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2009 PRE-WEEK REVIEWER ON LABOR LAW Q&A

2009 PRE-WEEK REVIEWER ON LABOR LAW Q&A

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  • Administration shall regulate private sector participation in the
  • 34. What is ³overtime work´?
  • 35. What is meant by ³undertime not offset by overtime´?
  • 36. When may an employee be compelled to perform overtime
  • 37. May an employee validly refuse to render overtime work under
  • 39. When may an employer compel his employees to render work
  • 40. How is premium computed for work rendered on a rest day,
  • 41. What is holiday pay?
  • 42. What are the regular holidays and special days?
  • 43. What are the distinctions between ³regular holidays´ and
  • 44. What is the distinction between ³special holidays´ and
  • 45. What is the application of the principle of ³no work, no pay´ to
  • 46. What are the premium pay for working on holidays?
  • 47. What are the effects of absences on entitlement to regular
  • 48. What is the rule in case of absence during successive regular
  • 49. What is the rule in case two regular holidays falling on the
  • 50. What is the rule in case of regular Muslim holidays?
  • 51. What are the basic principles governing the grant of service
  • 52. What are service charges?
  • 54. What are the attributes of wage?
  • 55. What are ³facilities´?
  • 56. What are ³supplements´?
  • 57. What is the distinction between ³facilities´ and
  • 58. What is the rule on deductibility of ³facilities´ or
  • 59. What is a gratuity?
  • 61. What is bonus? Is it demandable?
  • 62. When is bonus demandable and enforceable?
  • 63. What is 13th month pay?
  • 64. Who are entitled to 13th month pay?
  • 65. Who are exempted employers from the coverage of 13th
  • 66. What is meant by the phrase ³its equivalent´ in the 13th
  • 67. When should the 13th month pay be paid?
  • 68. What is the rule in case an employee has multiple employers?
  • 69. Is 13th month pay tax-exempt?
  • 70. May payment of bonus be credited as payment of 13th month
  • 71. What is a 14th month pay?
  • 72. What is meant by ³statutory minimum wage´?
  • 73. How is the minimum wage fixed?
  • 74. What is the basis of the computation of the ³statutory
  • 75. What is the principle of non-elimination or non-diminution of
  • 76. What is a ³Wage Order´?
  • 77. When is a ³Wage Order´ necessary?
  • 78. When does a ³Wage Order´ become effective?
  • 79. What is the mode of appeal from a ³Wage Order´ issued by the
  • 80. What are the standards/criteria for minimum wage fixing?
  • 81. What is ³wage distortion´?
  • 82. What are the forms of payment of wages?
  • 83. What is the time of payment of wages?
  • 84. What is the place of payment of wages?
  • 85. To whom should wages be paid?
  • 86. What is contracting or subcontracting?
  • 87. Who are the parties to a contracting or subcontracting
  • 88. When is contracting or subcontracting legitimate?
  • 89. What is permissible contracting or subcontracting
  • 90. What are the prohibited acts in the law on contracting and
  • 91. What is labor-only contracting?
  • 93. Who is an indirect employer in a contracting or subcontracting
  • 94. What is the nature of the liability of an indirect employer?
  • 95. What is meant by worker preference in case of bankruptcy?
  • 96. What is the effect of rehabilitation receivership on monetary
  • 97. What is the amount of attorney¶s fees that may be allowed by
  • 98. What is meant by the principle of non-interference in disposal
  • 99. What are allowable wage deductions?
  • 100. What are deposits for loss or damage?
  • 101. Is withholding of wages and kickback allowed?
  • 102. May deduction be allowed to ensure employment or retention
  • 103. What are the retaliatory measures prohibited under the law?
  • 104. What is the legal basis for the exercise by the Secretary of
  • 106. What are the exceptions to nightwork prohibition?
  • 107. What are the required facilities for women?
  • 108. What are the acts of discrimination against women expressly
  • 109. What are maternity leave benefits?
  • 110. Is an unmarried pregnant woman entitled to maternity leave
  • 111. Are maternity leave benefits included in the computation of
  • 112. Are voluntary or self-employed members of the SSS entitled
  • 113. What is paternity leave?
  • 115. What is meant by ³spouse´?
  • 116. What is meant by ³cohabiting´?
  • 117. What is parental leave?
  • 118. What is meant by flexible work schedule under R. A. No
  • 119. What are the acts considered discriminatory against women
  • 120. What are stipulations against marriage?
  • 121. What is the status of women working in nightclubs, massage
  • 122. What are the relevant terms defined in the law?
  • 123. What is the minimum employable age of children?
  • 124. What is the working hours of a working child?
  • 125. How is the working child¶s income be used or administered?
  • 126. What is meant by ³worst form of child labor´ under R. A. No
  • 127. Who may file a complaint in case of unlawful acts committed
  • 128. Is the employment of children in advertisements prohibited?
  • 130. What should be paid by way of compensation to the
  • 131. What is the time and manner of payment of wages?
  • 133. Is an employer obligated to provide a househelper the
  • 134. Is an employer obligated to provide board and lodging to a
  • 136. What is the indemnity for unjust termination of services of a
  • 137. Who is an ³industrial homeworker´?
  • 138. Who is a ³field personnel´?
  • 139. Definition of terms under the SSS Law (R. A. No. 8282)
  • 140. Who are covered by the SSS?
  • 141. Are self-employed persons covered?
  • 142. When does coverage take effect?
  • 143. What is the effect of separation from employment?
  • 144. What is the effect of interruption of business or professional
  • 145. What are the benefits under the SSS Law?
  • 146. Definition of terms under the GSIS Law (R. A. No. 8291)
  • 147. Compulsory membership in the GSIS
  • 148. Effect of Separation from the Service
  • 149. Contributions
  • 151. Definition of Terms
  • 152. Who are covered by the Philhealth Program?
  • 153. Benefit package
  • 154. Excluded personal health services
  • 155. Who are entitled to the benefits?
  • 156. Who are not required to pay monthly contributions to be
  • Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)?
  • (NOTE: The POEA continues to have jurisdiction over recruitment
  • 10. How should the monetary claims of OFWs be computed?
  • 11. Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over legality of strikes and
  • 12. Do Labor Arbiters have injunction power?
  • 13. Do Labor Arbiters have contempt powers?
  • 14. Is termination dispute a grievable issue over which Labor
  • 15. Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over monetary claims and
  • 16. What are the cases which do not fall under the jurisdiction of
  • 17. What is the doctrine of forum non conveniens? May this be
  • 18. What are the two kinds of jurisdiction of the NLRC?
  • 19. What is the distinction between the jurisdiction of the Labor
  • 20. What is the visitorial and enforcement power of the DOLE
  • 21. What is the power to assume jurisdiction or certify ³national
  • 22. What are the cases falling under the DOLE Secretary¶s
  • 23. What are the money claims falling under the jurisdiction of
  • DOLE Regional Directors?
  • 24. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the
  • 25. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the
  • 26. How should cases falling under the jurisdiction of the
  • 27. In case of conflict, who has jurisdiction over termination
  • 28. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the BLR?
  • 29. What are the relevant administrative functions of the BLR?
  • 30. What is the jurisdiction of the NCMB?
  • 31. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the POEA?
  • 32. May the President assume jurisdiction over national interest
  • 33. What are the powers of the RTWPB and NWPC?
  • 34. What agencies of government administer social security
  • 35. Which has jurisdiction over criminal and civil aspects of labor
  • 36. What are the modes of appeal from the decisions of the
  • (NOTE: Appeal from CA to SC should be under Rule 45 (Petition
  • Certiorari) ± SEA POWER SHIPPING ENTERPRISES, INC. VS
  • 37. What are the grounds for appeal?
  • 38. What are the requisites for perfection of appeal?
  • 39. What is the reglementary period to perfect the appeal?
  • 40. What is the reinstatement aspect of the Labor Arbiter's
  • 41. What are the rules in case of appeal involving monetary
  • 42. May a Motion to Reduce Bond be filed?
  • 43. What is the concept of unfair labor practice?
  • 44. What are the aspects of unfair labor practice?
  • 45. Name the parties which may commit unfair labor practice
  • 46. What are the elements of ULP?
  • 47. What are the ULPs of the employer?
  • 48. Who may be held criminally liable for ULPs of employer?
  • 49. What are the ULPs of labor organizations?
  • 50. Who may be held criminally liable for ULPs of a labor
  • 51. What is totality of conduct doctrine?
  • 52. What is ³yellow-dog contract´?
  • 53. What is ³union security clause´?
  • 55. What are the legal principles pertinent to union security
  • 56. What is agency fee (check-off from non-union members)?
  • 57. What is a runaway shop?
  • 58. What is ³feather-bedding´?
  • 59. What are the CBA-related ULPs under the law?
  • 60. What are the latest cases involving the issue of ULP?
  • 61. Who has the burden of proof in ULP cases?
  • 63. May employees in the public service exercise their right to
  • 64. May aliens exercise the right to self-organization?
  • 65. What are the three categories of employees?
  • 66. What are the three types of managerial employees?
  • SCRA 15 and Paper Industries Corp. of the Philippines vs
  • 67. Are managerial employees allowed to unionize? How about
  • 68. What is the distinction between managerial employees and
  • 69. What is the ³separation of unions´ doctrine?
  • 70. What is the ³confidential employee´ doctrine?
  • 71. What is a labor organization?
  • 72. What is the significance of issuance of Certificate of
  • 73. What is a workers¶ association?
  • 74. What is the distinction between a labor organization and a
  • 75. What are the purposes of a labor organization?
  • 76. How is a labor organization registered?
  • 77. What is a bargaining unit?
  • 78. What is a national union or federation?
  • 79. What is an affiliate?
  • 80. What is a chartered local?
  • 81. What is an independent union?
  • 82. Are local chapters required to acquire independent
  • 83. What is the proof of affiliation with a federation?
  • 84. What is the effect of affiliation?
  • 85. Which one is liable for damages in case of illegal strike ± the
  • 86. What is disaffiliation?
  • 87. Disaffiliation of independently-registered union and chartered
  • 88. Does the act of the union in disaffiliating and entering into a
  • 89. Is disaffiliation a violation of union security clause?
  • 90. What is cancellation proceedings against labor organization
  • 91. What is the effect of filing or pendency of a cancellation
  • 92. What is the effect of cancellation during the pendency of a
  • 93. May registration of a labor organization be cancelled due to
  • 95. Exclusive bargaining representative; how determined
  • 96. Definition of terms
  • 97. What is the distinction between consent election and
  • 98. Is direct certification allowed?
  • 99. What is a bargaining unit?
  • 100. Bargaining unit, how determined
  • 101. What is the effect on the bargaining unit of spin-off of
  • 102. May excluded employees be included in the bargaining unit
  • 103. May employees of one entity join the union in another entity?
  • 104. What are the requisites for certification election in organized
  • 105. What is the requirement for certification election in
  • 106. Who may file petition for certification election?
  • 107. When to file petition for certification election; general rule
  • 108. What are the exceptions to the general rule?
  • 109. What is certification year-bar rule?
  • 110. What is bargaining deadlock-bar rule?
  • 111. What is a contract-bar rule?
  • 112. What are the exceptions to the contract-bar rule?
  • 113. What is a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA)?
  • 114. What are the legal principles applicable to Collective
  • 115. Is the collective bargaining procedure in Article 250
  • 116. What are the kinds of bargaining under the latest
  • 117. What is single enterprise bargaining?
  • 119. What is meant by ³duty to bargain collectively´ when there
  • 120. What is meant by ³duty to bargain collectively´ when there
  • 121. What are the mandatory requisites of publication,
  • 122. What is the consequence of refusal of party to negotiate the
  • 123. What is the effect of the refusal of party to sign the CBA?
  • 124. What is the effect if there is no meeting of the minds?
  • 125. Can a CBA be negotiated and concluded during suspension of
  • 126. Can a CBA be negotiated and concluded in case of closure of
  • 127. Can a CBA proposed by the union be imposed lock, stock and
  • 128. What is ³freedom period´?
  • 129. What is ³automatic renewal clause´?
  • 130. What is the effect of CBA renewal or registration before or
  • 131. What is the term (lifetime) of a CBA?
  • 132. May CBA negotiations be suspended for 10 years?
  • 133. What is meant by ³retroactivity´ of CBA?
  • 134. What are the remedies in case of CBA deadlock?
  • 135. What is a grievance?
  • 136. What is grievance machinery?
  • 137. What is grievance procedure?
  • 139. Who is a Voluntary Arbitrator?
  • 140. How is the decision of a Voluntary Arbitrator enforced?
  • 141. What is a strike?
  • 142. What is a lockout?
  • 143. What is picketing?
  • 144. What is an industrial or labor dispute?
  • 145. What are the various forms of strikes?
  • 146. What are the procedural but mandatory requisites of a
  • 147. Summary of principles governing strikes:
  • 148. What is the effect of conversion of the notice of
  • 149. What is the ³NO-STRIKE, NO-LOCKOUT´ clause in the CBA?
  • 150. What is the effect of a strike staged in violation of an
  • 151. What is the effect of a strike conducted in violation of a
  • 152. Can a minority union lawfully stage a strike?
  • 153. Can a strike be staged by a union whose legitimacy is in
  • 154. What are the examples of a strike conducted for unlawful
  • 155. What is a good faith strike?
  • 156. May strikers be dismissed in cases of ³good faith´ strikes?
  • 157. What is ³improved offer balloting´?
  • 158. What is ³reduced offer balloting´?
  • 159. What is the power of the DOLE Secretary to assume
  • 160. What is the effect of such assumption or certification of
  • 161. May picketing be enjoined? Are there exceptions?
  • 161. May an injunction be issued in strike or lockout cases?
  • 162. What is meant by ³return-to-work´ order?
  • 163. What is meant by the phrase ³all striking or locked-out
  • 164. What is meant by ³status quo ante´ within the context of a
  • 165. What is meant by the phrase ³under the same terms and
  • 166. Is ³payroll reinstatement´ proper to implement a return-to-
  • 167. When is ³payroll reinstatement´ not proper?
  • 168. Are the demands of the union deemed waived upon a
  • 169. Does the filing of a Motion for Reconsideration affect the
  • 170. What is the effect of defiance of assumption or certification
  • 171. Power to assume or certify strikes or lockouts in hospitals,
  • 172. May employees in the government service conduct strike?
  • 173. What is the effect of the illegality of strike on employment of
  • 174. Who are the ³union officers´ who should be terminated as a
  • 175. Who are strike breakers?
  • 176. What is the nature of the ingress to and egress from the
  • 177. What is the rule on hiring of replacements?
  • 10. What is due process?
  • 11. What are ³just causes´ and ³authorized causes´?
  • 12. What is the two-fold due process requirement?
  • 13. What are the twin requirements of notice and hearing?
  • 14. What are the six (6) situations in termination disputes?
  • 15. What are the reliefs available to an illegally dismissed
  • 16. How should the due process requirement under the law be
  • 18. When notice alone will not suffice
  • 19. Notice to explain must correctly and fully inform the
  • 21. Notice should be served at employee¶s last known address
  • 23. Notice in a newspaper, not sufficient
  • 24. Remedy if employee refused to receive notice - service by
  • 25. How should answer be made in case of termination for just
  • 26. What is hearing requirement in termination for cause?
  • 27. What are the instances when hearing is not required?
  • 28. Who has the burden of proof in illegal dismissal cases?
  • 29. What is the quantum of evidence required in labor cases?
  • 30. May the right against self-incrimination be invoked in
  • 31. May the right to counsel be asserted in administrative
  • 32. May the right against unreasonable searches and seizures be
  • 33. May the right to equal protection of the laws be asserted in
  • 34. When may the effects of termination be suspended?
  • 35. What is preventive suspension?
  • 36. What is suspension as a penalty?
  • 37. What is reinstatement?
  • 39. What is the doctrine of ³Strained Relations´?
  • 40. What is separation pay?
  • 41. May separation pay be awarded despite lawful dismissal for
  • 42. What is the amount of separation pay in lieu of
  • 43. What are backwages?
  • 44. What are the distinctions between separation pay and
  • 45. What are damages and attorney¶s fees?
  • 46. Is legal interest allowed?
  • 47. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF OVERSEAS FILIPINO
  • WORKERS (OFWs); MONETARY AWARDS
  • 48. PERSONAL LIABILITY OF STOCKHOLDERS OR CORPORATE
  • OFFICERS FOR CLAIMS OF EMPLOYEES
  • 49. What are the kinds of employment?
  • 50. When does a casual employee become a regular employee?
  • 51. What is the concept of regular and casual employment?
  • 52. When may a project employee become regular employee?
  • 53. May OFWs acquire regularity of employment?
  • 54. What is regular seasonal employment? Is it valid?
  • 55. What are the criteria for fixed conracts of employment?
  • 56. May part-time workers attain regularity of employment?
  • 57. Who is a probationary employee?
  • 58. What is the period of probationary employment?
  • 59. May probationary employment be extended?
  • 60. How should the six-month probationary period be computed?
  • 61. Standards should be made known to employee at start of
  • 62. What is the effect of allowing an employee to work beyond the
  • 63. What are the grounds to terminate probationary
  • 64. What are the just causes for termination of employment
  • 66. Sexual Harassment
  • 67. What legal ground/s may be cited for acts of dishonesty?
  • 68. What are the requisites to validly invoke willful disobedience
  • 69. What constitutes the ground of gross and habitual neglect of
  • 70. What are the requisites to validly invoke abandonment of
  • 71. What constitutes the ground of fraud?
  • 72. What are the requisites for the ground of willful breach of
  • 73. What constitutes the ground of commission of crime or
  • 74. What are other analogous causes under Article 282 of the
  • 75. What are the authorized causes for termination of
  • 76. What are the requisites for the ground of installation of labor-
  • 78. What are the requisites for the ground of retrenchment?
  • 79. What are the requisites for the ground of closure or cessation
  • 80. Notices required under Article 283, mandatory
  • 81. Hearing is not required in termination for authorized causes
  • 82. Separation pay under Article 283
  • 83. What are the legal principles that may be invoked in cases of
  • 84. What is the legal consequence of merger?
  • 85. What are the requisites for the ground of disease?
  • 86. What are the requisites for termination of employment by
  • 87. What are the just causes for termination of employment by
  • 88. What are the requisites for serious insult as a ground to
  • 89. What are the requisites for serious inhumane and unbearable
  • 90. What are the requisites for commission of crime as a ground
  • 91. What are other analogous causes that may be invoked as a
  • 92. What are the distinctions between constructive dismissal and
  • 93. Some principles on resignation
  • 94. What are the situations contemplated under Article 286 of the
  • 95. What is bona-fide suspension of operations for a period not
  • 96. Temporary ³off-detail´ or ³floating status´ of security guards
  • 97. What is the coverage of the Retirement Pay Law?
  • 98. Who are the employees not covered by the Retirement Pay
  • 99. May an employee retire under the CBA or employment
  • 100. What is the distinction between optional and compulsory
  • 101. Is the option granted to the employer to retire an employee
  • 102. May an employee retire at an earlier or older age?
  • 103. What are included in the minimum 5-year service
  • 104. What are included in the retirement benefits under the
  • 105. Does the Retirement Pay Law have any retroactive effect?
  • 106. May Pag-IBIG be considered as substitute retirement plan?
  • 107. What is the latest amendment to the Retirement Pay Law
  • 108. Who is an underground mine employee?
  • 109. What is the distinction between retirement and dismissal?
  • 111. Is the retirement pay under the SSS similar to or may be a
  • 112. Other latest cases on retirement
  • 113. What is the prescriptive period for offenses penalized under
  • 114. What is the prescriptive period for money claims?
  • 115. What is the prescriptive period for illegal dismissal?
  • 116. What is the prescriptive period for actions involving the
  • 117. What is the prescriptive period for illegal recruitment?
  • 118. What is the prescriptive period for SSS violations?
  • 119. What is the prescriptive period for employees¶ compensation

2009 PRE-WEEK BAR EXAM NOTES ON LABOR LAW

By: Prof. JOSELITO GUIANAN CHAN

LABOR LAWS OF THE PHILIPPINES PART - I NEW LAWS 1. What are the new laws affecting labor law? There are four laws that have been enacted which significantly impact on labor laws. They are as follows: 1. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9492 - AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE CELEBRATION OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION 26, CHAPTER 7, BOOK I OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 292, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987 [Approved on JULY 25, 2007] chanrobles virtual law library 2. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9481 - AN ACT STRENGTHENING THE WORKERS' CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO SELF-ORGANIZATION, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 442, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007) 3. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9422 - AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE REGULATORY FUNCTIONS OF THE PHILIPPINE OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT ADMINISTRATION (POEA), AMENDING FOR THIS PURPOSE [Approved on April 10, 2007] 4. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9347 - AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, AMENDING FOR THIS PURPOSE ARTICLE 213, 214, 215 AND 216 OF P.D. NO. 442, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES. [Lapsed into law on JULY 27, 2006, without the signature of the President, in accordance with Article VI, Section 27 (1) of the Constitution] 2. Pertinent text of the above-mentioned laws follows: REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9492 - AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE CELEBRATION OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION 26, CHAPTER 7, BOOK I OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 292, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987

[APPROVED ON JULY 25, 2007] Regular Holidays and Nationwide Special Days. ³ (1) Unless otherwise modified by law, and or proclamation, the following regular holidays and special days shall be observed in the country: a) Regular Holidays New year¶s Day-January 1 Maundy Thursday-Movable date Good Friday-Movable date Eidul Fitr-Movable date Araw ng Kagitingan-Monday nearest April 9 (Bataaan and Corregidor Day) Labor Day-Monday nearest May 1 Independence Day-Monday nearest June 12 National Heroes Day-Last Monday of August Bonifacio Day-Monday nearest November 30 Christmas Day-December 25 Rizal Day-Monday nearest December 30 b) Nationwide Special Holidays: Ninoy Aquino Day-Monday nearest August 21 All Saints Day-November 1 Last Day of the Year-December 31 c) In the event the holiday falls on a Wednesday, the holiday will be observed on the Monday of the week. If the holiday falls on a Sunday, the holiday will be observed on the Monday that follows: Provided, That for movable holidays, the President shall issue a proclamation, at least six (6) months prior to the holiday concerned, the specific date that shall be declared as a nonworking day: Provided, however, The Eidul Adha shall be celebrated as a regional holiday in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. chanrobles virtual law library

--------------------oOo----------------------

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9481 - AN ACT STRENGTHENING THE WORKERS' CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO SELF-ORGANIZATION, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 442, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007) Note: The following provisions of the Labor Code have been amended by R. A. No. 9481: Article 234 - Requirements of Registration Article 238 - Cancellation of Registration Article 239 - Grounds for Cancellation of Union Registration Article 245 - Ineligibility of Managerial Employees to Join any Labor Organization; Right of Supervisory Employees Article 256 - Representation Issue in Organized Establishments Article 257 - Petitions in Unorganized Establishments and INSERTED as new provisions the following: Article 234-A ± Chartering and Creation of a Local Chapter Article 238-A ± Effect of a Petition for Cancellation of Registration Article 239-A ± Voluntary Cancellation of Registration Article 242-A ± Reportorial Requirements Article 245-A ± Effect of Inclusion as Members of Employees Outside the Bargaining Unit Article 258-A ± Employer as Bystander FULL TEXT OF R. A. NO. 9481 ACCOMPANIED BY SHORT COMMENT: ART. 234. Requirements of Registration. - A federation, national union or industry or trade union center or an independent union shall acquire legal personality and shall be entitled to the rights and privileges granted by law to legitimate labor organizations upon issuance of the certificate of registration based on the following requirements: (a) Fifty pesos (P50.00) registration fee; (b) The names of its officers, their addresses, the principal address of the labor organization, the minutes of the organizational meetings and the list of the workers who participated in such meetings;

(c) In case the applicant is an independent union, the names of all its members comprising at least twenty percent (20%) of all the employees in the bargaining unit where it seeks to operate; (d) If the applicant union has been in existence for one or more years, copies of its annual financial reports; and chanrobles virtual law library (e) Four copies of the constitution and by -laws of the applicant union, minutes of its adoption or ratification, and the list of the members who participated in it. Comment: Labor organizations which are required to register. Prior to its amendment by R. A. No. 9481, Article 234 makes a general reference to the organization that may register as labor organization, viz: ³[a]ny applicant labor organization, association or group of unions or workers.´ As worded now, Article 234 as amended by R. A. No. 9481, makes specific reference to the following organizations which may register as labor organization, to wit: 1. Federation; 2. National Union; 3. Industry Union; 4. Trade Union Center; 5. Independent Union. Acquisition of legal personality as legitimate labor organization. Just like in the old provision, Article 234, as amended by R. A. No. 9481 legal personality is acquired upon the issuance of the certificate of registration. 20% membership requirement applies only to registration of independent union. chanrobles virtual law library Requirements for registration of federation or national union under Article 237: (a) Proof of the affiliation of at least ten (10) locals or chapters, each of which must be a duly recognized collective bargaining agent in the establishment or industry in which it operates, supporting the registration of such applicant federation or national union; and chanrobles virtual (b) The names and addresses of the companies where the locals or chapters operate and the list of all the members in each company involved.´ (See Article 237, Labor Code).

ART. 234-A. Chartering and Creation of a Local Chapter. - A duly registered federation or national union may directly create a local chapter by issuing a charter certificate indicating the establishment of the local chapter. The chapter shall acquire legal personality only for purposes of filing a petition for certification election from the date it was issued a charter certificate. The chapter shall be entitled to all other rights and privileges of a legitimate labor organization only upon the submission of the following documents in addition to its charter certificate: (a) The names of the chapter¶s officers, their addresses, and the principal office of the chapter; and chanrobles virtual law library
(b) The chapter¶s constitution and by-laws: Provided, That where the chapter¶s constitution and by-laws are the same as that of the federation or the national union, this fact shall be indicated accordingly.

The additional supporting requirements shall be certified under oath by the secretary or treasurer of the chapter and attested by its president. Comment: TRADE UNION CENTER. A ³Trade Union Center´ is any group of registered national unions or federations organized for the mutual aid and protection of its members; for assisting such members in collective bargaining; or for participating in the formulation of social and employment policies, standards, and programs, and is duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment in accordance with Rule III, Section 2 of the Implementing Rules. (Section 1(p), Rule I, Book V, of the Implementing Rules, as amended by Department Order No. 9; San Miguel Corp. Employees Union-PTGWO vs. San Miguel Packaging Products Employees Union ± PDMP, G.R. No. 171153, Sept. 12, 2007). chanrobles virtual law library Only federation or national union may directly create a local chapter. Under Article 234-A, it is clear that the authority to directly create a local chapter is vested only with a duly registered federation or national union which is empowered to issue a charter certificate indicating the establishment of the local chapter. No other entities are granted the same authority under this provision. TRADE UNION CENTERS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO CHARTER DIRECTLY. Article 234, as amended by R. A. No. 9481, now includes the term Trade Union Center, but interestingly, the provision indicating the procedure for chartering or creating a local or chapter laid down in Article 234-A, still makes no mention of a ³trade union center.´ Thus, applying the Latinmaxim expressio unius est exclusio alterius, it was held in the 2007 case of San Miguel Corp. Employees Union-PTGWO vs. San Miguel Packaging Products Employees Union ± PDMP, [G.R. No. 171153, Sept. 12, 2007],that trade union centers [like

the Pambansang Diwa ng Manggagawang Pilipino (PDMP) ] are not allowed to charter directly a local or a chapter. ART. 238. Cancellation of Registration. - The certificate of registration of any legitimate labor organization, whether national or local, may be cancelled by the Bureau, after due hearing, only on the grounds specified in Article 239 hereof.

ART. 238-A. Effect of a Petition for Cancellation of Registration. - A petition for cancellation of union registration shall not suspend the proceedings for certification election nor shall it prevent the filing of a petition for certification election. chanrobles virtual law library

In case of cancellation, nothing herein shall restrict the right of the union to seek just and equitable remedies in the appropriate courts. ART. 239. Grounds for Cancellation of Union Registration. - The following may constitute grounds for cancellation of union registratio n: (a) Misrepresentation, false statement or fraud in connection with the adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto, the minutes of ratification, and the list of members who took part in the ratification; (b) Misrepresentation, false statements or fraud in connection with the election of officers, minutes of the election of officers, and the list of voters; (c) Voluntary dissolution by the members. ART. 239-A. Voluntary Cancellation of Registration. - The registration of a legitimate labor organization may be cancelled by the organization itself. Provided, That at least two-thirds of its general membership votes, in a meeting duly called for that purpose to dissolve the organization: Provided, further, That an application to cancel registration is thereafter submitted by the board of the organization, attested to by the president thereof. Article 242-A. Reportorial Requirements. - The following are documents required to be submitted to the Bureau by the legitimate labor organization concerned: (a) Its constitution and by-laws, or amendments thereto, the minutes of ratification, and the list of members who took part in the ratific ation of the constitution and by-laws within thirty (30) days from adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-lam or amendments thereto; (b) Its list of officers, minutes of the election of officers, and list of voters within thirty (30) days from election; chanrobles virtual law library (c) Its annual financial report within thirty (30) days after the close of every fiscal year; and

(d) Its list of members at least once a year or whenever required by the Bureau.hanrobles virtual law library

Failure to comply with the above requirements shall not be a ground for cancellation of union registration but shall subject the erring officers or members to suspension, expulsion from membership, or any appropriate penalty. (As inserted by Section 7, Republic Act No. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007). Article 245. Ineligibility of Managerial Employees to Join any Labor Organization; Right of Supervisory Employees. - Managerial employees are NOT eligible to join, assist or form any labor organization. Supervisory employees shall not be eligible for membership in the collective bargaining unit of the rank-and-file employees but may join, assist or form separate collective bargaining units and/or legitimate labor organizations of their own. The rank-and-file union and the supervisors¶ union operating within the same establishment may join the same federation or national union. Article 245-A. Effect of Inclusion as Members of Employees Outside the Bargaining Unit. - The inclusion as union members of employees outside the bargaining unit shall not be a ground for the cancellation of the registration of the union. Said employees are automatically deemed removed from the list of membership of said union. (Introduced as new provision by Section 9, Republic Act No. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007). chanrobles virtual law library Article 256. Representation Issue in Organized Establishments. - In organized establishments, when a verified petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent is filed by any legitimate labor organization including a national union or federation which has already issued a charter certificate to its local chapter participating in the certification election or a local chapter which has been issued a charter certificate by the national union or federation before the Department of Labor and Employment within the sixty (60)-day period before the expiration of the collective bargaining agreement, the Med-Arbiter shall automatically order an election by secret ballot when the verified petition is supported by the written consent of at least twenty -five percent (25%) of all the employees in the bargaining unit to ascertain the will of the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit. To have a valid election, at least a majority of all eligible voters in the unit must have cast their votes. The labor union receiving the majority of the valid votes cast shall be certified as the exclusive bargaining agent of all the workers in the unit. When an election which provides for three or more choices results in no choice receiving a majority of the valid votes cast, a run-off election shall be conducted between the labor unions receiving the two highest number of votes: Provided, That the total number of votes for all contending unions is at least fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast. In cases where the petition was filed by a national union or federation, it shall not be required to d isclose the names of the local chapter¶s officers and members. At the expiration of the freedom period, the employer shall continue to recognize the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent where no petition for certification election is filed. (As amended by Section 23, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989 and

Section 10, Republic Act No. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007). chanrobles virtual law library Article 257. Petitions in Unorganized Establishments. - In any establishment where there is no certified bargaining agent, a certification election shall automatically be conducted by the Med-Arbiter upon the filing of a petition by any legitimate labor organization, including a national union or federation which has already issued a charter certificate to its 1ocal/chapter participating in the certification election or a local/chapter which has been issued a charter certificate by the national union or federation. In cases where the petition was filed by a national union or federation, it shall not be required to disclose the names of the local chapter¶s officers and members. (As amended by Section 24, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989 and Section 11, Republic Act No. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007 ). Article 258-A. Employer as Bystander. - In all cases, whether the petition for certification election is filed by an employer or a legitimate labor organization, the employer shall not be considered a party thereto with a concomitant right to oppose a petition for certification election. The employer¶s participation in such proceedings shall be limited to: (1) being notified or informed of petitions of such nature; and (2) submitting the list of employees during the pre-election conference should the Med-Arbiter act favorably on the petition. (As amended by Section 12, Republic Act No. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25, 2007 and became effective on June 14, 2007). chanrobles virtual law library

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REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9422 [S. No. 2501 & H. No. 5498]- AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE REGULATORY FUNCTIONS OF THE PHILIPPINE OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT ADMINISTRATION (POEA), AMENDING FOR THIS PURPOSE Approved: April 10, 2007 Sec. 23, paragraph (b.1) of Republic Act. No. 8042, otherwise known as the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 is hereby amended to read as follows: chanrobles virtual law library
(b.1) Philippine Overseas Employment Administration - The Administration shall regulate private sector participation in the recruitment and overseas placement of workers by setting up a licensing and registration system. It shall also formulate and implement, in coordination with appropriate entities concerned, when necessary, a system for promoting and monitoring the

Gradual Phase-out of Regulatory Functions. is hereby mandated to formulate a five-year comprehensive deregulation plan on recruitment activities taking into account labor market trends.´ Sec. . Comprehensive Deregulation Plan on Recruitment Activities. the administration shall deploy only to countries where the Philippines has concluded bilateral labor agreements or arrangements: Provided. further.Within a period of five (5) years from the effectivity of this Act. The provision of Section 30 is as follows: Sec. In addition to its powers and functions. Sec. AS AMENDED. In the recruitment and placement of workers to service the requirements for trained and competent Filipino workers of foreign governments and their instrumentalities. within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act. NO. .AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION. 30. and such other employers as public interests may require. the Administration shall inform migrant workers not only of their rights as workers but also of their rights as human beings. AMENDING FOR THIS PURPOSE ARTICLE 213. the DOLE. and: Provided. economic conditions of the country and emerging circumstances which may affect the welfare of migrant workers. The provision of Section 29 is as follows: ³Sec. 442. That such countries shall observe and/or comply with the international laws and standards for migrant workers. --------------------oOo---------------------- REPUBLIC ACT NO. 29 of the same law is hereby repealed. the DOLE shall phase -out the regulatory functions of the POEA pursuant to the objectives of deregulation. instruct and guide the workers how to assert their rights and provide the available mechanism to redress violation of their rights. . 29. OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES.overseas employment of Filipino workers taking into consideration their welfare and the domestic manpower requirements.D. 30 of the same law is also hereby repealed.Pursuant to a progressive policy of deregulation whereby the migration of workers becomes strictly a matter between the worker and his foreign employer. 214. That such countries shall guarantee to protect the rights of Filipino migrant workers. 215 AND 216 OF P. 9347 .

respective ly. composed of a Chairman and TWENTY-THREE (23) Members. second third. seventh and eight divisions. respectively. National Labor Relations Commission. and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Whenever the required membership in a division is not complete and the concurrence of two (2) Commissioners to arrive at a judgment or resolution cannot be obtained. . each composed of three (3) members. and the SEVEN (7) other members from the public sector shall be the Presiding Commissioners of the second. Eight (8) members each shall be chosen ONLY from among the nominees of the workers and employers organizations. sixth. functions. chanrobles virtual law library Upon assumption into office. and duties through its divisions. the members nominated by the workers and employers organizations shall divest themselves of any affiliation with or interest in the federation or association to which they belong. The concurrence of two (2) Commissioners of a division shall be necessary for the pronouncement of a judgment or resolution. The Commission may sit en banc or in EIGHT (8) divisions. The Chairman shall be the Presiding Commissioner of the first division. The Commission shall exercise its adjudicatory and all other powers.There shall be a National Labor Relations Commission which shall be attached to the Department of Labor and Employment SOLELY for program and policy coordination only. The Chairman and the SEVEN (7) remaining members shall come from the public sector. third. 2006. It shall be mandatory for the division to meet for purposes of the consultation ordained therein. in accordance with Article VI. respectively: Provided. and the SEVENTH. fifth. 213. In case . fourth. FIFTH AND SIXTH divisions shall handle cases coming from the National Capital Region and other parts of Luzon. FOURTH. with the latter to be chosen PREFERABLY from among the INCUMBENT LABOR ARBITERS. A certification to this effect signed by the Presiding Commissioner of the division shall be issued. The divisions of the Commission shall have exclusive appellate jurisdiction over cases within their respective territorial jurisdiction. without the signature of the President. Of the EIGHT (8) divisions. The Commission shall sit en banc only for purposes of promulgating rules and regulations governing the hearing and disposition of cases before any of its divisions and regional branches and formulating policies affecting its administration and operations. Section 27 (1) of the Constitution) ART. on temporary or emergency basis. AND EIGHT divisions. cases from the Visayas and Mindanao.Lapsed into law on JULY 27. the Chairman shall designate such number of additional Commissioners from the other divisions as may be necessary. chanrobles virtual law library The conclusions of a division on any case submitted to it for decision shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a member for the writing of the opinion. the first. allow cases within the jurisdiction of any division to be heard and decided by any other division whose docket allows the additional workload and such transfer will not expose litigants to unnecessary additional expenses. That the Commission sitting en banc may.

The Chairman. aided by the Executive Clerk of the Commission. and the seventh and eight divisions in the cities of Cebu and Cagayan de Oro. The Commission.The Commission and its first. sub-regional branches or provincial extension units. The Commission and its eight (8) divisions shall be assisted by the Commission Attorneys in its Appellate and adjudicatory functions whose term shall be coterminous with the Commissioners with whom they are assigned. respectively.The Chairmans and other Commissioners shall be members of the Philippine Bar and must have been engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines for at least fifteen (15) years. 214. sixth. including the Labor Arbiters. by said Executive Clerk for its first division and SEVEN (7) other Deputy Executive Clerks for the second. The Commission Attorneys shall be members of the Philippine Bar with at least one (1) year experience or exposure in the field of labor-management relations. chanrobles virtual law library No Labor Arbiter shall be assigned to perform the functions of the Commission Attorney nor detailed to the office of any Commissioner.of the effective absence or incapacity of the Chairman. Headquarters. the Presiding Commissioner of the second division shall be the Acting Chairman. 215. and shall preferably be residents of the region where they SHALL hold office. . shall be assisted by the same Executive Clerk. Branches and Provincial Extension Units. ART. and the other Commissioners and the Labor Arbit ers shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of sixty -five (65) years. That the President of the R epublic of the Philippines . third. There shall be as many Commission Attorneys as may be necessary for the effective and efficient operations of the Commission but in no case more than three (3) assigned to the Office of the Chairman and each Commissioner. shall have administrative supervision over the Commission and its regional branches and all its personnel. chanrobles virtual law library The Chairman. The Commission shall establish as many regional branches as there are regional offices of the Department of Labor and Employment. seventh and eight divisions. third. unless sooner removed for cause as provided by law or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. and. however. with at least five (5) years experience or exposure in the field of labor-management relations. Provided. . fourth fifth. respectively. when acting thru its Divisions. in the performance of such similar or equivalent functions and duties as are discharged by the Clerk of Court and Deputy Clerks of Court of the Court of Appeals. when sitting en banc. fourth. fifth and sixth divisions shall have their main offices in Metropolitan Manila. The Labor Arbiters shall likewise be members of the Philippine Bar and must have been engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines for at least ten (10) years. ART. second. Appointment and Qualifications. with at least five (5) years experience or exposure in THE FIELD OF labor-management relations. There shall be as many Labor Arbiters as may be necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the Commission. They shall receive annual salaries and shall be entitled to the same allowances and benefits as those falling under Salary Grade twentysix (SG 26).

They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. and its regional branches as the needs of the service may require. receive an annual salary equivalent to. the Division Presiding Commissioners and other Commissioners shall all be appointed by the President. benefits and other emoluments. What is the protection-to-labor clause in the Constitution? ³The State shall afford full protection to labor. Appointment to any vacancy in a specific division shall come only from the nominees of the sector which nominated the predecessor. Labor Arbiters shall have the same rank. shall the provision of thi s Article result in the diminution of the existing salaries." chanrobles virtual law library ART. preperably in the region where they are residents. and peaceful concerted activities. It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization. and shall be subject to the Civil Service Law. shall appoint the staff and employees of the Commission. chanrobles virtual law library The Chairman and the Commission.The creation of the additional divisions shall be implemented for a period of not more than three (3) years PART ." chanrobles virtual law library Sec. In no case. upon recommendation of the Commission en banc to a specific arbitration branch. chanrobles virtual law library . local and overseas. however. Salaries. 216. They shall be entitled to security of tenure. rules and regulations. and be entitled to the same allowances. The Labor Arbiters shall also be appointed by the President. The Chairman and members of the Commission shall have the same rank. that the labor arbiters who are presently holding office in th e region where they are residents shall be deemed appointed thereat. The Chairman. retirement and other benefits and privileges as those of the judges of the regional trial courts. and a living wage. respectively. those of the Presiding Justice and Associate Justices of the Court of Appeals. allowances and benefits of the aforementioned officials. and upgrade their current salaries. receive an annual salary equivalent to and be entitled to the same allowances. and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. subject to the Civil Service Law.II LAW ON LABOR STANDARDS 1. Implementation. collective bargaining and negotiations. humane conditions of work.may extent the services of the Commissioners and Labor Arbiters up to the maximum age of seventy (70) years upon the recommendation of the Commission en banc. benefits and other emoluments in accordance with law. rules and regulations: Provided. chanrobles virtual law library ³The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes. retirement and benefits as. 5. including conciliation. . including the right to strike in accordance with law. and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. organized and unorganized.

c. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT OF WORKERS: 3. (SEE PART TWO OF THIS 3-PART PRE-WEEK SERIES FOR MORE EXTENSIVE DISCUSSION OF THIS TOPIC) . In case of doubt. whether agricultural or non-agricultural. Applicability of Labor Code to government-owned or controlled corporations: ‡ When created with original or special charter . e. The State shall assure the rights of workers to selforganization.Civil Service laws. b. Labor Code applies to all workers. and just and humane conditions of work. ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex. ‡ When created under the Corporation Code . 5. chanrobles virtual law library b. chanrobles virtual law library c. labor laws and rules shall be interpreted in favor of labor. What is the relevant law on recruitment for overseas employment? Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 (R.³The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers. What are the entities authorized to engage in recruitment and placement? chanrobles virtual law library a. d. security of tenure. f. Article XIII [Social Justice and Human Rights] of the 1987 Constitution) chanrobles virtual law library 2. and to expansion and growth. d. private recruitment entities. collective bargaining. recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments. public employment offices. promote full employment. private employment agencies. Labor contracts are not ordinary contracts as the relation between capital and labor is impressed with public interest. race or creed and regulate the relations between workers and employers. Money claims of OFWs.Labor Code applies. What are the basic principles enunciated in the Labor Code on protection to labor? a. A. e. construction contractors.´ (Section 3 (Labor). such other persons or entities as may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. shipping or manning agents or representatives. rules and regulations. The State shall afford protection to labor. No. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 8042). 4. and g.

What is the basis of compensation for death benefits of OFWs? Basis of compensation for death generally is whichever is greater between Philippine law or foreign law. What is the nature of the liability of local recruitment agency and foreign principal? chanrobles virtual law library 1. Illegal recruitment may be committed by any person whether licensees or non-licensees or holders or non-holders of authority. Work-connection is required. chanrobles virtual law library . 9. chanrobles virtual law library (Note: Any non-resident foreign corporation directly hiring Filipino workers is doing business in the Philippines and may be sued in the Philippines). offers or promises for a fee employment abroad to two or more persons shall be deemed as engaged in such act. in any manner. 10. whether for profit or not. promising or advertising for employment abroad. 11. First element: Recruitment and placement activities. disability and other benefits arising from employment of OFWs. Severance of relations between local agent and foreign principal does not affect liability of local recruiter. That any such non-licensee or non-holder who. 2. hiring.6. 7. contracting. Which has jurisdiction over disciplinary action cases of OFWs? The POEA retains jurisdiction over disciplinary action cases. when undertaken by a non-licensee or non-holder of authority: Provided. 8. 2. or procuring workers and includes referring. Illegal recruitment under Article 38 applies to both local and overseas employment. transporting. Who has jurisdiction over claims for death and other benefits of OFWs? Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over claims for death. Elements of illegal recruitment: a. What is illegal recruitment? 1. 3. Any act of canvassing. Employers cannot directly hire workers for overseas employment except through authorized entities (see enumeration above). contract services. The reason for the ban is to ensure full regulation of employment in order to avoid exploitation. enlisting. Local Agency is solidarily liable with foreign principal. utilizing. Is direct-hiring of OFWs allowed? Why? No.

13. chanrobles virtual law library 14. said employment permit may be issued upon recommendation of the government agency charged with the supervision of said registered enterprise. the prescriptive period of illegal recruitment cases is five (5) years except illegal recruitment involving economic sabotage which prescribes in twenty (20) years. For an enterprise registered in preferred areas of investments.means any person. b. chanrobles virtual law library "Referral" of recruits also constitutes recruitment activity. able and willing at the time of application to perform the services for which the alien is desired. . In large scale .if carried out by a group of 3 or more persons conspiring and confederating with one another. What is the prescriptive period of illegal recruitment cases? Under R.b. 8042. Absence of receipt to prove payment is not essential to prove recruitment. Only one (1) person recruited is sufficient to constitute recruitment.if committed against 3 or more persons individually or as a group. A. By a syndicate .when the commission thereof is attended by the qualifying circumstances as follows: a. Second element: Non-licensee or non-holder of authority . A person convicted for illegal recruitment may still be convicted for estafa. Some relevant principles: y y y y y y Mere impression that recruiter is capable of providing work abroad is sufficient. 12. When is illegal recruitment considered economic sabotage? Illegal recruitment is considered economic sabotage . corporation or entity which has not been issued a valid license or authority to engage in recruitment and placement by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. or whose license or authority has been suspended. What are the requirements before a non-resident alien may be employed in the Philippines? Any alien seeking admission to the Philippines for employment purposes and any domestic or foreign employer who desires to engage an alien for employment in the Philippines shall obtain an employment permit from the Department of Labor. Non-prosecution of another suspect is not material. The employment permit may be issued to a non-resident alien or to the applicant employer after a determination of the non-availability of a person in the Philippines who is competent. revoked or canceled by the POEA or the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

What is an apprenticeship? Who is an apprentice? ³Apprenticeship´ means any training on the job supplemented by related theoretical instruction involving apprenticeable occupations and trades as may be approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.100 hours of theoretical instructions for every 2. 19. Ratio of theoretical instructions and on-the-job training . b. Apprentices become regular employees if program is not approved by DOLE.15. TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT OF SPECIAL WORKERS APPRENTICE: 16. Who is an apprentice? An ³apprentice´ is a worker who is covered by a written apprenticeship agreement with an employer. c. May an alien employee transfer his employment after issuance of permit? After the issuance of an employment permit. Who is a learner? A ³learner´ is a person hired as a trainee in industrial occupations which are nonapprenticeable and which may be learned through practical training on the job for a period not exceeding three (3) months. possess vocational aptitude and capacity for the particular occupation as established through appropriate tests. the alien shall not transfer to another job or change his employer without prior approval of the Secretary of Labor. possess the ability to comprehend and follow oral and written instructions. c.75% of the statutory minimum wage. b. whether or not such practical training is supplemented by theoretical instructions. 17. Wage rate of apprentices . be at least fifteen (15) years of age. be physically fit for the occupation in which he desires to be trained. and chanrobles virtual law library d. LEARNERS: 20. What are the qualifications of an apprentice? a.000 hours of practical training on-the-job. provided those who are at least fifteen (15) years of age but less than eighteen (18) may be eligible for apprenticeship only in non-hazardous occupation. 18. What are the important principles related to apprenticeship? a. .

Hours worked. he cannot be considered a handicapped worker insofar as that particular work is concerned. mental deficiency. He may have a disability but since the same is not related to his work. he should not be so considered as handicapped worker. Article 93 . WORKING CONDITIONS: chanrobles virtual law library 23. and c. or d. 21.Overtime work. Article 84 . by age.Night shift differential. Article 86 . injury. ‡ Wage rate .Computation of additional compensation. Article 94 . chanrobles virtual law library Article 92 . Article 91 .When employer may require work on a rest day. Sunday or holiday work. or c. or b. Article 85 . Who is a handicapped worker? A ³handicapped worker´ is one whose earning capacity is impaired: a. ‡ If disability is not related to the work for which he was hired.Compensation for rest day. What are the pre-requisites before learners may be hired? Pre-requisites before learners may be validly employed: a. What are the provisions of the Labor Code on working conditions? The following provisions are covered under Book III of the Labor Code: Article 83 .Wage rate of learners is 75% of the statutory minimum wage. Article 89 .Right to holiday pay.Emergency overtime work. the employment of learners is necessary to prevent curtailment of employment opportunities.Meal periods. Article 87 . when no experienced workers are available.Normal hours of work.Right to weekly rest period. physical deficiency. chanrobles virtual law library Article 88 . . HANDICAPPED WORKERS: 22. Article 90 . b.Undertime not offset by overtime.75% of the statutory minimum wage. the employment does not create unfair competition in terms of labor costs or impair or lower working standards.

Government employees. NORMAL HOURS OF WORK: 28. 26. Employees covered . "Work day" means 24 consecutive-hour period which commences from the time the employee regularly starts to work. Who are covered (and not covered) by the said provisions on working conditions? 1.. Cash Vouchers for salaries. b. What is the most important requirement in order for the Labor Code provisions on working conditions to apply? The existence of employer-employee relationship is necessary. It does not necessarily mean the ordinary calendar day from 12:00 midnight to 12:00 midnight unless the employee starts to work at this unusual hour. What is the quantum of evidence required to prove employment relationship? The quantum of evidence required to prove employment relationship is mere substantial evidence (e. 25. and g.Service charges. 27. Non-agricultural field personnel. . chanrobles virtual law library f. Other officers or members of a managerial staff. "Normal" hours of work of employees -eight (8) hours per day. Members of the family of the employer. inclusion in payroll. Without this relationship. d. Domestic servants and persons in the personal service of another.g.Article 95 . (c) Power of dismissal. I. the Labor Code does not apply. and Article 96 . D. Employees not covered: a. reporting to SSS). card. 2. e. c. Managerial employees. What is the test of employment relationship? There is no uniform test of employment relationship but the four (4) elements of an employer-employee relationship are as follows: (a) Selection and engagement of employee. 24.applicable to all employees in all establishments whether operated for profit or not. (b) Payment of wages.Right to service incentive leave. What is meant by ³normal hours of work´? 1. Workers paid by results. and (d) Power of control (the most important test). 2.

et al. time. 1997). chanrobles virtual law library 4. dismissal and recall of workers.. 1999). G. should such change be necessary in the operations of the Company. vs. working regulations. Sept. [G. Inc. 6. No.M. 126383. however the company may change the prevailing work time at its discretion. it is evident from the foregoing provision that the working hours may be changed.payment of wage should be in proportion only to the hours worked. chanrobles virtual law library 7. work supervision. there is no diminution in pay.allowed provided employees voluntarily agree thereto. should such change be necessary for its operations. 118647. processes to be followed.´ (Article VI of the CBA). NLRC (G. The employees are deemed to have waived the eight-hour schedule . the rule that hospital employees who worked for only 40 hours/5 days in any given workweek should be compensated for full weekly wage for 7 days is no longer applicable. vs. It was established that the employees adhered to the said work schedule since 1988.R. Inc. to change the working hours of its employees.. NLRC.The Supreme Court has voided Policy Instructions No. The employer has the prerogative to control all aspects of employment in his business organization such as hiring. R. work assignments. "Work week" is a week consisting of 168 consecutive hours or 7 consecutive 24-hour work days beginning at the same hour and on the same calendar day each calendar week. 28. Interphil Laboratories. Hours of work of part-time workers . and only on temporary duration. transfer of employees.3. Well-settled is the rule that management retains the prerogative. Regular Working Hours . and that the employees shall observe such rules as have been laid down by the company. supervision of workers. The schedule of shift work shall be maintained. working methods. tools to be used. Prerogative to change working hours. No. 119205. 54 in San Juan de Dios Hospital Employees Association vs. 15 April 1998. The regular working hours for the Company shall be from 7:30 A. 5. Nov. Hours of work of hospital and clinic personnel . G. 289 SCRA 86). the Labor Arbiter found that respondent company had to adopt a continuous 24-hour work daily schedule by reason of the nature of its business and the demands of its clients. In the 2001 case of Interphil Laboratories Employees Union-FFW vs. No. Consequently. et al. place and manner of work. December 19. 23. In the instant case.M.not prohibited by law provided there is no reduction in pay of workers. lay-off of workers and the discipline. chanrobles virtual law library According to the Supreme Court. 142824. R. to 4:30 P. All employees shall observe such rules as have been laid down by the company for the purpose of effecting control over working hours. (Sime Darby Pilipinas. R. NLRC. 2001]. the parties to the CBA stipulated: ³Section 1. (Consolidated Food Corporation. at the discretion of the company.A normal workday shall consist of not more than eight (8) hours. No. Shortening of work week . Reduction of eight-hour working day . whenever exigencies of the service so require.

This view is consistent with the principle of ³no-work-no-pay.M. (Explanatory Bulletin on the Effect of Reduction of Workdays on Wages/Living Allowances issued by the DOLE on July 23.M. and sometime at 6:00 P. 8. and when on the 6 to 6 shifts. May workdays be reduced on account of losses? Yes. What is the effect of reduction of workdays on wages/living allowances? In situations where there is valid reduction of workdays.M.´ Furthermore. however. it has become a habit to them to sign the overtime schedule weekly xxx. 30. 9 to 12. to 6:00 P. This is more humane and in keeping with sound business operations than the outright termination of the services or the total closure of the enterprise. As the Labor Arbiter elucidated in his report: ³Respondents' attempt to deny the existence of such regular overtime schedule is belied by their own awareness of the existence of the regular overtime schedule of 6:00 A.. he. 31. What is meant by ³hours worked´? . Likewise.M. 6.. the two-shift schedule while their CBA was still in force and even prior thereto. without any question or complaint..M. Even their own witness. he received the commensurate pay xxx. and 6:00 P.M. to 6:00 A. dated March 1.M. in the absence of an agreement specifically providing that a reduction in the number of workdays will not adversely affect the remuneration of the employees. the union Vice-President Carmelo C. Gonzales.M. (Explanatory Bulletin on the Effect of Reduction of Workdays on Wages/Living Allowances issued by the DOLE on July 23. in situations where the reduction in the number of regular working days is resorted to by the employer to prevent serious losses due to causes beyond his control. it would be unfair to require the employer to pay the wages and living allowances even on unworked days that were taken off from the regular workweek. since the reduction of workdays is resorted to as a costsaving measure. 1985). to 6:00 P. sometime at 6:00 A. As the employees assented by practice to this arrangement. and 6:00 A.M.M. the employer may deduct the wages and living allowances corresponding to the days taken off from the workweek.M.M. of the 6:00 P. Proof of this is the case undisputedly filed by the union for and in behalf of its members. his name appeared but without his signatures. they cannot now be heard to claim that the overtime boycott is justified because they were not obliged to work beyond eight hours. his schedule was sometime at 6:00 A. demanded that the company make a recomputation of the overtime records of the employees from 1987 xxx. to 10:00 P. 1985). Santos. wherein it is claimed that the company has not been computing correctly the night premium and overtime pay for work rendered between 2:00 A. to 6:00 A. xxx In fact. to 6:00 A.´ 29.M. while in the overtime permits. which were passed around daily for the employees to sign.since they followed. 1993. such as when there is a substantial slump in the demand for his goods or services or when there is lack of raw materials. union Director Enrico C.M. at 2:00 P. shift. testified that when in 1992 he was still a Quality Control Inspector at the Sucat Plant of the company.M.M. of the following day that has been going on since 1988. The two-shift schedule effectively changed the working hours stipulated in the CBA. had rendered overtime during those dates and was paid because unlike in other departments. to 2:00 P.

Attendance in CBA negotiations or grievance meeting . Travel that is all in the day¶s work . Participation in strikes . For example. Coffee breaks and rest period of short duration . a truck helper may sleep after performing his task and while his truck is traveling on its way to its assignment. Attendance in hearings in cases filed by employee . 4. Power interruptions or brown-outs. and training periods sanctioned by employer . Working while on call .compensable hours worked. Attendance in lectures. 7. All time during which an employee is suffered or permitted to work.compensable hours worked.compensable if employee is required to remain on call in the employer¶s premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively and gainfully for his own purpose. 9. All time during which an employee is required to be on duty or to be at the employer¶s premises or to be at a prescribed workplace. 2. The employees can use the time effectively for their own interest. The employees can leave their workplace or go elsewhere whether within or without the work premises. chanrobles virtual law library 8. c. But the same may not be done by the driver. Travel time: a. Travel away from home .not compensable hours worked. chanrobles virtual law library Brown-outs running for more than twenty (20) minutes may not be treated as hours worked provided any of the following conditions are present: a. Sleeping while on duty is compensable if the nature of the employee¶s work allows sleeping without interrupting or prejudicing work or when there is an agreement between the employee and his employer to that effect.1. Travel from home to work -not compensable working time b.considered compensable if waiting is an integral part of the employee's work or he is required or engaged by the employer to wait.not compensable working time.compensable hours worked. basic rules: y y Brown-outs of short duration not exceeding twenty (20) minutes . . 11.compensable hours worked.considered hours worked. 5. 10. and b. Waiting time .considered compensable hours worked. chanrobles virtual law library 3. or b. The following are the compensable hours worked: a. meetings. 6.

If meal time is shortened to not less than twenty (20) minutes .When the work of an employee falls at nighttime. On an ordinary day: Plus 10% of the overtime hourly rate on an ordinary day or a total of 110% of the overtime hourly rate on an ordinary day. compensable. the compensation for overtime night shift . it is not compensable hours worked and employee is free to do anything he wants.m. Since overtime work is not usually eight (8) hours. therefore. Where night shift (10 p.m.) work is regular work. the payment of the night differential pay is for the work done during the night. 2. Every employee is entitled to not less than one (1) hour (or 60 minutes) time-off for regular meals. If he is required to work while eating.MEAL PERIOD: 32. Computation of Night Shift Differential Pay: a. and 6:00 a. chanrobles virtual law library 2. he should be compensated therefor. Where night shift (10 p. On a rest day or special day or regular holiday: Plus 10% of the overtime hourly rate on a rest day or special day or regular holiday. while the payment of the overtime pay is for work in excess of the regular eight (8) working hours. c. If shortened to less than 20 minutes. 1. 1. On an ordinary day: Plus 10% of the basic hourly rate or a total of 110% of the basic hourly rate. chanrobles virtual law library b. The reason is. Being time-off.m.m. special day or regular holiday: Plus 10% of the regular hourly rate on a rest day. For overtime work in the night shift. of the following day. What is ³meal period´? 1. What is ³night-shift differential´? 1. it is considered coffee break or rest period of short duration and. Night shift differential and overtime pay.m. to 6 a. On a rest day. Night shift differential is equivalent to 10% of employee's regular wage for each hour of work performed between 10:00 p. the receipt of overtime pay shall not preclude the right to receive night differential pay. 3. NIGHT-SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL: 33.) work is overtime work. to 6 a. special day or regular holiday or a total of 110% of the regular hourly rate. chanrobles virtual law library 2. 2.m. except to work. distinguished .compensable hours worked.

What is ³overtime work´? 1. Every employee entitled to premium pay is also entitled to the benefit of overtime pay. chanrobles virtual law library 2. the overtime pay is plus 30% of the basic hourly rate which includes 100% additional compensation as provided in Article 94 [b] of the Labor Code. 2. library chanrobles virtual law 1. such as rest days and special days. On an ordinary day. c. Work rendered after normal eight (8) hours of work is called overtime work. . 3. chanrobles virtual law library 5.work is also computed on the basis of the hourly rate. b. For overtime work performed on a rest day which falls on a special day. "Premium pay" means the additional compensation required by law for work performed within 8 hours on non-working days. On a rest day or special day or regular holiday. d. Plus 10% of 125% of basic hourly rate or a total of 110% of 125% of basic hourly rate. the overtime pay is plus 30% of the basic hourly rate which includes 30% additional compensation as provided in Article 93 [a] of the Labor Code. 4. For overtime work performed on an ordinary day. the overtime pay is plus 30% of the basic hourly rate which includes 50% additional compensation as provided in Artic le 93 [c] of the Labor Code. the overtime pay is plus 25% of the basic hourly rate. "Overtime pay" means the additional compensation for work performed beyond 8 hours. Plus 10% of 130% of regular hourly rate on said days or a total of 110% of 130% of the applicable regular hourly rate. Illustrations on how overtime is computed: a. OVERTIME WORK: 34. In computing overtime work. For overtime work performed on a regular holiday. For overtime work performed on a rest day or on a special day. "regular wage" or "basic salary" means "cash" wage only without deduction for facilities provided by the employer.

effect. Every employee who is entitled to premium pay is likewise entitled to the benefit of overtime pay. No further proof is required. NLRC. Sweet Lines Inc. For overtime work performed on a rest day which falls on a regular holiday. No. (Citing Philippine American General Insurance Inc. 204 [1992]). except holidays and Sundays. the latter is entitled to overtime compensation. The employer already admitted she worked an extra hour daily. distinguished. However. R.). ³Premium pay´ refers to the additional compensation required by law for work performed within eight (8) hours on non-working days. 2. 115755.. UNDERTIME NOT OFFSET BY OVERTIME: 35. EMERGENCY OVERTIME WORK: . 2000]. Ibid. 212 SCRA 194. the employer admitted in his pleadings that the employee¶s work starts at 8:30 in the morning and ends up at 6:30 in the evening daily. [G. Judicial admission by employer of overtime work. The Supreme Court ruled that in view of the employer¶s formal admission that the employee worked beyond eight hours daily.00 a day is more than enough to cover the ³one hour excess work´ which is the compensation they allegedly agreed upon. III. the overtime pay is plus 30% of the basic hourly rate which includes 160% additional compensation. (No.e. ³Overtime pay´ refers to the additional compensation for work performed beyond eight (8) hours a day. (No. December 4. Permission given to the employee to go on leave on some other day of the week shall not exempt the employer from paying the additional compensation required by law such as overtime pay or night shift differential pay. the employer claims that the employee¶s basic sala ry of P140. DOLE Handbook on Workers Statutory Monetary Benefits). In the 2000 case of Damasco vs. What is meant by ³undertime not offset by overtime´? 1. chanrobles virtual law library Premium and overtime pay. Undertime work on any particular day shall not be offset by overtime on any other day. IV. vs. and cannot be contradicted unless previously shown to have been made through palpable mistake or that no such admission was made. or in the course of the trial or other proceedings in the same case are conclusive. such as rest days and special days. no further evidence being required to prove the same. Judicial admissions made by parties in the pleadings.

chanrobles virtual law library d. When there is urgent work to be performed on machines. When an employee refuses to render emergency overtime work under any of the foregoing conditions.36. When overtime work is necessary to avail of favorable weather or environmental conditions where performance or quality of work is dependent thereon. installations or equipment. Exceptions when employee may be compelled to render overtime work: a. When the country is at war or when any other national or local emergency has been declared by the National Assembly or the Chief Executive. The general rule remains that no employee may be compelled to render overtime work against his will. May an employee validly refuse to render overtime work under any of the afore-said circumstances? chanrobles virtual law library An employee cannot validly refuse to render overtime work if any of the afore-mentioned circumstances is present. fire. epidemic or other disasters or calamities. 37. WEEKLY REST PERIOD: 38. floods. When the completion or continuation of work started before the 8th hour is necessary to prevent serious obstruction or prejudice to the business or operations of the employer. and f. e. What is ³weekly rest period´? . earthquake. When the work is necessary to prevent loss or damage to perishable goods. or in order to avoid serious loss or damage to the employer or some other causes of similar nature. 2. c. he may be dismissed on the ground of insubor dination or willful disobedience of the lawful order of the employer. b. When may an employee be compelled to perform overtime work? 1. typhoons. When overtime work is necessary to prevent loss of life or property or in case of imminent danger to public safety due to actual or impending emergency in the locality caused by serious accident.

or installations. COMPENSATION FOR WORK ON REST DAY. 4. In the event of abnormal pressure of work due to special circumstances. equipment. and chanrobles virtual law library f. Sunday or holiday? a. typhoon. Where the nature of the work is such that the employees have to work continuously for seven (7) days in a week or more. In case of urgent work to be performed on machineries. or in case of force majeure or imminent danger to public safety. d. To prevent serious loss of perishable goods. In case of actual or impending emergencies caused by serious accident. fire. to avoid serious loss which the employer would otherwise suffer. When may an employer compel his employees to render work on a rest day? Under any of the following circumstances: a. 2. e. Premium pay for work on scheduled rest day. chanrobles virtual law library b. flood. If business is open on Sundays/holidays. as in the case of the crew members of a vessel to complete a voyage and in other similar cases. Preference of employee as to his rest day should be respected if based on religious grounds. epidemic or oth er disaster or calamity. How is premium computed for work rendered on a rest day. earthquake. rest day may be scheduled on another day. Every employer shall give his employees a rest period of not less than 24 consecutive hours after every 6 consecutive normal w ork days. SUNDAY OR HOLIDAY: 40. When the work is necessary to avail of favorable weather or environmental conditions where performance or quality of work is dependent thereon. 3. 39. where the employer cannot ordinarily be expected to resort to other measures.1. c. to prevent loss of life and property. . Waiver of compensation for work on rest days and holidays is not valid.

Where such holiday work falls on the employee¶s scheduled rest day. y y If worker did not work on regular holiday. Premium pay for work on Sunday when it is employee¶s rest day. e. . Where the nature of the work of the employee is such that he has no regular workdays and no regular rest days can be scheduled.A covered employee who is made or permitted to work on his scheduled rest day shall be paid with an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30%) of his regular wage. A covered employee shall be entitled to such additional compensation of thirty percent (30%) of his regular wage for work performed on a Sunday only when it is his established rest day. d. Higher rate provided in agreements. chanrobles virtual law library b. chanrobles virtual law library HOLIDAY PAY: 41. Where the collective bargaining agreement or other applicable employment contract stipulates the payment of higher premium pay tha n that prescribed by law. chanrobles virtual law library If he worked. the employer shall pay such higher rate. Premium pay for work performed on Sundays and holidays when employee has no regular workdays and no scheduled regular rest days. Entitlement of monthly-paid employees to regular holiday pay. he is entitled to 100% of his basic pay. What is holiday pay? Holiday pay is a premium given to employees pursuant to law even if he is not suffered to work on a regular holiday. chanrobles virtual law library Work performed on any special holiday (now special day) shall be paid with an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30%) of the regular wage of the employee. Premium pay for work performed on special holidays (now special days) which fall on employee¶s scheduled rest day. chanrobles virtual law library c. he shall be paid an additional compensation of at least thirty percent (30%) of his regular wage for work performed on Sundays and holidays. he shall be enti tled to additional compensation of at least fifty percent (50%) of his regular wage. he is entitled to 200% thereof .

