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Guide: prof. A. karandikar Group members: Dharamveer Meena Gopi vikranth Vinodkumar Pralia
Introduction: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for the next generation of wireless communication systems. OFDM divides the available bandwidth into N orthogonal sub channels. By adding a cyclic prefix (CP) to each OFDM symbol, the channel appears to be circular if the CP length is longer than the channel length. Each sub channel thus can be modeled as a time-varying gain plus additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Besides the improved immunity to fast fading brought by the multi carrier property of OFDM systems, multiple access is also possible because the sub channels are orthogonal to each other. Multiuser OFDM adds multiple access to OFDM by allowing a number of users to share an OFDM symbol. Two classes of resource allocation schemes exist • Fixed resource allocation : Fixed resource allocation schemes, such as time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA), assign an independent dimension, e.g. time slot or subchannel, to each user. A fixed resource allocation scheme is not optimal since the scheme is fixed regardless of the current channel condition.
Dynamic resource allocation: Dynamic resource allocation allocates a dimension adaptively to the users based on their channel gains. Due to the time-varying nature of the wireless channel, dynamic resource allocation makes full use of multiuser diversity to achieve higher performance.
Two classes of optimization techniques have been proposed in the dynamic multiuser OFDM: Margin adaptive (MA): The margin adaptive objective is to achieve the minimum overall transmit power given the constraints on the user’s data rate or bit error rate (BER). Rate adaptive (RA): The rate adaptive objective is to maximize each user’s error free capacity with a total transmit power constraint.
Problem Formulation: The objective of the project is to investigate into the power allocation problem in multi user OFDMA. A simulation is to be carried on the two suggested papers [2, 3] and compare the results and work on any modifications in terms of addition of constraints if possible.
Related Work: The margin adaptive problem has been solved in . These optimization problems are nonlinear and hence computationally intensive to solve. In , the nonlinear optimization problems were transformed into a linear optimization problem with integer variables. The optimal solution can be achieved by integer programming. However, even with integer programming, the complexity increases exponentially with the number of constraints and variables. Two rate adaptive optimization problems have been proposed by researchers. Recently, Jang and Lee proposed the rate maximization problem . In , they proved that the sum capacity is maximized when each subchannel is assigned to the user with the best subchannel gain and power is then distributed by the water-filling algorithm. However, fairness is not considered in . In , Rhee and Cioffi studied the max-min problem, where by maximizing the worst user’s capacity, it is assured that all users achieve a similar data rate. In , Viswanath, Tse, and Laroia discussed long-term proportional fairness resource allocation with “dumb” antennas. In , a new optimization problem that balances the tradeoff between capacity and fairness was formulated. The objective function is still the sum capacity, but proportional fairness is assured by imposing a set of nonlinear constraints into the optimization problem. By formulating the problem this way, a high capacity for all users (even those with poor channel gains) can be achieved with low computational complexity. In  the work done in  is extended by developing a sub carrier allocation scheme that linearizes the power allocation problem while achieving approximate rate proportionality.
The resulting power allocation problem is thus reduced to a solution to simultaneous linear equations. In simulation, the proposed algorithm achieves a total capacity that is consistently higher than the previous work, requires significantly less computation, while achieving acceptable rate proportionality.
System Model: In this project we will be looking at two system models in detail and see how the computationally hard NP problem is gradually reduced to a solution of a system of linear equations. A multi user OFDM model is shown in figure 1.
In the base station, all channel information is sent to the subchannel and power allocation algorithm through feedback channels from all mobile users. The resource allocation scheme made by the algorithm is forwarded to the OFDM transmitter. The transmitter then selects different numbers of bits from different users to form an OFDM symbol. The resource allocation scheme is updated as fast as the channel information is collected. In ,  perfect instantaneous channel information is assumed to be available at the base station and only the broadcast scenario is studied. It is also assumed that the subchannel and bit allocation information is sent to each user by a separate channel. Further a total of K users in the system sharing N sub channels, with total transmit power constraint Ptotal
The objective is to optimize the subchannel and power
allocation in order to achieve the highest sum error-free capacity under the total power constraint. The equally weighted sum capacity as the objective function is used and the idea of proportional fairness into the system by adding a set of nonlinear constraints is introduced. The benefit of introducing proportional fairness into the system is that we can explicitly control the capacity ratios among users, and generally ensure that each user is able to meet his target data rate, given sufficient total available transmit power. Mathematically the optimization problem is written as
…… (1) where K is the total number of users; N is the total number of subchannels; N0 is the power spectral density of additive white Gaussian noise; B and Ptotal are the total available bandwidth and power, respectively; pk;n is the power allocated for user k in the subchannel n; h(k;n) is the channel gain for user k in subchannel n; ρ(k;n) can only be the value of either 1 or 0, indicating whether subchannel n is used by user k or not. The fourth constraint shows that each subchannel can only be used by one user. The capacity for user k, denoted as Rk, is defined as
is a set of predetermined values which are used to ensure proportional fairness among users.
