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ROr:ATIONAL MOTION I: KIr'JEMATICS AND

DYNAMICS D 209

20f;\ 0 CHAPTER 11

'. Clearly the question refers to the torque about an axis through the center of the wheel. Then since the radius to the point of application of the' force is the lever or moment arm, we have r = (0.25 m)(200 N) = 50 N . m. If the force makes an angle of 40" with a spoke, then the tangential component of the force is

F, = (200 N)(sin 400) = 128.6N.Then r = (128.6N)(0.25 m) "" 32.1 N . m, since the radial component of the

force does not contribute to the moment.

[

East

1= 20 s J

[ 1=30s

11.2 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

11.10 A flywheel originally at rest is to reach an angular velocity of 36 rad/s in 6.0 s. (a) What constant angular acceleration must it have? (b) What total angle does it turn through in the 6.0s?

, (a) Use the equation of angular motion; where Wo is zero:

Wf

(a) W . .West

, A phonograph tur t bl' (b) Fi .

, In rad/s". n a e rotating at 8.16 rad/s 'low, unifo I. .'. . g. 11·'

. . rm y to a stop m 6 rev Find h I

, Let 00 = O. Then, . . t e angular acceleration

OJ = Wo + oa

36 = a(6.0)

(b) Use the equation of angular motion, where eo and Wo are zero:

e = eo + wot + ~af = H6)(62)'= 108 rad

or use

( Wo + W f'f I ..)

OJ.= ~ or um orm angu ar acceleratIon

0"= 8.162 + la(6 x 21() The negative sign means a d I .

, r ece eration.

A belt runs on a. wheel f 30 . ".

initial speed of 2.0 rev/so 25 ::f r~dIUS. During the time that the wheel' .

· the number of revolutio~s it tUi'nSe~.~ength p.asses over the wheel. Findc~:st~ unifor~ly to rest from an

, The-res . w I e stopping. .' e eceleration ofthe wheel d

e respective an I .. . . an

w2 _ w~ "= la8 to finJ: ~ quantities are 8 = 25/0.3 = 83 rad == 13

t. .. - -0.150 mv is'. or " ~ - 0.942 rad/'" . 3 m; also roo ~ 2.0 mv /s and tn = O. Use

· n 7 s ~ car accelerates uniforml from .

Whatrs the angular acCeleratio: of a w~:S:I~o;~Ch a speed that its wheels are turn:

" Given Wo == 0 W == 60 / ,rough how many revolutions does :~! atha rlate of 6.0 rev/so

E' ' . rev s, and t '" 7 s Us' w ee turn?

quivalently, multiplying by 21(, a' ~ 5.;8 ~a~/~so +e ~t1t3° give a'= 0.86 reV/52• Then 8'= - t - 3(

.... ' _ 2 rad.' W - 7) =

, . roulette whe 1 "

· e originally turning at 0 80

, how many revolutions did.i . ~ev/s coasts to rest in 20 s Wh' t"

· '.Given.wo == 0.80 rev] . _ 0 id.it turn in the process? (Assume uniform :~~e~~;aat~Cel)eration of the wheel?

S, w _ and t _ 20 . IOn.

' .. '. " =8rev. • - S. Usew=wo+attogivea=-004 /2

.• I. '. . • rev s . Also, e == wt =

'.

(00 + (0 0 + 36

e = eo+~t =-- (6) ==10Srad

2 2'

-S.162 ..

11.11 Derive ¢ = ¢j + (w2 _ wD/2a for constant a'. (Sometimes rp instead of e is used for the rotation angle and subscript i instead of subscript 0 is used to denote an initial value.)

, We start with W == t», + atand rp := rpj + Wit + ~af, Solving the first equation for t, we obtain t == «(0 _ wj)la. Substituting this into the second equation, we find

W - Wj 1 (w - Will

¢ = rpi + to, ~ + -2 a 2 or

. a a

A> A> W - Wi [ 1 ( .)] A> (w - Wi)(W + Wi) A> w2 - W7

't' = 't'j + -a- Wj +"2 W - Wi == 't'i + ;2a == wt + 2a

11.12 A wheel turning with angular speed of 30 rev Is is brought to rest with a constant acceleration. It turns 60 before it stops. (a) What is its angular acceleration? (b) What time elapses before it stops? .

, (a) The angular acceleration may be found from w2 == w~ + 2a(e - eo):

w2 _ W~ 02 - [(30)(2nW 2

a = 2(8 _ eo) == 2(60)(21() == -47 rad/s

(b) The time is found from W = Wo + at:

how many I' .

revo utions must the 60·c di ..

thi m- rameter wheel of

IS case, s = 2500 m and r == 030' a car tum as the car travels 2 5 km?

....: . m, so that s "= r8 yields 8 == 8330 . .

. gear wheels which a h rad = 1330 rev.

th re mes ed to th h .

.. e.smaller turn when the larger fe er ave radii of 0.50 and 0.15cm Th '.

; '. I .r '. . urns through 3 rev? . . rough how many revoluti

po nt of contact. . Ions

8 1 moves the same di t .'

.= 0 rev. ,. IS ance around either wheel' hen (0

. .' " .' . ce .50 cm)(3 rev):i::: (0.15 cm)8,

. .. ~.ICC~~I.j ~r,.t" uniformly from' t . ' .' . . .'

, Wheels and the num res to a s~eed of 15 m/s ina time' ' .

. i:i : t r , . ber of revolutions turned by a wheel inthe s. Find the angl!!ar acceleration of

:tin' .... "'. . " .' I . process. The radius of the car wheel

ear acceleration and di t - .

t I IS ance from v = +

. 0 angu ~r quantities through rv == 'a/ ~o /1 at and s =vt to. be a == 0.75 m/s2 d

. ... r _ a - - 225 dl 2 an S.- 150

<'~N"D" . . 3-.· ra sand'8=s/ -4 - m.

rests on, a level tableto . , ' "'.

P, the point of contact b p, as shown in Fig. 11-3. The thread' . ' .

", '.' ,etween the spool and the tabletop. FO/spulled gently so that there is

. each of. the thread p iti

, 0 ' . OSI IOns a

t= 0 - (30)(l1() == 4 s

-47 -

11.13 A spinning wheel initially has an angular velocity of 50rad/s east; 20 s later its angular velocity is 50 west. If the angular acceleration is constant, what are (a) the magnitude and direction of the angular acceleration, (b) the angular displacemept over 20s, and (c) the angular speed at 30s?

, (a) The direction of the angular acceleration is west, as shown in Fig. 11-2(a), since (1. At = (Of ..ellli lilt + (-lIlj) and both vectors on the right are to the west. The magnitude of the angular acc:eleration'is

Wt - Wi 50 -; (-50) 5 rad f~ 2,

a=---= :::~

bt 20 .

(b) The angular displacement, from w} = wr + 2a(e - eo), is e .; e ,,;, w} - w~ == 502 - 502 ::= 0

o 2a 2(5) _.