28. L-52415. In Insular Bank of Asia v. including its implementing rules. that both parties (the petitioners and the respondent employer) premised their arguments on an implementing rule that the Court had declared void twenty years ago in Insular Bank of Asia vs. Section 2 which provides that monthly-paid employees are presumed to be paid for all days in the month. the implementing rules on holiday pay excluded monthly-paid employees from the said benefits by inserting under Rule IV. 2004). Aug. chanrobles virtual law library An administrative interpretation which diminishes the benefits of labor more than what the statute delimits or withholds is obviously ultra vires. (G. 147420. This controversy should have ended long ago had either counsel first checked the validity of the implementing rule on which they based their contentions. 9 issued by the Secretary (then Minister) of Labor are null and void since in the guise of clarifying the Labor Code¶s provisions on holiday pay. 217 Phil. [G. (The Chartered Bank Employees Association vs. it is deplorable. No. Rule IV of Book III of the Omnibus Rules Implementing the Labor Code. they in effect amended them by enlarging the scope of their exclusion. it shall always be presumed that the legislature intended to enact a valid and permanent statute which would have the most beneficial effect that its language permits. et al. [supra]. 9.. Rule IV of Book III of the Omnibus Rules Implementing the Labor Code. (Insular Bank of Asia and America Employees Union [IBAAEU] vs. And yet. October 23. But in the 2004 case of Odango vs. et al. the Secretary of Labor categorically declared that the benefit is intended primarily for daily-paid employees when the law clearly states that every worker should be paid their regular holiday pay. whether worked or not. 23. both the petitioners and respondent firm anchored their respective arguments on the validity of Section 2. Rule IV. Inciong. June 10. R. G. L-52415. Book III of the said rules. 1985). No. . R. Book III of the Implementing Rules and Policy Instructions No. 629 (1984)].The Labor Code does not exclude monthly -paid employees from the benefits of holiday pay. This does not speak well of the quality of representation they rendered to their clients. This is a flagrant violation of the mandatory directive of Article 4 of the Labor Code which states that doubts in the implementation and interpretation of the Code. Ople. Indeed.. R. No. said the Supreme Court. The High Court declared: chanrobles virtual law library ³We have long ago declared void Section 2. In Policy Instructions No. shall be resolved in favor of labor. NLRC. counsel for both parties failed to consider this. L 44717. 1984). Oct. Moreover. However. This case is cited prominently in basic commentaries. No. G. Inciong. R. 1984. we ruled as follows: µSection 2. Inciong.

under Rule IV. no pay. 223). Ople. petitioners¶ claim for wage differentials must fail. (See Article 94 of the Labor Code and Executive Order No. In effect. Sustaining petitioners¶ argument will make monthly-paid employees a privileged class who are paid even if they do not work. ³Even assuming that Section 2. Absent any other legal basis. petitioners seek payment of wages for un-worked non-legal holidays citing as basis a void implementing rule. Petitioners¶ line of reasoning is not only a violation of the ³no work. petitioners demand that ANTECO should pay them on Sundays. The circumstances are also markedly different. ³Finally. However. Book III of the implementing rules. the minimum allowable divisor is 287.R. The facts show that petitioners are required to work only from Monday to Friday and half of Saturday. as an analogous situation. Thus. there was a collective . chanrobles virtual law library ³In Chartered Bank. L-44717. 138 SCRA 273].´ The right to be paid for un-worked days is generally limited to the ten legal holidays in a year. the workers sought payment for un-worked legal holidays as a right guaranteed by a valid law. Rule IV of Book III gave rise to a right to be paid for un-worked days beyond the ten legal holidays.¶ ³Thus. the un-worked half of Saturdays and other days that they do not work at all. Section 2 cannot serve as basis of any right or claim. chanrobles virtual law library ³The use of a divisor less than 365 days cannot make ANTECO automatically liable for underpayment. less 52 Sundays and less 26 Saturdays (or 52 half Saturdays). which is the result of 365 days. petitioners cite Chartered Bank Employees Association v. the implementing rules on holiday pay promulgated by the then Secretary of Labor excludes mon thly-paid employees from the said benefits by inserting. a violation of the equal protection clause.µThe Labor Code is clear that monthly -paid employees are not excluded from the benefits of holiday pay. Petitioners¶ claim is based on a mistaken notion that Section 2. 28 August 1985. In Chartered Bank. No. The 304 days divisor used by ANTECO is clearly above the minimum of 287 days. Rule IV of Book III is valid. petitioners¶ claim will still fail. Any divisor below 287 days means that ANTECO¶s workers are deprived of their holiday pay for some or all of the ten legal holidays. no pay´ principle. Petitioners have misread this case. The basic rule in this jurisdicti on is ³no work. In this case. Section 2 which provides that monthly -paid employees are presumed to be paid for all days in the month whether worked or not. [G. it also gives rise to an invidious classification.

AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE CELEBRATION OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION 26. the employer was liable for underpayment because the divisor it used was 251 days. NLRC. BOOK I OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. ³ (1) Unless otherwise modified by law. R. et al. 2004). This figure does not deprive petitioners of their right to be paid on legal holidays. No. 147420. the divisor ANTECO uses is 304 days. a figure that clearly fails to account for the ten legal holidays the law requires to be paid.bargaining agreement that prescribed the divisor. CHAPTER 7. No CBA exists in this case. What are the regular holidays and special days? REPUBLIC ACT NO. OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987 [APPROVED ON JULY 25.. 42. In Chartered Bank. 292. AS AMENDED. June 10. 2007] Regular Holidays and Nationwide Special Days. and or proclamation. G.´ (Odango vs. the following regular holidays and special days shall be observed in the country: a) Regular Holidays New year¶s Day-January 1 Maundy Thursday-Movable date Good Friday-Movable date Eidul Fitr-Movable date Araw ng Kagitingan-Monday nearest April 9 (Bataaan and Corregidor Day) Labor Day-Monday nearest May 1 Independence Day-Monday nearest June 12 National Heroes Day-Last Monday of August Bonifacio Day-Monday nearest November 30 Christmas Day-December 25 Rizal Day-Monday nearest December 30 . Here. 9492 .

What are the distinctions between ³regular holidays´ and ³special days´? The following are the distinctions between ³regular holidays´ and ³special days´: a. What is the application of the principle of ³no work. 45.´ (NOTE: R.b) Nationwide Special Holidays: Ninoy Aquino Day-Monday nearest August 21 All Saints Day-November 1 Last Day of the Year-December 31 c) In the event the holiday falls on a Wednesday. The Eidul Adha shall be celebrated as a regional holiday in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. the President shall issue a proclamation. the specific date that shall be declared as a nonworking day: Provided. A covered employee who does not work during regular holidays is paid 100% of his regular daily wage. A covered employee who works during regular holidays is paid 200% of his regular daily wage. if the worker is permitted or suffered to work on special days which fall on his scheduled rest day. however. That for movable holidays. at least six (6) months prior to the holiday concerned. If the holiday falls on a Sunday. no pay. ³Special holidays´ are now known as ³special days. A. 203 [June 30. What is the distinction between ³special holidays´ and ³special days´? There is none. chanrobles virtual law library 44.´ b. 9177 uses ³Special Holidays´ instead of ³Special Days´ in describing All Saints Day and Last Day of the Year which were described as such under Executive Order No. while a covered employee who does not work during a special day does not receive any compensation under the principle of ³no work. chanrobles virtual law library 43. 1987]). no pay´ to entitlement to holiday pay? . while a covered employee who works during special days is only paid an additional compensation of not less than 30% of the basic pay or a total of 130% and at least 50% over and above the basic pay or a total of 150%. the holiday will be observed on the Monday of the week. the holiday will be observed on the Monday that follows: Provided.

30% on top of basic pay. whichever is higher. What is the rule in case of absence during successive regular holidays? The rule in case of successive regular holidays is as follows: An employee may not be paid for both holidays if he absents himself from work on the day immediately preceding the first holiday. chanrobles virtual law library b. What are the premium pay for working on holidays? 1. if they are not reporting for work while on such benefits. chanrobles virtual law library 2. in which case. Employees on leave of absence without pay on the day immediately preceding a regular holiday . When the day preceding regular holiday is a non -working day or scheduled rest day . unless he works on the first holiday. chanrobles virtual law library d.entitled to regular holiday pay. he shall be entitled to the regular holiday pay if he worked on the day immediately preceding the non-working day or rest day. 47.The principle of ³no work.50% over and above the basic pay. . no pay´ applies to special days but not to unworked regular holidays where the employees are always paid the equivalent of 100% of their basic pay.may not be paid the required holiday pay if he has not worked on such regular holiday. What are the effects of absences on entitlement to regular holiday pay? The following are the effect of absences on entitlement to regular holiday pay: a. Employees on leave while on SSS or employee's compensation benefits. Employees on leave of absence with pay . chanrobles virtual law library 46. he is entitled to his holiday pay on the second holiday. 48. in which case. Premium pay for work performed during special days . Premium pay for work performed during special days falling on scheduled rest day .Employers shall grant the same percentage of the holiday pay as the benefit granted by competent authority in the form of employee¶s compensation or social security payment. chanrobles virtual law library c.Employee shall not be deemed to be on leave of absence on that day.

R. that when the language of the law is clear and unequivocal. No. there is nothing in the law which provides or indicates that the entitlement to ten days of holiday pay shall be reduced to nine when two holidays fall on the same day. Since a worker is entitled to the enjoyment of ten paid regular holidays.. 673). the law must be taken to mean exactly what it says. If employee did not work: 200% of basic pay. which is a management prerogative. The provision is mandatory. 1993. (Insular Bank of Asia and America Employees Union (IBAAEU) vs. No. 23.g. 2004]. Petitioner SMC asserts that Article 3(3) of Presidential Decree No. 144664. CA. 146775. Filomena. Iligan City revealed that there was underpayment by SMC of regular Muslim holiday pay to its employees.49. 1998. regardless of whether an employee is paid on a monthly or daily basis. Inciong. 1083 . If employee worked: 300% of basic pay. No. was reproduced on January 23. Oct. including the manner of computing the holiday pay. January 30. 2002]. the fact that two holidays fall on the same date should not operate to reduce to nine the ten holiday pay benefits a worker is entitled to receive. Araw ng Kagitingan and Good Friday falling on April 9. 1984. 2. L-52415. 1993): 1. in affirming the validity thereof. Said bulletin dated March 11. under the rules of statutory construction. a routine inspection conducted by the Department of Labor and Employment in the premises of San Miguel Corporation (SMC) in Sta. March 15. as amended. It is elementary. In the 2004 case of Asian Transmission Corporation vs. chanrobles virtual law library 50. [G. What is the rule in case of regular Muslim holidays? In the 2002 case of San Miguel Corporation vs. 132 SCRA 663. 1993 Explanatory Bulletin.R. affords a worker the enjoyment of ten paid regular holidays. the petitioner sought the nullification of the said March 11. In the case at bar. G. CA. holiday pay is a statutory benefit demandable under the law. The Hon. 1998 was both Maundy Thursday and Araw ng Kagitingan. [ G. What is the rule in case two regular holidays falling on the same day? DOLE Explanatory Bulletin on Workers¶ Entitlement to Holiday Pay on 9 April 1993. when April 9. R. ruled that Article 94 of the Labor Code. The Supreme Court. Unlike a bonus. Araw ng Kagitingan and Good Friday enunciated the following rule in case of two regular holidays falling on the same day (e.

whether continuous or broken. Service incentive leave is commutable to cash if unused at the end of the year. is less than twelve (12) months. 5. The Court of Appeals did not err in sustaining Undersecretary Español who stated: chanrobles virtual law library ³Assuming arguendo that the respondent¶s position is correct.´ SERVICE INCENTIVE LEAVE: 51. including authorized absences and paid regular holidays. Meaning of "one year of service" . Article 3(3) of Presidential Decree No. Muslims throughout the Philippines are also not entitled to holiday pays on Christian holidays declared by law as regular holidays. 2. then by the same token.´ The Supreme Court. Grant of vacation leave or sick leave may be considered substitute for service incentive leave.provides that ³(t)he provisions of this Code shall be applicable only to Muslims x x x.´ At any rate. ruled that there should be no distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims as regards payment of benefits for Muslim holidays. chanrobles virtual l aw library 4. We must remind the respondent-appellant that wages and other emoluments granted by law to the working man are determined on the basis of the criteria laid down by laws and certainly not on the basis of the worker¶s faith or religion. 1083 also declares that ³x x x nothing herein shall be construed to operate to the prejudice of a non-Muslim.service within twelve (12) months. or that provided in the employment contract. reckoned from the date the employee started working. (Note: there is no provision in the Labor Code granting vacation or sick leave). however. Every covered employee who has rendered at least one (1) year of service shall be entitled to a yearly service incentive leave of five (5) days with pay. What are the basic principles governing the grant of service incentive leave? 1. 3. The basis of computation of service incentive leave is the salary rate at the date of commutation. . said period shall be considered as one (1) year for the purpose of determining entitlement to the service incentive leave. in which case. unless the number of working days in the establishment as a matter of practice or policy.

it was held that having already worked for more than three (3) years at the time of her unwarranted dismissal. NLRC. it is granted as a motivation for the employee to stay longer with the employer. [G. the Supreme Court observed that the conversion of leave credits into their cash equivalent is aimed primarily to encourage workers to work continuously and with dedication for the company. March 31. to lure employees to stay with the company. as amended. Leave credits are normally converted into their cash equivalent based on the last . vs. the computation thereof should only be up to the date of termination of employment. Accordingly. NLRC. 176 (1998)] ³[s]ince a service incentive leave is clearly demandable after one year of service . [285 SCRA 149. [G. 152427. R. and it is one of the µbenefits¶ which would have accrued if an employee was not otherwise illegally dismissed. Companies offer incentives.whether continuous or broken . No. for it is only then that the employee is entitled to said benefit. In a case involving the accumulation of leave credits and their conversion into cash. It must be noted that this benefit is given by law on the basis of the service actually rendered by the employee. where one of the issues pertained to the entitlement of an illegally dismissed employee to service incentive leave pay. No. petitioner is undoubtedly entitled to service incentive leave benefits. This is because the entitlement to said benefit accrues only from the time he has rendered at least one year of service to his employer. But in another 2005 case. Rationale for leave credit accumulation and cash conversion. July 8. such as the conversion of the accumulated leave credits into their cash equivalent. where an employee was never paid his service incentive leave during all the time he was employed. CA. No. based on the actual service rendered to the petitioner in accordance with each contract of employment. Inc. 2005]. computed from 1989 until the date of her actual reinstatement. it was held that private respondent¶s service incentive leave credits of five (5) days for every year of service. it is fair and legal that its computation should be up to the date of reinstatement as prov ided under Section [Article] 279 of the Labor Code. NLRC. and in the particular case of the service incentive leave. R. as provided in the Collective Bargaining Agreement. Moreover. R. 2005] which involves a project employee who later on became a regular employee after a series of re-hiring.´ chanrobles virtual law library This Imbuido ruling was cited in the 2005 case of Integrated Contractor and Plumbing Works. it was held that the same should be computed not from the start of employment but a year after commencement of service. should be computed up to the date of reinstatement pursuant to Article 279. [G. 151966. There is no cause for gra nting said incentive to one who has already terminated his relationship with the employer. 114734.or its equivalent period. 2000]. As ruled in Fernandez vs. August 9. JPL Marketing Promotions vs.In the 2000 case of Imbuido vs.

6. SERVICE CHARGES: 52. R. In the case of service incentive leave. casinos and gambling ho uses. G. No. an employee who has served for one year is entitled to it. 349 Phil 65]. including those entities operating primarily as private subsidiaries of the government. or that provided in the employment contracts. regardless of their positions. is to unduly restrict such right. subject to a few exceptions . How is service charge distributed? .´ Service incentive leave is a right which accrues to every employee who has served ³within 12 months. Jan. May 16.R. 53. if the employee entitled to service incentive leave does not use or commute the same. 117460.prevailing salary received by the employee. [G. restaurants. in which case said period shall be considered as one year. and irrespective of the method by which their wages are paid. He may use it as leave days or he may collect its monetary value. lodging houses. Furthermore. the employee may choose to either use his leave credits or commute it to its monetary equivalent if not exhausted at the end of the year. 105892. the clear policy of the Labor Code is to grant service incentive leave pay to workers in all establishments. massage clinics. Inc. January 28. In the 2005 case of Auto Bus Transport System. 1997). and similar enterprises. is less than 12 months. Book III of the Implementing Rules and Regulations provides that ³[e]very employee who has rendered at least one year of service shall be entitled to a yearly service incentive leave of five days with pay. now known as PNB-Republic Bank. Section 2. NLRC. bars. [G..´ It is also ³commutable to its money equivalent if not used or exhausted at the end of the year. What are service charges? The rule on service charges applies only to establishments collecting service charges. It applies to all employees of covered employers. 156367. (Repu blic Planters Bank. No. vs. R. NLRC. Bautista. he is entitled upon his resignation or separation from work to the commutation of his accrued service incentive leave. designations or employment status. 1998.´ In other words. as the solicitor general recommends. No. cocktail lounges. et al. such as hotels. whether continuous or broken reckoned from the date the employee started working. chanrobles virtual l aw library As enunciated by the Supreme Court in Fernandez vs. including authorized absences and paid regular holidays unless the working days in the establishment as a matter of practice or policy. the Supreme Court observed that the service incentive leave is a curious animal in relation to other benefits granted by the law to every employee. To limit the award to three years. night clubs. vs. Rule V. 2005].

the same cannot be considered as part of their wages in determining their claims for violation of labor standard benefits. May 16. Adana. Profits are realized after expenses are deducted from the gross income. receive[d] various amounts as profit share.Service charges are distributed in accordance with the following percentage of sharing: a. rollo). eighty-five percent (85%) for the employees to be distributed equally among them. This is more explained by [respondents] when they testified that what they received are not fixed amounts and the same are paid not on a monthly basis (pp. Also. Although called profit share[. who were employed in the hotel. ‡ The shares shall be distributed to employees not less often than once every 2 weeks or twice a month at intervals not exceeding 16 days. 94. how can the amounts receive[d] by [respondents] be considered as profit share when the same [are] based on the gross receipt of the hotel[?] No profit can as yet be determined out of the gross receipt of an enterprise. and b. vol. Service charge is not profit share and may thus not be deducted from wage. [petitioners] failed to submit evidence that the amounts received by [respondents] as profit share are to be considered part of their wages and had been agreed by them prior to their employment. 55. Further.´ WAGES: 54. 157634. the employer alleged that the five (5) percent of the gross income of the establishment being given to the respondent employees can be considered as part of their wages. In the 2005 case of Mayon Hotel & Restaurant vs. fifteen percent (15%) for the management to answer for losses and breakages and distribution to managerial employees. No.000. 93. 104. 103. Attributes of wage: .00 salary ceiling for entitlement thereto is no longer applicable. II. R. It quoted with approval the Labor Arbiter on this matter. The Supreme Court was not persuaded. ‡ The P2. to wit: ³While complainants. What are the attributes of wage? 1.] such is in the nature of share from service charges charged by the hotel. 2005]. [G.

157634. ³salary´ and ³pay´. or other facilities customarily furnished by the employer to the employee. or other method of calculating the same. it is the remuneration or earnings. piece. What are ³supplements´? 1. Actual work is the basis of claim for wages ("No work. 2005] it was noted by the Supreme Court the uncontroverted testimony of respondents on record that they were required to eat in the hotel and restaurant so that they will not go home . [G. or commission basis. R.a.the fair and reasonable value of board. chanrobles virtual law library c. Commission . May 16. it includes the fair and reasonable value. task. whether fixed or ascertained on a time. b. 3. lodging. or to any person affiliated with the employer. 2. as determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. lodging and other facilities customarily furnished by an employer to his employees both in agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises. 56. ³Wage´. it is payable by an employer to an employee under a written or unwritten contract of employment for work done or to be done. it is capable of being expressed in terms of money. and d. What are ³facilities´? 1. chanrobles virtual law library 4. Value of facilities . of board.may or may not be treated as part of wage depending on the circumstances. ³Facilities´ shall include articles or services for the benefit of the employee or his family but shall not include tools of the trade or articles or services primarily for the benefit of the employer or necessary to the conduct of the employer¶s business. however designated. for work done or to be done or for services rendered or to be rendered. ³Supplements´ means extra remuneration or special privileges or benefits given to or received by the laborers over and above their ordinary earnings or wages. distinction . FACILITIES AND SUPPLEMENTS: 55.they are synonymous in meaning and usage. In the same 2005 case of Mayon Hotel & Restaurant vs. ³Fair and reasonable value´ shall not include any profit to the employer. No. Adana. no pay"). or for services rendered or to be rendered. 2.

therefore. [G.R. 1997 (271 SCRA 670)]. Considering. their ready availability is a necessary matter in the operations of a small hotel. As ruled in Mabeza [infra].and there is no interruption in the services of Mayon Hotel & Restaurant. The criterion in making a distinction between a supplement and a facility does not so much lie in the kind (food. (Section 7. Rule VII. as held in Mayon Hotel & Restaurant [supra]. lodging) but the purpose. . chanrobles virtual law library Consequently. on the ground that respondents have availed themselves of the food given by petitioners. The records are clear that petitioners failed to comply w ith these requirements. The deduction of the cost of meals from respondents¶ wages. Indeed. the employer simply cannot deduct the value from the employee's wages without satisfying the following: (a) proof that such facilities are customarily furnished by the trade. No. even granting that meals and snacks were provided by the hotel to its employees and indeed constituted facilities. Book III. April 18. There was no proof of respondents¶ written authorization. such facilities could not be deducted without compliance with certain legal requirements. 118506. that hotel workers are required to work different shifts and are expected to be available at various odd hours. Voluntary acceptance of facilities required. (b) the provision of deductible facilities is voluntarily accepted in writing by the employee. The law is clear that mere availment is not sufficient to allow deductions from employees¶ wages. the Labor Arbiter therefore erred when he ruled that the cost of the meals actually provided to respondents should be deducted as part of their salaries. the quality of food served to them was not what was provided for in the Facility Evaluation Orders and it was only when they filed the cases that they came to know of this supposed Facility Evaluation Orders. As stated in Mabeza vs. the Labor Arbiter found that while the respondents admitted that they were given meals and merienda. In order that the cost of facilities furnished by the employer may be charged against an employee. Rules to Implement the Labor Code). therefore. Legal requirements must be complied with before deducting facilities from wages. such as petitioners¶ business. should be removed. NLRC. his acceptance of such facilities must be voluntary. Considering the failure to comply with the above-mentioned legal requirements. food or snacks or other convenience provided by the employers are deemed as supplements if they are granted for the convenience of the employer. and (c) the facilities are charged at fair and reasonable value.

Oct. aside from their regular salary.57. as allowance for food. L-9742. and when said benefit or privilege is part of the laborer¶s basic wage. Inc. The criterion is not so much with the kind of the benefit or item (food. may not be so charged. strictly speaking. out of necessity. distinction: The benefit or privilege given to the employee which constitutes an extra remuneration over and above his basic or ordinary earning or wage. GRATUITY AND ALLOWANCES: 59. R. Thus. Thus. it is not intended as compensation for actual work. chanrobles virtual law library 58. G. the deductions made therefrom for the meals should be returned to them. 27. cannot be considered as facilities but supplements which could not be reduced having been given not as part of wages but as a necessary matter in the maintenance of the health and efficiency of the crew personnel during the voyage. It is further not demandable as a matter of right. What is the rule on deductibility of ³facilities´ or ³supplements´ from wages? Facilities may be charged to or deducted from wages. a certain percentage of their daily wage. on the other hand. lodging. 1963). and the operator of the coastwise vessels affected should continue giving the same benefit. L-12444. 28. Inc. In another case where the company used to pay to its drivers and conductors. (State Marine Cooperation and Royal Line. free meals supplied by the ship operator to crew members. G. What is a gratuity? ³Gratuity´ is a gift freely given by the employer in appreciation of certain favors or services rendered. Are allowances part of wage? . vs. What is the distinction between ³facilities´ and ³supplements´? ³Facilities" and "supplements´. not as part of their wages but as a necessary matter in the maintenance of the health and efficiency of the crew personnel during the voyage. United Cebu Autobus Employees Association. 60. who were assigned outside of the city limits. it is a facility. Cebu Seamen¶s Association. No. (Cebu Autobus Company vs. Supplements. it was ruled that the company should continue granting the s aid privilege. R. No. 1955).. bonus or sick leave) given but its purpose. Feb. It is not part of wages since. is supplement. when meals are freely given to crew members of a vessel while they were on the high seas.

hence. cost-of-living allowances. bonus may become demandable and enforceable. even if the bonus has been given for quite some time or since ³time-immemorial´ as asserted by the union. chanrobles virtual law library The test or rationale of this rule on long practice requires an indubitable showing that the employer agreed to continue giving the benefits knowing fully well that said employees are not covered by the law requiring payment thereof."Allowances" are not part of wages. No. allowances shall not be included therein. 101761.g. if bonus is given as an additional compensation which the employer agreed to give without any condition such as success of business or more efficient or more productive operation.. it is deemed part of wage or salary. there should be no bonus.R. (National Sugar Refineries Corporation v. If profit is reduced. without violating the non-diminution clause in the law since bonuses are not part of labor standards in the same class as salaries. Consequently. 163 SCRA 71). Bonus. What is bonus? Is it demandable? ³Bonus´ is an amount granted and paid ex gratia to the employee for his industry or loyalty.R. G. in the computation of the amount of retirement and other benefits. When is bonus demandable and enforceable? On the basis of equitable considerations. long practice. No. the employer may validly reduce it to two (2) months basic pay for mid-year bonus. provided under . Thus. If there is no profit. G. and must be shown to have been consistent and deliberate. To be considered a ³regular practice. L-74156. bonus should likewise be reduced. Unlike 13th month pay. agreement (e. CBA) and other peculiar circumstances. demandable. 220 SCRA 452). holiday pay and leave benefits. BONUS: 61. Therefore. the giving of the bonus should have been done over a long period of time. NLRC. generally not demandable or enforceable. and two-months for year-end bonus. hence. 62. bonus may be forfeited in case employee is found guilty of an administrative charge.´. (Globe Mackay Cable and Radio Corporation vs. NLRC. absent any agreement making such bonus part of the compensation of the employees. in a n amount equivalent to two (2) months gross pay for mid-year bonus and three (3) months gross pay for the year-end bonus. when considered a company practice.

NLRC. R. The contention of the union that the granting of said bonuses had ripened into a company practice that may no longer be adjusted to the prevailing condition of the bank has no legal and moral bases. overtime. vacation and maternity leaves.the Labor Code. NLRC. 751 (1999)] and similar cases. Associated Labor Union. [G. Inc.. R. not the amount actually received by an employee. 4 [a]. (Traders Royal Bank vs. [349 Phil. (No. G.. chanrobles virtual law library The ³basic salary´ of an employee for the purpose of computing the 13th month pay shall include all remunerations or earnings paid by the employer for services rendered but does not include allowances and monetary benefits which are not considered or integrated as part of the regular or basic salary. NLRC. R. night differ ential and holiday pay and cost-of-living allowances. Thus. the same are treated as part of the basic salary of the employees. G. June 15.. ³basic salary´ has been interpreted to mean. et al. 24. in effect. 1990. DOLE Handbook on Workers Statutory Monetary Benefits). No. Consolidated Food Corporation vs. the bank may not be forced to distribute bonuses which it can no long er afford to pay and. 85073. NLRC. et al. excluded from the computation of ³basic salary´ are payments for sick. vs. In the 2005 case of Honda Phils. night differentials. 1993. 30. 13th MONTH PAY: 63. (Davao Fruits Corporation vs. be penalized for its past generosity to its employees. 189 SCRA 274). but 1/12 of their standard monthly wage multiplied by their length of service within a given calendar year. X [C]. 220 (1998)]. In Hagonoy Rural Bank vs. [103 SCRA 139 (1981)]. No. 491 (1998)]. Its fiscal condition having declined. Inciong. Aug. [354 Phil. such as the cash equivalent of unused vacation and sick leave credits. the 13th . 2005]. [373 Phil. regular holiday pay and premiums for work done on rest days and special holidays as held p reviously in San Miguel Corporation [Cagayan Coca-Cola Plant] vs. No. No. premium. 145561. 225 SCRA 562). it was ruled that for employees receiving regular wage. 88168. company practice or policy. St. What is 13th month pay? ³Thirteenth-month pay´ shall mean one-twelfth (1/12) of the basic salary of an employee within a calendar year. However. these salary-related benefits should be included as part of the basic salary in the computation of the 13th-month pay if by individual or collective agreement. Samahan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Honda. Aug. Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of the 13th-Month Pay Law. Michael Academy vs. Premium pay is not included in the computation of the 13th -month pay.

legal holiday pay. 145561. Aside from its bare claim of mistake or error in the computation of the thirteenth month pay. Semana. No. petitione r failed to adduce any other relevant evidence to support its contention. April 28. diminished.. Associated Labor Unions. G. vacation and maternity leaves. June 15. vs. A. and after audit was conducted. being favorable to the employees. No. Samahan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Honda. Also. including the computation and payment of the 13th-month pay and other benefits. voluntarily and continuously included in the computation of its employees¶ thirteenth month pay. This is merely basic cost accounting. petitioner merely appended to its petition a copy of the 1997-2002 Collective Bargaining Agreement and an alleged . reduced. 1993. (Davao Fruits Corporation vs. freely. had ripened into a practice and. and cash conversion of unused company vacation and sick leave. G. maternity leave pay.. A. Aug. however. chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court. R. it allegedly discovered the error of including non-basic pay or other benefits in the base figure used in the computation of the 13th-month pay of its employees. for two to three years prior to 1999. in its computation of the 13th-month pay of its employees. It is quite impossible to suggest that they have discovered the alleged error in the payroll only in 1999. No. G. V. And the same holding was made in the 2004 case of Sevilla Trading Company vs. it was ruled that such act of the employer. This implies that in previous years it does not know its cost of labor and operations. 24. was unconvinced. despite the fact that the law and the government issuances expressly excluded the same. These benefits included overtime premium for regular overtime. the amount of other benefits received by the employees which are beyond the basic pay. 152456. discontinued or eliminated. night premium. 2005). Petitioner-employer claimed that it entrusted the preparation of the payroll to its office staff. therefore. et al. When it changed its person in charge of the payroll in the process of computerizing its payroll. (Honda Phils. It affirmed the ruling of the Voluntary Arbitrator that petitioner¶s stance of mistake or error in the computation of the thirteenth month pay is unmeritorious. 85073. paternity leave pay. Inc. where the employer. payments for sick. But in a case where the employer. R. 225 SCRA 562). premium pay for special holidays. from 1975 to 1981. union leave pay. they can no longer be withdrawn. added to the base figure. Petitioner¶s submission of financial statements every year requires the services of a certified public accountant to audit its finances. R. legal and special holidays.month pay due an employee was computed based on the employee¶s basic monthly wage multiplied by the number of months worked in a calendar year prior to separation from employment. company vacation and sick leave pay. regular holiday pay and premiums for work done on rest days and special holidays. 2004]. bereavement leave pay.

1995. X [G]. 2004). G. et al. 2005].. so can the employee demand the payment of all benefits due him upon the . if he worked only from January up to September. 64. V. 152456.00 x 6) / 12 = P3. G. March 18. International School of Speech vs. R. 2.500. R. There was no explanation whatsoever why its inclusion of non -basic benefits in the base figure in the computation of their 13th-month pay in the prior years was made by mistake. vs. No. was held to be entitled to her proportionate 13th month pay computed as follows: chanrobles virtual law library (Monthly Salary x 6 ) / 12 = Proportionate 13th month pay (P6. R. reckoned from the time he started working during the calendar year up to the time of his resignation or termination from service. This is consistent with the principle of equity that as the employer can require the employee to clear himself of all liabilities and property accountability.³corrected´ computation of the thirteenth month pay. No. 1994. Sept. No. an employee who was receiving P6. DOLE Handbook on Workers Statutory Monetary Benefits. Semana. (No. his proportionate 13th-month pay should be the equivalent of 1/12 of his total basic salary which he earned during that period. G. Who are entitled to 13th month pay? All rank-and-file employees are entitled to a 13th-month pay regardless of the amount of basic salary that they receive in a month and regardless of their designation or employment status. Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of the 13th-Month Pay Law.. A. A. June 27. [G. Villarama vs. Inc. et al. An employee who has resigned or whose services were terminated at any time before the time for payment of the 13th-month pay is entitled to this monetary benefit in proportion to the length of time he worked during the year. 112658. NLRC.. 106341.00 The payment of the 13th-month pay may be demanded by the employee upon the cessation of employer-employee relationship. 13th-month pay of resigned or separated employee. despite the clarity of statute and jurisprudence at that time. No. NLRC.00 in monthly salary and who had worked for at least six (6) months at the time of her retrenchment. (Sevilla Trading Company vs. April 28.500. No. and irrespective of the method by which their wages are paid. 148372. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2005 case of Clarion Printing House. R. NLRC. provided that they have worked for at least one (1) month during a calendar year.250. 6. et al. 236 SCRA 280). Thus.

a full month basic pay computation was the ³present practice´ intended to be maintained in the CBA. R. This is an implicit acceptance that prior to the strike. Samahan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Honda. vs. the computation of the 13th month pay should be based on the length of service and not on the actual wage earned by the worker. 145561. 14th month and financial assistance benefits were previously subject to deductions or pro-rating or that these were dependent upon the company¶s financial standing. [G. Inc. took cognizance of the fact that the said Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of the 13th Month Pay Law provided for a pro-ration of this benefit only in cases of resignation or separation from work. 6. Regarding pro-ration of the 13th month pay. June 15. Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of the 13th-Month Pay Law). there being no gap in the service of the workers during the calendar year in question. aside [from] being in [a] state of rehabilitation due to 227M substantial losses in 1997. it has not been refuted that Honda has not implemented any pro-rating of the 13th month pay before the instant case. In the present case. (Section 6 thereof). the computation of the 13th month pay should not be pro-rated but should be given in full.termination of the relationship. That a full month payment of the 13th month pay is the established practice at Honda is further bolstered by the affidavits executed by F eliteo Bautista and Edgardo Cruzada. As held by the Voluntary Arbitrator: ³The Company (Honda) explicitly accepted that it was the strike held that prompt[ed] them to adopt a pro-rata computation. under these circumstances. the Supreme Court in Honda Phils. Both attested that when they were absent from work due to motorcycle accidents. Honda did not adduce evidence to show that the 13th month.´ (Emphasis supplied) chanrobles virtual law library More importantly. (No. 1999 which Honda issued shows that it was the first time a pro-rating scheme was to be implemented in the company.. and after they have exhausted all their leave credits and were no longer receiving their monthly salary from .´ The memorandum dated November 22. 2005]. No. an employee is entitled to a pay in proportion to the length of time he worked during the year. The Court of Appeals thus held that: ³Considering the foregoing. This enabled them to devise a formula usi ng 11/12 of the total annual salary as base amount for computation instead of the entire amount for a 12-month period. 114M in 1998 and 215M lost of sales in 1999 due to strike. It was a convenient coincidence for the company that the work stoppage held by the employees lasted for thirty -one (31) days or exactly one month. As the rules state. reckoned from the time he started working during the calendar year.

[G. Abarquez. In that case. 152456. Associated Labor Unions.R. In the above quoted case of Davao Fruits Corporation vs. or three (3) years and four (4) months. 225 SCRA 562] presented an example of a voluntary act of the employer that has ripened into a company practice.R. discontinued or eliminated. The case of Davao Fruits Corporation vs. Semana. In the case at bar. the employer. from 1975 to 1981.´ (Emphasis supplied) Lastly. the factual milieu of this case is such that to rule otherwise inevitably results to dissuasion. we rule likewise constitutes voluntary employer practice which cannot be unilaterally withdrawn by the employer without violating Art.Honda. Leogardo. petitioner Sevilla Trading kept the practice of including non -basic benefits such as paid leaves for unused sick leave and vacation leave in the computation of their 13th-month pay for at least two (2) years. which was favorable to the employees though not conforming to law. 428 SCRA 239]. 14th month and financial assistance pay. the foregoing interpretation of law and jurisprudence is more in keeping with the underlying principle for the grant of this benefit. 381. August 24. the employer carried on the practice of giving a fixed monthly emergency allowance from November 1976 to February 1980. if not a . it was stated: ³With regard to the length of time the company practice should have been exercised to constitute voluntary employer practice which cannot be unilaterally withdrawn by the employer. Velarde. No. has ripened into a practice and. the company practice lasted for six (6) years. reduced. Associated Labor Unions. What is more. It is primarily given to alleviate the plight of workers and to help them cope with the exorbitant increases in the cost of living. 28 April 2004. Davao Integrated Port Stevedoring Services vs. in Sevilla Trading Company vs. this Court held that the grant of these benefits has ripened into company practice or policy which cannot be peremptorily withdrawn. et al. In another case. can no longer be withdrawn. To allow the pro -ration of the 13th month pay in this case is to undermine the wisdom behind the law and the mandate that the workingman¶s welfare should be the primordial and paramount consideration. approved the commutation to cash of the unenjoyed portion of the sick leave with pay benefits of its intermittent workers. While in Tiangco vs. 450 Phil. 1993. the employer. 390-391 [2003]). 85073. we hold that jurisprudence has not laid down any rule requiring a specific minimum number of years. It was held that this act. diminished. 100 of the Labor Code. for three (3) years and nine (9) months. they still received the full amount of their 13th month. therefore. In all these cases. Jr. [G. No. [Citing Santos vs. This. Furthermore. freely and continuously included in the computation of the 13th month pay those items that were expressly excluded by the law.

R. A case in point is JPL Marketing Promotions vs. This benefit is given by law on the basis of the service actually rendered by the employee. July 8. profit-sharing payments and other cash bonuses amounting to not less than 1/12th of the basic salary but shall not include cash and stock dividends. Employers of household helpers and persons in the personal service of another in relation to such workers.deterrent. .. vs. Honda Phils. 65. except those corporations operating essentially as private subsidiaries of the government. irrespective of the time consumed in the performance thereof. except where the workers are paid on piecerate basis in which case. 2005]. boundary. No. CA. the employer shall be covered by the 13th month pay law insofar as such workers are concerned. cost of living allowances and all other allowances regularly enjoyed by the employee. Philippine Constitution. 2005). including government-owned and controlled corporations. (Section 3. The government and any of its political subdivisions. Who are exempted employers from the coverage of 13th month pay? The following are exempted employers: a. chanrobles virtual law library d. c. Samahan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Honda. 151966. the employer shall pay the difference. [G. Inc. Employers already paying their employees 13th -month pay or more in a calendar year or its equivalent at the time of this issuance. and those who are paid a fixed amount for performing a specific work. where the Supreme Court ruled that. No. for workers from the free exercise of their constitutional rights to self-organization and to strike in accordance with law. G. 145561. June 15. What is meant by the phrase ³its equivalent´ in the 13th month pay law? The term ³its equivalent´ shall include Christmas bonus. 66. chanrobles virtual law library But the rule is different if an employee was never paid his 13th month pay during his employment. R. Article XIII-Social Justice and Human Rights. in such a case. mid -year bonus. b. the computation for the 13th month pay should properly begin from the first day of employment up to the last day of work of the employee. or task basis. as well as non -monetary benefits. Employers of those who are paid on purely commission. Where an employer pays less than 1/12th of the employee¶s basic salary.

United CMC Textile Workers Union vs.A. 2005]. vs. the petitioner-employer contends that the employees are no longer entitled to the payment of 13th month pay as well as service incentive leave pay because they were provided salaries which were over and above the minimum wage.Yes d. NLRC. case . Marcopper Mining Corp. Thus. case . No. private respondent -employees were not given their 13th month pay and service incentive leave pay while they were under the employ of JPL. Admittedly. 151966. et al. 70. et al. case . et al. Universal Corn Products vs. et al. DOLE Philippines vs. The Supreme Court ruled that the difference between the minimum wage and the actual salary received by private respondents cannot be deemed as their 13th month pay and service incentive leave pay as such difference is not equivalent to or of the same import as the said benefits contemplated by law. What is the rule in case an employee has multiple employers? Government employees working part-time in a private enterprise.No b. case . 68. 69. When should the 13th month pay be paid? The required 13th month pay shall be paid not later than December 24 of each year. as properly held by the Court of Appeals and by the NLRC. NLRC. et al. Brokenshire Memorial Hospital. et al. [G. case . as well as employees working in two or more private firms. NFSW vs. 67.Yes c. May payment of bonus be credited as payment of 13th month pay? a. CA.Yes . private respondents are entitled to the 13th month pay and service incentive leave pay. vs. Valenzuela. Ople. case . Leogardo. R. Inc. Is 13th month pay tax-exempt? Yes. 7833). including private educational institutions. The 13th month pay is tax exempt (R. Ovejera.In the 2005 case of JPL Marketing Promotions vs.No f.Yes e. whether on full or part-time basis. are entitled to the required 13th-month pay from all their private employers regardless of their total earnings from each or all their employers. July 8.

73. case . Inc. Kamaya Point Hotel vs. in the nature of a bonus which may not be imposed upon the employer. How is the minimum wage fixed? The minimum wage rates for agricultural and non-agricultural workers and employees in every region shall be those prescribed by the Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Boards (RTWPB) which shall in no case be lower than the statutory minimum wage rates. NLRC. . MINIMUM WAGE: 72. 1989. therefore. No. What is the principle of non-elimination or non-diminution of benefits? This principle mandates that the reduction or diminution or withdrawal by employers of any benefits. UST Faculty Union vs. 75289. NLRC. FEU case (involving transportation allowance which was treated as compliance with 13th month pay) h. It is.g. NLRC. is not allowed. individual agreements or collective bargaining agreements between workers and employers or voluntary employer practice or policy. case . Minister of Labor. 75.. supplements or payments as provided in existing laws. et al.No 14th MONTH PAY: 71. chanrobles virtual law library 74. FEU Employees Labor Union vs. (Kamaya Point Hotel vs. What is meant by ³statutory minimum wage´? The term ³statutory minimum wages´ refers simply to the lowest basic wage rate fixed by law that an employer can pay his workers. Framanlis Farms. What is the basis of the computation of the ³statutory minimum wage´? The basis of the minimum wage rates prescribed by law shall be the normal working hours which shall not be more than eight (8) hours a day. case . August 31. R. vs. et al.Yes j. et al. G.No i. What is a 14th month pay? There is no law mandating the payment of 14th-month pay. It is a gratuity to which the recipient has no right to make a demand. 177 SCRA 160). et al.

76. the RTWPB shall investigate and study all pertinent facts and based on the standards and criteria herein prescribed. When is a ³Wage Order´ necessary? Whenever conditions in a particular region so warrant. (e) The need to induce industries to invest in the countryside. the Regional Board shall. When does a ³Wage Order´ become effective? Any Wage Order shall take effect after fifteen (15) days from its complete publication in at least one (1) newspaper of general circulation in the region. The filing of the appeal does not stay the order or suspend the effectivity thereof unless the person appealing such order shall file with the Commission. consider the following: (a) The demand for living wages. What is a ³Wage Order´? ³Wage order´ refers to the Order promulgated by the Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Board (RTWPB) pursuant to its wage fixing authority. (c) The cost of living and changes or increases therein. What is the mode of appeal from a ³Wage Order´ issued by the RTWPB? Any party aggrieved by the Wage Order issued by the RTWPB may appeal such order to the National Wages and Productivity Commission within ten (10) calendar days from the publication of such order. (f) Improvements in standards of living. What are the standards/criteria for minimum wage fixing? In the determination of regional minimum wages. 77. in the event such order is affirmed. shall proceed to determine whether a Wage Order should be issued. among other relevant factors. 80. (b) Wage adjustment vis-à-vis the consumer price index. an undertaking with a surety or sureties satisfactory to the Commission for the payment to the employees affected by the order of the corresponding increase. chanrobles virtual law library 78. . (d) The needs of workers and their families. 79.

PAYMENT OF WAGES: 82. Under the Civil Code. if done during working hours. Exceptions : A. or other logical bases of differentiation. 3. 2. wages shall be paid in legal tender and the use of tokens. Under the Labor Code and its imple menting rules. as a general rule. as amended. chanrobles virtual law library The issue of whether or not a wage distortion exists is a question of fact that is within the jurisdiction of the quasi-judicial tribunals. length of service. 81. the ATM system of payment is with the written consent of the employees concerned.(g) The prevailing wage levels. coupons or any other form alleged to represent legal tender is prohibited even when expressly requested by the employee. vouchers. shall be considered compensable hours worked. What are the forms of payment of wages? 1. and (j) The equitable distribution of income and wealth along the imperatives of economic and social development. The system shall allow workers to receive their wages within the period or frequency and in the amount prescribed under the Labor Code. 2. What is ³wage distortion´? "Wage distortion" is a situation where an increase in prescribed wage rates results in the elimination or severe contraction of intentional quantitative differences in wage or salary rates between and among employee groups in an establishment as to effecti vely obliterate the distinctions embodied in such wage structure based on skills. promissory notes. it is mandated that the laborer¶s wages shall be paid in legal currency. The employees are given reasonable time to withdraw their wag es from the bank facility which time. chanrobles virtual law library . (i) Effects on employment generation and family income. (h) Fair return of the capital invested and capacity to pay of employers. Payment through automated teller machine (ATM) of banks provided the following conditions are met: 1.

Ideally. benefits and deductions for a particular period.]. B. The employer shall assume responsibility in case the wage protection provisions of law and regulations are not complied with under the arrangement.. The . 5. There shall be n additional expenses and no diminution of benefits and privileges as a result of the ATM system of payment. 154985. There is a bank or ATM facility within a radius of one (1) kilometer to the place of work. Upon request of the concerned employee/s. the Supreme Court affirmed the finding of both the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC on the admissibility as evidence of the pay slips. By implication. Article 221 of the Labor Code provides that proceedings before the NLRC are not covered by the technical rules of evidence and p rocedure. Inc. (G. Cruz. Aug. However. The payslip becomes a substantial proof of actual payment. petitioner failed to demonstrate any arbitrariness or lack of rational basis on the part of the NLRC. his signature therein coupled by an acknowledgement of full compensation alter the legal complexion of the document. unqualifiedly admitted the receipt thereof. the absence of such signatures does not ne cessarily lead to the conclusion that the amount due the employees was not received. Inc. 2005). in signing the payslips with their acknowledgement of full compensation. 2004). April 15. R. While ordinarily a payslip is only a statement of the gross monthly income of the employee. the Court is not duty-bound to delve into the accuracy of the NLRC¶s factual findings in the absence of a clear showing that these were arbitrary and bereft of any rational basis. 7. 24. the employees. et al. (Explanatory Bulletin issued by DOLE Secretary Leonardo Quisumbing dated November 25. 140495. 1996). Moreover.4. Payslips as evidence of payment. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2005 case of G & M [Phils. R. 6. More so in a case where it appears that the payslips for the same period bear the signatures of the employees plus a certification that they received the full compensation for the services rendered. As a general rule. the employer shall issue a record of payment of wages. according to the Supreme Court in Kar Asia. (the foregoing conditions on existence of bank facility and other fa ctors should also concur). In the present case. No. the signatures of the employees should appear in the payroll as evidence of actual payment. vs. No. vs. (G. Corona. there is no hard-and-fast rule requiring that the employee¶s signature in the payroll is the only acceptable proof of payment. Payment by check or money order.

G. 387 SCRA 393 [2002]). including an itemization of earnings (basic pay.The general rule is. as follows: ³« the payslips are original duplicates of computerized payslips issued by the employer. et al. NLRC. 84.´ Payroll. in which case. R. (Chavez vs. 2. to its workers which contain entries such as pay date... the employer shall pay the wages immediately after such force majeure or circumstances have ceased. deductions made. overtime hours and other relevant information. every employer is required to pay his employees by means of payroll. Book III of the Rules Implementing the Labor Code. basic rate. overtime pay. 2005 citing Tan vs. Interestingly. No employer shall make payment with less frequency than once a month. and the amount actually paid to the employee. among other things. or by . What is the place of payment of wages? 1. and the burden has shifted to the respondent to prove that complainant was totally compensated for actual services rendered. Lagrama. employee name. employee¶s I. Salim Al Yami Est. As a general rule. 83. Under Section 6[a]. Exceptions: a. What is the time of payment of wages? 1. Time of payment. meal allowance for the period covered) and deductions. the em ployee¶s rate of pay. 17. The fact that the payslips are not authenticated will not militate against complainant¶s claim. the place of payment shall be at or near the place of undertaking. The payroll should show. Jan. the failure of the employer to present the payroll to support his claim that the petitioner was not his employee. When payment cannot be effected at or near the place of work by reason of the deterioration of peace and order conditions. complainant has established the fact of underpayment. wages shall be paid not less often than once every two (2) weeks or twice a month at intervals not exceeding sixteen (16) days. 146530.probative value of the copy of the pay slips is aptly justified by the NLRC. Rule X. raises speculation whether this omission proves that its presentation would be adverse to his case. category. number.D. exception. . considering that in presenting the payslips. The exception to above rule is when payment cannot be made with such regularity due to force majeure or circumstances beyond the employer¶s control. No.

This is based on the principle of evidence that each party must prove his affirmative allegations. In case of death of the employee. When the employer provides free transportation to the employees back and forth. Under any other analogous circumstances. Payment of wages in bars. 85. b. separation pay and damages against an employer. the same shall be paid to his heirs without necessity of intestate proceedings. or chanrobles virtual law library c. epidemic or other calamity rendering payment thereat impossible. 116960. [G. 2. burden of proof.reason of actual or impending emergencies caused by fire. Since petitioner asserts that respondent has already been fully paid of his stipulated salary. provided that the time spent by the employees in collecting their wages shall be considered as compensable hours worked. 1996. and pleads payment in whole or in part. Payment through banks . To whom should wages be paid? 1. NLRC. savings or rural bank. and chanrobles virtual law library c. 256 SCRA 84] which involves a claim for unpaid wages/commissions. flood. the burden . including payments for the insurance premiums of the employee and union dues where the right to check-off has been recognized by the employer in accordance with a collective agreement or authorized in writing by the individual employees concerned. In Jimenez vs. 3.allowed in businesses and other entities with twenty five (25) or more employees and located within one (1) kilometer radius to a commercial. April 2. massage clinics or nightclubs is prohibited except in the case of employees thereof. b. Where payment to another person of any part of the employee¶s wages is authorized by existing law. in which case. General rule: payment of wages shall be made directly to the employee entitled thereto and to nobody else. a. No. the Supreme Court ruled that where a person is sued for a debt admits that the debt was originally owed. it is incumbent upon him to prove such payment. 4.R. Exceptions. Payment of wages and other monetary claims. Where the employer is authorized in writing by the employee to pay his wages to a member of his family.

1998). rather than on the plaintiff to prove non-payment. G. The testimony of the debtor creating merely an inference of payment will not be regarded as conclusive on that issue. ³When the existence of a debt is fully established by the evidence contained in the record. the findings of the Labor Arbiter. Hence. No. payrolls. The debtor has the burden of showing with legal certainty that the obligation has been discharged by payment. 11 May 2000]. R. No. the issue may be determined against the debtor since he has the burden of proof. the testimony of the debtor may also be sufficient to show payment. (See also National Semiconductor [HK] vs. even when met by indefinite testimony of the debtor. Even where the plaintiff must allege non-payment. R. 140495. is that the pertinent personnel files. Similarly.´ In the 2005 case of G & M [Phils. It did not present any controverting evidence to prove full payment. vs. April 15. (G & M [Phils. 123520. Cruz. differentials. the NLRC and the Court of Appeals that respondent was not fully paid of his wages stand. 2005).shifts to the creditor. [G. chanrobles virtual law library The positive testimony of a creditor may be sufficien t of itself to show non-payment. who is then under a duty of producing some evidence to show non-payment. the burden of proving that it has been extinguished by payment devolves upon the debtor who offers such a defense to the claim of the creditor. 130935. Hence. Where the debtor introduces some evidence of payment. vs. Cruz. June 26. the general rule is that the burden rests on the defendant to prove payment. Thus. Inc. [G. where his testimony is contradicted by the other party or by a disinterested witness. one who pleads payment has the burden of proving it.is upon petitioner to prove such fact of full payment. remittances and other similar documents ± which will show that overtime.. Inc. The reason for the rule. R. No.R. petitioner merely denied respondent¶s claim of underpayment. service incentive leave and other claims of workers have been paid ± are not in the possession of the worker but in the custody and absolute control of the employer. records. the burden of going forward with the evidence . NLRC. according to the 2000 case of Villar vs. 2005]. et al. petitioners defaulted in their defense and in effect admitted the allegations of private respondents.]. G. No. for failure to present evidence to prove payment. it was stated in the Jimenez case that : ³As a general rule.as distinct from the general burden of proof . but. NLRC.]. 140495. April 15. chanrobles virtual law library .

146530. [G. of the four elements of the employeremployee relationship. There was an express instruction from the respondents that the truck shall be used exclusively to deliver respondent company¶s goods. 2005]. R. No. January 17. As earlier opined. The truck driven by the petitioner belonged to respondent company. or service on its own account and under its own responsibility according to its own manner and method. regardless of whether such job. the µcontrol test¶ is the most important. What is contracting or subcontracting? Contracting or subcontracting . Compared to an employee. is instructive as far as the distinction between employment and independent contracting is concerned. work or service within a definite or predetermined period. . NLRC. In debunking the contention of the employer that the truck driver is an independent contractor and not an employee. Their right of control was manifested by the following attendant circumstances: 1. distinguished. a careful review of the records shows that the latter performed his work as truck driver under the respondents¶ supervision and control.RULE ON CONTRACTING OR SUBCONTRACTING: 86. while an independent contractor enjoys independence and freedom from the control and supervision of his principal. work. Hence. free from the control and direction of the principal in all matters connected with the performance of the work except as to the results thereof. The 2005 case of Chavez vs. 2. ³Although the respondents denied that they exercised control over the manner and methods by which the petitioner accomplished his work.It refers to an arrangement whereby a principal agrees to put out or farm out with a contractor or subcontractor the performance or completion of a specific job. work or service is to be performed or completed within or outside the premises of the principal. Employment and independent contracting. the Supreme Court ruled: ³Fourth. an employee is subject to the employer¶s power to control the means and methods by which the employee¶s work is to be performed and accomplished. an independent contractor is one who carries on a distinct and independent business and undertakes to perform the job.

. machinery and work premises. the words µtomorrow morning¶ was written on slip no. Bataan. ³The contract of service to the contrary notwithstanding. et al. Moreover. the petitioner performed the delivery services exclusively for the respondent company for a continuous and uninterrupted period of ten years. Mariveles. to park the truck in either of two specific places only. to the Court¶s mind. prove that the respondents exercised control over the means and methods by which the petitioner accomplished his work as truck driver of the respondent company. Jan. R. Respondents directed the petitioner. NLRC. 146530. c.3. . for example. the facts clearly show otherwise. where and when the petitioner would perform his task by issuing to him gate passes and routing slips. Indeed. 2005). Evidently. 17. It bears stressing that the existence of an employer-employee relationship cannot be negated by expressly repudiating it in a contract and providing therein that the employee is an independent contractor when. after completion of each delivery. he did not possess substantial capitaliza tion or investment in the form of tools. Respondents determined how. the employment status of a person is defined and prescribed by law and not by what the parties say it should be. 2nd drop. a. showed whether the goods were to be delivered urgently or not by the word RUSH printed thereon. On the other hand. likewise. The routing slips. Makati City or at BEPZ. The routing slips also indicated the exact time as to when the goods were to be delivered to the customers as. G. and chanrobles virtual law library 4. etc. the chronological order and priority of delivery such as 1st drop. No. to wit: at its office in Metro Manila at 2320 Osmeña Street.´ (Chavez vs. This meant that the petitioner had to deliver the same according to the order of priority indicated therein. 3rd drop. 2776. the Court is hard put to believe the respondents¶ allegation that the petitioner was an independent contractor engaged in providing delivery or hauling services when he did not even own the truck used for such services. the factual circumstances earlier discussed indubitably establish the existence of an employer-employee relationship between the respondent company and the petitioner. as in this case. b. ³These circumstances. The routing slips indicated on the col umn REMARKS.

Following the control test. 20. August 15. Petitioner¶s control over Lagrama¶s work extended not only to the use of the work area. compared to an employee. but supplied as well the materials used for the paintings. for the use of which petitioner prescribed rules. (Citing De los Santos v. Even assuming this to be true. and Crown Theaters for more than 10 years. because he admitted that he paid Lagrama only for the latter¶s services. Hence. the Supreme Court distinguished employment from independent contracting. an independent contractor is one who carries on a distinct and independent business and undertakes to perform the job. Lagrama worked in a designated work area inside the Crown Theater of petitioner. free from the control and direction of the principal in all matters connected with the performance of the work except as to the results thereof. the pertinent portions of which stated: . ³Private respondent Lagrama claimed that he worked daily. The Supreme Court further ruled: ³Moreover. making ad billboards and murals for the motion pictures shown at the Empress.In the 2002 case of Tan vs. No. 2002]. 2001). NLRC. G. work. the High Court held in Tan vs. ³Second. Dec.R. [G. the evidence shows that the latter performed his work as a painter. The rules included the observance of cleanliness and hygiene and a prohibition against urinating in the work area and any place other than the toilet or the rest rooms. but also to the result of Lagrama¶s work. R. 121327. Supreme. the fact that Lagrama worked for at least 3 to 4 days a week proves regularity in his employment by petitioner. No. 151228. That petitioner had the right to hire and fire was admitted by him in his position paper submitted to the NLRC. According to the Court. an employee is subject to the employer¶s power to control the means and methods by which the employee¶s work is to be performed and accomplished. Petitioner disputed this allegation and maintained that he paid Lagrama P1. under the supervision and control of petitioner. or service on its own account and under its own responsibility according to its own manner and method. while an independent contractor enjoys independence and freedom from the control and supervision of his principal.475. Lagrama [supra] that albeit petitioner Tan claims that private respondent Lagrama was an independent contractor and never his employee. from 8 o¶clock in the morning to 5 o¶clock in the afternoon. Lagrama. and the manner and means by which the work was to be accomplished.00 per week for the murals for the three theaters which the latter usually finished in 3 to 4 days in one week. it would appear that petitioner not only provided the workplace.

task. whether fixed or ascertained on a time. One may be paid on the basis of results or time expended on the work. the employee¶s rate of pay. He was urinating right at the place where he was working when it was so easy for him. It was he who stopped to paint for respondents.¶ That Lagrama worked for Tan on a fixed piece-work basis is of no moment. It is a method of computing compensation.. (Book III. piece. the frustration of which..µComplainant did not know how to use the available comfort rooms or toilets in and about his work premises. ³Third. the fact that. 6[a]). unless satisfactorily explained. deductions made. however designated. Wages are defined as µremuneration or earnings. which is payable by an employer to an employee under a written or unwritten contract of employment for work done or to be done. Payment by result is a method of compensation and does not define the essence of the relation. or commission basis. Rule X. as petitioner himself said. But no. can bring about some disciplinary action on the part of the employer. chanrobles virtual law library ³By stating that he had the right to fire Lagrama. and the amount actually paid to the . as everybody else did and had he only wanted to. nay all the compelling reason. or for services rendered or to be rendered. For the right to hire and fire is another important element of the employer-employee relationship. . depending on whether the elements of an employer-employee relationship are present or not. petitioner in effect acknowledged Lagrama to be his employee. the respondents had every right. capable of being expressed in terms of money. he waited for Lagrama to report for work but the latter simply stopped reporting for work reinforces the conviction that Lagrama was indeed an employee of petitioner. naturally. Indeed. The payroll should show among other things. Sec. Payment of wages is one of the four factors to be considered in determining the existence of employer-employee relation. or other method of calculating the same. µGiven such circumstances. to fire him from his painting job upon discovery and his admission of such acts. to go to the comfort rooms. Nonetheless. For only an employee can nurture such an expectancy. the complainant had to make a virtual urinal out of his work place! The place then stunk to high heavens. though thoroughly scolded. he was not fired. ³The Rules Implementing the Labor Code require every employer to pay his employees by means of payroll. and may or may not acquire an employment status. not a basis for determining the existence or absence of employer-employee relationship. to the consternation of respondents and everyone who could smell the malodor.

to establish that the legitimate independent contractor is the true employer of petitioners. Rule 131. Aug. there is such a connection between the job of Lagrama painting billboards and murals and the business of petitioner. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. 15. No. 151228. See (Tan vs. 151228. NLRC. That he did so only during weekends has not been denied by petitioner. 2000]. R. [G. Aug. et al. G. Moreover. 2004] is one of first impression. R. chanrobles virtual law library ³The primary standard for determining regular employment is the reasonable connection between the particular activity performed by the employee in relation to the usual trade or business of the employer. et al. et al. 124055. Lagrama. Lagrama. The elements of this test are (1) the selection and engagement of employee.. Samuel Villalba. The 2004 case of Sonza vs. 284 SCRA 399 [1998]). No. Villaruel vs. 317 SCRA 420 [1999]). ³Neither does the fact that Lagrama painted for other persons affect or alter his employment relationship with petitioner. 2002). NLRC. 138051. Petitioner in fact admits that the billboards are important to his business. (See Santos vs.employee. (2) the payment of wages. No. Case of independent contractor [Sonza vs. NLRC. On the other hand.´ (Tan vs. [G. admitted in a sworn statement that he was told by Lagrama that the latter worked for petitioner. the Supreme Court also used the so-called ³four-fold test´ in determining employer-employee relationship.. and (4) the power to control the employee¶s conduct. raising speculations whether his failure to do so proves that its presentation would be adverse to his case. June 10. (Citing Revised Rules on Evidence. NLRC. R. this is the first time that the Supreme Court has resolved the nature of the relationship between a television and radio . Although Philippine labor laws and jurisprudence define clearly the element s of an employeremployee relationship. 293 SCRA 113 [1998]). (Citing Lambo vs. R. (3) the power of dismissal. for whom Lagrama had rendered service. No. To let the people know what movie was to be shown in a movie theater requires billboards. Otherwise. June 8. vs. In the case at bar. Section 3(e). 2002. G. petitioner did not present the payroll to support his claim that Lagrama was not his employee. ABS-CBN case]. in Escario. ³The fact that Lagrama was not reported as an employee to the SSS is not conclusive on the question of whether he was an employee of petitioner. an employer would be rewarded for his failure or even neglect to perform his obligation. 15. In this case.

