e) into (3. θ.11 . There there are three unknowns. Calculate what is the veFig.a) and substituting into equations (3. Isolating t from (3.I.I.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.a).I.I.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.I. dow. and time.c) can be solved explicitly.I.b) and (3. 3.I. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.I.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics. To simplify the calculations.c) b= and equation (3. (3. For given velocity.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3.I.I.I. U .52 CHAPTER 3. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.1. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.f) (3. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window.I. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.I.I. t and three equations.I. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. . REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.b) and (3.
ﬁrst. In x coordinate. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). Note. the body will not rotate. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. CENTER OF MASS 53 3. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. Also. . fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. center of the mass and two.2.2.3) z Here. etc. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . the center of mass is required to make the calculations. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass).1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. moment of inertia. rho) as a function of the location. the x mass.2. x. In same is calculated. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. Thus. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force).2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. m is the total mass of the object. 3. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. In other words. y or z. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.Fig. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. 3. The density. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume.2.3. Here.4) where xi is the direction of either.
3 which has density.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. Thus equation (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.8) .54 CHAPTER 3. schematic. 3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. the body was a three dimensional shape. t. Furthermore.5) Fig.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. ρ and the thickness.3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. ρ.2.3. Thus. Thin body center of mass/area The density. 3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. equation (3. 3.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. are constant and can be canceled. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3.
rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.3.10) 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 55 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.15) mation of moment of inertia.13) y’ C z Thus.12) can be written as Ixx = A ∆y x y +z 2 2 dA (3.3.2 3.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. 3.2.4. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia. The schematic that explains the sum (3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. equation (3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. .3.14) z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.
The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.5 and therefore.22) . Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.5.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig.56 CHAPTER 3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.2. 3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.17) equation (3.19) Hence.3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.16) 3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.
3.7 around x coordinate.3. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.6. End Solution Fig.7. 3.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. r0 . The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. For example.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. dr r 3.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3.6. . Fig. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 57 Equation (3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. 3. as shown in Figure 3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3.
The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio twodimensional to three–dimensional. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.9.9. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3. 2 This . Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . b has no eﬀect on the error.Fig. A square element for the calculations of inertia of twodimensional to three– dimensional deviations. February 28.24) to write as t/2 Fig. 3.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. The results are present in Figure 3. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name.8. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. Ad. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. 3.58 CHAPTER 3.
3. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. b/α. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3. y = αx2 .3.10 is a r2 d Izz dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. Solution dx dy y r x 59 2b 2a Fig. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).11.3.V.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page).10.V. depicted in Figure 3. Hint.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. Hint.V. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.20). 3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.c) Example 3. Rectangular Moment of inertia. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.11. calculate the area ﬁrst. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.
12. Utilizing equation (3. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. Triangle for example 3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.6).27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3.60 CHAPTER 3.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. 3. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.7. Assume that base is a and the height is h. The center of every 2 element is at. .
29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.31) A . Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. the product of inertia is commonly used.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3.3.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 61 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed. End Solution a3 h 2 3.28) For example.30) expanding equation (3.3. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3.
3. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3. 3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.13.35) System which creates equation (3.62 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.35) referred as principle system. Product of inertia for triangle. End Solution 3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b y ′ y x a x ′ Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig. Example 3. . REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.
5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. F= ρ rdV V (3. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. The same as in the dynamic class. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal.41) . the system acceleration called the internal forces. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3.3. Two. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. Coriolis. Angular.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. dm. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. it can be treated as the regular derivative. Yet.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. ˙ 3. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 63 3. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. stresses). 2 (Ur × ω).38) The velocity. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. ω×(r × ω).39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. thus. r × ω.4.
A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries.44) To understand these equations a bit better.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.42) where Tτ is the torque. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. .43) m It can be noticed (well. (3. in the same fashion. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. The force can be written.5.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. 3.64 CHAPTER 3.
3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .1.5. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 65 Table 3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .
yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .2.66 CHAPTER 3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table 3.
the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. where n is the steepest 67 .1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system.1. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or quasi rest.1) erated system under body forces. However.g. z).CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. Furthermore. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. In these derivations. that pressure can increase and later decrease. a = 0.1. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel Equation (4. Later. several assumptions must be made. a as shown in Figure 4. 4. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. with acceleration. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. Fig. dy. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. y. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. gG (x. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ).
3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. it has a direction). as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. For example. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). now. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.6) Hence.4) In general. P . the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. If the pressure.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation.68 CHAPTER 4. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4. As before. the pressure is treated.7) .2) In the same fashion.8) (4. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. Even though.
. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . 4.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement.10) and constant in equation (4. For example.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.3.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. pressure. y) = constant (4.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented. y. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. ρ.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.12) (4. However. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.11) and therefore P (x.4. it will be used.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.9) and substituting it into equation (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. 4. and temperature. P . First. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 Some refer to equation (4. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.11) (4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.3. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.9) Utilizing equation (4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. Traditionally.
15) In the literature. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density. Figure 4. It is evident from equation (4.70 CHAPTER 4.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.4 are in equilibration.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure.3.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. the right hand side of the equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. 4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. Example 4. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid.2. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. The diﬀerence in the . If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. 4.
a).I.4. The liquid in the two chambers is water.b) h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 − mB VB mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known.e) RT P B VB (4.a) (4. 4.f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept. (4.c) The pressure diﬀerence between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4.3. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ].I. Assume that for accelerated cart.I.4.d) combining equations (4. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C. The total Fig.b) results in (4. Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4. Example 4.I. The eﬀective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m]. Calculate the air mass in chamber B.I.I.I. Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ].2: .I. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m].
Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4. The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. Tank and the eﬀects different liquids. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage. the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank. . The common instinct is to ﬁnd that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.II. Part of the tank height is ﬁlled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density).b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence.II.72 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. 4.3: The eﬀect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines. However.II.5. For the case.5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid).d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.II. the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it. The diﬀerence is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4. Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water. FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower. hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.16) End Solution Example 4.
knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. Hence.85[kg/m3 ]. The mercury density is 13545.3.3. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4.d) 4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.2 4.82[m/sec]. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity.III.2. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 73 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4.3. Hence.c) (4.3. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube.III. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.III.000179264[kPa]. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.3.4.III. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0. φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ htotal ¡ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ ¡ htotal (4. Example 4.17) . The high of the Mercury is 0. Equation (4. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.
For smaller width. The ratio of the Fig. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example.82 × 0.39[P a] ∼ 1. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. Gas The pressure. Locate the liquids surfaces. 4. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. Thus. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. h . The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. P valve 2 1 Example 4. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.6. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. Pa = 13545. U tube is L.85 × 9. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.74 CHAPTER 4. L. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.76 ∼ 101095. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 .
Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. This technique utilizes the opposite range. In the previous technique.2.4. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that . This way. thus the height become large. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).6).7. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 75 4. 4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. 4.2.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.3. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. In steady state.18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading.3. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height.Fig. Schematic of sensitive measurement device. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.3. Figure 4.
23) becomes h2 = (4. the volume ratio.24) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. Inclined manometer.24) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. A2 /A1 << 1.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. (4. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.18) is then P1 dy θ dℓ Poutside P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig.76 CHAPTER 4. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. With the equation for height (4.21).22) For the small value of the area ratio.8. in writing equation (4.19) the gas density was neglected. Thus. Additionally. FLUIDS STATICS two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. The equation (4. then equation (4. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations. Due to surface tension. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a signiﬁcant complications. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. In this method. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 .23) A2 A1 (4.8).25) If there is a insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). . 4. 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer.19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. For example. Here. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . Additional parameter.21) equation (4.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. ρ2 .
11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). Thus. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4.3.3. right leg left leg 77 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4.3.3. In the gas phase.27) Fig.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. Schematic of inverted manometer. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted Utube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer.30) . As ﬁrst approximation.4. Thus equation (4.28) As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4. 4. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4. 4. liquids and other. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. 4.9. density and location. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ.9).1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4.26) 1 a b 2 (4. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed.
The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).32) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4. Equation (4.34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 .33).78 CHAPTER 4.33) (4. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. . In general.31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .32) and (4. the value of the compressibility factor. In these cases. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. However. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h.34) Equation (4.36) Without going through the mathematics. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.39). the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.35) (4. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. Z. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. a numerical integration must be carried out.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.
the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. here. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4. So.40) Equation (4.3.3.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.42) has units of length. The integration constant. with units of length.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 79 The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.4. Utilizing equation (4.3.37) The variables for equation (4. For these cases. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.43) .42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.40) in equation (4.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.39) Equation (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4. Fortunately.38) The integration of equation (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.28).
The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4. please pass this information to this author.44) March 11. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. If you know of any of these solutions or similar.44) and is plotted in Figure 4.13 is more general which provided a simple solution5 .45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).” The method described in the Example 1. FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. The solution is presented in equation (4. However. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4.45) Fig.46) An approximation of equation (4.13 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). Additionally. BT /g ρ0 .10. P/BT is small (<< 1).XIII.13 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1.47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4. Sometimes.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution. In Example 1. . pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections 2 3 = z g ρ0 (4.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location.10. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1.80 This constant. 4. is a typical length of the problem. The comparison between the two methods will be presented.
. please. just ignore it.4.3. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform.49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition.4. Hence.3. If you feel that it is too simple. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 81 4. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.50) with (4. For h = 0. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.).50) Separating the variables in equation (4.3. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.51) (4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.4 4. For the atmosphere. For example. Here.48) where h here referred to height or distance.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.52) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.
It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added.56) and (4.R. However. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. It has to be noted that these equations (4.55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas..55) represents only the pressure ratio. The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science.57) Equation (4. h. inﬂuences at only large values of height.56) Equation (4.e. For engineering purposes.52) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.55) and (4. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 . T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.82 CHAPTER 4. negative direction).55) It can be noticed that equation (4.54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). (4. Equation (4. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − .56) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. ... it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio.55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. I am grateful to my adviser E. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .G.57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient..50). FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. Equation (4. Cx .
this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. However. h. Clearly. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process. That is. higher heights). .55) is stable and if so under what conditions. 4.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 83 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest.3. Under equilibrium. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions.3. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.4. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh.11) What could happen? There are Fig. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. In reality. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). That is. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].58) Advance material can be skipped 4.11. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. equation (2. Thus. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). Suppose that h for some reason. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.4.25).
can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.65) . under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.64) and (4.84 CHAPTER 4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. From a mathematical point of view.61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.62) Expanding equation (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh.55) but can be approximated by equation (4.63) provides the conditions to determine the stability.62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4..64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4. The process.63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.
One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. the density.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.12. Thus. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity.4. However. .will not be introduced here.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. equation (4.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 85 After rearrangement of the inequality (4. 4. Again.5.66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. 4. ρ and the body force.65) and using the ideal gas identity. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. Thus. At ﬁrst glance. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. 4. it is said that situation is neutral.3. g. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant. Fig.3. The varying gravity eﬀects Thus. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent on density and pressure. Equation (4. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. issues.3. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid.
It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. Z. FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. is employed.69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. Thus. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.68) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. This equation conﬁrms . numerical integration is a possible solution.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.3. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4..70) Equation (4.70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4. 4. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . As before. equation (4.86 CHAPTER 4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning)..68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. The integration of equation (4.73) Equation (4.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.67) where G denotes the general gravity constant.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. equation (4.71) = = 1− − + .5.
76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.3. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.40) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4.4. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.000 [m].75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4. if applicable.74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one. 4.75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes. 4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.3. As before Taylor series for equation (4.5.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + .77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.78) .. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 87 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.3.