This result also follows from the fact that the average angular velocity, !(Wj+ WI)' is zero. Theon1yr, the angular acceleration over the 20-sinterval is to reverse the axis of rotation. (c) From Fig. 11-2(b)"

angular speed at the end ono sis W == Wo +at = 50 + 5(30 - 20) = 100 raMs.

Once a and (» are parallel, the angular speed, but not the directionof the fvtation axis; changes"

210 0 CHAPTER 11

c

d

Fig. 11-3

p

11.22

throughd, determine which way the spool will roll. Explain your answers. Note that in position d the line determined by the thread passes through point P.

, If the origin for caiculating torques is taken at P, the torques due to gravity, friction, and the normal force

are all zero.

(a) The torque about P is clockwise, so the spool rotates clockwise and rolls to the right, winding the string

on the spool.

(b) The torque about P is counterclockwise, so the spool rotates counterclockwise and will roll to the left.

(c) THe torque about P is .counterclockwise, so the spool rotates counterclockwise and rolls to the left. (d) The torque about P is. zero. The spool will not rotate. Since we are' told that it is pulled gently and

therefore does not slip, it must be that the spool remains motionless.

A grindstone has a moment of inertiaof 1.6 X 10-3 kg . m2• When a constant torque is applied, the flywheel reaches an angular ,velocity of 1200 rev/min in 15 s. Assuming it started from rest, find (a) the angular acceleration; (b) the unb!danced torqueapplieii; (c) the angle turned through in the 15 s; (d) the work W

done on the flywheel by the torque,

, (a) At t == 15 s,

ai = 1200 rev/min x 1 min/60 s x.2n rad/l rev == 40n rad/s

_ (}J - Wo _ (40n - 0) rad/s - 838 de

a'--- -', ra s

t 15 s . "

(h)i-"'}a' = 1.6 x 10':'3 kg· m2 x 8.38 rad/s2 ee 0,0134 m ,N '. (40n + 0) rad/s

(.c) e ::: (}Jovgt = 2 . x 15 s ::: 942 rad

(d) W == dJ '" 0,0134 x 942 == 12,6 J

or, by the work-energy principle,

W == KE::: Vw2 '" H1.6 X 10-3)(40n)2 = 12.6 J

11.23 A nearly massless rod is pivoted at one end so it can swing freely as a pendulum. Two masses, 2m and m, attached to it at distances band 3b, respectively, from the pivot, The rod is held horizontal and then

released, Find its angular acceleration at the instant it is'released. , Torque = g(2rnb + 3mb) == 5mgb and} == 2mb2 + m(9b2) == 11mb2• Since T = Ia, we have a' == 5g/11b.

11.24 Three children are sitting on a seesaw in such a way that it balances. A 20- and a 30-kg boy are on sides at a distance of 2.0 m from the pivot, If the thir,d boy jumps off, thereby destroying the balance;

the initial angular acceleration of the board? (Neglect the weight of the board.) , Take torques about the pivot point; 30(9,8)(2) - 20(9,8)(2) == La. .But 1== 20(4) + 30(4) == 200 kg' ml,

Substituting gives a' =~~ :=0.98 rad/s2. ' .

11.25 A pendulum consists of a small ma~s m at the end of a string of length L. The pendulum is pulled angle e with the vertical and released, At the instant of release, using the suspension point as axis,

(a) the torque on the pendulum and (b) its angular acceleration. .

, Torque == (force)(lever arm) "" mgL sin e, since T = mrza' with r == Li~ this case; one ,has a' '"

11.26 Determine the constant torque that must be applied to a 50-kg flywheel, of radius of gyration 40 em';' •. '

an angular speed of 300 rev/min in 10 s, .

An 80~lb wheel of 2-ft radius of gyration is r . . .

~ompute the time it will take the wheel to .,;;=:.~; !;60 rev/min. The retarding frictional torque is 41b· ft.

we knew a, we could b . ,WI (}J = 0, and Wo = 2nf, or Wa == 2n(360 /mi

(80 Ib/32 ft/S2)(2 ft)2 = ~ot~m t: ::.om dynamics. == fa and we are given /!V_~~~):~60 s/min) = 12.:rr rad/s, If

(0.4 rad/s2)t, and t = 94sUg , so a' = (-4Ib ' ft)/(10 slug, ft") = -0.4 rad/s" F' t'llanOd 1 = Mk2 ""

. ~'. . ma y = 12n rad/s -

A 500-g wheel that has a moment of inertia of 2' . .'

:te: ~63 ,.v:. How I ar ge is the to~que that "ow~~:;/g . m "m'li,lIy turning at 30 rev I,. It coasts to rest

x=La, With 1= 0,015 kg, m2 iven t ' .

Wo == 2nf = (2.:rr rad)(30 S-I) _ 60 g d/s a find a' we note that (}J?= (}J2 + 2aB . h

_ (60 - .:rr ra /s and e - (2 d/ 0, 'Wit (}J "" 0

. ' Then T - -(0.015 kg, m2)(17 3 / 2)_

[ A certain8-kgwheel has a di f . .' m s - -0.26 N· m.

r . d " fa IUS 0 gyration of 25 \vh'"

equ:et~ give It an angular acceleration of 3 rad/~2~' at IS l~S moment of ine:tia? How large a torque is

, 1 - Mk == (8 kg)(0.25 rn)" = 0.50 Is . 2 ' '

'.' . . ,gu ro ' ! == fa' = (0.50 kg ;m2)(3 rad/s') =1.5 N . m. ..'

A constant horizontal force of I 2 N ' . , . . . . '

axis (Fig. 11-4), The radius of the sh~s applied tangentially to the-shaft of a solid disk " .

the angular acceleration of th di k ,ft IS _3 em, the radius of the disk is 8 em i . d i rotatJ.ng about a vertical

, . e IS ,Ignonng the mass of the" shaft . . '.' an ItS mass IS 4 kg. Calculate

First compute the moment of i .

.' e moment of inertia of the di k:

. IS ,

N. l = ~mR2 == H4)(0,OS2) = 0.0128 kg- m2

ow use Newton's d I

. secon aw for rotational motion:

T= fa

1.2(0,03) = 0.0128a'

R .. O.08 m 'J,

r-O,Q3m Jf:

Fig. 11.4

, ,'Ir

of lO-cm radius has a mo " . )

orthe disk to . '. ment of inertia of 0.02 kg, m2 A force '

1 . give It an angular acceleration a' Find "'.' dO/f215 N IS applied tangentially to the

.': a'.' 15(0 10) _ .' ,' ... m ra S",

.' . - .0,02a; a"" 75 rad/s2 ....,',

').

OF INERTIA l;r

... hoops of masses m d '. .~:

in F'. '. 1 ~n m2 have radii a 1 and a Th

'., to thel~a~~~5. Hnd the system's mO,ment of' iner~ra a:~o~~~~t:~it:~dIY °hll ah frame of negligible

'. . roug t e center and

,I . I

212 0 CHAPTER 11

I

Fig.11-S

" .'1

, '. thi in two parts as

'. '. ...·Iv 2 A . for our hoops write ,IS I , . "

J The definition of liS 7'1 r; ml, NI 'N2 ' .. '. 2 ' " a2

2" A ' , + a2 "Ami := mlal + m2 2 ,

at ~ um'l 2 ~ ,2 " ,

" i1 . '2 . .