ABS-CBN continued to remit Sonza¶s monthly talent fees through his account at PCIBank. ABS-CBN was represented by its corporate officers while MJMDC was represented by Sonza. Sonza filed an Opposition to the motion on 19 July 1996. In May 1994. ABS-CBN filed a Motion to Dismiss on the ground that no employer-employee relationship existed between the parties. and Carmela Tiangco (³TIANGCO´). separation pay. Sonza complained that ABS-CBN did not pay his salaries. as EVP and Treasurer.000 for the first year and P317. The Agreement listed the services Sonza would render to ABS-CBN. ABS-CBN would pay the talent fees on the 10th and 25th days of the month. 5:30 to 7:00 p..station and one of its ³talents. On 10 July 1996. Mondays to Fridays.´ MJMDC agreed to provide SONZA¶s services exclusively to ABSCBN as talent for radio and television.m. travel allowance and amounts due under the Employees Stock Option Plan (³ESOP´). National Capital Region in Quezon City. b. chanrobles virtual law library The Labor Arbiter rendered his Decision dated 8 July 1997 dismissing the complaint for lack of jurisdiction. Sundays. 8:00 to 10:00 a. Sonza filed a complaint against ABS-CBN before the Department of Labor and Employment. In July 1996. Co-host for Mel & Jay radio program. On certiorari. service incentive leave pay. ABS-CBN opened a new account with the same bank where ABS-CBN deposited Sonza¶s talent fees and other payment s due him under the Agreement. Quezon City.´ There is no case law stating that a radio and television program host is an employee of the broadcast station. 13th month pay. as follows: a.. The NLRC. On 30 April 1996. ABS-CBN agreed to pay for Sonza¶s services a monthly talent fee of P310. signing bonus. on appeal. Meanwhile. Quezon Avenue Branch. Co-host for Mel & Jay television program.m. affirmed the Labor Arbiter¶s ruling. . as President and General Manager.000 for the second and third year of the Agreement. respondent ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation (³ABSCBN´) signed an Agreement (³Agreement´) with the Mel and Jay Management and Development Corporation (³MJMDC´). the Court of Appeals affirmed the NLRC¶s finding that no employer-employee relationship existed between Sonza and ABS-CBN. Referred to in the Agreement as ³AGENT.

amounting to P317. Sonza¶s talent fees. The specific selection and hiring of Sonza. Medicare. In affirming the said decision of the Court of Appeals and holding that Sonza was not an employee but an independent contractor. ABS-CBN could not retrench Sonza because ABS-CBN remained obligated to pay Sonza¶s talent fees during the life of the Agreement. A. either party may terminate their relationship. because of his unique skills. such as retrenchment to prevent losses as provided under labor laws. there would be no need for the parties to stipulate on benefits such as ³SSS. talent and celebrity status. Selection and Engagement of Employee Independent contractors often present themselves to possess unique skills. but not conclusive. ABS-CBN agreed to pay Sonza such huge talent fees precisely because of Sonza¶s unique skills. x x x and 13th month pay´ which the law automatically incorporates into every employer -employee contract. Whatever benefits Sonza enjoyed arose from contract and not b ecause of an employer-employee relationship. If Sonza did not possess such unique skills. ABS-CBN agreed to pay Sonza¶s talent fees as long as ³AGENT and Jay Sonza shall faithfully and completely perform each condition of this Agreement. are so huge and out of the ordinary that they indicate more an independent contractual relationship rather than an employer -employee relationship. Payment of Wages All the talent fees and benefits paid to Sonza were the result of negotiations that led to the Agreement. expertise or talent to distinguish them from ordinary employees. During the life of the Agreement. of an independent contractual relationship. Sonza failed to show that ABS-CBN could terminate his services on grounds other than breach of contract. If Sonza were ABS-CBN¶s employee. B. is a circumstance indicative. ABS-CBN would not have entered into the Agreement with Sonza but would have hired him through its personnel department just like any other employee.000 monthly in the second and third year. more particularly. This .The basic issue presented here is whether Sonza is an employee or an independent contractor. chanrobles virtual law library C.´ Even if it suffered severe business losses. talent and celebrity status not possessed by ordinary employees. the control test. talent and celebrity status not possessed by ordinary employees. the Supreme Court used the four-fold test of determining the existence of an employer employee relationship. Power of Dismissal For violation of any provision of the Agreement.

the Agreement prohibited Sonza from criticizing in his shows ABS-CBN or its interests. The clear implication is that Sonza had a free hand on what to say or discuss in his shows provided he did not attack ABS-CBN or its interests. To perform his work. The Agreement required Sonza to attend only rehearsals and tapings of the shows. ABS-CBN engaged Sonza¶s services specifically to co-host the ³Mel & Jay´ programs.circumstance indicates an independent contractual relationship between Sonza and ABS-CBN. appeared on television. recently held in Alberty -Vélez vs. This test is based on the extent of control the hirer exercises over a worker. The greater the supervision and control the hirer exercises.the less control the hirer exercises. [361 F. Sonza contends that ABS-CBN exercised control over the means and methods of his work. the more likely the worker is deemed an employee. ABS-CBN did not assign any other work to Sonza. First Circuit. Power of Control Since there is no local precedent on whether a rad io and television program host is an employee or an independent contractor. The converse holds true as well .3d 1. ABS-CBN was not involved in the actual performance that produced the finished product of Sonza¶s work. Second. ABS-CBN did not instruct Sonza how to . reference to foreign case law in analyzing the present case is necessary. D. Corporación De Puerto Rico Para La Difusión Pública (³WIPR´). Sonza is not an employee bu t an independent contractor. thus: First. the actress provided the ³tools and instrumentalities´ necessary for her to perform.´ Applying the control test. Sonza did not have to render eight hours of work per day. as well as preand post-production staff meetings. How Sonza delivered his lines. Sonza only needed his skills and talent. WIPR could not assign the actress work in addition to filming ³Desde Mi Pueblo. Moreover. Sonza¶s argument is misplaced. a television actress is a skilled position requiring talent and training not available on-the-job. However. The United States Court of Appeals. First. chanrobles virtual law library Third. ABS-CBN could not dictate the contents of Sonza¶s script. and sounded on radio were outside ABS-CBN¶s control. the more likely the worker is considered an independent contractor. 2 March 2004] that a television program host is an independent contractor. The control test is the most important test the courts apply in distinguishing an employee from an independent contractor.

et al. the United States Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that vaudeville performers were independent contractors although the management reserved the right to delete objectionable features in their shows. crew and airtime are not the ³tools and instrumentalities´ Sonza needed to perform his job. Warner. 8 August 1946]. even if ABS-CBN was completely dissatisfied with the means and methods of Sonza¶s performance of his work. vs. Since the management did not have control over the manner of performance of the skills of the artists. ABS-CBN must still pay Sonza¶s talent fees in full until the expiry of the Agreement. ABS-CBN¶s right not to broadcast Sonza¶s show. chanrobles virtual law library Clearly. et al. In Vaughan. Sonza claims that ABS-CBN¶s power not to broadcast his shows proves ABS-CBN¶s power over the means and methods of the performance of his work. ABSCBN¶s sole concern was for Sonza to display his talent during the airing of the programs. . This proves that ABS-CBN¶s control was limited only to the result of Sonza¶s work. What Sonza principally needed were his talent or skills and the costumes necessary for his appearance. chanrobles virtual law library Sonza further contends that ABS-CBN exercised control over his work by supplying all equipment and crew. ABS-CBN did not exercise control over the means and methods of performance of Sonza¶s work. burdened as it was by the obligation to continue paying in full Sonza¶s talent fees. Thus. did not amount to control over the means and methods of the performance of Sonza¶s work. it could only control the result of the work by deleting objectionable features. ABS-CBN merely reserved the right to modify the program format and airtime schedule ³for more effective programming. ABS-CBN could not terminate or discipline Sonza even if the means and methods of performance of his work . crew and airtime needed to broadcast the ³Mel & Jay´ programs. whether to broadcast the final product or not. In either case.2d 26. All that ABS-CBN could do is not to broadcast Sonza¶s show but ABS-CBN must still pay his talent fees in full.did not meet ABS-CBN¶s approval. Although ABS-CBN did have the option not to broadcast Sonza¶s show. the equipment. Clearly. ABS-CBN supplied the equipment. ABS-CBN was still obligated to pay Sonza¶s talent fees. No doubt.. or even with the quality or product of his work.perform his job. Sonza was still an independent contractor since ABS-CBN did not supervise and control his work. However.´ ABS-CBN¶s sole concern was the quality of the shows and their standing in the ratings.how he delivered his lines and appeared on television . ABS-CBN could not dismiss or even discipline Sonza. Even though ABS-CBN provided Sonza with the place of work and the necessary equipment. [157 F.

A radio broadcast specialist who works under minimal supervision is an independent contractor. Sonza¶s work as television and radio program host required special skills and talent, which Sonza admittedly possesses. The records do not show that ABS-CBN exercised any supervision and control over how Sonza utilized his skills and talent in his shows. Second, Sonza urges the Court to rule that he was ABS-CBN¶s employee because ABS-CBN subjected him to its rules and standards of performance. Sonza claims that this indicates ABS-CBN¶s control ³not only [over] his manner of work but also the quality of his work.´ chanrobles virtual law
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The Agreement stipulates that Sonza shall abide with the rules and standards of performance ³covering talents´ of ABS-CBN. The Agreement does not require Sonza to comply with the rules and standards of performance prescribed for employees of ABS-CBN. The code of conduct imposed on Sonza under the Agreement refers to the ³Television and Radio Code of the Kapisanan ng mga Broadcaster sa Pilipinas (KBP), which has been adopted by the COMPANY (ABS-CBN) as its Code of Ethics.´ The KBP code applies to broadcaster s, not to employees of radio and television stations. Broadcasters are not necessarily employees of radio and television stations. Clearly, the rules and standards of performance referred to in the Agreement are those applicable to talents and not to employees of ABS-CBN. In any event, not all rules imposed by the hiring party on the hired party indicate that the latter is an employee of the former. (AFP Mutual Benefit Association, Inc. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 102199, 28 Jan. 1997, 267 SCRA 47). In this case, Sonza failed to show that these rules controlled his performance. We find that these general rules are merely guidelines towards the achievement of the mutually desired result, which are top rating television and radio programs that comply with standards of the industry. The Vaughan case also held that one could still be an independent contractor although the hirer reserved certain supervision to insure the attainment of the desired result. The hirer, however, must not deprive the one hired from performing his services according to his own initiative. Lastly, Sonza insists that the ³exclusivity clause´ in the Agreement is the most extreme form of control which ABS-CBN exercised over him. chanrobles
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This argument is futile. Being an exclusive talent does not by itself mean that Sonza is an employee of ABS-CBN. Even an independent contractor can validly provide his services exclusively to the hiring party. In the broadcast industry, exclusivity is not necessarily the same as control.

The hiring of exclusive talents is a widespread and accepted practice in the entertainment industry. This practice is not designed to control the means and methods of work of the talent, but simply to protect the investment of the broadcast station. The broadca st station normally spends substantial amounts of money, time and effort ³in building up its talents as well as the programs they appear in and thus expects that said talents remain exclusive with the station for a commensurate period of time.´ Normally, a much higher fee is paid to talents who agree to work exclusively for a particular radio or television station. In short, the huge talent fees partially compensates for exclusivity, as in the present case. (Sonza vs. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, G. R. No. 138051, June 10, 2004). chanrobles virtual law library Individuals as independent contractors. The law does not preclude individuals from engaging as independent contractors. Individuals with special skills, expertise or talent enjoy the freedom to offer their services as independent contractors. The right to life and livelihood guarantees this freedom to contract as independent contractors. The right of labor to security of tenure cannot operate to deprive an individual, possessed with special skill s, expertise and talent, of his right to contract as an independent contractor. An individual like an artist or talent has a right to render his services without any one controlling the means and methods by which he performs his art or craft. The Supreme Court will not interpret the right of labor to security of tenure to compel artists and talents to render their services only as employees. If radio and television program hosts can render their services only as employees, the station owners and managers ca n dictate to the radio and television hosts what they say in their shows. This is not conducive to freedom of the press. (Sonza vs. ABS -CBN Broadcasting Corporation, G. R. No. 138051, June 10, 2004). Consequently, a television program host is deemed an in dependent contractor. (Alberty-Vélez vs. Corporación De Puerto Rico Para La Difusión Pública [361 F.3d 1, 2 March 2004] United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit). In another case, it was ruled by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals that vaudeville performers are independent contractors. (Vaughan, et al. vs. Warner, et al., [157 F.2d 26, 8 Aug. 1946]). chanrobles virtual law library In Zhengxing vs. Nathanson, [215 F.Supp.2d 114, 5 August 2002], the plaintiff Zhengxing, a Chinese language broad caster and translator was deemed an independent contractor because she worked under minimal supervision. In the insurance industry, an insurance adjuster or a commission agent of insurance firms is not considered an employee thereof but an independent

contractor in the light of the absence of control by the latter over the work of the former except as to the results of such work. (AFP Mutual Benefit Association, Inc. vs. NLRC, et al., G. R. No. 102199, Jan. 28, 1997; Insular Life Assurance Co., Ltd. vs. NL RC, et al., G. R. No. 84484, Nov. 15, 1989). In case of doubt, one must be classified as employee, not as independent contractor. In the 2000 case of SSS vs. CA, [G. R. No. 100388, December 14, 2000], the Supreme Court reiterated its ruling in the case of Dy Keh Beng vs. International Labor, [90 SCRA 161 (1979)], where the long-standing ruling in Sunripe Coconut Products Co. vs. Court of Industrial Relations, [83 Phil. 518, 523, L-2009, April 30, 1949], was cited, to wit: chanrobles virtual
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³When a worker possesses some attributes of an employee and others of an independent contractor, which make him fall within an intermediate area, he may be classified under the category of an employee when the economic facts of the relations make it more nearly one of employment than one of independent business enterprise with respect to the ends sought to be accomplished.´ Employment of security guards in the security service industry. The Supreme Court had occasion to discuss once again the issue of employment status of security guards in the 2005 case of Manila Electric Company vs. Benamira, [G. R. No. 145271, July 14, 2005]. In emphasizing the fact that there was no employer -employee relationship between petitioner Meralco and the security guards assign ed to it by the security agency employing them, it cited the case of Social Security System vs. Court of Appeals, [No. L-28134, June 30, 1971, 39 SCRA 629] that: ³...The guards or watchmen render their services to private respondent by allowing themselves to be assigned by said respondent, which furnishes them arms and ammunition, to guard and protect the properties and interests of private respondent's clients, thus enabling that respondent to fulfill its contractual obligations. Who the clients will be, and under what terms and conditions the services will be rendered, are matters determined not by the guards or watchmen, but by private respondent. On the other hand, the client companies have no hand in selecting who among the guards or watchmen shall be assigned to them. It is private respondent that issues assignment orders and instructions and exercises control and supervision over the guards or watchmen, so much so that if, for one reason or another, the client is dissatisfied with the services of a particular guard, the client cannot himself

terminate the services of such guard, but has to notify private respondent, which either substitutes him with another or metes out to him disciplinary measures. That in the course of a watchman's assignment the client conceivably issues instructions to him, does not in the least detract from the fact that private respondent is the employer of said watchman, for in legal contemplation such instructions carry no more weight than mere requests, the privity of contract being between the client and private respondent, not between the client and the guard or watchman. Corollarily, such giving out of instructions inevitably spring from the client's right predicated on the contract for services entered into by it with privat e respondent. ³In the matter of compensation, there can be no question at all that the guards or watchmen receive compensation from private respondent and not from the companies or establishments whose premises they are guarding. The fee contracted for to be paid by the client is admittedly not equal to the salary of a guard or watchman; such fee is arrived at independently of the salary to which the guard or watchman is entitled under his arrangements with private respondent. Said ruling in SSS was reiterated in American President Lines vs. Clave, [No. L-51641, June 29, 1982, 114 SCRA 826], thus: ³In the light of the foregoing standards, We fail to see how the complaining watchmen of the Marine Security Agency can be considered as employees of the petitioner. It is the agency that recruits, hires, and assigns the work of its watchmen. Hence, a watchman can not perform any security service for the petitioner's vessels unless the agency first accepts him as its watchman. With respect to his wages, the amount to be paid to a security guard is beyond the power of the petitioner to determine. Certainly, the lump sum amount paid by the petitioner to the agency in consideration of the latter's service is much more than the wages of any one watchman. In point of fact, it is the agency that quantifies and pays the wages to which a watchman is entitled. ³Neither does the petitioner have any power to dismiss the security guards. In fact, We fail to see any evidence in the record that it wielded such a power. It is true that it may request the agency to change a particular guard. But this, precisely, is proof that the power lies in the hands of the agency. ³Since the petitioner has to deal with the agency, and not the individual watchmen, on matters pertaining to the contracted task, it stands to reason that the petitioner does not exercise any power over the watchmen's conduct. Always, the agency stands between

the petitioner and the watchmen; and it is the agency that is answerable to the petitioner for the conduct of its guards.´ And as held in said Meralco case: ³Under the security service agreement, it was ASDAI which (a) selected, engaged or hired and discharged the security guards; (b) assigned them to MERALCO according to the number agreed upon; (c) provided the uniform, firearms and ammunition, nightsticks, flashlights, raincoats and other paraphernalia of the security guards; (d) paid them salaries or wages; and, (e) disciplined and supervised them or principally controlled their conduct. The agreement even explicitly provided that ³[n]othing herein contained shall be understood to make the security guards under this Agreement, employees of the COMPANY, it being clearly understood that such security guards shall be considered as they are, employees of the AGENCY alone.´ Clearly, the individual respondents are the employees of ASDAI. chanrobles virtual law library ³As to the provision in the agreement that MERALCO reserved the right to seek replacement of any guard whose behavior, conduct or appearance is not satisfactory, such merely confirms that the power to discipline lies with the agency. It is a standard stipulation in security service agreements that the client may request the replacement of the guards to it. Service-oriented enterprises, such as the business of providing security services, generally adhere to the business adage that ³the customer or client is always right´ and, thus, must satisfy the interests, conform to the needs, and cater to the reasonable impositions of its clients. ³Neither is the stipulation that the agency cannot pull out any security guard from MERALCO without its consent an indication of control. It is simply a security clause designed to prevent the agency from unilaterally removing its security guards from their assigned posts at MERALCO¶s premises to the latter¶s detriment. ³The clause that MERALCO has the right at all times to inspect the guards of the agency detailed in its premises is likewise not indicative of control as it is not a unilateral right. The agreement provides that the agency is principally mandated to conduct inspections, without prejudice to MERALCO¶s right to conduct its own inspections. ³Needless to stress, for the power of control to be present, the person for whom the services are rendered must reserve the right to direct not only the end to be achieved but also the means for reaching such end.[26] Not all rules imposed by the hiring party on the hired party indicate that the latter is an employee of the

former.[27] Rules which serve as general guidelines towards the achievement of the mutually desired result are not indicative of the power of control.[28] ³Verily, the security service agreements in the present case provided that all specific instructions by MERALCO relating to the discharge by the security guards of their duties shall be directed to the agency and not directly to the individual respondents. The individual respondents failed to show that the rules of MERALCO controlled their performance. xxx ³The individual respondents can not be considered as regular employees of the MERALCO for, although security services are necessary and desirable to the business of MERALCO, it is not directly related to its principal business and may even be considered unnecessary in the conduct of MERALCO¶s principal business, which is the distribution of electricity.´ 87. Who are the parties to a contracting or subcontracting arrangement? Parties. - There are 3 parties: principal, the contractor or subcontractor, and the workers engaged by the latter. The principal and the contractor or subcontractor may be a natural or juridical person.
y

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³Principal´ refers to any employer who puts out or farms out a job, service, or work to a contractor or subcontractor, whether or not the arrangement is covered by a written contract. chanrobles virtual law library ³Contractor" or "subcontractor´ refers to any person or entity engaged in a legitimate contracting or subcontracting arrangement. "Contractual employee´ includes one employed by a contractor or subcontractor to perform or complete a job, work or service pursuant to an arrangement between the latter and a principal called ³contracting´ or ³subcontracting´. chanrobles virtual law library

88. When is contracting or subcontracting legitimate? Contracting or subcontracting shall be legitimate if the following circumstances concur: chanrobles virtual law library (i) The contractor or subcontractor carries on a distinct and independent business and undertakes to perform the job, work or service on its own account and under its own responsibility, according to its own manner and method, and free from the control and directions of the principal in all matters connected with the performance of the work except as to the results thereof;

(ii) The contractor or subcontractor has substantial capital or investment; and chanrobles virtual law library (iii) The agreement between the principal and the contractor or subcontractor assures the contractual employees' entitlement to all labor and occupational safety and health standards, free exercise of the right to self-organization, security of tenure, and social and welfare benefits. 89. What is permissible contracting or subcontracting arrangement? The principal may engage the services of a contractor or subcontractor for the performance of any of the following: (a) Works or services temporarily or occasionally needed to meet abnormal increase in the demand of products or services, provided that the normal production capacity or regular workforce of the principal cannot reasonably cope with such demands; chanrobles virtual law
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(b) Works or services temporarily or occasionally needed by the principal for undertakings requiring expert or highly technical personnel to improve the management or operations of an enterprise; (c) Services temporarily needed for the introduction or promotion of new products, only for the duration of the introductory or promotional period; (d) Works or services not directly related or not integral to the main business or operation of the principal, including casual work, janitorial, security, landscaping, and messengeri al services and work not related to manufacturing processes in manufacturing establishments; (e) Services involving the public display of manufacturers¶ products which do not involve the act of selling or issuance of receipts or invoices; (f) Specialized works involving the use of some particular, unusual or peculiar skills, expertise, tools or equipment the performance of which is beyond the competence of the regular workforce or production capacity of the principal; and (g) Unless a reliever system is in place among the regular workforce, substitute services for absent regular employees provided that the period of service shall be coextensive with the period of absence and

the same is made clear to the substitute employee at the time of engagement. The phrase ³absent regular employees´ includes those who are serving suspensions or other disciplinary measures not amounting to termination of employment meted out by the principal but excludes those on strike where all the formal requisites fo r the legality of the strike have been prima facie complied with based on the records filed with the National Conciliation and Mediation Board. (Section 6, Rule VIII-A, Book III, Rules to Implement the Labor Code, as amended by Department Order No. 10, Series of 1997). 90. What are the prohibited acts in the law on contracting and subcontracting? The following are hereby declared prohibited for being contrary to law or public policy: (a) Labor-only contracting; (b) Contracting out of work which will either displace employees of the principal from their jobs or reduce their regular working hours; (c) Contracting out of work with a ³cabo´. [A "cabo" refers to a person or group of persons or to a labor group which, in the guise of a labor organization, supplies workers to an employer, with or without any monetary or other consideration whether in the capacity of an agent of the employer or as an ostensible independent contractor.] (d) Taking undue advantage of the economic situation or lack of bargaining strength of the contractual employee, or undermining his security of tenure or basic rights, or circumventing the provisions of regular employment in any of the following instances: (i) In addition to his assigned function, requiring the contractual employee to perform functions which are currently being performed by the regular employee of the principal or of the contractor or subcontractor; (ii) Requiring him to sign as a precondition to employment or continued employment, an antedated resignation letter; a b lank payroll; a waiver of labor standards including minimum wages and social or welfare benefits; or a quitclaim releasing the principal, contractor or subcontractor from any liability as to payment of the future claims; and chanrobles virtual law library (iii) Requiring him to sign a contract fixing the period of employment to a term shorter than the term of the contract between the principal and the contractor or subcontractor,

No. Series of 2001. supplied or placed by such contractor or subcontractor are performing activities which are directly related to the main business of the principal. and any of the following elements are present: i) the contractor or subcontractor does not have substantial capital or investment which relates to the job. Labor Code. DOLE Primer on Contracting and Subcontracting. Effects of Department Order No. G. work or service when not justified by the exigencies of the business and the same results in the reduction or splitting of the bargaining unit. (f) Contracting out of a job. What is labor-only contracting? Labor-only contracting is hereby declared prohibited. supplies or plac es workers to perform a job. (e) Contracting out of a job. 3. In summary. representations made by the subcontractor to the employees will bind the principal. July 8. The principal will become the employer as if it directly employed the workers engaged to undertake the subcontracted job or service. work or service directly related to the business or operation of the principal by reason of a strike or lockout whether actual or imminent. . work or service for a principal. Pena. the following are the effects of a labor-only contracting arrangement: a. The subcontractor will be treated as the agent or intermediary of the principal. or chanrobles virtual law library ii) the contractor does not exercise the right to control over the performance of the work of the contractual employee. For this purpose. et al. 158255. Since the act of an agent is the act of the principal. and (g) Contracting out of a job. Effects of a labor-only contracting arrangement.. 9. 2004). Inc. R. 91. work or service through an in-house agency as defined herein. labor-only contracting shall refer to an arrangement where the contractor or subcontractor merely recruits. b. (Article 106. vs..unless the latter contract is divisible into phases for which substantially different skills are required and this is made known to the employee at the time of engagement. Manila Water Co. (No. work or service to be performed and the employees recruited.

a hospital center. 224 SCRA 7171]. R. The employees will become employees of the principal. c. a big local bank.It will be responsible to them for all their entitlements and benefits under the labor laws. G. NLRC. d. meaning. among others. government agencies. the Supreme Court ruled that the labor contractor is not engaged in labor only contracting because it has sufficiently proved that it has substantial capital. etc. 18-02. [G. Effects of Department Order No. It is a qualified independent contractor. meaning. Department Order No. but also the manner and means to be used in reaching that end. 21. machineries and work premises. DOLE Primer on Contracting and Subcontracting. equipment. 2002]. No. No. Benamira. Series of 2002. If the labor-only contracting activity is undertaken by a legitimate labor organization. 2002]). 3. [Feb. chanrobles virtual law library Right of control. DOLE Primer on Contracting and Subcontracting. actually and directly used by the contractor or subcontractor in the performance or completion of the job. an international bank. etc. it is a highly capitalized venture and cannot be deemed engaged in labor-only contracting. Series of 2001).. effect. Department Order No. Series of 2002. Nos. equipment. 1993. Effects of Department Order No. Further. a university. it need not prove that it made . In Neri vs.. tools. Having substantial capital in the amount of P1 Million fully subscribed and paid for and is a big firm which services. 18-02. (Section 5. Series of 2001). implements. (Section 5. 13. to determine not only the end to be achieved. machineries. R. Substantial capital or investment. 2005). 97008-09. 8. subject to the classifications of employees under Article 28 of the Labor Code. (No. 21. ³Substantial capital or investment´ refers to capital stocks and subscribed capitalization in the case of corporations. a petition for cancellation of union registration may be filed against it. July 23. (See Manila Electric Company vs. 145271. July 14. [Feb. The principal and the subcontractor will be solidarily treated as the employer. Substantial capital without investment in tools. 3. pursuant to Article 239(e) of the Labor Code. work or service contracted out. The ³right to control´ shall refer to the right reserved to the person for whom the services of the contractual workers are performed.

In the 2005 case of Wack Wack Golf & Country Club vs. chanrobles virtual law library If the intention was to require the contractor to prove that he has both capital and the requisite investment. 79004-08. It had provided management services to various industrial and commercial business establishments. No. NLRC. etc. (BSMI). Filipinas Synthetic Fiber Corporation [FILSYN] vs. machineries. 195 SCRA 224. Inc. in the case of In re Petit ion for Certification Election Among the Regular Rank -and-File Employees Workers of Byron-Jackson (BJ) Services International Incorporated. and has sufficient capital and resources to undertake its principal business. 223). But having established that it has substantial capit al. 149793. (See also Baguio vs. (Neri vs. June 14. G. et al. equipment. NLRC. R. 1991. Nos. (Ecal vs. July 23. Federation of Free Workers (FFW)-Byron Jackson Services Employees . they are merely incidental thereto. cannot be considered as engaged in labor -only contracting being a highly capitalized venture.000 of which is actually subsc ribed. Nos. they are not necessary in its operation. as opposed to being integral. NLRC. 202 SCRA 465.6 Million. it was no longer necessary for the labor contractor to further adduce evidence to prove that it does not fall within the purview of ³labor-only´ contracting. R. [G. Moreover. jobs and other kinds of business ventures. the Supreme Court ruled that a contractor which is a going-concern duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission with substantial capitalization of P1. 470). et al. the Supreme Court ruled that there is indubitable evidence showing that Business Staffing and Management. work premises. et al. chanrobles virtual law library In another similar case. R. functions. nevertheless. 4. Oct. Labor Secretary Bienvenido Laguesma. 224 SCRA 7171). NLRC. The law does not require both substantial capital and investment in such tools. This is clear from the use of the conjunction ³or´ in the provision of fourth paragraph of Article 106 of the Labor Code. R. business operations. is an independent contractor. 9700809.. without which production and company sales will suffer. 2005]. chanrobles virtual law library On the contrary. 113347. among others.. NLRC. 92777-78. while the janitorial services performed by the employee pursuant to the agreement between the indirect employer and the contractor may be considered directly related to the principal business of the indirect employer which is the manufacture of polyester fiber. R. equipment. There is even no need for it to refute petitioners¶ contention that the activities they perform are directly related to the principal business of respondent bank (FEBTC).investments in the form of tools. Its Articles of Incorporation proves its sufficient capitalization. in December 1993. then the conjunction ³and´ should have been used. 1996].. Moreover. [G. G. 1993. 1991. Nos. P400. April 15. engaged in the management of projects. a corporation engaged in the business as Management Service Consultant. G. March 13. No.

Inc. free from the control and supervision of its principal. chanrobles virtual law library ³Lastly. Being in the business of providing water to the consumers in the East Zone. Moreover. the penalty to be imposed was dictated by petitioner as . in dealing with the consumers. and although it was ACGI which ultimately disciplined private respondents. only P62. it required private respondents to report daily and to remit their collections on the same day to the branch office or to deposit them with Bank of the Philippine Islands. to qualify as an independent contractor. The 121 collectors [composing ACGI] subscribed to four shares each and paid only the amount of P625. 2004].500. [which was contracted by petitioner Manila Water Company. No. and other materials. chanrobles virtual law library ³Second.000. the corporate address of ACGI was the residence of its president. private respondents used the receipts and identification cards issued by petitioner. they were already working for petitioner. Pena. In fact. Further. work premises. vs. While it has an authorized capital stock of P1.00. Inc. Peña. to collect charges for the Balara Branch]. Herminio D. the collection of the charges therefor by private respon dents for the petitioner can only be categorized as clearly related to. 158255. in holding that the entity is not an independent contractor but a labor-only contractor.. equipment. Mr. the work of the private respondents was directly related to the principal business or operation of the petitioner. [Association Collectors Group. it monitored strictly their attendance as when a collector cannot perform his daily collection. recognized BSMI as an independent contrac tor.] (ACGI). he must notify petitioner or the branch office in the morning of the day that he will be absent. which cannot be considered substantial capitalization.00 in order to comply with the incorporation requirements. This form of control and supervision never changed although they were already under the seeming employ of ACGI. Prior to private respondents¶ alleged employment with ACGI. and in the pursuit of the latter¶s business. private respondents reported daily to the branch office of the petitioner because ACGI has no office or work premises. library chanrobles virtual law In the 2004 case of Manila Water Co. subject to its rules and regulations in regard to the manner and method of performing their tasks.00 is actually paid-in. [G.000. machineries. Petitioner issued memoranda regarding the billing methods and distribution of books to the collectors.Chapter. the Supreme Court. does not have substantial capitalization or investment in the form of tools. ACGI did not carry on an independent business or undertake the performance of its service contract according to its own manner and method. Inc. July 8. petitioner. R. ratiocinated: ³First.

G. 1996]. it had assets exceeding P5 Million and at least 20 typewriters. NLRC. R. October 21. and as such. In distinguishing the Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation case [supra] from the Neri case. the High Court considered not only the capitalization of the contractor but also the fact that it was providing specific special services (radio/telex operator and janitor) to the employer.´ (Manila Water Co. office equipment and service vehicles. that in another case (Associated Labor Union -TUCP vs. 1991). there is no doubt that ACGI was engaged in labor-only contracting. that the contractor retained control over the employees and the employer was actually just concerned with the end -result.shown in the letters it sent to ACGI specifying the penalties to be meted on the erring private respondents. NLRC. R. that it is a member of the Social Security System. vs. This cannot be said of the service rendered by the private respondent (contractor¶s employee) in the Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation case. G. No. March 5. and that the contractor was paid in lump sum for the services it rendered. 158255. and that it had employees of its own and a pool of 25 clerks assigned to clients on a temporary basis. the telex machine operated by the employee belonged to the employer. chanrobles virtual law library ³Under this factual milieu.. Pena. vs. Inc. R. the Supreme Court had already found that the said contractor was an independent contractor. 101784. No. Although in the Neri case. is considered merely an agent of the petitioner. [G. 111501. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation. . 2004). xxx. Consequently. that the contractor had the power to re-assign the employees and their deployment was not subject to the approval of the employer.. registered as an ³independent employer´ with the Securities and Exchange Commission as well as the Department of Labor and Employment. the service was deemed permissible because it was specific and technical.. July 8. the Supreme Court ruled that the manpower agency is a labor-only contractor notwithstanding the latter¶s invocation of the ruling in the Neri case (supra) that it is a highly-capitalized business venture. et al. that in 1984. These are indications that ACGI was not left alone in the supervision and control of its alleged employees. These features of the Neri case make it distinguisha ble from the Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation case where the service being rendered by the private respondent (contractor¶s employee) was not a specific or special skill that the contractor was in the business of providing. the Supreme Court cited the following: In the Neri case. it can be concluded that ACGI was not an independent contractor since it did not carry a distinct business free from the control and supervision of petitioner. No.

vs. where the contractor was adjudged to have engaged in labor-only contracting. July 23.00 consisting of buildings. equipment. 324 SCRA 469]. [G. whether the contractor was carrying on an independent business. equipment. [G. ³Accordingly.. the nature and extent of the work. The fact is that the contractor did not have copying machines of its own. machinery and equipment. [G. work premises and other materials which are necessary in the conduct of his business´ in the Implementing Rules. 97008-09. No. Inc. 111501. February 2. July 10. The Supreme Court said: ³Petitioner also ascribes as error the failure of the Court of Appeals to apply the ruling in Neri vs. petitioner alleged that the appellate court and the NLRC erred when they declared MAERC a labor-only contractor despite the finding that MAERC had investments amounting to P4. The 2003 case of San Miguel Corporation vs. several factors may be considered. NLRC. equipment. the skill required. equipment. In fact.R.608. to be considered an independent contractor. 1996). we clarified that it was not enough to show substantial capitalization or investment in the form of tools.. 2000. et al.The argument in the Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation case that the contractor had typewriters and service vehicles for the conduct of its business independently of the employer does not make it a legitimate job contractor because typewriters and vehicles bear no direct relationship to the job for which the contractor contracted its service of operating copier machines and offering copying services to the public. 1993. (Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation. One who does not have an independent business for undertaking the job contracted for is just an agent of the employer. the term and duration of the relationship. R. What it did was simply to supply manpower to Fuji Xerox. chanrobles virtual law library ³However. No. etc. etc. among others.. The second condition to establish permissible job contracting was sufficiently met if one possessed either attribute. machinery. which are directly related to the service it is being contracted to render. further explained the principles of labor-only contracting. machineries. R. the right to . NLRC. The phrase ³substantial capital and investment in the form of tools. In that case. such as. No. 144672. NLRC. to be considered a job contractor. but not necessarily confined to. work premises.R. March 5.080. Maerc Integrated Services.. 126586. machinery and work premises. 224 SCRA 717]. clearly contemplates tools. G. et al. Nos. it was held that the law did not require one to possess both substantial capital and investment in the form of tools. jurisprudential holdings were to the effect that in determining the existence of an independent contractor relationship. in Vinoya vs. 2003]..

. the power of the employer with respect to the hiring.¶ Furthermore. while MAERC¶s investments in the form of buildings. The status of BCC had also been passed upon by the Court in a previous case where it was found to be a qualified job contractor because it was µa big firm which services among others. none of its workers was also ever assigned to any other establishment. Maerc Integrated Services. G. the control and supervision of the workers. July 30. government agencies. manner and terms of payment. the loss of jobs for the whole MAERC workforce and the resulting actions instituted by the workers. free from the control and supervision of its principal in all matters except as to the results thereof. (Citing Ponce v. No. (San Miguel Corporation vs. 124643. a hospital center.assign the performance of specified pieces of work. the control of the premises. The existence of employer -employee relationship cannot be made subject of an agreement or contract. Inc. tools. tools and equipment amounted to more than P4 Million. effect. The Court likewise mentioned that the employees of BCC were engaged to perform specific special services for their principal. and the mode. there were only two (2) complainants in that case who were not only selected and hired by the contractor before being assigned to work in the Cagayan de Oro branch of FEBTC but the Court also found that the contractor maintained effective supervision and control over them. NLRC. the Court considered not only the fact that respondent Building Care Corporation (BBC) had substantial capitalization but noted that BCC carried on an independent business and performed its contract according to its own manner and method. appliances. firing and payment of the workers of the contractor.. a big local bank. The ³labor only´ contractor is considered merely an agent of the employer. No. 1998. etc. an international bank. Stipulation in the contract. Nor do we believe MAERC to have an independent business. we cannot disregard the fact that it was the SMC which required MAERC to undertake such investments under the understanding that the business relationship between petitioner and MAERC would be on a long term basis. Not only was it set up to specifically meet the pressing needs of SMC which was then having labor problems in its segregation division. ³In Neri. ³In comparison. thus convincing us that it was created solely to service the needs of SMC. G. materials and labor.R. the duty to supply premises. 144672. et al. displayed the characteristics of a labor-only contractor. R. Any liability shall devolve upon the . a university. 293 SCRA 366). as earlier discussed. Naturally. Moreover. with the severance of relationship between MAERC and SMC followed MAERC¶s cessation of operations. 2003). MAERC. July 10.

i. Inc. it being crucial that its character be measured in terms of and determined by the criteria set by statute. we do not agree that the petitioners had been made to perform activities µwhich are not directly related to the general business of manufacturing. chanrobles virtual law library Thus. Livi performs µmanpower services. NLRC.¶ The nature of one¶s business is not determined by self-serving appellations one attaches thereto but by the tests provided by statute and prevailing case law. an integral part of the manufacturing business. The bare fact that Livi maintains a separate line of business does not extinguish the equal fact that it has provided California with workers to pursue the latter¶s own business. This was the holding of the Supreme Court in the case of Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation [supra]. thus: ³There is no doubt that in the case at bar.¶ The petitioners had been charged with µmerchandizing [sic] promotion or sale of the products of [California] in the different sales outlets in Metro Manila including task and occasional [sic] price tag ging. Livi as a placement agency.¶ an activity that is doubtless.. [G. [169 SCRA 497 (1989)]. California Marketing Co. ³xxx.³labor only´ contractor and the employer. We hold that it is one notwithstanding its vehement claims to the contrary. As held in the 2001 case of De los Santos vs. R. jointly and severally. using its [California¶s] premises and equipment.. the parties cannot dictate. be considered employees of the Company.´ the contractor may still be considered a labor-only contractor. had simply supplied it with the manpower necessary to carry out its [California¶s] merchandising activities. . It is not.¶ California¶s purported µprincipal operation activity. The Court cited the analogous case of Tabas vs.. rendered a piece of work it [California] could not have itself done. (Tabas vs. then. 169 SCRA 497).. or job contractor. December 20. it contracts out labor in favor of clients.¶ meaning to say. and notwithstanding the provision of the contract that it is µan independent contractor. California Manufacturing Company. Inc. No. whether as ³labor-only´ contractor. 121327. notwithstanding that the agreement or contract between the principal employer and the contractor states that the latter is an ³independent contractor´ and that the workers hired by it ³shall not. 2001]. In this connection.e. the character of its business. as if Livi had served as its [California¶s] promotions or sales arm or agents. in any manner and under any circumstances. by the mere expedient of a unilateral declaration in a contract. and that the Company has no control or s upervision whatsoever over the conduct of the Contractor or any of its workers in respect to how they accomplish their work or perform the Contractor¶s obligations under this Agreement. or otherwise.

Admark states that it is a firm engaged in promotional. For one thing. vs. CMC can validly farm out its merchandising activities to a legitimate independent contractor. For another. and that California had hired it to perform the latter¶s merchandising activities. [G. the Supreme Court cited the following circumstances that tend to establish it as such: 1) The SEC registration certificate of D. 1996). and not by declaration of parties. the fact that the petitioners were [are]. G. Livi would have been truly the employer of its employees and California. The Supreme Court considered such reliance on Tabas as misplaced. No. March 5. advertising..³The fact that the petitioners have allegedly admitted being Livi¶s µdirect employees¶ in their complaints is nothing conclusive. publication. promotions. Petitioners here relied on the Tabas case in claiming that they are employees of said company. In declaring that D. will not absolve California since liability has been imposed by legal operation. R. had Livi been discretely a promotions firm. such as advertising. 2) The service contract between CMC and D. or ³CMC´) were not similarly fortunate as those in Tabas [supra]. however. It had several merchandising contracts with companies like Purefoods. 2000]. It was likewise engaged in the publication business as evidenced by it magazine the ³Phenomenon. June 8. and as we indicated. NLRC. 3) D. x x x. we believe.L. Admark clearly provides that the agreement is for the supply of sales promoting merchandising services ra ther than one of manpower placement. L. its client..´ chanrobles virtual law library . But in the 2000 case of Escario vs. 111501. marketing and merchandising.´ (Philippine Fuji Xerox Corporation. Admark (petitioners¶ employer) is a legitimate independent contractor. R. the relations of parties must be judged from case to case and the decree of law. petitioners who were likewise agency-supplied workers in the same company (California Manufacturing Co.L. 124055. and Licron. et al. Admark was actually engaged in several activities.´ chanrobles virtual law library In other words. For then. Corona Supply. further stated in said case that: ³It would have been different. Inc.L. Nabisco Biscuits. It was. NLRC. marketing and merchandising activities. For in Tabas. the Supreme Court ruled that therein contractor Livi Manpower Services was a mere placement agency and had simply supplied CMC with the manpower necessary to carry out the company¶s merchandising activity. No. et al.

Its asseveration that the checkers were there only to check the end result was belied by the testimony of Carlito R.. the language of the contract is not determinative of the parties' relationship.¶ ³Viewed alongside the findings of the Labor Arbiter that the MAERC organizational set-up in the bottle segregation project was such that the segregators/cleaners were supervised by checkers and each checker was also under a supervisor who was in turn under a field supervisor. 2003]. Maerc Integrated Services.. it was stipulated in the contract of services between MAERC and SMC that MAERC was an independent contractor and that the workers hired by it ³shall not. 159469. however. R. [G. It had an authorized capital stock of P500. No. According to Singson. No. thus: chanrobles virtual law library ³In deciding the question of control. PLDT. rather. that the checkers were also tasked to report on the identity of the workers whose performance or quality of work was not according to the rules and standards set by SMC. Inc. in any manner and under any circumstances. head of the Mandaue Container Service of SMC. It then had current assets amounting to P6 million and is therefore a highly capitalized venture. In the 2003 case of San Miguel Corporation vs.´ (San Miguel Corporation vs. In the June 2005 decision in the case of Abella vs. G. Inc.. June 8.000. 2005].020 for the office space it occupied. It ratiocinated. the Supreme Court ruled that the security guards . Singson.00. R. 2003). [G. it is the totality of the facts and surrounding circumstances of each case. R. SMC maintained a constant presence in the workplace through its own checkers. July 10. be considered employees of the Company. 144672.´ chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court. It paid rentals of P30. materials and equipment to service its clients. and that the Company has no control or supervision whatsoever over the conduct of the Contractor or any of its workers in respect to how they accomplish their work or perform the Contractor's obligations under the Contract. July 10. It owned several motor vehicles and other tools. the responsibility of watching over the MAERC workers by MAERC personnel became superfluous w ith the presence of additional checkers from SMC. Maerc Integrated Services. there are indicia that it actively supervised the complainants. 144672. ³Despite SMC¶s disclaimer.4) It had its own capital assets to carry out its promotion business. µit (was) necessary to identify the names of those concerned so that the management [referring to MAERC] could call the attention to make these people improve the quality of work. et al.´ disregarded the said stipulation in the contract. No. following the ³control test.

Crown Triumph. Here. photocopying machines. equipment. et al.R. (Vinoya vs. May 30. among others. (2) the employee who is ostensibly under the employ of the ³labor-only´ contractor. 2004. [G. there are three parties involved: (1) the ³laboronly´ contractor. G. G. et al. et al. NLRC and Fortune Tobacco Corporation. vs. the evidence as it stands is at odds with petitioners¶ assertion that PSI is an ³in-house´ agency of PLDT so as to call for a piercing of veil of corporate identity as what the Court has done in De leon. No. NLRC. Under this scheme.. office equipments like computer. 2000. (PSI) to PLDT are the employees of PSI and not of PLDT. 2. Therefore. (Sonza vs. June 25. Sandoval Shipyards. It is a registered corporation duly licensed by the Philippine National Police to engage in security business. No. typewriters. 169 SCRA 341). vs. ammunitions. then the rejected or terminated guard may still be assigned to other clients of PSI as in the case of Jonathan Daguno who was posted at PLDT on 21 February 1996 but was subsequently relieved therefrom and assigned at PCIBank Makati Square effective 10 May 1996. It has substantial capital and investment in the form of guns. The law makes the principal responsible to the employees of the ³labor-only´ contractor as if the principal itself directly hired or employed the employees. It has been consistently held in our jurisdiction that since the ³labor -only´ contractor does not have substantial capital investment in the form of tools. Inc. R. and (3) the principal who is deemed the real employer. 126586. the High Court declared: ³We hasten to add on this score that the Labor Arbiter as well as the NLRC and the Court of Appeals found that PSI is a legitimate job contractor pursuant to Section 8. et al. R. In holding that PSI is a legitimate job contractor.. In a labor-only contract. work premises and other materials. 2001]. the workers supplied by him are employees of the owner of the project to whom said labor was supplied. R. communication equipments. Industrial Timber Corporation vs. NLRC. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. 2001). Inc. No. the ³labor-only´ contractor is the agent of the principal. Rule VII. 112661. vehicle s. Pepito.. et al. the security guards which PSI had assigned to PLDT a re already the former¶s employees prior to assignment and if the assigned guards to PLDT are rejected by PLDT for reasons germane to the security agreement.. Book II of the Omnibus Rules Implementing the Labor Code..supplied by People¶s Security. 143428. chanrobles virtual law library . and Philippine Cable. Feb. machineries. G. et al. etc.´ chanrobles virtual law library Nature of liability of employer and labor-only contractor. 138051. it is servicing clients other than PLDT like PCIBank. No. June 10. and above all.

July 8. Inc. et al. R. where labor-only contracting exists in a given case. holds both the employer and the labor-only contractor responsible to the latter¶s employees for the more effective safeguarding of the employees¶ rights under the Labor Code. 158255. July 14. 1986. the nature of t he liability of the employer is more direct. Benamira. 144672.. The law. Manila Water Co. R.. 145271. In a case.. G. G. the principal employer is not responsible for any claim made by the . et al. The statute creates an employer-employee relationship for a comprehensive purpose: to prevent a circumvention of labor laws. The principal employer becomes jointly and severally liable with the job contractor only for the payment of the employees' wages whenever the contractor fails to pay the same. L-66598. (Manila Water Co.. G. San Miguel Corporation v. distinguished. 146 SCRA 347). i. R. (Philippine Bank of Communications vs. (Philippine Bank of Communications vs. vs. No. The messengers worked in the premises of the client and were paid their salaries through the service agency. the law creates an employer -employee relationship for a limited purpose.e. this time for a comprehensive purpose: employer for purposes of the Labor Code. Consequently.The reason is. the principal. 19. Inc. 2005. chanrobles virtual law library Liability of legitimate contractor and labor-only contractor. 158255. Consequently. G. 10 July 2003). a bank. Dec. the labor-only contractor is treated as agent and the former. The employer is made by the statute responsible to the employees of the labor-only contractor as if such employees had been directly employed by the employer. G. Thus. R. There is a wide gulf of distinction between the liability of a legitimate independent contractor and the liability of a labor -only contractor. No.. et al. Pena. Other than that. No. (Manila Electric Company vs. a service agency supplied 11 messengers to its client. The client company controlled the performance of the duties of the messenger. 2004). 146 SCRA 347). in effect. Inc. NLRC. In legitimate job contracting. July 8. to ensure that the employees are paid their wages. 2004. MAERC Integrated Services. Pena. vs. to prevent any violation or circumvention of any provision of said Code. NLRC. et al.. the client was held liable to the complainant messenger as if the latter had been directly employed not only by the agency but also by said client. the statute itself implies or establishes an employer -employee relationship between the employer (the owner of the project) and the employees of the labor-only contractor.R. the labor-only contractor is treated as mere agent or intermediary of the employer. No.. No. The Supreme Court declared that the service agency is engaged in ³labor -only´ contracting.

machineries. NLRC. Maerc Integrated Services.. 2003). In a case involving retrenchment of workers effected by the labor -only contractor consequent to the termination of the labor-only contract.. it was ruled that the principal was not discharged from paying the separation benefits of the workers inasmuch as the contractor was shown to be a labor-only contractor. direct employer. Hence. the principal should have complied with the requirement of written notice to both the employees concerned and the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) which must be given at least one (1) month before the intended date of retrenchment. Inc. 2003). 144672. R. the duty to comply with the requirements of the law for terminating employees as well as payment of monetary claims of the latter would necessarily devolve on the principal which is deemed the real. July 10. No. is a labor-only contractor and. July 10. 2003).. therefore.. No. July 10. 144672. a. Inc. On the other hand. The contractor is considered merely an agent of the principal employer and the latter is responsible to the employees of the labor-only contractor as if such employees had been directly employed by the principal employer. R. 144672. Illustrative cases of labor-only contracting. was declared a labor-only contractor for its failure to prove that it had substantial capital or investment in the fo rm of tools. The principal employer. et al. No. G. chanrobles virtual law library Having made the distinction between the liability of a job contractor and that of a labor-only contractor. b.. G. Duty to comply with legal requirements for valid termination in labor-only contracting situations. the principal should be held liable for the separation pay of said workers. (Tiu vs. Feb. including the fines imposed for violations of the notice requirement.employees. equipment. the statute creates an employer-employee relationship for a comprehensive purpose: to prevent a circumvention of labor laws. et al.. (San Miguel Corporation vs. gardeners. in solidum with the labor-only contractor. janitors. (San Miguel Corporation vs. in labor-only contracting. therefore. R. Resultantly.. Moreover. firemen and grasscutters to a garment manufacturer. work premises and other materials. (San Miguel Corporation vs. No. a mere agent of the petitioner-employer. becomes solidarily liable with the labor -only contractor for all the rightful claims of the employees. Maerc Integrated Services. Inc. 95845. G. . R. An employee who hires dispatchers for the operator of a transportation company. 1996). it is clear that if there is a finding of labor only contracting. et al. Maerc Integrated Services. A company which supplies a considerable workforce totaling 120 mechanics. G. 21. et al.

equipment. No. the supermarket is deemed the direct employer of the labor-only contractor¶s employees and thus liab le for all benefits to which such workers are entitled. tools and trained service personnel was not accepted by the Supreme Court. et al. d.as in fact. like wages. Clave. A search company which supplies messengers to a bank is a labor -only contractor considering that the messengers rendered services to the bank. Moreover. cashiers. among others. separation benefits and so forth. 3. petitioners do not even allege . baggers. 110731. Dec. labor-only contractors. as its name indicates. G. et al. Oct. [114 SCRA 826 (1982)] if indeed such distinguishing way is needed. L-66598. G. In accordance with the provisions of Article 106 of the Labor Code. (Philippine Bank of Communications vs. It is this factor that distinguishes this case from American President Lines vs. R. it is improbable that petitioners did not exercise direct control over their work.the delivery of documents to designated persons whether within or without the bank premises . equipment. The person who agreed with a motor company under the terms of their Work Contract to supply only labor and supervision over his contractual workers in doing automotive body-painting work and to hire or bring in additional workers as may be required by the company and to handle additional work load or to accelerate or facilitate completion of work in process is a labor-only contractor in the light of the following circumstances.. check -out personnel. 19.. as it were.´ Resultingly. R. the workers supplied by three manpower agencies to a supermarket to work as merchandisers.. NLRC. R. machineries. 86010. 1996). Said company is not a parcel delivery company. Their work was directly related. c. Messengerial work .is directly related to the day-to-day operations of the bank. July 26. necessary and vital to the day -to-day operations of the supermarket. 146 SCRA 347). among others: the company supplied all the tools. No. G. warehousemen and so forth were declared employees of the supermarket and the manpower agencies. the labor agencies have ³substantial capital or investment in the form of tools. machinery and materials necessary for the performance by . 1989). Its argument that it is not so engaged as labor-only contractor since it is possessed of substantial capital or investment in the form of office equipment. (Shoppers Gain Supermart. vs. chanrobles virtual law library e.the work assigned to them are directly related to the business of the latter. NLRC. No. (Guarin. sales ladies. their jobs involved normal and regular functions in the ordinary business of the petitioner corporation and given the nature of their functions and responsibilities. work premises. et al. et al. in different client-companies for longer or shorter periods of time. et al. et al. It is a recruitment and placement corporation placing bodies. 1986.that aside from supplying the manpower. NLRC. vs. there is no evidence . within the premises of the bank and alongside other people also rendering services to the bank.

are subject to correction by the company¶s supervisors. while in the latter. et al. 156 SCRA 522). they were required to observe regular working hours and render overtime services when needed. no employer-employee relationship exists between the employees of the job contractor and the principal employer (indirect employer). No. an employer-employee relationship is created by law between the principal employer and the employees of the labor-only contractor. on the one hand. that is. the labor-only contractor provides only manpower. the principal employer is considered the ³direct employer´ of the employees in accordan ce with the last paragraph of Article 106 of the Labor Code. 14. 98382. Inc. while in the latter. while in the latter. the legitimate job contractor provides specific services. defects in the workmanship of their jobs while in progress. The principal distinctions between legitimate. vs. the principal employer is not responsible for any claim made by the employees. In the former. In the former. the legitimate job contractor undertakes to perform a specific job for the principal employer. In the former.the former and his men of the contracted job within the premises of the company. Dec. NLRC. In the former. while in the latter. d. the labor-only contractor merely provides the personnel to work for the principal employer. chanrobles virtual law library Principal distinctions between legitimate job contracting and labor-only contracting. In the former. while in the latter. regulations and policies such as the wearing of identification cards and uniforms. Other than this obligation of paying the wages. (Broadway Motors. the joint and several obligation of the principal employer and the legitimate job contractor is only for a limited purpose. their compensation was paid in lump sum. to ensure that the employees are paid their wages. a. chanrobles virtual law library 92. b. on the other. 1987. and they are required to observe company rules. G. as this term is understood under Article 107 of the Labor Code. R. e. the principal employer becomes solidarily liable with the labor-only contractor for all the rightful claims of the employees.. What is ³in-house agency´? . the principal employer is considered only an ³indirect employer´. permissible job contracting. c. and the prohibited labor-only contracting.

chanrobles virtual law library . and (ii) operates solely for the principal owning. A finding that a contractor is a ³labor-only´ contractor is equivalent to a finding that there exists an employer-employee relationship between the owner of the project and the employees of the ³labor-only´ contractor since that relationship is defined and prescribed by law itself. thus: ³The fact that there is no actual and direct employer -employee relationship between MERALCO and the individual respondents does not exonerate MERALCO from liability as to the monetary claims of the individual respondents. xxx ³When ASDAI as contractor failed to pay the individual respondents. R. under Articles 106 and 109 of the Labor Code. the indirect employer shall be considered as direct employer. Benamira.Similarly prohibited under the law is the operation of an ³in -house agency´ whereby a contractor or subcontractor is engaged in the supply of labor which: (i) is owned. 94. For purposes of determining the extent of their civil liability for the payment of wages. July 14. managed or controlled by the principal. Labor Code). or controlling it. 2005] where it was held. 145271. MERALCO became an indirect employer of individual respondents pursuant to Article 107 of the Labor Code. When MERALCO contracted for security services with ASDAI as the security agency that hired individual respondents to work as guards for it. [G. No. MERALCO as principal becomes jointly and severally liable for the individual respondents¶ wages. managing. (Article 109. The best illustration of these principles is the 2005 case of Manila El ectric Company vs. Who is an indirect employer in a contracting or subcontracting arrangement? The principal is considered the indirect employer of the workers supplied by independent contractor or subcontractor. chanrobles virtual law library 93. What is the nature of the liability of an indirect employer? The nature of the liability of the principal is joint and solidary with the contractor or subcontractor for any violation of any provision of the Labor Code.

Judicial proceedings in rem is required for creditors¶ claims against debtors to become operative. such share shall be borne by all his co -debtors. which provides: µART. because of his insolvency.´ 95. 2. µHe who made the payment may claim from his co -debtors only the share which corresponds to each. If the payment is made before the debt is due. in proportion to the debt of each. as held in Mariveles Shipyard Corp. As an employer. µWhen one of the solidary debtors cannot. No.xxx ³ASDAI is held liable by virtue of its status as direct employer. What is meant by worker preference in case of bankruptcy? 1. 2003. 3. 144134. 415 SCRA 573].¶ ³ASDAI may not seek exculpation by claiming that MERALCO¶s payments to it were inadequate for the individual respondents¶ lawful compensation. This statutory scheme gives the workers the ample protection consonant with labor and social justice provisions of the 1987 Constitution. the creditor may choose which offer to accept.R. If two or more solidary debtors offer to pay. The right to preference given to workers under Article 110 cannot exist in any effective way prior to the time of its presentation in distribution proceedings. vs. ³However. with the interest for the payment already made. Article 110 applies only in case of bankruptcy or judicial liquidation of the employer. the solidary liability of MERALCO with that of ASDAI does not preclude the application of Article 1217 of the Civil Code on the right of reimbursement from his co-debtor by the one who paid. To contend that Article 110 of the Labor Code is applicable also to extrajudicial proceedings would be putting the worker in a better position . [G. no interest for the intervening period may be demanded. Court of Appeals. while MERALCO is deemed the indirect employer of the individual respondents for the purpose of paying their wages in the event of failure of ASDAI to pay them. 1217. reimburse his share to the debtor paying the obligation. November 11. ASDAI is charged with knowledge of labor laws and the adequacy of the compensation that it demand s for contractual services is its principal concern and not any other¶s. Payment made by one of the solidary debtors extinguishes the obligation.

chanrobles virtual law library 4. ET AL. APRIL 14. R. NLRC. canals or other works. 114761. REHABILITATION RECEIVERSHIP: 96. What is the effect of rehabilitation receivership on monetary claims of employees? RUBBERWORLD (PHILS. number 6 and 2242. INC. 128003.). The right of preference as regards unpaid wages recognized by Article 110 of the Labor Code does not constitute a lien on the property of the insolvent debtor in favor of the workers but a right to a first preference in the discharge of the funds of the judgment debtor. JANUARY 19. except to the extent that such claims for unpaid wages are already covered by Article 2241. R. NLRC. 6. number 6: ³claims for labor er¶s wages.than the State which could only assert its own prior preference in case of a judicial proceeding. In one case. NLRC. it was held that there is no merit in the contention of the NLRC that taxes are also absol utely preferred claims only with respect to movable and immovable properties on which they are due. INC. VS. upon said buildings. . they would come within the ambit of the category of ordinary preferred credits under Article 2244.A mortgage credit is a special preferred credit under Article 2241 of the Civil Code while workers¶ preference is an ordinary preferred credit. Preference of taxes. R. The tax lien attaches not only from the service of the warrant of distraint of personal property but from the time the tax became due and payable. number 3: ³claims of laborers and other workers engaged in the construction. 7. ET AL. VS. JULY 26. Claims for unpaid wages do not. The claim of the government predicated on a tax lien is superior to the claim of a private litigant predicated on a judgment. NO. NO. 2000) (SEE ALSO RUBBERWORLD (PHILS. canals and other works. ET AL.). number 3. Article 110 of the Labor Code does not purport to create a lien in favor of workers or employees for unpaid wages either upon all of the properties or upon any particular property owned by their employer. reconstruction or repair of buildings. Mortgage credit. on the goods manufactured or the work done. INC. 5. VS. fall at all within the category of specially preferred claims established under Articles 2241 and 2242 of the Civil Code. 2000) ALEMAR¶S SIBAL AND SONS. (G. (G. therefore. 1999) where the same issue is discussed and further . NO.´ or by Article 2242. (G..´ To the extent that claims for unpaid wages fall outside the scope of Article 2241.. 126773.

PREFERENCE IN CASE OF BANKRUPTCY OR LIQUIDATION UNDER ARTICLE 110 OF THE LABOR CODE. chanrobles virtual law library ATTORNEY¶S FEES: 97. What is the amount of attorney¶s fees that may be allowed by law? 1. In cases of unlawful withholding of wages, the employer may be assessed attorney¶s fees equivalent to ten percent (10%) of the amount of wages recovered. 2. It shall be unlawful for any person to demand or accept, in any judicial or administrative proceedings for the recovery of wages, attorney¶s fees which exceed ten percent (10%) of the amount of wages recovered. 3. The attorney¶s fees may be awarded only when the withholding of wages is declared unlawful. 4. The basis of the 10% attorney¶s fees is the amount of wages recovered. Should there be any other monetary awards given in the proceedings, the same may not be assessed or subjected to the 10% attorney¶s fees. PROHIBITIONS REGARDING WAGES: 98. What is meant by the principle of non-interference in disposal of wages? Employers are not allowed to interfere in the disposal of wages of employees. 99. What are allowable wage deductions? Deductions from the wages of the employees may be made by the employer in any of the following cases: a. When the deductions are authorized by law, (e.g., SSS, PagIBIG), including deductions for the insurance premiums advanced by the employer in behalf of the employee as well as union dues where the right to check-off has been recognized by the employer or authorized in writing by the individual employee himself; b. When the deductions are with the written authorization of the employees for payment to a third person and the employer agrees to do so, provided that the latter does not receive any pecuniary benefit, directly or indirectly, from the transaction;

c. Withholding tax mandated under the National Internal Revenue Code; d. Withholding of wages because of employee¶s debt to the employer which is already due; e. Deductions made pursuant to a judgment against the worker under circumstances where the wages may be the subject of attachment or execution but only for debts incurred for food, clothing, shelter and medical attendance. f. When deductions from wages are ordered by the court; g. Deductions made for agency fee from non-union members who accept the benefits under the CBA negotiated by the bargaining union. This form of deduction does not require the written authorization of the non-union member. 100. What are deposits for loss or damage? No employer shall require his worker to make deposits from which deductions shall be made for the reimbursement of loss of or damage to tools, materials, or equipment supplied by the employer, except when the employer is engaged in such trades, occupations or business where the practice of making deductions or requiring deposits is a recognized one, or is necessary or desirable as determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment in appropriate rules and regulations. 101. Is withholding of wages and kickback allowed? No. It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to withhold any amount from the wages of a worker or induce him to give up any part of his wages by force, stealth, intimidation, threat or by any other means whatsoever without the worker¶s consent. chanrobles virtual law library 102. May deduction be allowed to ensure employment or retention of employment? It shall be unlawful to make any deduction from the wages of any employee for the benefit of the employer or his representative or intermediary as consideration of a promise of employment or retention in employment. 103. What are the retaliatory measures prohibited under the law? It shall be unlawful for an employer to refuse to pay or reduce the wages and benefits, discharge or in any manner discriminate against any

employee who has filed any complaint or instituted any proceeding or has testified or is about to testify in such proceedings. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF LABOR LAWS: 104. What is the legal basis for the exercise by the Secretary of Labor of his visitorial and enforcement powers? The legal basis is Article 128 which involves the exercise by the Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representatives, of the visitorial and enforcement powers provided therein. Article 128 applies to inspection cases involving findings of the labor employment and enforcement officers or industrial safety engineers regarding violations of labor standards provisions of the Labor Code and other labo r legislation. Article 128 contemplates situations where the case for violation of labor standards laws and other labor legislations, arose from the routine inspection conducted by the labor employment and enforcement officer or industrial safety engineers of the Department of Labor and Employment, with or without a complaint initiated by an interested party. Here, it is generally the Department of Labor and Employment which initiates the action. chanrobles virtual law library EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN: 105. What is nightwork prohibition? Regardless of age, no woman shall be employed or permitted or suffered to work, with or without compensation: (a) In any industrial undertaking or branch thereof between 10:00 o¶clock at night and 6 o¶clock in the morni ng of the following day; or (b) In any commercial or non-industrial undertaking or branch thereof, other than agricultural, between midnight and 6 o¶clock in the morning of the following day; or (c) In any agricultural undertaking at nighttime unless she is given a period of rest of not less than nine (9) consecutive hours. 106. What are the exceptions to nightwork prohibition? The nightwork prohibition shall not apply in any of the following ca ses: (a) In cases of actual or impending emergencies caused by serious accident, fire, flood, typhoon, earthquake, epidemic or other disasters or calamity, to prevent loss of life or property, or in cases of force majeure or imminent danger to public safety;

(b) In case of urgent work to be performed on machineries, equipment or installation, to avoid serious loss which the employer would otherwise suffer; (c) Where the work is necessary to prevent serious loss of perishable goods; (d) Where the woman employee holds a responsible position of managerial or technical nature, or where the woman employee has been engaged to provide health and welfare services; chanrobles virtual law
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(e) Where the nature of the work requires the manual skill and dexterity of women workers and the same cannot be performed with equal efficiency by male workers; chanrobles virtual law library (f) Where the women employees are immediate members of the family operating the establishment or undertaking; and (g) Under other analogous cases exempted by the Secretary of Labor and Employment in appropriate regulations. 107. What are the required facilities for women? Employers are required to: (a) Provide seats proper for women and permit them to use such seats when they are free from work and during working hours, provided they can perform their duties in this position without detriment to efficiency; (b) To establish separate toilet rooms and lavatories for men and women and provide at least a dressing room for women; (c) To establish a nursery in a workplace for the benefit of the women employees therein; and chanrobles virtual law library (d) To determine appropriate minimum age and other standards for retirement or termination in special occupations such as those of flight attendants and the like. 108. What are the acts of discrimination against women expressly prohibited under R. A. 6725 (May 12, 1989)? It shall be unlawful for any employer to discriminate against any woman employee with respect to terms and conditions of em ployment solely on account of her sex.

The following are acts of discrimination: (a) Payment of a lesser compensation, including wage, salary or other form of remuneration and fringe benefits, to a female employee as against a male employee, for work of equal value; and (b) Favoring a male employee over a female employee with respect to promotion, training opportunities, study and scholarship grants solely on account of their sexes. There is criminal liability for the willful commission of any of the for egoing unlawful act. (R. A. 6725, id.). MATERNITY LEAVE BENEFITS: 109. What are maternity leave benefits? A covered female employee who has paid at least three monthly maternity contributions in the twelve-month period preceding the semester of her childbirth, abortion or miscarriage and who is currently employed shall be paid a daily maternity benefit equivalent to one hundred percent (100%) of her present basic salary, allowances and other benefits or the cash equivalent of such benefits for sixty (60) days subject to the following conditions: (a) That the employee shall have notified her employer of her pregnancy and the probable date of her childbirth which notice shall be transmitted to the SSS in accordance with the rules and regulations it may provide; (b) That the payment shall be advanced by the employer in two equal installments within thirty (30) days from the filing of the maternity leave application; (c) That in case of caesarian delivery, the employee shall be paid the daily maternity benefit for 78 days; (d) That payment of daily maternity benefits shall be a bar to the recovery of sickness benefits provided by this Act for the same compensable period of sixty (60) days for the same childbirth, abortion or miscarriage; (e) That the maternity benefits shall be paid only for the first four deliveries after March 13, 1973; (f) That the SSS shall immediately reimburse the employer of one hundred percent (100%) of the amount of maternity benefits advanced to the employee by the employer upon r eceipt of

satisfactory proof of such payment and legality thereof; and
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(g) That if an employee should give birth or suffer abortion or miscarriage without the required contributions having been remitted for her by her employer to the SSS, or without the latter having been previously notified by the employer of the time of the pregnancy, the employer shall pay to the SSS damages equivalent to the benefits which said employee would otherwise have been entitled to, and the SSS shall in turn pay such amount to the employee concerned. (R. A. 7322, March 3, 1992). 110. Is an unmarried pregnant woman entitled to maternity leave benefits? Every pregnant woman in the private sector, whether married or unmarried, is entitled to the maternity leave benefits. 111. Are maternity leave benefits included in the computation of 13th month pay? Maternity benefits, like other benefits granted by the SSS, are granted to employees in lieu of wages and, therefore, may not be included in computing the employee¶s 13th-month pay for the calendar year. 112. Are voluntary or self-employed members of the SSS entitled to maternity leave benefits? chanrobles virtual law library Voluntary or self-employed members are not entitled to the maternity benefit because to be entitled thereto, corresponding maternity contributions should be paid by employers. Voluntary or self -employed members have no employers so they do not have maternity contributions. PATERNITY LEAVE: 113. What is paternity leave? ³Paternity leave´ refers to the benefit granted to a married male employee allowing him not to report for work for seven (7) days (for each delivery for the first 4 deliveries) but continues to earn the compensation therefor, on the condition that his spouse has delivered a child or suffered miscarriage for purposes of enabling him to effectively lend support to his wife in her period of recovery and/or in the nursing of the newly-born child. If paternity leave is not availed of, it is not convertible to ca sh. 114. What is ³delivery´?