80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. Equation (4. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. 4.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig. The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. FLUIDS STATICS 4. for the eﬀective gravity (4.79) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is gef f  = g 2 + a2 (4. Thus.13. As before. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.4. 4. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27. the previous derivations can be easily extended. The change of the acceleration from the right to left is . Example 4. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. body forces were considered as onedimensional. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force. in a two dimensional system.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. In general.88 CHAPTER 4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.7: A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. However. This question is one of the traditional question of the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity.81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.
This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface.8: A cart partially ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is gef f  = 52 + 9.83) (4.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. A cart slide on inclined plane. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. 4.01◦ g 9. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.4.14. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. If there is a resistance. α < β. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.Fig. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4. Calculate the shape of the surface. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.14. Thus.812 = 11.84) (c) . FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 89 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector).82) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu. lar to the slope.4. If there is no resistance.
Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . Solution . That eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Example 4. For simpliﬁcation reasons. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. Schematic to explain the angular angle. The center of rotation is a distance. 4.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. L from the “left” hand side. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found.9 is provided.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4. the ﬁrst case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.17. example 4. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. 4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.90 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero.85) z unit mass r g ω2 r geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4.4.86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4.87) Fig. CHAPTER 4.16.15. So.86) (4. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem.
9 is rotating with upper part height of . FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 91 nt pr es S ω L co xL Fig. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. equation (4. At what rotating . Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.9.4. It is ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). 4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same.11: In the U tube in example 4. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account.4. End Solution Example 4. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4. End Solution Example 4.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt .17. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.17 shows the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. Thus.87) represent the pressure line.
Two diﬀerent extremes can recognized in ﬂuids between the outer core to the crust. This Fig. For the purpose of this book. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers. it will be used to do some estimates. The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana BarMeir. In geological system such as the Earth provide cases to be used for the ﬂuid static to estimating pressure. 4. In reality. what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4.18. inspired from image made by user Surachit .92 CHAPTER 4. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase. If this assumption is accepted. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most signiﬁcant role. FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. there might be an additional eﬀects which aﬀecting the situation but these eﬀects are not the concern of this discussion.9 explaination is provided to understand how to use the bulk modulus and the eﬀect of rotation. outer core.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic. Earth layers not to scale.4.
94) The solution of equation (4. ρ0 (4.90) In equation (4.13 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4.4. In that case.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4. the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius. In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r. The approximate deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4.4. The solution of this equation obtained by diﬀerentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4. Thus. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 93 In the other extreme north–south does not play any eﬀect since the radius is relatively very small.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4. r.XIII.93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4.92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation.j). If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1.95) .28). for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant. Hence.90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location.45) or in approximation of equation (1.92) Equation (4. Again.89) Using equation to express the pressure diﬀerence (see Example 1. the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4.
In real liquid. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core. the eﬀect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced. It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity. the ﬂow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid ﬂows around. End Advance material . What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account.98) The other issue that related to this topic is. FLUIDS STATICS The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r 1 G ∆P = 1 2G 1 1 BT − − 2 ρ0 ρ0 R 0 r . The integral in equation (4.102) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4.92) has to include the rotation eﬀects.99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as 1 ρ0 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. Thus.97) − ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G (4.94 CHAPTER 4. The pressure diﬀerence is due to the large radius.R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G dr r2 (4.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = ρ3 BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4. The pressure diﬀerence is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done. In the range between the two extreme. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally diﬃculty. The rotation aﬀects the density since the pressure changes.101) Integrating equation (4. Nevertheless.
P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig.103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 . Later. M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. Example 4.5.19. a simple case will be examined. Rectangular area under pressure.4. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. 4. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. These calculations are divided into two categories. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 4. This section deals with these calculations.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.19. 4.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h AA ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ AA a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure.5. Initially. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. Calculate the minimum forces.
the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4.103) and also a center of area. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.20. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract.20. 4. It is the total force. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. Looking at the above calculations.96 CHAPTER 4. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Additional equation is needed. Several rep. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.Fig. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments.104) . First.
108) Fig. Equation (4.106) and (4. Ix x .106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4.4.110) Example 4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.21.109) The moment of inertia. The general forces acting on submerged area. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. 4.5. The integral in equation (4.110) can be combined the moment and .109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 In this case. Equations (4.104) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β 0 xc A 1 (4.105) A+ 0 ξdA In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4.107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.21 which has two forces that balance the body. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.
Thus. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. in non–symmetrical area there are two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required.106). the forces can be negative or positive. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area. Additionally. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid.98 CHAPTER 4. Ix x ρ sin β (4.116) The integral in equation (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4.115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. additional equation is required.114) In the solution. However.22).110) and the total force is given by (4.118) y .113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4.111) (4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4.
Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.g.5.106).118).23) for triangle 1 and 2).22.23.4.121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.106). metrical straight area.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4. 4.110) and (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36. (4. Example 4.118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density. There are many combix nations of problems (e.110) and (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus.119) (4. (4. Example to illustrate the Fig. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 . ξ (4. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3.13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided.
The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4.100 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a .1 Pressure Center In the literature. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .122) In the same way. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.123) . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area. 4.5. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4.1.110) and equation (4. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.118). 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 + 0 +a Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .” Thus.23. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.
the integral has be carried out. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. If density can be represented by average density. the following can be written x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An (4. 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. . it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. In cases where density is non–continuous.5. Thus.126) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. It also means that the density can be a noncontinuous function. In fact. the reasonable average can be used. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. but constant in segments.124) according to equation (3. 4. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 .127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 .129) Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA 10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.128) As before for single density.4.1.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. the density was assumed to be constant.5. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. However. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.
ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. .5[m]. The forces distances are a1 = 1. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ].102 CHAPTER 4.14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. h2 = 2[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids.5[m]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before.131) After similar separation of the total integral. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. Example 4.and h4 = 4[m]. h3 = 3[m]. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. Moreover. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4.130) where the density.134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.75[m]. and b1 = 4. The moment around axis y.24.133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . a2 = 1. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.
130).133) can be used by modifying it.4.forces. Equation (4.133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos . The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difρ4 ference to be zero).133) and (4.Fig. 4. as it can be noticed that in. which are (4. the following equations are obtained Thus. spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. only two equations are needed.24. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 103 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.5. stead of using the regular atmo.
4. At this stage.5.215 Ix x 2 = 44.137) From this analysis (equation (4.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].79[N ] and F2 = 958923. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. if the y component of the force is needed. The forces on curved area. dA. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig. for example.104 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as .2892 xc2 = 3. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.535 Ix x 1 = 14.136) The result of the integral is a vector.535 A3 = 3.92[N ] End Solution 4.292 Ix x 3 = 86. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.25.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. [m2 ].718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.9497 A1 = 2. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.696 A2 = 3. P n dA ˆ (4. outward as positive.137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y. So.5355 xc3 = 4.
“y z” is tan θzy = (4. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.138) The same can be said for the x direction.139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 105 Fy = A P dAy (4. Fig.26. Thus. However. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous.5. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Figure 4. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. Example 4. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines.15: . There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. For example. 4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body.26 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it.142) body.141) and the angle in the other plane.140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4. Inside the slot. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). Equation (4. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.
FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig.27)). 4. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.28) as Ax xc A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. 4. The gravity is 9. The diﬀerential area that will be used is.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m]. Ax (see Figure 4.). The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . Solution The force in the x direction is CHAPTER 4. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The Fx = integration ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam.143) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ.27.106 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. why? Fig. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. direct and indirect. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. .28.
348[m] 12 Well. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 107 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).4.2.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.29.65174 ∼ 0. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. The arc center (see Figure 4. it is just a demonstration! .5.1 and 3.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. The force in the y direction is the area times width. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1. 4. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 − Fy = − b g ρ ∼ 22375. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ).65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig.
31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399. 4.” or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 θ0 The vertical force can be obtained by Fv = 0 P dAv .348 × 22375. Moment on arc element around Point “O.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191. FLUIDS STATICS Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.108 The moment is CHAPTER 4.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following θ0 O dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 π 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos dF θ/2 M= 0 dM θ0 Fig.2 ∼ 7792.30.
The element force (see Figure 4.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. 4. Solution o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. Fv = End Solution To demonstrate this point further. and the direct approach second. The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. and thus.31 . Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or θ0 P dAv 109 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here.31. From mathematics. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series.5.31).16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. Example 4. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst.4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 . It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.31) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. In fact. It is much simpler now to use the second method.
To evaluate the moment. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract. 4. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 is measured in meters.32. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . For example. FLUIDS STATICS O y The right side can be evaluated for any given function. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. The distance is = (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 .32).110 CHAPTER 4. In this case. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m5 ]. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 dy dx ℓ dF b θ y = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 x x The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n 0= i=1 ai x − b i Fig. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number).
because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. It was taught by people like these. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. ture the essence. ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. This omission saves considerable time. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. he was able to cap. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. 4. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. To understand this issue. In fact. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. 150 years ago and more. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. more advance mathematics will be used.33.6. . consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed 0 0 13 This topic was the author’s high school name.Fig. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 .4. End Solution 4. However. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b 111 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution. Here.
This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things.149) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. FLUIDS STATICS in liquid and center in a depth of.144) represents a depth (into the page).145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. While the horizontal force is Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. those will cancel each other. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.146) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other.34) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ 2π (4. 4. In illustration of this concept. on the vertical direction. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.34. h0 as shown in Figure 4. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. any shape is made of many small rectangles. For any two rectangle bodies.33. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent.33. Thus. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). All the horizontal forces are canceled.147) Rearranging equation (4. (4. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). However. The force per area (see Figure 4.146) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. On the other hand. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. The solution of equation (4.150) .148) is F = −π r2 ρ g 2π The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.146) F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. Another way to look at this point is by approximation.144) to F = ρg (4. Rearranging equation (4. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies.148) Fig.112 CHAPTER 4.
a length.4. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). Note that for the maximum thickness. calculate the pressure inside the container. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . as a Fig. r. The container diameter is w.17: To what depth will a long log with radius. and density. 4. Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. t. h1 w t hin h Example 4. Thus. ρl .18: A cylindrical body. shown in Figure 4. these examples are a must. h1 has to be zero.35 . Express the maximum wall thickness. Since there are no better examples. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. ρl . Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity).35. ρw in liquid with denisty. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies.6. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. Assume that ρl > ρw . The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 113 Example 4. ρs liquid density. the height. You can provide that the angle or the depth. ﬂoating body.
Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. it can be inserted into the above equation. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. Thus. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. the air. FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. hin = Example 4.19: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water.114 CHAPTER 4. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g .
which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . Thus. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented.4. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. The thickness is known. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 115 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature.6. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously.
Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere.20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.21: In some situations. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. h0 and left at rest. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important.116 CHAPTER 4. The body’s density is α ρl . End Solution Example 4. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1).
ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂoating between the two liquids. What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. Body with density between the two liquids. There are situations where density is a function of the depth. Solution In the discussion to this section. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 117 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus. In the same vein.22: In the introduction to this section.6. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ .4. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. the body can be separated into two: one in ﬁrst liquid and one in the second liquid. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4.
the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. However. FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. Thus. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere.a) . After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).118 CHAPTER 4.8) with a t wall thickness. they have to accounted for. x1 . End Solution Example 4. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved.23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7.XXIII. A is canceled on both sides. For the thickness below this critical value.