: , " . F' 11-6.

" , ' r ible mass as shownm .lg.

. . masses are held by a rigid frame of neg 19l m's U:oment of inertia is ,

Four coplanar, large, ~r;guI~r perpendicular to the page, show that the~st~ the axis and similarly for the

Taking an axis throng an. the moment of inertia of object 1 alone a ou, .,' "

I == II + 12 + 13 + 14, where II IS . " ' . ove in this way? ' , "

others. What general rule could you pr fi t . mmation is over mass 1, the second ov;r

... 2 A + ... , where the rs su '1 I + 1 . Rule: Moments 0

J I:::::Er~b.mj:::::ErTIAmi1+r...rj~. ml: I the second 12, etc., so I::::: It + 2+,3 4

'd n The first surnmationts I', '

mass 2, an so 0 '. are added algebraically.. .r . inertia about an ~X1S

A

B

m

3m

b

b

f~,

B'

Fig. 11-6 A'

, . '. d the moment of

. t d by a rod of negligible mass. Fin

. F' 11 7 are con nee e . BB'

The four point-masses sho~n III ig. ,- 'about (a) axis AA', (b) axts o.o . 2 ,2

. ti and radius of gyration for the system 'b2 (4b2) + 3m (9, b2) = 33mb == k (7m) so

mena , . ' _ 0 + (2m) + m. ' . .

J (a) I = E m/T == k2E mj~ In th!)P;;~~\c(;~)~/~ ;mb2::::: 7mk2, so k ~ 1.l3b. . ,

k ==217b. (b) IBB,::::m.(4b) + (2 , . t i

~'- F' d the moment 0

' . " r ht circular frame shown. III . h

The four masses in Fig. 11-8 are held rigid by .th~;;~~hl~he center of the circle and perpendicular to t e

d diu: of gyration of the system for an aXIs ' , " . . , '

nm~ . ','

A

J

2m

I

I

I I"

"

I ", b

I ' "-

I . "

I

2m

I

I A'

Fig. 11-8

ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS D 213

How large a torque must be applied to the system to give it an angular accelerationzr about this axis, provided it is free to turn? Repeat for the axis AA'.

I 'By definition I ,:,'Em,rt = E mJ)2 = 5mb2.By comparison with I ==(E ml)k2, one has k = /z. Since, = La, one finds, = 5mb2i. IAA, = (2m)(b2) + (2m)(b2) = 4mb1, which is k~A,(8ffl)' so one finds that kAA' == b/2112

and 'AA' = 4mb2er. '.

, + .

" A nitrogen mnleculecanbe thought of as rwopoint.masses (m of each = 14 u = 14 x 1.67 x 1O~17 kg)

separated by a distance of 1.3 X W~10 m. In air at room temperature the average rotational kinetic energy of such a molecule is aboutd x 10~21 J. Find the moment of inertia of such a molecule about its. center' of mass, and its speed of rotation in revolutions per second.

I 1= E mirf = 2(2. 34 x 1O~26)(O. 65 X 10 ~ 10)2 == L 98 X 10-46 kg· m". Also, I (J)2/2 = 4 x 1O~21 gives OJ =' 6.4 X

1012 rad/s"'; Lo').: 1012 tsst».' " .'""., , .'

Three thin uniform rods each of mass M and length L lie along the x, y, z axes with one end ~f each at the

origin. Find I about the z axis for the three-rod system. .,

I Only the rods along the x and y axes give rise to a moment of inertia about the z axis. From the parallel-axis theorem the moment of inertia of a rod about its end is ML2/12 + M(L/2)2:;:: MU/3. So, by , Prob. 11.33, I. =: 2MU/3. ...., I

Show that I, the moment of inertia of the system of Fig. 11-6 about an axis perpendicular to the page at P, is equal to ~ (Ie",; + mjrD, wherer, is the distance from Pto the ith center of mass.

.1 Call rj the location with respect toP ~f the jth centerof mass. The parallel-axis theorem gives I;:;:: Ie"'i + mjrJ, so 4

1= L (Ie"'i + mirJ)

f~l '

.Knowing that 10;= ~Mr2 for a sphere with' axis through-its center, find 1 for an axis tangent to the sphere. , I Use the parallel-axis theo'rem: 1= lc",+ Mr2':;:: 7Mr2/5,

/ , ' .

A rod of length L is composed of a uniform length !L of wood whose mass is mw and a uniform length ~Lof

1,prass whose mass i8mb' (a) Find I for the rod about an axis perpendicular to the rod and through its center. '(b) Repeat for a parallel axis through the wood-end. (Hint: Ie",:;:: ma2/12 for a uniform rod Of length a.)

. ,

I ,(a) First treat each half separately. For the wood, I about the end is, from the parallel-axis theorem,

,J0 .. (L/2Y]/12 + mw(L/4)2:;:: ,(m",L 2)/12. For the brass it would be (mbL 2)/12. Adding these we obtain in ,t~y firstpart(mw +'rnb)(U/12). (b) The brass contribution to I about the wood end.is [mb(L/2)2J/12.+ "mb(3,L/4)" = (7mbU)/12 where we used, the parallel-axis theorem again, To this we add (m,.U)/12, so

,j'..,;rU(m", + 7mb)]l12. ' . . ,

, 1100P of mass Mand radius R is shown in Fig. 11-9. The hoop lies inthe xy plane and is centeredat the " O. In the figure, the zaxis rises from 0 directly toward the viewer. Consider the mass element dm. It

' an amount dl, = R2 dm to the moment of inertia about the z axis. The element dm also'

x

Fig. 11-9

216 0 CHAPTER 11

Axis

Fig. 11-15

11.49

. 1 ment ~f thickness dx

. _ I b The contribution of the mass e e _ Mb2/12

'For a thin uniform slab the mass/area IS (JI- _MJb~ . oax" dx =<. (J~b3/12; but since (J 0;= M lab, 1- .

. .' ( dx)X2 so that - ~bl<

to the moment of inertia IS aa , f 1 The rod is

. . 1116 allows the system to turn ree y. . .

A frictionless pivot at the cent~r ofhthe diSkla~h~:C~l~~a~~~of-the system when released from the position

. 1 th L. Find t e angu " .

umform and has a eng .' d that of the rod IS m2' . .

shown. The mass of the disk IS mt an .

Fig. 11-17

Pivot

Fig. 11-16

Pivot

11.50

.; . 21 b2+mbL+m2L2/4.The

.' +m[b+(L/2)y=mtb2/2+mzL 12+m2 -.11==[ (2b+L)]1

• 1 about the pivot == Ie", disk + 1 <m r"~ 2[b + (LI2)]. Then, after some algebra, '" - . g

due to the weight of the rod - m2g " .

torque (b2 bL + L2/3)]' '. .

