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Religion and the Intelligentsia

Religion and the Intelligentsia

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Presentation by Barry A. Kosmin; delivered in the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
Presentation by Barry A. Kosmin; delivered in the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion

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07/10/2013

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Religion and the Intelligentsia: Post-graduate Educated Americans 1990-2008

Barry A. Kosmin Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut

The New Class , the Knowledge Class , the ruling class , The Professional Classes plus many of the Creative Class - those who make a living from control of knowledge or their credentials The privileged class that has grown and benefitted most from economic and social change in recent decades Most surveys & literature relates to academics & students not the enlarged or full elite population ‡ How did this elite change in social composition during the culture wars? ‡ How did its religious profile change? ‡ How different is its religious involvement compared to national norms? ‡ What is its worldview today?

The Growth of the Highly Educated & Professional Elite 1990-2008
1990 - 10 million adults = 6% (of 18+) 2008 - 18 million adults = 8% US adult population growth = 30% Elite growth = 80% % aged 25+ with advanced degrees 2002 Men 10.4; women 8.2 Employed persons 11.3 whites 9.5; blacks 5.1; Hispanics 3.1 Source CPS 2003

Advanced degrees Masters MA. MS, MSW, MBA, etc Professional MD, DDS, JD, BD
Students in graduate & professional schools 1990 = 1.86 million 2001 = 2.21 million

Degrees conferred:
1990 2002 Masters 324,000 482,000 (59% women) Professional 71,000 81,000(41% women) Doctorates 38,000 44,000(46% women) Source Natl Center for Educatl Stats in Statl Abstract of US pp. 169,182

Earnings by highest degree 2002 (CPS)
Bachelors Masters Doctorate Professional $ 51.2K $ 60.4k $ 89.7k $112.8k

Socio-demographic Profiles ARIS 1990 & 2008
1990 2008

Elite
Northeast Midwest South West Male Female 18-29 30-54 55+ Democrat Republican Independent 24% 21% 30% 25% 60% 40% 12% 62% 23% 32% 33% 30%

USA
21% 24% 35% 20% 47% 53% 26% 44% 28% 35% 29% 29%

Elite
22% 20% 34% 24% 49% 51% 9% 55% 33% 36% 27% 31%

USA
18% 22% 37% 23% 48% 52% 21% 47% 30% 33% 24% 30%

Elite Percentage of Socio-demographic Groups ARIS1990 & 2008
1990
REGION USA Northeast Midwest South West 18-29 30-54 55+ Democrat Republican Independent Catholic Mainline Other Christian Other Religions None 6% 7% 5% 5% 7% 3% 8% 5% 5% 7% 6% 5% 8% 4% 16% 8%

2008
8% 10% 7% 7% 9% 4% 9% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 12% 5% 17% 9%

AGE

PARTY

RELIGION

Religious Profiles 1990 & 2008
ARIS 1990 Elite 24% 25% 28% 9% 11%
1.3% 0.1% 9.8%

ARIS 2008 USA 26% 19% 41% 3% 8%
0.7% 0% 7.5%

Catholic Mainline Other Christian Other Religions None
Atheist Agnostic Humanist/Secular None

Elite 24% 19% 25% 8% 17%
1% 1.3% 0.1% 14.9%

USA 25% 13% 38% 4% 15%
0.7% 0.9% 0% 13.3%

Outlook & Beliefs - ARIS 2001
When it comes to your outlook , do you regards yourself as . . . ?
OUTLOOK
USA Elite Secular 10 15 Somewhat Secular 6 8 Bit of Both 1 1 Somewhat Religious 38 29 Religious 37 41 Dk/REF 8 6

Do you agree that ?

GOD EXISTS
USA Elite

Disagree Strongly 2 3

Disagree Somewhat 2 4 Disagree Somewhat 2 5 Disagree Somewhat 5 7 4 6 4 7

Agree Somewhat 10 12

Agree Strongly 77 73

DK/Ref 9 8

GOD PERFORMS MIRACLES
USA Elites

Disagree Strongly

Agree Somewhat 17 20

Agree Strongly 74 66

DK/Ref 3 2

GOD HELPS ME
USA Elites

Disagree Strongly

Agree Somewhat 14 16

Agree Strongly 68 62

DK/Ref 9 9

Beliefs about God
Regarding the existence of God , do you think . . .? ARIS 2008
Elite There is No Such Thing There is No Way to Know I m not Not Sure There is a Higher Power There is definitely a Personal God DK/Ref 1% 8% 3% 12% 73% 3% USA 2% 4% 6% 12% 70% 6%

BEHAVIOR Life Cycle Religious Rituals of US Adult Population, ARIS 2008
Elite Had Initiation Ceremony Had Religious Marriage Wants Religious Funeral 85% 86% 70% USA 71% 72% 66%

Current Household Membership of a Congregation ARIS 2001 Elite 63% USA 54%

HUMAN EVOLUTION - ARIS 2008 Do you think that human beings as we know them, developed from earlier species of animals?
Yes = definitely/probably No= definitely not/probably not
Elite
YES ALL(Belief in Evolution) Men Women Catholic Other Christian None Religious service attendance Once a Week or More Once or Twice a Month Few Times a Year/Less 48% 52% 46% 54% 27% 84% No 38% 35% 40% 29% 64% 10%

USA
YES 38% 43% 32% 43% 25% 62% NO 52% 46% 56% 46% 66% 30%

28% 44% 70%

61% 56% 10%

18% 42% 45%

73% 49% 35%

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