³Delivery´ shall include childbirth or any miscarriage. 115. What is meant by ³spouse´? ³Spouse´ refers to the lawful wife. For this purpose, lawful wife refers to a woman who is legally married to the male employee concern ed. 116. What is meant by ³cohabiting´? ³Cohabiting´ refers to the obligation of the husband and wife to live together. THE SOLO PARENTS' WELFARE ACT OF 2000: 117. What is parental leave? Republic Act No. 8972 (An Act Providing for Benefits and Privileges to Solo Parents and Their Children, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other Purposes), otherwise known as ³The Solo Parents¶ Welfare Act of 2000,´ was approved on November 7, 2000 providing for parental leave of seven (7) days. It is defined as follows: ³(d) µParental leave¶ - shall mean leave benefits granted to a solo parent to enable him/her to perform parental duties and responsibilities where physical presence is required.´ chanrobles virtual law
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It bears noting that this leave privilege is an additional leave benefit which is separate and distinct from any other leave benefits provided under existing laws or agreements. Thus, under Section 8 thereof, it is provided: ³Sec. 8. Parental Leave. - In addition to leave privileges under existing laws, parental leave of not more than seven (7) working days every year shall be granted to any solo parent employee who has rendered service of at least one (1) year.´ 118. What is meant by flexible work schedule under R. A. No. 8972? Under Republic Act No. 8972, solo parents are allowed to work on a flexible schedule, thus: ³Sec. 6. Flexible Work Schedule. ± The employer shall provide for a flexible working schedule for solo parents: Provided, That the same shall not affect individual and company productivity: Provided, further, That any employer may request exemption from the above

requirements from the DOLE on certain meritorious grounds.´ (Section 6, Republic Act No. 8972). The phrase ³flexible work schedule´ is defined in the same law as follows: (e) ³Flexible work schedule´ - is the right granted to a solo parent employee to vary his/her arrival and departure time without affecting the core work hours as defined by the employer. (Section 3[e], Republic Act No. 8972). chanrobles virtual law library DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN: 119. What are the acts considered discriminatory against women under the law? It shall be unlawful for any employer: (1) To deny any woman employee the benefits provided for in the law or to discharge any woman employed by him for the purpose of preventing her from enjoying any of the benefits provided under the Labor Code. (2) To discharge such woman on account of her pregnancy, or while on leave or in confinement due to her pregnancy; (3) To discharge or refuse the admission of such woman upon returning to her work for fear that she may again be pregnant; (4) To pay lesser compensation to a female employee as against a male employee for work of equal value. chanrobles virtual law library (5) To favor a male employee over a female employee with respect to promotion, training opportunities, study and scholarship grants solely on account of their sexes. 120. What are stipulations against marriage? It shall be unlawful for an employer to require as a condition of employment or continuation of employment that a woman employee shall not get married, or to stipulate expressly or tacitly that upon getting married, a woman employee shall be deemed resigned or separated, or to actually dismiss, discharge, discriminate or otherwise prejudice a woman employee merely by reason of her marriage. 121. What is the status of women working in nightclubs, massage clinics, and similar establishments?

having no fixed hours of work. and (2) all time during which a child is suffered or permitted to work.Any woman who is permitted or suffered to work. literary. EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN: 122. chanrobles virtual law library (e) ³Workplace´ refers to the office. the term shall include the place where th e child actually performs work to render service or to take an assignment. (d) ³Hours of work´ include (1) all time during which a child is required to be at a prescribed workplace. radio program. (i) in work where he/she is directly under the responsibility of his/her parents or legal guardian and where only members of the child¶s family are employed. in any night club. in work or economic activity that is not child labor as defined in the immediately preceding sub-paragraph. with or without compensation. and chanrobles virtual law library ii. or (ii)in public entertainment or information. (f) ³Public entertainment or information´ refers to artistic. cocktail lounge. shall be considered as an employee of such establishment for purposes of labor and social legislation. They are considered regular employees of said establishments except when the night club operator does not control nor direct the details and manner of their work in the entertainment of night club patrons and. Where there is no fixed or definite workplace. premises or worksite where a child is temporarily or habitually assigned. . (b) ³Child labor´ refers to any work or economic activity performed by a child that subjects him/her to any form of exploitation or is harmful to his/her health and safety or physical. bar or similar establishments under the effective control or supervision of the employer for a substantial period of time as determined by th e Secretary of Labor and Employment. cinema or film. Rest periods of short duration during working hours shall be counted as hours worked. when the child below fifteen (15) years of age. they may come and go as they please. mental or psychosocial development. massage clinic. to include households employing children. when the child is below eighteen (18) years of age. What are the relevant terms defined in the law? (a) ³Child´ refers to any person under 18 years of age. and cultural performances for television show. (c) ³Working Child´ refers to any child engaged as follows: i.

intimidation or threat. and the approval of the Department of Labor and Employment: Provided. violence. subject to the approval and supervision of competent authorities. and other media. a work permit . a continui ng program for training and skills acquisition of the child. health. safety.theater. (g) ³Forced labor and slavery´ refers to the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement. before engaging such child. abuse of authority or moral ascendancy. That his/her employment neither endangers his/her life. television or other forms of media is essential: Provided. however. radio. or chanrobles virtual law library (2) Where a child's employment or participation in public entertainment or information through cinema. safety. further. That the parent or legal guardian shall provide the said child with the prescribed primary and/or secondary education. 123. morals and normal development of the child. debt bondage or deception. and chanrobles virtual law library (c) The employer shall formulate and implement. (h) ³Child pornography´ refers to any representation of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for primarily sexual purposes. and the duration and arrangement of working time. health. further. nor impairs his/her normal development: Provided. That the employment contract is concluded by the child's parents or legal guardian. (b) The employer shall institute measures to prevent the child's exploitation or discrimination taking into account the system and level of remuneration. use of force or coercion. print materials. What is the minimum employable age of children? Children below fifteen (15) years of age shall not be employed except: (1) When a child works directly under the sole responsibility of his/her parents or legal guardian and where only members of his/her family are employed: Provided. internet. and morals. In the above exceptional cases where any such child may be employed. public relations activities or campaigns. That the following requirements in all instances are strictly complied with: (a) The employer shall ensure the protection. if possible. with the express agreement of the child concerned. including deprivation of freedom. commercial advertisement. the employer shall first secure. theater.

and in no case beyond forty (40) hours a week. That the work shall not be more than four (4) hours at any given day.00) annually. A. (2) A child fifteen (15) years of age but below eighteen (18) shall not be allowed to work for more than eight (8) hours a day. salaries. No. R. the other parent shall administer the same. No.A. The income of the working child and/or the property acquired through the work of the child shall be administered by both parents. 7610. What is the working hours of a working child? (1) A child below fifteen (15) years of age may be allowed to work for not more than twenty (20) hours a week: Provided. in compliance with the provisions of this Act. . How is the working child¶s income be used or administered? The wages. No. No. the order of preference on parental authority as provided for under the Family Code shall apply. chanrobles virtual law library (3) No child below fifteen (15) years of age shall be allowed to work between eight o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning of the following day and no child fifteen (15) years of age but below eighteen (18) shall be allowed to work between ten o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning of the following day. In case both parents are absent or incapacitated. R. A. 9231. 9231. That not more than twenty percent (20%) of the child's income may be used for the collective needs of the family.from the Department of Labor and Employment which shall ensure observance of the above requirements. (Section 12-B. December 19.] 124. 125.The parent or legal guardian of a working child below eighteen (18) years of age shall set up a trust fund for at least thirty percent (30%) of the earnings of the child whose wages and salaries from work and other income amount to at least two hundred thousand pesos (P200. Trust Fund to Preserve Part of the Working Child's Income. 2003). December 19. as amended by R. 9231. earnings and other income of the working child shall belong to him/her in ownership and shall be set aside primarily for his/her support. The child shall have full control over the trust fund upo n . as amended by R.A. as amended by R. 2003). 7610. 7610. education or skills acquisition and secondarily to the collective needs of the family: Provided. December 19. [NOTE: The term "child" shall apply to all persons under eighteen (18) years of age. 2003). No.000.A. for which he/she shall render a semi-annual accounting of the fund to the Department of Labor and Employment. In the absence or incapacity of either of the parents. A. (Section 12-A. R. No. (Section 12.

elements. 9231. 2003)? No child shall be engaged in the worst forms of ch ild labor. No. or (3) The use. procuring. as defined under the "Anti-trafficking in Persons Act of 2003". No. co - . 2003). (Section 12-C. 7610. 126. 9231 (December 19. including recruitment of children for use in armed conflict. December 19. procuring or offering of a child for illegal or illicit activities. substances. underwater or at dangerous heights. debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labor. or (b) Exposes the child to physical. such that it: chanrobles virtual law library (a) Debases. or (e) Exposes the child to physical danger such as. or (4) Work which. or (2) The use. What is meant by ³worst form of child labor´ under R. or is found to be highly stressful psychologically or may prejudice morals. or which requires the manual transport of heavy loads. No. but not limited to the dangerous feats of balancing. R. equipment and tools such as power-driven or explosive power-actuated tools. or (f) Is performed in an unhealthy environment exposing the child to hazardous working conditions. degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and dignity of a child as a human being.reaching the age of majority.A. including the production and trafficking of dangerous drugs and volatile substances prohibited under existing laws. emotional or sexual abuse. or (d) Involves the use of dangerous machinery. A. The phrase "worst forms of child labor" shall refer to any of the following: (1) All forms of slavery. is hazardous or likely to be harmful to the health. or practices similar to slavery such as sale and trafficking of children. physical strength or contortion. A. by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out. as amended by R. for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances. safety or morals of children. offering or exposing of a child for prostitution. or (c) Is performed underground.

December 19. responsible citizens where the violation occurred. (d) Officer. A. or to extreme temperatures. No.A. radiation. 7610. tobacco and its byproducts. or (g) At least three (3) concerned. 128. (f) Barangay chairman of the place where the violation occurred. (b) Parents or guardians.agents or processes involving ionizing. (Section 14. EMPLOYMENT OF HOUSEHELPERS: 129. flammable substances. Is the employment of children in advertisements prohibited? No child shall be employed as a model in any advertisement directly or indirectly promoting alcoholic beverages. intoxicating drinks. fire. protozoans. No. (c) Ascendant or collateral relative within the third degree of consanguinity. or (i) Involves the manufacture or handling of explosives and other pyrotechnic products. 9231. viruses. or vibrations. 127. as amended by R. fungi. 2003). noxious components and the like. where the child is residing or employed. or (h) Exposes the child to biological agents such as bacteria. nematodes and other parasites. gambling or any form of violence or pornography. noise levels. chanrobles virtual law library (e) Officer or social worker of the Department of Social Welfare and Development. R. social worker or representative of a licensed child-caring institution. or chanrobles virtual law library (g) Is performed under particularly difficult conditions. Who may file a complaint in case of unlawful acts committed against children? Complaints on cases of unlawful acts committed against children as enumerated herein may be filed by the following: (a) Offended party. Who is a ³househelper´ or ³domestic servant´? .

The original contract of domestic service shall not last for more than two (2) years but it may be mutually renewed for such periods by the parties. No deductions therefrom shall be made by the employer unless authorized by the househelper himself or by existing laws. Househelper shall be assigned to work in a commercial. who renders services in and about the employer¶s home and which services are usually necessary or desirable for the maintenance and enjoyment thereof. industrial or agricultural enterprise at a wage or salary rate lower than that provided for agricultural or non-agricultural workers as prescribed herein. What should be paid by way of compensation to the househelper? The minimum wage rates of househelpers shall be the basic cash wages which shall be paid to the househelpers in addition to lodging. food and medical attendance. whether male or female. How should a househelper be treated? . chanrobles virtual law library 134. chanrobles virtual law library 131. Is an employer obligated to provide a househelper the opportunity for education? If the househelper is under the age of eighteen (18) years. free of charge. May a househelper be assigned to non-household work? No. but not the services of laborers in a commercial or industrial enterprise. cooks. and ministers exclusively to the personal comfort and enjoyment of the employer¶s family. 130. 135. 132. unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. The cost of education shall be part of the househelper¶s compensation. Is an employer obligated to provide board and lodging to a househelper? The employer shall furnish the househelper. the employer shall give him or her an opportunity for at least elementary education. chanrobles virtual law library Household services include the services of family drivers. What is the time and manner of payment of wages? Wages shall be paid directly to the househelper to whom they are due at least once a month.³Househelper´ or ³domestic servant´ shall refer to any person. nursemaids or family servants. suitable and sanitary living quarters as well as adequate food and medical attendance. 133.

Definition of terms under the SSS Law (R. or activity of any kind and uses the services of another person who is under his orders as regards the employment. 138. What is the indemnity for unjust termination of services of a househelper? If the period of household service is fixed. 136. No. Who is an ³industrial homeworker´? An industrial homeworker is a worker who is engaged in industrial homework. The materials may or may not be furnished by the employer or contractor. 8282). a system of production under which work for an employer or contractor is carried out by a homeworker at his/her home. except the Government and any of its political subdivisions. where there is an employer -employee relationship: Provided. A. That a self-employed person shall be both employee and employer at the same time. he or she shall be paid the compensation already earned plus that for fifteen (15) days by way of indemnity. neither the employer nor the househelper may terminate the contract before the expiration of the term.Any person who performs services for an employer in which either or both mental or physical efforts are used and who receives compensation for such services. Who is a ³field personnel´? A field personnel is a non-agricultural employee who regularly performs his duties away from the principal place of business or branch office of the employer and whose actual hours of work in the field cannot b e determined with reasonable certainty. If the househelper leaves without justifiable reason. (b) Employee . EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS & FIELD PERSONNEL: 137. chanrobles virtual law library THE SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM (SSS): 139. he or she shall forfeit any unpaid salary due him or her not exceeding fifteen (15) days.Any person. natural or juridical. who carries on in the Philippines any trade. If the househelper is unjustly dismissed. undertaking. branches or instrume ntalities. chanrobles virtual law library . including corporations owned or controlled by the Government: Provided. That a self-employed person shall be both employee and employer at the same time. (a) Employer. domestic or foreign. except for a just cause. business.A househelper should be treated in a just and humane manner and n o physical violence should be inflicted on him. industry.

he is congenitally or while still a minor has been permanently incapacitated and incapable of self-support.The compensation base for contributions and benefits as indicated in the schedule in Section Eighteen of this Act. and has not reached twenty-one (21) years of age. international organization or their wholly-owned .The dependents shall be the following: (1) The legal spouse entitled by law to receive support from the member. chanrobles virtual law library (4) Service performed in the employ of a foreign government or international organization. legitimated or legally adopted. daily or weekly basis. chanrobles virtual law library (e) Monthly salary credit .(c) Dependents . (g) Contribution . as well as the cash value o f any remuneration paid in any medium other than cash except that part of the remuneration in excess of the maximum salary credit as provided under Section Eighteen of this Act.All actual remuneration for employment. (d) Compensation . if on any other basis. including the mandated cost-of-living allowance. physically or mentally. (2) The legitimate. chanrobles virtual law library (2) Service performed on or in connection with an alien vessel by an employee if he is employed when such vessel is outside the Philippines. however. (3) Service performed in the employ of the Philippine Government or instrumentality or agency thereof. or their wholly-owned instrumentality: Provided. not gainfully employed. µmonthly¶ shall mean a period of one (1) month. any foreign government. That this exemption notwithstanding.The amount paid to the SSS by and on behalf of the members in accordance with Section Eighteen of this Act. and illegitimate child who is unmarried. or if over twenty-one (21) years of age. (h) Employment . and (3) The parent who is receiving regular support from the member.Any service performed by an employee for his employer except: (1) Employment purely casual and not for the purpose of occupation or business of the employer.The period from one end of the last payroll period of the preceding month to the end of the last payroll period of the current month if compensation is on hourly. (f) Monthly .

his/her dependent illegitimate children shall be entitled to one hundred percent (100%) of the benefits. the dependent parents who shall be the secondary beneficiaries of the member. and (5) Such other services performed by temporary and other employees which may be excluded by regulation of the Commission.The retirement.The result obtained by dividing the sum of the last sixty (60) monthly salary credits immediately preceding the semester of contingency by sixty (60). (i) Beneficiaries . death. (l) Average daily salary credit . That the injury or sickness which caused the disability shall be deemed as the permanent disability for the purpose of computing the average monthly salary credit. and illegitimate children.The dependent spouse until he or she remarries.For a member covered prior to January nineteen hundred and eighty five (1985) minus the calendar year of coverage plus the number of calendar years in which six (6) or more . further. legitimated children of the member. any other person designated by the member as h is/her secondary beneficiary. or the result obtained by dividing the sum of all the monthly salary credits paid prior to the semester of contingency by the number of monthly contributions pai d in the same period. legitimated or legally adopted children: Provided. whichever is greater: Provided. (k) Average monthly salary credit .instrumentality employing workers in the Philippines or employing Filipinos outside of the Philippines. (m) Credited years of service . may enter into an agreement with the Philippine Government for the inclusion of such employees in the SSS except those already covered by their respective civil service retirement systems: Provided. the dependent legitimate. Employees of bona fide independent contractors shall not be deemed employees of the employer engaging the service of said contra ctors. That the dependent illegitimate children shall be entitled to fifty percent (50%) of the share of the legitimate. That the provisions of this Act shall be supplementary to any such agreement. disability. further. legitimated or legally adopted. In the absence of all the foregoing. finally.The result obtained by dividing the sum of the six (6) highest monthly salary credits in the twelve-month period immediately preceding the semester of contingency by one hundred eighty (180). who shall be the primary beneficiaries of the member: Provided. That the terms of such agreement shall conform with the provisions of this Act on coverage and amount of payment of contributions and benefits: Provided. That in the absence of the dependent legitimate. In their absence. chanrobles virtual law library (j) Contingency . injury or sickness and maternity of the member.

That the Commission may provide for a different number of contributions in a calendar year for it to be considered as a credited year of service. he shall pay to the SSS only the contribution required of him a nd he shall continue his contribution to such private plan less his contribution to the SSS so that the employer¶s total contribution to his benefit plan and to the SSS shall be the same as his contribution to his private benefit plan before the compulsory coverage: Provided. That in the case of domestic helpers. That nothing in this Act shall be construed as a limitation on the right of employers and employees to . That the private benefit plan which the employer shall continue for his employees shall remain under the employer¶s management and co ntrol unless there is an existing agreement to the contrary: Provided. the number of calendar years in which six (6) or more contributions have been paid from the year of coverage up to the calendar year containing the semester prior to the contingency: Provided. For a member covered in or after January nineteen hundred and eighty five (1985). (o) Self-employed .000. That any benefit already earned by the employees under private benefit plans existing at the time of the approval of this Act shall not be discontinued. adjustments. Who are covered by the SSS? (a) Coverage in the SSS shall be compulsory upon all employees not over sixty (60) years of age and their employers: Provided.00) a month: Provided.Net income before income taxes plus non -cash charges such as depreciation and depletion appearing in the regular financial statement of the issuing or assuming institution. reduced or otherwise impaired: Provided. further. as well as those workers enumerated in Section Nine-A hereof. finally. further. further. That private plans which are existing and in force at the time of compulsory coverage shall be integrated with the plan of the SSS in such a way where the employer¶s contribution to his private plan is more than that required of him in this Act.Any person whose income is not derived from employment.The worker who is covered under Section Nine and Section Nine-A of this Act. (p) Net earnings . eliminations or improvements in the benefits to be available under the remaining private plan. modifications. 140. as defined under this Act. further.contributions have been paid from January nineteen hundred and eighty five (1985) up to the calendar year containing the semester prior to the contingency. which may be necessary to adopt by reason of the reduced contributions thereto as a r esult of the integration. chanrobles virtual law library (n) Member . their monthly income shall not be less than One thousand pesos (P1. That any changes. shall be subject to agreements between the employers and employees concerned: Provided.

and 5. What is the effect of separation from employment? When an employee under compulsory coverage is separated from employment. Unless otherwise specified in the law. Individual farmers and fishermen. 2. All self-employed professionals. 142. 141. directors. Partners and single proprietors of businesses. 3.agree on and adopt benefits which are over and above those provided under this Act. chanrobles virtual law library 4. his employer¶s contribution on his account and his obl igation to pay contributions arising from that employment shall cease at the end of the month of separation. coaches. unless they are also engaged in other vocation or employment which is subject to mandatory coverage. all provisions of the SSS LAW applicable to covered employees shall also be applicable to the covered self-employed persons. (c) Filipinos recruited by foreign-based employers for employment abroad may be covered by the SSS on a voluntary basis. scriptwriters and news correspondents who do not fall within the definition of the term "employee" in Section 8 (d) of this Act. Are self-employed persons covered? Coverage in the SSS shall also be compulsory upon such self -employed persons as may be determined by the Commission under such rules and regulations as it may prescribe. That the compulsory coverage of the self -employed person shall take effect upon his registration with the SSS. chanrobles virtual law library 143. may be covered by the SSS on a voluntary basis. When does coverage take effect? Compulsory coverage of the employer shall take effect on the first day of his operation and that of the employee on the day of his employment: Provided. Professional athletes. trainers and jockeys. but said employee shall be credited with all contributions paid on his behalf and entitled to benefits according to the . (b) Spouses who devote full time to managing the household and family affairs. Actors and actresses. including but not limited to the following: 1.

provisions of this Act. .The legal dependent spouse until he/she remarries and the dependent children. including barangay and Sanggunian officials.The dependent parents and. 8291). not over the age of majority. He may. legally adopted child. That no retroactive payment of contributions shall be allowed other than as prescribed under Section 22-A of the SSS Law.Any person receiving compensation while in the service of an employer as defined herein. and financial institutions with original charters. continue to pay the total contributions to maintain his right to full benefit. (b) Employee or Member. THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM (GSIS): 146. What are the benefits under the SSS Law? (1) Monthly pension. Definition of terms under the GSIS Law (R. (b) the legitimate. who is unmarried. its political subdivisions.(3) Retirement benefits. (e) Primary beneficiaries. however. (2) Dependents¶ pension . What is the effect of interruption of business or professional income? If the self-employed realizes no income in any given month. irrespective of status of appointment. (f) Secondary beneficiaries. be allowed to continue paying contributions under the same rules and regulations applicable to a separated employee member: Provided. A. or is over the age of majority but incapacitated and incapable of self-support due to a mental or physical defect acquired prior to age of majority. 144. whether by election or appointment. No. 145.Dependents shall be the following: (a) the legitimate spouse dependent for support upon the member or pensioner. chanrobles virtual law library (c) Active Member. the constitutional commissions and the jud iciary. the legitimate descendants. (5) Permanent disability benefits. (8) Maternity leave benefit. including the illegitimate child. subject to the restrictions on dependent children. (7) Sickness benefit. not gainfully employed. legitimated. (6) Funeral benefit. (4) Death benefits. however. agencies or instrumentalities. branches. (d) Dependents. He may. and (c) the parents dependent upon the member for support. (a) Employer. he shall not be required to pay contributions for that month.A member who is not separated from the service. including government -owned or controlled corporations.The national government.

000.Any productive activity that provided the member with income at least equal to the minimum compensation of government employees.The basic pay or salary received by an employee. (i) Current Daily Compensation.00) of the average monthly compensation plus one hundred percent (100%) of the average monthly compensation in excess of One thousand pesos (P1. excluding per diems. (l) Lump sum.00).000. That the average monthly compensation shall in no case exceed the amount and rate as may be respectively set by the Board under the rules and regulations implementing this Act as determined by the actuary of the GSIS: Provided.An amount equal to one hundred seventy percent (170%) of the first One thousand pesos (P1.Any person receiving old-age permanent total disability pension or any person who has received the lump sum excluding one receiving survivorship pension benefits as defined in Section 20 of this Act. further.The amount payable to the GSIS by the member and the employer in accordance with Section 5 of this Act. (o) Disability.Any loss or impairment of the normal functions of the physical and/or mental faculty of a member which reduces or eliminates . honoraria.The actual daily compensation or the actual monthly compensation divided by the number of working days in the month of contingency but not to exceed twenty-two (22) days.The basic monthly pension multiplied by sixty (60).The quotient arrived at after dividing the aggregate compensation received by the member during his last thirty-six (36) months of service preceding his separation/retirement/ disability/death by thirty-six (36).000. chanrobles virtual law library (k) Revalued average monthly compensation . allowances and any other emoluments received in addition to the basic pay which are not integrated into the basic pay under existing laws.00). overtime pay. (m) Pensioner. or by the number of months he received such compensation if he has less than thirty -six (36) months of service: Provided. (n) Gainful Occupation.(g) Compensation. (j) Average Monthly Compensation (AMC). That initially the average monthly compensation shall not exceed Ten thousand pesos (P10. (h) Contribution. and premium shall be nine percent (9%) and twelve percent (12%) for employee and employer covering the AMC limit and below and two percent (2%) and twelve percent (12%) for employee and employer covering the compensation above the AMC limit. pursuant to his election/appointment. bonuses.

GSIS benefits. and shall be entitled to whatever benefits he has qualified to in the event of any contingency compensable under this Act. Contributions. subject to the condition that they must settle first their financial obligation with the GSIS. Except for the members of the judiciary and constitutional commissions who shall have life insurance only.Accrues or arises when the impaired physical and/or mental faculties can be rehabilitated and/or restored to their normal functions. and all other social security protections such as disability. . except members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police. and contractuals who have no employer and employee relationship with the agencies they serve. chanrobles virtual law library (p) Total Disability. 147.Accrues or arises when recovery from the impairment mentioned in Section 2 (Q) is medically remote. A member separated from the service shall continue to be a member. (r) Temporary Total Disability. irrespective of employment status. 148. Effect of Separation from the Service. and unemployment benefits.Accrues or arises upon the irrevocable loss or impairment of certain portion/s of the physical faculties. Compulsory membership in the GSIS. survivorship.his/her capacity to continue with his/her current gainful occupation or engage in any other gainful occupation.Complete incapacity to continue with his present employment or engage in any gainful occupation due to the loss or impairment of the normal functions of the physical and/or mental faculties of the member. Membership in the GSIS shall be compulsory for all employees receiving compensation who have not reached the compulsory retirement age. 149. It shall be mandatory for the member and employer to pay the monthly contributions specified in the GSIS Law. separation. (s) Permanent Partial Disability. (q) Permanent Total Disability. all members of the GSIS shall have life insurance. despite which the member is able to pursue a gainful occupation. retirement. 150.

legally adopted or step-children below twenty-one (21) years of age. .Services that the Program offers to its members. education. legitimated. or on other criteria as may be defined by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (³Corporation´).The legal dependents of a member are: 1) the legitimate spouse who is not a member.Any person entitled to health care benefits under R. chanrobles virtual law library (d) Contribution . and on household earnings and assets. 9241): 151. acknowledged children as appearing in the birth certificate. or any disability acquired that renders them totally dependent on the member of our support. Funeral Benefits. 4) the parents who are sixty (60) years old or above whose monthly income is below an amount to be determined by the Corporation in accordance with the guiding principles set forth in Article I of this Act. Compulsory Life Insurance Benefit. is negotiated with a health care provider who shall be responsible in delivering or arranging for the delivery of health services required by the covered person under the conditions of a health care provider contract. illegitimate. family. Survivorship Benefits. Retirement Benefits. based on salaries or wages in the case of formal sector employees. either physical or mental.A. hospitalization. 3) children who are twenty-one (21) years old and above but suffering from congenital disability.A payment mechanism where a fixed rate. to the benefits of the program. (b) Benefit Package . chanrobles virtual law library (g) Diagnostic Procedure .The amount paid by or in behalf of a member to the Program for coverage. 7875. Temporary Total Disability Benefits.The entitlement of an individual. Permanent Disability Benefits. (f) Dependent . whether per person. (a) Beneficiary . A. Separation Benefits. as a member or as a dependent. and such other plans as may be designed by the GSIS. household or group. 7875. A. as amended by R. Definition of Terms. (c) Capitation . NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAM (R. for the member and/or his dependents. Unemployment or Involuntary Separation Benefits. 2) the unmarried and unemployed legitimate. Optional Insurance and/or pre-need coverage embracing life. in the case of self-employed.Monthly Pension. memorial plans. (e) Coverage .Any procedure to identify a disease or condition through analysis and examination. health.

(l) Fee for Service . chanrobles virtual law library (i) Employee . cribs. or place where there are installed beds.An approach to the purchase of medical services by which health care provider negotiations concerning the costs of providing a specific package of medical benefits is based solely on a predetermined and fixed budget. (k) Enrollment . injuries. or infirmaries. the hearing of one or both ears. or chanrobles virtual law library . or other health care professional or practitioner duly licensed to practice in the Philippines and accredited by the Corporation. nurse. or abnormal physical and mental states. rehabilitation centers and such other similar names by which they may be designated. (m) Global Budget . (n) Health Care Provider . Purchase of medical services by which h ealth care provider negotiations concerning the costs of providing a specific package of medical benefits is based solely on a predetermined and fixed budget. diagnosis. nurseries. drug addiction or in need of obstetrical or other medical and nursing care. prevention. who is any doctor of medicine. where there is an employeremployee relationship. dentist. or one or two limbs at or above the ankle or wrist. (j) Employer . or deformity. dispensaries.A natural or juridical person who employs the services of an employee. midwife.(h) Emergency . or (2) a health care professional.Any person who performs services for an employer in which either or both mental and physical efforts are used and who receives compensation for such services.An unforeseen combination of circumstances which calls for immediate action to preserve the life of a person or to preserve the sight of one or both eyes.The process to be determined by the Corporation in order to enlist individuals as members or dependents covered by the Program. disability. or bassinets for twenty-four hour use or longer by patients in the treatment of diseases. It shall also be construed as any institution. maternity cases or sanitarial care. injury. deformities. which is duly licensed and accredited devoted primarily to the maintenance and operation of facilities for health promotion.Refers to: (1) a health care institution.A reasonable and equitable health care payment system under which physicians and other health care providers receive a payment that does not exceed their billed charge for each unit of service provided. building.

and utilization recording. Who are covered by the Philhealth Program? All citizens of the Philippines shall be covered by the National Health Insurance Program. and of the means available. The following categories of personal health services granted to the member or his dependents as medically necessary or appropriate. (p) Indigent .A protocol administered at the barangay level to determine the ability of individuals or households to pay varying levels of contributions to the Program. or whose income is insufficient for the subsistence of his family. (q) Inpatient Education Package . to prevent the recurrence or aggravation of such illness and to promote his health in general.A person who has no visible means of income. (o) Health Insurance Identification (ID) Card . 153.Any person whose premiums have been regularly paid to the National Health Insurance Program.A set of informational services made available to an individual who is confined in a hospital to afford him with knowledge about his illness and its treatment. promotive and curative health services.The document issued by the Corporation to members and dependents upon their enrollment to serve as the instrument for proper identification. (s) Means Test . which is entity that provides. 152. eligibi lity verification. to those who can afford to subsidize part but not all the requir ed contributions for the Program. Benefit package.(3) a health maintenance organization. or arranges for coverage of designated health services needed by plan members for a fixed prepaid premium. or a pensioner/retiree member. shall include: . which is an association of indigenous members of the community organized for the purpose of improving the health status of that community through preventive. as identified by the Local Health Insurance Office and based on specific criteria set by the Corporation in accordance with the guiding principles set forth in Article I of this Act. (r) Member . ranging from the indigent in the community whose contributions should be totally subsidized by the government. particularly lifestyle changes. or (4) a community-based health organization. offers. He may be a paying member.

laboratory. and (d) Such other health care services that the Corporation shall determine to be appropriate and cost-effective. (b) alcohol abuse or dependency treatment. (c) Emergency and transfer services. chanrobles virtual law library 6) inpatient education packages. 3) diagnostic. and .(a) Inpatient hospital care: 1) room and board. 154. subject to the limitations stated in Section 37 of this Act. and other medical examination services. and other medical examination services. 2) services of health care professionals. (b) Outpatient care: 1) services of health care professionals. after actuarial studies. laboratory. (d) optometric services. subject to the limitations described in Section 37 of this Act. Excluded personal health services. (c) cosmetic surgery. 4) use of surgical or medical equipment and facilities. The benefits granted under the law shall not cover expenses for the services enumerated hereunder except when the Corporation. 2) diagnostic. and 4) prescription drugs and biologicals. 5) prescription drugs and biologicals. 3) personal preventive services. (e) fifth and subsequent normal obstetrical deliveries. recommends their inclusion subject to the approval of the Board: (a) non-prescription drugs and devices.

III LABOR RELATIONS LAW 1. Who are not required to pay monthly contributions to be entitled to the benefits? The following need not pay the monthly contributions to be entitled to the Program¶s benefits: (a) Retirees and pensioners of the SSS and GSIS prior to the effectivity of R. . 7875.refers to that part of labor law which regulates the relations between employers and workers. That. as evidenced in his health insurance ID card: and Provided. Provided. Who are entitled to the benefits? A member whose premium contributions for at least three (3) months have been paid within six (6) months prior to the first day of his or his availment. grievance machinery. to determine the financial sustainability of including the foregoing personal health services in the benefit package. What is the distinction between ³labor relations´ and ³labor standards´? Labor relations . 155. 156. and then periodically reviewed. Example: Book V of the Labor Code which deals with labor organizations. which shall be defined by the Corporation. further. That he is not currently subject to legal penalties as provided for in Section 44 of the law. chanrobles virtual law library LABOR LAWS OF THE PHILIPPINES PART . collective bargaining. conciliation and mediation. shall be entitled to the benefits of the Program: Provided.(f) cost-ineffective procedures. and (c) Enrolled indigents. chanrobles virtual law library (b) Members who reach the age of retirement as provided for by law and have paid at least one hundred twenty (120) contributions. such actuarial studies must be done within a period of three (3) years. A. voluntary arbitration. That such member can show that he contributes thereto with sufficient regularity.

and chanrobles virtual law library ‡ Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Board (RTWPB) / National Wages and Productivity Commission (NWPC). medical and dental services. chanrobles virtual law library Labor standards . B. termination of employment and retirement. Jurisdiction over social security benefits claims: ‡ ‡ ‡ Social Security System (SSS). conditions of employment of women. occupational health and safety. ‡ Secretary of Labor and Employment/his duly authorized representatives. ‡ National Conciliation and Mediation Board (NCMB). ‡ Bureau of Labor Relations (BLR)/Regional Office. ‡ National Conciliation and Mediation Board (NCMB). and Director of the Bureau of Labor Relations. What are the quasi-judicial bodies which exercise jurisdiction over labor cases? A. strikes. picketing and lockout. minors. ‡ Grievance Machinery and Voluntary Arbitrators. ‡ DOLE Regional Directors/duly authorized hearing officers. With Special Powers: ‡ Secretary of Labor and Employment.refers to that part of labor law which prescribes the minimum terms and conditions of employment which the employer is required to grant to its employees. ‡ Med-Arbiters. Government Service Insurance System (GSIS). . hours of work. househelpers and homeworkers. ‡ National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC). C. Examples: Books One to Four of the Labor Code as well as Book VI thereof which deal with working conditions. With Original Jurisdiction: ‡ Labor Arbiters. With Appellate Jurisdiction: ‡ ‡ ‡ National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC). ‡ President of the Philippines. chanrobles virtual law library 2. ‡ National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC). and Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC).unfair labor practices. wages. D. Secretary of Labor and Employment. holiday pay and other benefits. and ‡ Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA).

rates of pay. 5. any money claim. exceeding the amount of P5. including those of persons in domestic or household service. or chanrobles virtual law library 2. Except claims for Employees¶ Compensation.JURISDICTION OF LABOR ARBITERS 3. accompanied with a claim for reinstatement (which involves a termination case). Cases that workers may file involving wages. moral. Unfair labor practice (ULP) cases. 4. if accompanied with claim for reinstatement. Social Security. Termination disputes (or illegal dismissal cases). hours of work and other terms and conditions of employment.000. and chanrobles virtual law library 6. What are the money claims over which Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction? Money claims falling within the original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters may be classified as follows: 1. chanrobles virtual law libr ary 5. Medicare and maternity benefits. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters? Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over the following cases 1. 6. involving an amount exceeding five thousand pesos (P5. What is the nature of jurisdiction of Labor Arbiters? The jurisdiction is original and exclusive in nature.00 per claimant (which does not necessarily involve termination of employment).000. Claims for actual. 2. Cases arising from any violation of Article 264 of this Code.00) regardless of whether accompanied with a claim for reinstatement. exemplary and other forms of damages arising from the employer-employee relations. 3. Labor Arbiters have no appellate jurisdiction. 4. any money claim. regardless of amount. all other claims arising from employer-employee relations. regardless of whether accompanied with a claim for reinstatement. What is the effect of receivership or liquidation of business on the jurisdiction of Labor Arbiters? The jurisdiction conferred upon Labor Arbiters and the NLRC would not be lost simply because the asset s of a former employer had been placed . including questions involving the legality of strikes and lockouts.

Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over money claims of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)? Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over all monetary claims of Overseas Filipino Workers arising from employer-employee relationship or by virtue of any law or contract involving Filipino wo rkers for overseas deployment. INC. there is no legal impediment for the execution of the decision of the Labor Arbiter for the payment of separation pay by presenting it with the rehabilitation receiver and liquidator. 1999)]. VS. subject to the rules on preference of credits. (G. jurisdiction is vested with Voluntary Arbitrators. VS. the SEC order becomes functus officio.. involving or arising out of recruitment laws. If already decided. Only when there is liquidation that the monetary claims may be asserted. R. moral. ET AL. NLRC. April 14. chanrobles virtual law library (NOTE: The POEA continues to have jurisdiction over recruitment or pre-employment cases which are administrative in nature. the monetary awards cannot be executed. INC.). . (ALEMAR¶S SIBAL AND SONS. exemplary and other forms of damages. Once the receivership proceedings have ceased and the receiver/liquidator is given the imprimatur to proceed with corporate liquidation. July 26. 126773. Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over wage distortion cases? Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over wage distortion cases only in unorganized establishments. 114761. NLRC. No. including claims for actual. NLRC. The NLRC may not proceed with hearing of monetary claims. 8. January 19.under receivership or liquidation. 9. 2000) ± The suspension of the proceedings is necessary to enable the rehabilitation receiver to effectively exercise its powers free from any judicial or extra-judicial interference that might unduly hinder the rescue of the distressed company. To proceed with the labor proceedings is grave abuse of discretion. R.. R. INC. G. VS. rules and regulations. No. 2000) Rehabilitation receivership of a company issued by the SEC has the effect of suspending all proceedings in all judicial or quasi -judicial bodies. No. In organized establishments. ET AL. Thus. (G. chanrobles virtual law library [See also RUBBERWORLD (PHILS. 128003. ET AL. What is the effect of rehabilitation receivership on monetary claims of workers? RUBBERWORLD (PHILS. 7.).

Inc. It is opined that this deletion is correct since Article 218 of the Labor Code grants injunctive power only to the ³Commission´ which obviously refers to the NLRC¶s various divisions and not to the Labor Arbiter. 13. August 5. [G. Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction thereover. quasi-judicial agencies that have the power to cite persons for indirect contempt pursuant to Rule 71 of the Rules of Court can only do so by initiating them in the proper Regional Trial Court. in which case. These matters are still within the province of the Regional Trial Courts. However. (G. Republic Act No. it was categorically ruled . In Atlas Farms. either NLRC (in certified cases) or DOLE Secretary (in assumed cases) has jurisdiction. the Supreme Court affirmed the earlier rulings to this effect. Not only this. R. Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over legality of strikes and lockouts? Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over the issue of legalit y of strikes and lockouts.. 152611. Sr. hence. it must be noted that according to the 2003 case of Land Bank of the Philippines vs. 142244. vs. 10. November 18. vs. How should the monetary claims of OFWs be computed? Skippers Pacific.. 11. [G. 2003].including money claims arising therefrom or violation of the conditions for issuance of license to recruit workers). Listana. Is termination dispute a grievable issue over which Labor Arbiters have no jurisdiction? It has long been settled that a termination dispute (illegal dismissal case) is not a grievable issue. November 21. Do Labor Arbiters have contempt powers? Yes. R. Inc. No. 14. It is not within their jurisdiction and competence to decide the indirect contempt cases. 8042. No. the claim for unpaid salaries of overseas workers should be whichever is less between salaries for unexpired portion of the contract or 3 months for every year of the remaining unexpired portion of the contract (in case contract is one year or more). 2002) Under Section 10. Mira. 144314. et al. 12. No. except in strikes and lockouts in industries indispensable to the national interest. 2002]. In the same Atlas Farms case. R. NLRC. Do Labor Arbiters have injunction power? It must be noted that the provision in the 1990 version of the NLRC Rules granting injunction power to the Labor Arbiters is no longer found in its 2002 version.

Jan. the dispute is about payment of wages. it may be referred to the grievance machinery set up in the CBA. October 8. 8799 (Securities Regulation Act of 2000).). b. Cooperatives organized under Republic Act No. bonuses. 107660. 121948. 240 SCRA 1) . 16. 217 of the Labor Code. 6938. Members of cooperatives are not employees. implementation or enforcement stage. R. R. Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over illegal dismissal cases of employees of cooperatives. No. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of Perpetual Help Credit Cooperative. [G. The Regional Trial Courts (not SEC) now have jurisdiction under R. etc. There is no evidence in this case that private respondents are members of petitioner cooperative and even if they are. otherwise known as ³The Cooperative Code of the Philippines´ are composed of members. under the law. (such as unpaid salaries. But. 02. A. Inc. it is already cognizable by the Labor Arbiter. Issues on the termination of their membership with the cooperative do not fall within the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters. Under Art. overtime pay. Jurisdiction of RTC includes adjudication of monetary claims of the corporate officer who was dismissed. with alleged violation of the employee¶s rights. 1995.that given the fact of dismissal. the Supreme Court ruled that employees of cooperatives (as distinguished from members thereof) are covered by the Labor Code and. 13th month pay. damages and attorney's fees. is considered intra -corporate dispute. leaves. where there was already actual termination. Do Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over monetary claims and illegal dismissal cases of employees of cooperatives? a. thus placing them within the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiter. 2001]. therefore. It must be emphasized that a corporate officer¶s dismissal is always a corporate act and/or intra-corporate controversy and that nature is not altered by the reason or wisdom which the Board of Directors may have in taking such action. G. vs. 15. No. NLRC. Where the dispute is just in the interpretation. rest day and termination of employment. these disputes are within the original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiter. (Lozon vs. Faburada. -Labor Arbiters have no jurisdiction over termination of corporat e officers and stockholders which. JURISDICTION OVER INTRA-CORPORATE DISPUTES. What are the cases which do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters? a. Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over their claims. or brought to voluntary arbitration. it can be said that the cases were effectively removed from the jurisdiction of the Voluntary Arbitrator.

It held that even assuming that he was in fact appointed by the General Manager. as they may deem necessary. 902-A (now by the RTC under R. 539 [1999]) and that where a corporate officer is not specifically indicated in the roster of corporate officers in the by-laws of a corporation. But what about if the position is not included in the roster of officers in the By-laws? Does the holder of the position to be considered a corporate officer? In the case of Nacpil vs. Consequently. chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court considered petitioner¶s argument untenable. therefore. However. and general manager. 144767. trustees. petitioner argued that he is not a corporate officer of the IBC but an employee thereof since he had not been elected nor appointed as Comptroller and Assistant Manager by the IBC¶s Board of Directors. therefore. the Board of Directors may also be empowered . The by-laws may and usually do provide for such other officers.Who are corporate officers?There are specifically three (3) officer s which a corporation must have under the statute: president. He. 314 SCRA 531. No. In support of his argument. cashier. 1995 by the IBC¶s General Manager. the ³by-laws may and usually do provide for such other officers. Had petitioner been an ordinary emplo yee. such board action would not have been required.D. as petitioner¶s appointment as comptroller required the approval and formal action of the IBC¶s Board of Directors to become valid. Section 25 of the Corporation Code gives corporations the widest latitude to provide for such other offices. 2002]. auditor. officers.. That the position of Comptroller is not expressly mentioned among the officers of the IBC in the by-laws is of no moment. R. vice president. it is clear. A. NLRC.g. No. and treasurer. He points out that he had actually been appointed as such on January 11. It must be noted that the Supreme Court has held that in most cases. the Supreme Court has held that one who is included in the by -laws of a corporation in its roster of corporate officers is an officer of said corporation and not a mere employee. because the IBC¶s Board of Directors is empowered under Section 25 of the Corporation Code and under the corporation¶s by-laws to appoint such other officers as it may deem necessary. contended that his dismissal was a controversy falling within the jurisdiction of the labor courts. Consequently. secretary.´ (Union Motors vs. such appointment was subsequently approved by the Board of Directors of the IBC. 8799) which includes controversies involving both election and appointment of corporate directors. March 21. Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation. e. that petitioner is a corporate officer whose dismissal may be the subject of a controversy cognizable by the SEC under Section 5(c) of P. [G. and managers. petitioner underscores the fact that the IBC¶s By-Laws does not even include the position of comptroller in its roster of corporate officers. the law does not limit corporate officers to these three.

that is. In fine. as held in Rural Bank of Coron [Palawan]. NLRC. at the same tim e. she rose from the ranks and has been employed with the Bank since 1963 until the termination of her employment in 1991. her services may be terminated only for a just or authorized cause.under the by-laws to create additional officers as may be necessary. not because of the mode or even the reason for hiring them. including the signing of transmittal letters covering the same. From that position. to collect checks drawn against overseas banks payable in foreign currency and to ensure the collection of foreign bills or checks purchased. she is not a regular employee is belied by the nature of her work and her length of service with the Bank. an employee. 1963. No. vs. vs. The Bank¶s contention that she merely holds an elective positi on and that. 141093. the Assistant Vice-President was appointed Accounting Clerk by the Bank on July 14. The case of Mainland Construction Co. Cortes. [G. as a regular employee. she is tasked. . It has been stated that ³the primary standard of determining regular employment is the reasonable connection between the particular activity performed by the employee in relation to the usual trade or business of the employer. Dec. While. she is entitled to security of tenure. R. As earlier stated. (Tabang vs. In Prudential Bank and Trust Company vs. As Assistant Vice President of the foreign department of the Bank. [G. she was appointed Assistant Vice-President which she occupied until her illegal dismissal on July 19. 266 SCRA 462 [1997]). she was also its Financial Assistant and the Personnel Officer of the two other petitioner corporations. in effect. 2006]. No. Then in 1982. Reyes. One who rose from the ranks is a regular employee and not a mere corporate officer. 353 (1995)]. chanrobles virtual law library A corporate officer may also be. instructs that a corporation can engage its corporate officers to perform services under a circumstance which would make them employee s. 2001].´ As Assistant Vice-President of the Foreign Department of the Bank she performs tasks integral to the operations of the bank and her length of service with the bank totaling 28 years speaks volumes of her status as a regular employee of the bank. among others. 6.R. 164888. respondent was the Corporate Secretary of the Rural Bank of Coron. it is no wonder then that the Bank endeavored to the very end to establish loss of trust and confidence and serious misconduct on the part of private respondent but to no avail. she rose to become supervisor. indeed. chanrobles virtual law library A corporate officer may also be an employee whose dismissal may vest jurisdiction on the Labor Arbiter. This being in truth a case of illegal dismissal..´ Additionally. Inc. ³an employee is regular because of the nature of work and the length of service. 1991. Inc. February 20. The Labor Arbiter has thus jurisdiction over respondent¶s complaint. [320 Phil. Movilla.

Labor Arbiters have jurisdiction over cases involving employees of government-owned or controlled corporations without original charters (organized under the Corporation Code). chanrobles virtual law library . et al. R. September 18. the suit cannot prosper. NLRC. 1990. the case for illegal dismissal filed by a Filipino cook working therein is well within the jurisdiction of Philippine courts. Feb. c. 4344). 262 SCRA 39. In 1995. World Health Organization vs. enjoy immunity in respect of all acts performed by them in their official capacity. in an illegal dismissal case filed against the Asian Development Bank (ADB). United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration [UNRFNRE]. 1995.Labor Arbiters have no jurisdiction over labor cases involving entities immuned from suit. JURISDICTION OVER GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS WITH ORIGINAL CHARTERS. the Philippine Government adheres to the doctrine of immunity granted to the United Nations and its specialized agencies. (Lasco. 109095109107. therefore. R. For instance.. the Supreme Court ruled that it enjoys immunity from legal process of every form and. ADB's officers. such as the restaurant services offered at John Hay Air Station undertaken by the United States Government as a commercial activity for profit and not in its governmental capacity. the Supreme Court had occasion to assert and reiterate said rule in an illegal dismissal case filed against a specialized agency of the United Nations. 26. No. The Charter and the Headquarters Agreement granting these immunities and privileges are treaty covenants and commitments voluntarily assumed by the Philippine government which must be respected. 660]. the Court said that being a member of the United Nations and a party to the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies of the United Nations. it impliedly divested itself of its sovereign immunity from suit. JURISDICTION OVER IMMUNED ENTITIES.b. They have no jurisdiction if entity has original charter. 182 SCRA 644. Both treaties have the force and effect of law. In dismissing the case. [G. Here. There is an exception to the immunity rule as exemplifi ed by the case of United States vs. vs. it was held that when the function of the foreign entity otherwise immune from suit. (Department of Foreign Affairs vs. The reason is that by entering into the employment contract with the cook in the discharge of its proprietary functions. Aquino. partakes of the nature of a proprietary activity. 1996. . February 29. No. G. Hon. R. Rodrigo.. . G. on their part. et al. Exception: when said entities perform proprietary activities (as distinguished from governmental functions). 48 SCRA 242 [1972]). 79470. Nos. et al. 113191.

considering that it never raised said issue before the Executive Labor Arbiter.d. R. the dismissal of their employees are gov erned by the civil service laws. April 17. with whom Captain Tolosa had no employer-employee relationship. did not allow petitioner to belatedly raise the issue of jurisdiction before it. R. the Supreme Court ruled that the Labor Arbiter has no jurisdiction over the case because it was established that the same was in the nature of an action based on a quasi -delict or tort. other labor statutes. Medicare and maternity benefits. 81490. R. [G. R. G. 149578. the NLRC or even before the Supreme Court in another related case. Social Security. or collective bargaining agreements. the Supreme Court ruled that local water districts are quasi-public corporations and. chanrobles virtual law library In Tolosa vs. In addition to the foregoing. it being evident that the issue presented therein involved the alleged gross negligence of the co -employees (shipmates) of Captain Tolosa. the Supreme Court. . [G. Cases involving claims for Employees Compensation. [G. In fact. August 31. 1988]. They have no jurisdiction over quasi-delict or tort per Article 2176 of the Civil Code that have no reasonable causal connection to any of the claims provided for in the Labor Code. No. a complaint was lodged with the Labor Arbiter but later. it was petitioner itself which filed the complaint before the Executive Labor Arbiter and sought affirmative relief therefrom and participated actively in the proceedings therein. NLRC. rules and regulations. the deceased husband of the complainant. No. 63742. May 27. 1989). April 10. Although jurisdiction over strikes and dismissals of employee s in local water districts is lodged not with the NLRC but with the Civil Service Commission. although the Labor Arbiter has no jurisdiction. therefore. Labor Arbiters and the NLRC have no power or authority to grant reliefs from claims that do not arise from employer-employee relations. Gabaton. (See also Tanjay Water District vs. Labor Code). therefore. 2003].As earlier emphasized. SUMMARY OF OTHER ISSUES BEYOND JURISDICTION OF THE LABOR ARBITERS OR NLRC. However. (Article 217 [6]. JURISDICTION OVER TORTS. 1994]. Buat.In Hagonoy Water District vs. 104389. e. bound to respect all the proceedings therein. here. the petitioner is already estopped from assailing the jurisdiction of the NLRC and is. other issues over which the Labor Arbiter or NLRC has no jurisdiction may be summed up as follows: 1. in Zamboanga City Water District vs. . JURISDICTION OVER LOCAL WATER DISTRICTS. No. NLRC. . No.

143 SCRA 602. 161 SCRA 719). Juco. 122 SCRA 671). L-47739. 129 SCRA 485). Militante. (Section 10. (National Housing Corporation vs. G. 156 SCRA 299). although arising from employer-employee relationship. Laron. Book II. Salas. chanrobles virtual law library 3. vs. chanrobles virtual law library 7. Issue of replevin intertwined with a labor dispute. 12. 164 SCRA 501). NLRC. R. 6. No. 8. (Molave Motor Sales. Also the issue of liability in suretyship. Cases involving an injunction filed by a third party with the regular court against the sheriff enforcing a decision in a labor case. Cases of contempt involving a judge of the regular court. (Singapore Airlines vs. 11. (Sara vs. Ernani Cruz Pano. Cases involving claim for liquidated damages for breach of a contractual obligation. 166 SCRA 625). G. (Philippine Association of Free Labor Union s [PAFLU] vs. Rule X. 158 SCRA 53). (Singapore Airlines vs. 4. Agarrado. 1983. (Asian Footwear vs. NLRC. Cases involving issue of whether sale of property being levied on execution was done in bad faith. 1983. PNOC-Exploration Corporation vs.2. Rules and Regulations Governing Overseas Employment) or criminal offenses or . Hon. Cases initiated by employer against an employee for sum of money and damages for cost of repair jobs made on an employee¶s personal cars as well as for the purchase price of parts and vehicles. Cases involving claim of employee for cash prize offered under the Innovation Program of a company which. Violation of labor laws which are penal in nature. 10. 91 SCRA 563). Examples are illegal recruitment cases. (San Miguel Corporation vs. (Basaya. 5. June 22. 142 SCRA 49). Soriano. Jr. Inc. require the application of general civil law on contracts. Hernandez. 134 SCRA 172. 9. vs. (Tolentino vs. Cases arising from violation of training agreement. Inciong. No. Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System vs. Claims for commissions and certain reimbursements made by an independent contractor. R. Ernani Cruz Pano. Cases filed by government-owned corporations performing governmental functions. L-47739. June 22. 122 SCRA 671). Hon.

vs. Schmidt and Mr. Cases involving issues which do not arise from. Insular Life vs. No. to dismissal . (Bulletin Publishing Corporation vs. the NLRC has no jurisdiction when the main aspects of the case transpired in foreign jurisdictions and the only link that the Philippines has with the case is that the employee is a Filipino Citizen. Book VI. employer -employee relationship. 187 SCRA 773. (Section 1. Galang. or has no reasonable causal connection with.felonies committed in the course of strikes and lockouts. 144 SCRA 678). 2000). 179 SCRA 459). In this case. (G. 187 SCRA 694. chanrobles virtual law library 17. 13. NLRC. Mr.´ Likewise. Grepalife Assurance Corporation vs.are not nationals of the Philippines. Exercise of equity jurisdiction to enjoin activities for purposes of compelling an employer to ignore a clear mandate of the law. NLRC. . the Filipino was hired directly (without the intervention of the POEA) by the foreign employer while he was working in the Sultanate of Oman and was assigned to a hotel in China. (Article 264. Henk are nonresidents of the Philippines. to employment. Cosmopolitan Funeral Homes vs. the Supreme Court ruled that under the international law doctrine of forum non conveniens. The inconvenience is compounded by the fact that the proper defendants ± the Palace Hotel and MHICL . R. chanrobles virtual law library 17. Administrative action against the licensee or holder of authority cognizable by the POEA which could proceed independently from the criminal action. Rule IV. Rules and Regulations Governing Overseas Employment). Sanchez. Labor Code). The Secretary of Labor and Employment has exclusive jurisdiction over these cases. (Section 12. 14. 16. (Pepsi-Cola Distributors vs. 201 SCRA 695. NLRC. Insolvency proceedings in the enforcement of the worker preference ordained under Article 110 of the Labor Code. the main witnesses. What is the doctrine of forum non conveniens? May this be invoked against the exercise of jurisdiction by the Labor Arbiters/NLRC? In the case of The Manila Hotel Corp. Neither are they ³doing business in the Philippines. The NLRC is not a convenient forum given that all the incidents of the case ± from the time of recruitment. Maalat. Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995). 120077. October13.occurred outside the Philippines. Review of recruitment violation cases and other related cases decided by the POEA. 15.

even assuming arguendo that she was considered at the start of her employment as a ³direct hire´ governed by and subject to the laws. respondent was hired by the Singapore branch of petitioner-bank while she was a tourist in Singapore in 1998. 2005]. respondent¶s employment by the Singapore branch office had to be approved by the president of the bank whose principal offices were in Manila. Cabansag.R. she was terminated. Manila. At the time her employment was illegally terminated. It held that it was wrong for the Labor Arbiter to dismiss the case for lack of jurisdiction under its holding that ³labor relations system in the Philippines has no extra -territorial jurisdiction´. NLRC. 157376. which was affirmed by the NLRC. petitioner admits that it is a Philippine corporation doing business through a branch office in Singapore. [G. petitioner cannot escape the application of Philippine laws or the jurisdiction of the NLRC and the Labor Arbiter. however. hired in Manila and assigned abroad including Singapore. Instead. R. not of the Philippines. and (b) locally (direct) hired. too. 2007]. she subsequently became a contract worker or an OFW who was covered by Philippine labor laws and policies upon cer tification by the POEA. with more reason does this fact reinforce the presumption that respondent falls under the legal definition of migrant worker. October 2. The Certificate declared her a bona -fide contract worker in Singapore. noteworthy is the fact that respondent likewise applied for and secured an Overseas Employment Certificate from the POEA through the Philippine Embassy in Singapore.The said Manila Hotel case should be distinguished from Philippine National Bank vs. Hence. Subsequently. common practices and customs´ of Singapore. 157010. The Supreme Court. common practices and customs prevailing in Singapore. and tot ally ³governed by and subject to the laws. ruled that the Labor Arbiter has jurisdiction because the issue here involves termination of an OFW. At the time. in this case one deployed in Singapore. with regard to the issue on jurisdiction. she already possessed the POEA Employment Certificate. she filed a complaint before a Labor Arbiter. This circumstance militates against petitioner¶s contention that respondent was ³locally hired´. chanrobles virtual law library Citing the ruling in PNB vs. and that ³since complainant was hired and . June 21. One of the issues presented before the Supreme Court was whether or not the arbitration branch of the NLRC in the National Capital Region has jurisdiction over the instant controversy. Significantly. She applied for and was hired as Branch Credit Officer. While she may have been directly hired in Singapore by petitioner. [G. Thus. the High Court in Sim vs. No. Petitioner is a private banking corporation organized and existing under the laws of the Philippines. No. with principal offices at the PNB Financial Center. Moreover. in answering this query in the affirmative. that ³it is limited to the relationship between labor and capital within the Philippines´. After her 3-month probationary period. Cabansag [supra]. Here. noted a palpable error in the Labor Arbiter's disposition of the case. the Branch Office had two (2) types of employees: (a) expatriates or the regular employees. Roxas Boulevard.

(Id. chanrobles virtual law library The principle of forum non conveniens was also invoked by petitioners in Pacific Consultants International Asia. [448 Phil. 181. Court of Appeals. hence. the Supreme Court cited the following reasons that do not warrant the application of the said principle: First. among whom are overseas Filipino workers. Xxx. Eventually. [ G. although by a Philippine Corporation. Schonfeld. 274 SCRA 102). Petitioners insisted on the application of the said principle since the respondent is a Canadian citizen and was a repatriate. when she received a letter from Remegio David -. it follows that the law that governs their relationship is the law of the place where the employment was executed and her place of work or assignment. 196 (2003)]. Ltd. CA. In rejecting petitioner¶s contention.the Senior Officer. The propriety of dismissing a case based on this principle requires a factual determination. In Bank of America. 1997.). 19. (3) that the Philippine Court has or is likely to have power to enforce its decision. G. 2007]. 103493. and Managing Director of PCIB. (Id. it is clear that Labor Arbiters have original and exclusive jurisdiction over claims arising from employer employee relations. vs. she was promoted to Manager position until September 1999. NT&SA.´ chanrobles virtual law libr ary The petitioner here was Corazon Sim who was initially employed by Equitable PCI-Bank (respondent) in 1990 as Italian Remittance Marketing Consultant to the Frankfurt Representative Office. The Labor Code of the Philippines does not include forum non conveniens as a ground for the dismissal of the complaint. No. including ter mination disputes involving all workers. vs. provided. Feb.assigned in a foreign land. it is properly considered as defense. No. as well as Section 62 of the Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing R. the Labor Arbiter has jurisdiction not only on the basis of Article 217 of the Labor Code but under Section 10 of Republic Act No. Inc. 166920. 8042. Bank of America International. Under these provisions. (2) that the Philippine Court is in a position to make an intelligent decision as to the law and the facts. (See PHILSEC Investment Corporation vs. and. chanrobles virtual law library Third. According to the Supreme Court. or the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 19 95. European Head of PCIBank.R. June 19. chanrobles virtual law library Second.).R. 8042. that the following requisites are met: (1) that the Philippine Court is one to which the parties may conveniently resort to. it was held that:³xxx [a] Philippine Court may assume jurisdiction over the case if it chooses to do so.´ .Europe -. No.informing her that she was being dismissed due to loss of trust and confidence based on alleged mismanagement and misappropriation of funds.A.

All cases decided by the Labor Arbiters including contempt cases. 19. a. What are the two kinds of jurisdiction of the NLRC? The National Labor Relations Commission exercises two (2) kinds of jurisdiction: 1. c. if not restrained or performed forthwith. certified to it by the Secretary of Labor and Employment for compulsory arbitration. 1. Injunction in strikes or lockouts under Article 264 of the Labor Code. The NLRC does not have original jurisdiction on the cases over which Labor Arbiters have original and exclusive jurisdiction (see above enumeration). . Certified labor disputes causing or likely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the national interest. Cases decided by the DOLE Regional Directors or his duly authorized Hearing Officers (under Article 129) involving recovery of wages. What is the distinction between the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters and the NLRC? The NLRC has exclusive appellate jurisdiction on all cases decided by the Labor Arbiters.000 and not accompanied by claim for reinstatemen t. 2. Exclusive appellate jurisdiction. may cause grave or irreparable damage to any party. If a claim does not fall within the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiter. the NLRC cannot have appellate jurisdiction thereover. Injunction in ordinary labor disputes to enjoin or restrain any actual or threatened commission of any or all prohibited or unlawful acts or to require the performance of a particular act in any labor dispute which. a. original jurisdiction. b. exclusive appellate jurisdiction. and 2. simple money claims and other benefits not exceeding P5. Original jurisdiction.JURISDICTION OF THE NLRC 18. b.

Power to issue writs of execution to the appropriate authority for the enforcement of their orders. the Secretary of Labor and Employment may assume jurisdiction over the dispute and decide it or certify the same to the Commission for compulsory arbitration. Labor Code). Power to order stoppage of work or suspension of operations of any unit or department of an establishment when non-compliance with the law or implementing rules and regulations poses grave and imminent danger to the health and safety of workers in the workplace.POWERS OF THE DOLE SECRETARY AND HIS DULY AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES 20. and the right to copy therefrom. condition or matter which may be necessary to determine violations or which may aid in the enforcement of the Labor Code and of any labor law. there exists a labor dispute causing or likely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the nationa l interest. 3. 21. Power to inspect employer¶s records and premises at any time of the day or night whenever work is being undertaken therein. What is the power to assume jurisdiction or certify ³national interest´ labor disputes to NLRC? When. 2. (Article 263 [g]. Power to issue compliance orders to give effect to the labor standards provisions of this Code and other labor legislation based on the findings of labor employment and enforcement officers or industrial safety engineers made in the course of inspection. What is the visitorial and enforcement power of the DOLE Secretary and his duly authorized representatives under Article 128 of the Labor Code? 1. to question any employee and investigate any fact. chanrobles virtual law library b. 128). Orders issued by the duly authorized representative of the Secretary of Labor and Employment under Article 128 (Visitorial and Enforcement Power) may be appealed to the latter. (Art. wage order or rules and regulations issued pursuant thereto. What are the cases falling under the DOLE Secretary¶s appellate power? a. except in cases where the employer contests the findings of the labor employment and enforcement officer and raises issues supported by documentary proofs which were not considered in the course of inspection. Denial of application for union registration or cancellation of union registration originally rendered by the Bureau of Labor Relations (BLR) . chanrobles virtual law library 4. 22. in his opinion.

Decisions of the Med -Arbiter in certification election cases are appealable to the DOLE Secretary. the aggregate money claim of each employee does not exceed P5.may be appealed to the Secretary of Labor and Employment. simple money claims and other benefits. (NOTE: Decisions of MedArbiters in intra-union disputes are appealable to the BLR). What are the money claims falling under the jurisdiction of DOLE Regional Directors? Under Article 129. the claimant does not seek reinstatement. the Regional Director or any of the duly authorized hearing officers of DOLE have jurisdictio n over claims for recovery of wages. provided that: 1. (NOTE: All grievances submitted to the grievance machinery which are not settled within seven (7) calendar days from the date of its submission shall automatically be referred to voluntary arbitration prescribed in the CBA) chanrobles virtual law library JURISDICTION OF VOLUNTARY ARBITRATORS OR PANEL OF VAs 25. and 3. (NOTE: If originally rendered by the Regional Office. the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. appeal should be made to the BLR). 23. c.00.000. 259). JURISDICTION OF THE DOLE REGIONAL DIRECTORS / DULY AUTHORIZED HEARING OFFICERS. and 2. JURISDICTION OF GRIEVANCE MACHINERY IN THE CBA 24. 2. (Art. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Grievance Machinery? Any grievance arising from: 1. the claim must arise from employer-employee relationship.the interpretation or implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA). What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators? .

142244. How should cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Voluntary Arbitrator but erroneously filed with the Labor Arbiters or DOLE Regional Offices be processed? They shall immediately be disposed and referred to the Grievance Machinery or Voluntary Arbitration provided in the CBA. 616. (Article 261). ³Inter-union disputes´ or ³representation disputes´ which refer to cases involving petition for certification election filed by a duly registered labor organization which is seeking to be recognized as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent of the rank-and-file . Labor Arbiter or Voluntary Arbitrator? ATLAS FARMS.R. who has jurisdiction over termination disputes. 3. JURISDICTION OF THE (BLR)/MED-ARBITERS BUREAU OF LABOR RELATIONS 28. (Article 262). 26. 2002) Jurisdiction over termination disputes belongs to Labor Arbiters and NOT with Grievance Machinery nor Voluntary Arbitrator [cited Maneja vs. 27.Under Article 262. 290 SCRA 603. HAMMONIA MARINE SERVICES. NLRC. all unresolved grievances arising from the implementation or interpretation of company personnel policies. 56 issued by DOLE Secretary Confesor clarifying the jurisdiction of Labor Arbiters and Voluntary Arbitrations does not apply. (G. NO. INC. 138938. all other labor disputes including unfair labor practices and bargaining deadlocks. COURT OF APPEALS. VS. upon agreement of the parties. NO. ET AL. 2000) . the Voluntary Arbitrator may assume jurisdiction only when agreed upon by the parties. It reiterated the ruling that dismissal is not a grievable issue. What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the BLR? The BLR has original and exclusive jurisdiction over the following: 1. OCTOBER 24. In case of conflict. R. (1998)]. and 2. Nov.The Voluntary Arbitrator (or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators) has original and exclusive jurisdiction over the following: 1. all unresolved grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of the collective bargaining agreement after exhaustion of the grievance procedure. chanrobles virtual law library CELESTINO VIVERO VS. Policy Instructions No. NLRC (G.. 18.