[(mtlm2)b2 + 2 +. '. F ll-i7 To its other end is

. . d t one end as shown mig. .' . ft r it is

A uniform rod of length L and mass mJ IS rv01e F~nd the an~~lar acceleration of the system Just a e

f . tened a uniform disk of mass mj an ra IUS • . ,

as . . hown .

released from the posruon snowu. 2 2 (L 2 + 2Lb + b1). The 'lever arm for m t IS e

, Ipivol = lrod + leM disk + mt(L +.b? == s~2t~!t3.+:(~2~i ;i:~)/2 + m11(L + b) sin e. Solving for", == .11 w (L + b) sin e ~nd for m«. (LI2)t: Z)1I[2m2ef3 + ml(3b2 + 4Lb +?L )].

obtain a = g sin 8[m2L + 2m)(

-, ONAL RELATIONSHIPS

TRANSLATIONAL-ROTATI . Wh' the frequency of revolution of the hand?

d h d which is 2.0 em long. (a) at IS? . .

A watch has a secon "" an. ond hand relative to the watch. . .' .: .

What is the speed of the tip of the sec . .

• (a) If T is th~ period in seconds, 1 1 I

f--=-==0.017rev s -T 60

. ~2 )(2.) = 2.1 x 1O~3 rills

IJ = rt» =<. r2nf = (2.0 x 10. )(2n 60

(b) .

. . 6370 km (a) What is the earth's angular The earth rotates on its axis on~e everYfl.24 ~ ~t~r:S~I~::~e eciuato~ ,at what speed (kilometers per

. " d? (b) If anairplane les u .. . . .

. radians per secon.. . "1 .

it fly to just "keep up with the sun . . .

11.5 11.51

11.52

ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS D 217

, Earth turns 2n rad in 24 h. (a) w = 2n rad/(24 h x 3600 s/h) = 7.272 x 1O~5 rad/s. (h) The plane must fly at the same speed as the earth's "rim speed." Thus we use v = oir. Substituting,

v = (7.272 X 1O~5 rad/s)(6370 kmJ(3600 s/h) = 1667rkm/h.

A 90-em-radius roulette wheel initially turning at 3.0 revls slows uniformly and stops after 26 rev. (a) How long did it take to stop? (h) What was its angular deceleration? (c) What was the initial tangential speed of a point on its rim? (d) The initial radial acceleration of a point on the rim? (e) The magnitude of the resultant

initial acceleration of a point on its rim? , I . ,

, Given r == 0.90 m, Wo == 6n: rad/s, and 8 = 26 rev =52n fad. (a) t = e/ro = 52n:/3n: = 17.3 s. (h) 1«1 == wo/t == . 6n/17.3 = 1.09 rad/s'. (c) v, = wor == 6n(0. 90) = 17.0 m/s. (d) aR = w~r = 320 m/s2, (e) The initial tangential acceleration is ar= 0.98 mls1, so the total initial acceleration is (a~ + a~) In :::: 320 m/s2.

As shown in Fig. 11-1.8(a), a girl on a rotating platform holds a pendulum in her hand. The pendulum is at a radius of 6.0 m from the center of the platform. the rotational speed of the platform is 0.020 rev/so It is found

that the pendulum hangs at an angle e to the vertical as shown. Find e. ~

Fig.H-IS

()

j I

(a).

., Th~ external for~es on the pendulum ball are' shown in Fig. 11-18(b}. In the equilibrium situation F = ma can be written as T sin e = mw2r and T cos e - mg = O. Dividing the first expression by the second gives

tan () = w2r/g. Solving for 8, we get 0.55Q• . .

A mass m is fastened to one end of a massless spring of natural length a and stiffness k. Holding the other end, a man whirls the apparatus in a horizontal circle at angular velocity w. What is the radius of the circle?

, The tension in the spring, k(r - a), must supply 'the centripetal force, morr, where r - a is the elongation of the spring. Equating yields r = ka/k(l- mw2/k). For a stiff spring, r = a(l + mw2/k) provided that moi'Lk:«: 1. (Note: 1/(1- x) =-> 1 + x for Ixr« 1.)

Figure 11-19 shows a possible design for a space colony of the future. It consists of a 6-km-diameter cylinder ~ of length 30 km floating in space. Its interior is provided with an earthlike environment. To simulate gravity,

" the cylinder spins on its axis as shown. What should be the rate of rotation of the cylinder (in revolutions per .. hour) so that a person standing on the landmass will press down on the ground with a force equal to his or her weight on earth?

Fig. 11-19

:m~2R =mg, 'we find w2=g/R =9.8j~OOO~3.2i x 1O~3/s2, from which w =(0.0572/s)(36QO/zn)::::

speed of the earth is 1 rev Iday, or 1.16 X 10-5 rev Is, and the earth's radius is 6.37 x 106 m. If a

21 B 0 CHAPTER 11

man at the equato, " ,tanding on a spring scale, by what p,,.,.nt would hi' apparent weigbt in,,"!" if the earth were to stop rotating? A man at the north pole?

I We note E F ~ "'" ~ moo'dnw"d along 'he radial &"ction. 'Thus the ,ca'e>upplies a force (m8 - mw',)

to ,upport the man. Wben tbe eartb stops rotating, the fo'" will Increase to mg. The ratio we need Is

moo', I mg es (1.16 x 10-' x 2n )'(6.37 x 10')19.,8 ~ 3 .. 5 x '0-', giving a change of 0.35 per"nt. At the north

pole, the man will be on the axis and so r == 0 and the change is zero. /

The red blood cells and other particles ""pended in blood are too light in weight to settle out easily when the blood is 'eft ,taodiog. How fast (in ,,,o'ution, pe' second) must a sa mple of blood be rotating at a "diu, of 10 em in a "nltiluge if the "ntripetal force nee ded to hold on' of the partides in a cl rcular path is 10000 time the weight of the partid., mg7 Why do the·particl" separate "om the .,.ution in a ceotriluge7

I ceotripetal force ~ moo,'r, wbich is gj"n¥ .1O'mg. 'So'ving, ., ~ 990 "d/, ~ .58 rev I'· The 'equi"d centripetal force is supplied primarily not by'buoyant forces but by viscous forces. The cells therefore move

,'owly to 'arge' radii and settle against the end of the centrifuge tub..' '

11,59 A 20.mg bug sits on the smooth edge of a 25'cm,,,diu, phonograph reoord "the record is brought up to its normal rotational speed of 45 rev/nUn. How large must the coefficient of fdctioo betweeo the bug and "co,d

be if the bug is not to slip off?

I For just not slipping the f,iction force f ~~FN = "",gsupp.ies the cent,ipeta' rorce, ,0 pm, = moo'" which

with W == 45 rev/min:::: 4.71 rad/s; then r == O.25¢ gives I.t ::::0.566~

n.62

11.58

11,60 A cylinder of 5 ern radiu, is rolling along die flOot with a constant 'peed of SOcm/'. (a) What is the rotational speed of the cylinder about its ax"? (b) What ate the magnitude and direction of the _'eration of a point its surface 7 (e) At the instant a ce rtain poinl on its surf ace is at tbe top of the cylinder, what is the ve.ocity of

the point7 (d) R'pe,t if the point is at the contact with the Roor. (e) R.peat if the point" midway between

top and floor and at the forward surface of the cylinder.