XXIII. The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4.XXIII. The last solution is the solution that was needed.6.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The ﬁrst two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world.b) Equation (4. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 119 (4.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII. For a given ratio of t/R.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water.4. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4.XXIII. The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4.g) ρs The solution of (4.h) .e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simpliﬁcation equation (4.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4.
e. other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4. Find the reverse function. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component.XXIV.XXIV.120 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere. End Solution Example 4.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4.b) (4. As it was shown in the previous example. assume that the body is of a solid material. the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4. f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom.24 a general solution was provided.XXV. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth.25: In example 4. For simplicity.XXV.b) End Solution 4.XXIV. For example.1 Stability .6. Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and ﬁx load.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth). a wood wedge of wood with a ﬁx weight/load.c) End Solution Example 4. These solutions are rejected. wedge) will be located. πd Vw = Thus.
These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis. the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location. in any of these six positions.37). When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability.36c. A wooden cubic (made of pine. This B situation is similar to Figure 4.37. 4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. the cubic results in returning to the original position. Small amount of tilting of Fig. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic.36c . That is. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line.4. However. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4.36c. So. be ﬂoating. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. In fact. When the body is tilted at a small angle. β. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 121 Figure 4.38. it is referred to as the neutral stable.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic.36. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. B’ as shown in Figure 4. the body is in situation like in 4. . the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. for example) is inserted into water.6.36b). 4.
BB is the distance between points B and point B’. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body.38 as ∆F . when the body is not symmetrical. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F δF δF ∆F G GM B B’ dA Fig. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.122 CHAPTER 4. W referred to the weight of the body. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. when given a tilted position. So the perpendicular distance. 4. For small angle. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4.). The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. However. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.38. β. should to be calculated. . and.152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. B’.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes).153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. BB . B.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats. The body.38. shown in Figure 4. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. BB W = M (4. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. move to a new buoyant center. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location.
158) Example 4. For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0. Looking at Figure 4.6. The distance.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.155) And combining equations (4. Analyze this situation.156) lim (4. At this condition.b) . The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α. The angle of the cone is θ. The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4. BB can be written from equation (4. The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4. Solution The ﬂoating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4.XXVI.a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone.154) with (4. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. M.155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. For middle range.26: A solid cone ﬂoats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1). BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 123 The integral in the right side of equation (4. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable.4.XXVI. the cone is unstable.38.1. the cone has zero depth.
L. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.124 CHAPTER 4. Example 4.XXVI.f) 0= − − =⇒ = 3 −1 4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened.d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4. Solution Equation (4.XXVI. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.XXVI.e) Substituting equation (4.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density.c) can be simpliﬁed as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4.d) yield the solution when GM = 0 ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4.XXVI. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis. FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4.XXVI. why? .XXVI.XXVI.c) Equation (4. Where L is the length into the 12 page.158) requires that several quantities should be expressed. Show that the block’s length. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.e) into (4. The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared.1 and is Ixx = La .
8 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.5 α = 0.2 Thus. 4. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.3 1.8 1.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 α = 0.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl 0.3 1.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4.1 1.4 α = 0.8 2. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.9 Ixx 0.2 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. L.5 0.0 1.0 0.37) h1 2.0 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.0 α = 0.6.2 1.159) 2. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 125 h h1 L a Fig.2 0.160) 2 where α is the density ratio.2 α = 0.4 α = 0.4.6 0.4 1.0 0.39. 4.6 1.1 1.0 a h April 16.9 1. Stability of Square Block 3. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.5 0. the distance BG is (see Figure 4. − 1 (1 − α) (4.2 1.6 0.40.0 0.0 1.161) End Solution .7 α = 0.
8 0. Thus.3 0.0 0.6 0. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. but rather practical. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for diﬀerent shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4. The 0. the fuel is .0 body width is not stable anymore.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2.41. For each of these axises. 2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4. For example. 4. In commercial ships.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16.1 0. With the exception of the circular shape. FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3. the equation is Fig. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4.159)). every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.4 0.9 1. In cylin1. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis.161) 1. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises.0 can be expressed. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0. For stability analysis.0 0.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises.41.2 0. For cylinder (circle) the 0.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64. This is not a hypothetical question.126 CHAPTER 4. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio. Thus.5 0. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis.7 0.
What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). 4. tougher. So.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible.158) have to be found.42. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ.4. Example 4. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4.42. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig.6. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4.
For practical purposes. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme.Fig. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4.1. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. in this analysis. Sometimes.43). the slow reaction of the load. here. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. furniture. Moreover. account these shifting mass speeds. for stability analysis. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the . 4. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.6. For example. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4.128 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. is enough to be ig.43. The movement of the load (grains. However. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .43. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined.
167) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid.165) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations.6. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. G1 G1 .164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4.163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.168) . X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank.163) Equation (4. G Gc = GG sin β (4. At the same time. This quantity. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G . the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 outside.4.162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.
Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body.172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. . The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank.1. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. θ. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. The angle. GM .170) (4. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. 4. equation (4. The engineer could Fig. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability.44. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. T a distance. This control of the stability.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected.171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.130 CHAPTER 4.6. Wtotal .171) provides the solution.2 Metacentric Height. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. GM . Moving the weight. of the ship. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4.169) Where.172) with equation (4. GM . Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. 4.173) (4. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4.
Fig. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. After the tilting. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4.1. The center of the moment is needed to be found.6. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. it must be taken into account. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. However. 4. However.45. Generally. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. There are two situations that can occur. .4. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or unsymmetrical body. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4.1. Thus. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now).45). 4. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body).45. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers.6. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. is when b = 3 a. When the ﬂoating object is immersed into two layers. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 131 The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lays between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density).6.
Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz.174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point.6. Thus.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. the common explanation is wrong. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. in this case. In this section. coating.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. End Solution . However.6. Thus. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. If the ﬂoating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. 4.132 4.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4.1. Example 4. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. the liquid is not in motion. etc. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).176) In general. the body should be accelerate.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.
heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. Thus. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. This condition is determined by competing . Example 4. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. 4.4. For perfectly straight interface.3. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. For example in die casting. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 133 Fig. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. If the surface will be disturbed. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. For example.3. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. However. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. In poor designs or other situations. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. This instability deals with a dense. After certain diameter. ρL . Taylor. ρG .7. For example a heavy ﬂuid density.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. or water over air(gas–liquid). I.46. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. some of heavy liquid moves down. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.
179) According to equation (1. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. example of a cosine function will be examined. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. Thus. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. Thus. Thus. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. the surface density.57). On the other hand. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. the situation is Fig. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal.57) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4.180) (4. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. equation (1.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. 4. In that case. and the buoyancy forces.181) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4.134 CHAPTER 4. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.178) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.47). x. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4.47.182) . Thus. FLUIDS STATICS forces.
In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 135 (4. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. For the depression. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.181) and (4. This acts Fig. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. At the bottom. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored.7. To analyze it.48.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.48. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it.185) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.186) . At the cylinder bottom. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. the force is ρ g h × A. Thus. the force is the integral around the depression. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.48. In reality. the error is not signiﬁcant.48. Additionally when the depression occurs. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h.183) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. At the top. they are not part of the control volume. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability.4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. 4.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder.
188) (4. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. The cross section of the interface.48. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the speciﬁc radius is limited.190) Fig. For the cylindrical geometry. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. 4. Thus. As shown in Figure 4.49. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension.49).191) . θ = π/2. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. At that case.136 CHAPTER 4.
4 2400 × 9. 4.the depression is larger for square area.191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. this angle is never can be obtained. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. However. In equation (4.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. . RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 137 The actual radius will be much larger.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. σ r∼ 8 π 0.49. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.7. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. For example. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . Example 4. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function. In Figure 4. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations.190) can be used. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics).191.4.50.
S.138 CHAPTER 4. Is there any diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. what is the diﬀerence? . Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Is there any diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so. You can assume that the process is isothermal. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. Example 4.50 has three layers of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Use the ideal gas model. ω.32: A canister shown in Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15.
Part I Integral Analysis 139 .
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141 .1. These differential equations will be used in Fig. Ad. Even though this system looks reasonable. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. This name is in honored J. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. L. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze.motion. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. 5. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. This method applied and used in very few cases. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion.
Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes.1. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. 5. the control volume is a system. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is nondeformable con. Fig. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. 5. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question.142 CHAPTER 5. trol volume.2.piston with in and out ﬂow.1 represent the system. The green lines in Figure 5. entropy etc. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit.1. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5. The red dotted lines are the control volume. After a certain time. momentum. non–deformable and deformable. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations.2. energy. . When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. At the same time. mass.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5.
6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. + ma − mc (5.v. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.v. according Figure 5. (5.3). the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. In this chapter. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.7) .v. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.1) The system mass after some time.v.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. is made of msys = mc. The interface of the control volume can move.1. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.3. the mass conservation will be discussed. Thus. 5.5. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3).3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION 143 5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.
Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c.7) are similar and can be combined.v.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. In the same manner.1: The density changes in a pipe.9) into equation (5. Example 5. due to temperature variation and other reasons. ρ0 L t0 . 5. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.10) Equation (5.144 CHAPTER 5.4.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. Substituting equation (5.1.8) and (5. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept.v. (5. t) = 1− cos . MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. X dx L Fig.
and is the change of the mass in the control volume. End Solution 5.3.11) Equation (5. L. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.v. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.10). Continuity with Fixed b.v. (5. r and angle. Using equation (5.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. ρ0 c. and time. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.v. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a nondeformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c. L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length.11) is simpler than equation (5.v.5. 5.4 length is L and its area is A.10) become conservation of the volume. Vc. t.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. .10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5.3. dt c. CONTINUITY EQUATION 145 The conduit shown in Figure 5.10).v. the derivative in equation (5.c.3.v. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.
v. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.5. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.2.v. Sc. Physically. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.2 illustrates this point. c.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. Example 5. (5. Urn dA (5.v. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.2. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.1 CHAPTER 5. Hence.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. Sc.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.v. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.15) The meaning of the equation (5. Ubn dA (5.3. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. 5.7 Ap . dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.v.3. Example 5.v.v. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.146 5.
liquid boundary in bucket.5. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. However. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface.v.v. In this analysis. (Uj + Ub ) dA . The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c.2. CONTINUITY EQUATION 147 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. the air eﬀects are negligible. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid.3. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. In reality. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. Third.5. 5. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary.v. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). First. several assumptions must be made. Fourth. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. c. Second. there are no evaporation or condensation processes.v. ﬂow in = c.
the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.II.II.v. Uj .7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A.II. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else . the side. Substituting the ﬁrst equation. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. c.a) into (5.g.c) The solution of equation (5. End Solution Example 5.II.7 Ap Ub (5.b) The above two equations (5.II. thus the relative velocity. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c. When examining solution there are two limits. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. e.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed.II.v. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface). mi .7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.148 CHAPTER 5. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.II.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. (5.a) and (5.
3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .v.v. This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.16) .v. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena. The right side of equation (5. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.3.3.2.5. End Solution 5. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.v.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. Sc. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student).
16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.6.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. 5.16). Height of the liquid for example 5.4. Example 5. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. h as function of the time. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. What happen if the h0 = 0? . Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. For the ﬁrst case. min h Fig. determine the height.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.150 CHAPTER 5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5.
However. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 151 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. Essentially. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. If the reverse case appeared.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero.3.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. For second case.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.5. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. the height will increase. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). the governing equation (5.