What are the cases falling under the jurisdiction of the POEA? The POEA has no more jurisdiction over monetary claims of OFWs. except those ar ising from the interpretation or implementation of the CBA which are subject of grievance procedure and/or voluntary arbitration. and provides counseling and preventive mediation assistance particularly in the administration of collective agreements. All disputes. 251 which created the National Conciliation and Mediation Board (NCMB) ordains that the conciliation. 3. mediation and voluntary arbitration functions of the Bureau of Labor Relatio ns (BLR) shall be absorbed by NCMB. compiles arbitration awards and decisions. the same having been transferred to the Labor Arbiters by virtue of R. POEA¶s jurisdiction is now confined to recruitment or preemployment cases which are administrative in nature. What is the jurisdiction of the NCMB? Executive Order No. maintains/updates a list of voluntary arbitrators. and (3) maintenance and custody of CBAs. ³Intra-union disputes´ or ³internal union disputes´ which refer to disputes or grievances arising from any violation of or disagreement over any provision of the constitution and by-laws of the union. grievances or problems arising from or affecting labor-management relations in all workplaces. What are the relevant administrative functions of the BLR? The BLR has the following administrative functions: (1) registration of labor unions. firm or establishment. 2. A. It is with the NCMB that Notices of Strike or Lockout are filed. 8042. 29. It is an attached agency under the administrative supervision of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.employees in the appropriate bargaining unit of a company. chanrobles virtual law library JURISDICTION OF THE MEDIATION BOARD (NCMB) NATIONAL CONCILIATION AND 30. It performs preventive mediation and conciliation functions. mediation and voluntary arbitration cases. JURISDICTION OF POEA 31. (2) keeping of registry of labor unions. including any violation of the rights and conditions of union membership provided for in the Labor Code. The NCMB has jurisdiction over conciliation. It administers the voluntary arbitration program. involving or arising .

including money claims arising therefrom or violation of the conditions for issuance of license to recruit workers. POWER OF PRESIDENT TO NATIONAL INTEREST CASES ASSUME JURISDICTION OVER 32. JURISDICTION OVER CLAIMS FOR SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS 34. Labor Code). (Article 263[g]. chanrobles virtual law library On the other hand. are indispensable to the national interest. What are the powers of the RTWPB and NWPC? The RTWPB has the power to determine and fix minimum wage rates applicable in the region. Labor Code). provinces or industries therein and t o issue the corresponding wage order. ‡ The SSS and the GSIS likewise administer either the employees¶ compensation program which grants income benefits. the NWPC has the power to review regional wage levels set by the RTWPBs to determine if these are in accordance with prescribed guidelines and national development funds. (Articles 120-127. injuries and deaths.out of recruitment laws. What agencies of government administer social security programs? ‡ The Social Security System (SSS) for the private sector employees and the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) for the public sector employees are the agencies which administer the income benefits of the social insurance programs of the government. and from intervening at any time and assuming jurisdiction over any such labor dispute in order to settle or terminate the same. May the President assume jurisdiction over national interest cases? Yes. rules and regulations. medical and related benefits in cases of work-related illnesses. POWER OF REGIONAL TRIPARTITE WAGES AND PRODUCTIVITY BOARD (RTWPB)/ NATIONAL WAGES AND PRODUCTIVITY COMMISSION (NWPC) 33. the President of the Philippines shall not be precluded from determining the industries that. subject to the guidelines issued by the NWPC. . in his opinion. In connection with labor disputes causing or likely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the national interest.

1995).. 3. September 16. APPEALS 36. (St. Association of Luzon Development Bank Employees. From the ruling of the Court of the Appeals. From the decision of the NLRC. DECISION OF LABOR ARBITERS: Appeal from the decision of the Labor Arbiter is brought by ordinary appeal to the NLRC within ten (10) calendar days from receipt by the party of the decision. The only way to elevate the case to the Court of Appeals is by way of the special civil action of certiorari under Rule 65 of the Rules of Civil Procedure. there is no appeal. of unfair labor practices cases. 130866. chanrobles virtual law lib rary Other provisions of the Labor Code which vest jurisdiction in the regular courts over the criminal aspect of cases are Articles 272 and 288. G. R. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LIABILITIES 35. Martin Funeral Home vs. attorney¶s fees and other affirmative relief. 1998). DECISION OF VOLUNTARY ARBITRATORS: The decision of a Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators is appealable by ordinary appeal under Rule 43 of the Rules of Civil Procedure directly to the Court of Appeals. No. 2. DECISION OF THE BLR: A. it may be appealed to the BLR. (Luzon Development Bank vs. both crim inal and civil liabilities arising from violations of the rights and conditions of membership in a labor organization enumerated in said Article. appeal may be had to . If the denial is originally made by the BLR. the case may be elevated to the Supreme Court by way of ordinary appeal under the same Rule 45. (Article 247. This provision should be distinguished from Article 247 of the Labor Code which vests jurisdiction upon the Labor Arbiters. et al. G. 120319. No.‡ The Philippine Health Insurance Corporation has taken over the administration of the Medicare benefits which are now also in the hands of the SSS and the GSIS. If the denial is issued by the Regional Office. Labor Code). Which has jurisdiction over criminal and civil aspects of labor cases? By express provision of Article 241 of the Labor Code. shall continue to be under the jurisdiction of ordinary courts. October 6.. it may be elevated to the Supreme Court by way of ordinary appeal under Rule 45 of the Rules of Civil Procedure. NLRC. over the civil aspects. From the Court of Appeals. et al. Denial of application for registration of a union. What are the modes of appeal from the decisions of the various labor tribunals? 1. R. including damages.

including graft and corruption. chanrobles virtual law library The decision of the BLR rendered in its original jurisdiction may be appealed to the Secretary of Labor and Employment whose decision thereon may only be elevated to the Court of Appeals by way of certiorari under Rule 65. NO. and . DECISION OF THE MED-ARBITER IN CERTIFICATION ELECTION CASES ± The decision is appealable to the DOLE Secretary of Labor and Employment. 5.000 AND NOT ACCOMPANIED BY CLAIM FOR REINSTATEMENT ... DECISION OF THE DOLE REGIONAL DIRECTORS OR HIS DULY AUTHORIZED HEARING OFFICERS UNDER ARTICLE 129 INVOLVING RECOVERY OF WAGES. vs. chanrobles virtual law library (c) If made purely on questions of law. Inc. the BLR¶s decision is appealable to the Secretary of Labor and Employment by ordinary appeal. (b) If the decision. G. 2001) APPEAL TO THE NLRC FROM DECISIONS OF LABOR ARBITERS 37. January 26. to wit: (a) If there is prima facie evidence of abuse of discretion on the part of the Labor Arbiter. Abbott Laboratories Employees Union. R.The decision is appealable to the NLRC and not to the DOLE Secretary. G. Cancellation of registration of a union. SIMPLE MONEY CLAIMS AND OTHER BENEFITS NOT EXCEEDING P5. order or award was secured through fraud or coercion. The decision of the BLR rendered in its appellate jurisdiction may not be appealed to the Secretary of Labor and Employment but may be elevated directly to the Court of Appeals by way of certiorari under Rule 65. (Abbott Laboratories Philippines. If the cancellation of union registration is ordered by the Regional Office. No. COURT OF APPEALS. 2000). R. JUNE 28. If the cancellation is done by the BLR in a petition filed directly therewith. 138270. What are the grounds for appeal? There are four (4) grounds. VS. (NOTE: Appeal from CA to SC should be under Rule 45 (Petition for Review on Certiorari) and not Rule 65 (Special Civil Action for Certiorari) ± SEA POWER SHIPPING ENTERPRISES. 131374.the Secretary of Labor and Employment. ET AL. INC. the same may be appealed to the BLR. B. 4. et al.

1982) at a time when the rule was 10 working days. Sundays and Legal Holidays included in reckoning 10 day reglementary period. Allowing the appeal for other compelling reasons (due to typhoon falling on the 10th day. payment of appeal fee. What is the reglementary period to perfect the appeal? The reglementary period is ten (10) calendar days. R. b. Nos. . 58011-12. Reliance on erroneous notice of decision . Appeal from decision of Labor Arbiter on third-party claim (10 working days). b. 39. July 20. 5. When allowing the appeal "in the interest of justice. Appeal from decision of Labor Arbiter in direct contempt cases (5 calendar days). 6.(d) If serious errors in the findings of facts are raised which would cause grave or irreparable damage or injury to the appellant. Exceptions to 10-calendar day period rule. d. the appeal should be filed within the reglementary period. if judgment involves monetary award. 3. What are the requisites for perfection of appeal? Requisites for perfection of appeal. proof of service to the adverse party. 38. 2. a. or excusable negligence)." 7. Saturdays. c. d. 10th day falling on a Saturday. 4. 1. Appeal filed before the Vir-Jen case (G. the Memorandum of Appeal should be under oath. a. 10th day falling on a Sunday or holiday. posting of cash or surety bond. and chanrobles virtual law library e.

it is immediately executory even pending appeal. Failure to pay appeal docketing fee. 40.c. l. The posting of bond does not stay reinstatement. m. chanrobles virtual law library f. Failure to appeal or perfect appeal within 10-calendar day reglementary period will make the Labor Arbiter's decision final and executory. j. Motion for reconsideration of Labor Arbiter¶s decision is not allowed. the employee may file a motion to cite the former in contempt. k. Submission of new or additional evidence on appeal may be allowed. Effect of perfection of appeal . at the option of the employer). In the case of Pioneer Texturizing Corporation vs. NLRC. d. 280 SCRA 806 [1997]. 10 calendar-day period is counted from receipt of decision by counsel of party.Labor Arbiter loses jurisdiction. The 10-calendar day reglementary period to appeal is not extendible.Raising new issues or changing theory on appeal is not allowed. Receipt by one of two counsels is receipt by the party. h. If employer refuses to reinstate. The employee ordered reinstated need not secure a writ of execution from the Labor Arbiter. Date of mailing (by registered mail) is date of filing. . not fatal to the validity of appeal. i. chanrobles virtual law library Options of the employer. Such award does not require a writ of execution.. g. Lack of verification of the memorandum of appeal is not fatal nor jurisdictional. e. et al. What is the reinstatement aspect of the Labor Arbiter's decision? If reinstatement is ordered by the Labor Arbiter in an illegal dismissal case. it is the employer who is duty-bound to inform employee of the reinstatement (either in the payroll or in the position previously held or in a substantially equivalent position if no longer availab le.

(Roquero vs. employer should pay salary. The entitlement of the dismissed employee to his salaries occasioned by the unjustified refusal of the employer to reinstate him becomes effective from the time the employer failed to reinstate him despite the issuance of a writ of execution. to pay instead the salary of the employee. 232 SCRA 587). Failing to exercise any of the options. without requiring him to report back to his work. (Pioneer Texturizing Corporation vs. or 2. In either instance. All that the employer has is to avail of any of the following options: 1. thus: ³After receipt of the decision or resolution ordering the employee¶s reinstatement. The notification is based on practical considerations for without notice. the employer still refuses to reinstate the employee. the employer has the right to choose whether to readmit the employee to work under the same terms and conditions prevailing prior to his dismissal or to reinstate the employee in the payroll. supra). NLRC. supra). an award or order for reinstatement under Article 223 is self-executory. reinstatement of the employee in the payroll of the company. Zamboanga City Water District vs. under pain of contempt.The employer is practically left with no effective contra -remedy that may forestall or stay the execution of a Labor Arbiter¶s order for immediate reinstatement pending appeal. the employee has no way of knowing if he has to report for work or not. The employee should not be left without any remedy in case the employer unreasonably delays reinstatement. Labor Code. Remedy in case of employer¶s refusal to comply with writ of execution to reinstate is contempt citation. Philippine Air Lines. Inc.. the employer has to inform the employee of his choice. Buat. If despite several writs of execution.´ [Underscoring supplied] Failure to exercise option. the Supreme Court prescribes the procedure to be followed. Employer has to notify employee of his choice of option. actual reinstatement of the employee to his work under the same terms and conditions prevailing prior to his dismissal or separation. the remedy is not the grant of additional backwages to . Having ruled in Pioneer Texturizing [supra] that henceforth. The unjustified refusal of the employer to reinstate an illegally dismissed employee entitles the employee to payment of his salaries. (Article 223. the employer can be compelled.

15. G. [G. the Labor Arbiter granted the motion and issued a writ of execution directing petitioner APC to reinstate complainant to his former position. See also Industrial and Transport Equipment. The Labor Arbiter granted the motion but the employer refused to execute the said order on the ground that it has filed a Petition for Review before the Supreme Court. NLRC and Bienvenido Aricayos. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2006 case of Air Philippines Corp. vs. The employee did not appeal from that decision of the NLRC but filed a motion for a writ of execution of the order of reinstatement. it ordered petitioner APC to pay Zamora his . No. the dismissal of the employee was held valid by the Labor Arbiter. R. Jan. Thereafter. Philippine Air Lines. constructive or otherwise. the dismissed employee was ordered reinstated. 171 SCRA 712. 1998). 1998]. On appeal to the NLRC. 1989. 2003]. September 16. the Labor Arbiter ordered the reinstatement of respondent Zamora who immediately filed a motion for execution of the said order of reinstatement.R. (Christian Literature Crusade vs.R. Aug. What. if any. No. 152329. On appeal. took place for it was Zamora himself who voluntarily terminated his employment by not reporting for work and by joining a competitor . Zamora. No. was the legal consequence of the reinstatement order issued by the NLRC which was never complied with by the employer all throughout the pendency of the case on appeal up to the Supreme Court? Did the subsequent affirmance by the Supreme Court of the validity of the dismissal have the effect of exonerating the non -complying employer from his obligation to pay for the salary of the employee consequent to the reinstatement-pending-appeal order issued by the NLRC? chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court said that the employer is liable to pay for the salary of the employee previously ordered reinstated by the NLRC although later on. Zamora filed a Motion for Reconsideration but the NLRC denied it. the dismissal of the employee was held not to be illegal. 2006]. April 22. the Labor Arbiter¶s decision was reversed and consequently.Grand Air. on appeal to the Supreme Court. The case was remanded later from the Supreme Court to the Court of Appeals pursuant to the ruling in St.. 113592. The Court of Appeals reversed the ruling of the NLRC but. Inc. Martin Funeral Home vs. However. [G. R. the dismissal of the employee was held valid. as if he was reinstated. vs.serve as damages but to file a motion to cite the employer for contempt. April 10. NLRC. Inc. [G. In the 2003 case of Roquero vs. the NLRC reversed the ruling of the Labor Arbiter and held that no dismissal. No. 148247. 130866. NLRC. Employer must pay for the salary of employee. 7.

Inc. December 4. 1994 NLRC Decision. In the eyes of the law. pursuant to Article 223 of the Labor Code.] Inc. complainant was as if actually working from the date respondent received the copy of the appealed decision of the Labor Arbiter directing the reinstatement of complainant based on his finding that the latter was illegally dismissed from employment. 2007] insofar as illegally dismissed employees ordered to be reinstated in the payroll are concerned. G. then the employer has the right to require the dismissed employee on payroll reinstatement to refund the salaries he/she received while the case was pending appeal. the order of reinstatement embodied therein was already the subject of an alias writ of execution even pending appeal.R. No.´ In affirming the above grant by the NLRC of salaries and allowances to Zamora. Considering that Genuino was not reinstated to work or placed on payroll reinstatement. and company practices. [G.502. Aug. APC sought a partial reconsideration of the foregoing resolution but the NLRC denied the same and justifed the award of unpaid salaries on the ground that ³(t)he grant of salaries and allowances to complainant arose from the order of his reinstatement which is executory even pending appeal of respondent questioning the same. However.unpaid salaries and allowances in the total amount of P198. Although petitioner did not comply with this writ of execution. Displeased w ith the modification. and her dismissal is based on a just cause. 200 SCRA 246. The ruling in Roquero [supra] was qualified by the Supreme Court in its ruling in the 2007 case of Genuino vs. supra and Aris [Phil. Nos. In this case. Philippine Airlines. 90501. 255). NLRC. 1991. There is logic in this reasoning of the NLRC. the Supreme Court had taken the view that ³(i)f the decision of the Labor Arbiter is later reversed on appeal upon the finding that the ground for dismissal is valid. collective bargaining agr eement provisions. then the employee is entitled to the compensation received for actual services rendered without need of refund.. if the employee was reinstated to work during the pendency of the appeal. Payroll-reinstated employee should refund salary if dismissal is finally found legal on appeal. 3 of the fallo of the September 3. NLRC.´ (Citing Roquero vs. 5. this rule does not apply if employee was actually reinstated.R. vs.´ .30 within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the resolution. thus: ³The premise of the award of unpaid salary to respondent is that prior to the reversal by the NLRC of the decision of the Labor Arbiter. or it can be deducted from the accrued benefits that the dismissed employee was entitled to receive from his/her employer under existing laws. then she is not entitled to be paid the salaries stated in item no. the Supreme Court ratiocinated. 142732-33. its intransigence made it liable nonetheless to the salaries of respondent pending appeal.

the Commission or any Labor Arbiter. Feb. of Article 224 of the Labor Code which requires the issuance of a writ of execution to execute decisions. Consequently. When it is the NLRC on appeal or the Court of Appeals which affirmed the NLRC¶s ruling orders reinstatement. Resuena. if the reinstatement order is issued by the NLRC on appeal. what applies is not Article 223 but Article 224 of the Labor Code. an office or an employment. or med-arbiter or voluntary arbitrator may. 2007]. such writ shall be served by the sheriff upon the losing party or upon any other person required by law to obey the same. and such party or person may be punished for contempt if he disobeys such decision or order for reinstatement. Citing Roquero vs. motu proprio or on motion of any interested party. CAP Philippines. it is provided that if the execution be for the reinstatement of any person to a position. No.´ In view. [G. where the Labor Arbiter directed the reinstatement of the petitioner which was affirmed by the NLRC on appeal. the Supreme Court clarified that Article 223 of the Labor Code providing that reinstatement is immediately executory even pending appeal applies only when the Labor Arbiter himself ordered the reinstatement. o rders or awards of the NLRC. 10. however. ruled that unlike the order for reinstatement of a Labor Arbiter which is self-executory. there is a need to secure a writ of execution from the Labor Arbiter a quo to enforce the reinstatement of the employee. however.R. Oct. chanrobles virtual law library This was the holding in the 2007 case of Mt. the order of the NLRC to reinstate her and to pay her wages was immediately executory even while the case was on appeal before the higher courts: The High Court. 2007]. however. Carmel College vs. the Secretary of Labor and Employment or any Regional Director. PAL [supra]. it is necessary in case reinstatement is ordered by the NLRC on appeal. No. [G.R. Inc.. While it is now well-settled that a writ of execution is not necessary to implement the reinstatement order issued by a Labor Arbiter upon a finding of illegality of dismissal since it is self -executory in accordance with Pioneer Texturizing [supra]. issue a writ of execution on a judgment within five (5) years from the date it becomes final and executory. 173076. the same ruling was made in Panuncillo vs. there is still a need for . petitioner argued that following the third paragraph of Article 223 of the Labor Code on reinstatement pending appeal. There is still a need for the issuance of a writ of execution. 161305. under Rule III of the NLRC Manual on the Execution of Judgment. the NLRC decision becomes ³final and executory after ten calendar days from receipt of the decision by the parties. 9. that of the NLRC is not. The reason is that under the sixth paragraph of Article 223.While writ of execution is not required in case reinstatement is ordered by the Labor Arbiter. As contemplated by Article 224 of the Labor Code. Earlier.

Inc. [G. became final and executory due to the failure of the . 106370. the Supreme Court further ruled that since it has affirmed the challenged decision of the Court of Appeals finding that petitioner was validly dismissed and accordingly reversing the NLRC Decision that petitioner was illegally dismissed and should be reinstated. If a Labor Arbiter does not issue a writ of execution of the NLRC order for the reinstatement of an employee even if there is no restraining order. and following Roquero. Had one been issued. 6.´ chanrobles virtual law library But in the 2006 case of Triad Security & Allied Servic es. the Labor Arbiter or the NLRC must exercise extreme prudence and observe judicial courtes y when the circumstances so warrant if one is to heed the injunction of the Court in Philippine Geothermal. In the same 2007 case of Panuncillo. Ortega. chanrobles virtual law library If reinstatement order of Labor Arbiter is not executed and the finding of illegal dismissal is later reversed. In this case. the payment of separation pay. No. Feb. vs. It ratiocinated. it is as if a temporary restraining order was issued.the issuance of a writ of execution of the NLRC decision to implement its order of reinstatement. the decision of the NLRC becomes final and executory after the lapse of ten calendar days from receipt thereof by the parties. Inc v. employer is not liable to pay backwages. No. If during the pendency of the review no order is issued by the courts enjoining the execution of a decision of the Labor Arbiter or NLRC which is favorable to an employee. September 8.´ In such a case. [G. the adverse party is not precluded from assailing it via Petition for Certiorari under Rule 65 before the Court of Appeals and then to the Supreme Court via a Petition for Review under Rule 45. 378-379]. NLRC. petitioner is not entitled to collect any backwages from the time the NLRC decision became final and executory up to the time the Court of Appeals reversed said decision. While under the sixth paragraph of Article 223 of the Labor Code. 236 SCRA 371. 2006]. 160871. he could probably be merely observing judicial courtesy. thus: ³It does not appear that a writ of execution was issued for the implementation of the NLRC order for reinstatement. which is advisable ³if there is a strong probability that the issues before the higher court would be rendered moot and moribund as a result of the continuation of the proceedings in the lower court. respondent would have been obliged to reinstate petitioner and pay her salary until the said order of the NLRC for her reinstatement was reversed by the Court of Appeals.R. the decision of the Labor Arbiter ordering the reinstatement of the respondentemployees and the payment of their backwages until their actual reinstatement and in case reinstatement is no longer viable.R. 1994. petitioner would not have been obliged to reimburse respondent for whatever salary she received in the interim. the Supreme Court still ordered the payment of backwages for the period when the employees should have been reinstated by order of the Labor Arbiter.

On the issue of whether backwages should continue to run even after the payment of separation pay. In Sevilla vs. Until the payment of separation pay is carried out. they could not be faulted for their perseverance in looking for and eventually securing new employment opportunities instead of remaining idle and awaiting the outcome of this case. 13th month pay. the emplo yer should not be allowed to remain unpunished for the delay. In the meantime. Sept. Thus. R. chanrobles virtual law library Employment elsewhere does not affect reinstatement order and obligation to pay backwages. Reinstatement when position already filled up. to immediately execute the reinstatement aspect of the labor arbiter¶s decision. The second dismissal gave rise to a new cause of action. It is only when the illegally dismissed employee receives the separation pay that it could be claimed with certainty that the employer-employee relationship has formally ceased thereby precluding the possibility of reinstatement. Inasmuch as no new complaint was filed. the illegally dismissed employee¶s entitlement to backwages. Surely. shall apply only to the first case and shall not affect the second dismissal. It should be pointed out that an order of reinstatement by the labor arbiter is not the same as actual reinstatement of a dismissed or separated employee. 1994]. In the same case of Triad Security [supra]. Reinstatement in case of two successive dismissals. No. insofar as accrued backwages and other benefits are concerned. The Labor Arbiter was correct in denying the third motion for reinstatement filed by the petitioner (employee) because what she should have filed was a new complaint based on the second dismissal.petitioner-employer to seasonably appeal the same. continues to accumulate. their obligation to the dismissed employees. until the employer continuously fails to actually implement the reinstatement aspect of the decision of the Labor Arbiter. it was held that the order of reinstatement pending appeal under Article 223 issued in the first case. the Labor Arbiter could not have ruled on the legality of the second dismissal. In not giving credence to this claim. the High Court declared that respondents herein were minimum wage earners who were left with no choice after they were illegally dismissed from their employment but to seek new employment in order to earn a decent living. the employee ordered reinstated under Article 223 should be admitted back to work in a s ubstantially . the petitioners claimed that they could not reinstate respondents as the latter had already found jobs elsewhere. If the former position is already filled up. and other benefits subsists. a case involving two (2) successive dismissals. the Supreme Court ruled in the affirmative. 20. 108878. NLRC. if not outright refusal. [G.

2005]) c. the motion to reduce bond must comply with the requisites that: 1. 141 SCRA 252 [1986]). 2. If the amount of the monetary award is not included in the judgment. g. If bond is not genuine. Consolidated Broadcasting System [CBS]-DZWX. chanrobles virtual law library f. Cash. No. [G. The Fifth Division of the Honorable Court of Appeals. it should be based on meritorious grounds. The surety bond should be issued by an accredited surety company. 42. b. Non-posting of bond will not perfect the appeal. Bond should be posted within the 10-calendar day reglementary period. What are the rules in case of appeal involving monetary award? The following basic principles are wort h mentioning: a. (Medina vs.Award of moral and exemplary damages and attorney¶s fees. In order to effectively stop the running o f the period within which to perfect the appeal. Castro. (Orozco vs. excluded from computation of bond. R. 41. no appeal bond required. d. Remedy of employee in case employer failed to post bond is to file a motion to dismiss the appeal. Pedroso vs. May a Motion to Reduce Bond be filed? 1. e. the appeal bond equivalent to the amount of the monetary award is not required to be posted. 222 SCRA 707. No monetary award. it should be filed within the reglementary period. Labor Arbiter¶s decision or order is required to state the amount awarded. April 29. and . The filing of a motion to reduce bond does not stop the running of the period to perfect appeal.equivalent position. 155207. property or surety bond is required for perfection of appeal from monetary award. 2. h. appeal is not perfected. Motion to reduce bond may be granted only in meritorious cases such as when the monetary claims have already prescribed.

g. there was substantial compliance with the rule. Thus. according to Santos vs. No. also Star Angel Handicraft vs. or where on equitable grounds. 140294. 140753. [G.. chanrobles virtual law library Moreover. In the instances where the Supreme Court acknowledged substantial compliance. R. properly vested the judge with discretion to approve or admit an appeal filed out of time. 289 SCRA 407 [1998]) or by filing a motion for reduction of bond (See Rosewood Processing Inc. R. NLRC. accident. a reasonable amount of bond in relation to the monetary award should be posted together with said motion. Furthermore. in the cases where belated posting of a bond was allowed. If there is no such willingness exhibited by petitioner and his failure to pay the bond was due simply to his own mistake n conclusion that he was exempt from paying because he was not the employer of the respondent-employees and thus was not liable to them. 254 SCRA 211]. 290 SCRA 408 [1998]. the failure to pay was due to the excusable oversight or error of a third party. In Mary Abigail¶s Food Services. not by the appellant himself. No. NLRC. CA. G. e.3. mistake or excusable negligence. Velarde. April 30. where the presence of any justifying circumstance recognized by law. the Supreme Court has allowed tardy appeals in judicious cases. NLRC. But. 2005. vs. the Supreme Court pointed out that. Inc. 91935. 1996. May 9. if the petitioner¶s failure to post a bond was due to his own negligent and mistaken belief that he was exempt. it was held that in the cases where delayed payment of the bond was allowed. exhibited willingness to pay by posting a partial bond (See Teofilo Gensoli & Co. that is. [G. No. NLRC. a belated appeal was allowed as the questioned decision was served directly upon petitioner instead of her . The eventual posting of the bond cannot be considered as substantial compliance warranting the relaxation of the rules in the interest of justice. vs. such as fraud. 236 SCRA 580 [1994]) within the 10-day period provided by law. March 4. especially if the Labor Arbiter¶s decision states the exact monetary awards to be paid and there is nothing in the decision which could have given the petitioner the impression that the bond was not necessary or that he was excused from paying it. this rule will not apply. at the very least. in the case of Quiambao vs. The failure to post the bond must be caused by a third party. vs. the appellants. such is a reckless conclusion since there was no circumstance which would have warranted such a belief. R. 2003]. technical consid erations had to give way to considerations of equity and justice. the failure of the Labor Arbiter to state in the decision the exact amount awarded and the inclusion of the bond as a requisite for perfecting an appeal.

329 Phil. even if it runs into millions. Rule VI of the NLRC New Rules of Procedure allows the Commission to reduce the amount of the bond . 235 (1996)].04 as bond is ³unjustified and prohibitive´ and prayed that the same be reduced to a ³reasonable level. R. 119289. R. . Inc.´ The NLRC denied the motion and consequently dismissed the appeal for non-perfection. The NLRC Rules clearly provide that ³the filing of the motion to reduce bond shall not stop the running of the period to perfect appeal. The fact that the NLRC took 102 days to resolve the motion will not help petitioner¶s case. No. [G. No. September 22. in lieu of the required cash or surety bond. 260 SCRA 441. the petitioner filed his memorandum of appeal and paid the corresponding appeal fees on the last day for filing the appeal. the Supreme Court declared that while Section 6. (Catubay vs. does not necessarily give the employer-appellant a µmeritorious case¶ and does not automatically warrant a reduction of the appeal bond. 110827. he filed a motion to reduce bond alleging that the amount of P1. 2004].´ Even granting arguendo that petitioner has meritorious grounds to reduce the appeal bond. NLRC. chanrobles virtual law library Motion to reduce bond.O Enterprises vs. 152494. After careful scrutiny of the motion to reduce appeal bond. when not proper.´ Petitioner should have seasonably filed the appeal bond within the tenday reglementary period following the receipt of the order. Court of Appeals. G. August 8. No. resolution or decision.802. In Calabash Garments. resolution or decision of the NLRC to forestall the finality of such order. the result would have been the same since he failed to post cash or surety bond within the prescribed period.counsel of record who at the time was already dead. R. April 12. However. 1996. NLRC.427. the Supreme Court agreed with the Court of Appeals that the NLRC did not act with grave abuse of discretion when it denied petitioner¶s motion for the same failed to either elucidate why the amount of the bond was ³unjustified and prohibitive´ or to indicate what would be a ³reasonable level. 226. vs. 2000. it was held that ³a substantial monetary award. NLRC. [G. chanrobles virtual law library In holding that the petitioner¶s argument is unavailing. Kathy . In the case of Ong vs. Petitioner contends that he was deprived of the chance to post bond because the NLRC took 102 days t o decide his motion. 286 SCRA 729 [1998]).´ Alternative remedy is to pay partial appeal bond while motion to reduce bond is pending with the NLRC. the exercise of that authority is not a matter of right on the part of the movant but lies within the sound discretion of the NLRC upon showing of meritorious grounds.

NLRC. exhibited willingness to pay by posting a partial bond. Three (3) months . Inc. 163786. R. the NLRC has no authority to entertain the appeal. appellants posted an additional bond. should be made within the reglementary period. The late filing of the bond divests the NLRC of its jurisdiction to entertain the appeal since the decision of the Labor Arbiter has already become final and executory with the lapse of the reglementary period. Dec. much less to reverse the decision of the Labor Arbiter. instead of complying with the directive. R. 661 (1999)]. 153859. the appellants¶ motion to reduce bond was denied and the NLRC ordered them to post the required amount within an unextendible period of ten (10) days. vs. However. Several weeks later. For this reason. R. including the entire proceeding held for that purpose. vs. 352 Phil. in order to forestall the decision of the Labor Arbiter from becoming final and executory. (See also Teofilo Gensoli & Co. 239 [1998]). No. Improper granting of motion to reduce bond. 1013 (1998)]. 1999. the Supreme Court suggested as an alternative remedy to the full payment of the monetary award. Inc. 2003). 372 Phil. In Times Transportation Company. [352 Phil. thus. While the bond requirement on appeals involving monetary awards has been relaxed in certain cases. at the very least. 2005]. no appeal was perfected from the decision of the Labor Arbiter. which was still less than the required amount. In Filipinas [Pre-fabricated Bldg. 232. 11. 653. No. 122725. NLRC.¶ Inc.] Systems µFilsystems. In the 2004 case of Ong [supra]. appellants filed another motion for reconsideration of the order of denial. vs. immutable. Sotelo. September 8.In the 1998 case of Rosewood Processing. Clearly then. therefore. But the petitioner in Ong did not post a full or partial appeal bond within the prescribed period. it was held that the partial payment of the bond. . vs. while its motion to reduce appeal bond was pending before the NLRC. NLRC. Any amendment or alteration made which substantially affects the final and executory judgment is null and void for lack of jurisdiction. February 16. the decision sought to be appealed to the NLRC had become final and executory and. NLRC. this can only be done where there was substantial compliance of the Rules or where the appellants. the petitioner was declared to have substantially complied with the rules by posting a partial surety bond of fifty thousand pesos issued by Prudential Guarantee and Assurance. Inc. the payment only of a moderate and reasonable sum for the premium. as was held in Biogenerics Marketing and Research Corporation vs. [G. The partial payment of bond must be made during the reglementary period. [G. (G. No.

(Times Transportation Company. 372 Phil.after the filing of the motion for reconsideration. [G. No. 150147. NLRC. 1998. strict observance of the reglementary periods may be relaxed if warranted. not sufficient ground. May 9. R. By delaying the resolution of appellants¶ motion for reconsideration. We have held that to extend the period of appeal is to prolong the resolution of the case. [G. January 20. An appellant cannot invoke financial difficulties as a gro und in support of a Motion to Reduce Bond. i. a long holiday (Christmas) season followed. 531. The Supreme Court reasoned that if only to achieve substantial justice.e. In this case. In Buenaobra vs. the reason given by the petitioners to justify their late posting of the bond. Effect when NLRC grants additional time to post bond after denial of motion to reduce bond. Lim King Guan. Financial difficulties. not an excuse. R. the NLRC reversed its previous order and granted the motion for reduction of bond. 319 Phil. Long Christmas holiday. 661 [1999]). No. Suffice it to say that the law does not require outright payment of the total monetary award. within which to post cash or surety bond. vs. a circumstance which would give the employer the opportunity to wear out the energy and meager resources of the workers to the point that they would be constrained to give up for less than what they deserve in law. Inc. supra citing Biogenerics Marketing and Research Corporation vs. Said the High Court: ³We agree with the Court of Appeals that the foregoing constitutes grave abuse of discretion on the part of the NLRC. the Supreme Court did not consider as grave abuse of dis cretion the act of the NLRC in granting to the appellant-employer ³an unextendible period of ten (10) days´ upon receipt of the order denying the motion to exempt from filing appeal bond. 537 [1995]).´ (See also Globe General Services and Security Agency vs. Sotelo. In Mary Abigail¶s Food Services. Inc. that it was impossible to secure the required bond and file it within the ten-day reglementary period because after receiving a copy of the decision of the Labor Arbiter on December 23. What appellant has to pay is a moderate and reasonable sum for the premium for such bond. 140294. 2005]. NLRC. 2004]. vs. the cash or surety bond was actually posted four (4) months after the filing of their memorandum on appeal.. 653. was considered simply unacceptable by the . The NLRC co uld not be said to have abused its discretion in requiring the posting of bond after it denied private respondents¶ motion to be exempted therefrom. it has unnecessarily prolonged the period of appeal. CA. but only the posting of a bond to ensure that the award will be eventually paid should the appeal fail.

Labor Code). Labor Code). 45. What are the elements of ULP? Before an employer or labor organization. UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES 43. What are the aspects of unfair labor practice? There are two (2) aspects. Surely. (1) (2) Employer (Article 248. and . including their right to bargain collectively and otherwise deal with each other in an atmosphere of freedom and mutual respect. at torney¶s fees and other affirmative relief. namely: (1) Civil. Name the parties which may commit unfair labor practice. and Labor Organization (Article 249. 46. 44. as the case may be. Pursuing petitioners¶ excuse. disrupts industrial peace and hinders the promotion of healthy and stable labor-management relations. Labor Arbiters shall have jurisdiction over the civil aspect of all cases involving unfair labor practices. no bond would ever be posted on time whenever the reglementary period to file the same falls on such a season. there should exist an employer-employee relationship between the offended party and the offender. which may include claims for actual. exemplary and other forms of damages. Recovery of civil liability in the administrative proceedings shall bar recovery under the Civil Code. No criminal prosecution may be instituted without a final judgment finding that an unfair labor practice was committed having been first obtained in the labor case.Supreme Court. the occurrence of the holiday season did not at all make impossible petitioners¶ fulfillment of their responsibility to post the required bond. may be said to have committed unfair labor practices acts. is inimical to the legitimate interests of both labor and management. the following ingredients must both concur: chanrobles virtual law library 1. moral. What is the concept of unfair labor practice? An unfair labor practice act violates the right of workers to self organization. Parties who may commit ULP. and (2) Criminal.

. if such non -union members accept the benefits under the collective bargaining agreement: Provided. Department Order No. Absent one of the elements above will not make the act an unfair labor practice act. chanrobles virtual law library (c) To contract out services or functions being performed by union members when such will interfere with. dominate. that the individual authorization required under Article 242.k. there is no ULP. (d) To initiate.k. work or service being performed by union members will interfere with. 47. If not mentioned.a. (e) To discriminate in regard to wages. [Feb. 18-02. It is only when the contracting out of a job. Employees of an appropriate bargaining unit who are not members of the recognized collective bargaining agent may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. Series of 2002.a. 2002])]. except those employees who are already members of another union at the time of the signing of the collective bargaining agreement. restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self -organization that it shall be unlawful and shall constitute unfair labor practice. (b) To require as a condition of employment that a person or an employee shall not join a labor organization or shall withdraw from one to which he belongs (a. What are the ULPs of the employer? (a) To interfere with. hours of work and other terms and conditions of employment in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. COMPANY UNION). Labor Code. [Note: The act of an employer in having work or certain services or functions being performed by union members contracted out is not generally an unfair labor practice act. (Article 248 [c]. the act complained of must be expressly mentioned and defined in the Labor Code as constitutive of unfair labor practice. YELLOW DOG CONTRACT). Section 6 [f].2. 21. restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights to self-organization. restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization. assist or otherwise interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization. paragraph (o) o f this Code shall not apply to the non-members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. Nothing in this Code or in any other law shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognized collective bargaining agent as a condition for employment. including the giving of financial or other support to it or its organizers or supporters (a.

(g) To violate the duty to bargain collectively as prescribed by this Code. or chanrobles virtual l aw library (i) To violate a collective bargaining agreement (but only if gross in character). (but o nly if gross in character). discharge or otherwise prejudice or discriminate against an employee for having given or being about to give testimony under this Code. a labor organization shall have the right to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership. 48. or refuse to bargain collectively with the employer. only the officers and agents of corporations. (d) To cause or attempt to cause an employer to pay or deliver or agree to pay or deliver any money or other things of value. including the demand for fee for union negotiations (a. 49.k. What are the ULPs of labor organizations? (a) To restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self organization. (e) To ask for or accept negotiation or attorney¶s fees from employers as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute.(f) To dismiss. However. (h) To pay negotiation or attorney¶s fees to the union or its officers or agents as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute. chanrobles virtual law library (b) To cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against an employee. authorized or ratified unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable. . for services which are not performed or not to be performed. in the nature of an exaction. provided it is the representative of the employees. Who may be held criminally liable for ULPs of employer? On the part of the employer. or (f) To violate a collective bargaining agreement. associations or partnerships who have actually participated in. including discrimination against an employee with respect to whom membership in such organization has been denied or to terminate an employee on any ground other than the usual terms and conditions under which membership or continuation of membership is made available to other members. (c) To violate the duty.a. FEATHERBEDDING).

Who may be held criminally liable for ULPs of a labor organization? On the part of the union. or attempt to organize one. The obvious purpose is to safeguard and ensure the continued existence of the union. and 3. members of governing boards. 2. 51. be deemed improper and consequently actionable as an unfair labor practice. An expression which might be permissibly uttered by one employer. the history of the particular employer¶s labor relations or anti-union bias or because of their connection with an establ ished collateral plan of coercion or interference. he will quit his employment.50. What are the types of union security clause? . 53. in the mouth of a more hostile employer. authorized or ratified the unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable. a representation by the employee that he is not a member of a labor organization. may be held to be constitutive of unfair labor practice because of the circumstances under which they were uttered. in case they are already members of a labor organization. What is ³yellow-dog contract´? A ³yellow dog contract´ is an agreement which exacts from workers as a condition of employment. though innocent in themselves. might. The typical yellow dog contract embodies the following stipulations: 1. What is totality of conduct doctrine? The ³totality of conduct doctrine´ means that expressions of opinion by an employer. 52. representatives or agents or members of labor associations or organizations who have actually participated in. during their period of employment or that they shall withdraw therefrom. only the officers. a promise by the employee that he will not join a union. chanrobles virtual law library 54. a promise by the employee that upon joining a labor organization. that they shall not join or belong to a labor organization. What is ³union security clause´? A ³union security clause´ is a stipulation in the CBA whereby the management recognizes that the membership of employees in the union which negotiated said agreement should be maintained and continued as a condition for employment or retention of employmen t.

respondent company terminated petitioners from employment when a separate inquiry could have revealed if the federation had acted arbitrarily and capriciously in expelling the union officers. (3) Union shop agreement. under a maintenance of membership provision of the CBA. The right of an employee to be informed of the charges against him and to a reasonable opportunity to present his side in a controversy with either the company or his own union is not wiped away by a union security clause or a union shop clause in a CBA. is bound to dismiss any employee expelled by the union for disloyalty upon its written request. The company acts in bad faith in dismissing a worker without giving him the benefit of a hearing. (8) Preferential hiring agreement. . (4) Modified union shop agreement. [G. R. An e mployee is entitled to be protected not only from a company which disregards his rights but also from his own union the leadership of which could yield to the temptation of swift and arbitrary expulsion from membership and mere dismissal from his job. cannot override one¶s right to due process. R. 55.(1) Closed shop agreement. 185 SCRA 177]. In Malayang Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa M. Greenfield (MSMGUWP) vs. NLRC. Respondent company¶s allegation that petitioners were accorded due . (6) Bargaining for members only agreement. the Supreme Court pronounced that while the company. (5) Exclusive bargaining agreement. this undertaking should not be done hastily and summarily. Ramos. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that union security clauses embodied in the CBA may be validly enforced and that dismissals pursuant thereto may likewise be valid. (2) Maintenance of membership agreement. 2000]. The reason behind the enforcement of union security clauses which is the sanctity and inviolability of contracts. May 8. 91086. [G. 1990. employer should still afford due process to the expelled unionists.Classification. No. the company terminated the petitioners without conducting a separate and independent investigation. petitioner union officers were expelled by the federation for allegedly committing acts of disloyalty and/or inimical to the interest of the fed eration (ULGWP) and in violation of the Constitution and By-laws. In the case of Cariño vs. Respondent company did not inquire into the cause of the expulsion and whether or not the federation had sufficient grounds to effect the same. 113907. February 28. No. (7) Agency shop agreement. Upon demand of the federation. Relying merely upon the federation¶s allegations. this does not erode the fundamental requirement of due process. What are the legal principles pertinent to union security clause arrangements? To validly dismiss an employee based on violation of union security clause.

. Sanyo Philippines Workers Union ± PSSLU vs. 14.R. 8 SCRA 700. Liberty Cotton Mills. Effect of Union Security Clause on religious freedom. 211 SCRA 361). 90 SCRA 391. chanrobles virtual law library The foregoing requisites constitute just cause for terminating an employee based on the CBA¶s union security provision.process is belied by the termination letters received by the petitioners which state that the dismissal shall be im mediately effective. . Liberty Cotton Mills. G. the company may still be held liable if it was remiss in its duty to accord the would-be dismissed employees their right to be heard on the matter. as held in the 2000 case of M. Binalbagan-Isabela Sugar Co. Employer¶s liability in illegal dismissal based on union security clause. Canizares. L-18782. the employer needs only to determine and prove that: (1) the union security clause is applicable. Requisites for termination based on union security clause. Feb. 170287. [G. NLRC. 29. (Liberty Cotton Mills Workers Union vs. (2) the union is requesting for the enforcement of the union security provision in the CBA. 90 SCRA 391). the Supreme Court declared that in terminating the employment of an employee by enforcing the union security clause. Before dismissal may be effected by the employer for breach of a union security agreement. vs. No. Inc. [BISCOM] vs. R. The employee sought to be dismissed must be given the opportunity to be heard. Inc. No. 1953. The employer should not rely solely upon the request of the union. Aug. Thus. (Liberty Cotton Mills Workers Union vs. and chanrobles virtual law library (3) there is sufficient evidence to support the union¶s decision to expel the employee from the union. In the case of Alabang Country Club. due process must be observed by the employer. The company is liable for the payment of backwages for having acted in bad faith in effecting the dismissal of the employees. 2008]. notwithstanding the fact that the dismissal was at the instance of the federation and that it undertook to hold the company free from any liability resulting from such a dismissal. Philippine Association of Free Labor Unions [PAFLU]. Greenfield [supra].

does not bar the members of that sect from forming their own union. September 12. in the case of Alexander Reyes vs. the Supreme Court. the Supreme Court rendered a decision in the case of Kapatiran sa Meat and Canning Division [Tupas Local Chapter No. L-82914. L-25246. Considering that they are not members of any union and they refused to participate in the previous certification election. the plainly discernible intendment of the law is to grant the right to vote to all bona-fide employees in the bargaining unit. [G. 56. [180 SCRA 749]. join or assist labor organizations. the respondents¶ argument that petitioners are disqualified to vote because they are not constituted into a duly organized labor union but members of the Iglesia ni Kristo which prohibits its followers. On the contrary.An employee may not be compelled to join a union if it is based on religious objection. No. Cresenciano B. Ferrer-Calleja. Neither law. and ³hence. ruled on the issue of whether members of the Iglesia ni Kristo may be allowed to vote in a certification election.´ Payment of agency fee to the bargaining union/agent which negotiated the CBA is but a reasonable . R. In 1988. Inc. Neither does the contention that petitioners should be denied the right to vote because they ³did not participate in previous certifica tion elections in the company for the reason that their religious beliefs do not allow them to form. R. 1992]. The Honorable BLR Director Pura Ferrer-Calleja. regardless of religious affiliation. 84433. Elizalde Rope Workers¶ Union. [G. as held in Airtime Specialists. on religious grounds. No. No law. not one of the unions which vied for certification as sole and exclusive bargaining representative. from joining or forming any labor organization. whether they are members of a labor organization or not. 1974] upholding the right of members of the Iglesia ni Kristo sect not to join a labor union for being contrary to their religious beliefs. No. June 20. 1027] vs.´ persuade acceptance.). Trajano. What is agency fee (check-off from non-union members)? The dues and other fees that may be assessed from non -union members within the bargaining unit who accept and avail of the benefits flowing from the CBA are called ³agency fees. 1988] where it ruled that the decision in Benjamin Victoriano vs.´ is specious. June 2.´ chanrobles virtual law library In 1992. [G. vs. The public respondent correctly observed that the ³recognition of the tenets of the sect xxx should not infringe on the basic right of self -organization granted by the constitution to workers. (Ibid. R. administrative rule nor jurisprudence requires that only employees affiliated with any labor organization may take part in a certification election. administrative rule or precedent prescribes forfeiture of the right to vote by reason of neglect to exercise the right in past certification elections.

Rule XXV. (Article 222 [b]. What are the CBA-related ULPs under the law? In connection with the right of workers to collective bargaining. 2003]). 22 SCRA 1266). agreement or arrangement of any sort to the contrary shall be null and void. Ibid. No attorney¶s fees. its officers. CIR. Trajano. 17. as amended by Department Order No. it shall be unfair labor practice for a labor organization. Clave. 144 SCRA 138. Section 4. to prevent non-union members from enriching themselves at the expense o f union members. in the nature of an exaction. Labor Code. 57. It may also be a relocation motivated by anti -union animus rather than for business reasons. What is ³feather-bedding´? According to this doctrine. Series of 2003.requirement recognized by law. to pay negotiation or attorney¶s fees to the union or its office rs or agents as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute (Article 248 [h]. 40-03. Galvadores vs.). (See Article 248 [e]. Attorney¶s fees. 59. 128 SCRA 112. Book V. for services which are not performed or not to be performed. Amalgamated Laborers Association vs. What is a runaway shop? A ³runaway shop´ is an industrial plant moved by its owners from one location to another to escape union labor regulations or state laws. Their acceptance of the benefits flowing from the CBA and their act of paying the agency fee does not make them members thereof. agents or representatives to cause or attempt to cause an employer to pay or deliver or agree to pay or deliver any money or other things of value. however. it is unfair labor practice of the employer: 1. Any contract. may be charged against union funds in an amount to be agreed upon by the parties. including the demand for fee for union negotiations. Labor Code. negotiation fees or similar charges of any kind arising from any CBA shall be imposed on any individual member o f the contracting union. 2. 58. chanrobles virtual law library . It must be emphasized that non-members of the certified bargaining agent which successfully concluded the CBA are not required to become members of the latter. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Pacific Banking Corporation vs. to violate the duty to bargain collectively as prescribed in the Labor Code (Article 248 [g]. Labor Code). [Feb.

CIR. 1984). 1981. Ltd. G. as an active interference with the right of collective bargaining through dealing with the employees individually instead of through their collective bargaining representatives. The employer¶s act of notifying through letters. July 31. R. No. Insular Life Assurance Co. 37 SCRA 244). L-37922.On the part of the union. The act of the employer in refusing to implement the negotiated wage increase stipulated in the CBA. vs. Alba Patio de Makati Employees Association.. NDC Employees and Workers Union. (Insular Life Assurance Co. 94 SCRA 270). vs. NLRC. L-50568. is unfair labor practice. March 16. . No. which increase is intended to be distinct and separate from any other benefits or privileges that may be forthcoming to the employees. No. (Philippine Apparel Workers Union vs. Alhambra Industries. Jan. (Article 239 [g].. vs. Oceanic Pharmacal Employees Union vs. 30. to give salary adjustments according to the improved salary scales in the collective bargaining agreements. is unfair labor practice. absent employees individually during a strike following unproductive efforts at collective bargaining that the plant would be operated the next day and their jobs were open for them should they want to return to work. R.. R. has been held to be an unfair labor practice. R. Labor Code). L25291. If not gross.). Violation of the CBA is ULP only if gross in character which means flagrant and/or malicious refusal to comply with the economic provisions thereof. Employees Association-NATU. 1971. G. No.. 66 SCRA 181. 35 SCRA 550). Nov. contrary to the stipulation in the CBA. The act of the employer in refusing to comply with the terms and conditions of a CBA constitutes bargaining in bad fa ith and is considered an unfair labor practice. violation of the CBA is no longer considered ULP. (Article 248 [i]. Refusal for a considerable number of years. (Benguet Consolidated vs. G. 3. Ltd. The act of the employer to permit non-union members to participate in the service charges. 1979. G. 7.. Ibid. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES INVOLVING UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES OF EMPLOYERS. (Alba Patio de Makati. Inc. vs. Inciong. to violate a collective bargaining agreement. is unfair labor practice. The following acts of the employer were generally held as unfair labor practice acts: 1. 22 SCRA 1293). BCI Employees and Workers Union. asking for or accepting attorney¶s fees or negotiation fee from employers is a ground for cancellation of union registration. (National Development Co. L-50320.

No. (Visayan Stevedores vs.2. Philippine Marine Officers Guild. which hampers their exercise of free choice. No. The act of the employer in instructing an employee not to affiliate or join a union. 107 Phil. 5. 762. G. employer¶s promise of benefits in return for the striking employees¶ abandonment of their strike. 7. profit sharing and a new building to work in. vs. 97 Phil. chanrobles virtual law library 8. (Cromwell Commercial Employees and Laborers Union vs. constitute strike-breaking and union-busting which is unfair labor practice. Progressive Federation of Labor. Inciong. 1964). R. Nov. 6. Withdrawal by the employer of holiday pay benefits stipulated under a supplementary agreement with the union. CIR. (Ibid. 19 SCRA 426. 205). L19778. accident insurance. (Ibid. 4. L -50568. 689). G. will be given to them. Sept. to a group of strikers in a restaurant that if the strikers returned to work. (Oceanic Pharmacal Employees Union vs. The act of the employer in interrogating its employees in connection with their membership in the union or their union activities. The act of the employer in indirectly forcing its employees to join another union. chanrobles virtual law library . 15 SCRA 174). Offer of reinstatement and attempt to ³bribe´ the strikers with ³comfortable cots. 1 SCRA 17). 3. 30. (Scoty¶s Department Store vs. Micaller. Philippine Steam Navigation Co.). or to induce strikers to return to work. and the employer¶s statement. chanrobles virtual law library 9. new benefits such as hospitalization. so they would abandon the strike and return to work.´ ³overtime pay´ for work performed in excess of eight hours and ³arrangements´ for their families. 7.). CIR. 1979). PAV Watchmen¶s Union. (Macleod vs. The act of the employer in refusing to reinstate strikers who voluntarily and unconditionally offered to return to work but did not accept the new discriminatory conditions imposed against them because of their union membership or activities. Offer of a Christmas bonus to all ³loyal´ employees of a company shortly after the making of a request by the union to bargain. R. wage increase given for the purpose of mollifying employees after the employer has refused to bargain with the union. (Velez vs. made about six (6) weeks after the strike started.´ ³free coffee and occasional movies. 99 Phil. National Fastener Corporation vs. The act of the employer in asking the union¶s recruiter to surrender the union affiliation forms and threatening him with bodily harm. CIR.

Gochangco Workers Union. The act of the purchasers of a business establishment in replacing the union members who were negotiating a CBA with the old owner at the time of the sale. 116 SCRA 459). 1987). R. intended to induce the employees to vote against the union. Sept. vs. Inc. 14. Refusal of the employer to reinstate an employee who was illegally dismissed based on the union security clause. and the furtive nature of his activity tends to demonstrate spectacularly the state of his anxiety. 17. G. May 30. When an employer engages in surveillance or takes steps leading his employees to believe it is going on. (CLLC E. (Re Louisiana Plastics. The uneven application by the employer of the comp any¶s marketing plan which caused undue hardship to the president and vice president of the union. Surveillance is illegal since it shows the opposition of the employer to the existence of the union. 9. 375 U. (Henriz Manufacturing Co. (National Labor Union vs. Exchange Parts Co. 405). That would be taking of property without due process of law which the employer . Nos. The announcement by the employer of benefits prior to the conduct of a certification election. unless the latter admits his guilt. The determination to cease operations is a prerogative of management that is usually not interfered with by the State as no business can be required to continue operating at a loss simply to maintain the workers in employment. (51A CJS Sec. a violation results because the employees come under threat of economic coercion or retaliation for their union activities. No. CIR. The act of the employer in suspending union officers who attended the hearing in the petition for certification election they filed. NLRB. G. 321 F 2d 00). 11. Sept. March 30. G. G.10. No. chanrobles virtual law library 13. No. (AHS/Philippine Employees Union vs. chanrobles virtual law library 12. R. L-39154. (Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office. p. (Litex Employees Association. R. 218. L -27546. 67158-62. G. 1982). No. S. 173 NLRB No. 1988). 73721. 382. G. 15. 1982.. July 16. 1982). The act of the employer in ceasing its operation due to establishment of the union. 9. NLRC. CIR. The grant of concessions and privileges d uring the pendency of certification election case to members of one of the unions participating therein. vs. The Association of Sweepstakes Staff Personnel. NLRC. NLRB vs. L-31276. 278). R. vs. The act of the employer in conducting espionage or surveillance of the meetings and activities of the union. 16. R. vs.

NLRC G. G. chanrobles virtual law library 19.. 4 SCRA 756. (Mabeza vs. the law provides the employer with ample remedies to protect his interest. 20. 21. R. Cruz vs. the State is bound to intervene. June 6. 1988). While a strike may result in hardships or prejudice to the school and the studentry. R. May 9. Inc. chanrobles virtual l aw library 18. in order for it to be able to effectuate the mass lay -off of union members. vs. (Bataan Shipyard and Engineering Co. 42 SCRA 68. L-48237. 275 SCRA 633 [July 17. The act of the employer in engaging in capital reduction to camouflage the fact that it had been making profit.. with no satisfactory justification why said employees were singled out. NLRC. (Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Bandolino-LMLC vs. R. 151 SCRA 355). Simulated sale in bad faith of business. 24. the employer is not without recourse. 271 SCRA 670). R. resorted to merely to get rid of the employees who were members of the union. No. No. NLRC. 116 SCRA 417). The act of the employer in putting on ³rotation´ only the alleged members of the union. NLRC. CIR. 275 SCRA 633 [July 17. (Moncada Bijon Factory vs. Federacion Obrero de la Industria. 118506. G. April 18. The act of the employer in asking the employees to disclose the names of the members of the union. (Carmelcraft Corporation vs. 1988). PAFLU. 1997]). If the employer feels that the action is tainted with illegality. May 9. No. chanrobles virtual law library 22. This is an unwarranted interference with the rights of workers to self-organization and to engage in concerted activities. 1990. 78604. R. G. National Labor Union vs. 30964. . Inc. (Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Bandolino LMLC vs. vs. No. June 30.has a right to resist. chanrobles virtual law library 23. The retrenchment of employees who belong to a particular union. Zamora. 1997. 1987. The act of the employer in compelling employees to sign an instrument indicating that the employer observed labor standards provisions of law when he might have not. 90634-35. (Madrigal & Co. together with the act of terminating or coercing those who refuse to cooperate with the employer¶s scheme. Sy Chie Junk Shop vs.. Nos. But where it is manifest that the closure is motivated not by a desire to avoid further losses but to discourage the workers from organizing themselves into a union for more effective negotiations with the management. NLRC. 1997]). G. An apprehension that there might be a future strike in the school is not a ground for dismissal of teachers who have attained permanent status. CIR.

. 108001. Jan. 30. Retrenchment would constitute a lame excuse and a veritable smokescreen of the employer¶s scheme to bust the union and thus unduly disturb the employment tenure of the employees concerned. No. No. The act of the employer in dismissing the union officers and members on the ground of losses about two years after it has allegedly sustained losses and after the dismissed officers and members became more militant when they demanded for the improvement of their working conditions in the company. G. vs. G. L39889. R. R. The cessation of a company¶s operations shortly after the organization of a labor union. R. 29. Sept. Inc. 12. The rea son invoked by petitioners to justify the cessation of corporate operations was alleged business losses which they. (Rizal Memorial Colleges Faculty Union vs. 26. 141. R. CIR. 156292. No. The act of the employer in dismissing its employees because of their union activities. gives credence to the employees¶ claim that the closure was meant to discourage union membership and to interfere in union activities. 12. To justify the closure of a business and the termination of the services of the concerned employees. failed to substantiate by any credible evidence. 1963). The mass lay-off or dismissal of 65 employees due to retrenchment absent any losses or financial reverses. 116 SCRA 459. 1989). See also Bataan Shipyard and Engineering Co. Oct. G. G. 31. CIR. however. the law requires the employer to prove that it suffered substantial actual losses. 255 SCRA 133.. (San Carlos Milling Co. Union of Supervisors [R. Nov. These acts constitute unfair labor practices. vs. L-18704. 1988). 9. 1 SCRA 734. NLRC.] NATU vs. No. which act is . (Litex Employees Association. 2005). as well as the resumption of business barely a month after. chanrobles virtual law library 28. R. G. (Me-Shurn Corporation vs. vs. 59012-13. R.Dismissal of employees in anticipation of an exercise of a constitutionally protected right is not one of them. B. R. 11. CIR. Rance vs. (San Miguel Corporation vs. The act of the employer in effecting discriminatory dismissal where only unionists were permanently dismissed. vs. 161 SCRA 271 [1988]). June 30. The act of an employer in unduly dismissing workers based on union security clause in the CBA. G. Inc. NLRC. No. NLRC. Jan. G. NLRC. 1996. L-39154. 25. Me-Shurn Workers Union ± FSM. 1982. 27. March 15. This holds true even where business conditions justify a lay -off of employees. No. 1981). (Oceanic Air Products. 68147. Secretary of Labor and Republic Bank. No.

No. (Visayan Bicycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. No. G. R. 34. CIR. L-19779. 14 SCRA 5). (Progressive Development Corporation. chanrobles virtual law library ILLUSTRATIVE CASES WHERE UNION WAS DECLARED GUILTY OF UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE.. No. 115 SCRA 887. R. Camara Shoes. 80 SCRA 434). chanrobles virtual law library 37. Notre Dame of Greater Manila. R. Dismissal occasioned by the implausible and unproved allegation of overpricing of needles the employee was ordered to buy and for alleged tampering of receipts. G. both the union and management were declared guilty of unfair labor practice when the union requested the dismissal of fifteen . No. (Sibal vs. 75093. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of Rizal Labor Union vs. 30. 19. No. 1990). Dismissal of employees because of their act of engaging in valid and legal concerted union activities. R. National Labor Union and CIR. L-51494. G. 14 SCRA 953). G. 1966]. 23. vs. [G. Feb. No. the latter¶s formation having been aided and abetted by the company. Dismissal occasioned by the refusal of employees to give up thei r union membership. 32.certainly an unfair labor practice. G. Employees Union. Rizal Cement Co. 13. Jan. 1977. May 19. vs. G. (People¶s Bank and Trust Co. Jan. 31. (Manila Pencil Co. (Republic Savings Bank vs. which dismissal was under the pretext of retrenchment due to reduced dollar allocations. Dismissal of employees because of their refusal to resign from their union and to join the union favorable to the employer. No. Inciong. (Kapisanan ng Manggagawa sa Camara Shoes vs. vs. 1982. 1976). Nov. vs. (Judric Canning Corporation vs. Dismissal of an employee because of his act of soliciting signatures for the purpose of forming a union. Dismissal of an employee who had worked for 19 years because he had filed money claims against the employer. CIR. R. 1965. 24. L -39603. R. 36. People¶s Bank and Trust Co. July 30. The act of the employer in provoking the union officers into a fight by two recently hired employees pursuant to a strategy of the company designed to provide an apparently lawful cause for their dismissal. 33. 1982). 21 SCRA 226). L-39546. and said dismisse d employees have not figured in similar incidents before or violated company rules in their many years with the company. 35. Aug. L-19997. CIR. R.. L-50985.

an employee whom the union thus refuses to admit to membership. [154 SCRA 369]. which he forthwith withdrew or revoked. it appearing that the union security clause in the CBA merely provided for a lim ited closed shop which did not justify the dismissal. L-22987. Inc. without any reasonable ground therefor. with more reason may the law and the courts exercise the coercive power when the employee involved is a long -standing union member who. Nonetheless. the union was held guilty of unfair labor practice when it expelled and demanded and caused the dismissal of a union member based on the union security clause in the CBA. if said unions may be compelled to admit new members who have the requisit e qualifications. No. for personal or impetuous reasons or for causes foreign to the closed . the said union member withdrew or revoked his resignation but the union refused to readmit him. and with back pay which should be borne exclusi vely by the union. without prejudice to his seniority and/or rights and privileges. and consequently from her job. 27. Needless to say. the dismissed employee was ordered reinstated to his former or substantially equivalent position in the company. fair play and legality. [G. the Supreme Court adjudged both the mother federation and the employer accountable for the dismissal of workers who instigated the disaffiliation of the local union from the federation. upon being advised by the company of the consequence of his resignation which is dismissal from the company. was impelled to tender his resignation. A union member may not be expelled from her union. or a union in insisting upon the discharge of. The union here was declared to have committed unfair labor practice but the company was spared from any liability. Sept. Union security clauses cannot be used by union officials against an employer. In Manila Mandarin Employees Union vs. The Supreme Court ruled that union security clauses are governed by law and by principles of justice. 1975]. R. where the union member resigned from the union but. owing to provocations of union officers. Sept. p rudence and judiciousness. R. 4. No. except with a high sense of responsibility. CIR. and cannot arbitrarily be denied readmission. invoke the rights of those who seek admission for the first time. L-22456. The right to disaffiliate is inherent in the contract and the act of disaffiliation was justified by the alleged negligence of the federation in attending to the needs of the local union. NLRC. he may. at least. Liberty Cotton Mills. much less their own members. [G. 1967]. chanrobles virtual law library In Salunga vs.. In Liberty Cotton Mills Workers Union vs.(15) employees and management acceded by effecting the dismissal on the ground that the said employees formed another union. fairness. Surely. the Supreme Court ruled that it is wellsettled that unions are not entitled to arbitrarily exclude qualified applicants for membership and a closed shop provision would not justify the employer in discharging.

The dismissed union members were denied due process when they were dismissed for disloyalty to the union based on the union security clause in the CBA. R. chanrobles virtual law library CASES NOT INVOLVING UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES. The proceedings would have been a farce. Those who came were not only threatened with persecution but also made to write the answers to questions as dictated to them by the union and the company representatives. June 30. supervisors and all rank-and-file employees not covered by the CBA is not discriminatory but a valid exercise of management prerogative. driven to desperation. according to its discretion and judgment. The grant of profit-sharing benefits to managers. nor timely notices of the hearing on the sa me. They. The following cases do not involve unfair labor practice: 1. 68147. It is evident that private respondents were in bad faith in dismissing petitioners. The Board of Directors of the union acted as prosecutor. it could not have altered the fact that the proceedings violated the rule of fair play. In Rance vs. NLRC. provided no basis for the union¶s accusation of disloyalty. They are entitled to reinstatement to their positions without reduction in rank. Petitioners had no idea that they were charged with disloyalty. [G. Even if the petitioners appeared in the supposed investigation proceedings to answer the charge of disloyalty against them. all aspects of employment. the private respondents. in vestigator and judge at the same time. found shelter in the other federation who took the cudgels for them. There was no impartial tribunal or body vested with authority to conduct disciplinary proceeding under the constitution and by -laws and the expelled union members were not furnished notice of the charge against them. chanrobles virtual law library Consequently. Such . payment of three-year backwages and payment of exemplary damages. Employees are entitled to due process before they may be expelled from the union on charge of disloyalty. No. The absence of a full blown investigation of the expelled members of the union by an impartial body. it was held that the act of some union members of seeking help from another federation cannot constitute disloyalty as contemplated in the CBA. it was declared by the High Court that the scandalous haste with which respondent corporation dismissed 125 employees lent credence to the claim that there was connivance between respondent corporation and respondent union. Management has the prerogative to regulate. are guilty of unfair labor practice. it was an act of self-preservation of workers who.shop agreement and in a manner characterized by arbitrariness and whimsicality. At most. 1988].