I Refer to Fig. 11-20. The tan,ential velocity ilT with respect to the center equa's the forwa,d speed of the ,olling cylinder .' ta) ro ~. vTI, ~ o. SOlO. as ~ 16'tadA (b) Sin ce e ~ 0, there is only radial accel er "ion, oo'r ~ 12,8 ml". To obtain in,!antaneoUS vilodlies at various points on the rim w. add the forward speed of 0.80 m/ s of the center to the ve'ocity of a point v, with "spectlo the center, giving (e) •. 6 ml', (d) zero, and

(e) 1.13 m~ at 45° below the horizontal- -

\',

Fig. 11-21

I'.,.

Fig. 11-20

A

11.61

A ,lender uniform rod of m ass "' and I.ng,h I is pi.oted at one end", that it can rotate in a vertical There is n.gligibl, friction at the pi,ot. The free end" he'd a.most verticaJly.above the pivot and the.

released. What is the rod's angular acceleration whenit makes an angle e with the vertical?

. '

, Using the notation indicated in Fig. 11-21 and calctllating tor<i~es about point A, with clockwise

positive, we have ' ,

Mgt'. . IA ex = _. _ sm e . ',' ·2·

ROTATIONAL MOTION I' KINEMATICS A

h . NO DYNAMICS

were I - Mi2/3 '

A - as can easily be seen (Prob 1

" . 1.37). The angular acceleration is therefore given b

3 Y

(Y=~sin e

21

o 219

Refer to Prob 11 61 At the '

. ,. same angle e h .

end of the rod? ' w at IS the magnitude of the trans1 t' I .

I a io n. acceleration of the free

The t?ngential component of acceler . . .

acceleration, a requires a k ' ation, a" IS readily obtained from (Y b

Recognizing th~t the force at~Wle~ge 0df to. This can be obtained most readilyu:r the centripetal ~omponent of

e pivot oes no work and using th . om energy considerations,

, e conservation of energy, we find that

1 2 MgI

'2IAW "" -(l-cos 0) . 2

Solving for w2, we find

2 3g

w =-(I-cos 0)

U. I

sl.ng the unit vectors 8 and i shown in Fi '

a distance r from the pivot is given by g. 11-21, we find that the linear acceleration a of' .

a point on the rod

, a=a,8+aJ

where the tangential acceleration a = ro:' .

already obtained for (Y and w 'and' tti and the centnpetal acceleration a :::: - w2r U' h

. ,se mg r = I, we find that the free end C f h . sing t e expressions

, . ' ' ,0 t e rod has an acceleration

a=(3gSmO)A .

2 (I + [-3g(l- cos e)]i

The magnitude of this vector is

, . a=3gV~ 2coso+hd!;2e

In Fig. 11-22 the mass m is held b t . .'

tensions in the two strings in term~ o;~~t:~~~ :~~~e system is rotating with angular velocity w. Find th

, .. . .. ..

~ i • I •

m

9

.'. t.. Fig.n-22'

. ~ -tf -

xamining the forces on the ball we have i .

the centripetal force m/n2r = ;,v~ Illothe ve.rtical direction T" cos (J - T cos (J == h'l

are. 1 Sill + 7; sin e. Solving these two si 21t mg, w ue

, imu aneously, we find that the

"r

m" '. .

27in0(w2r ±g tan 0)"'(

+ sign applies to T" and the .....; sign to T ..

, ' . " 2·

'turntable arrangement shown in Fi I, 1 '"

~!ld the blocks are 13 em from theg~xi~-~i,~~:~t~~nA ;~s a m;s. of 0,9 kg and block B has a mass of

. e coe cient of static friction between the bl k

oc s,

220 0 CHAPTER 11

Pulley

f

I B 1 ..
T A "

T
~
/' S ILs(WA + W8) fSlLsWA
(c) (a) Side view

(b) Top view

Fig. 11-23

and between the blocks and the turntable, is 11-. = 0.1. Consider the friction and the mass of the pulley as negligible. Find the angular speed of rotation of the turntable for which the blocks just begin to slide.

, EverythIng depends on correctly predicting the djrection of the frictional force between A and B .. Since B is more massive than A, we extrapolate to the case where A is very light: B would tend to move 'radially ' .. outward, pulling A radially inwarMThe friction force 1 between the two surfaces would act to oppose their relative motion; it would act radially inward on B and radially outward on A, as shown in Fig. 11-23(c).

The force equations for no slipping are then: .

L F8 == T + 1 + f' == mBrw2 . L FA == T - 1 == mArw2

By'subt~action, 21 + f' == (mB - mA)rw2. It is seen that w can increase until both 1 and f' attain their maximum values. Thus

or

,;, [l1-sg(3mA +mB)]112 == [(0.1)(9.8)(2.7 + 1. 7)]112 = 6 4 d/

wm•• r(t.nB _ mAY (0.13)(1. 7 - 0,9) . ra s

During the initial part of its acceleration, the angle through which a car's wheel turns as a function of time given by fJ = Bt + Ct2, where Band C are constants. Find the linear displacement of the car and its speed

function of time. The radius of thecar wheel is R. . , The linear distance is RO = R(Bt + Ct2), The car's speed is the tangential velocity of the rim w;th to the center of the wheel, v =Rw =. R(dfJ/dt) == R(B + 2Ct}.

11.66< The angle which a pendulum of length L makes with the vertical varies with time according to 0 == fJo where fJo is the maximum angle of swing-and 1 is the frequency of the pendulum; both are constants.

tangential speed and. acceleration of the pendulum ball as functions of time ..

1

, The velocity and tangential acceleration of the ball are Lt» .and Ltx. Since t» = dO/dt, we have VT == Ld(Oo sin 2;rlt)/dt = 2:n;ILfJo cos 2:n;lt. The angular acceleration rx = dw/dt, so that

aT == - (2:n;f) 2 L~o sin2nlt, or - (2:n;f)' L 0,

11.67'. A smooth horizontal tube oflength I rotates about a vertical axis as shown in Pig. 11-24(a). A particle

. .

ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND

DYNAMICS 0221

o

.. R

w

1-"----- t-----..J

o. •

Lr-.1

(a)

(b)

Fig. 11-24

at the extreme end of the tube '. ' .

rotates about the axis with conslta~:;:;~~:r t~p:~~d ,~ Dwitth a ~elocity ko, while at the same time the tube

, S. ...,. e ermme the path of th .

mce the tube is smooth th . . . e particle.

purely in the circumf .' '. ere .IS no radial force on the particle' the f

with the tube, thereb~r~~~~~:~r~~l~~; ~~iS .suggefsts vie.wing the m~tion i~r~~~ ~~~i~:~~~lt~;a acc~lheration, is When the particle is at di cIr~um erential force. me at rotates

the i . a istance r from 0 In th . ,

e inertial force ("centrifugal fore ,,). .2 • e noninertial frame [Fig, 11-24(b)] th • 1 .. .