The fairness index is defined as
………………………………. (3) with the maximum value of 1 to be the greatest fairness case in which all users would achieve the same data rate. When all terms are equal, the objective function in (1) is
similar to the objective function of the max-min problem , since maximizing the sum capacity while making all Rk terms equal is equivalent to maximizing the worst user’s capacity. Hence,  is a special case of the proposed constrained-fairness problem. Implementation: The optimization problem in (1) is generally very hard to solve. It involves both continuous variables pk;n and binary variables ρk;n. Such an optimization problem is called a mixed binary integer programming problem. Furthermore, the nonlinear constraints in (1) increase the difficulty in finding the optimal solution because the feasible set is not convex. Ideally, sub channels and power should be allocated jointly to achieve the optimal solution in (1). However, this poses a prohibitive computational burden at the base station in order to reach the optimal allocation. Furthermore, the base station has to rapidly compute the optimal subchannel and power allocation as the wireless channel changes. Hence low-complexity suboptimal algorithms are preferred for cost-effective and delaysensitive implementations. Separating the subchannel and power allocation is a way to reduce the complexity because the number of variables in the objective function is almost reduced by half. A look at the implementation of the scheme proposed in :First we would be looking at a sub-optimal channel allocation scheme followed by a optimal power distribution scheme to solve the above optimization problem:
Suboptimal Subchannel Allocation: In the suboptimal subchannel allocation algorithm, equal power distribution is assumed across all sub channels. Define assigned to user k. The algorithm can be described as as the
channel-to-noise ratio for user k in subchannel n and -k is the set of sub channels
The principle of the suboptimal subchannel algorithm is for each user to use the sub channels with high channel-to-noise ratio as much as possible. At each iteration, the user with the lowest proportional capacity has the option to pick which subchannel to use. Optimal Power Distribution for a Fixed Subchannel Allocation: To a certain determined subchannel allocation, the optimization problem is formulated in  as:
……… (4) The optimization problem in (4) is equivalent to the following cost function as said in :
On solving the above function we get to a set of non-linear equations which can be solved using Newton raphson method. This gives us the power distribution among the users Under certain conditions, the optimal or near-optimal solution to the set of nonlinear equations can be found in one iteration. one special case mentioned below. After this a water filling algorithm can be used to maximize the capacity
The Improvisation proposed in  takes a different approach eliminating the iterative search method required in . It was shown that performance significantly improves with the algorithm in .
A look at the system in : Step 1: Determine the number of sub carriers Nk to be initially assigned to each user In this initial step Nk is determined so that
that the proportion of sub carriers assigned to each user is approximately the same as their eventual rates after power allocation, and thus would roughly satisfy the proportionality constraints. This is accomplished by
Step 2: Assign the sub carriers to each user in a way that ensures rough proportionality This step allocates the per user allotment of sub carriers Nk and then the remaining N* sub carriers in a way that maximizes the overall capacity while maintaining rough proportionality.
The first step of the algorithm initializes all the variables. Rk keeps track of the capacity for each user and N is the set of yet unallocated sub carriers. The second step assigns to each user the unallocated sub carrier that has the maximum gain for that user. The third step proceeds to assign sub carriers to each user according to the greedy policy that the user that needs a sub carrier most in each iteration gets to choose the best sub carrier for it. Since we are enforcing proportional rates, the need of a user is determined by the user who has the least capacity divided by its proportionality constant. Once the user gets his allotment of Nk sub carriers, he can no longer be assigned any more sub carriers in this step. The fourth step assigns the remaining N* sub carriers to the best users for them, wherein each user can get at most one unassigned sub carrier. This is to prevent the user with the best gains to get the rest of the sub carriers. This policy balances achieving proportional fairness while increasing overall capacity. Notice that as a consequence of the sub carrier allocation scheme, Step 3: Assign the total power Pk for user k to maximize the capacity while enforcing the proportionality. The sub-carrier allocation algorithm above reduces the resource allocation to optimal power allocation which can be done by solving the equations formed by
These simultaneous equations can be solved easily to get
The final power allocation across sub carriers per user can be done by a water filling algorithm as
Conclusions: In  a resource allocation framework in Multiuser-OFDM systems to achieve variable , proportional rate constraints is presented. For different rate constraints, i.e. different proportional rates can be achieved among users. The term “variable” refers to the facts that the rate constraints can be configured at the base station and hence rate allocation among users is flexible. The optimization problem considers maximizing the sum capacity while maintaining proportional fairness among users for each channel realization. In the suboptimal algorithm, subchannel and power allocation are carried out separately. The optimal power allocation to a determined subchannel scheme is simulated. A two-step procedure may be taken to get the optimal power distribution. First, a set of nonlinear equations has to be solved in order to get the power distribution among users. Then to a particular user, the greedy water-filling algorithm is adopted to maximize the capacity.  Presents a new method to solve the rate-adaptive resource allocation problem with proportional rate constraints for OFDMA systems. It improvises the work in  by developing a novel sub carrier allocation scheme that achieves approximate rate proportionality while maximizing the total capacity. This scheme was also able to exploit the special linear case in , thus allowing the optimal power allocation to be performed using a direct algorithm with a much lower complexity versus an iterative algorithm. The same was simulated and it is observed that there is a significant increase in performance References:  C. Y. Wong, R. S. Cheng, K. B. Letaief, and R. D. Murch, “Multicarrier OFDM with Adaptive Subcarrier, Bit, and Power Allocation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1747-1758, Oct. 1999.  Z. Shen, J. G. Andrews, and B. L. Evans, .Optimal Power Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Systems,. in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conference, December 2003.  A Low Complexity Algorithm for Proportional Resource Allocation in OFDMA Systems Ian C. Wong, Zukang Shen, Brian L. Evans, and Jeffrey G. Andrews  I. Kim, H. L. Lee, B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “On the Use of Linear Programming for Dynamic Subchannel and Bit Allocation in Multiuser OFDM,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf., vol. 6, pp. 3648-3652, 2001.  P. Viswanath, D. N. C. Tse, and R. Laroia, “Opportunistic Beamforming Using Dumb Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1277-1294, Jun. 2002.  J. Jang and K. B. Lee, “Transmit Power Adaptation for Multiuser OFDM Systems”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 171-178, Feb. 2003.  W. Rhee and J. M. Cioffi, “Increasing in Capacity of Multiuser OFDM System Using Dynamic Subchannel Allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Vehicular Tech. Conf., vol. 2, pp. 1085-1089, Spring 2000.
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