(Bulletin Publishing Co. vs. 3. (Wise and Co. vindictive nor wanton manner. Employees Union. Inc. The remedy is an action for reinstatement with prayer for backwages and damages. Mandatory or forced vacation leaves imposed by the employer due to economic crisis and not in a malicious. Sanchez. L-21510. 7. L-20044. where the workers were paid while on leave but the same was charged against their respective earned leaves. Oct. July 19. R. Oct. June 29. G. 6. R. A promotion which is manifestly beneficial to an employee should not give rise to a gratuitous speculation that such a promotion was made simply to deprive the union of the membership of the promoted employee. The dismissal of an employee due to loss of confidence is not unfair labor practice. R. CIR. 75704. . 1987). 1989). vs. No. G. (Philippine Graphic Arts. is not an unfair labor practice act. vindictive or wanton manner or out of malice or spite. NLRC. 1989). No. No.]. 1964). R. The promotion of employees to managerial positions is a prerogative of management. 13. 4. G. NLRC. (Rubber world [Phils. April 30. The dismissal of an employee cannot be considered an unfair labor practice act if it appears that other employees more active than him in the union were retained. 2. vs. 7. the transfer of the employee should be considered legal. No. Inc. 5. 1986). In the absence of any evidence which directly reflects interference by the company with the employee¶s right to self-organization. (AHS/Philippine Employees Union vs. Inc. 87677. 1968). It is a valid exercise of management prerogative. Inc. R. CIR. Wise and Co. oppressive. NLRC.. 74425. oppressive. harsh. No. G. 73721. vs. (Nevans vs. it does not constitute an unfair labor practice that would justify the staging of a strike. 166 SCRA 118). harsh.. The transfer of employees is a prerogative of management such as in one case where the employee who was transferred to a lower position. G.management prerogative may be availed of without fear of any liability so long as it is exercised in good faith for the advancement of the employer¶s interest and not for the purpose of defeating or circumventing the rights of employees under special laws or valid agreement and is not exercised in a malicious. (National Union of Restaurant Workers [PTUC] vs. No. retained his original rank and salary. In the absence of a showing that the illegal dismissal was dictated by anti-union motives. March 30. R. G.

CIR. 13. 1979). (Fortich vs. G. No. Malayang Manggagawa vs. G. 126717. Great Pacific Life Assurance Corporation. CIR. R.chanrobles virtual law library 14. Ramos. Dismissal of workers pursuant to the union security clause in the CBA. 2000. 130 SCRA 472). (GOP-OCP Workers Union vs. An error in the interpretation of a provision of the CBA.8. No. (Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa M. absent any malice or bad faith. is not an unfair labor practice act. Nov. Dismissal of a supervisor who organized a labor union composed of men under his supervision is not unfair labor practice. No. 9 SCRA 154). (Great Pacific Life Employees Union vs. No. the business of the employer was completely paralyzed. Marcelo Enterprises. There is no ULP if this is not proven by evidence. is not unfair labor practice. 38258. Discrimination in the context of the Labor Code involves either encouraging membership in any labor organization or is made on account of the employee¶s having given or being about to give testimony under the Labor Code. 1982. Sept. 669. 12. chanrobles virtual law library 11. Bacolod-Murcia Milling vs. Honest differences in construction may arise in the actual application o f contractual provisions. The act of the employer in refusing to re-admit striking workers after the strike was declared illegal. 9. 11. 12. 102 Phil. L-33015. (Lakas ng Manggagawang Makabayan vs. 113907. G. VictoriasManapla Workers. 127 SCRA 580). Greenfield (MSMG-UWP) vs. Feb. Ople. The decision of the employer to consider the top officers of petitioner union as unfit for reinstatement is not essentially discriminatory and constitutive of an unlawful labor practice of employers under Article 248 of the Labor Code. R. 93 SCRA 1). chanrobles virtual law library . G. 118 SCRA 422). 28. 10. Failure to re-admit striking workers at the same time is not unfair labor practice as there exist justifiable reasons not to effect their simultaneous readmission. (Singapore Airlines Local Employees Association vs. As a consequence of the two strikes which were both attended by widespread violence and vandalism. 1999). is not unfair labor practice. R. Feb. The failure of the employer to comply with the final order of reinstatement cannot be considered unfair labor practice in the light of a government directive which rendered reinstatement an impossibility. There were machines that were not in operating conditions because of long disuse during the strikes. Ang Tibay. R. NLRC. after affording them due process. 10. (Arrastre Security Associatio n vs.

In a case involving the mass ³protest retirement/resignation´ of pilots. the negotiations pushed through. However. 1999). and if it can be inferred that the employer adopted the said act to yield adverse effects on the free exercise to right to self -organization or on the right to collective bargaining of the employees. It is not an anti-union conduct from which it can be inferred that the bank consciously adopted such act to yield adverse effects on the free exercise of the right to self -organization and collective bargaining of the employees. especially considering that such was undertaken previous to the commencement of the negotiation and simultaneously with the manager¶s suggestion that the bank lawyers be excluded from its negotiating panel. the Supreme Court ruled that such is not a concerted activity which is within the protection of the law as they did not assume the status of strikers. It must be shown by substantial evidence that the filing of the petition for cancellation of union registration by the employer was aimed to oppress the union. 16. 107 Phil. Dec. No unfair labor practice is co mmitted by their employer when it accepted their said retirement/resignation from the company. 29. (Enriquez vs. Such refusal is legitimate exercise of the right to protect its own interests. No. 100342-44. 1986). 2004]. R. What are the latest cases involving the issue of ULP? Interference in the choice of union¶s bargaining panel. The act of the employer in filing a petition for cancella tion of the union¶s registration is not per se an act of unfair labor practice. the suggestion should be construed as part of the normal relations and innocent communications which are all part of the friendly relations between the union and the bank. June 16. in this case. Lanting. 17. The refusal of a shipping agency to hire and employ se curity guards affiliated with a security agency which does not post a bond is not unfair labor practice. 29. In the case of Standard Chartered Bank Employees Union [NUBE] vs. If at all. 60. the act of the bank¶s Human Resource Manager in suggesting the exclusion of the federation president from the negotiating panel was not considered ULP. with the inclusion of the federation president in the union¶s negotiating panel. 114974. R. It cannot be said that they were dismissed. 275). it was declared that if an employer interferes in the selection of the union¶s negotiators or coerces the union to exclude from its panel of nego tiators a representative of the union. G. Oct. ULP under Article 248(a) in connection with Article 243 of the Labor Code is committed. No. The records show that after the initiation of the collective bargaining process. R. Nos. NLRC. G. (Associated Watchmen and Security Union vs. [G. Zamora. Confesor. chanrobles virtual law library . 51382. (Rural Bank of Alaminos Employees Union [RBAEU] vs.15.

chanrobles virtual law library In De Leon vs. was a mere instrumentality of FTC. R. National Federation of Sugarcane Workers ± Food and General Trade. [G. No. In Hacienda Fatima vs. CA. tasked to provide protection and security in the company premises. 2004]. [G. there is sufficient ground to conclude that respondents were guilty of interfering with the right of petitioners to self-organization which constitutes unfair labor practice under Article 248 of the Labor Code. Moreover. 2001]. the Supreme Court held that based on the facts.a clear interference in the right of the workers to self-organization. FISI also had no other clients except FTC and other companies belonging to the Lucio Tan group of companies. It appears from the records that FISI. 149440. 112661. February 11. R. the Supreme Court upheld the factual findings of the NLRC and the Court of Appeals that from the employer¶s refusal to bargain to its acts of economic inducements resulting in the promotion of those who withdrew from the union. May 30. R. The records s how that the two corporations had identical stockholders and the same business address.its main factory plant. (FISI) since the 1980¶s and have since been posted at the premises of Fortune Tobacco Corporation (FTC) . Inc. the early payslips of petitioners show that their salaries were initially paid by FTC. 2003]. In General Milling Corporation vs. petitioners formed a union which was later certified as bargaining agent of all the security guards. On February 1. it is guilty of unfair labor practice for interfering with the right of its employees to self-organization. Thus. 146728.Interference in the employees¶ right to self-organization. the employer is guilty of unfair labor practice. To enforce their rightful benefits under the laws on labor standards. 1991. while having its own corporate identity. Hence. and the dismissal of union officials and members. the use of armed guards to prevent the organizers to come in. [G. The ill-timed letters of resignation from the union members indicate that the employer had interfered with the right of its employees to self-organization. The records show that the employer presented these letters to prove that the union no longer enjoyed the support of the workers. No. No. the stockholders of FISI sold all their participations in the corporation to a new set of stockholders which renamed the corporation . Petitioner-security guards have been employed with Fortune Integrated Services. NLRC and Fortune Tobacco Corporation. one cannot but conclude that the employer did not want a union in its hacienda . the Supreme Court considered the act of the employer in presenting the letters between February to June 1993 by 13 union members signifying their resignation from the union clearly indicative of the employer¶s pressure on its employees. its tobacco redrying plant and warehouse. The fact that the resignations of the union members occurred during the pendency of the case before the Labor Arbiter shows the employer¶s desperate attempts to cast doubt on the legitimate status of the union. January 28.

This resulted in the displacement of petitioners. in the 2000 case of Colegio de San Juan de Letran vs.Magnum Integrated Services. it failed to give new assignments to petitioners. No. 2000]. it was still the certified collective bargaining agent of the workers.´ chanrobles virtual law library . albeit just before the last day of said period. On October 15. it is indisputable that when the union requested for a renegotiation of the economic terms of the CBA on November 29. For refusing to send a counter-proposal to the union and to bargain anew on the economic terms of the CBA. while the CBA negotiation was on-going. The union¶s proposal was also submitted within the prescribed 3-year period from the date of effectivity of the CBA. September 18. [G. As MISI had no other clients. [G. It was obvious that GMC had no valid reason to refuse to negotiate in good faith with the union. 1991. effect. the company committed an unfair labor practice under Article 248 of the Labor Code. without any reason. preterminated its contract of security services with MISI and contracted two other agencies to provide security services for its premises. The outright termination for alleged insubordination of the union president. When termination of union president constitutes interference with the employees¶ right to self-organization. R. The relation between labor and management should be undisturbed until the last 60 days of the fifth year. because it was seeking said renegotiation within five (5) years from the date of effectivity of the CBA on December 1. It ruled: ³The law mandates that the representation provision of a CBA should last for five years. the Supreme Court declared that the petitioner is guilty of unfair labor practice under Article 248 [g] for refusing to send a counter-proposal to the union and to bargain anew on the economic terms of the CBA. 141471. Association of Employees and Fac ulty of Letran. Hence. R. No. The factual backdrop of her termination leads to no other conclusion that she was dismissed in order to strip the union of a leader who would fight for the right of her coworkers at the bargaining table. February 11. 1988. Inc. was declared as constitutive of union busting as it interfered with the employees¶ right to self-organization. In the 2004 case of General Milling Corporation vs. chanrobles virtual law library Failure or refusal of management to give counter-proposal. FTC. CA. Petitioners have remained unemployed since then. 1991. 2004]. 146728. All these facts indicate a concerted effort on the part of respondents to remove petitioners from the company and thus abate the growth of the union and block its actions to enforce their demands in accordance with the labor standards laws.

141471. Sloane and Fred Witney. admittedly. ³Surface bargaining´ is defined as ³going through the motions of negotiating´ without any legal intent to reach an agreement. ³Surface bargaining´ on the part of management. Here. (See also National Union of Restaurant Workers [PTUC] vs. its actuation showed a lack of sincere desire to negotiate rendering it guilty of unfair labor practice. There can be no surface bargaining. The resolution of surface bargaining allegations never presents an easy issue. No. R. June 16. it must be emphasized that the duty to bargain ³does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or require the making of a concession. Confesor. [G. the petitioner school was declared guilty of unfair labor practice when it failed to make a timely reply to the proposals of the union more than a month after the same were submitted by the union. at bottom. Labor Relations. the school merely offered the feeble excuse that its Board of Trustees had not yet convened to discuss the matter.´ Hence. G.³Similarly. No. September 18. (Standard Chartered Bank Employees Union [NUBE] vs. and usually such intent can only be inferred from the totality of the challenged party¶s conduct both at and away from the bargaining table. p. Association of Employees and Faculty of Letran. 195). 2004). chanrobles virtual law library ³Blue-sky bargaining´ on the part of union. 312 NLRB 770. In explaining its failure to reply. The determination of whether a party has engaged in unlawful surface bargaining is usually a difficult one because it involves. a question of the intent of the party in question. which tend to show that it did not want to reach an agreement with the union or to settle the differences between it and the union. 2000]. Confesor. 114974. 7th Edition 1991. 10 SCRA 843 [1964]). surface bargaining involves the question of whether an employer¶s conduct demonstrates an unwillingness to bargain in good faith or is merely hard bargaining. 114974. the parties were not able to agree and reached a deadlock. However. Clearly. CIR. chanrobles virtual law library . 2004]. R. both at and away from the bargaining table. absent any evidence that management had done acts. [G. (Arthur A. June 16. 789 [1993]). in the earlier 2000 case of Colegio de San Juan de Letran vs. the parties¶ failure to agree does not amount to ULP under Article 248 [g] for violation of the duty to bargain. chanrobles virtual law library According to Standard Chartered Bank Employees Union [NUBE] vs. R. No. ³Blue-sky bargaining´ means making exaggerated or unreasonable proposals. (Luck Limousine.

management cannot be held liable for ULP. G. (Standard Chartered Bank Employees Union [NUBE] vs. While the refusal to furnish requested information is in itself an unfair labor practice and also supports the inference of surface bargaining. 687. Refusal to furnish financial information is ULP. The eventual signing of the CBA does not operate to estop the parties from raising ULP charges against each other. Inc. No. Sulpicio Lines. Confesor. Signing of CBA does not estop a party from raising issue of ULP. Feb. In the same 2004 case of Standard Chartered Bank [supra].. as held by the High Court in Standard Chartered Bank [supra]. Inc. Who has the burden of proof in ULP cases? In unfair labor practice cases. After all. 18. NLRC. 277 SCRA 680. March 25. there must be proof that the demands made by the union were exaggerated or unreasonable. 123276. No. the conclusion of the CBA was included in the order of the Secretary of Labor and Employment. 2004). supra). (Tiu vs. 142506. the minutes of the meeting show that the union based its economic proposals on data of rank-and-file employees and the prevailing economic benefits received by bank employees from other foreign banks doing business in the Philippines and other branches of the bank in the Asian region. however. Aug. Who may exercise the right to self-organization? .R. the approval of the CBA and the release of signing bonus do not necessarily mean that the union waived its ULP claim against the management during the past negotiations. R. See also Schering Employees Labor Union [SELU] vs. it cannot be said that the union was guilty of ULP for blue-sky bargaining. exception. Consequently. Hence. it is the union which has the burden of proof to present substantial evidence to support its allegations of unfair labor practices committed by the employer.In order to be considered as unfair labor practice. LABOR ORGANIZATIONS COVERAGE OF RIGHT TO SELFORGANIZATION 62. No. 1997. Samahang Manggagawa sa Sulpicio Lines. G. R. 2005. while the signing bonus was included in the CBA itself. G. 61. Schering Plough Corporation. It is not enough that the union believed that the employer committed acts of unfair labor practice when the circumstances clearly negat e even a prima facie showing to warrant such a belief. -NAFLU vs. 17. if the union failed to put its request in writing as required in Article 242 [c] of the Labor Code. 140992.

chanrobles virtual law library Any employee. or educational institutions.. whether operating for profit or not. Exception: Alien employees with valid working permits issued by the DOLE may exercise the right to self-organization and join or assist labor organizations for purposes of col lective bargaining. May employees in the public service exercise their right to self-organize? Employees of government corporations established under the Corporation Code (without original charters) shall have the right to organize and to bargain collectively with their respective employers. 65. join. shall have the right to self-organization and to form. (Ibid. Ambulant. Basic Amendments under R. as well as foreign organizations are strictly prohibited from engaging directly or indirectly in all forms of trade union activities without prejudice to normal conta cts between Philippine labor unions and recognized international labor centers. Supervisory employees. intermittent and itinerant workers. May aliens exercise the right to self-organization? General rule: All aliens. and c. if they are nationals of a country which grants the same or similar rights to Filipino workers. 10. b. What are the three types of managerial employees? The three (3) types of managerial employees are as follows: . charitable. What are the three categories of employees? a. See also Article 277 [c]. rural workers and those without any definite employers may form labor organizations for their mutual aid and protection. or assist labor organizations of their own choosing for purposes of collective bargaining. Labor Code. No. shall beginning on the first day of his/her service. 6715. natural or juridical. chanrobles virtual law library 63. Rank-and-file employees. whether employed for a definite period or not. All other employees in the civil service shall have the right to form associations for purposes not contrary to law. self-employed people. medical. as certified by the Department of Foreign Affairs. Managerial employees. industrial and agricultural enterprises and in religious. 64. A. prepared by Members of the Senate-House Conference Committee of Congress). 66.All persons employed in commercial. be eligible for membership in any labor organization.

the law does not allow mixed membership of both supervisory and rank-and-file employees in one union. said affiliation with one and the same federation is allowed.Top management. chanrobles virtual law library 69. if the confidential information to which an . April 12. hiring or dismissal of employees and the like.1. What is the distinction between managerial employees and supervisory employees? The principal distinction between managerial employees and supervisory employees is: the former have the power to decide and do managerial acts. Laguesma. and 3. 288 SCRA 15 and Paper Industries Corp. Simply put. 2000) 67. chanrobles virtual law library 70. while the latter have the power only to recommend managerial acts such as laying down policy. What is the ³separation of unions´ doctrine? The ³separation of unions´ doctrine simply means that the affiliation of both the rank-and-file union and supervisory union in the same company with one and the same federation is not allowed if the rank -and-file employees are under the direct supervision of the supervisors composing the supervisory union. they can join a union. A union with such mixed membership is no union at all. confidential employees are not allowed to join any union (as they are treated like managers) when they: (1) assist or act in a confidential capacity. Are managerial employees allowed to unionize? How about supervisory employees? As a general rule. if these two conditions do not concur. In fact. of the Philippines vs. What is the ³confidential employee´ doctrine? Under the ³confidential employee rule´. determine. R. (See United Pepsi0Cola Supervisors Union vs. 68. Otherwise. Laguesma. It cannot exercise the rights of a legitimate labor organization.Middle management. and effectuate management policies specifically in the field of labor relations. 2.First-line management. If not. 101738. G. (2) to persons who formulate. First-line managers (or supervisory employees) are allowed to join a supervisory union but not the union of rank -and-file employees or vice-versa. only top and middle managers are not allowed to join any labor organization. No.

vs. 75. 72. Inc. the Supreme Court ruled that the effect of issuance of certificate of registration to a union is that it becomes legitimate and its legal personality can only be attacked through a petition for cancellation of registration and not thru intervention in a certification election petition. What is a labor organization? A labor organization is any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or for dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment. Tagaytay Highlands Employees Union -PGTWO (G. January 22. What is the significance of issuance of Certificate of Registration to a union? In Tagaytay Highlands International Golf Club. 142000..employee has access has nothing to do with labor relations. LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 71. What are the purposes of a labor organization? (1) Collective bargaining. 73. . such employee cannot be considered a confidential employee under this rule. Registration with DOLE makes it legitimate. R. while a workers' association is organized for the mutual aid and protection of its members but not for collective barg aining purposes. 74. What is a workers¶ association? A workers' association is any association of workers organized for the mutual aid and protection of its members or for any legitimate purpose other than collective bargaining. What is the distinction between a labor organization and a workers¶ association? A labor organization is established principally for collective bargaining purposes. It is considered "legitimate" if duly registered with DOLE. 2003). 76. and (2) Dealing with employers regarding the terms and conditions of the employment relationship. No. How is a labor organization registered? The application for registration must be supported by at least 20% of the members of the bargaining unit.

standards and programs. it was held that a local or chapter need not be independently registered to acquire legal personality. or 2. chanrobles virtual law library 80. 2005].´ 81. a local chapter which was subsequently granted independent registration but did not disaffiliate from its federation. What is an affiliate? ³Affiliate´ refers to: 1.77. 82. 157146. Under the old rule. . What is a national union or federation? ³National Union´ or ³Federation´ refers to a group of legitimate labor unions in a private establishment organized for collective bargaining or for dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment for their member-unions or for participating in the formulation of social and employment policies. What is a chartered local? ³Chartered Local´ refers to a labor organization in the private sector operating at the enterprise level that acquired legal personality through the issuance of a charter certificate by a federation or a national union. April 29. within the employer¶s establishment. national union. No. [G. registered with the Bureau of Labor Relations. Office of the Secretary. 79. this is known simply as ³local´ or ³chapter. chanrobles virtual law library CHARTERING AND AFFILIATION 78. What is a bargaining unit? A "bargaining unit" is the group or cluster of jobs or positions that supports the labor organization which is applying for reg istration. What is an independent union? ³Independent Union´ refers to a labor organization operating at the enterprise level that acquired legal personality through independent registration under Article 234 of the Labor Code. DOLE. Are local chapters required to acquire independent registration in order to have legal personality? In Laguna Autoparts Manufacturing Corporation vs. an independent union affiliated with a federation. R.

Chartering and Creation of a Local Chapter. Appending the name of the federation to the local union's name does not mean that the federation absorbed the latter. What is the proof of affiliation with a federation? The proof of affiliation depends on the nature of the affiliation. The chapter shall be entitled to all other rights and privileges of a legitimate labor organization only upon the submission of the following documents in addition to its charter certificate: (a) The names of the chapter¶s officers. chanrobles virtual law library 2. The federation is the principal and the local union.Charter certificate issued by the federation or national union. their addresses. Which one is liable for damages in case of illegal strike ± the local union or federation? . Thus. and the principal office of the chapter. A. . chanrobles virtual law library 84.Under Article 234-A of the Labor Code. 9481 [June 14. and (b) The chapter¶s constitution and by-laws: Provided. . thus: ART. it is provided. An independently-registered union does not lose its independent legal personality when it affiliates with a federation or national union. What is the effect of affiliation? A labor union which affiliates with a federation or national union becomes subject to the rules and regulations of the latter. as amended by R. 85. Independently-registered union. Local chapter. if: 1. . That where the chapter¶s constitution and by-laws are the same as that of the federation or the national union. 234-A.A duly registered federation or national union may directly create a local chapter by issuing a charter certificate indicating the establishment of the local chapter. The additional supporting requirements shall be certified under oath by the secretary or treasurer of the chapter and attested by its president. 2008]. 83. The chapter shall acquire leg al personality only for purposes of filing a petition for certification election from the date it was issued a charter certificate. No. the agent. this fact shall be indicated accordingly.contract of affiliation between federation and the union.

The obligation to check-off federation dues is terminated with the valid disaffiliation of the local union from the federa tion with which it was previously affiliated. by collective action. local unions do not owe their creation and existence to the national federation to which they are affiliated but. in one case. 115180. 86. Thus. 1999). 2002). that the right of a local union to disaffiliate from its mother federation is not a novel thesis unillumined by case law. vs. by disaffiliating from the old federation to join a new federation.In Filipino Pipe and Foundry Corporation vs. (G. It cannot be effected by a mere minority group of union members. The local union. It is not an act of disloyalty on the part of the local union nor is it a violation of the ³union security clause´ in the CBA. NLRC. is a constitutionally -guaranteed right which may be invoked by the former at any time. Inc. to the will of their members. In the landmark case of Liberty Cotton Mills Workers Union Vs. September 4. (Villar vs. Inciong. 127374. In the absence of specific provisions in the federation¶s constitution prohibiting disaffiliation or the declaration of autonomy of a local union. The sole essence of affiliation is to increase. January 31. a local may dissociate with its parent union. 121 SCRA 444). November 16. No. It was held in Philippine Skylanders. 66 SCRA 512]. Disaffiliation should always carry the will of the majority. the Supreme Court upheld the right of local unions to separate from their mother federation on the ground that as separate and voluntary associations. Inc. L-33987. the common bargaining power of local unions for the effective . it was held that there can be no disloyalty to speak of since there is no provision in the federation¶s constitution which specifically prohibits disaffiliation or declaration of autonomy. NLRC. No. a certification election is the most expeditious way of determining which labor organization is to be treated as the exclusive bargaining agent. R. is merely exercising its primary right to labor organization for the effective enhancement and protection of common interests. instead. Liberty Cotton Mills. What is disaffiliation? The right to disaffiliate by the local union from its mother union or federation. 1975. [No. a local union may sever its relationship with its parent union. R. (G. Once the fact of disaffiliation has been manifested beyond doubt. Absent any enforceable provisions in the federation¶s constitution expressly forbidding disaffiliation of a local union. it was held that it is the local union and not the federation which is liable to pay damages in case of illegal strike.

Surely. 121 SCRA 444. Such dictum has been punctiliously followed since then. free to serve their own interests subject to the restraints imposed by the constitution and by-laws of the national federation. to secure justice for themselves. this is not a case where one (1) or two (2) members of the local union decided to disaffiliate from the mother federation. However. The disaffiliation of an independently -registered union does not affect its legitimate status as a labor organization. unaided by other support groups. but it is a case where almost all loca1 union members decided to disaffiliate. Does the act of the union in disaffiliating and entering into a CBA with the employer constitute unfair labor practice? . the pendency of an election protest involving both the mother federation and the local union did not constitute a bar to a valid disaffiliation. it ceases to be entitled to the rights and privileges granted to a legitimate labor organization. As PSEA had validly severed itself from PAFLU. the same thing may not be said of a union which is not independently -registered (chartered local). 87.5% of the total union membership supported the claim of disaffiliation and had in fact disauthorized PAFLU from instituting any complaint in their behalf. Once a chartered local disaffiliates from the federation. Inciong. 88. Neither was it disputed by PAFLU that 111 signatories out of the 120 members of the local union. distinguished. There is nothing shown in the records nor is it claimed by AFLU that the local union was expressly forbidden to disaffiliate from the federation nor were there any conditions imposed for a valid breakaway. there would be no restrictions which could validly hinder it from subsequently affiliating with NCW and entering into a collective bargaining agreement in behalf of its members. 1983). chanrobles virtual law library It was entirely reasonable then for PSI to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with PSEA-NCW. (Villar vs. there are times when without succor and support local unions may find it hard. As such. Yet the local unions remain the basic units of association. Upon an application of the afore-cited principle to the issue at hand. April 20. or an equivalent of 92. It cannot file a petition for certification election. Admittedly. and free also to renounce the affiliation upon the terms laid down in the agreement which brought suc h affi1iation into existence. the impropriety of the questioned Decisions becomes clearly apparent.enhancement and protection of their interests. Disaffiliation of independently-registered union and chartered local.

In the first place. [G.In Philippine Skylanders. there can be no violation of the union security clause i n the CBA. What is cancellation proceedings against labor organization or workers¶ association? ³Cancellation Proceedings´ refer to the legal process l eading to the revocation of the legitimate status of a union or workers¶ association. As far as the employer is concerned. (Section 1 [g]. Inc. 89. Jan. R. 90. R. the disaffiliation was held valid and.CGW. Jan. 20. there exists no sufficient basis to terminate the employment of said employees. it is entirely reasonable for it to enter into a CBA with the local union which is now affiliated with a new federation. and consequently. the complaint for unfair labor practice was instituted against the wishes of workers who are members of the local union whose interests it was supposedly protecting. Tropical Hut Food Market. No. Book V. In the second place. the local union and their respective officers. and the local union and their respective officers because of the act of the local union in disaffiliating from the mother federation and in entering in to a CBA with the employer without its participation. vs. there would be no restrictions which could validly hinder it from subsequently affiliating with the new federation and entering into a CBA in behalf of its members. No. vs. L-43495-99. As the local union had validly severed itself from the old federation. therefore. However. 1990]. as . More so in a case where the CBA imposes dismissal only in case employees are expelled from the union for their act of joining another federation or for forming another union or if they failed or refused to maintain membership therein. it was pronounced that the union security clause in the CBA cannot be used to justify the dismissal of the employees who voted for the disaffiliation of the local union from the federation. [G. 127374. 31. Is disaffiliation a violation of union security clause? In Tropical Hut Employees Union .. 2002]. in a situation where it does not involve the withdrawal of merely some employees from the union but the whole union itself withdraws from the federation with which it was affiliated. NLRC. should have been dismissed at the first instance for failure to state a cause of action. Inc. the federation ceases to have any personality to represent the local union in the CBA negotiation. The Supreme Court ruled that there was no such unfair labor practice committed. the mother federation with which the local union was formerly affiliated instituted a complaint for unfair labor practice against the employer (which refused to negotiate a CBA with said federation because the local union had already effectively and validly disaffiliated from it). Rules to Implement the Labor Code. The complaint for unfair labor practice lodged by the federation against the employer. having been filed by a party which has no legal personality to institute the complaint. Rule I.

17. upon the filing of an independent complaint or petition for cancellation. Laguesma. 24 SCRA 873). G. the registration of any legitimate independent labor union. Rule XIV. 2003]). it loses .).amended by Department Order No. (Itogon-Suyoc Mines vs.its rights under the Labor Code. it is provided as follows: ART. No. The pendency alone of cancellation proceedings does not affect the right of a labor organization to sue. No. it was held that a decision rendered without any hearing is null and void. The cancellation of a certificate of registration is the equivalent of snuffing out the life of a labor organization. 91. What is the effect of filing or pendency of a cancellation proceeding? The filing or initiation of a cancellation proceeding against a labor organization does not have the effect of depriving it of the rights accorded to a legitimate labor organization. G. The union is indisputably entitled to be heard before a judgment could be rendered canceling its certificate of registration. Laguesma. by the Bureau Director. 713-714 (December 14. In David vs.A petition for cancellation of union registration shall not suspend the proceedings for certification election nor shall it prevent the filing of a petition for certification election. national or industry unions and trade union centers. 238-A. as amended by R. 1979)].. the labor organization whose registration is sought to be cancelled shall continue to enjoy said rights. 1996). For as long as there is no final order of cancellation. chanrobles virtual law libr ary Subject to the requirements of notice and due process. 40-03. (Section 1. Book V. Effect of a Petition for Cancellation of Registration. In case of cancellation. (Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Pacific Plastic vs. [94 SCRA 707. nothing herein shall restrict the right of the union to seek just and equitable remedies in the appropriate courts. 108625. or in the case of federations. Jan. 111245. . March 11. Such pendency cannot also bar the conduct of a certification election. Series of 2003. Ibid. A. R. [Feb. Aguilizan. 31. R. What is the effect of cancellation during the pendency of a case? .as a rule . Sangilo-Itogon Workers Union. No. For without such registration. chartered local and workers' association may be cancelled by the Regional Director. (Alliance of Democratic Free Labor Organization [ADFLO] vs. 92. chanrobles virtual law librar y Under Article 238-A of the Labor Code. 9481 [June 14. 2007]. 1997).

Book V. it has juridical personality and the respondent court had validly acquired jurisdiction over the case.). chanrobles virtual law library The non-renewal of registration or permit does not result in the dismissal of a case pending with the Department of Labor and Employment. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Inc. The reason is that. CIR. as amended. Rule XV. Series of 2003. (Philippine Land-Air-Sea Labor Union [PLASLU]. 93. No registration of labor organization. the labor organization whose registration is cancelled may still continue to be a party to the case without necessity for substitution. (Section 1. upon its own initiative or upon complaint filed by any party -in-interest. the latter may cause the institution of the administrative process for cancellation of its registration. shall be cancelled administratively by the Bureau of Labor Relations due to non -compliance with the reportorial requirements unless: (a) non-compliance is for a continuous period of five (5) years. Whatever decision. vs. chanrobles virtual law library CERTIFICATION ELECTION & REPRESENTATION ISSUES 94. (b) the procedures laid down in the Implementing Rules were complied with.In case cancellation of a union registration is made during the pendency of a case. Book V. vs. as amended by Department Order No. [Feb. however. Book V of the Rules to Implement the Labor Code. (Section 5. at the time of the filing of the case. (Itogon-Suyoc Mines. 2003]). may be rendered therein shall only be binding on those members of the union who have not signified their desire to withdraw from the case before its trial and decision on the merits. May registration of a labor organization be cancelled due to non-compliance with reportorial requirements? Where a registered labor organization in the private sector failed to submit the reports required under Rule V [Reporting Requirements of Labor Unions and Workers¶ Associations]. Sangilo-Itogon Workers Union. 47). and (c) the labor organization concerned has not responded to any of the notices sent by the Bureau. or its notices were returned unclaimed. 17. What is meant by ³sole and exclusive bargaining agent´? . Rule XV. Ibid. 24 SCRA 873). 40-03. for five (5) consecutive years despite notices for compliance sent by the Labor Relations Division or the Bureau of Labor Relations. 93 Phil. however. Inc.

Exclusive bargaining representative. This is allowed when there is only one union operating in the bargaining unit. certification election. provided. how determined. . 95. run-off election. . chanrobles virtual law library 97. consent election. Definition of terms. 96. that the total number of votes for all contending unions is at least fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast.refers to the election voluntarily agreed upon by the parties.refers to an election between the labor unions receiving the two (2) highest number of votes when a certification election which provides for three (3) or more choices results in no choice receiving a majority of the valid votes cast. . chanrobles virtual law library Run-off election.Voluntary recognition of bargaining agent is the free and voluntary act of the employer of extending and conferring full recognition to a union as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative of the employees in an appropriate bargaining u nit. Four (4) ways of determining a bargaining agent: 1. voluntary recognition in cases where there is only one legitimate labor organization operating within the bargaining unit. or 4.refers to the process of determining through secret ballot the sole and exclusive bargaining representative of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit. for purposes of collective bargaining. What is the distinction between consent election and certification election? Consent election is a separate and distinct process and has nothing to do with the import and effort of a certification election in the sense that the .The term ³sole and exclusive bargaining agent´ refers to any legitimate labor organization duly recognized or certified as the sole a nd exclusive bargaining agent of all the employees in a bargaining unit. or 3. or 2. to determine the issue of majority representation of all the workers in the appropriate collective bargaining unit. . with or without the intervention of the Department of Labor and Employment. Consent election. chanrobles virtual law library Certification election. for purposes of collective bargaining. Voluntary recognition of union.

100. 98).which is the progress of their company and their desire to share equitably in the profits or fruits of their endeavors. same duties and responsibilities and substantially similar compensation and working conditions. comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees in the employer unit or any specific occupational or geographical grouping within su ch employer unit. the employees sought to be represented by the collective bargaining agent must have substantial mutual interests in terms of employment and working conditions as evinced by the type of work they perform. and so on. No. R. 98. G. SUBSTANTIAL MUTUAL INTERESTS RULE: Under the substantial mutual interests rule. (Philtranco . There is commonality of interest among them . It is characterized by similarity of employment status. they are all needed and important for its continued existence and smooth operations. 99. chanrobles virtual law library Since it is impossible for all employees in one company to perform exactly the same work. What is a bargaining unit? A ³bargaining unit´ refers to a group of employees sharing mutual interests within a given employer unit. janitors. 1996. 3. Certainly. Bargaining unit. 4. (San Miguel Corporation Employees Union-PTGWO vs. 19. Confesor. it is highly fragmentatious for typists and clerks to organize one bargaining unit. another unit. Employment status. chanrobles virtual law library 2. there should be a logical basis for the formation of the bargaining unit. Collective bargaining history. On the part of the company.purpose of the latter is to determine the sole and exclusive bargaining agent of all the employees in the bargaining unit. Globe doctrine [will of the employees]. 111262. another unit. how determined. accountants. 262 SCRA 81. Substantial mutual interests principle or community or mutuality of interests rule. in one company. Sept. There are no specific criteria under the law but any of the following four (4) modes may be used: chanrobles virtual law library 1. another unit. Is direct certification allowed? Direct certification of union is not allowed. messengers.

chanrobles virtual law library In the case of San Miguel Corporation vs. it was held that they can form their own bargaining unit separate and distinct from those involved in the production and maintenance such as those employed in the raw leaf. R. sales and dispensary departments perform work which have nothing to do with production and maintenance. R. engineering and maintenance departments. 380-381]. packing. Laguesma. 110399. June 28. 1989). Geographical location can be completely disregarded if the communal or mutual interests of the employees are not sacrificed as demonstrated in University of the Philippines vs. Even the bargaining unit sought to be represented by respondent union in the entire North Luzon sales area consists only of approximately fifty -five (55) employees. Bureau of Labor Relations. Laguna. 100485. Feb. 277 SCRA 370. G. No. 1994]. the employees of both companies cannot be treated a s one bargaining unit because they are employed by two separate and distinct entities. Alhambra Employees Association -PAFLU. [G. R. No. Padre Faura. 1997. vs. Although the businesses of two companies are related and the employees of one were originally the employees of the other. a different legal principle applies. Surely. [G. R. Metro Manila. 1969]. L-13573. Laguesma. But in the case of employees of two (2) companies. and in San Fernando.´ In another case involving the same company. [G. Neither are there regional differences that are likely to impede the operations of a single bargaining representative. namely. the fact that the three plants comprising the bargaining unit are located in three different places. in Cabuyao. San Miguel Corporatio n Supervisors and Exempt Employees Union vs. Ferrer-Calleja. In Alhambra Cigar and Cigarette Manufacturing Co. . employees in the administrative.. in Otis.Service Enterprises vs. Pan dacan. Laguna and the Visayas were allowed to participate in a certification election. No. 20. Los Banos. August 15. The distance among the three plants is not productive of insurmountable difficulties in the administration of union affairs. No. Said the Court: ³What greatly militates against this position (of the company) is the meager number of sales p ersonnel in each of the Magnolia sales office in Northern Luzon. Manila. contrary to the position taken by the company that each sales office consists of one bargaining unit. it would not be for the best interests of these employees if they would further be fractionalized. cigar. the Supreme Court applied this principle in a petition of the union which seeks to represent the sales personnel in the various Magnolia sales offices in Northern Luzon. [211 SCRA 451 (1992)]. where all non-academic rank-and-file employees of the University of the Philippines in Diliman. September 21. 85343. Pampanga was declared immaterial. hence. The adage µthere is strength in number¶ is the very rationale underlying the formation of a labor union. Quezon City. cigarette.

The Supreme Court disagreed with said contention. 23. teaching and office personnel are not members of the union. No. while the latter mainly work in the cultivation of bananas in the field ± was held proper basis for the formation of a separate and distinct bargaining unit for the monthly -paid rank-and-file employees.where the former primarily perform administrative or clerical work. the administrative. it was ruled that there is no commonality of interest between the employees in the garment factory and cinema business. [G. Philippine Musicians Guild. 151326. Samahang Manggagawa sa St. R. the dissimilarity of interests between monthly-paid and daily-paid workers . it was pronounced following the substantial mutual interests test. vs. James School of Quezon City. 3. No. 101 SCRA 534. James School of Quezon City vs. Nov. G. vs. Petitioner-school opposed it by contending that the bargaining unit should not only be composed of said employees but must include administrative. 1980. Inc. The computation of the quorum should be based on the rank -and-file motor pool. 1994]. their separation into two (2) distinct bargaining units was declared proper. LVN Pictures. 1994]. Indophil Textile Mill Workers Union-PTGWO vs.R. Feb. 102130. [G. Nov. The Honorable Secretary of Labor. 96490.(Diatagon Labor Federation Local 110 of the ULGWP vs. in Golden Farms. teaching and office personnel in its five (5) campuses. it was ruled that the 149 qualified voters should be used to determine the existence of a quorum during the election. hence. 1992). In Cruzvale. Ople. that there is substantial difference between the work performed by musicians and that of other persons who participate in the production of a film which suffices to show that they constitute a proper bargaining unit. Calica. July 26. Laguesma. Dec. construction and transportation employees of the Tandang Sora campus and not on all the employees in St. Inc. respondent union sought to represent the rank -and-file employees (consisting of the motor pool. They do not belong to the bargaining unit that the union seeks to represent. Also. R. chanrobles virtual law library In St. GLOBE DOCTRINE: . [1 SCRA 132 (1961)]. R. vs. 107610. Nos. 3. construction and transportation employees of the Tandang Sora campus had 149 qualified voters at the time of the certification election. a quorum existed during the certification election. In a case involving a film outfit. James¶ five (5) campuses. L-44493-94. No. Inc. The motor pool. 25. R. construction and transportation employees) of petitioner-school¶s Tandang Sora campus. No. Since a majority or 84 out of the 149 qualified voters cast their votes.. G. [G. Thus. Moreover. 2005].

a certification election sho uld be held separately to choose which representative union will be chosen by the workers.. No. (See also Mechanical Department Labor Union sa Philippine National Railways vs. Laguesma. Aug. And in another case. infra. 100485. in defining the appropriate bargaining unit. the Supreme Court in National Association of Free Trade Unions vs. [3 NLRB 294 (1937)] where it was ruled. despite the history of said two divisions being treated as separate units and notwithstanding their geographical distance. R. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING HISTORY: The principle called collective bargaining history en unciates that the prior collective bargaining history and affinity of the employees should be considered in determining the appropriate bargaining unit. No. the Supreme Court applied the principle of mutuality or commonality of interests in holding that the appropriate bargaining unit is comprised of all the sales force in the whole of North Luzon. Mainit Lumber Development Company Workers Union. San Miguel Corporation vs. Dec. 128845. the Supreme Court has categorically ruled that the existence of a prior collective bargaining history is neither decisive nor conclusive in the determination of what constitutes an appropriate bargaining unit. In the case of International School Alliance of Educators [ISAE] vs.The Globe doctrine [will of the employees] is was enunciated in the United States case of Globe Machine and Stamping Co. No. 2000]. (San Miguel Corporation vs. 1990]. the Supreme Court ruled that foreign-hired teachers do not belong to the same bargaining unit as the local-hires because the former have not indicated their intention to be grouped with the latter for purposes of collective bargaining. as three (3) separate and distinct bargaining units. Mainit Lumber Development Company Workers Union. Consequently. No. despite the collective bargaining history of having a separate bargaining unit for each sales office. This. June 1. [G. that in a case where the company¶s production workers can be cons idered either as a single bargaining unit appropriate for purposes of collective bargaining or. However. CIR. 21. infra). EMPLOYMENT STATUS DOCTRINE: . [G. R. the collective bargaining history of the school also shows that these groups were always treated separately. National Association of Free Trade Unions vs. [G. R. 30. Quisumbing. Sept. 1968). R. chanrobles virtual law library For instance. 1994]. declared that there is mutuality of interest among the workers in the sawmill division and logging division as to justify their formation of a single bargaining unit. the determining factor is the desire of the workers themselves. L-28223. 21. Laguesma. 79526. Moreover. G.

R. Sanchez. (Philips Industrial Development. The rationale for this inhibition is if these managerial employees would belong to or be affiliated with a union. the noted differences are: their working conditions.Under the doctrine of employment status. Inc. 88957. the rationale behind the ineligibility of managerial employ ees to form. G. Undeniably. Among others. 175 SCRA 471).. [G. the latter might not be assured of their loyalty to the union in view of evident conflict of interest. As such. vs. CIR. vs. 1992. by the very nat ure of their functions. Confidential employees. assist or join a labor union equally applies to them. very few of its employees in the division are permanent. casual employees and those being employed on a day -today basis. they have very little in common with the employees of the supermarts and cinemas. No. 1960]. according to the Supreme Court in Philippine Land -Air-Sea Labor Union vs. their inclusion in the bargaining unit composed of the latter employees is not justified. R. Hence. vs. 482-510). the rank-and-file employees of the livestock -agro division fully constitute a bargaining unit that satisfies both requirements of classification according to emp loyment status and of the substantial similarity of work and duties which will . which involves a corporation engaged in piggery. poultry raising. 1989. they cannot be allowed to be included in the rank-and-file bargaining unit. planting of agricultural crops and operation of supermarts and cinemas. NLRC. persons who exercise managerial functions in the field of labor relations. assist and act in a confidential capacity to. [G. L-14656. 1988]. Definitely. Ferrer-Calleja. the determination of appropriate bargaining unit based thereon is considered an acceptable mode. July 19. do not have the mutuality or community of interest with regular and permanent employees. (Bulletin Publishing Co. 29. Inc. Hence. 29. June 25. pp. hours of work. No. Nov. due to the nature of the business in which its livestock agro division is engaged. No. (Rothenberg on Labor Relations. rates of pay. the Supreme Court ruled that it is beyond question that the employees of the livestock and agro division of the co rporation perform work entirely different from those performed by employees in the supermarts and cinemas. Nov. or have access to confidential matters of. The union can also become company -dominated with the presence of managerial employees in union membership. Golden Farms. In Belyca Corporation vs. As stated by petitioner corporation in its position paper. R. Ferrer-Calleja. R. 144 SCRA 628). the overwhelming majority of which are seasonal and casual and not regular employees. 77395. G. For instance. No. including the categories of their positions and employment status. 78755. To lump all the employees of petitioner in its integrated business concerns cannot result in an efficacious bargain ing unit comprised of constituents enjoying a community or mutuality of interest.

wages.ultimately assure its members the exercise of their collective bargaining rights. (San Miguel Corporation Employees Union-PTGWO vs. 128845. the Supreme Court declared that after the said spin-off. . 1103). [G. hours of work. they became distinct entities with separate juridical p ersonalities. G. Cebu Stevedoring. the companies would consequently have their respective and distinctive concerns in terms of the nature of work. In one case involving the spin -off by a corporation of two of its divisions. The collective bargaining history in the School also shows that these groups were always treated separately. Foreign-hires have limited tenure. foreign-hires are accorded certain benefits not granted to local-hires. To include foreign-hires in a bargaining unit with local-hires would not assure either group the exercise of their respective collective bargaining rights. and justify the exclusion of the former from the latter. As earlier mentioned. No. shipping costs. 2000]. public policy or morals. What is the effect on the bargaining unit of spin-off of business? The employer may validly effect a spin -off of some of its divisions to operate as distinct companies. Thus. the Supreme Court disallowed the inclusion of foreign -hired teachers in the bargaining unit composed of locally -hired teachers. it used all the four (4) factors mentioned above. [101 SCRA 534 (1980)]. in the case of International School Alliance of Educators [ISAE] vs. the employees cannot belong to a single bargaining unit as held in the case of Diatagon Labor Federation Local 110 of the ULGWP vs. such as housing. R.´ 101. Quisumbing. and home leave travel allowance. Such transformation of the companies is a management prerogative and business judgment which the courts cannot look into unless it is contrary to law. June 1. These benefits. local-hires enjoy security of tenure. Ople. 103 Phil. transportation. Confesor. No. Application of foregoing 4 factors in one case. (See also Democratic Labor Association vs. Interests of employees in the different companies perforce differ. Although foreign-hires perform similar functions under the same working conditions as the local-hires. Considering the spin-offs. R. In so holding. are reasonably related to their status as for eign-hires. and other conditions of employment. taxes. 111262. thus: chanrobles virtual law library ³It does not appear that foreign-hires have indicated their intention to be grouped together with local-hires for purposes of collective bargaining.

105. R. the alleg ed confidential nature of the said employees¶ functions (as computer operator and discipline officers) were proven to be incorrect. and 3. be included in the bargaining unit of rank-and-file employees. the Supreme Court affirmed the findings of the Voluntary Arbitrator that the employees of the College of St. During the freedom period. 1993). What are the requisites for certification election in organized establishments? The following are the requisites for certification election in organized establishments. 102. Benilde should be excluded from the bargaining unit of the rank-andfile employees of De la Salle University. they are not confidential employees and should. May excluded employees be included in the bargaining unit under the new CBA. 109002. More so in this case where. 2000]. [G. 104. the service record of a computer operator reveals that his duties are basica lly clerical and non-confidential in nature. 101766. See also Borbon vs. 103. 1996. Laguesma. the parties may not only renew the existing CBA but may also propose and discuss modifications or amendments thereto. after a careful consideration of the pleadings filed.Sept. No. because the two educational institutions have their own separate juridical personality and no sufficient evidence was shown to justify the piercing of the veil of corporate fiction. R. What is the requirement for certification election in unorganized establishments? . 1. No. that such petition is verified. April 12. In De la Salle University vs. 262 SCRA 81. May employees of one entity join the union in another entity? In the same case of De la Salle [supra]. March 5. As carefully examined by the Solicitor General. that the petition is supported by the written consent of at least twenty-five percent (25%) of all employees in the bargaining unit. 19. G. therefore. As to the discipline officers. it was held that the express exclusion of certain employees from the bargaining unit of rank -and-file employees in the past CBA does not bar any re-negotiation for the future inclusion of the said employees in the bargaining unit. chanrobles virtual law library 2. De la Salle University Employees Asso ciation. based on the nature of their duties. that a petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent is filed before the DOLE within the 60-day freedom period.

it has no legal personality to file the petition for certification election. What are the exceptions to the general rule? The exceptions when no certification election may be held are as follows: 1. in the absence of a collective bargaining agreement duly registered in accordance with Article 231 of the Labor Code. The employer¶s participation in such proceedings shall be limited to: (1) being notified or informed of petitions of such nature. . otherwise. 2007 and became effective on June 14. No. (As amended by Section 12. it must be emphasized that the petitioner-union should have a valid certificate of registration. However.In unorganized establishments. . a petition for certification election may be filed at any time. Who may file petition for certification election? A petition for certification election may be filed by: 1. When to file petition for certification election. the employer shall not be considered a party thereto with a concomitant right to oppose a petition for certification election. but only when requested by a labor organization to bargain collectively and the status of the union is in doubt. 9481 which lapsed into law on May 25. Republic Act No. 9481 [June 14. certification election shall be "automatically" conducted upon the filing of a petition for certification election by a legitimate labor organization. Employer as Bystander. certification year-bar rule. 107. 2007). whether the petition for certification election is filed by an employer or a legitimate labor organization. 2007] amended the Labor Code by introducing the following provisions: Article 258-A. A. The general rule is. an employer. general rule. or 2. a legitimate labor organization.In all cases. 106. 108. and (2) submitting the list of employees during the pre-election conference should the Med -Arbiter act favorably on the petition. ROLE OF EMPLOYER IN CERTIFICATION ELECTION CASES: R.

75810. contract-bar rule. What is certification year-bar rule? Under the certification year-bar rule. [G. No. R. 201 SCRA 453 (1991)]. 1997. No. no CBA was executed. February 4. or 2. What is bargaining deadlock-bar rule? Under the bargaining deadlock-bar rule. Laguesma. a bargaining deadlock to which an incumbent or certified bargaining agent is a party had been submitted to conciliation or arbitration or had become the subject of valid notice of strike or lockout. 110. bargaining deadlock-bar rule. for more than four (4) years. before the filing of a petition for certification election. charging the employer with unfair labor practice and conducting a strike in protest against the employer¶s . a certification election may be validly held. whose factual milieu is similar to said case of Kaisahan. had taken an action to legally coerce the employer to comply with its statutory duty to bargain collectively. the bargaining deadlock -bar rule was applied.e. But in the case of Capitol Medical Center Alliance of Concerned Employees-Unified Filipino Service Workers vs. a certification election petition may not be filed within one (1) year: (1) from the date of a valid certification. R. take any action to legally compel the employer to comply with its duty to bargain collectively. neither may a representation question be entertained if: 1.. respondent union. The Supreme Court ratiocinated. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of Kaisahan ng Manggagawang Pilipino [KAMPIL -KATIPUNAN] vs. September 9. consent or run-off election. hence. consent or run-off election or from the date of voluntary recognition. nor did it file any unfair labor practice suit against the employer or initiate a strike against the latter. there was proof that the certified bargaining agent. 1991. 109. [G. Under the circumstances.2. or 3. the bargaining deadlock-bar rule was not applied because the duly certified exclusive bargaining agent of all rank -and-file employees did not. or (2) from the date of voluntary recognition. the duly recognized or certified union has commenced negotiations with the employer within the one-year period from the date of a valid certification. 118915. Trajano. i. thus: ³This is what is strikingly different between the Kaisahan case and the case at bench for in the latter case. 267 SCRA 503].

What is a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA)? . fraudulent or tainted with misrepresentation. contains provisions lower than the standards fixed by law.g. Section 3. 6. e. although registered. Book V of the Implementing Rules should be interpreted liberally so as to include a circumstance.refusal to bargain. What are the exceptions to the contract-bar rule? The exceptions to the contract -bar rule are as follows: 1. when the CBA. where a CBA could not be concluded due to the failure of one party to willingly perform its duty to bargain collectively. when the documents supporting its registration are falsified. when the collective bargaining agreement was entered into prior to the 60-day freedom period. during the 60-day freedom period.´ 111. 3. 2.. when there is a schism in the union resulting in an industrial dispute wherein the collective bargaining agreement can no longer foster industrial peace. The reasons are: 112. 4. chanrobles virtual law library 5. the Bureau of Labor Relations shall not entertain any petition for certification election or any other action which may disturb the administration of duly registered existing collective bargaining agreements affecting the parties. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT (CBA) 113. when the CBA is not registered with the BLR or DOLE Regional Offices. It is only just and equitable that the circumstances in this case should be considered as similar in nature to a µbargaining deadlock¶ when no certification election could be held. Rule V. This is also to make sure that no floodgates will be opened for the circumvention of the law by unscrupulous employers to prevent any certified bargaining agent from negotiating a CBA. chanrobles virtual law library 7. What is a contract-bar rule? Under the contract-bar rule. Thus.when the collective bargaining agreement is not comp lete as it does not contain any of the requisite provisions which the law requires.

the employer¶s failure to make a timely reply to the proposals presented by the union is indicative of its bad fai th and utter lack of interest in bargaining with the union. R. there has been a shift in the interpretation of the provision of Article 250. it was held that failure to reply within ten (10) calendar days does not constitute refusal to bargain. not bad faith. ‡ Signing bonus.Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) refers to the negotiated contract between a legitimate labor organization and the employer concerning wages. Recently. ‡ Making a promise during the CBA negotiation is not considered bad faith. chanrobles virtual law library 114. hours of work and all other terms and conditions of employment in a bargaining unit. however. Its provisions are construed liberally. Is the collective bargaining procedure in Article 250 mandatory? In National Union of Restaurant Workers vs. No. the employer in this case was . According to the pronouncement in General Milling Corporation vs. the procedure in collective bargaining prescribed by the Labor Code under Article 250 is mandatory because of the basic interest of the State in ensuring lasting industrial peace. ‡ Minutes of CBA negotiation . not demandable under the law. [G. ‡ Adamant stance resulting in impasse. Consequently. What are the legal principles applicable to Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA)? ‡ A proposal not embodied in CBA is not part thereof. The CBA is deemed the la w between the parties during its lifetime. The requirement under the law that a party should give its reply within said period is m erely procedural and non-compliance therewith is not unfair labor practice.´ Consequently. wiped out with signing of CBA. Its excuse that it felt the union no longer represented the workers. February 11. [10 SCRA 843]. was mainly dilatory as it turned out to be utterly baseless. CA. 2004]. CIR. 115.no effect if its contents are not incorporated in the CBA. ‡ Allegations of bad faith. It underscored the fact that the other party upon whom the proposals was served ³shall make a reply thereto not later than ten (10) calendar days from receipt of such notice. 146728. ‡ The DOLE Secretary cannot order inclusion of terms and conditions in CBA which the law and the parties did not intend to reflect therein.

What is multi-employer bargaining? . 15 [1977]). as amended by Department Order No. R. Multi-employer bargaining. Series of 2003. Any voluntarily recognized or certified labor union may demand negotiations with its employer for terms and conditions of work covering employees in the bargaining unit concerned. 141471. namely: chanrobles virtual law library 1. Book V. 117. Rule XVI. (See also The Bradman Co. What is single enterprise bargaining? Single-enterprise bargaining involves negotiation between one certified labor union and one employer. 40-03. Petitioner could only offer a feeble explanation that the Board of Trustees had not yet convened to discuss the matter as its excuse for failing to file its reply. Single-enterprise bargaining. Where the employer did not even bother to submit an answer to the bargaining proposals of the union. 118. petitionerschool was declared to have acted in bad faith because of its failure to make a timely reply to the proposals presented by the union. 1996. 78 SCRA 10. NLRC. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. petitioner still had not made any counter-proposals. [Feb. September 18. Court of Industrial Relations. [G. (Section 3. as amended in 2003. This is a clear violation of Article 250 of the Labor Code governing the procedure in collective bargaining. Its actuation shows a lack of sincere desire to negotiate rendering it guilty of unfair labor practice. vs. 2003]). No. 116. In Colegio de San Juan de Letran vs.held guilty of unfair labor practice under Article 248 [g] of the Labor Code.. 186 (1986)] where the company¶s refusal to make any counter -proposal to the union¶s proposed CBA was declared as an indication of its b ad faith. provide for two (2) kinds of bargaining. Inc. What are the kinds of bargaining under the latest implementing rules? The Rules to Implement the Labor Code. This inaction on the part of petitioner prompted the union to file its second notice of strike on March 13. 2000]. there is a clear evasion of the duty to bargain collectively. Association of Employees and Faculty of Letran. [141 SCRA 179. The school¶s refusal to make a counter-proposal to the union¶s proposed CBA is an indication of its bad faith. 17. and 2. More than a month after the proposals were submitted by the union. chanrobles virtual law library The same holding was made in Kiok Loy vs.

The advantage of negotiating a CBA for the first time lies in the fact that both parties are not restricted or encumbered by any previous agreement on any of the issues that may be raised in the course thereof. majority status of the bargaining union and the demand to negotiate an agreement.Multi-employer bargaining involves negotiation between and among several certified labor unions and employers. Accordingly. 119. However. provided: (a) only legitimate labor unions which are incumbent exclusive bargaining agents may participate and negotiate in multi -employer bargaining. It shall be the duty of both parties to keep the . Rule XVI. Any legitimate labor unions and employers may agree in writing to come together for the purpose of collective bargaining. What is meant by ³duty to bargain collectively´ when there has yet been a CBA? Article 251 contemplates a situation where there is yet no CBA or other voluntary arrangements or modes providing for a more expeditious manner of collective bargaining. without having to worry about possible past agreements affecting the current ones for discussion. convene and confer for coll ective bargaining purposes. Ibid. chanrobles virtual law library 120. should likewise be fully satisfied before such negotiations may be validly held. Book V. (b) only employers with counterpart legitimate labor unions which are incumbent bargaining agents may participate and negotiate in multi-employer bargaining. either party can serve a written notice to terminate or modify the agreement at least sixty (60) days prior to its expiration date. the duty to bargain in this situation still requires the performance of the obligation by the employer and the union to meet. the law itself mandates that the procedures in collective bargaining laid down in the Labor Code. (Section 5. They a re free to take positions on anything. should be followed by the employer and the representatives of the employees in their collective bargaining efforts. and chanrobles virtual law library (c) only those legitimate labor unions which pertain to employer units which consent to multi-employer bargaining may participate in multi-employer bargaining. The basic requisites of collective bargaining such as the existence of employer-employee relationship. specifically Article 250 thereof. among other pertinent provisions.). Essentially. the duty to bargain collectively shall mean that neither party shall terminate nor modify such agreement during its lifetime. What is meant by ³duty to bargain collectively´ when there exists a CBA? When there is a collective bargaining agreement.

Posting is responsibility of employer. Rule XVI. 2003]). 1989). c. (Associated Trade Unions [ATU] vs. R. ratification and registration of the CBA? a. No. 1988). R. The posting of copies of the CBA is the responsibility of the employer which can easily comply with the requirement through a mere mechanical act. Posting is mandatory. chanrobles virtual law library d. for a period of at least five (5) days prior to its ratification. Rule XVI. (Section 7. G. This requirement on the posting of the CBA as above-described is considered a mandatory requirement. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. chanrobles virtual law library 121. In the case of multi-employer bargaining. (Associated Labor Union [ALU] vs. [Feb. as amended by Department Order No. The general rule is that the CBA is required to be posted in two (2) conspicuous places in the work premises. Posting of CBA. Ratification by majority of the members of the bargaining unit. June 20. 77282. No. e. What are the mandatory requisites of publication. two (2) signed copies of the CBA should be posted for at least five (5) days in two (2) conspicuous areas in each workplace of the employer units concerned. Rules to Implement .status quo and to continue in full force and effect the terms and conditions of the existing agreement during the 60 -day period and/or until a new agreement is reached by the parties. (Section 7. as amended in 2003. The ratification of the CBA should be made not by the majority of the members of the bargaining union but by the majo rity of the members of the bargaining unit which is being represented by the bargaining union in the negotiations. Non-compliance therewith will render the CBA ineffective. The CBA shall be registered with the Department of Labor and Employment in accordance with the Rules to Implement the Labor Code. 40-03. 17. b. Registration of CBA. L-75321. Book V. Series of 2003. G. May 5. Said CBA shall affect only those employees in the bargaining units who have ratified it. Trajano. Book V. Ferrer-Calleja.

[G. chanrobles virtual law library 123. 141 SCRA 179). the company commits an unfair labor practice act under Article 248 [g] of the Labor Code (violation of the duty bargain collectively). 2000. (Roadway Express vs. What is the effect of the refusal of party to sign the CBA? A party to a fully-concluded CBA may be compelled to sign it. No. by ignoring all notices for negotiations and requests for counter-proposals so much so that the union had to resort to conciliation proceedings. vs. may indicate bad faith. What is the consequence of refusal of party to negotiate the CBA? The refusal of the employer to bargain with the collective bargaining representative. as amended by Department Order No. (Kiok Loy vs. the petitioner presented to the union a draft of the CBA allegedly embodying all the terms and conditions agreed upon during the conciliation sessions held by the NCMB. the management¶s refusal to make a counter -proposal to the union¶s proposal for CBA negotiation is an indication of its bad faith. Series of 2003. No. General Teamster. What it did was to devise a flimsy excuse. 146291. R. 18. 340 SCRA 587. In affirming the finding of the Court of . 859). 1986. Sept. Secretary of Labor and Employment. 2003]). [G. especially if said refusal to sign is the only remaining hitch to its being implemented. No. 595].R. 54334. 122. No. Petitioner contended that the union was bound to comply with the terms contained in the draft-CBA since said draft allegedly contains all the items already agreed upon before the NCMB. 11. 17. by questioning the existence of the union and the status of its membership to prevent any negotiation. 22. NLRC. [G. 40-03. Such refusal is considered unfair labor practice. G. As held in General Milling Corporation vs. 2002]. 124.the Labor Code. Where the employer did not even bother to submit an answer to the bargaining proposals of the union. 2004]. 320 F 2d. Association of Employees and Faculty of Letran. The Supreme Court disagreed. R. CA. the union lived up to this obligation when it presented proposals for a new CBA to the management within three (3) years from the effectivity of the original CBA. For refusing to send a counter-proposal to the union and to bargain anew on the economic terms of the CBA. But the employer failed in its duty under Article 252. What is the effect if there is no meeting of the minds? In University of the Immaculate Concepcion. Jan. chanrobles virtual law library According to Colegio De San Juan De Letran vs. January 23. Inc. there is a clear evasion of the duty to bargain collectively. Feb. [Feb. 146728. The Hon. R. 141471.

the DOLE Secretary. pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Labor Code. 263 SCRA 98]. Although it is true that the university and the union may have reached an agreement on the issues raised during the collective bar gaining negotiations. using the cessation of its business as reason therefor. For. R.¶ ³Considering the parties failed to reach an agreement regarding certain items of the CBA. The Court of Appeals found that µthere are many items in the draft-CBA that were not even mentioned in the minutes of the July 20. 11. the employer -employee relationship is merely . Secretary of Labor. that while the employer cannot be forced to abandon its suspension of operations even if said suspension be declared unjustified. the Supreme Court ratiocinated.´ 125. Inc. 1996.Appeals that there was still no new CBA because the parties had not reached a meeting of the minds. the old one having already expired. 1995 only was set to resolve the distribution of the salary increase of the covered employees. there must be clear indications that the parties reached a meeting of the minds. ³In this case. as already indicated above. no CBA could be concluded because of what the union perceived as illegal deductions from th e 70% employees¶ share in the tuition fee increase from which the salary increases shall be charged. they still have the duty to negotiate a new collective bargaining agreement in good faith. the manner of computing the net incremental proceeds was yet to be agreed upon by the parties. [G. 104624. it follows that a new CBA will be needed to govern the employment relations of the parties. who assumed jurisdiction on January 23. thusly: ³As in all other contracts. No. still no agreement was concluded by them because. the plain and natural presumption is that the employer would resume operations after six (6) months and. Oct. among other reasons. vs. Also. neither can the employer evade its obligation to bargain with the union. illega l and invalid. In the absence of any other information. it was held in San Pedro Hospital of Digos. Can a CBA be negotiated and concluded during suspension of operation? There is no legal basis to claim that a new CBA should not be entered into or that collective bargaining should not be conducted during the effectivity of a temporary suspension of operations which an employer can lawfully do under Article 286 of the Labor Code. Consequently. ³Petitioner insisted that a new collective bargaining agreement was concluded through the conciliation proceeding before the NCMB on all issues specified in the notice of strike. 1994 conference. therefore.

following the provision of Article 253 which imposes on both parties to keep the status quo and to continue in full force and effect the terms and conditions of the existing agreement during the 60 day period [prior to its expiration date] and/or until a new agreement is reached by the parties. the employer which violates the duty to bargain collectively. Article 253 basically mandates the parties to keep the status quo while they are still in the process of working out their respective proposals and counter proposals. Can a CBA proposed by the union be imposed lock. lock. the proposals of the union may be adopted as the CBA and.suspended (and not terminated) for the duration of the temporary suspension. Hence. in the exercise of his powers under Article 263 [i] of the Labor Code to decide and resolve labor disputes. a dep arture from the general rule is warranted. has lately consistently ruled that the CBA. loses its statutory right to negotiate or renegotiate the terms and conditions of the draft CBA proposed by the union. 127. And since it refused to bargain without valid and sufficient cause. chanrobles virtual law library . chanrobles virtual law library Under this situation. It shows abuse of this option and bad faith on the part of the employer. as proposed by the union. consequently. the DOLE Secretary. that neither party is guilty of bad faith. The rule necessarily presupposes that all other things are equal. The general rule is that when a CBA already exists. However. That is. stock and barrel. The Supreme Court said in the same case of San Pedro Hospital [supra] that it cannot impose upon the employer the directive to enter into a new CBA with the union for the very simple reason that to do so would be to compel the employer to continue its business when it had already decided to close shop. Using the suspension as an excuse to evade the duty to bargain is further proof of its illegality. Can a CBA be negotiated and concluded in case of closure of business? An employer which has already decided to close shop cannot be compelled to enter into a new CBA. properly granted the wage increase and imposed the union shop provision. and that would be judicial tyranny on its part. 126. its provision shall continue to govern the relationship between the parties until a new one is agreed upon. may be unilaterally imposed on the employer in the event the latter fails to discharge its duty to bargain collectively by refusing to make any counter-proposals to the proposals of the union or engaging in bad faith bargaining. when one of the parties abuses this grace period by purposely delaying the bargaining process. imposed on the employer. stock and barrel on employer who refused to negotiate a CBA? The Supreme Court.