23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . if there will be a demand for such.24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . y) ∂y dy dy (5. This is engineering book and thus. y) − − (x1 .archive. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. y) − G(x1 . it will be provided. . y) = ∂G ∂x (5. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. Osborne. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x.152 CHAPTER 5. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. y) = f (α. End Solution 5.22) Initially.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich.23) is f (x. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. (18421912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . y) dα (5.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. y) − f (x1 . To make the previous derivation clearer. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c.25) papers can be read online at http://www. Nevertheless. c.v f ρ Urn dA (5. For its derivative of equation (5. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained.v. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . speciﬁc enthalpy. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness.
is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system.v. F . with time. F .28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . y) dx ∂y (5. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. Urn = U1 − Ub . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 153 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 .25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. F . f is investigated or the accumulative property. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. The same can be said for the other side.32) .30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5.4. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential). The accumulative ﬂow of the property in.5. F . is then F2 dx2 dt (5. F . The intensive property. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). (5.
(5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. Since the time variable.V. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. Example 5. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration). MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5.V.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic.a) The integration of the equation (5.13). After magical mixing. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance.33) 5. the velocity became uniform.v. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius.b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5. t.v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5.V. Additionally.c) End Solution .V.154 CHAPTER 5. Thus. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used.
Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume.5.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary).6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer.5. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. right. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. In this case. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. 5.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. Boundary Layer control mass. The above integrals on the . Example 5.7. and upper. the left.7. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 155 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5.
1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .156 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5.1 kg/sec.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. Thus. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours.1 kg/sec = = 1.02kg/m3 AU 0.13) is used. and 8 hours. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. However sometime. 7 hours. Example 5. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. The tank is 3/4 fulls. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.1 ) 5.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.
if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc.v. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 157 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. For simplicity. Thus. assume that the process is isothermal.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow.5. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 .v boundary velocity + Sc. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.5. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. End Solution Example 5. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec].v.
4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. mi . MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. . Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law.v Vc.v.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .158 CHAPTER 5.
10. ρUrn dA Vc.v. Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc. .5.v. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 159 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc.5. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.v.
Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. There is no general way to provide these quantities. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom.160 CHAPTER 5. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. Example 5. . However. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach.8.8. However. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.11: Solve example 5. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. 5. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 .S.
Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5.9 under the blow line.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary.5.37) Fig. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. It can be notice that the velocity. Substituting into (5. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. . If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 161 (5.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. Control volume and system before and after the motion. 5.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label.9. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.6. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5.
XII. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5. 5. MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.XII. α provides the averaged velocity. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5. The value dS is r cos α.i) Example 5. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.162 CHAPTER 5. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted.e) (5.XII. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.g) Where here S represent some length.XII. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5.XII.12: Calculate the velocity.XII.XII. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations.XII.XII.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.h) (5.b) Fig.f) 1 α − .13: . sin(2α) r2 2 (5.10.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as Ux = U dS S (5. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).
Solution X(y) x 163 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity. every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction.b) 5. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).11. y velocity for a circular shape The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons.14: . Thus.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. 5.XIII. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. Example 5.5.12. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5. Thus.a) (5.7. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images. equation (5. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.XIII.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following.
Assume incompressible process.12. what Fig. Solution In the ﬁrst scenario. 5. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.75m/sec Ain 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8. However. If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of . the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat.164 CHAPTER 5.05 = 1. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.XV. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe.10 0.002 [m3 /s].a) Thus in this case.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0.05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 .05 = 0.05 [kg/s].2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 m2 .15[m] ˙ ˙ (5. In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a diﬀerent speciﬁc density at 0. Schematic of the boat for example 5. the ﬂow is steady state and equation (5. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec. Urin = Aout 0. The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].1 + 0.2 End Solution Example 5.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0. the total volume ﬂow in is equal to volume ﬂow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0. The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture.14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. since the ﬂow is incompressible ﬂow.1 [kg/s].75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s.
d) (5. So governing equation is (5.XV. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston). At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0.05 − mexit mexit = 1.01 [m/s].000001 [m3 /s]. Yet. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).002[m/ sec] 923.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1.15). This part of the solution is art.0003 [m]. However.v. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0.c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and ﬂuctuated depending on the location of the piston. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting ﬁeld. I hope that no one will have teachers like him. −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0.7.5. The ﬁrst choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing.1 + 0. .XV.012 π (5. Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c. There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not aﬀected. If the piston is withdrawn at O.07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 165 (5.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 . MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923.005[m] and the tip radius is 0.XV. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work.XV.e) Example 5.7[kg/m3 ] = 0.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5. The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are.
the equation (5. Using equations (5. Later the two stream are mixed. MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to speciﬁc material. stationary. Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside).XVI.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used. At this stage. attached to the blood edge. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity.XVI. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood. Ub and Utip . U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub . in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5. In this device. There several coordinate systems that can used.d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5.XVI.0[m/s] and U2 = 0.2. The second part of the control volume is the air.166 CHAPTER 5. For this case.XVII. attached to plunger.XVI.5[m/s].XVI.15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5.17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the waterjet pump. In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4. velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5. The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device.XVI.c. and two equations. The air governing equation is blood b.b) In the case. In that case.a) .c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity. there are two unknowns.a) and (5.
MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 167 (5.b) .7.5.XVII.
MASS CONSERVATION .168 CHAPTER 5.
The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6. For several bodies (n).1 Momentum Governing Equation 6.2) The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6. the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation.3) 169 . Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude).1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter.1.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6.1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction.
the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. Thus. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure.7) Fig. excluding the external forces.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. The forces. 6.170 CHAPTER 6. are the body forces. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume.1. it can be written as Fs = c. . n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. have to be discussed.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). 6. or the forces. hence. Where the surface “force”. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. is made out of two components. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. In this chapter.2 External Forces First. Sn .1.v. Thus.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth.v. Sn . Sn dA + c. the main body force is the gravity. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.). the terms on the left hand side. τ dA (6. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. and τ are the shear stresses. is in the surface direction. The surface “force”. Here for simplicity. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. Again. The gravity acts on all the system elements.1.
(6. In Cartesian coordinate. friction (nonﬂuid). MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 171 6. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. With external forces equation (6.v.v. Equation (6.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system. c. 6. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.v.1.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c.v.v. Fext .v. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. etc. Thus. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. c.11) ρ U dV + c.1. c. (6. c.v.v. t = dt c. the components are Fx + c.1.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements.v.v.v. P cos θx dA + c. ρ U U rn dA (6. supporting solid structures. U .9) The liquid velocity.v. for example in the x coordinate. c. ducts.v.v.6.v.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. c. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i).v.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v. t dt c.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c.13) . the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).
In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. In this situation.5.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.v.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6.v. τ dA = c. a acc ρ dV (6. g ρ dV − c.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc. equation (6.v. P dA + c.1. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.6.1. ρ U Urn dA (6. in these situations. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c. 6. Additionally.15) 6. Thus.18) Equation (6.v. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4.172 CHAPTER 6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface.3.v. .5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6.
Fig b.2.I. Uo θ Ui F Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. Fig.2. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.6. Neglect the friction. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.a) into equation (6.2). Example 6.I.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.I. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 173 Example 6. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .I. 6.a) Substituting equation (6.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6.1.
It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.174 Solution CHAPTER 6. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.11) can be reduced.II. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings.3 with a mass .a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. because it is a steady state.II. Equation (6. End Solution Example 6. Hence Fx max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. Fx occurs when cos θ = π.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.
v. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.6. =0 c.01 [gk/sec]. 6. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].v. τ z dA = c. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.b) c. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.III. This situation is a steady state for constant density. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec].v.III. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0. The entrance area is 0.v. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.0001 Equation (6.3. ρ U z · U rn dA . Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. First. c. c. Hence. τ z dA = (6.0015 [m3 ].1. the velocity has to be found.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0.v. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.v.3.0001[cm2 ].v.3.v.v. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 175 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.
. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.v.d) 6. P cos θz dA = c. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. Improvements can be made to this analysis. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.v. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. Combining all transform equation (6. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours.III. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. this analysis is used for academic purposes.v. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. Here.III. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. This surface is called slip surface.176 CHAPTER 6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A2 − P A1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.v.v. In the Figure 6. ρ U z · U rn dA (6. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.v.4.III.v. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. fan etc.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.III. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A1 − P A2 The last term in equation (6.
5 is pushed by liquid jet. the pressure around control volume is the same. a major obstacle in the past.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Here. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. In Jet propulsion. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. 6. Furthermore.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller.2. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. in many case more eﬃcient.6. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. Notice that Example 6. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation.4. Thus. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. Essentially. Hence. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. and is. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied.19) 177 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6. this direct conversion can be. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. pressure drops from the calculation. Calculate the friction force on the . Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity.
2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained.5. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. .v.v.v.4. g ρ dV − c.178 CHAPTER 6. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. U 0 . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force.IV. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. The velocity of the jet is uniform.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig.v.v. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c. 6. P dA + c. namics friction is µd . ρ U U rn dV (6. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical.v. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. τ dA = c. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. U0 .
A rocket with a moving control volume.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6.6.2. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.v.IV. End Solution 6. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.IV. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.b) into equation (6.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating. 179 (6.6. 6.IV.10). This method is cumbersome in many cases. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.b) The substituting (6.IV. .2.
g ρ dV + c.v. This change is minimal and for this analysis. c. the derivative with respect to time. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. vanishes.v.v.180 CHAPTER 6. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6. (6. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. However. it can be neglected. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it.v.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. Yet. ρUy Urn dA (6. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.v. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR .2. c. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. However.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume.24) Clearly. the ﬁrst term FR . This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel.v.26) . d dt ρUy dV = Vc.
28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.6.27) Separating the variables equation (6. However.” .26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. Thus it is assume that FR = 0. gas ﬂow out is constant as well.2. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 181 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . For which he noticed this “constant velocity. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude. Thus. Integrating equation (6. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature.28) Before integrating equation (6. the speed (the Reynolds number). This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). As ﬁrst approx˙ imation. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.28).30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.
The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.182 CHAPTER 6.d) into equation (6.12) for two dimensions is used. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. Solution Uo FR Fig. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases. U0 = B h (6.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6. The frame of reference is moving with the tank.V. Substituting equation (6.e) .7. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. Furthermore.v.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist.V.V.V. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6. Sc.V.v. mt . 6. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle. Equation (6.a) can be transferred to dmc.a) Equation (6.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.v. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6. The control volume is shown in Figure 6.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. ρdA = 0 (6.7.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.V. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known.7. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.V. linear function of the height.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.V.V.
g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 183 Equation (6. The tank depth.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6.6. h.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.2. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. Substituting (6.V.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height. Using a similar control volume2 .V. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.Fig.V. is not relevant.V.5. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.V. 6.f) into (6.V. The mass con. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . Using this function. In fact. Perhaps surprising.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface.2. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?).V.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.V.V. .j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.8.8.
mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively. It . and the resistance due to air is negligible. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. (6. Here this eﬀect is neglected. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.v.v. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). mc. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6.v. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. a Vc.184 CHAPTER 6.v.V. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement).v. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels).l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ).V.
From equation (6.V.v.v. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.V.V.V.V.v.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.2.r) . d Ux Ux + mc.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.v.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 185 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.v. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.6. Ux = mc.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.V. dt dt dt (6. d d Ux Ux + mc. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction.v. Ux Vf Thus.V.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x). However.V.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.
r) and (6.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c.s) into equation (6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6. ρ Ux dV (6. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.v U dV (6.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.v U = ρ V c.V. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. For these cases a correction factor can be used.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented. For example.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.V.186 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6. Here. Substituting equations (6.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.V. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.v.V.V.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.35) . the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6. For example.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.V.
if the density is not constant. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one.39) The angular momentum equation. Sc.Fig. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. To demonstrate this idea. ditionally increase of velocity occur.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc.v. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6.9.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. However.3. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. applying equation (6. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. ρ Ux dV (6.6. the following discussion is provided.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume. C ρV c. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.v 187 U dV = c. 6.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. 6.v.9 commonly used in industry.40) .