... . e mrcr, directed as .shown. Newton' d' eon y force on It IS

.. ., , s secon law becomes

, mr=0+mrlO2

Multiplying by r dt = dr and . t .

In egratmg,

or.

! J. d(;2) = lO2 f r dr 1r'2 - 1 2 2

, 2 -2W r + c

When r :::: I ; - lta hi h' . ' . . ' . . .

P' . 1 s : - - ,w IC gives Co == 0 and; - he mi

Ina ly, . ' . .,. - -lOr, t e mInUS sign being taken b .

.' ecause r IS decreasing

'I· , .

Jar .'

-'-. == -lO·f dt I

,. . r· n r == -OJt + c' r == c''e>"

,. When t :::: 0 r - I wh ." F

'.:. ',. ,. i . ,- ,. ence c == and r == te=.

tROBLEMS INVOLVING CORDS· AROUND CYLIND ' .

, ~ 25.kg wheel has a radius of 40 em d .. ERS, ROLLING OBJECTS, ETC.

" IS 30 cm A, 12k an turns freely on a horl I'

and cau~es th~ :V~e~a:~ ~~~~,a~::: ::ed of alcor~ that is w~~I~~k;o::~\~h~~a~~u:h~f:~ratlioTnh~f the wheel

acce eratton of the fallirrg mass and th t . . ee. IS mass falls

e ension In the cord.

)1

m' = Ilg'

m

In

(a)

."I(}

(b)

Fig. 11·25

IUSl!lrp·nSi"t"uation is depicted in Fig. 11-25(a). We choo .1;,., . . '

, clockwise as positive for the wheel. We h::edownwar~ a~ poslttve.for the block and for

.'. ,two dynamical equations. For the block:

mg - T=ma if

(1)

o CHAPTER 11 , . _ TR or TR == I(X. Multiplying

, '. - I (X with. - ,

, 11 S N Our second equation IS - ,

1 2 k d thus mg == , ' h TR2 == la or '

where m = L. g an 2 -IR(X' and noting that a == Ret, we ave (2)

both sides by R, TR - , T == (l/ R2)a 2

. . . 1 ss surface having a mass (I I R )

. hat of a block on a horizontal friction e oblem of two blocks

In this ,form tit~de~yU~i~:r~;~~:~~~r~e T, The e~tired~roFb~eml~~;;{~)~e~:I~~::'~:~ I == (25 kg) (0(, 30) m? ==

and being pu . '1 ulley deplete mig, dd E s (1) and 2 ,

attached by a cord over a fr~c~/~2e~s 1~.1 kg, To obtain the ~cc~leration, ~, ~:a~ues, li .. s N = (1.2 kg +

225 kg , m2, R == 0.40 m, an _ ( + II R2)a. Substltutmg numenca 2 -10 9 N

l'I'minating the tension T, and ge~ mf! - . m E (2) we get T == (14.1 kg)(O.77 mls ) -~, _' . ,

e 77 I 2 Subshtutmg into q.

14,1 kg)a, or a == 0. m s . , . value of the coefficient of static

, d 300 incline What is the minimum ,

h rolls own a .

Starting from rest, a sp ere, . ? '

friction if there is to be no slipping"

ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS D 223

11.72 A solid cylinder and a thin-walled pipe are simultaneously released from rest at the upper end of a ramp of inclination 0. Each object rolls without slipping. (a) Find the acceleration of the center of massof the solid cylinder, (h) Find the acceleration of the center of mass of the pipe. (c) When the cylinder has rolled a distance s., how far has the pipe rolled?

, Figure 11-26 serves to indicate the general situation in each case. The acceleration a down the incline is determined by threeequations. The first is Newton's second law:

Ma = Mg sii\ ° - I

where f is the frictional force. The second equation is the.rotational form of Newton's second law:

I(X = IR

where I is the moment of inertia of the object about its symmetry axis, The third equation is the rolling constraint:

N

Fig~ 11.-26

11.70

, acceleration (clockwise positive) and

, .' . i 11-26. We let (X denote th~ angular = R where v and ware the

, The probl~m IS dlagr~m~~~ 1~:U:'the incline. If there is no shPPhmgl'. the~'~nd :ng~lar accelerations. The

a denote the linear acce er ., _ R where a and (X are t e mea

1· r and angular velocities, Similarly, a - (X ,

mea . . by

translational acceleration IS gwen

'0 f

a==gsm- M' ,

. . t ny torque about C,

, , .' ht nor the' normal force exer sa.

, N lth r the sphere s weig " ,.., b

where 1 is the frictional force, ,el e h f the angular acceleratIOn IS given y , .

. ( if ) sphere T ere ore ,

the center of the um orm· , Sf

. IR Sf d a--

(X =-=R an - 2M

Ie 2M , IN = ~ tan

-2,M sinO. The normal force N==,Mgcos20, sol'For 0=

Solving the displayed e~uations/~; ~o:~s~:! f ~h p~re rolling is 11" we must have u, 2': '1 tan e, , '.

,Since the maximum ratio (I",." == 2/ (7y3) = 0.165. I

tan ° == 1/y3, so we find (~s)nl;n , ' _ 0020 kg. m", about the '

, r d of mass 4 0 kg and I - . '?

The rope shown in Fig. 11-27 is wo~nd aro~nd, a cy ~~a~:s the linea~ acceleration of its center of mass.

cylinder axis. If the cylinder rolls, WI~hOU\~I~P!;~~der axis for your computation, '

, the frictional force? Use an aXIS a ong

~ WN

-

11.71

Fig. 11-27,

. . ' _ == 20 + 1 == 4a, with f being the friction force 2at th"e:,u •••. ,._.

, Choose left and ccw as positive. ~nt~~ ~:da the F = ma equation, we find a to be 6.7 mIs,

From. == I(X = (20 - n(0.10) ==0.02_~ S'N t~ the left, .

back into either equatIOn we get 1 - ~'- . . I' ibl Choose anY' axis for

. . bl' and cylinder IS neg Igl e.

P b 11 70 if the frictional force between ta e .

Repeat [0. . . , ' . . .

computation, , . ,: . ..' . .. ';':'5 ° m/s2• Note that a'== ar is not "nt)JlCi~lJJ~

0· P b 11 70 the first equation gives a '

., In the case 1 == m fa, . " "

when slippage occurs.

a = (XR Solving the three displayed equations for a, we find

gsin e

a = (1 + II MR2)

(0) For a solid cylinder I = I, == !MR2, so a, == (g sin 0)/(1 + D = (28/3) sin 0, (b) For a thin-walled pipe, 1= Ip = MR2, &0 ap == (g sin 0)/(1 + 1) == (g12) sin 0, (c) The distances traveled are in the same ratio as the accelerations:

That is. sp '= 3sc/4,

A heavy wheel of radius 20 em is mounted on a horizontal axle. A rope wrapped around its rim is pulled straight downward with a constant force of 50 NiThe rope moves a distance of 50 em in, 1.0 s. (a) What is the angular acceleration of the wheel? (b) What is the moment of inertia of the .wheel'i. (c) The wheel is a 'homogeneous, solid disk, What i~ its mass?