128. 2004]. CA. NLRC. disregarded. 11. too. the High Court did not hesitate to impose on the erring company the CBA proposed by its employees¶ union . 1992]. the Supreme Court found that petitioner therein.General Milling Corporation vs. 1986. the Supreme Court imposed on the employer the draft CBA proposed by the union for two years commencing from the expiration of the original CBA. It is also the time when the majority status of the bargaining union or agent may be challenged by another union by filing appropriate petition for certification election. Thus. 141 SCRA 179. It ruled that the former had thereby lost its right to bargain the terms and conditions of the CBA. Secretary of Labor and Employment. stock and barrel. September 11. 146728. CA. As strictly distinguished from the facts of General Milling [supra]. In the case of Kiok Loy vs. the Supreme Court deemed it proper to apply in General Milling the rationale of the doctrine in the said two cases. In General Milling Corporation vs. What is ³freedom period´? ³Freedom period´ is the last sixty (60) days of the lifetime of a collective bargaining agreement immediately prior to its expiration It is so called because it is the only time when the law allows the parties to serve notice to terminate. Distinction between the aforesaid cases. alter or modify the existing agreement. would be to allow General Milling to have its cake and eat it. Likewise. Sweden Ice Cream Plant. January 22. [G. NLRC. 188]. petitioner therein refused to perform its duty to bargain collectively. L-54334. This was because of the employer¶s refusal to counter -propose to the union¶s proposals which constitutes unfair labor practice under Article 248 [g] of the Labor Code. Secretary of Labor and Employment. the High Tribunal upheld the unilateral imposition on the university of the CBA proposed by the Divine Word University Employees Union. To rule otherwise. chanrobles virtual law library . Divine Word University of Tacloban vs. Feb. according to the Court. Thus. R. No. there was no pre-existing CBA between the parties in Kiok Loy and Divine Word University of Tacloban. Nonetheless.lock. refused to submit any counter proposal to the CBA proposed by its employees¶ certified bargaining agent. [No. [213 SCRA 759. Kiok Loy vs. in Divine Word University of Tacloban vs.

Jan. 131. 28. [159 SCRA 387 (1988)]. Aug. any such agreement entered into by management with a labor organization is fraught with the risk that such a labor union may not be chosen thereafter as the collective bargaining representative. 111245. . L-46562. (See also Oriental Tin Can Labor Union vs. No. Secretary of Labor and Employment. Laguesma. Feb. In the case of Warren Manufacturing Workers Union [WMWU] vs. extension or renewal of the CBA for purposes of certification election. 294 SCRA 640). 75 SCRA 450). R. What is ³automatic renewal clause´? ³Automatic renewal clause´ means that at the expiration of the freedom period. 28. No. 1998. No. What is the term (lifetime) of a CBA? Representation aspect (sole and exclusive status of certi fied union): The term is 5 years which means that no petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent shall be entertained by DOLE and no certification election shall be conducted outside of the 60 -day freedom period. 267 SCRA 303. Any other view would render nugatory the clear statutory policy to favor certification election as the means of ascertaining the true expression of the will of the workers as to which labor organization would represent them. (Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Pacific Plastic vs. 288. the employer shall continue to recognize the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent where no petition for certification election is filed. it was held that an agreement prematurely signed by the union and the company during the freedom period does not affect the petition for certification election filed by another union. G. (Vassar Industries Employees Union [VIEU] vs. 1977. with a pending petition for certification. March 31. 82 SCRA 280. Estrella. (ALU vs.129. 116751. 179 SCRA 127 [1989]). L-45057. Calleja. Noriel. It is well-settled that the sixty-day freedom period based on the original CBA shall not be affected by any amendment. G. 31. 310). 130. What is the effect of CBA renewal or registration before or during 60-day period? The representation case shall not be adversely affected by a CBA registered before or during the last sixty (60) days of a subsisting agreement or during the pendency of the representation ca se. Today¶s Knitting Free Workers Union vs. R. 1997. Bureau of Labor Relations. 1978. The reason is.

We find no conflict between said agreement and Article 253-A of the Labor Code. after all. The right to free collective bargaining. includes the right to suspend it. Espiritu. promoted the shared responsibility between workers and employers. 1.All other provisions (which refer to both economic and non -economic provisions except representation): Shall be renegotiated not later than three (3) years after its execution. 2002).R. it was PALEA. including conciliation to foster industrial peace.". . One is to promote industrial stability and predictability . prohibits the parties from waiving or suspecting the mandatory timetables and agreeing on the remedies to enforce the same. No. It was also PALEA that voluntarily opted for the 10-year suspension of the CBA. The agreement afforded full protection to labor. Inasmuch as the agreement sough t to promote industrial peace at PAL during its rehabilitation. 132. chanrobles virtual law library ³In the instant case. May CBA negotiations be suspended for 10 years? Yes. that voluntarily entered into the CBA with PAL. Either case was the union's exercise of its right to collective bargaining. (G. chanrobles virtual law library ³The acts of public respondents in sanctioning the 10 -year suspension of the PAL-PALEA CBA did not contravene the "protection to labor" policy of the Constitution. with the peculiar and unique intention of not merely promoting industrial peac e at PAL. but preventing the latter's closure. The Supreme Court.135547. ratiocinated. thus: ³The assailed PAL-PALEA agreement was the result of voluntary collective bargaining negotiations undertaken in the light of the severe financial situation faced by the employer. in the case of Rivera vs. and they exercised voluntary modes in settling disputes. Article 253-A has a two-fold purpose. The other is to assign specific timetables wherein negotiations become a matter of right and requirement. said agreement satisfies the first purpose of Article 253-A. January 23. Nothing in Article 253A. as the exclusive bargaining agent of PAL 's ground employees. What is meant by ³retroactivity´ of CBA? a. 133. Rule involving CBAs concluded by the parties through negotiation (not concluded through arbitral award). The collective bargaining agreement or other provisions of such agreement entered into within six (6) months from the date of expiry of the term of such other provisions as fixed in the collective bargaining agreement shall retroact to the day immediately following such date.

. the effectivity of the CBA was made retroactive. In Pier 8 Arrastre and Stevedoring Services. 2000 ruling in the same case which was rendered upon motion for reconsideration. vs. 2. i. Referral of case to compulsory or voluntary arbitration. No. Later. (G. DOLE. from June 1. Luke's Medical Center. 307 (1995)]. in its August 1.Declaration of a strike or lockout. Roldan Confesor. [G. the parties shall agree on the date of effectivity thereof.Conciliation and mediation by the NCMB..e. Rule involving CBAs concluded through arbitral awards by DOLE Secretary. Torres. 1996 to May 31. 302 SCRA 173. 209]. b. Quisumbing. the parties may exercise the following rights under the Labor Code: 1. It held that the arbitral award should retroact to the first day after the six-month period following the expiration of the last day of the CBA. [241 SCRA 294. 3. as the case may be. the effectivity date was made retroactive to the date of the expiration of the previous CBA. the Supreme Court finally changed the effectivity date thereof. 127598. Secretary of DOLE. 1999 ruling. In Manila Electric Company vs. R. the Supreme Court ruled that retroactivity of CBA in arbitral awards is subject to the discretion of the DOLE Secretary chanrobles virtual law library 134. Inc. If any such agreement is entered into beyond six (6) months. What are the remedies in case of CBA deadlock? In case of a deadlock in the negotiation or renegotiation of the collective bargaining agreement. Inc. the retroactivity of the CBA provided under Article 253-A of the Labor Code (enumerated above) has no application. April 17. the Supreme Court ruled: chanrobles virtual law library In St. chanrobles virtual law library LATEST RULING: In the case of LMG Chemicals Corporation vs. 2000 ruling which was rendered after a Motion for Partial Reconsideration was filed by Meralco. 127422. [223 SCRA 779 (1993)]. the effective date of the new CBA should be the date the Secretary of Labor and Employment has resolved the labor dispute. NLRC or Voluntary Arbitrator (Jurisprudence varies). the effectivity date was made prospective per its January 27.2. R. 1999. 1998. No. In case of arbitral awards. Thus. per its February 22. But later. 2001). vs. January 27.

preferably from the listing of qualified Voluntary Arbitrators duly accredited by the NCMB. which shall act with the same force and effect as if the Arbitrator or panel of Arbitrators has been selected by the parties as described above. For this purpose.GRIEVANCE AND VOLUNTARY ARBITRATION 135. What is grievance procedure? ³Grievance procedure´ refers to the internal rules of procedure established by the parties in their CBA with voluntary arbitration as the terminal step. What is voluntary arbitration? . parties to a CBA shall name and designate in advance a Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. All grievances submitted to the grievance machinery which are not settled within seven (7) calendar days from the date of their submission shall automatically be referred to voluntary arbitration prescribed in the CBA. What is a grievance? ³Grievance´ is any question by either the employer or the uni on regarding the interpretation or application of the collective bargaining agreement or company personnel policies or any claim by either party that the other party is violating any provisions of the CBA or company personnel policies. It is a complaint or dissatisfaction arising from the interpretation or implementation of the CBA and those arising from interpretation or enforcement of personnel policies. chanrobles virtual law library 136. In case the parties fail to select a Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. It usually consists of successive steps starting at the level of the complainant and his immediate supervisor and ending. which are intended to resolve all issues arising fr om the implementation and interpretation of their CBA. pursuant to the selection procedure agreed upon in the CBA. 138. What is grievance machinery? "Grievance machinery" refers to the mechanism for the adjustment and resolution of grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of a CBA and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. when necessary. It refers to the system of grievance settlement at the plant level as provided in the collective bargaining agreement. It is part of the continuing process of collective bargaining. at the level of the top union and company officials. as may be necessary. the NCMB shall designate the Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. 137. or include in the agreement a procedure for the selection of such Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators.

³Voluntary arbitration´ refers to the mode of settling labor-management disputes by which the parties select a competent, trained and impartial third person who shall decide on the merits of the case and whose decision is final and executory. (Section 1 [d], Rule II, NCMB Revised Procedural Guidelines in the Conduct of Voluntary Arbitration Proceedings [Oct. 15, 2004]). 139. Who is a Voluntary Arbitrator? ³Voluntary Arbitrator´ refers to any person who has been accredited by the NCMB as such, or any person named or designated in the CBA by the parties as their Voluntary Arbitrator, or one chosen by the parties with or without the assistance of the Board, pursuant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the CBA or one appointed by the Board in case either of the parties to the CBA refuses to submit to voluntary arbitration. The term includes panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. (Section 1 [e], Rule II, NCMB Revised Procedural Guidelines in the Conduct of Voluntary Arbitration Proceedings [Oct. 15, 2004]; See also Article 212 [n], Labor Code; Section 1, Rule I, Book V, Rules to Implement the Labor Code, as amended by Department Order No. 40-03, Series of 2003, [Feb. 17, 2003]; Section 1 [27], Rule III, NCMB Manual of Procedures for Conciliation and Preventive Mediation Cases). A Voluntary Arbitrator is not part of the government or of the Department of Labor and Employment. But he is authorized to render arbitration services provided for under labor laws. (Ludo & Luym Corporation vs. Saornido, G. R. No. 140960, Jan. 20, 2003). Under the NCMB Revised Procedural Guidelines in the Conduct of Voluntary Arbitration Proceedings [October 15, 2004], there are two kinds of Voluntary Arbitrators, namely: 1. ³Permanent Arbitrator´ referring to the Voluntary Arbitrator specifically named or designated in the CBA by the parties as their Voluntary Arbitrator; and chanrobles virtual law library 2. ³Ad-Hoc Arbitrator´ referring to the Voluntary Arbitrator chosen by the parties in accordance with the established procedures in the CBA or the one appointed by the Board in case there is failure in the selection or in case either of the parties to the CBA refuses to submit to voluntary arbitration. 140. How is the decision of a Voluntary Arbitrator enforced? Under Article 262-A of the Labor Code, upon motion of any interested party, the Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators or the Labor Arbiter in the region where the movant resides, in case of the absence or incapacity of the Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary

Arbitrators, for any reason, may issue a writ of execution requiring either the sheriff of the NLRC or regular courts or any public official whom the parties may designate in the submission agreement to execute the final decision, order or award. chanrobles virtual law library STRIKES, LOCKOUTS AND PICKETING 141. What is a strike? A strike is any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of the employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. It consists not only of concerted work stoppages but also slowdowns, mass leaves, sitdowns, attempts to damage, destroy or sabotage plant equipment and facilities and similar activities. 142. What is a lockout? A lockout is any temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. 143. What is picketing? ³Picketing´ or ³peaceful picketing´ is the right of workers to peacefully march to and fro before an establishment involved in a labor dispute generally accompanied by the carrying and display of signs, placards and banners intended to inform the public about the dispute. 144. What is an industrial or labor dispute? An industrial or labor dispute includes any controversy or matter concerning terms and conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing maintai ning, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. 145. What are the various forms of strikes? a. Legal strike - one called for a valid purpose and conducted through means allowed by law. b. Illegal strike - one staged for a purpose not recognized by law, or, if for a valid purpose, conducted through means not sanctioned by law.. c. Economic strike - one declared to demand higher wages, overtime pay, holiday pay, vacation pay, etc. It is one which is declared for the purpose of forcing wage or other concessions from the employer which he is not required by law to grant. chanrobles virtual law library

d. ULP strike - one called to protest against the employer¶s acts of unfair labor practice enumerated in Article 248 of the Labor Code as amended, including gross violation of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) and union-busting. e. Slow down strike - one staged without the workers quitting their work but by merely slackening or by reducing their normal work output. f. Wildcat strike - one declared and staged without the majority approval of the recognized bargaining agent. g. Sit down strike - one where the workers stop working but do not leave their place of work. In Interphil Laboratories Employees Union -FFW vs. Interphil Laboratories, Inc., [G. R. No. 142824, Dec. 19, 2001], overtime boycott was considered a form of illegal strike. Discussing work slowdown, the Supreme Court, in the same case, declared that it is an inherently illegal activity essentially illegal even in the absence of a no -strike clause in a collective bargaining contract, or statute or rule. It is a ³strike on the installment plan;´ a willful reduction in the rate of work by concerted action of workers for the purpose of restricting the output of the employer, in relation to a labor dispute; an activity by which workers, without a complete stoppage of work, retard production or their performance of duties and functions to compel management to grant their demands. Such a slowdown is generally condemned as inherently illicit and unjustifiable, because while the employees ³continue to work and remain at their positions and acce pt the wages paid to them,´ they, at the same time, ³select what part of their allotted tasks they care to perform of their own volition or refuse openly or secretly, to the employer¶s damage, to do other work.´ In other words, they ³work on their own terms.´ 146. What are the procedural but mandatory requisites of a lawful strike or lockout? There are seven (7) mandatory requisites, namely: First requisite: Valid and factual ground a. Valid grounds: There are only two (2), namely: (1) CBA Deadlock; and (2) Unfair labor practice (ULP). b. No other grounds are allowed except the two mentioned above.

The following grounds, therefore, may not be properly cited as valid grounds for a strike or lockout in view of the pertinent provisions of the Labor Code, authoritative labor issuances and jurisprudence: 1. Violation of collective bargaining agreements, except those which are gross in character. Under Article 261, simple violation of the CBA is no longer treated as unfair labor practice but as mere grievance which should be processed through the grievance machinery in the CBA. It becomes an unfair labor practice only when it is gross in nature which means that there is flagrant and/or malicious refusal to comply with the economic provisions of such agreemen t by either the employer or the union. 2. Inter-union or intra-union disputes. The reason is these issues are resolved following the med -arbitration procedures prescribed by law and not through the staging of a strike/lockout. Thus, a strike declared more on the ground of inter-union and intra-union conflict which is a non-strikeable issue is patently illegal pursuant to the provision of paragraph [b] of Article 263 of the Labor Code. (Filcon Manufacturing Corporation vs. Lakas Manggagawa sa Filcon-Lakas Manggagawa Labor Center [LMFLMLC], G. R. No. 150166, July 26, 2004). chanrobles virtual law library 3. Issues already assumed by the DOLE Secretary or certified by him to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration. chanrobles virtual law library Once the Secretary of Labor and Employment assumes jurisdiction over a labor dispute affecting national interest or certifies the same to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration, the issues involved in said labor dispute can no longer be invoked by the union in staging a strike or by management in conducting a lockout. chanrobles virtual law library 4. Issues already brought before grievance machinery or voluntary arbitration. chanrobles virtual law library In a plethora of case, it was held that a strike is illegal because of the failure to exhaust all the steps in the grievance machinery/voluntary arbitration provided for in the CBA. (Union of Filipro Employees, vs. Nestle Philippines, Inc., G. R. No. 88710-13, Dec. 19, 1990). chanrobles virtual law library For example, in San Miguel Corporation vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 99266, March 2, 1999], where the union, instead of asking the CBA¶s Conciliation Board composed of five representatives each

from the company and the union to decide the conflict, petitioner declared a bargaining deadlock, and thereafter, filed a notice of strike, the Supreme Court ruled that for failing to exhaust all the steps in the CBA, the notice of strike should have been dismissed by the NLRC and private respondent union ordered to proceed with the grievance and arbitration proceedings. In the case of Liberal Labor Union vs. Phil. Can Co., [91 Phil. 72], the Supreme Court declared as illegal the strike staged by the union for not complying with the grievance procedure provided in the CBA, ruling that: ³xxx the main purpose of the parties in adopting a procedure in the settlement of their disputes is to prevent a strike. This procedure must be followed in its entirety if it is to achieve its objective. xxx Strikes held in violation of the terms contained in the CBA are illegal, especially when they provide for conclusive arbitration clauses. These agreements must be strictly adhered to and respected if their ends have to be achieved. xxx.´ In abandoning the grievance proceedings and stubbornly refusing to avail of the remedies under the CBA, private respondent union violated the mandatory provisions of the CBA. The above ruling was reiterated in the 2003 case involving the same employer - San Miguel Corporation vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 119293, June 10, 2003]. As in the abovecited case, petitioner company evinced its willingness to negotiate with the union by seeking for an order from the NLRC to compel observance of the grievance and arbitration proceedings. Respondent union, however, resorted to force without exhausting all available means within its reach. Such infringement of the aforecited CBA provisions constitutes further justification for the issuance of an injunction against the strike. As declared long ago: ³Strikes held in violation of the terms contained in a CBA are illegal especially when they provide for conclusive arbitration clauses. These agreements must be strictly adhered to and respected if their ends have to be achieved.´ (Citing Insurefco Paper Pulp & Project Workers¶ Union vs. Insular Sugar Refining Corp., 95 Phil. 761 (1954). 5. Issues already brought before compulsory arbitration. In view of the provisions of the second paragraph of Article 264 [a] of the Labor Code, a strike or lockout is illegal if declared while a certain case is pending involving the same grounds for the strike or lockout. (Bulletin Publishing Corporation vs. Sanchez, 144 SCRA 428). Thus, a strike conducted during the pendency of the compulsory arbitration proceedings on a labor dispute certified to the NLRC

for compulsory arbitration is illegal. (Filsyn Employees Chapter vs. Drilon, G. R. No. 82225, April 5, 1989). chanrobles virtual law library 6. Issues involving labor standards. The law provides for certain procedures in case of labor standards violations. 7. Issues involving legislated wage orders. Under Republic Act No. 6727 otherwise known as the Wage Rationalization Act, a strike is illegal if based on alleged salary distortion. The legislative intent that solution to the problem of wage distortions shall be sought by voluntary negotiation or arbitration, and not by strikes, lockouts or other concerted activities of the employees or management, is made clear in the rules implementing Republic Act No. 6727 issued by the Secretary of Labor and Employment pursuant to the authority granted by Section 13 of the said law. Second requisite: Notice of strike or notice of lockout a. When to file notice: (1) In case of ULP: 15 days from intended date of strike/lockout (2) In case of CBA Deadlock: 30 days from intended date thereof b. Parties who may file notice: (1) Certified union, in case of strike; and (2) Employer in case of lockout. c. Where to file notice: - NCMB Third requisite - A notice must be served to the NCMB-DOLE at least twenty-four (24) hours prior to the taking of the strike/ lockout vote by secret balloting, informing said office of the decision to conduct a strike vote/lockout vote, and the date, place, and time thereof. This is the newest requisite added by the Supreme Court per its 2005 ruling in Capitol Medical Center, Inc. vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 147080, April 26, 2005. This requisite is designed to: chanrobles virtual law library (a) inform the NCMB of the intent of the union to conduct a strike vote;

(b) give the NCMB ample time to decide on whether or not there is a need to supervise the conduct of the strike vote to prevent any acts of violence and/or irregularities attendant thereto; and (c) should the NCMB decide on its own initiative or upon the request of an interested party including the employer, to supervise the strike vote, to give it ample time to prepare for the deployment of the requisite personnel, including peace officers if need be. Unless and until the NCMB is notified at least 24 hours of the union¶s decision to conduct a strike vote, and the date, place, and time thereof, the NCMB cannot determine for itself whether to supervise a strike vote meeting or not and insure its peaceful and regular conduct. The failure of a union to comply with the requirement of the giving of notice to the NCMB at least 24 hours prior to the holding of a strike vote meeting will render the subsequent strike staged by the union illegal. (Ibid.). chanrobles virtual law library Fourth requisite: Strike vote or lockout vote a. Majority approval of strike or lockout is required b. Strike vote still necessary even in case of union -busting. Fifth requisite: Strike vote report or lockout vote report a. When to submit strike or lockout vote report - at least 7 days prior to strike or lockout, as the case may be. b. Effect of non-submission of strike vote to NCMB, DOLE strike or lockout is illegal c. Effect on 7-day waiting period if filed within cooling-off period: the 7-day waiting period shall be counted from the day following the expiration of the cooling -off period. d. Strike vote report in case of union-busting - still necessary, it being mandatory unlike the cooling -off period which may be dispensed with. chanrobles virtual law library Sixth requisite: Cooling-off period a. General rule: (1) In case of CBA Deadlock - 30 days

(2) In case of ULP - 15 days b. Exception: In the case of union-busting where the cooling-off period need not be complied with. chanrobles virtual law library c. When cooling-off period starts: from the time the notice of strike/lockout is filed with NCMB, DOLE. chanrobles virtual law library d. Purpose of the cooling-off period: for the parties to settle the dispute. Seventh requisite: 7-day waiting period or strike ban a. Cooling-off period and waiting period, distinguished. Waiting period is counted from the time of submission of strike vote report to NCMB; Cooling-off period is counted from the filing of the Notice of Strike/Lockout with NCMB. chanrobles virtual law library b. Purpose of the 7-day waiting period: To ensure that the strike vote was indeed taken and that the majority of the members approved of it. c. Deficiency of even one day of the 7 -day strike ban (or cooling off period) is fatal. Hence, the strike is illegal. 147. Summary of principles governing strikes: 1. A strike or lockout is illegal if any of the legal requisites (enumerated above) is not complied with. Procedural requirements are mandatory. 2. A strike or lockout is illegal if it is based on non -strikeable issues (e.g., inter-union or intra-union disputes or wage distortion). 3. A strike or lockout is illegal if the issues involved are already subject of compulsory or voluntary arbitration or conciliation or the steps in grievance machinery are not exhausted. 4. A strike or lockout is illegal if unlawful means were employed or prohibited acts or practices were committed (e.g., Use of force, violence, threats, coercion, etc.; Barricades, blockades and obstructions of ingress to [entrance] or egress from [exit] the company premises). 5. A strike or lockout is illegal if the notice of strike or notice of lockout is already converted into a preventive mediation case. (See further discussion below).

[G.¶ The effect of that declaration (which PALEA did not ask to be reconsidered or set aside) was to drop the case from the docket of notice of strikes. 9. 88201. The conversion has the effect of dismissing the notice. it will be dropped from the docket of notices of strikes/lockouts. while preventive . Once a notice of strike/lockout is converted into a preventive mediation case. as if there was no notice of strike. What is the effect of conversion of the notice of strike/lockout into a preventive mediation case? chanrobles virtual law library Under the NCMB rules.6. In c. No-Lockout´ clause in the collective bargaining ag reement. 148. The local union and not the federation is liable to pay d amages in case of illegal strike. January 23. Once dropped therefrom. thus: ³The NCMB had declared the notice of strike as µappropriate for preventive mediation. A strike or lockout is illegal if staged in violation of the ³No -Strike. A case in point is Philippine Airlines. The Supreme Court reasoned. as provided in Rule 41 of the NCMB Rules. During the pendency of preventive mediation proceedings no strike could be legally declared. vs. 1991. R.: Strike to compel dismissal of employee or to compel the employer to recognize the union or the so-called ³Union-Recognition Strike´) 10. 193 SCRA 223] where the strike was declared illegal for lack of a valid notice of strike. a strike/lockout can no longer be legally staged based on the same notice. Secretary of Labor and Employment. 8. No.´ The NCMB has the authority to convert a notice of strike filed by the union into a preventive mediation case if it finds that the real issues raised therein are non-strikeable in character. there is a remedy called ³preventive mediation.. in view of the NCMB¶s conversion of the notice therein into a preventive mediation case. The strike which the union mounted. chanrobles virtual law library 7. Such authority is in pursuance of the NCMB¶s duty to exert all efforts at mediation and conciliation to enable the parties to settle the dispute amicably and in line with the state policy of favoring voluntary modes of settling labor disputes. A strike is illegal if staged by a minority union..g. A strike or lockout is illegal if conducted for unlawful purpose/s (e. A strike or lockout is illegal if staged in violation of a temporary restraining order or an injunction or assumption or certification order.

no lockout´ provision in the CBA is a valid stipulation althoug h the clause may be invoked by an employer only when the strike is economic in nature or one which is conducted to force wage or other concessions from the employer that are not mandated to be granted by the law itself. (MSMG -UWP vs. 2003]. It has heretofore been held that a ³nostrike. NLRC.¶´ (Emphasis supplied) Clearly. therefore. In the case of NUWHRAIN vs. the notice of strike filed by the union was also converted into a preventive mediation case. In the 2003 case of San Miguel Corporation vs. the union had ther eupon lost the notice of strike it had filed. NO-LOCKOUT´ clause in the CBA? The right to strike is not absolute. chanrobles virtual law library . 2000) Jurisprudence abounds in its enunciation that such no -strike provision in the CBA only bars strikes which are economic in nature. Ramos. Feb. NLRC 219 SCRA 47 [1993]). a strike can no longer be staged based on said notice for the reason that upon such conversion.mediation proceedings were ongoing. [287 SCRA 192 (1998)] where the petitioner-union therein similarly defied a prohibition by the NCMB. but not strikes grounded on unfair labor practices. which explicitly oblige the parties to bargain collectively in good faith and prohibit them from impeding or disrupting the proceedings. when the NCMB orders the preventive mediation in a strike case.¶ The refusal of the petitioners to heed said proscription of the NCMB is reflective of bad faith. Consequently. NLRC. applying the aforecited ruling. the Supreme Court said: ³Petitioners should have complied with the prohibition to strike ordered by the NCMB when the latter dismissed the notices of strike after finding that the alleged acts of discrimination of the hotel were not ULP. 326 SCRA 428 (2000). citing Master Iron Labor Union vs. Greenfield (MSMG-UWP) vs. No. R. (Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa M. 119293. hence not µstrikeable. [G. After such conversion. 28. June 10. if it still defiantly proceeded with the strike while mediation was ongoing. there is no more notice of strike to speak of. 149. What is the ³NO-STRIKE. the union thereupon loses the notice of strike it had filed. 113907. When the NCMB ordered the preventive mediation.´ Such disregard of the mediation proceedings is deemed a blatant violation of the Implementing Rules. R. G. the strike is illegal. No. Ramos. was aptly described by the petitioner as µan ambush.

No. 10. an act in violation of the law and in defiance of authority. Case law. 112 SCRA 430). Brillantes. What is the effect of a strike staged in violation of an assumption or certification order? A strike that is undertaken after the issuance by the Secretary of Labor and Employment of an assumption or certification order becomes a prohibited activity and thus illegal. been committed. 142824. 254 SCRA 595). Oct. 102672. Oct. G. What is the effect of a strike conducted in violation of a temporary restraining order or injunction? . 1995. Lakas Manggagawa sa Filcon-Lakas Manggagawa Labor Center [LMF-LMLC]. 2001]. likewise. People¶s Industrial and Commercial Employees and Workers Organization [FFW] vs. in Interphil Laboratories Employees Union -FFW vs.. as a result. 150166. having abandoned their employment. People¶s Industrial and Commercial Corporation. (National Federation of Labor vs. he is deemed to have abandoned his job. NLRC. from the moment a worker defies a return-to-work order. Inc. Brillantes. vs. Interphil Laboratories. Dec. The loss of employment results from the striking employees¶ own act . during the existence of the CBA. No. [G. 119360. NLRC. No. chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court consistently ruled in a long line of cases that a strike is illegal if staged in violation of the ³No Strike/No Lockout Clause´ in the CBA stating that a strike. No. to stage a strike or engage in slowdown or interruption of work. (Panay Electric Company. 283 SCRA 275. 15. G. The union officers and members. 1997. R. the workers forfeit their right to be readmitted to work. 1997). 150. Stated differently. pursuant to the second p aragraph of Article 264 of the Labor Code. 287.an act which is illegal. December 19. (Filcon Manufacturing Corporation vs.In a situation where ULP is alleged. it suffices that the striking workers are shown to have acted honestly on an impression that the company has committed such unfair lab or practice and the surrounding circumstances could warrant such a belief in good faith. vs. 2004). R. 151. Marcopper Mining Corporation vs. the Supreme Court considered the conduct of ³overtime boycott´ and ³work slowdown´ by the employees as constitutive of illegal strike and a violation of the CBA which prohibits the union or employee. are deemed to have lost their employment status for having knowingly participated in an illegal strike. chanrobles virtual law library Thus. (Philippine Airlines. R. which is in violation of the terms of the CBA. it is not essential that the unfair labor practice act has. especially when such terms provide for conclusive arbitration clause. Inc. is illegal. 4. provides that by staging a strike after the assumption or certification for arbitration. July 26. in fact. G. R. Inc.

it was held that a strike conducted by a minority union is patently illegal. 152. 2004]. But if the motive which had impelled. 2004. What are the examples of a strike conducted for unlawful purposes? a. 145496. [26 SCRA 435. Torres. R. 52 O. the strike may be declared illegal. While the right to strike is specifically granted by law. NLRC. reason or motive. No. unjust. chanrobles virtual law library b. 3936). Strike to compel dismissal of employee. not being an absolute right. Lakas Manggagawa sa Filcon-Lakas Manggagawa Labor Center [LMF-LMLC]. Absent a showing as to the legitimate status of the labor organization. 154. 150166. Interwood Hardwood and Veneer Company of the Philippines. No. . (Association of Independent Unions in the Philippines vs. To permit the union¶s picketing activities would be to flaunt at the will of the majority. G. R. Can a minority union lawfully stage a strike? In United Restauror¶s Employees & Labor Union -PAFLU vs. G.G. comes into being and is safeguarded by law only if the acts intended to render material aid or protection to a labor union arise from a lawful ground. Julian. 305 SCRA 219).A strike is illegal if it violates a t emporary restraining order (TRO) or injunction issued for the purpose of enjoining the union and/or its members from obstructing the company premises. Interwood Employees Association vs. Strike. July 26. and ordering the removal therefrom of all the barricades. said strike would have to be considered as illegal. R. vs. February 24. only a legitimate labor organization is entitled to file a notice of strike on behalf of its members. (Filco n Manufacturing Corporation vs. moved or led members of a labor union to stage a strike. the Supreme Court had occasion to rule that a strike conducted by a union which has not been shown to be a legitimate labor organization. even if they had acted in good faith in staging it. No labor dispute which will justify the conduct of a strike may exist between the employer and a minority union. December 18. is illegal.. 120505. Can a strike be staged by a union whose legitimacy is in question? In the 2004 case of Stamford Marketing Corp. 1999. 1968]. unreasonable or trivial. Strike for unlawful purpose is illegal. [G. Under Article 263 [c]. be unlawful. No. 153. March 25. it is a remedy which can only be availed of by a legitimate labor organization. illegitimate. prompted.

the union may lawfully stage a strike based on such refusal which. [44 SCRA 351]. the company agreed to recognize for membership in the Association the position titles mentioned in Annex ³B´ of said agreement. NLRC. Union-recognition-strike. No. as the employees¶ bargaining representative to work out a CBA despite the striking union¶s doubtful majority status to merit voluntary recognition and lack of formal certification as the exclusive representative in the bargaining unit. L-2660. c.For instance. illegal. If the majority status of a union is in doubt. L-2660. Rold an. No. Trivial and puerile purpose. G. as its legal designation implies. May 30. May 30. (Luzon Marine Department Union vs. 86 Phil. the strike of the Association was declared not just for the purpose of gaining recognition but also for bargaining in bad faith on the part of the company and by reason of the unfair labor practices committed by its officials. It is only when the union¶s majority status is established through appropriate certification election. A strike staged by a union to compel the employer to extend recognition to it as the bargaining representative is illegal. the law will not sanction it and the court will declare it illegal. This goes to show that striking for recognition is productive of good result insofar as a union is concerned. CIR. a strike staged for the purpose of unreasonably demanding the dismissal of a factory foreman is illegal. d. A union -recognition-strike. under Article 248 [g] constitutes an unfair labor practice act. G. the same may not be considered illegal. . Significantly. In Caltex Filipino Managers and Supervisors Association vs. 86 Phil. (Luzon Marine Department Union vs. Roldan. Even if the strike were really declared for the purpose of recognition. 120505. 1950. is calculated to compel the employer to recognize one¶s union. 1950. in the voluntary return-to-work agreement entered into between the company and the Association thereby ending the strike. Hence. If a strike is declared for a trivial. 507). March 25. No. and not the other contending group. a strike cannot be declared by reason of non-recognition by management of said union for purposes of collective bargaining. But if the strike is triggered not only by the desire for recognition by the union but also because of the unfair labor practices committed by the employer. R. 305 SCRA 219). unjust or unreasonable purpose or if carried out through unlawful means. the concerted activities of the officers and members of the Association in this regard may not be said to be unlawful nor the purpose thereof as trivial. G. 1999. R. (Association of Independent Unions in the Philippines vs. R. 507). that the employer¶s refusal to the demand for collective bargaining negotiations becomes illegal.

1998. 125561. such allegations of unfair labor practices were found to be groundless. (PNOC Dockyard and Engineering Corporation vs. R. vs. 287 SCRA 192. CIR. 102672. No. a strike based on a ³non -strikeable´ ground is generally an illegal strike. 91 Phil. 114 SCRA 930. March 6. June 26. A strike is illegal if staged without giving the employer reasonable time to consider and act on the demands made by the union. NLRC. 124823. (Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa M. 95 Phil. NLRC. A strike is illegal if used as a means to circumvent valid contractual commitments (Manila Oriental Sawmills vs. Premature strike. 96 Phil. Insurefco Paper vs. 1993). where the union believed that the employer committed ULP and the circumstances warranted such belief in good faith. (Almeda vs. As a general proposition. G. if the employees believe in good faith that ULP acts exist so as to constitute a valid ground to strike. then the strike held pursuant to such belief may be legal. G. 1998. 1995. No. 60. corollarily. 118223. chanrobles virtual law library Indeed. subsequently. 248 SCRA 688). Feb. No. What is a good faith strike? It is a well-established policy enunciated in several labor cases that a strike does not automatically carry the stigma of illegality even if no unfair labor practice were committed by the employer. Inc. 939. July 28. chanrobles virtual law library . For instance. 761). 219 SCRA 47. the resulting strike may be considered legal although. 155. (National Union of Workers in Hotels. 4. G. R. Master Iron Labor Union vs. 28) or to circumvent judicial orders lawfully issued. It suffices if such belief in good faith is entertained by labor as the inducing factor for staging a strike. a strike grounded on ULP is illegal if no such acts actually exist. 291 SCRA 231. Ramos. f. R. Oct. No.NAFLU vs. 113907. NLRC. even if no ULP acts are committed by the employer. R. good faith cannot be invoked as a defense if the ocular inspection by the labor authorities of the employer¶s facilities yields no semblance of such good faith. Panay Electric Co. 1982). therefore. 28. Inc. (ALPAP vs. June 29. Feb. however. As an exception. the presumption of legality prevails even if the allegation of unfair labor practice is subsequently found to be untrue provided that the union and its members believed in good faith in the truth of such averment. 76 SCRA 274). G. Workers Union . Insurefco. 2000.e. CIR.. Pepsi-Cola Labor Union vs. R. NLRC. 306. (PASVIL/Pascual Liner. 1999). No. NLRC. However. NLU. Greenfield (MSMG-UWP) vs. NLRC. G. Restaurants and Allied Industries vs. Strike to circumvent contracts and judicial orders. 17.

R. R. 277 SCRA 680. The Court. G. having been staged in response to what its officers and members honestly perceived as unfair labor practice or union -busting committed by respondent company. ± NAFLU vs. [G.. August 18. 156. It is not enough that the union believed that the employer committed acts of ULP when the circumstances clearly negate even a prima facie showing to sustain such belief.It is. However. therefore. as held in Reliance Surety and Insurance Co. 25 SCRA 504). Tiu vs. 1997. the strike is illegal. 17 SCRA 353. the strikers cannot be said to have lost their status as employees of the company although they did not wait for the cooling-off period to lapse before staging the strike. October 23.. if the strike conducted was violative of the mandatory legal requirements. Sulpicio Lines. (Ferrer vs. and there was no semblance of good faith.R. 86917-18. vs. 687] that it is the union which had the burden of proof to present substantial evidence to support its allegations (of unfair labor practices committed by management). L-56856. the petitioner union claimed that the strike was legal for it was done in good faith. chanrobles virtual law library . Aug. In Samahang Manggagawa sa Sulpicio Lines. [G. May strikers be dismissed in cases of ³good faith´ strikes? In case the strike is declared by the union upon the belief in ³good faith´ that the employer has committed unfair labor practices. supra. [G. 18. 25. [G. No. Ople. Jan. NLRC. NLRC. cannot be applied here. No. R. Restaurants and Allied Industries vs. R. 140992. 123276. It is not enough that the union believed that the employer committed acts of unfair labor practice when the circumstances clearly negate even a prima facie showing to warrant such a belief. 1991]. (National Union of Workers in Hotels. 1984] where the Supreme Court held that the finding of illegality attending a strike does not justify the wholesale dismissal of strikers who were otherwise impressed with good faith. Scanning the records very carefully failed to indicate any evidence to sustain such charge. NLRC. an established caveat that a mere claim of good faith would not justify the holding of a strike if the circumstances would not warrant such belief. No. Cement Workers Union. NLRC. No. Hence. was attended by acts of harassment and violence. 1997). The ruling in Bacus vs. Inc. 123276. CIR. the strike was declared illegal in the light of the ruling in Tiu vs. 2004]. existing unfair labor practice committed by the employer. No. Inc. Inc. was prompted by no actual. however. March 25. was unconvinced because it found the accusation of union-busting bereft of any proof. The facts and the evidence did not establish even at least a rational basis why the union would wield a strike based on alleged unfair labor practices it did not even bother to substantiate during the conciliation proceedings. Cebu Portland Cement Company vs.

vote to accept the reduced offer. or certify it to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration. When at least a majority of the board of directors or trustees or the partners holding the controlling interest in the case of partnership. 160. On actual strike or lockout .automatically enjoined even if a Motion for Reconsideration is filed. What is ³reduced offer balloting´? Reduced offer balloting. chanrobles virtual law library b. conduct a referendum by secret balloting on the improved offer of the employer on or before the 30th day of the strike.All shall be subsumed/absorbed by the assumed or certified case except when the order specified otherwise. Confesor. as pronounced in National Federation of Labor vs. if. The . May 5.Thus. the Regional Branch of the NCMB shall conduct a referendum by secret balloting on the reduced offer of the union on or before the 30th day of the lockout. 287-288. the said strike is illegal. . (NOTE: The President may also exercise the power to assume jurisdiction over a labor dispute). it may cause or likely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the national interest. 15. the workers shall immediately return to work and the employer shall thereupon readmit them upon the signing of the agreement. What is the effect of such assumption or certification of labor dispute to the NLRC? a. NLRC. 1997]. G. the Regional Branch of the NCMB shall. Dec. c.strikers or locked out employees should immediately return to work and employer should readmit them back. 159. at its own initiative or upon the request of any affected party. 158. No. R. 106316. What is the power of the DOLE Secretary to assume jurisdiction over a labor dispute or certify it to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration? The DOLE Secretary may assume jurisdiction over a labor dispute.In case of a lockout. [283 SCRA 275. 1997). When at least a majority of the union members vote to accept the improved offer. the striking workers shall immediately return to work and the employer shall thereupon readmit them upon the signing of the agreement. (See also First City Interlink Transportation Co. even if the union acted in good faith in the belief that the company was committing an unfair labor practice. if no notice of strike and a strike vote were conducted. What is ³improved offer balloting´? Improved offer balloting. On intended or impending strike or lockout . in his opinion. vs. 157. On cases filed or may be filed .In case of a strike. .

this privilege is not absolute. the Secretary of Labor rightly held: ³It is well to remind both parties herein that the main reason or rationale for the exercise of the Secretary of Labor and Employment¶s power under Article 263(g) of the Labor Code. R. In Metrolab Industries. [G. (225 SCRA 301. the directive to the parties to refrain from performing acts that will exacerbate the situation is intended to ensure that the dispute does not get out of hand. thereby negating the direct intervention of this office. 151379. v. then they cannot be covered by the Secretary¶s assumption order. National Labor Relations Commission. as amended. this Court declared that it recognizes the exercise of management prerogatives and it often declines to interfere with the legitimate business decisions of the employer. No. Hence. ³The University¶s act of suspending and terminating union members and the Union¶s act of filing another Notice of Strike after this Office . nor did the Secretary gravely abuse the same. January 14. the University contends that the Secretary cannot take cognizance of an issue involving employees who are not part of the bargaining unit. the Secretary did not exceed her jurisdiction. 2005]. Section 3 of the Constitution. The Honorable Secretary of Labor. This is in keeping with the general principle embodied in Article XIII. One of these exceptions is when the Secretary of Labor assumes jurisdiction over labor disputes inv olving industries indispensable to the national interest under Article 263(g) of the Labor Code. as expressed in PAL v. Roldan-Confessor. Section 3 of the Constitution) which is further echoed in Article 211 of the Labor Code. ³When the Secretary of Labor ordered the UNIVERSITY to suspend the effect of the termination of the individual respondents. vs. (254 SCRA 182. It insists that since the individual respondents had already been excluded from the bargaining unit by a final and executory order by the panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. is the maintenance and upholding of the status quo while the dispute is being adjudicated. Said the Supreme Court: ³This Court finds no merit in the UNIVERSITY¶s contention. 308 [1993]). 1995. Inc. Inc. 188189 [1996]). In the 2005 case of University of Immaculate Concepcion. It must be pointed out that one of the substantive evils which Article 263(g) of the Labor Code seeks to curb is the exacerbation of a labor dispute to the further detriment of the national interest.parties to the case should inform the DOLE Secretary of pendency thereof. However. xxx. In her Order dated March 28. (Article XIII. but subject to exceptions.

44 SCRA 350). Under our constitutional set up.] these acts will not in any way help in the early resolution of the labor dispute. CIR. or 3. 345).´ chanrobles virtual law library 161. CIR. 1008. (Caltex vs. Caltex vs. The rationale for this policy is the protection extended to the right to strike under the constitution and the law. By any standards[. It is basically treated as a weapon that the law guarantees to employees for the advancement of their interest and for their protection. strikes and lockouts validly declared. . 79 Phil. May an injunction be issued in strike or lockout cases? As a general rule. the law vests in the NLRC the authority to issue injunctions to restrain the commission of illegal acts during the strik es and pickets. injunction cannot be issued against the conduct of picketing by the workers. This policy applies even if the strike appears to be illegal in nature. where picketing is carried out through the use of illegal means (Mortera vs. Lucero. However. 79 Phil. Cloribel. 27 SCRA 465). May picketing be enjoined? Are there exceptions? As a general rule. where picketing involves the use of violence and other illegal acts (PAFLU vs. the individual respondents herein. where injunction becomes necessary to protect the rights of third parties (PAFLU vs. (Mortera vs. are part of the bargaining unit. It is not a question anymore of whether or not the terminated employees. it is clear that the act of the UNIVERSITY of dismissing the individual respondents from their employment became the impetus for the UNION to declare a second notice of strike. 345). enjoy the protection of law and cannot be enjoined unless illegal acts are committed or threatened to be committed in the course of such strikes or lockouts. 4 SCRA 1196). Any act committed during the pendency of the dispute that tends to give rise to further contentious issues or increase the te nsions between the parties should be considered an act of exacerbation and should not be allowed. Barot. picketing is considered part of the freedom of speech duly guaranteed by the constitution. 161. chanrobles virtual law library ³Indeed. 99 Phil. It is clear that the actions of both parties merely served to complicate and aggravate the already strained labor-management relations.has assumed jurisdiction are certainly in conflict with the status quo ante. excepted from this legal proscription are the following situations: 1. Ordinarily. or 2. CIR.

under the law. However. Oct. issued a TRO only for free ingress to and egress from petitioner¶s plants. The reason is when trade unionism and strikes are used in violation of the law. It ignored the fatal lack of notice of strike consequent the conversion thereof into a preventive mediation case. No. the Supreme Court ruled that the NLRC committed grave abuse of discretion when it denied the petition for injunction to restrain the union from declaring a strike based on non-strikeable grounds. a strike can no longer be staged based on said notice. it was held that it is the ³legal duty and obligation´ of the NLRC to enjoin a partial strike staged in violation of the law. no coercive powers of injunction. The NLRC. chanrobles virtual law library In Bulletin Publishing vs. the Supreme Court ruled that injunction may be issued not only against the commission of illegal act in the course of the strike but the strike itself. 162. 119293. 1986]. [G. NLRC. misuse thereof can be the subject of judicial intervention. R. In this case. NLRC. Drilon. in some cases. Having been so converted. has. What is meant by ³return-to-work´ order? A return-to-work order is an indispensable consequence of the assumption or certification order issued by the DOLE Secretary in national interest cases. Failure promptly to issue an injunction by the NLRC was likewise held therein to be an abuse of discretion. NLRC. [198 SCRA 586 (1991)]. 2003]. 193 SCRA 223 [1991]). (See also PAL vs. [G. chanrobles virtual law library In the earlier case of San Miguel Corporation vs. No. injunction was allowed against a strike which was staged to compel the employer to ignore the law. 7. R. 74425. however. but did not enjoin the unlawful strike itself. public respondent should have granted the injunctive relief to prevent the grave damage brought about by the unlawful strike. the legal effect is that there is no more notice of strike to speak of. the NCMB which effected the conversion. Upon such conversion.However. In IBM vs. June 10. petitioner company sought recourse from the NLRC. It is automatic in nature which means that it may be . Clearly. injunctions issued to enjoin the conduct of the strike were held to be valid. the notice of strike filed by the union has been converted into a preventive mediation case. Article 264(a) of the Labor Code explicitly states that a declaration of strike without first having filed the required notice is a prohibited activity. Consequently. Sanchez. [304 SCRA 1(1999)] where the same issue of NLRC¶s duty to enjoin an unlawful strike was raised. When the NCMB ordered the preventive mediation the union had thereupon lost the notice of strike it had filed. which may be prevented through an injunction in accordance with Article 254. In the 2003 case of San Miguel Corporation vs.

18. If one has already taken place at the time of assumption or certification. 163. Brillantes.enforced even if it is not expressly stated in the assumption or certification order because it is considered the logical and legal effect of the issuance of said order. therefore. strikes are enjoine d or. Nos. G. R. (Telefunken Semiconductors Employees Union -FFW vs. Returning to work. Thus. (Ibid.´ In setting aside this ³qualified´ return-to-work order for being contrary to law.´ (Emphasis supplied) In the 2005 case of PLDT vs. even for one day. Inciong. the consequence thereof is clear. [G. 254 SCRA 595. CA. In her order. she directed the return to work of all strikers ³except those who were terminated due to redundancy. if one has already taken place. 210 SCRA 565 [1992]. 143013-14. on the part of a worker. Once an assumption/certification order is issued.´ (Marcopper Mining Corporation vs. No. once an assumption or certification order is issued. . would make the strike illegal.). 162783. March 11. all strikers should immediately return to work. thus: ³Such assumption or certification shall have the effect of automatically enjoining the intended or impending strike or lockout as specified in the assumption or certification order. G. id. 119381. the Court of Appeals observed that: ³The phrase µall striking or locked-out employees¶ and µreadmit all workers¶ does not distinguish or qualify and emphat ically is a catchall embracing enumeration of who should be returned to work. Cf. Violation thereof. Tomas certified the labor dispute to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration. R. What is meant by the phrase ³all striking or locked-out employees´ and ³readmit all workers´ within the context of a return-to-work order? Under Article 263 [g]. it is error for striking workers to continue with their strike alleging absence of a return-to-work order. Federation of Free Workers vs. R. 602. This holds true even if a Motion for Reconsideration of the assumption or certification order is filed.. Torres. 208 SCRA 157 [1992]). 2000). 2005]. Dec. No. is ³not a matter of option or voluntariness but of obligation. St. Scholastica¶s College vs. Secretary of Labor and Employment Patricia Sto. Manggagawa ng Komunikasyon sa Pilipinas. July 14. 1996. Article 263 [g] is clear. all striking or locked-out employees shall immediately ret urn to work and the employer shall immediately resume operations and readmit all workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike or lockout.

CA. Court of Appeals. Records show that the strike occurred on December 23. What is meant by the phrase ³under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike´ within the context of a return-to-work order? Article 263 [g] constitutes a limitation or exception to the management prerogative of hiring. As Article 263 [g] is clear and unequivocal in stating that ALL striking or locked -out employees shall immediately return to work and the employer shall immediately resume operations and readmit ALL workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike or lockout. Court of Appeals. on December 22.´ 164. . Assumption of jurisdiction over a labor dispute. 2002. demotion and promotion of employees. No.¶´ The Supreme Court affirmed said ruling of the CA. 2004). the employer is restricted from exercising its generally unbounded right to transfer or reassign its employees. . This is the status quo that must be maintained. 2002. transfer.R. Undoubtedly. it was held: chanrobles virtual law library ³. ± Unlicensed Crews Employees Union ± Associated Labor Unions [TASLI-ALU] vs. G. or as in this case the certification of the same to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration. Inc. 2004]. 145428. 2002. [G. And to the extent that Article 263 [g] calls for the admission of all workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike. 165.µWhere the law does not distinguish. July 07. must be maintained. (Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. . firing. the Supreme Court had occasion to describe what status quo prior to the strike means. the 383 members of the private respondent-union who were dismissed on December 31. then the unmistakable mandate must be followed by the Secretary. No. then the condition prevailing before it. courts should not distinguish (Recaña v. July 7. always co-exists with an order for workers to return to work immediately and for employers to readmit all workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike or lockout. Since the strike was held on the aforementioned date.-Unlicensed Crews Employees Union-Associated Labor Unions (Tasli-Alu) vs. What is meant by ³status quo ante´ within the context of a return-to-work order? In the same 2005 PLDT case [supra]. Article 263 [g] directs that the employer must readmit all workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike. 145428. 349 SCRA 24 [2001] ). 2002 due to alleged redundancy were still employed by the petitioner and holding their respective positions. In the 2004 case of TransAsia Shipping Lines. R. Inc. which was the condition present on December 22.

pursuant to Article 263 [g].´ Instead of fully complying therewith by allowing the faculty members to teach in the classroom. viz. Inc. assumed jurisdiction over the labor dispute at Metro Drug. vs. In this case. Pending resolution of said dispute. ± Unlicensed Crews Employees Union ± Associated Labor Unions [TASLI-ALU] vs. Inc. directed the university to ³readmit all its faculty members. 166. ³ Likewise apropos is the case of University of Sto. The Court upheld said order of the Secretary of Labor as it quoted the assailed resolution therein. 145428. under the same terms and conditions prevailing prior to the present dispute. chanrobles virtual law library In Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. pay or privilege. Is ³payroll reinstatement´ proper to implement a return-towork order? . it was ruled that the respondent company cannot rightfully exercise its management¶s prerogative to determine where its employees are to be assigned or to determine their job assignments in view of the explicit directive contained in the return -to-work orders of the Secretary of Labor to accept the striking workers back ³under the same terms and conditions prevailing prior to the strike. 2004]. The respondent is mandated. pursuant to Article 263 [g]. including the sixteen (16) union officials. When a labor dispute has in fact occurred and a general injunction has been issued restraining the commission of disruptive acts. the Secretary of Labor.The case of Metrolab Industries. [254 SCRA 182 (1996)]. where the Secretary of Labor. [190 SCRA 758 (1990)]. Court of Appeals. the university gave some of them ³substantially equivalent academic assignments without loss in rank. to issue embarkation orders to the employees to enable them to report to their ship assignments in compliance with the Order of the Secretary of Labor. management prerogatives must always be exercised consistently with the statutory objective. is particularly instructive. July 7. Roldan -Confesor. No.: ³. Tomas v s. the company laid -off ninety-four (94) of its rank-and-file employees invoking the exercise of management prerogative.´ The order simply means that the employees should be returned to their ship assignments as before they staged their strike. But it may nevertheless be appropriate to mention here that one of the substantive evils which Article 263 (g) of the Labor Code seeks to curb is the exacerbation of a labor dispute to the further detriment of the national interest.. under the said order.. The Secretary of Labor declared the layoff illegal and ordered the company to reinstate the employees.´ The Court ruled therein that the grant of substantially equivalent academic assignments could not be sustained because it could not be considered a reinstatement under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike. [G. NLRC. R. Inc.

(Manila Diamond Hotel Employees Union vs.´ (University of Immaculate Concepcion. 140518 [Dec. No. January 14. Secretary of Labor. 2004].The Supreme Court. [G. chanrobles virtual law library ³The µsuperseding circumstances¶ mentioned by the Acting Secretary of Labor no doubt refer to the final decision of the panel of arbitrators as to the confidential nature of the positions of the twelve private respondents. the Secretary assumed jurisdiction over the labor . vs. payroll reinstatement must rest on special circumstances that render actual reinstatement impracticable or otherwise not conducive to attaining the purposes of the law. allowed payroll reinstatement in University of Immaculate Concepcion. Here. the same is usually not allowed. This is consistent with the idea that any work stoppage or slowdown in that particular industry can be detrimental to the national interest. 151379. This Court sees no grave abuse of discretion on the part of the Acting Secretary of Labor in ordering the same. R.¶ chanrobles virtual law library ³As an exception to the rule. therefore. then Acting Secretary of Labor Jose S. we find that superseding circumstances would not warrant the physical reinstatement of the twelve (12) terminated employees. Jan. The Honorable Secretary of Labor. ³In ordering payroll reinstatement in lieu of actual reinstatement. the issue has not been raised by any party in this case. Inc. 2005]. Furthermore. Inc. Article 263(g) of the Labor Code aforementioned states that all workers must immediately return to work and all employers must readmit all of them under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike or lockout. G. UST vs. CA. appears justified as an exception to the rule until the validity of their termination is finally resolved. G. they are hereby ordered placed under payroll reinstatement until the validity of their termination is finally resolved. 190 SCRA 758 [1990]).R. vs. an amendment to the previous Orders issued by her office. NLRC. 2005). The payroll reinstatement in lieu of actual reinstatement ordered in these cases. 14. Brillantes said: chanrobles virtual law library µAnent the Union¶s Motion. R. No. The Hon. Hence. The same holding was made in the earlier case of University o f Santo Tomas [supra]. 16. It said: ³With respect to the Secretary¶s Order allowing payroll reinstatement instead of actual reinstatement for the individual respondents herein. instead of actual reinstatement. The phrase ³under the same terms and conditions´ makes it clear that the norm is actual reinstatement. No. 151379. thereby rendering their actual and physical reinstatement impracticable and more likely to exacerbate the situation.

therefore. but the university could not immediately rein state them since it would be impracticable and detrimental to the students to change teachers at that point in time. No. In the Manila Diamond Hotel case. the ³great breadth of discretion´ by the Secretary once he assumes jurisdiction over a labor dispute is recognized. Indeed. especially if national interest is involved. 2004]. NLRC. and that in most strikes. in Manila Diamond Hotel Employees¶ Union vs. however. He ordered the striking teachers to return to work and the university to accept them under the same terms and conditions. in a subsequent order. the NLRC provided payroll reinstatement for the striking teachers as an alternative remedy to actual reinstatement. the Supreme Court in Manila Diamond Hotel declared the Secretary¶s subsequent ord er for mere payroll reinstatement as constitutive of grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. The petitioner-union correctly pointed out that labor disputes naturally involve strained relations between labor and management. which is not correctible by a special civil action for certiorari. faced with a situation where the striking teachers were entitled to a return-to-work order. Nevertheless. When is ³payroll reinstatement´ not proper? In some cases. Court of Appeals. However. As a consequence of the above findings. the High Court disallowed the payroll reinstatement of workers who were ordered to return to work by reason of the assumption order. payroll reinstatement in lieu of actual reinstatement . Bitter labor disputes always leave an aftermath of strong emotions and unpleasant sit uations. [190 SCRA 758 (1990)] (supra) in the light of one very important fact: the teachers in the latter case could not be given back their academic assignments since the order of the Secretary fo r them to return to work was given in the middle of the first semester of the academic year. The Hon. The High Tribunal declared that a strained relationship between the striking employees and management is no reason for payroll reinstatement in lieu of actual reinstatement. the Supreme Court found that it was merely an error of judgment. December 16. the government must still perform its function and apply the law. the relations between the strikers and the non-strikers will similarly be tense.dispute between striking teachers and the university. 167. Moreover. The NLRC was. payroll reinstatement was not allowed by the Supreme Court. R. It observed that the NLRC was only trying its best to work out a satisfactory ad hoc solution to a festering and serious problem. The Supreme Court affirmed the validity of such an order and ruled that NLRC did not commit grave abuse of discretion in providing for the alternative remedy of payroll reinstatement. there was no showing that the facts called for payroll reinstatement as an alternative remedy. It distinguished the case from the earlier case of University of Santo Tomas (UST) vs. For instance. However. [G. 140518.

Does the filing of a Motion for Reconsideration affect the return-to-work order? The filing of a motion for reconsideration does not affect the immediate executory character of the return-to-work order issued as a consequence of an assumption or certification ord er. The reason is simple: a return-towork order is immediately effective and executory notwithstanding the filing of a motion for reconsideration. July 7.. Secretary of Labor and Employment. 1997. (Bisaya Land Transportation Co. 2004]. (Philippine Airlines Employees Association vs. it agreed to reinstate them and comply fully with the return-to-work order issued by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. or otherwise not conduci ve to attaining the purpose of the law in providing for assumption of jurisdiction by the Secretary of Labor and Employment in a labor dispute that affects the national interest.is a departure from the rule in these cases and there must be showing of special circumstances rendering actual reinstatement impracticable. (Telefunken Semiconductors Employees Union-FFW vs. the issue of the legality of the strike. Philippine Airlines. G. Inc. a return-to-work order does not have the effect of rendering as moot and academic. 38 . Inc. 145428. chanrobles virtual law library However. In the same breadth. Such act of returning to work only meant that they desisted from the strike which des istance is a personal act of the strikers and cannot be used against the union and interpreted as a waiver by it of its original demands for which the strike was adopted as a weapon. 283 SCRA 145). 12. [G. the deadline fixed for the returnto-work would. according to Unlicensed Crews Employees Union ± Associated Labor Unions [TASLI-ALU] vs.. CA. Insurefco. 95 Phil. R. (Reformist Union of R. Liner. have already passed and. To say that the effectivity of the return-to-work order must wait affirmance in a motion for reconsideration is not only to emasculate it but indeed to defeat its import. 168. an employer may be considered to have waived its right to proceed against the striking employees for alleged commission of illegal acts during the strike when. Dec. 761). vs. for by then. during a conference before the Chairman of the NLRC. CIR. in the ordinary course. No. 438). Are the demands of the union deemed waived upon a voluntary return to work? The act of strikers in voluntarily returning to work does not result in the waiver of their original demands. as in the UST case aforementioned. Inc. None appears to have been established in this case. 266 SCRA 713 [1997]) 169. 122743 and 127215. (Insurefco Pulp vs.B. R. can no longer be affirmed insofar as the time element is concerned. vs. NLRC. hence. 102 Phil. Nos.

they may be subjected to immediate disciplinary action. Nos. it is clear that from the moment a worker defies a return-to-work order. NLRC. No. Nos. [Hospital]. (G. (See also Grand Boulevard Hotel vs. 2004). 01-02. 143341. 153664-65. Inc. G. Guidelines Governing Labor Relations). is considered an illegal act committed in the course of the strike or lockout. Series of 2002). The strike becomes a prohibited activity under the same provision. 2000). R. Rules of Procedure of the NLRC. Series of 2002. Genuine Labo r Organization of Workers in Hotel Restaurant and Allied Industrial [GLOWHRAIN]. Labor Code. (See Section 4. a.R. Dacanay. July 18. The Supreme Court held in the 2004 case of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Employees Union ± AFW vs. 01-02. San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation. Rule IX. G. Telefunken Semiconductors Employees Union -FFW vs. (No. Under Article 264. 18. 18. May 28. (Article 263[g]. R. No. Rules of Procedure of the NLRC. . Oct. R. he is deemed to have abandoned his job. 24. 143013-14. G. even criminal prosecution against him. University of Santo Tomas vs. Effect on strikers in case of strike. as amended by NLRC Resolution No. he may be held liable to pay backwages. as amended by NLRC Resolution No. Employers who refuse to re-admit returning workers may be liable. including dismissal or loss of employment status and even to criminal prosecution. upon filing of proper petition for the payment of wages and other benefits. 170. from the date of actual refusal until the workers are re-admitted. damages and other positive or affirmative reliefs. 89920. Section 4. 2003). b. that in case of non-compliance by the strikers with return-to-work order issued in connection with the assumption/certification by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.SCRA 372. Effect on employers in case of lockout. paragraph [a]. It is already in itself knowingly participating in an illegal act. In case of non-compliance by the employer with the return-to-work order issued in connection with the assumption/certification of the labor dispute. CA. Rule IX. Dec. 1990). What is the effect of defiance of assumption or certification order or return-to-work order? Non-compliance with the assumption/certification order of the Secretary of Labor and Employment or a return-to-work order issued pursuant thereto by either the Secretary or the NLRC to which a labor dispute is certified. Grand Boulevard Hotel vs.

PAL vs. Dec. [G. Admittedly. Primer on Strike.. the Supreme Court said that it cannot allow the union to thwart the efficacy of the assumption and return-to-work orders . 91 Phil. NLRC. on the ground that they are still legally employed although actually engaged in activities inimical to their employer¶s interest. chanrobles virtual law library Where the return-to-work order is issued pending the determination of the legality of the strike. No. The strike is illegal because of the brazen disregard of the return -to-work order of the Secretary. R. (No. vs. Refusal to acknowledge receipt of assumption order. G. 88710-13. R. Oct. receipt of such order would mean that the strike has to end. Precisely.c. therefore. Liberal Labor Union vs. The aversion to receive such orders is understandable. PALEA. said the Supreme Court in Asian Transmission Corporation vs. 1990. Can Co. If a strike has not yet been staged. 72. receipt of the order would mean that the strike can no longer push through. No. the purpose of the return-towork order is to maintain the status quo while the determination is being made. Worse. Nestle Philippines. Inc. the workers who contend that the strike is legal can refuse to return to their work and use a standstill in the company operations while retaining the positions they refuse to discharge or allow the management to fill. in many instances. Contempt citation. (Union of Filipro Employees. 31. L-8197. 035. Otherwise. 1989]. it is difficult to serve assump tion or certification orders. e.. it is not correct to say that it may be enforced only if the strike is legal and may be disregarded if the strike is illegal. No. R. The Supreme Court is aware of this difficulty of serving said orders on striking unions and their members who invariably view the DOLE¶s process servers with suspicion and hostility. 22. If a strike is on-going. 88728. 253 SCRA 705). 19. they will also claim payment for work not done. 1958). chanrobles virtual law library Such being the case. d.´ (Navale vs. would all be put to naught. Any further continuation thereof would be fatal as it may result in the loss of employment status of the defiant strikers. The refusal to receive such orders and other processes is. CA. The Secretary of Labor and Employment may cite the defiant party in contempt pursuant to the power vested in him under the provisions of the Labor Code. as described by the Supreme Court in one case. Nov. G. All preparations. ³an apparent attempt to frustrate the ends of justice. Picketing and Lockout). Phil. Effect on the legality of strike.

through the simple expediency of refusing to acknowledge receipt thereof. refused to acknowledge receipt of the same on two separate occasions (on 8 September 1995 at 7:15 p. the Union ± with its officers and members in attendance ± never questioned the propriety or adequacy by which these Orders were served upon them. although a certain Virgie Cardenas also refused to acknowledge receipt. Atty. the reports of the DOLE process server. R. ³The foregoing clearly negate the Union¶s contention of inadequate service of the Orders dated 8 and 16 September 1995 of Acting Secretary Brillantes. however. December 18. ³Records also show that the Order of 16 September 1995 was served at the strike area with copies left with the striking workers. 143013-14. Allan Montano. The Union¶s counsel of record. it would be stretching the limits of credibility if We were to believe that the Union was unaware of the said Orders during all the conciliation conferences conducted by the NCMB -DOLE. per the process server¶s return. and on 11 September 1995 at 9:30 a. the DOLE process server¶s discharge of his function is an official act carrying the presumption of regularity in its performance which the Union has not disproved. of 18 September 1995. The 2000 case of Telefunken Semiconductors Employees Union -FFW vs. found this contention untenable in the light of what had already been clearly es tablished in this case. The latter. 2000]. [G.). in the conciliation meetings after the issuance of the Order of 8 September 1995 to settle the unresolved CBA issues and after the issuance of the Order of 16 September 1995 to establish the mechanics for a smooth implementation of this Office¶s return -towork directive.issued in the national interest.m. much less disputed with clear and convincing evidence. similarly refused to acknowledge receipt of the 8 September 1995 Order on 9 September 1995 at 1:25 p.m.m. The Federation of Free Workers officially received a copy as acknowledged by a certain Lourdes at 3:40 p. The Supreme Court. presents a good study on this point. shows that the Notice of Order of 8 September 1995 was actually served on the Union President.´ f. . to wit: ³x x x. ³Likewise. Furthermore.m. Petitioners here claimed that the assumption and return -towork orders issued by the Secretary of Labor were allegedly inadequately served upon them. Nos. CA. however. Specifically. The certification/assumption order may be served at any time of the day.

not material. pictures of which were presented by the Company in evidence. radio and television cannot be considered hearsay and subject to authentication considering that the subject thereof were the lawful Orders of a competent government authority. except Saturdays. 1988]. In the case of the announcements posted on the Union¶s bulletin board. As pointed out by the Secretary of Labor in his decision. therefore. x x x´ However. suffice it for us to state that the bulletin board belonged to the Union. ± Writ of Execution shall be served at any day. petitioners in Telefunken [supra] cite Section 1. 75271-73.´ The assumption and return-to-work orders issued by the Secretary of Labor in the case at bar are not the kind of orders contemplated in the immediately cited rule of the NLRC because such orders of the Secretary of Labor did not yet finally dispose of the labor dispute. It is well-settled that the length of time within which the return-to-work order was defied is not significant in determining the liability of the defiant party to the legal consequences thereof. unverified/unverifiable and thus utterly inadmissible. Rule IX of the NLRC Manual on Execution of Judgment which provides that: chanrobles virtual law library ³Section 1. Rule III of the same NLRC Manual provide that such ³execution shall issue only upon a judgment or order that finally disposes of an action or proceeding. Tuico. Since the veracity of the contents of the announcements on the bulletin board were never denied by the Union except to claim that these were µself-serving. between the hours of eight in the morning and five in the afternoon. No. Sundays and holidays. the Supreme Court observed that the above-cited rule is not applicable to the case at bar inasmuch as Sections 1 and 4. tabloids. however. [G. The numerous publications of the subject DOLE Orders in various newspapers.¶ We cannot but admit the same for the purpose for which it was presented. petitioners cannot now feign ignorance of his official intervention.´ g. It is already in itself knowingly participating in an . has been questioned. Period of defiance of return-to-work order. June 27. to wit: ³The admissibility of the evidence presented by the Company. It is clear from the law that from the moment a worker defies a return-to-work order. should be rejected that since the defianc e of the return-to-work order did not last for five (5) months as in the case of Sarmiento vs. the defiant workers should not be dismissed. R. he is deemed to have abandoned his job. Hours and Days When Writ Shall Be Served. The Union¶s arguments are less than convincing.To cast doubt on the regularity of the aforesaid service of the two Orders issued by the Secretary of Labor. The argument.