Example 6.42) (6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. The height of the impeller is h. U2 has two components. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 . Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant).40[m].m. Ut2 and radial component. Un2 . Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. and h. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . The exit liquid velocity. Notice that tangential liquid velocity.p.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . The angular velocity is 1200 r. one the tangential velocity. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. r. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. The thickness of the impeller. 6.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence.41) results in Um2 (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 .188 CHAPTER 6. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 .
The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. 6. Additionally. The cross section of the liquid is constant.10. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process).6. No resistance to the rocket (can be added).2. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 189 6. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem.VII. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. Develop exFig. forces for example 6. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. No gas leaves the rocket.10. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind.3) without a solution. .a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank.4. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).
it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.190 CHAPTER 6.VII.VII. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.VII.d) mg R T V0g (6.VII.VII.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg . The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height. equation (6.VII.j) .a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.g) (6. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6. Using the above deﬁnition.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.h) (6.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.VII.VII. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6.VII.VII. Furthermore.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.VII.
a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 191 (6.VII.11: . End Solution (6. Example 6.VII. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6.6.4.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.VII.4.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.m) Example 6.9: In Example 6. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. Example 6. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .VII. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement. 6.
192 Situations CHAPTER 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. Fig.11. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front.11 . 6. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. consider the unsteady eﬀects.
CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. However. this law allows to solve problems. is included on the right hand side. here it will be derived. 193 . For example. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. Moreover. as all phases and materials. For example.2) (7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 .3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . which were assumed in the previous chapters. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). The ﬂuid. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously.1) Equation (7.2) is similar to equation (6. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school. which is external force. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow.
The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction.1. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. conduction. As in the previous chapter. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. dealing with convection.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. 3 There 4 When (7. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. Hence.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. convection4 and radiation. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. In most problems.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. 7. the surface forces Fig. . There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7. There are three modes of heat transfer.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book.194 CHAPTER 7.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. the radiation is minimal.v. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side.
In the last term in equation (7.1. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.8) for more details).8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume.11) Equation (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7.8) Equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice.2) for system is kT Asys 195 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.7. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.12) .
In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. which was discussed on page 46. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . the temperature is assumed to constant. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter.15).14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. 7. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. small. Additionally. With these deﬁnitions equation (7.196 CHAPTER 7.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. 6 This 5 Later . so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 .2. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. h. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.15) Equation (7. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book.
7.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7.17) Equation (7.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7. for simplicity. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with BarMeir’s instability.20) In this analysis. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. However.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. . the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . However. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 197 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. 7. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. 7 For the mass conservation analysis.1. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical.3. However. the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero.3.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. this quantity will be used.
this change is a function of Eckert number.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. In this light. Eckert. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 .26) The governing equation (7. In this case. The temperature is constant8 .24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. Ec which is very small.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation.G. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number.15) which is applicable to this case. Additionally. Yet. The pressure terms in equation (7. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. .198 CHAPTER 7. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. Furthermore.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. E.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. Clearly. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished.R. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well.
1. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7.30) into equation (7.30) Substituting the results of equation (7.h.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit.28) V V The second integral (in the r.7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.s) of equation (7. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 199 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. Furthermore.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.33) .
200
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as
2
ρ U dV CF =
V
ρ U 2 dV
V
ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡
V
2
(7.34)
Here, CF is the correction coeﬃcient. Note, the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is
2 2
ρ U dV CF =
V
= ρ U 2 dV
ρ ¡ ρ ¡
U dV
V
= U 2 dV
Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V
(7.35)
V
V
This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . For a pipe geometry, the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7.36)
It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity, Uave is obtained by using equation (7.32) which yields 1/2. Substituting equation (7.36) into equation (7.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V V
=
Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯
2
= dV
3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3
(7.37)
The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. For circular shape, a good guess number is about 1.1. In this case, for simplicity reason, it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case, diﬀerent directions cancel each other out.
11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2
201
V
hA
(7.38)
The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7.39)
Therefore, the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7.40)
Ue =
A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt
(7.41)
Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as
2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz =
(7.42)
2 U ∼ =
(π − 2) r dh 8h dt
2
+
(π − 1) r dh 4h dt
2
+
dh dt
2
(7.43)
f (G)
dh U∼ = dt
(π − 2) r 8h
2
+
(π − 1) r 4h
2
+ 12
(7.44)
It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. However, the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.
13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. However, it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. But in the same vain, some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.
202 The last term is
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
A
Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2
dh A dt Ae
2
Ue ρ Ae
(7.45)
Combining all the terms into equation (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.h.s. results in d U gh + dt 2 2
2
(7.46)
hA +
U gh + 2 2
2
A
dh 1 − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
Ue Ae = 0
(7.47)
Equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .
Advance material can be skipped
Dividing equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.40)
A
Ae A
Ue
d U gh + dt 2 2
2
hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2
2
dh 1 A − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
$ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.48)
Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus
f (G) Ub
U
dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2
2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.49)
Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0 (7.50)
f (G)2 h
15 This
d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.51)
part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
203
End Advance material
Combining the gh terms into one yields
f (G)2 h
d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2
dh dt
2
f (G)2 −
A Ae
2
=0
(7.52)
Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter, Te , as Te = A f (G) Ae
2
(7.53)
This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. Dividing equation (7.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter, equation (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.54)
The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or

(7.55)
dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G)
= t + k2
(7.56)
The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A
discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.
204
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7.59) (7.58)
This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.61) (7.60)
The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
(7.62)
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.63)
While equation (7.63) is still non linear equation, the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt
2
=
2gh −1 +
A Ae 2
(7.64)
It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. The initial velocity
17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. Thus for a very short time, the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. However, if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct.
7.2. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH
205
ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. Equation (7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae
2 h h0
dh √ = 2gh
t
dt
0
(7.66)
The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √
2
h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh
Ae 2 A
(7.67)
dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then
2gh
A Ae
(7.68)
1−
1−
U∼ =
2gh
(7.69)
Equation (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Yet, this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7.70)
7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach
Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. In the calculations
18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15, 1608 October 25, 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime.
206
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
of the exit velocity of a tank, two such corrections were presented. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. In the case of the tank, the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. In fact, the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. In cases that dissipation play major air air role, the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. H For example, the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. Additionally, the integral methods is Fig. 7.4. Flow in an oscillating manometer. too crude to handle issues of free interface. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind.
7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation
The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work, the problems can be solved. The following sections provides further explanation.
1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7.3. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 207 7. equation (7.7.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.3. the pressure is different.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation.72) for nondeformable control volume does not vanished. Equation (2. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.75) .2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.74) in 7.3. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.
76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.82) in (7.83) from equation (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.208 CHAPTER 7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.81) As before equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.84) .74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.
In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration. In many cases. 7. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation.7. The only acceptation to the above statement. However. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. for the gravity force is GM m (7. . The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.4.86) 7.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7.E.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity.85) For no shaft work equation (7. For example. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations.4.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 209 (7. linear and rotational. = − ref F ·d (7. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.
91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.4. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy. Thus. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x.4. The same can be done for the other two coordinates.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7. y = 0. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7. and z = 0. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7.210 CHAPTER 7.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the . The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction.
and k are units vector in the coordinates r. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.97) (7.103) P Ubn dA . consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 211 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. To understand it better.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . However. From physical point of view.4.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. θ and z respectively. θ. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.99) ˆ where r.7.98) (7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 293 for vector explanation). The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. Hence. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity.
4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7.212 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.4.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow. .
Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 213 .
.
the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the NavierStokes equations. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. As usual SimonDenis Poisson independently. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. In diﬀerential analysis. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. as he done to many other equations or conditions. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. NavierStokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. 215 . First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. the solution is not unique.g. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier.
This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system.216 CHAPTER 8. Even for simple situations. (8.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow). 8.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter.1. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow.1. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.1.3) . It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. 8. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). Sometimes. on one hand. Historically. the complexity of the equations.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).
8. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions. It also can be noticed that.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )y − (ρ Uy )y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )z − (ρ Uz )z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )x+dx = (ρ Ux )x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. The net mass change.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )x − (ρ Ux )x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8. for example.2.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx .3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed.2. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. neglecting higher order derivatives. MASS CONSERVATION 217 The ﬁrst term in equation (8. as depicted in Figure 8. the operation. in the x coordinate. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates.8) dv (8. .
11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r.g. Hence. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure. 8.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. the r is “trapped” in the derivative.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. r . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates. e. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications.11)–(8.2.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.12) Combining equations (8.218 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8. the change of r with r. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dzr + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .
8).1.8. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding. Hence. (8.8). dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 . . t0 .9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume.14) with the change in the control volume (8. several examples are constructed here.18) Compare to equation (8.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .2 page 296). The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. 8. However.2. For academic purposes. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. At time.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates.16) The continuity equations (8.2.17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates.15) and (8. MASS CONSERVATION 219 Combining equation (8.
Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).I.I.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.3.I. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.I. 8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8. For this question. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.I. it is treated as a constant. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.I.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.I. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.220 CHAPTER 8. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.3.f) .1 function of the y coordinate. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.I.I. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8. ρ.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8.I. Substituting the density.
f) as a constant4 .I. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8. Equation (8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration.2. Example 8. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y. Hence.I.I. 8. MASS CONSERVATION 221 Uy is a function of the time but not y.4. End Solution 8.2. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.f) holds for any time and thus. For this example.2. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.4. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. 4 Since (8. from the extraction point. .g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.8. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.I.II. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.
6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS.II. .c) Where Ux is the belt velocity.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8.II.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8.II. Hence equation (8. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. On personal note.b). this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. However.II. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .II.222 Solution CHAPTER 8. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him.II.15 .g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems.II.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.1 for the general function T = F (x). At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.f) (8. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. however it can be considered as steady state. See the resembles to equation (8. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8.II.I.II. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).
III. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.c) (8. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.g) ∂y a Equation (8.h) ∂y . Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component.8.a) Equation (8.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.III.III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.III.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.b) (8.III. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8. For the second part equation (8. The velocity.2. Notice the symmetry of the situation.III.III.III.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.III.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8. MASS CONSERVATION 223 Example 8.III. Thus.
∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8. End Solution Example 8.a) Mathematically speaking. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density. Hence. In this problem these physical .III.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix). Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. Thus. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded.III. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .j) (8. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8. The private solution is Uy private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8. must be compressible ﬂow.i) End Solution Example 8. this kind of presentation is possible.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions.III.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.IV.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state.IV.224 CHAPTER 8. if it exist.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8.IV.V.4: Can the following velocities coexist.
h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.b) Substituting equation (8.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.V.h) Equation (8. MASS CONSERVATION 225 components are ignored for academic reasons.V.8.V.V.V.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.V. Ux .V. ρ.b) into equation (8.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.V.2.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8.V.j) .e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.d) (8. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.a) and noticing that the density.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8. must be zero and thus the constant. Hence.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.V.f) (8. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.V. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8. The solution of (8. real value. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8.V. c3 .V.V. Equation (8. is substituted.V.
j) by (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. y.k) Where the constant.V.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively. t).V. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.226 CHAPTER 8.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent. are presented. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8. z.24) into equation (8. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.g. scalar.3. vector or tensor. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x. . A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. 8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (??)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8.V.24) Substituting equation (8.