,,' (a) Using th~ kinematic equation s";' !at2, we find a = 2sIF ='1 m/s2 and (X = aiR = 5,00 rad/s", (h) The force F exerts a torque FR == Ia, so 1== FR I (X = [(50 N)(0.2 m)l/5.0 = 2.00 kg. int.

(c) A uniform disk of radius R has a moment of inertia 1= !MR2 about the symmetry axis, Therefore

.i M == 211 R2 = [2(2.00) ]/0,202 = 100 kg. .

Refer to Prob, 11.73, (a) Suppose that an object whose weight is 50 N is attached to the rope, and the system .is released from rest. What would the angular acceleration of the wheel be in that case? (b) Account for the

difference between the results of part a of Prob, 11.73.

.1,., .'

,i.', (a) In this case the acceleration a' of the object is given by'Ma'.= W - F', where F' is the tension in the . rope, Furthermore, F'R = I(X', The linear and angular accelerations are related as before: a' == (X'R. Solving for (X', we find

(X'

w

50

[ (50)(0,2) + 2.00J

(9.80) 0.20

(h) The angular acceleration (X' < (X because part of the weight force W is "expended" in accelerating the suspended mass. T~lUS F' = W - Ma' < W, so (X' < (X,

upright hoop is projected onto a pavement with an initial horizontal, speed Va but without spin, so that it . The resulting frictional force causes the hoop to lose translational speed and to acquire an angular Eventually the hoop rolls without slipping. Prove that when the hoop ceases to slip, it has speed va/2.

'The situation is shown in Fig. 11-28. We take t = 0 to denote the instant at which the hoop is projected velocity V,r= Va, For translation, Ix = -I == Max, and

'I,. i

It V (t) = v --

x 0 M

224 a CHAPTER 11

11.79

Fig. 11·29

Fig. 11·28

where M is the mass of the hoop. Taking clockwise rotation as positive, the rotational form of Newton's second law gives a == fR/lc == f / MR, since t.> MR2 for a hoop. Since w == 0 at t == 0, we have to == ft/MR. The

hoop will stop sliding when 1.1" == wR, or when

. ft ft

v,,(t) = 1.10- M= M

Therefore the hoop will slide until t == MVo/2f, at which time its velocity will be Vo - (f / M)(Mvo/2f) = vo/2.

. '

11.76 A spool of mass M is resting on a horizontal surface. The spool has moment of inertia MG~ about its axis of symmetry. The spool is subjected to a rightward horizontal force of magnitude F, applied at a distance r above the axis. (Fig. 11.29) (a) Show:that if thereis to be no slippage betwt1en the spool and the supporting surface, a leftward frictional forcef= F(Gt: -rR)f(G~ + R2) :nust acton the spool. (b) Show that the required

frictional forceJhas the value zero for a particular value Yo of the distance r.' , (a) The translational for~ of Newton's second Iaw implies that Mac = F:- f, while the rotational form implies that Fr + JR = MG~ ex, where q is the angular acceleration. If there is no slippage, thet: CI = ac/ R

Solving these three equations for f, we find . .

f == F(G~- rR) . . (G~+R2)

as desired, (b) When r '"=!o == G~/R, the frictional force vanishes ..

11.77 Refer to Prob. 11.76: (a) Interpret theresuitofpart a when r exceeds the value Yo found in' part b. (b) Show' that the rightward translational acceleration. of the center of the mass of the spool ac exceeds F/ M when

r > roo Explain how this can happen. , (a) When r > ro, we find that f < 0; that is, the frictional force is directed toward the right, with Lll<lli!.llll.UU~"'~

equal to F(rR _ G~)/(G~ + R2)]. (b) The translational acc~leration is given by

F ~ f F ( rR ~ G})

ac ==M == M 1 + G~ + R2 ,

which exceeds F I M when r > ro == G~I R. This occurs be~ause the frictional force can be directed toward right. (A frictional force always opposes the relative motion of the two surfaces that are in contact. It does

necessarily oppose the translational, motion of a spinning object.)

11.78 The moment of inertia of the wheel in Fig. 11·30 is 8.0 kg . m2• Its radius is 40 ern. Find the angular acceleration of the wheel caused by the 10.0~kg mass if the frictional force between the mass and the

incline is 30 N.

Fig. 11-30'

, Along the Incline F == ma yields ma == mg sin 37° - T - 30, while for the wheel 1: == fa becomes rT => Using a = ar we solve F ee ma to obtain T == mgsin 3r - 30 -mar, which is placed into the torque , yielding a = [r(mg sin 3r _ 30)]/(1 + mr'). Inserting values for m, r, g, and I, we get a == 1.20 radii·

, . ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS D 225

A string IS wound around an otherwi '

R A th tri ise unsupported homoge hori '

: s e s nng unwinds and the c tinder . neous, onzontal cylinder of mass M .

:!i:nff::,!,,!~:,~:~i:~::n ':;~h;:,zi~r.,rir~~= ~~;!~:::. ':~~:~ :~::U;';'~;ll;;'\ Y:~i::;:::;'

the upward acceleration of any given POi~'~~O~g~~at IS ·t~e angul,ar acceleration of the cylinder? (e) ~h t .

e vertical pornon of the string? a IS

T

T

Ribbon wound on cylinder

Fig. 11·31

, '" Fig. 11·32

(a) The SItuation IS shown in Fig 11 31 S'

ten' T" h . . • . mce the cente f .

spo~~n ~ t e/tnng must be equal to the weight: T == Mgr ~b)m;s~.of the spool is not accelerating, the

,we ave ea = (_ Mg )(0) + TR == MgR where 1 _ 1 . ',1' 'a rng torques about the central axis of the

sp~oL Therefore the angular acceleration is 'iven b C -_2MR IS the moment of inertia of the homo eneo ctmder turns through angle tlCt) equals RtI(~} Th/ ~ - 2ghlR. (e) The length of string unwound w;en th~S

s nng must be given by a == Ra _ 2" . re ore t e upward linear acceleration a of a f

_ =." ny part 0 the

For.the cylinder shown in Fig. 11·32 1 = IMb2 . .

:~I~~.O~ the cylinder if (a) th~ cYIi~d~~ d~esn't :~: :n ~hMgft' Descr~be the translational and rotational

y m er. e. oor an (b) there is no friction between floor

, (a) For the friction case, the rollin c lin . . '

of motion are (T _ f)b == 1 a and f = ~ Ys' der will spin faster as it accelerates to the left Th .

elimina~ed, leaving a = 2T/3M and a :2TI~~:,== ab and 1 is given as Mb2/2, the frictio~ f c:ne6:attons

translational acceleration is 2g/3. (b)Whe / f' .T~e l~rgest value T can have is mg; therefore th .

a = O. If the cylinder starts from rest it wil~ s~~n ~~c~~a~:~ present Tb = 1 a and a = 2 T/ Mb; and si:c:;:n;:::

A wheel of rim radius ~O em and mass 30 kz i .