2 8. z.31) Equation (8.29) Equation (8.3. it can be written that U (x.3.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld. y. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ.32) . for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation. t) k (8. z. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 227 By the deﬁnition of equation (8.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.2.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt  The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8. y. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. t) i + Uy (x. t) j + Uz (x. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. y.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.3. x.27) 8. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8. y.8. Therefore. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid. z. t) = Ux (x.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8.
The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector).39) .37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book).34) (8.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8.228 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8. 8. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8. A ) (8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8.
5. 8.8. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8.4. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 229 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative. tetrahedron in the z direction. similarly for τxz . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8.5. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction.44) .41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. However.
A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. The areas are related to each other through angles. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant). dx For simplicity and generality. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. . Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor.6. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. for cases that body force. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. The shear stress at point x is τxy . τyx τ However.230 CHAPTER 8. The body force can exert torque is Fig. However.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center. uniform and hence act not through the mass center.5 for moment of inertia. 8.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. Hence. can create torque. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation.
50) The integral of (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx y + dτxx dy η y (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.48) into (8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8. For example.4.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.49) Substituting (8. It can be ignored.49) results y+dy y τxx y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). End Advance material The net torque in the zdirection around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 231 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .8. .53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.
The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. gravitation forces. However. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. 8. z and the j is any of the other x. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor.7). However. Later it will be used and generalized. can be neglected11 . Equation (6.55) 8. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. z 10 .5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8.232 CHAPTER 8. this change. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added.7. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x. for almost all practical purposes. y.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. Previously it was shown that equation (6. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. .11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. y. and internal forces.
60) after rearrangement equations such as (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.57) and (8.58) The same can be written for z direction. Equation (8. or z. Hence.5. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx x+dx × dy dz − τxx x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8.61) equation (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 233 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.64) . y. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.57) fxy = τyx y+dy × dx dz − τyx y × dx dz (8.8. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8.59) where i in this case is x.
8)). Furthermore.65) End Advance material Equations (8. the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. As engineers do in general. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). b. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. y. a. In contrast. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. the result is a continuous deformation. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. and c. At time t. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. or z. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation.8.8 (by the blue color). Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt ∂Uy dt ∂x Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump Fig. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids.234 where here CHAPTER 8. The control volume moves to a new location. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x.65) or (8. 8. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. Additionally.
Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as x 45◦ (8.8. In general equation (8. The deformation of the control volume has several components. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above.9.68) where.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. . It can be noticed at this stage. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume.67) In these derivatives. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. at this stage.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ τyx τyy C y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. is the diagonal component which dealt below.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation. However. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. 12 While 13 The Fig.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. 8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 235 volume. The only missing thing. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid.5.
on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface. Figure 8. τii (where i is either . To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . y’ ) frame.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. c. y. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ .73) Equation (8.74) from (8. The dx is construct so it equals to dy.76) (8. For example.75) (8. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x.236 CHAPTER 8.77) d x= dx . b. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress.9. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.74) (8.75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. In addition. The small deformations a . It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces. The angular strain rate in the (x.8) in the control volume move to the new locations. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.x.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. y coordinates).73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms.
79) Here. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change.8. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. Hence. and (8. Thus.10(b).5. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) .80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. 8. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. (8. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles.10. Fig.78).81) . The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx.80) Equation (8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ. Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stress.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. and d y is its linear strain in the ydirection. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 237 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction.77).10(b)).
(8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.85) From equation (8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.90) .87) y’ (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.87) and (8. (8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8.238 CHAPTER 8.82) Combining equation (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.11.83) Equation (8.84) From (8.81) with equation (8.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. 8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.
95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. Batchelor. .93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G. K.89) and (8.71).141.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8. Cambridge University Press.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. 1967. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ .90) results in 2 4 239 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.5. p.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 .8. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements.91) rearranging equation (8. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. With God help. an additional correction will be needed. λ. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . The dimension of the bulk viscosity. it does not add any additional information.240 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. Using the coordinates transformation.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . However. this association was established. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. it will be provide before version 0. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. Equation (8. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8.3 . While this expression has the advantage of compact writing.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.9. connection between τxy and the deformation was built.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues. if the derivations before were to include additional terms.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. are similar to the viscosity µ. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.2.99) ·U (8. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. First.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation.
107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0. In most cases. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. Thus. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 .61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8. can be over 100 times larger than µ. In material such as water.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8. substitute equation (8.8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 241 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0.5. τxy . neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.102) For the total eﬀect.100) into equation (8. λ. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient. .104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress.101). is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8.101) To explain equation (8.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured. For example.
6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. In the literature. pressure.112) + ρgz 8.106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ). thus equation (8.108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.6. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories. For this discussion. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. .242 For incompressible ﬂow the term ρ CHAPTER 8.
The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small.113) is given in a vector form. The condition (8.113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions.Fig. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition.12.115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. y). etc) (8. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore y f (x) Df r = 0 on the surface f (r . scale. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. While this condition (8. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero.6. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. t) = 0 (8. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 243 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b. The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r . x. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale.113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). 8.8. when the ﬂow is with a strong velocity ﬂuctuations. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t.114) Note. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change.117) . For example. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. In another view.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q.
The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). Oﬀ course. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible.120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. Furthermore.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density.121) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. In other cases. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory).244 CHAPTER 8. In this book.119) (8. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. . In same instances.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location. In index notation equation (8. this constant is determined from the volume conservation. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line.119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8.
Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. 74 (1980). The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig.6. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. Kerosene lamp. 197–217.8. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. material. 8. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). For example. pulling the side will pull all the material. Jean. Rational Mech.13. no. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value.13. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). 3. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. M. Anal. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier.57). Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. Arch. . BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 245 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface.
20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. In this Fig. book. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. The distance between the plates is . The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . The control volume shown in darker colors. } } } 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) Examples of an onedimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented.15. 8. The only (almost) propelling source of the ﬂow is the surface gradient.14. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. the surface tension gradient remains. the physical condition in Figure 8. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. Example 8. this eﬀect is not discussed.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. examples with two phase are presented. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. In the case.246 CHAPTER 8. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. example dealing won one phase are present. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow. 8. .6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. However. Later. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient.15). The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. First. Even in that case. In that case. Schematic of kerosene lamp. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive).
131) .125) Thus. The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.128) (8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Solution In this example. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal.8.124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). the mass conservation yields =0 247 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8.127) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8. Furthermore. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.
if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.0 y ℓ October 4.75 Ψ = −0.25 Ψ = 1.7 0.9 1.75 Ψ = 2.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.5 0.2 0.75 Ψ = 1.25 Ψ = 0.0 0. Equation (8.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow. Newtonian ﬂuid.8 0.6 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig.134) (8.16.4 0.3 0. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.133) (8. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.75 Ψ = 0.tween 1.75 green line to 3 the blue line. However. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con. dition21 .25 Ψ = 2. .25 1.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.6 0.75 Ψ = −1.131) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. The boundaries conditions are 1.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1. In that case. 8.4 0.0 0.25 Ψ = −0.2 Ψ = −1. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8.1 0. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.248 CHAPTER 8.2 0.0 0. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both.8 Ux Uℓ 0. the left hand side is equal to constant.
The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis.139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8.17. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. Fig. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.140) . This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins. Thus. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. 8. Hence. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) 249 r θ θ flow Directi o r θ r z n dz dz flow Directi o r r θ z n dr Fig a. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8.138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8. of (only) radius.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8.8.7.
137) and (8.138) into equation (8.136) since the condition did not change. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.17a.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8. While the above analysis provides a solution. However.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided. The applicable equation is still (8.145) (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.250 CHAPTER 8. Integrating equation (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.142) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe.141) Equation (8. However.
136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8. Example 8. The same result is obtained.152) is the governing equation only the z direction. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.7: . the governing equation (8.151) Equation (8.8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 251 (8.149) (8. However.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8.7.150) Substituting equation (8.154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8.154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero.153) Equation (8.152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.150) and equation (8.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.152) or its solution (8.
That is. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. or z coordinate.VII. However.VII. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.a) The PDE above (8.18. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions.VII.252 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ ut r in r θ Fig.b) Dividing equation (8. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.d) .VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8. After the previous example.VII. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.VII. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o z n (8. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode.18. 8. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional.c) 0 0 (8. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8.155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8.7. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates. Solution CHAPTER 8.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8.VII.
VII.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Integration of equation (8. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer.VII.VII. .8.VII.VII.VII.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.e) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations. 1882 September 1. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 253 (8.VII.7. Example 8.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes.j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. Furthermore. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 .
The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible.19. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. 8.a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished).19. . For simplicg sin θ ity. Calculate the velocity proﬁle. Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8. assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional.VIII. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8. Write the governing equations for this situation.19). The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). As it will be shown later. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. For this example.1 dimensional in the x direction. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8. The dominate force is the gravity. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ.254 CHAPTER 8. For this system.
VIII.VIII. equation (8.VIII.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.d) If there is additional requirement.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.VIII. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.VIII.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.VIII.VIII. Integration of equation (8.VIII.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Thus.VIII.VIII.7.VIII.VIII.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 255 (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8.k) .VIII.8.
No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state. there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisﬁed.7. the maximum height). The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. This explanation bothered this author. 8. The Fig.20. For the liquid. Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct.256 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. However. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions. Example 8. 8. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed.VIII. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary). 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). Thus. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied.l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. . The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system.
160) yields ρg ρ (8.162) (8.VIII.158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.164) (8. . the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.156) Note.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.159) (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 257 (8.7.159) with (8.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).160) (8.163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.
167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8. So equation (8. Equation (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8. (8.169) Or rearranging equation (8.165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.162).164) and (8.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.258 CHAPTER 8.171) . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.
The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8. is inﬁnite long. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Further rearranging equation (8. 28 This 27 Later .7.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. mostly the gas.8.172) (8.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem.177) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids28 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8.176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 259 (8.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 . ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction.
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .260 CHAPTER 8.
CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers.1 Introduction Traditionally. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. there was a Ph. In fact. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic.D. Thus. For simple models. Here. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. only the trends and simple calculations are described. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. Additionally. As result. is required for many engineering problems. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. 261 . In the past. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). 9. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. For many engineers. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate.
a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. and more importantly. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. will know and understand the trends. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity).262 CHAPTER 9. However. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. the concept of ﬂow regimes. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid).3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multiphase but also. 9. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve nondimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. and importance to real world. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. For example. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. Hence. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. . and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. However. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made.
Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. . In fact. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. In our calculation. KIND OF MULTIPHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 263 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.1. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. Hence. 9. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant.9.4. nonetheless it exists. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). For example. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. Practically for many cases. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. or a large acceleration.4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. 9. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus.000 in about two and half years. However. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100.
Since there are three phases. Open Channel ﬂow is. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. March 29. solid–gas. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. Jr. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. Yet. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). Generally. rain. For example. spray casting. although important. and river ﬂow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. In the past. There are many more categories.5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. solid propellant rocket. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no.264 CHAPTER 9. and avalanches. paint spray. When the . for example. Many industrial process also include liquidliquid such as painting.. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). they can be solid–liquid. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. 9. in nature can be blood ﬂow. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. For example. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. For the gas. is only an extreme case of liquidgas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. 1887). MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. The liquid–solid. However. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. Thus. mud ﬂow etc. for an example. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquidliquid where the density ratio is extremely large. ﬂuidized bed. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. and industries. In a four (4) miles long train. The multiphase can be found in nature. In almost all situations.
Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. it is referred as counter–current. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids.1. . the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid).1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gasliquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. 9. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. up or down.5. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. 9. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. Yet. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. Thus. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow.5. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES 265 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). and what ever between them.2. the cocurrent is the more common. For example. For example.5. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. Additionally. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter.9.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. Generally. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. 9. horizontal. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. and annular ﬂow.2. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. plug ﬂow. In general. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero.
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As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity), the friction between the phases increase. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9.3). The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension, and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. In fact, all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. Fig. 9.3. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. liquid ﬂow rate. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small, then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance, for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. At some point, when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases, the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. At this stage, the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9.4). The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Thus, the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure, choking occurs relatively Fig. 9.4. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. Thus, the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if
6 The 7 Well,
liquid level is higher. all the ﬂow is wavy, thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition.
9.5. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES
267
this category is accepted). After a certain distance, the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. Hence, as in compressible ﬂow, liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds, the return path is not move the exact same way. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. For example, ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. However, there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Qualitatively, the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Besides the length, other parameters can aﬀect the “near.”
Dispersed Bubble
Liquid Superficial Velocity
Elongated Bubble
Slug Flow Annular Flow
Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity
Fig. 9.5. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes.
The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9.5. As many things in multiphase, this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions, e.g. in normal gravitation, weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity), etc. 9.5.1.2 Vertical Flow
The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities, with the gravity or against it. In engineering application, the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. The buoyancy
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CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Bubble Flow
Slug or Plug Flow
Churn Flow
Annular Flow
Dispersed Flow
Fig. 9.6. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity.
is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. For the ﬂow against gravity, the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Thus, there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity, the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. Thus, the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. When many bubbles collide, they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9.6). Notice, the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”; the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way, see Figure 9.6. After additional increase of “super slug” , all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Again, it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure.
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9.5.1.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity
269
The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. In cases where the surface tension is very important. Pulsing For example, out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. 9.7. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. the vertical conﬁguration. As the gas ﬂow increases, the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further, all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas, the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid, there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. Here, it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9.7). In the literature, Figure 9.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude ,Reynolds, and Weber numbers. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity, this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side, the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. After the ﬂow has settled, the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. However, the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. While this author is not aware of an actual model, it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations.
Liquid Flow Rate
9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions
Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system, both will be united in this discussion. However, for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid, respectively. The liquid–liquid (also
270
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length, over its cross section, and with time. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow, some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a onedimensional ﬂow. This method is the most common and important to analyze twophase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. Perhaps, the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube.
9.6.1
Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions
The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.1)
It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.2)
Where A is the entire area of the tube. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9.4) mL ˙ A (9.3)
It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9.5)
For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density), the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9.7)
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS
271
Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.8)
In a similar fashion, the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9.9)
This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.10)
It must be noted that Liquid holdup, LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. Thus, a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9.11)
Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.13)
Where Um is the averaged velocity. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. Thus, the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.14)
Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. Also, it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.
272
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1), the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.15)
This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus, for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.16)
Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. Substituting equations (9.1) and (9.7) into equation (9.16) results in
mG ˙ mL ˙
ρaverage =
˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL
QG QL
(9.17)
Equation (9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become
+ (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then
X ρG
ρaverage =
1
(9.18)
vaverage =
1 ρaverage
=
X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL
(9.19)
The relationship between X and α is
AG
X=
mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α
AL
If the slip is one SLP = 1, thus equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.21)
24) or modifying equation (9. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 273 9.26) .7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it. The average velocity (see also equation (9.23) Example 9. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. this assumption has to be broken. Furthermore. the simplest is to used it for approximation. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. Now.9. In fact. Thus.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9.1: Under what conditions equation (9. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments).23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. Initially.7.
29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. this dependency can be neglected. These losses are nonlinear and depend on each other.25.079 and n = 0.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow).30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress.25).28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.274 CHAPTER 9. acceleration.7.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. from equation (9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1.7. Yet. In that case. . since there isn’t anything better. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. acceleration must occur. for small distances (dx) and some situations. In fact. For example. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress.1. However.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. and body force(gravitation). For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9. 9. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.
For the last point. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.7.9. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 275 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. . For example.37) a There are several special cases. Equation (9. the friction loss can be estimated. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.7.1.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. dX/ dx = 0. 9. dρL / dx = 0.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9. dA/ dx = 0.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9.
there are two parameters as shown below.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase. The density in equation (9..2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9. Thus.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. private communication with Y. φG = dP dx dP dx (9. 9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.7.1.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9.40) 9. Taitle .38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.1. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.276 9. 8 This method was considered a military secret.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.7.7. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.
It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. etc). The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 9. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. Thus. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. in this discussion. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. To insert the Diagram. 2. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. cubic. For example. In solid–liquid.” Therefor. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 277 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. 3.9.45) For the gas phase.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquidliquid system. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. and geometry.8. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. distribution.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. .
possibility. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0.8. The drag coeﬃcient. CD ∞ .49) Equation (9. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.52) . All these possibilities are diﬀerent. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. However. 9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4.44 (9. it can be approximated for several regimes.48) into equation (9. the Newton’s Law region. there are two sets of similar characteristics. However. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).51) 24 Re (9.48) Inserting equating (9. When the liquid velocity is very small. Re.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.278 CHAPTER 9.
additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. If the velocity is larger. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. For particles. Yet. further increase will create a slug ﬂow.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. Thus. Consequently. in many cases the middle region is applicable. the case of liquid. the particle will sink into the liquid.9. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. the particle will drift with the liquid. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . For small gas/liquid velocity. Thus. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. 9. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately.8. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. Thus. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached.9). For the ﬁrst region. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 279 In most cases of solidliquid system. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating.8. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. USavarge . When the velocity is lower. So far the discussion was about single particle. For the case of gas. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the function f (α) is not a linear function. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. In that case. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles.
There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. Thus. In the gas phase. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle .8. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). Nevertheless. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. Hence. the length of conduit is very limited. Hence. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). 9. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. Furthermore. The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow. However. 9. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig.9. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity).280 CHAPTER 9.
for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. Liquid Body Foreces . When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. But in most cases. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. Otherwise. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. In most cases. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously.54. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. The countercurrent ﬂow occurs. However. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1.54) 6 8 From equation 9.9. for example. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. be ﬁnite. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 281 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. For example. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. 9. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. For example. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. However.9. opening a can of milk or juice. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. Hence. UL /US → 0. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. In short tube. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquidgas systems). Annular Extented Flow In that case.10. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. 9. Thus.
Then.12. For example. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. water solution. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. the pressure in the can increase. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller.282 CHAPTER 9. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. Figure 9. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid.).11. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. Picture of Countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. The container is made of two compartments. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. Initially. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. . The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. 9. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. 9.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid.12). Fig. due to the gravity. If there are two holes. In this ﬂow regime. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. in some cases. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed.
Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. 9. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow.7). the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed .” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities.13. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here.9. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. In horizontal tubes. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. In many situations. Flood in vertical pipe. When the driving (body) force is very small. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. . The analysis is provided.9. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. However. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). no counter–current ﬂow possible. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 283 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. At this point. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. 9. Probably. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. ﬂow with gravity or against it.9.7) page 133) it can be considered stable for small diameters. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes.
Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The liquid ﬂow rate. . closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. QL . Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Additionally. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. In some situations. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. wavy interface. coexist. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. 9. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases.284 CHAPTER 9. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small.15. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. mass transfer.14. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Thus. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. Thus. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. 9. The model can be improved by considering turbulence.13.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. is unknown. etc11 . When there is no water (in liquid phase).9. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi G = τi L . Fig. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction.15. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side).14.Fig. However. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry.
C1 .59) (9. [U (x = 0) = 0]. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.55) The integration constant.9.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.56) (9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.61) (9.9. Thus. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9.57) The liquid velocity at the wall.).63) .62) Uy = (9. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .58) (9. Hence. On the liquid side. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 285 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of countercurrent ﬂow.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.
The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . h.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. But.70) . MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9. This point can be obtained when equation (9. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. also.65) The solution for equation (9.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. Integration equation (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9. There are three solutions for equation (9.69) is equated to zero.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity.286 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.69). This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.15).65) is x@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9.
for a given ﬁlm thickness. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship.9.76) noticing that equation (9. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. For simplicity.9.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.72) Simplifying equation (9. For this shear stress. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. .72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL @wall = (9. the linear equation is used. equation (9. Thus. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 287 This critical shear stress. for simplicity reasons. Here.67)). The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical interf ace = τL @wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9.73) Again. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length.
in that case.79) (9.83) (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.81) At the other boundary condition. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant. (9.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.288 CHAPTER 9.79)(a). The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. of the equal velocities. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).80) (a) (b) or (9. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. However.78) into equation (9. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.82) With the integration constants evaluated. . The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.64) when (x = h). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.C.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9.84) The velocity in Equation (9. equation (9. cause this assumption to be not physical.
It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence .86) (9. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. the two conditions can co–exist. The wall shear stress is τG @wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG @x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9.9.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 289 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG @wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9. Then if the interface becomes wavy.9.87) (9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. condition (9. if no special eﬀects occurs.79)(b). Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.
Figure 9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw L Lτw G surface can be neglected. 9.16. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry.95) . There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.290 CHAPTER 9.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. the total balance is needed. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9. However. Fig.96) (9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.94) Simplifying equation (9. However.
the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. . this analysis equation (9.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. In that case. 9. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases.10. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 291 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong.9.
MULTI–PHASE FLOW .292 CHAPTER 9.
and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. nates depicted in Figure A. Vector in Cartesian coor . A.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.dinates system.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. Hence without additional reading. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi.). Furthermore. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. A. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. Thus.1. the 293 Fig.
1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. U . A. Then the following can be said U U V 1. U ·V = U V U U  · V  cos (∠(U . V .4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. A.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. The right hand rule. and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = U  · V  sin (∠(U .2. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A.4). Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors.294 unit vector is APPENDIX A. The following are vectors. V )) n (A.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. U + V = V + U 3. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations.1. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. h2 . V )) (A.5) . regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. multiplication of U × V results in W .
One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. etc. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin).A. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. For example. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. is that these combinations have physical meaning. or vector with the angle. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. . VECTORS 295 where θ is the angle between U and V .6) (A. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector.1.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A.10) (A. The reason that these current combinations. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). However.7) (A.
1. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. the curl.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. such as. For example. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. Many of the operations of vector world. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor.296 APPENDIX A.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector. j. A. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. y. divergence. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. In multivariate calculus. and z directions. the gradient.z). i. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function.13) . A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. For example. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. respectively. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function.y.
17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. y. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. z) = Nx (x. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. z)ˆ + Ny (x.1. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again.A. y.18) . VECTORS 297 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. y. z)ˆ + Nz (x. in honor of PierreSimon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. N .15) (A. y. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.16) Note that the result is a vector.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A.
edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math.html . normally for steady state. Special case of equation (A.21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . x2 . In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. 1862). x3 . 1801 – January 1. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. x2 . This subset can further produces several interesting identities. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 .20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. This results reduces equation. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. The basic of these relationships is explored. x3 . A. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . For example.19) In GaussOstrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24.1. x2 .22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. x3 .fullerton.298 APPENDIX A. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. Thus. y.
24) (A.1.1. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 299 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. Ellipsoidal coordinates. Similarly.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. the chain role is applicable. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. Yet. Elliptic . As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. velocity.25) (A. A.3. and acceleration. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. Parabolic coordinates. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). Cylindrical coordinates. it can done for the cross product. Spherical coordinates.A.