:, massis suspend~d from' a cord wound on t:el:i:ou~ted on a frictionless. horizbntal axle. When a 0.100·k

.• r.le"ed.~at rs the radius of gyration of the wh':'l; ma~, drop' ~.o m on u ie first 4.0 s after the mao' is s

. , We first find a of the 0.100·k m . . . .. .' .

. obtain a = 0.25 m/s2. Then m _g ~ss from kinematics: Va == 0, y = 2 m, t = 4 s, and w . -' 2

'I~ =(; ;1/1 ~O~)!~/or )14:::;>3 o. 955(~.40r : I~ 2~;O~4~ ~~ ;~; J= =O~6~0~gO .. 2m5)2 tOTh~ive t- o. 9;5 u~~~;x~:: ::/2 to

" _ __,_____m. . . en since 1 == Mk2,

•...• In Fig. 11·33 the pulley is free to rotate .

, the cord and the pulle . Assume _ on a ~on~ontal axis through its center. There i .

• of the cord. (Such a s~ p . II ld- 8 slug· ft . Fmd the acceleration of block d sh no sh~page between

. u IS ca e an Atwood's machine.) " m2 an t e tension in each side

Q: = aIR

R=2ft

m, = 2 slug

()

nl2 =4 slug' Fig. 11.33

226 0 CHAPTER 11

, '.',

, We choose downward as positive for m2' upward as positive for ml, and clockwise as positive for the pulley. Then

11.86

Adding the three equations we have

(2 slug)(32 ft/s2) == (8 slug)a

or

Solving, a == Ws •. Substituting into the'fi.rst and second equations, we get Tl == 96lb, T2 == 80 lb.

11.83

The frictional' force between the block and table in Fig. 11-34 is 20 N. If the moment of inertia of the wheel is 4.0 kg . m., how long will it take the block to drop 60 em after the system is released? Assume no slippage

between rope and wheel.

T

Fig. 11-35

Fig. 11-34

, Call the tension in the upper rope 11. and in the lower T z- Then

T,-20= 5a

2.5(9:8) - T. == 2.5a

and

, ' a' (a)

(T2,- 7;)(0.30) = t« == I; = 4 OJ'

Solving the three equations for acceleration gives a == 0.087 m/s·. From the kinematic data, Vo== 0, a == 0.087 mfs·, and s = 0.60 m, and from s == vot + at2/2, we'find t == 3,71 s,

/ '

11.84 Consider a Yo-Yo with outside radius R'equal to 10 times its spool radius r (Fig. 11-35). The moment of

inertia Ie of the Yo-Yo about its spool is given with good accuracy by Ie = ~MR·, where M is the total mass

the Yo-Yo. The upper end of the string is held motionless. (0) Compute the acceleration of the center of ,'.

mass of the Yo-Yo. How does it 20mpare with g1 (b) Find the tension in the string as the Yo-Yo descends.

How does it compare with Mg?

~. ,

, (0) The situation is shown in Fig. 11-35. Taking counterclockwise rotations and downward translations

positive, we have the translational equation

Mae==Mg-T

the rotational equation ~i

'].

where I, == !MR·, andthe constraint equation

Solving the displayed equations for a., we find

~ == gr == g. == _!_ == 0.192 m/s2

I,e ( l!:..) (1 !i.) 51

r+ Mr + 2r·

(b) The string tension T = M(g - (le) == 50Mgf51 == 0.980Mg.

11.85 A wheel with radius of gyration 20 ern and mass 40 kg has a rim radius of 30 em and is mounted a horizontal axis. A 2-kg mass is suspended from the wheel by a tope wound around the rim. Find

angular acceler~t~on of the wheebwhen the system is released.

, . ROTATIONAL MOTION I: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS D 2

Write F == ma for th ' ' 27

1 == Mk2 == 4 ( " e mass and T == Io: for the wheel' 2( ,

,,00.04) == L6kg. rrr'. Solving for c¥ gives 3.3·ra1tS~ -;T == 2. 0(0. 3c¥) and T(0.30) == t« We know

The uniform ~heel of moment of inertia ..'

center so that its plane is vertical As 1 shown In FIg. 11-36 is pivoted on a horiz .

angular acceleration of the h l' shown, a small mass m is stuck on the ri ontal axis through its

not changed much by th w ee when the mass is at point A Repeat ~ e ~Jm of the wheel. Find the

e presence of m.) . lor POInts Band C. (Assume that 1 is

, The torque lever arm is b at A I

T = Itx gives c¥ =: mgb!l. For B on; ~::o :~~', ~~~l~'!~~~! ~·o::o::;;~~.in each case is mg. Hence; for A,

D

m

Fig. 11-36

Fig. 11·37

~ uniform thin rod (such as a metersti '

given a tiny push so the rod bezi ck) of length L stands vertical! on ' .

and find (0) the angular aCCel:;~~~ to ~or:.le over (Fi~. 1l-37). Assu~e th~;;h:n:a on t~\flOor. Its top is now

acceleration of the upper tip of th n °d e rod when it makes an angle 0 with th i 0 t e ro<:l does not slip,

,. e fa. . ,e oar, (b) the tangential

(0) Taking the tor bout oi .

10 = 1 + M(L Z _ qu~ a out pivot point 0 we have M [(L '

eM /2) - ML /3. Solve for c¥ to find c¥ =: (3g c!s O)J~t.Ol~~]a: :C¥~i!~ the parallel-axis theorem

Refer to Fig 11-38 Th (3g cos 0)/2,

. . e moment of ine f f h

r2 =: 20 cm. Find the angular acceleratio~ ~~~het p:N:~I~yY s~~~~m diS Ih =: 1. 7~ kg , m", while rl '=: 50 em and

, "an t e tensions T. and 'T'

" 1 ~2'

~1.8X9.8) N Fig. 11·38

, Note at the beginning that a =: or .

masses and also r == Io for the wheel,g::~~n~1 t~;~?r~:(o: ~~dma02t~( (0. 20bm) c¥. We shail write F == mafar both

, ' Ion to e the positi di

,,' , , (2)(9.8) N _ _ >1" 1 lve irection:

, r. -2al 19.6N _ 'T'_

1', (1 8)(9 ,~I -1.0!l'

2 -. .8) N=: 1.8az or T -

(T,)( )_(' 2 17.6N==O.36~

; " , 1 rl, 7;)(r2) == La 0.5T. - -

. three equations have th '" 1 0.27; - 1. 70c¥

,9,8 _ O.Sc¥ _ 021',- 1 ree unknown~. Solve for r. in the first e u i . . '

«+ 49 _ 17.6 =: 0: 362 -f' 70c¥. S.olve this equation for 7; and SUbst~u~t ,~n ~!1d substitute it .in the third to

can now go ba k tC¥, he fi which a=: 2.76 rad/s". ;" e In t e second equation to obtain

cot e first equation to find T, = 16 8 N .d "

I _. _, an to the second to find 7; =: 18.6 N.1