28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. The new concept here is the length factor. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. r. θ. In Fig. A. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate.stand. http://wwwhistory. The coordinate θ is angle. Flatdisk cyclide coordinates.html. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work.300 APPENDIX A. → and z. in this case.29) 3 Coolidge. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. and z.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A.ac. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates.3. Cylindrical Coordinate System.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. Bicyclide coordinates and Capcyclide coordinates. . Toroidal coordinates. Bispherical coordinates. in most cases. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. θ. Flatring cyclide coordinates. Historically.mcs. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. Julian (1952). The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry.3.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them.
A.A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. boom explosion.1. sound wave propagax tion etc. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 301 (A.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.4. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A.4. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r threedimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates. The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. Spherical Coordinate System. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.37) .30) (A.31) (A.
302 APPENDIX A.2. and z .42) . A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript. θ. However. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. there is dispute what with unit vectors.3. As in almost all cases.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. The general Orthogonal is r. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. the unit vectors are: r.5.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. For example in cylindrical coordinates.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need.
A.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender.A.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. 2 φ= + + Fig.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system. .6. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) . 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 303 (A.1.
2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference.g. However. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A.1. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions. ODE are categorized into linear and nonlinear equations. second derivative etc4 . A. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. The most general form is f u. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. ﬁrst derivative.304 APPENDIX A. . If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. du .47) 4 Note that mathematically.t dt =0 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table A. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . Note that the derivatives are integers e.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 .
The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.2.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.e) .d) (1.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.I.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.A. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.I.c) Equation (1.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .48) can be written as F (t. u) dt 305 (A.I.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.48) A.I.b) (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.2.I. u) = X(t) U (u).I. (1.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1. Example A.
53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A. Thus equation (A.1 APPENDIX A.58) (A.2.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.52) (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.2. This family is part of a linear equations. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A. .59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.55) (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.306 A.53).51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.
One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .III.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.2.3 Non–Linear Equations NonLinear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.2.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.62) Example A.A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation. .2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 307 Example A.
4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.65) Example A.b) equation (1. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A. t) = f (a u. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.a) .2. a t) dt (A.III.308 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.d) (1.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.b) Using the deﬁnition (1.III.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.63) for any real positive a.III.III. The solution is then ln t = dv +c f (1.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.63) into t dv + v = f (1.III.IV.3. v) dt (A. For this case. v) − v (A.III. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .c) (1.III.
67) g(u) Example A.b) (1.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.IV.e) A. End Solution 309 (1.V.c) (1.2.V. For this sort equations.IV.3.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).b) .c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.IV. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.A. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1. In fact.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.d) (1.IV.IV.2.IV.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.
One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients.V.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.c) Rearranging equation (1. There are additional methods such numerical analysis. A. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A. variable substitutions. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1. transformation (like Laplace transform).2.72) . it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A. and perturbation methods.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.310 APPENDIX A. Practically.68) In a way.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c.V.3.2.V.d) End Solution A.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE.V. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.71) (A.
VI.A.VI.b) are −2.VI.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions. Thus.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.2.b) (1. . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 311 (A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).74) Example A. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.4. where L is Linear operator. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.c) A.2. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A. This fact can be used to solve nonhomogeneous equation.VI. and −5.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.
78) then the equation (A.VII.VII.VII.79) .78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations). The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.c) (1.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. Hence.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.312 APPENDIX A.a) (1.2.7: Solve the nonhomogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1. u.d) A.5. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.2.VII. A.
A.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.VIII. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 313 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 . It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.VIII.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.VIII.d) Equation (1.VIII.VIII.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.b) After the integration equation (1.2. Example A.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. 6 This .VIII.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration.
2.5. End Solution A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.85) + c2 (A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A. d dt u du dt =0 (A. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.2.88) . One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.86) A.5.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.314 APPENDIX A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.82) where a is constant.
ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 315 (A. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. Example A.90) +u=0 (1.IX.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.2.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.b) (1. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . the linear thirdorder diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .c) A. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.A.2.IX.IX. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here. 1999. Thus. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium.
Thus.93) (A.92) (A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A.98) (A. For the case D = 0. θ.94) (A. one root is real and two roots are complex. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. From a mathematical point of view. In the last case where D < 0.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A.316 APPENDIX A. all the roots are real and at least two are identical. (A.101) . if D > 0.99) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.95) R+ √ D.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A. all the roots are real and unequal.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.
Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A.109) (A. A. For example.A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.107) was discussed earlier.104). The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler. For the case of only one real root.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.105).106) are the solutions of (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 317 (A. Generally. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.108) . the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.106) and equation (A. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.2.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.2.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.107) (A. The solution of equation (A.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.
are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.2 s3. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.X.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.a) (1.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.X. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.X.318 APPENDIX A.X.g.X.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.g.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.b) With the roots of the equation (1. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi .g.d) .g.
sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order.3.) = 0 (A. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. Example of such equation is F (ut .2.110) To be continue A. For example. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. . The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. When the discriminant .8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. Normally.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. . The general secondorder PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A. Generally. One example of such equation is heat equation. ux = ∂u .112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. this characterization is done for for second order. axy . ux . the same can be done for a secondorder PDE.A.112) The coeﬃcients axx .111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 319 A. Equation (A. the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. However. . Generally.
.117) A possible way the equation (A. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A. . the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.320 APPENDIX A. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow.119) (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A. Hence. A.116) Rearranging equation (A. ∂x ∂x (A. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.119) and (A..118) Equations (A. However. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.1 Firstorder equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + .114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.3.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.
cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.7. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6.4.A. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. and opposite angles α. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. and γ.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. A. tan(α + β) = 6. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 γ β a c α b Fig. b. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. TRIGONOMETRY 321 A. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 36.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. sin2 α = 4. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. consider the triangle with sides of length a. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. respectively 5. The tringle angles sides. . cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. and c. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . β.
322 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .
264 GaussOstrogradsky Theorem. 77. 82. 210 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 209 Convection. angular. 107 Archimedes. 82 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 217 D D’Alembert paradox. 282 Counter–current ﬂow. 68. 125 Diﬀerential analysis. 209 Linear accelerate System. 281 Annular ﬂow. 90 Add Force. 85 eﬀective. 298 . 216 Add momentum. 105 Cylindrical Coordinates. 92 Forces Curved surfaces. 207 Steady State. 279 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 11. 199 Cut–out shapes. 8. 173 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 297 Deformable control volume. 266 Fluid Statics Geological system. 193 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 111. 170 B Bingham’s model. 11 Divergence Theorem. 12 Accelerated system. 267 E Energy conservation. 193 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 104 Free expansion. 184 Arc shape. 265 Compressibility factor. 279 Flow ﬁrst mode. 83–85 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 216 Add mass. 33 Conduction. 11 Body force. 83. 121 C Co–current ﬂow. 194 Conservative force. 87 Concentrating surfaces raise. 184. 184. 215 dilettante. 28 buoyancy. 88 Acceleration. 69 Boundary Layer. 67. 207 Euler equations. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 142 Density ratio. 83. 3. 283 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 199 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 262 Flow regimes in one pipe. 265. 186 Averaged kinetic energy. 283 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 7. 209 Rotating Coordinate System. 23. 228 Correction factor. 155 bulk modulus. 194 Convective acceleration. 252 Flow out tank. 298 Double choking phenomenon. 215 External forces.SUBJECTS INDEX 323 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 199 Averaged momentum energy. 73 Average Momentum. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 196 Flow regime map. 113 buoyant force. 70.
215 Neutral moment Zero moment. 142 Non–Linear Equations. 121 Neutral stable. 270 Metacentric point. 244 Multi–phase ﬂow. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 233 Moving boundary. 85. 243 Moving surface Free surface. 1. 228 Lockhart martinelli model. 86 APPENDIX A.324 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 278 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 236 K Kinematic boundary condition. 171 index notation. 76 Mass velocity. 133. 85 Leibniz integral rule. 76 Initial condition. 265 Hydrostatic pressure. 265 Orthogonal Coordinates. 307 Normal stress. 268 H Harmonic function. 264 Local acceleration. 206 L Lapse rate. 160 Integral equation. 267 . 298 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 252 Polynomial function. 108 I Ideal gas. 160 small picture. 169 R Radiation. 121. 276 P Pendulum action. 261 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 88 Linear operations. 279 Poiseuille ﬂow. 135 Newtonian ﬂuids. 100. 241 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 77 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 228 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 265 Real gas. 235 N NavierStokes equations. 283 Horizontal ﬂow. 70 Pneumatic conveying. 249 Concentric cylinders. 77 Isotropic viscosity. 305 Integral analysis big picture. 299 Oscillating manometer. 194 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 123 Micro ﬂuids. 152 Limitation of the integral approach. 8 No–slip condition. 132 Piezometric pressure. 79 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 244 Moving surface. 77 Inclined manometer. 242 Non–deformable control volume. 243 kinematic viscosity. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 216 Inverted manometer. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Momentum conservation. 67. 282 purely viscous ﬂuids. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 26 Interfacial instability. constant of integration. 205 Linear acceleration. 101 pseudoplastic. 279 Momentum Conservation. 109 Pressure center. 85 Real gas. 304 Liquid phase. 134.
11 Torricelli’s equation. 294 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 282 Vertical ﬂow. 230. 277 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 264 T Tank emptying parameters. 265 Stress tensor. 297 Westinghouse patent. 84. 152 Divergence Theorem. 271 Reversal ﬂow. 203 Terminal velocity. 264 Spherical coordinates. 227 Superﬁcial velocity. 95 Transition to continuous. 293 Vectors Algebra. 243 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 266 Sutherland’s equation. 271 Void Fraction. 283 Stable condition. 121 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 187 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 12 U Unstable condition. 229 substantial derivative. 271 . 240 Thermodynamical pressure. 271 Quality of dryness. 83. 277 Solid–solid ﬂow. 280 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 309 Vectors. 73 Variables Separation 1st equation. 19 Wave Operator. 229 symmetry. 131 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 111 cubic. 169 Triangle shape. 205 Total moment. 271 Wetness fraction. 107. 298 Rocket mechanics. 278 Thermal pressure. 83 Unsteady State Momentum. 284 Slip velocity. 207 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 265 W Watson’s method. 68. 87 Spherical volume. 232 transformation. 240 thixotropic. 119 Stability analysis.SUBJECTS INDEX Reynolds Transport Theorem. 271 325 S Scalar function. 114 Turbomachinary. 230 Cartesian coordinates. 240 Segregated equations. 312 shear stress. 104 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 83 stability analysis. 179 V Vapor pressure. 180 Liquid holdup. 6 Slip condition range.
George Gabriel. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 4 Blasius. G.. 4 Nusselt. 4 V von Karman. 4 D Darcy. 4 K KuttaJoukowski. 133 H Helmholtz. 262 Taylor. 152 Lockhart. 275 R Rayleigh. 133 Reynolds. 298 N Navier. 4 S Stanton. 264 L Leibniz. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 215 G Ganguillet. Carl Friedrich. 262. 275 P PierreSimon Laplace. 4 Stokes. 253 O Olivier Vallee. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. Jean Louis. 262 M Manning. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 215 Prandtl. 4 . 205 F Fanning. Hermann von. 4 Westinghouse. 4 de Saint Venant. 215 Nikuradse. 4. 215 e Duckler.I. 4 Martinelli. 4 W Weisbach. Barr´. Osborne. 4 Froude. 4 Gauss. 298 T Taitle. 315 C Cichilli. 262 Meye. SimonDenis. 4 Blasiu. 298 Poiseuille. 249 Poisson. 152 Rose.326 APPENDIX A. Claude–Louis.