173. most especially emergency cases. Power to assume or certify strikes or lockouts in hospitals. clinics and medical institutions. R. in which case. This adverse consequence does not apply to ordinary union members except when they participated in the commission of illegal acts in the course of the strike. Government employees may. whose mo vement and services shall be unhampered and unrestricted. the worker will just simply refuse to return to his work and cause a standstill in the company operations while retaining the position he refused to discharge or allow management to fill. L-49983. it shall be the duty of the striking union or locking out employer to provide and maintain an effective skeletal workforce of medical and other health personnel. they shall be deemed to have also lost their employment status. however. for the duration of the strike or lockout. or (2) exercise of prerogatives. 174. the termination from work of the strikers who defied the return-towork order for only nine (9) days was upheld. 172. No. 171. [G. Inciong. In Federation of Free Workers vs. Who are the ³union officers´ who should be terminated as a result of illegal strike? As to who the union officers are for purposes of determining liability for the illegal strike. The DOLE Secretary may immediately assume jurisdiction over the labor dispute within 24 hours from his knowledge thereof. clinics or medical institutions. April 20. as distinguished from ordinary members of the union. May employees in the government service conduct strike? Concerted activities and strikes in the government service are not allowed because the terms and conditions of government employment are governed by law. the Supreme Court held in CCBPI Postmix Workers .illegal act. Otherwise. organize government employees' organizations and may negotiate certain terms and conditions of employment except: (1) those requiring appropriations. 1992]. The mere declaration of the illegality of strike would result in the termination of employment of union officers. In labor disputes adversely affecting the continued operation of such hospitals. What is the effect of the illegality of strike on employment of strikers? The rule is different for union officers. as are necessary to insure the proper and adequate protection of the life and health of its patients. They are deemed to have lost their employment status.

Union vs. The charges must be proved at an investigation duly called where the employee shall be given an opportunity to defend himself. 1998] that the certifications issued by the Chief of the Labor Organization Division of the Bureau of Labor Relations. NLRC. It must be emphasized that the penalty of dismissal could be imposed only on union officers serving and acting as such during the period of illegal strike. the union members. In Telefunken Semiconductors Employees Union -FFW vs. could not be terminated. (Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. Nov. (CCBPI Postmix Workers Union vs. 122743 and 127215. 114521. No. they may not be held liable and. vs. (See also Batangas Laguna . in the absence of clear and convincing evidence that they are flawed. b. NLRC. As a necessary implication. and the Memorandum and Amendments. This is true even if the alleged ground constitutes a criminal offense. as to the union officers. R. chanrobles virtual law library With respect to the company¶s allegation that by being signatories to the CBA. 299 SCRA 410). they should be taken on its face value. 248 SCRA 95. R. 106). 27. NLRC. supra). the Supreme Court ruled in the same case that that such did not sufficiently establish the status of the employees as union officers during the illegal strike. Especially so when they signed said documents as mere witnesses. in situations such as negot iations and strikes. Only the union officers during the strike are liable. The mere filing of charges against an employee for alleged illegal acts during a strike does not by itself justify his dismissal. G. Dec. Nov. Thus. a. [G. union officers could not have the monopoly of action and reaction. therefore. it was held that declaration of a wholesale forfeiture of employment status of all those who participated in the strike is not allowed if there was inadequate service of the certification order on the union as of the date the strike was declared and there was n o showing that the striking members had been apprised of such order by the union. 12. 283 SCRA 145]. R. if employees acted as union officers after said strike. 27. stimulated by rising emotions. 123491. (Lapanday Workers Union vs. No wholesale forfeiture of employment status. [G. No. Nos. 1997. chanrobles virtual law library Neither were their active roles during the bargaining negotiations may be considered as evidence of their being union officers. the c oncerned employees have effectively represented themselves as union officers. being public records. Inc. Secretary of Labor and Employment. joined their leaders and immersed themselves in the dealings and negotiations. Finding themselves to be similarly situated. NLRC. enjoy the presumption of regularity and deserve weight and probative value. Quite interestingly. 1998.

175.. petitioner -union in Samahang Manggagawa sa Sulpicio Lines. impedes or interferes with by force. Aug. conditions of work or in the exercise of right to self-organization or collective bargaining. What is the nature of the ingress to and egress from the establishment subject of the strike? The ingress to (entrance) and egress from (exit) the establishment struck against are not part of the strike area and. Hiring of replacements. 025. Inc. coercion. the hiring of replacements for the strikers during a strike is not an unfair labor practice act of an employer. 150 SCRA 429). however. we must take care that in the contest between labor and capital. Peaceful ingress and egress of workers who may want to work and those of third parties transacting lawful business with the company under strike is legal. 140992.Tayabas Bus Company vs. threats. Primer on Strike. 1992. considering that respondent¶s business activities were not interrupted. 799-801). No. Picketing and Lockout). ± NAFLU vs. Union officers ordered dismissed despite illegal strike for only 1 day. 101858. What is the rule on hiring of replacements? a. NLRC. Also. Such hiring may even be done on a permanent basis in the case of an economic strike. petitioner failed to prove that respondent company committed any unfair labor practice. Aguas. As a general rule. may not be blocked or picketed. the results achieved are fair and in conformity with the law. No. or intimidation any peaceful picketing by employees during any labor controversy affecting wag es. R. the participation of the union officers in an illegal strike forfeits their employment status. thus. He is entitled to do it in his effort to carry on the business. R. violence. said the Supreme Court. 21. 177. It is worth reiterating that the strike is illegal for failure of petitioner to submit the strike vote to the Department of Labor and Employment at least seven (7) days prior thereto. c. Inc. Sulpicio Lines. While we sympathize with their plight. 2004] pleads that its officers who participated in the one-day strike should not be dismissed from the service. (Progressive Workers Union vs. [G. (No. Invoking compassion. 212 SCRA 792. Use or employment of strike breakers is prohibited by law. 176. Amid this background. Who are strike breakers? A strike breaker is any person who obstructs. And in the event . much less paralyzed. G. March 25. when permanent.

No. Norton & Harrison Co.. But in an unfair labor practice strike. 1996. NLRC. a hearing is not required in order for the employer to validly hire replacements for strikers who committed the defiance. 37 SCRA 244. Insular Life Assurance Co. L-21278. L-18461. NLF vs. 1966). 258 SCRA 724]. 27. What is the extent of the application of security of tenure? . PART .IV LAW ON TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY OF TENURE 1. Bautista. Employees Association vs. chanrobles virtual law library In case of such defiance of return -to-work order... However. c.that the strikers decide to resume their work. Dec. 111 repealed Letter of Instructions No. Feb. [G. G. (Consolidated Labor Association of the Philippines vs. 1986). G. 1985 insofar as it allows management to replace striking workers who defy return-to-work orders. it was held in Allied Banking Corporation vs. 10. Feati University vs. Executive Order No. PLDT. (Section 12. July 31. b. 113 SCRA 662. Nos. 1964). NLRC. PCFW. (The Insular Life Assurance Co. such a sanction is merely provisional to enable the employer to comply with its duties and functions which are closely related to the interest of the public. Hiring of replacements. such replacements may not be permanently employed. July 12. The reason is.. 139 SCRA 589. when not permanent. 24. that in case of non-compliance with an assumption or certification order. the employer is not duty bound to dismiss said permanent replacements. Dec. G. L -17038 and L-17057. Norton & Harrison Company and Jackbilt Concrete Blocks Co. Marsman & Co. Labor Union vs. RCPI vs. R. Hiring of replacements for strikers who refuse to return to work. R. 1458 dated May 1. and Jackbilt Concrete Blocks Co. R. 1967. 58 SCRA 762). No. Executive Order No. (Free Telephone Workers Union vs. The employer is duty-bound to discharge them when the strikers are reinstated to their former positions. No. R. the Department of Labor and Employment is authorized to impose such sanctions as may be provided for by law which may include the hiring of replacements for workers defying the order. 111. 116128.

Jr. G. chanrobles virtual law library This privilege is inherent in the right of employers to control and manage their enterprise effectively. 155421. G. employer policy or practice and general principles of fair play and justice.R. 158232. R. Mendoza vs. G. G. What are the limitations on the exercise of management prerogatives? Needless to state. project and other forms of employment during the effectivity thereof. R. The principle of security of tenure applies not only to rank -and-file employees but also to managerial employees. Sept. No. time. R. every aspect of its busin ess. Gramaje. CA. vs. vs. (PLDT vs. NLRC. It also applies to probationary. 121348. manner and other aspects of work? . Tolentino. G. No. (The Philippine American Life and General Insurance Co. 2004). (Mendoza vs. No. 2000). Rural Bank of Lucban. 21. (Deles. For this reason. according to its own discretion and judgment. 143171. G. 149974. (Fujitsu Computer Products Corporation of the Philippines vs. Nov. No. employment contract.R. Aguinaldo. 3. What is the extent of the rights and prerogatives of management? Our laws recognize and respect the exercise by management of certain rights and prerogatives. Managerial employees also enjoy security of tenure. 2004). 11. The exercise of management prerogative is subject to the limitations imposed by law or by CBA. 155421. March 9. courts often decline to interfere in legitimate business decisions of employers. July 7. seasonal. R. chanrobles virtual law library The fact that one is a managerial employee does not by itself exclude him from the protection of the constitutional guarantee of security of tenure. 2. (Philippine Industrial Security Agency Corporation vs.Security of tenure does not exclusively apply to regular employment only. generally without restraint. What is the extent of management¶s prerogative to prescribe working methods. Maglutac vs. chanrobles virtual law library MANAGEMENT RIGHTS AND PREROGATIVES. place. In fact. R. 189 SCRA 767 [1990]). June 15. April 8. 156963. No. NLRC. Rural Bank of Lucban. the exercise of management prerogative is not absolute. G. No. No. 2005. 2005. 07 July 2004). An employer can regulate. 2004). labor laws discourage interference in employers¶ judgment concerning the conduct of their business. 4.

G. No. This is a privilege inherent in the employer¶s right to control and manage its enterprise effectively. dismissal and recall of workers. No. to change the working hours of its employees. management retains the prerogative. processes to be followed. supervision of workers. G. 4. The managerial prerogative to transfer personnel must be exercised without grave abuse of discretion and putting to mind the basic elements of justice and fair play. 2004). concept and meaning. What is the extent of management¶s prerogative to transfer or re-assign workers? a. Rural Bank of Lucban. vs. time. working methods. R. Hav ing the right should not be confused with the manner that right is exercised. No. Aug. R. March 9. R. the employer must be able to show . without a break in the service. G. 122468. 158606. chanrobles virtual law library 5. vs. Inc. Such aspects of employment include hiring. (Sentinel Security Agency. and other privileges. made in bad faith. it cannot be used as a subterfuge by the employer to rid himself of an undesirable worker. 119205. c. NLRC. Thus. working regulations. to regulate and control all aspects of employment in their business organizations. Transfer of employees. provided there is no demotion in rank or diminution of salary. inherent right of management. 115785. Inc.R. and the action is not motivated by discrimination. according to their discretion and best judgment. tools to be used. G. G. Transfer. No. July 7. transfer of employees. 3. But like all other rights. chanrobles virtual law library Thus. vs. (Sime Darby Pilipinas. 2000). NLRC.Employers have the freedom and prerogative. level or salary. NLRC. benefits. The Supreme Court has recognized and upheld the prerogative of management to transfer an employee from one office to another within the business establishment. Benguet Electric Cooperative vs. 2004. or effected as a form of punishment or demotion without sufficient cause. Sept. work assignments. A transfer means a movement (1) from one position to another of equivalent rank. there are limits. In particular. No. 1998). whenever exigencies of the service so require. (Philippine Airlines. 15 April 1998. Fianza. (Mendoza vs. place and manner of work. work supervision. 155421. or (2) from one office to another within the same business establishment. 289 SCRA 86). Inc. Test to determine validity of transfer. b. as held in one case. R. lay-off of workers and the discipline.

No. Shipping and Marine Department. Sept. inconvenient or prejudicial to the employee. vs. 160391. . G. In Chu vs. Inc. (The Philippine American Life and General Insurance Co. the offers were made after said employee was dismissed due to redundancy under a Special Early Retirement P rogram (SERP). good faith cannot be attributed on the part of the hotel. chanrobles virtual law library d. NLRC. The employer tried to recall the termination when it was learned that she was going to file a complaint with the NLRC for illegal dismissal.that the transfer is not unreasonable. 27. R. vs. His transfer to the Sugar Sales Department. No. 299 SCRA 169. The mere specification in the employment contract of the position to be held by the employee is not such stipulation. 2002). In Dusit Hotel Nikko vs. 180 [1998]). Inc. Feb. More importantly. chanrobles virtual law library e. 1994]. The Supreme Court overruled his argument. according to him. [G. 112752. He argued that management cannot transfer him because his ³Special Contract of Employment´ which was executed after his retirement at age 60 to extend his service. In OSS Security & Allied Services. 106107. Gramaje. R. (See also Tan vs. 11. Should the employer fail to overcome this burden of proof. 156963. caused him inconvenience and was unreasonable. the latter never heard from the former again. No vested right to position. G. the offers were made to the employee but she had not been transferred to another position at all. No. NLRC. 2000].. R. 150092. Globe Telecom. 2005]. the offers made could not have the effect of validating an otherwise arbitrary dismissal. An employee¶s right to security of tenure does not give him such a vested right in his position as would deprive the company of its prerogatives to change his assignment or transfer him where he will be most useful. Nov. As a ploy to stave off the filing of said case. [G. 2004. it was held that the several offers made by the employer to transfer an employee was indicative of bad faith. Florendo-Flores. Refusal to transfer. R. [G. the High Court ruled that an employee has a right to security of tenure but this does not give her such a vested right in her position as would deprive the employer of its prerogative to change her assignment or transfer her where her service will be most beneficial to the employer¶s client. Sugar. the employee¶s transfer is tantamount to constructive dismissal. NLRC. Certainly. NUWHRAIN ± Dusit Hotel Nikko Chapter. 9. No. Further. More so when the contemplated transfer was from a higher position to a much lower one. vs. an employee complained that his right was violated by the transfer effected by management. No. stipulated that his position is ³Head´ of the Warehousing. Six months from the time the employer made the offers to her. August 9. June 2. R.

but later refused to be transferred from Manila to a provincial assignment. R. (Westin Philippine Plaza Hotel vs. the fact that petitioners. 76959. R. he agreed to the policy of the company regarding assignment anywhere in the Philippines as demanded by his employer¶s business operation. the employer knowing fully well that they were working students. G. CA. [G. NLRC. Ministry of Labor and Employment. [G. The refusal of the employees to be transferred may be held justified if there is a showing that the transfer was directed by the employer under questionable circumstances. 1987]. May 28. their refusal to be transferred from Cebu to Manila which was made a condition for their training abroad (Germany) was held valid. The reason is. 139013. NLRC. No. when he applied and was accepted for the job. is guilty of insubordination. No.An employee who refuses to be transferred. vs. the dismissal of a medical representative who acceded in his employment application to be assigned anywhere in the Philippines. March 9. G. 1990]. But. No. Despite their knowledge that the lone operations . Inc. May 3. in their application for employment. Further. September 17. vs. No. This should be deemed necessary and later to have ripened into a company practice or policy that could no longer be peremptorily withdrawn. It constitutes willful disobedience of a lawful order of an employer. R. agreed to be transferred or assigned to any branch should not be taken in isolation. (Benguet Electric Cooperative vs. when such transfer is valid. 2004). R. 121621. the employees were being transferred during the height of union concerted activities in the company where they were active participants. 158606. 1999). the transfer from the province to Manila was made after classes started. 75656. Hon. which job did not require any special dexterity which only said employees can perform. No. in Yuco Chemic al Industries. For instance. discont inued. R. but rather in conjunction with the established company practice in PLDT (the respondent employer) of disseminating a notice of transfer to employees before sending them abroad for training. According to the High Court. in the case of Zafra vs. chanrobles virtual law library In Abbott Laboratories. Fairness at the workplace and settled expectations among employees require that this practice be honored and this policy commended. was held valid. despite the petitioner-employees¶ agreement in their application for employment to be transferred or assigned to any branch. Inc. [G. Rendering the transfer more questionable is the fact that there was no showing that the company cannot hire employees in Manila who can perform the job assigned to the employees sought to be transferred. Fianza. October 12. or eliminated by the employer. 2002].

and other privileges. inconvenient. such action affecting their families are burdensome. a transfer amounts to constructive dismissal when the transfer is unreasonable. benefits. petitioners were unceremoniously transferred. May 3. and involves a demotion in rank or diminution of salaries. chanrobles virtual law library In Damasco vs. [G. While transfer of an employee ordinarily lies within the ambit of management prerogatives. No. 2000].and maintenance center of the 33 ALCATEL 1000 S12 Exchanges for which they trained abroad would be ³homed´ in Sampaloc. On the contrary. Reassignment to Metro Manila is prejudicial to the employee. December 4. [G. Then. or prejudicial to the employee. R. it was the employer¶s order that appears to be whimsical if not vindictive. economically and emotionally. R. the employee simply took an extended vacation leave. 121621. upon receipt of the order of transfer. as she and her family are residing in Olongapo City. they did not give complaining workers any other option but placed them in an either/or straightjacket that appeared too oppressive for those concerned. her act of refusing to be detailed in Metro Manila could hardly be characterized as a willful or intentional disobedience of her employer¶s order. From the employees¶ viewpoint. had they known about their pre-planned reassignments. NLRC. inconvenient. Thus. when he reported back to . This act of management appears to be arbitrary without the usual notice that should have been done even pr ior to their training abroad. Manila. the refusal of the employee to be transferred from Olongapo City to Metro Manila was not considered serious misconduct or willful disobedience of lawful order in connection with her work. Even if the employer directed her to be assigned at his store in Metro Manila. 1999. the willfulness of the employee¶s insubordination was shown by his continued refusal to report to his new work assignment. Needless to say. 306 SCRA 631]. Her reassignment order was unreasonable. f. PLDT officials neglected to disclose this vital piece of information to petitioners before they acceded to be trained abroad. and prejudicia l. however. No. It is no exaggeration to say that their forced transfer is not only unreasonable. In Westin Philippine Plaza Hotel vs. but also in defiance of basic due process and fair play in employment relations. The lure of a foreign trip is fleeting while a reassignment from Cebu to Manila entails major and permanent readjustments for petitioners and their families. Continued refusal to report to new work assignment. necessitating their families¶ relocation from Cebu to Manila. NLRC. petitioners could have declined the foreign training intended for personnel assigned to the Manila office. In the present case. considering the attendant circumstances. 115755. This would entail separation from her family and additional expenses on her part for transportation and food. On arriving home.

the employee¶s intransigence was very evident. while he came to the hotel everyday. and the anguish he would suffer if assigned away from his family. CA. Worse. No. there being no bad faith or underhanded motives on the part of either party. It said: ³Certainly the Court cannot accept the proposition that when an employee opposes his employer¶s decision to transfer him to another workplace. the refusal of the employee to be transferred was upheld because no law compels an employee to accept a promotion and because the position he was supposed to be promoted to did not even exist at that time. g.R. CA. 2003). the Supreme Court distinguished transfer from the Philippines to overseas post and transfer from city to city within the Philippines. No. In ruling for the employer. [G. Refusal to transfer consequent to promotion. [G. the Supreme Court held that the transfer from one city to another within the country is valid as long as there is no bad faith on the part of the employer. 1991. No. [208 Phil. R. 123 SCRA 296 (1983)]. he did not discharge his duties as linen room attendant despite repeated reminders from the personnel office as well as his union. 259. NLRC. additional expenses. i. plus the fact that an assignment to a far place will be a big sacrifice for her as she will be kept away from her family which might adversely affect her efficiency. Telegraph and Telephone Corp. The High Court observed that the transfer of an employee to . the employee averred that she had established Baguio City as her permanent residence and that such transfer will involve additional expenses on her part. Refusal to transfer to overseas assignment distinguished from refusal to transfer within the country. In Dosch vs. the employee merely questioned the transfer order without submitting the required explanation. Laplana. the employee was a cashier at the Baguio City Branch of PT&T who was directed to transfer to the company¶s branch office at Laoag City. Nov. chanrobles virtual law library An employee could not validly refuse the lawful transfer orders on the ground of parental obligations. November 18. (Allied Banking Corporation vs. G. Refusal to transfer due to parental obligations. additional expenses and anguish. In refusing the transfer. 199 SCRA 485]. it is the employee¶s wishes that should be made to prevail. 144412. vs. R. In the case of Allied Banking Corporation vs. 76645. 18. Based on the foregoing facts.´ h. July 23. 144412. he just went to the union office instead of working at the linen room. 2003].work. More than that. when he was asked to explain why no disciplinary action should be taken against him. In Phil.

supra). CIR. Stage and Radio Entertainment Free Workers vs. improper or underhanded purpose can be ascribed to the employer and the objection to the transfer was solely on the personal inconvenience or hardship that will be caused to the employee by virtue of the transfer. 39 SCRA 81). (Allied Banking Corporation vs. Dec. [supra] as well as the instant case. securities and bookkeeping records should be rotated´ and that such rotation ³should be irregular. 127421. The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. 8. . the refusal to be transferred within the Philippines based on personal grounds was considered willful disobedience of a lawful order. k.R. (Cinema. as in the 1991 case of Phil. is legal. CIR. Dapiton. Consequently. unannounced and long enough to permit disclosure of any irregularities or manipulations. as in the Dosch case [supra]. No. j. Where the rotation of employees from the day shift to the night shift was a standard operating procedure of management. Transfer in accordance with pre-determined and established office policy and practice. The Manual directs that the ³duties of personnel handling cash. Transfer pursuant to company policy. (Castillo vs.´ Consequently. 138). G. Transfers can be effected pursuant to a company policy to transfer employees from one place of work to another place of work owned by the employer to prevent connivance among them. 320 SCRA 124. an employee who had been on a day shift for sometime may be transferred to the night shift. (where the refusal of the employee was upheld as valid) cannot be likened to a transfer from one city to another within the country. m. The employer has the right to transfer an employee to another office in the exercise of sound business judgment and in accordance with pre determined and established office po licy and practice. Particularly so when no illicit. the standard practice of a bank in constantly transferring its officers and personnel with accounting responsibilities from one branch to another among its more than a hundred branches throughout the country primarily for internal control and to enable its employees to gain the necessary experience for eventual promotion. 18 SCRA 1071 [1996]).an overseas post. l. Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (Philippine Industrial Security Agency vs. in its Manual of Regulations for Banks and Other Financial Intermediaries requires the rotation of bank personnel. CA. 1999. Transfer due to standard operating procedure of management. legally required. Rotation among bank employees.

chanrobles virtual law library In The Philippine American Life and General Insurance Co. . 1554 21. insensibility or disdain by an employer becomes unbearable to the employee. (Philippine Industrial Security Agency Corporation vs.n. Glaxo Welcome Philippines. Transfer occasioned by abolition of position.R. The transfer of an employee may constitute constructive dismissal when it amounts to ³an involuntary resignation resorted to when continued employment is rendered impossible. vs. The abolition of a position deem ed no longer necessary is a management prerogative and absent any findings of malice and arbitrariness on the part of management. in a span of less than three (3) months. Fianza. May 6. rather. No. when there is a demotion in rank and/or a diminution in pay. For example: in Duncan Association of Detailman -PTGWO vs. effect. the medical representative¶s transfer of assignment was held valid as the same was necessitated by a possible conflict of interest since his wife holds a sensitive supervisory position in a competitor firm who takes an active participation in the market war characterized as it is by stiff competition among pharmaceutical companies. unreasonable or unlikely. No. March 9. 162994. Dapiton. No. Inc. Transfer may constitute constructive dismissal. q. Mendoza vs. leaving him uncertain as to when and where his next assignments would be. (Benguet Electric Cooperative vs. July 7. chanrobles virtual law library p. supra). R. No. 2004). 17. G. Transfer to avoid conflict of interest. Transfer of an employee to avoid conflict of interest is a valid exercise of management prerogative and does not constitute constructive dismissal. o. Rural Bank of Lucban. G.´ (Floren Hotel vs. R. 2005. The position may not be said to have been abolished because the employee was the occupant thereof. R. the position was abolished because the functions of the position had become redundant and unnecessary. In a case where the security agency. Frequent transfers of short duration. Gramaje. G. [G. 158606. has assigned the security guard to at least f our (4) different establishments. Sept. will not efface such privilege if only to protect the person holding that office.. 155264. or when a clear discrimination. 2004]. NLRC. 2004). it was held that such frequent transfers to different posts on short periods of time were indirect ways of dismissing him. A transfer from one position to another occasioned by the abolition of the position is valid.

R. the employer has the burden of proving that the transfer and demotion of an employee are for just and valid grounds such as genuine business necessity . R. in a number of cases. or a substantially equivalent. Before the order to transfer was made. June 15. In the case of Paguio vs. The illegal transfer of an employee to a functionless office is clearly an abuse on the part of the employer of its right to control the structure of its organization. De la Salle University Employees Associat ion. [G. September 27. An employee who was illegally transferred is entitled to damages. Aguinaldo. 150092. [G. 149974. vs. November 11. It must not involve a demotion in rank or a diminution of salary and other benefits. bad faith. any person who willfully causes loss or injury to another in a manner that is contrary to morals. 390 SCRA 201] and in Philippine Industrial Security Agency Corporation vs. [G. Damages. And with the finding that the transfer was illegal. No. No. As the High Court explained in Globe Telecom. 2005]: ³In constructive dismissal.. Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co. the Supreme Court ordered the payment in his favor of moral and exemplary damages as well as attorney¶s fees. 330 SCRA 363 [2000]). 2002. the Supreme Court declared the transfer of the respondent Assistant Vice-President from the Pensions Department to the Legal Department as not a legitimate exercise of management prerogative on the part of petitioner-employer. good customs or public policy shall compensate the latte r for the damage. Inc.´ chanrobles virtual law library r. has recognized and aff irmed the prerogative of management to implement a job evaluation program or . the employee was ordered reinstated to his former.[G. inconvenient. Inc. No. 154072. or prejudicial to the employee. the employee¶s demotion shall be tantamount to unlawful constructive dismissal. December 3. Florendo -Flores. discrimination. may be recovered for illegal transfer. where there was no clear justification for the transfer of the employee except that it was done as a result of his disagreement with his superiors with regard to company policies. chanrobles virtual law library 6. and disdain towards respondent were already displayed by petitioner leading to the conclusion by the court that she was constructively dismissed. 2004]. R. R. position without loss of seniority rights. If the employer cannot overcome this burden of proof. The employer must be able to show that the transfer is not unreasonable. 2002]. in addition to reinstatement. Under Article 21 of the Civil Code.. 156963. No. What is the extent of management¶s prerogative to reorganize? The Supreme Court. (De la Salle University vs.

1997. Sept. the concomitant elevation to the higher positions. 29. b. G. 279 SCRA 326). Any person may refuse to accept a gift or reward. This can be likened to the upgrading of salaries of government employees without conferring upon them. There is no law which compels an employee to accept a promotion. No. morals or public policy. c. (Ibid. 125038. Nov. on the other hand. Promotion is the advancement from one position to another involving increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law. 1997). An employee has the right to refuse promotion. If the purpose of a reorganization is to be achieved. (Arrieta vs. (Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Employees Union vs. CA. 126230. rank or salary. R. It is hard to accept the claim that an employer would go through all the expenditure and effort incidental and necessary to a reorganization just to dismiss a single employee whom they no longer deem desirable. chanrobles virtual law library Apparently.a reorganization for as long as it is not contrary to law. NLRC. Distinction between transfer and promotion. Promotion is in the nature of a gift or reward. higher either in rank or salary. No. involves lateral movement from one position to another of equivalent level. (Millares vs. 152057. supra). No. Any increase in salary should only be considered incidental but never determinative of whether or not a promotion is bestowed upon an employee. Subido. the indispensable element for there to be a promotion is that there must be an ³advancement from one position to another´ or an upward vertical movement of the employee¶s rank or position. Promotion denotes a scalar ascent o f an officer or an employee to another position. Sept. 6. R. NLRC. What is the extent of management¶s prerogative to promote? a. 7. (Millares vs. R. and increase in compensation and benefits. legal effect.). Transfer. G. Refusal to be promoted. 2003). G. 18. 20 SCRA 954). To insist on one¶s old position and ranking after a reorganization would render such endeavor ineffectual. Subido. defined. Promotion. (Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Corporation vs. changes in the positions and rankings of the employees should be expected. Such refusal to be promoted is a valid exercise of such right and he .

29. 1999). employees cannot be dismissed on that basis.the most expensive work area. [G. June 16. Concept. chanrobles virtual law library There is demotion when an employee occupying a highly technical position requiring the use of an employee¶s mental faculty. Hence. chanrobles virtual law library For instance. [G. July 20. What is the extent of the employer¶s prerogative to demote? a. (Blue Dairy Corporation vs. 29.R. No. R. there is also demotion if there is a change in the workplace such as in the case of transfer of an employee from the laboratory . in the consolidated cases of Leonardo vs. [Pocketbell] vs. (Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Corporation vs. 125303. G. rank or salary as a result of a transfer. L-64048.cannot be punished therefor. 1986). 8. No. chanrobles virtual law library An employee. July 5. 126937.virtually a transfer from a position of dignity to a servile or menial job. Inc. Hence. (Blue Dairy Corporation vs. NLRC. 129843. 139251. No. advancement or reduction or a transfer that aims to lure the employee away from his permanent position cannot be done without his consent. G. Aquino. is transferred to another position where she performed mere mechanical work . 51182. R. or willful disobedience of a lawful order of the employer. R. No.). In addition to the comparison involving nature of work. NLRC. NLRC. (Ibid. 14. supra). Aug. without his consent. a transfer from a workplace where only highly trusted authorized personnel are allowed to access to a workplace that is not as critical is another reason enough for the employee to howl a protest. another aspect of comparison to determine the existence of demotion is the workplaces themselves. NLRC. 1983. 1999). A transfer that results in promotion or demotion. G. G. There is demotion where there is reduction in position. No. R. Aug. R. Home Insurance & Guaranty Corporation. See also Erasmo vs. 112963. R. even if merely as a result of a transfer. (Petrophil Corporation vs. Consequently. Definitely. No. Sept. June . NLRC. (Philippine Wireless. the exercise by the employees of their right cannot be considered in law as insubordination. The employer has the right to demote and transfer an employee who has failed to observe proper diligence in his work and incurred habitual tardiness and absences and indolence in his assigned work. 2000] and Fuerte vs. supra). G. 2002). (Dosch vs. on a per square-meter basis in the company¶s premises .to the vegetable processing section which involves processing of vegetables alone. CA. therefore. cannot be promoted. No. NLRC.

upon erring employees. even the employer¶s right to demote an employee requires the observance of the twin-notice requirement. An employer is entitled to impose productivity standards for its workers. Due process principle in termination cases applies to demotions. When the employee concerned succeeds in meeting the quota again. includ ing dismissal. G. be given a chance to contest the same. supra). Consolidated Food Corporation vs. No. the employee being demoted should. NLRC.16. While due process required by law is applied in dismissals. 315 SCRA 129. according to its own discretion and judgment. includes the prerogative to instill discipline in its employees and to impose penalties. like dismissal. Under this scheme. (Leonardo vs. R. Dec. Right to discipline. supra. 155264. Blue Dairy Corporation vs. whereupon his supervisor¶s allowance will be withdrawn and be given to the individual who takes his place. This is a management prerogative where the free will of management to conduct its own affairs to achieve its purpose takes form. b. Should a supervisor such as the employee (Fuerte) fail to meet his quota for a certain number of consecutive months. The Supreme Court said that this arrangement appears to be an allowable exercise of company right s. also a punitive action. NLRC. considering that demotion is. the same is also applicable to demotions as the latter likewise affect the employment of a worker whose right to continued employment. What is the extent of the employer¶s prerogative to discipline and/or dismiss erring employees? a. 145280. The only criterion to guide the exercise of its management prerogative is that the policies. he will be demoted. May 6. No. is also protected by law. the employer claims that the employee was demoted pursuant to a company policy intended to foster competition among its employees. 2001. 4. commensurate to the offense involved and to the degree of the infraction. its employees are req uired to comply with a monthly sales quota. G. rules and regulations on work-related activities of the employees must always be fair and reasonable and the corresponding penalties. (Floren Hotel vs. 2000]. NLRC. non-compliance may be visited with a penalty even more severe than demotion. Santos. The employer¶s right to conduct the affairs of his business. he is re -appointed supervisor and his allowance is restored. when prescribed. 139 [1999]). Michael¶s Institute v s. NRLC. Simply put. and in fact. under the same terms and conditions. Moreover. as in cases of dismissals. chanrobles virtual law library 9. chanrobles virtual law library . 2005). (St. R.

The employer cannot be compelled to maintain in his employ the undeserving. NLRC. No. it should not be supposed t hat every labor dispute will be automatically decided in favor of labor. 1998). February 10. 120450. Feb. 133259. It was thus held that the dismissal imposed on pet itioner is unduly harsh and grossly disproportionate to the infraction which led to the termination of his services. Such favoritism. G. 1989). subject to reasonable regulation by the State in the exercise of its police power. CA. 10. if not humane. [G. April 15. if not undesirable. (Associated Labor Unions-TUCP vs. 48705. (Shoemart. NLRC. the employer. G. alleged that under its rules. for the deserving. R. 119205. (Sime Darby Pilipinas. Petitioner has no previous record in his twenty -four long years of service . No. No. Inc. Management also has its own rights which. A lighter penalty would have been more just. has not blinded the Court to rule that justice is. R. vs. vs. NLRC. 276 SCRA 1 [1997]). 121348. Aug. Out of its concern for those with less privileges in life. R. However. (Reyes vs. chanrobles virtual law library c. 74229. as such. NLRC. the Supreme Court said that the employer¶s rules cannot preclude the State from inquiring whether th e strict and rigid application or interpretation thereof would be harsh to the employee. The right of the employer to dismiss its erring employees is a measure of self-protection. 2000). Right to discipline and/or dismiss. in protecting the rights of the laborer. petitioner¶s infraction is punishable by dismissal. Jr. subject to police power.this would have been his first offense. March 9. to be dis pensed in the light of the established facts and applicable law and doctrine. Minister of Labor. b. (Deles. vs. G. R.Instilling discipline among its employees is a basic management right and prerogative. While the constitution is committed to the policy of social justice and the protection of the working class. are entitled to respect and enforcement in the interest of simple fair play. No. 11. Management may lawfully impose reasonable penalties such as dismissal upon an employee who transgresses the company rules and regulations. . Feb. RCPI. No. 1989). however. In the case of Farrol vs. Right to dismiss. the Supreme Court has inclined more often than not towards the worker and upheld his cause with his conflicts with the employer. The employer¶s inherent right to discipline is. 9. employees. The law. 1999. PLDT vs. Inc. G. authorizes neither oppression nor self-destruction of the employer. NLRC. however. in every case. R. 2000].

133259. vs. 10. Inc. Right to prescribe company rules and regulations. 2000). NLRC. No. 17. reiterated the ruling in the 1998 case of Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Corporation vs. (Philippine Airlines. (Phimco Industries. 386 SCRA 370 [2002]). (Alcantara. generally binding and valid on the parties and must be complied with until finally revised or amended unilaterally or preferably through negotiation or by competent authority. CA. 75510. September 21. vs. (Felix vs. It is well recognized that company policies and regulations are. (Farrol vs. 337 SCRA 286 [2000]). Nov. NLRC. [260 SCRA 49 (1996)]. R. R. G. G. in determining the validity of dismissal as a form of penalty. The employer has latitude to determine who among its erring officers or employees should be punished.that the penalty imposed should be commensurate to the gravity of his offense has been observed in a number of cases. conduct or omission imputed to the employee and imposed in connection with the employer¶s disciplinary authority. R. Dismissal should not be im posed if it is unduly harsh and grossly disproportionate to the charges. Hence. No. management may lawfully impose appropriate penalties on erring workers pursuant to company rules and regulations.d. NLRC. 2004]. R. This rule on proportionality . 27. No. violation or . (Soriano vs. vs. G. 1997) chanrobles virtual law library f. R. The penalty must be commensurate with the act. Inc. However. The prerogative of an employer to prescribe reasonable rules and regulations necessary or proper for the conduct of its business and to provide certain disciplinary measures in order to implement said rules. CA. Jr. NLRC. the charges for which an employee is being administratively cited must be of such nature that would merit the imposition of the said supreme penalty. proportionality rule. The 2004 case of Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company vs. 148256. to what extent and what proper penalty to impose. e. No. NLRC. No. 2004). Tolentino. Oct. G. 1987). where it was declared that the penalty imposed must be commensurate to the depravity of the malfeasance. 143171. Right to impose penalty. unless shown to be grossly oppressive or contrary to law. 118041. Right to determine who to punish. infractions committed by an employee should merit only the corresponding sanction demanded by the circumstances. Accordingly. [G. and to assure that the same would be complied with has been recognized in this jurisdiction. Feb. June 11.

NLRC. [G. Where a penalty less punitive would suffice. No. A¶ Prime Security Services. rules and regulations on work related activities of the employ ees. under said rules. Inc. the Supreme Court ruled that the employee¶s violations of the company rules against sleeping on post and quarrelling with a co-worker. the Supreme Court said that while an employer enjoys a wide latitude of discretion in the promulgation of policies. due consideration must still be given to his length of service and the number of violations committed during his employment. and the corresponding penalties. January 24. considering that he was being held liable for the first time. It goes without saying that care must be taken and due regard given to an employee¶s circumstances. in the actual imposition of penalties upon the erring employee. Inc. under the attendant circumstances. 2000].crime being punished. 2001]. 145280. Even when an employee is found to have transgressed the employer¶s rules. appears to be too harsh a penalty. [G. January 19. No. No. must always be fair and reasonable. the dismissal meted out on private respondent for allegedly sleeping on the job. aside from absence of substantiation of the alleged offense. In a similar case. 107320. [G. it was his first offense committed without malice and committed also by others who were not equally penalized. R. 2000]. was also declared too harsh a penalty considering that they are being held liable for a first time offense and despite long years of unblemished service. [G. R. NLRC. however. 125031. Michael¶s Institute vs. The dismissal meted out on the teachers. under the attendant factual antecedents in St. No. NLRC. must be commensurate to the offense involved and to the degree of the infraction. R. in the application of such punishment. for dereliction of duty for one school day when they participated in a rally denouncing school authority. when prescribed. vs. In Permex. was considered too harsh a penalty in the light of the fact that it was not supported by the evidence on record and it was an unintentional infraction. In the case at bar. after nine (9) long years of unblemished service. those directives. A grave injustice is committed in the name of justice when the penalty imposed is grossly disproportionate to the wrong committed. December 4. vs. 19. Moreover. 2000]. involving the dismissal of an employee for sleeping on the job. for an alleged offense which caused no prejudice to the employer.´ respectively. Jan. whatever missteps may have been committed by . chanrobles virtual law library In VH Manufacturing. R. the dismissal of the employee accused of serious misconduct of falsification or deliberate misrepresentation. cannot be considered proper grounds for dismissal as the same were first infractions which merit only ³warning´ and ³onemonth suspension. Inc. 130957. Santos. vs. Dismissal is the most severe penalty an employer can impose on an employee.

[G. the imposition of the penalty of reprimand or suspension would be futile. despite the heavier penalty provided therefor by the Labor Code. its prerogative to discipline its employees and to impose appropriate penalties on erring workers pursuant to company rules and regulations must be respected. where the managerial employee questioned the imposition of the accessory penalty of restitution on him without imposing the principal penalty of ³Written Reprimand/Suspension. R. literally applied. 1988]. or has not resulted in any prejudice to the company. Borromeo. or otherwise dictated by common sense. 156515. No. grave offenses. R. The employer has the right to impose a heavier penalty than that prescribed in the company rules and regulations if circumstances warrant the imposition thereof. has so plainly and completely been bared. otherwise. h. It was certainly within the employer-bank¶s prerogative to impose on the respondent-employee what it considered the appropriate penalty under the circumstances pursuant to its company rules and regulations. 74187. was held not to be a valid excuse. g. No. Company Rules and Regulations cannot operate to altogether negate the employer¶s prerogative and responsibility to determine and declare whether or not facts not explicitly set out in the rules may and do constitute such serious misconduct as to justify the dismis sal of the employee or the imposition of sanctions heavier than those specifically and expressly prescribed. would be penalized by mere suspension. In China Banking Corporation vs.g. the rules. [G.´ it was ruled that the employer¶s Code of Ethics expressly sanctions the imposition of restitution/forfeiture of benefits apart from or independent of the other penalties. the fact that the offense was committed for the first time. The employer-bank was left with no other recourse but to impose the ancillary penalty of restitution. would result in absurdity. respect and loyalty to his employer. Obviously. regard for his employer¶s rules. NLRC. 28. 19.. rape. No employer may rationally be expected to continue in employment a person whose lack of morals. Right to choose which penalty to impose. and appreciation of the dignity and responsibility of his office. This is dictated by logic. e. 2004]. Jan. this.the employee ought not to be visited with a consequence so severe such as dismissal from employment. The matter of imposing the appropriate penalty depends on the employer. vs. chanrobles virtual law library . Right to impose heavier penalty than what the company rules prescribe. in view of his voluntary separation from the employer-bank. Inc. In Stanford Microsystems. Oct. Like all other business enterprises.

2000]. 166 (1949)]. R. No. effect when management tolerates violation of company policy.In Cruz vs. R. and committed also by others who were not actually penalized. admittedly. i. the Supreme Court held the dismissal as too harsh a penalty for an unintentional infraction. where a violation of company policy or breach of company rules and regulations was found to have been tolerated by management. the penalty imposable on first offenders necessarily depends on such factors as gravity of the offense. In 1991. then the same could not serve as a basis for termination. NLRC. or extent of injury or damage. for the first offense. [G. And where a violation of company policy or breach of company rules and regulations was found to have been tolerated by management. However. Jan. 125031. (Ibid. . 165586. person aggrieved. In case there is a set of company rules and regulations describing certain offenses and the corresponding penalty for violation thereof.. 24.). the company rules violated by petitioner are punishable. As a general rule. vs. the Supreme Court affirmed the validity of the dismissal because respondent company has presented evidence showing that petitioner has a record of other violations from as far back as 1986. as early as Tide Water Associated Oil Co. Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. petitioner was found to have deliberately misrepresented on two occasions the total number of empties and was consequently suspended for six (6) days. chanrobles virtual law library In Permex. the penalty prescribed thereunder for first offenders should be followed. Rule in case of first offense.. then the same could not serve as a basis for termination. No. These misdemeanors are aggravated by s everal AWOLS which petitioner had taken in the course of his employment. petitioner has been investigated for shortages in remittances of collections from customers. Victory Employees and Laborers¶ Association. vs. not to mention that it was his first offense committed without malice. among others. June 15. [85 Phil. with the penalty of suspension. it was ruled that. where the employee was dismissed on the charge of serious misconduct of falsification or deliberate misrepresentation involving alleged false entry in his daily time record which was not supported by the evidence on record and wherein he was not afforded an opportunity to be heard. 2005]. Moreover. On several occasions. In 1990 and 1991. petitioner was also suspen ded for his involvement in vehicular accidents which caused damage to another car and an outlet store. [G. Inc. Inc.

442. like Constitutional due process. 2004]. Rule I. . the manner of dismissal. while statutory due process found in the Labor Code and Implementing Rules protects employees from being unjustly terminated without just cause after notice and hearing. Procedural due process requirements for dismissal are found in the Implementing Rules of P. 9 took effect on 21 June 1997. 2..As mentioned in Article 279.DUE PROCESS 10. Breaches of these due process requirements violate the Labor Code. Article III [Bill of Rights]. No. liberty or property without due process of law. there are two (2) kinds of causes or grounds to terminate employment by employer. It is a constitutional restraint on the legislative as well as on the executive and judicial powers of the government provided by the Bill of Rights. the valid and authorized causes of employment termination under the Labor Code. Department Order No. Therefore. chanrobles virtual law library ³Constitutional due process protects the individual from the government and assures him of his rights in criminal. What is due process? Contrary to the time-honored principle that the right to due process of law is a constitutionally-guaranteed right.´ chanrobles virtual law library 11. to wit: 1. Sec. it being a basic constitutional tenet that ³no person shall be deprived of life. 158693 November 17. (Department Order No. and procedural. Due process is that which comports with the deepest notions of what is fair and right and just. . to wit: chanrobles virtual law library ³To be sure. civil or administrative proceedings. has two aspects: substantive. ³Just causes´ which refer to those instances enumerated under Article 282 [Termination by employer] of the Labor Code.e. otherwise known as the Labor Code of the Philippines in Book VI..D. What are ³just causes´ and ³authorized causes´? Just causes and authorized causes. i. the 2004 case of Agabon vs. NLRC. R. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws´ (Section 1. distinguished constitutional due process and statutory due process. however. the Due Process Clause in Article III. 1987 Constitution). 10 took effect on 22 June 1997). [G.e. i. 9 and 10. as amended by Department Order Nos. as amended. Section 1 of the Constitution embodies a system of rights based on moral principles so deeply imbedded in the traditions and feelings of our people as to be deemed fundamental to a civilized society as conceived by our entire history. ³Due process under the Labor Code. statutory due process should be differen tiated from failure to comply with constitutional due process.

2. NLRC. [G. are violated and/or which among the grounds under Article 282 is being charged against the employees. 166208. gather data and evidence.After serving the first notice. Lastly. ³Reasonable opportunity´ under the Omnibus Rules means every kind of assistance that management must accord to the employees to enable them to prepare adequately for their defense. if any. ³Authorized causes´ which refer to those instances enumerated under Articles 283 [Closure of establishment and reduction of personnel] and 284 [Disease as ground for termination] of the Labor Code. . December 4.The first written notice to be served on the employees should contain the specific causes or grounds for termination against them. No. and decide on the defenses they will raise against the complaint. The Supreme Court.The requirement of due process is two-fold. the notice should specifically mention which company rules. What are the twin requirements of notice and hearing? The twin requirements of notice and hearing constitute the essential elements of the procedural due process and neither of these elements can be eliminated without running afoul of the procedural mandate. What is the two-fold due process requirement? Two-fold due process requirement.R. A general description of the charge will not suffice.. and (2) Procedural aspect. and a directive that the employees are given the opportunity to submit their written explanation within a reasonable period. Two notices and a hearing required. 2007]. . reiterating its earlier holding in King of Kings Transport. Inc. Moreover. 2007].R. explained the due process requirement in Genuino vs. 13. vs. consult a union official or lawyer. 12. Mamac. thus: (1) Substantive aspect. (2) Hearing required. June 29. [G. This should be construed as a period of at least five (5) calendar days from rece ipt of the notice to give the employees an opportunity to study the accusation against them. Nos. 142732 -33. thus: chanrobles virtual law library (1) First written notice. the employers should schedule and conduct a hearing or conference wherein the employees will . the notice should contain a detailed narration of the facts and circumstances that will serve as basis for the charge against the employees. in order to enable the employees to intelligently prepare their explanation and defenses.

June 21. with the assistance of a representative or counsel of their choice. The dismissal is for just or authorized cause but due pr ocess was not observed ± THE DISMISSAL IS LEGAL BUT THE EMPLOYER IS LIABLE TO PAY INDEMNITY IN THE FORM OF NOMINAL DAMAGES (PER AGABON CASE). for an authorized cause under Article 283. 6. HENCE. the employers shall serve the employees a written notice of termination indicating that: (1) all circumstances involving the charge against the employees have been considered. The dismissal is for a cause which later on is prove n to be non-existent ± THE DISMISSAL IS NOT EFFECTIVE. and (3) rebut the evidence presented against them by the management. The dismissal is without just or authorized cause and there was no due process ± THE DISMISSAL IS ILLEGAL. and (2) grounds have been established to justify the severance of their employment. 2005). THE EMPLOYER IS NOT LIABLE TO PAY ANY BACKWAGES OR DAMAGES. G. and due process was observed ± THE DISMISSAL IS LEGAL. 5. in the 2005 . Moreover.be given the opportunity to: (1) explain and clarify their defenses to the charge against them. or for health reasons under Article 284. 14. No. THE EMPLOYER IS NOT LIABLE TO PAY ANY BACKWAGES OR DAMAGES. namely: 1. THE EMPLOYEE SHOULD BE REINSTATED. 157010. SO EMPLOYEE SHOULD BE REINSTATED (BUT NOT AS A RELIEF). PLDT.´ (See also PNB vs. R. (3) Second written notice. May 6. this conference or hearing could be used by the parties as an opportunity to come to an amicable settlement. 4. 3. the employees are given the chance to defend themselves personally. 2005. chanrobles virtual law library 2. During the hearing or conference. The dismissal is not supported by evidence ± NO DISMISSAL TO SPEAK OF.After determining that termination of employment is justified. chanrobles virtual law library In connection with situation No. The dismissal is without just or authorized cause but due process was observed ± THE DISMISSAL IS ILLEGAL. 154078. (2) present evidence in support of their defenses. G. What are the six (6) situations in termination disputes? The rules on termination of employment in the Labor Code and pertinent jurisprudence are applicable to six (6) different scenarios. R. Cabansag. Millares vs. No. The dismissal is for a just cause under Article 282. . THE AMOUNT OF NOMINAL DAMAGES VARY FROM CASE TO CASE. 4 above. the Supreme Court.

i.000. respondents were dismissed due to retrenchment. or is guilty of. 151378. on one hand. on the other. the employees were terminated due to valid retrenchment but it was effected without Jaka complying with the requirement under Article 283 of the Labor Code regarding the service of a written notice upon the employees and the Department of Labor and Employment at least one (1) month before the intended date of termination. as in Agabon.e. ³The clear-cut distinction between a dismissal for just cause under Article 282 and a dismissal for authorized cause under Article 283 is further reinforced by the fact that in the first. it can be said that the employee himself initiated the dismissal process. distinguished the legal effects and consequences of termination for just cause but without due process (as in the Agabon case) and termination for authorized cause but also without due process.e. Thus. In awarding a ³stiffer´ sanction of P50. March 28. ³At this point. a dismissal for an authorized cause under Article 283 does not necessarily imply delinquency or culpability on the part of the employee. and a dismissal for authorized cause under Article 283. he has neglected his duties. [G. or. i. he undertakes to implement a retrenchm ent program.000. while in the second. ³On another breath. the High Court declared: chanrobles virtual law library ³The difference between Agabon and the instant case is that in the former.00 to distinguish it from the Agabon case where the penalty was P30. the employee has committed some serious misconduct. is guilty of some fraud against the employer. which is one of the authorized causes under Article 283 of the same Code. when he decides to cease business operations or when. Pacot. some violation against the employer. R. we note that there are divergent implications of a dismissal for just cause under Article 282. the dismissal process is initiated by the employer¶s exercise of his management prerogative. as a rule.00. payment of separation pay. ³A dismissal for just cause under Article 282 implies that the employee concerned has committed. is not required. In this case. there ought to be a difference in treatment when the . ³For these reasons. the law requires payment of separation pay. when the employer opts to install labor saving devices. 2005]. as in this case.case of Jaka Food Processing Corporation vs. Instead. the dismissal was based on a just cause under Article 282 of the Labor Code while in the present case.

ground for dismissal is one of the just causes under Article 282. R. the employee was not actually dismissed but nonetheless has filed an illegal dismissal case. (Magtoto vs. Example is when the employee is terminated due to his detention by the military for alleged subversive act which later was not proven and the case dismissed for lack of evidence. [G. Inc. 125303. No. 1985). the Supreme Court also ordered the reinstatement but without backwages of the employee (Fuerte) who was not deemed to have abandoned his job nor was he constructively dismissed. according to Capili vs.´ contemplated under situation No. their employer has. Aquino. [G. R. NLRC. 113099. Jan. 2000]. The employees should simply be ordered to report for work and for the employer to accept them to their former or substantially equivalent position without backwages. 6 above. 20. in fact. NLRC. Hence. No. G. Reinstatement without backwages was also ordered in the 2001 case of Security and Credit Investigation. R. expressed its willingness to accept them back to their former positions. [G. Here. 5 above. NLRC. No. reinstatement is in order. No. (Pepito vs. No. NLRC. absent the reason which gave rise to his separation from employment. no backwages should be awarded since the same is proper only if an employee is unjustly or illegally dismissed. 96 SCRA 454). R. Under situation No. June 16. The case of Asia Fancy Plywood Corporation vs. Nov. [G. In the consolidated cases of Leonardo vs. Accordingly. 117378. 18. As pointed out by the Court. 226 SCRA 723 [1993]). Separation pay. 301 SCRA 189] is an example of a case where the employees¶ conclusion that they were dismissed was unsubstantiated as there was no evidence that they were dismissed from employment by their employer nor were they prevented from returning to work. where the Supreme Court found that petitioner did not dismiss respondent security guards. 114316. R. In such a case. January 26.´ chanrobles virtual law library In ³termination for non-existent cause. 2001]. No. 2000] and Fuerte vs. the employer does not intend to dismiss the employee but the dismissal was effected nonetheless for a specific cause which turns out to be non-existent. [G. vs. and when based on one of the authorized causes un der Article 283. 63370. 126937. R. each party must bear his own loss. NLRC. and that the latter did not abandon their employment. 1999. the burden of economic loss is not rightfully shifted to the employer. June 16. NLRC. Secretary of Labor. March . in a case where the employee¶s failure to work was occasioned neither by his abandonment nor by a termination. there is no intention on the part of the employer to dismiss the employee concerned. (See also Indophil Acrylic Manufacturing Corporation vs.

26. she filed a case for illegal dismissal. petitioners would not have continued with the investigation. If she was indeed dismissed on said date. the employee pre-empted the outcome of the investigation by filing a complaint for illegal dismissal. In a case where there was no dismissal at all. 1997. 150660. as she claims. the payment of separation pay and backwages are not in order. In Jo Cinema Corporation vs. that he was prevented from working after the end of his leave of absence on January 18. July 30. Both the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC found that Alfredo was not dismissed and their findings of fact are entitled to great weight. 270 SCRA 488]. Before the lapse of said period and while the investigation was on-going. R. June 28. Thus. The award of backwages belongs to an illegally dismissed employee by direct provision . [G. She could not have been dismissed on the day she was preventively suspended because a formal investigation was still being conducted. Having thus determined that the employee was not dismissed from the service. she even attended said investigation where she admitted having encashed the checks. It must be emphasized that the right of an employee to demand for separation pay and backwages is always premised on the fact that the employee was terminated either legally or illegally. No notice of termination was given to him by CALS. it was she who signified her intention not to report for work when she filed the instant case. The employee should instead be ordered reinstated . it was he who unilaterally severed his relation with his employer. 132837. the employee was placed under preventive suspension for 20 days for unauthorized encashment of check. and he should be happy that his employer is accepting him back. 1996. separation pay should not be awarded. The Supreme Court ruled that she was not dismissed. cannot likewise be ordered paid to the employees who were not dismissed by the employer. 1996 to resume his work. chanrobles virtual law library Case where the employee filed illegal dismissal case to pre -empt lawful dismissal.not as and by way of relief proceeding from illegal dismissal but as and by way of a declaration or affirmation that the employee may return to work because he was not dismissed in the first place. His complaint for illegal dismissal. Undoubtedly. except his self-serving assertion. Alfredo Roco. No. [G. was properly dismissed by the Labor Arbiter for lack of merit as Alfredo was not dismissed. the Supreme Court found that respondent employee has not established convincingly that he was dismissed. In fact. therefore. 2001. CALS notified him in a letter dated March 12. R. The common denominator of those instances wh ere payment of separation pay is warranted is that the employee was dismissed by the employer. Abellana. There is no proof at all. In fact. No. 2002]. But in Cals Poultry Supply Corporation vs.

So should it be here. According to the Supreme Court. .Full backwages. inclusive of allowances. If reinstatement is not possible. exemplary. 2000]. June 16. Inc. 2 and 3 above are computed from the time the compensation was withheld from the employee (date of dismissal) up to the time of his actual reinstatement. computed at one month or one month pay per year of service. 3. NLRC. [G. The reliefs mentioned above are not available to a legally dismissed employee. payment of separation pay in lieu thereof may be awarded. whichever is higher. In Leonardo vs. NLRC. the computation is up to the time of finality of decision]. he only became the subject of a n investigation in which he was apparently loath to participate. R. [NOTE: Nos.Reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and other privileges. As testified to by the personnel manager. no factual and legal bases. 4. 536 (1996)]. chanrobles virtual law library In case reinstatement is not poss ible.Other benefits or their monetary equivalent. for he was never terminated. 5. Any order of reinstatement and award of backwages have. under such situation. (Philippine Airlines. but he refused to receive it. the petitioneremployee protests that he was never accorded due process. Case where employee refused to be investigated. is awarded as an alternative to illegally dismissed employees where reinstatement is no longer possible. 15.Damages (moral. this begs the question. No. [252 SCRA 531.Attorney¶s fees (10% of all monetary awards). however. 2. 125303. What are the reliefs available to an illegally dismissed employee under the Labor Code and the Civil Code? The following reliefs may be awarded: 1. In an analogous instance in the case of Pizza Hut/Progressive Development Corporation vs. on the other hand. Separation pay.of law and it is awarded on grounds of equity for earnings which a worker or employee has lost due to illegal dismissal. he was given a memorandum asking him to explain the incident in question. it was held that an employee¶s refusal to sign the minutes of an investigation cannot negate the fact that he was accorded due process. if the dismissal is with malice or effected in bad faith).

PLDT. Cabansag. May 6. 144089. R. Millares vs. 157010. G. chanrobles virtual law library b. 154078. August 4. vs. Due process under Article 282 means compliance with the following requirements of two (2) notices and a hearing: (a) A written notice (first notice) served on the employee specifying the ground or grounds for termination. G. 2000). chanrobles virtual law library These requirements are mandatory. No. No. 16. R. For termination based on authorized causes under Article 283. G. 9. chanrobles virtual law library The following is an attempt at standardizing the due process requirement under the different situations contemplated under the law. Inc. which were prescribed by the Department of Labor and Employment that may be used as simple guideposts to gauge whether due process was indeed observed in a given case or situation]. NLRC. R. there had been no clear-cut standards. with the assistance of counsel if the employee so desires. R. No. 21. 2001). however. non-compliance with which renders any judgment reached by management void and inexistent. (b) A hearing or conference (or at least an opportunity to be heard) during which the employee concerned. CA. the due process requirement had been interpreted in so many ways. June 21. No. For termination based on just causes under Article 282. Nov. How should the due process requirement under the law be standardized? [NOTE: For years. 144314. Aug. and giving to said employee reasonable opportunity to explain his side. G. and (c) A written notice of termination (second notice) served on the employee indicating that upon due consideration of all the circumstances.vs. While the two-fold requirement of substantive and procedural due process as well as the twin requirements of notice and hearing are the well-known and wellentrenched features thereof. (PNB vs. a. R. 2005). grounds have been established to justify his termination. Concorde Hotel vs. (Skippers Pacific. 115785. 2005. No. G. The requirements of due process is deemed complied with upon the service of a written notice to: . Mira. is given opportunity to respond to the charge. 2002. present his evidence or rebut the evidence presented against him.

as amended by Article III. did not report such fact to the nearest Regional Office of the Department of Labor and Employment in accordance with Section 7. Article 284 does not specify the standards of due process to be followed in case an employee is dismissed due to disease. Rule XXIII. Department Order No. 158693. and (2) the appropriate Regional Office of the Department of Labor and Employment at least thirty (30) days before the effectivity of the termination. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Department Order No. For termination of probationary employment based on failure to meet the standards of employment.(1) the employee. 10. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. No. Ejandra. 148508. Rule I. For termination based on disease under Article 284. 9. as amended by Article III. Book VI. [G. no. f. If the employee really abandoned his work. it is sufficient that a written notice is served the employee within a reasonable time from the effective date of termination. NLRC. (Section 2. In R. Series of 1997). chanrobles virtual law library d. Is there any instance where notices alone. 10. series of 1997 is an indicium that the employee did not commit said offense. However. Book VI. it was held that the fact that the employer who claimed that the employee had abandoned his job. R. the silence of the law should not be construed that the sick employee may be terminated without complying with certain procedural requirements. If the termination is brought about by the completion of the contract or phase thereof. In Agabon vs. (Section 2. c. [G.R. Book V of Department Order No. 2004]. specifying the ground or grounds for termination. Monthly report of dismissal to DOLE for policy guidance and statistical purposes. 17. If the termination of probationary employment is brought about by the failure of an employee to meet the standards of the employer. For termination based on completion of contract or phase thereof. 2004)]. without the benefit . 17. Rule I. Transport Corporation vs. Labor Code). Nov. no prior notice is required. Series of 1997). chanrobles virtual law library e. the employer should have reported that fact accordingly. when treated as evidence of valid dismissal. May 20. (Article 283. the Supreme Court observed that the procedural requirements under Article 283 are likewise applicable to Article 284.

Moreover. the errant employee. different and effective first level of remedy (which was to surrender the vehicles) to protect their jobs. an opportunity to defend themselves. It must be noted that in this case. was the company driver. He was ordered by a superior officer to drive some of the employees to the head office. Inc. with longer time to prepare their case. and. respondents were able to reply and explain. Nuez said that he had a previous engagement. The Memoranda served the purpose of informing them of the pending matters beclouding their employment and of extending to them an opportunity to clear the air. in effect. Federico Nuez.. why they had refused to return the vehicles. [239 SCRA 518. he was required to explain why he should not be administratively dealt with for disobeying the order of an officer. Thereafter. chanrobles virtual law library In the earlier case of Nuez vs. R. respondents in Glaxo deliberately disregarded or .of hearing. were held to be compliant with due process requirement? There are certain cases decided by the Supreme Court where the dismissal was held valid despite the fact that no hearing was conducted after the respondent employee has explained his side in answer to the first notice apprising him of the administrative charges. petitioner¶s Memoranda amply gave them a distinct. The notice did not state that the employee was being dismissed. Without a doubt. 149349. why they should not be dismissed for gross insubordination. NLRC. vs. [G. In reversing said CA ruling. the Court of Appeals held that the dismissal and suspension meted upon two employees of petitioner company were not legal because they were not accorded the benefit of a proper charge. they were still able to file a Complaint with the Labor Arbiter. the High Tribunal ruled that the three (3) Memoranda served on the errant employees were sufficient compliance with the due process rule. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2005 case of Glaxo Wellcome Phils. he refused. 1994]. However. December 28. and with greater opportunity to take care of the financial needs of their family pendente lite. the notice served on the employee merely asked him to explain why he should not be administratively dealt with for his refusal to comply with a valid order of his superior. Furthermore. Nagkakaisang Empleyado ng Wellcome-DFA. Thus. March 11. with the aid of their counsel. with better knowledge of the cause of their dismissal. and a formal investigation. 2005]. The Memoranda specified the acts that constituted gross insubordination. In his written reply. To each Memorandum. No. but it was still deemed sufficient compliance with the notice required under the Implementing Rules. and that what was asked of him was not an emergency that warranted the charge of disobedience. the company vice president issued a Memorandum to Nuez terminating the latter¶s employment for insubordination.

G. The factual milieu in Glaxo. One of her fundamental rights is that she may not be dismissed without due process of law. August 7. chanrobles virtual law library Thus. the employee was not apprised of the particular acts for which his employment was terminated. Under the circumstances. 276 SCRA 288). 2005]. 1997. Cabansag. That the employee was able to present. petitioner took into consideration the explanations they had offered. In arriving at the decision to dismiss them. as he did not even know which particular acts or omissions should be explained. The twin requirements of notice and hearing constitute the essential elements of . His explanations were futile. When notice alone will not suffice. Consistent with San Miguel Corporation vs. Their justification of their refusal to obey the lawful orders of their employer did not militate against their obvious disobedience. which in fact they did. In this case. benefits and privileges provided under our labor laws. a written explanation did not excuse the fact that there was a complete absence of the required notice. must be differentiated from Loadstar vs. thus: ³6. In the same vein. In the Glaxo case. The Supreme Court said that as a regular employee. June 21. there was no necessity for an actual hearing. a memorandum advising an employee of his dismissal but which does not ³clearly´ cite the reason for the dismissal does not comply with the second kind of notice required prior to dismissal. 15701 0. [408 SCRA 478. R. 2003]. among others. 103209. a memorandum to an employee which does not state with particularity the acts and omission for which he is being charged does not comply with the first kind of notice preparatory to his dismissal. Mesano. [G. He was dismissed immediately after he had submitted his written explanation to his employer. however. one month notice upon confirmation or the equivalent of one (1) day¶s or month¶s salary in lieu of notice. July 28. R. NLRC. the employee was terminated by a mere notice. In Philippine National Bank vs. 18. No. bare as it was. Termination of your employment with the Bank may be made by either party after notice of one (1) day in writing during probation. without citing any ground.´ chanrobles virtual law library After probationary period.disobeyed a company policy. No. respondent was entitled to all rights. (Bondoc vs. they were nonetheless given adequate opportunity to answer the charge. Ubaldo [supra]. respondents¶ explanations were in response to specific acts and grounds that had duly been stated with clarity. the employment contract between the parties stipulated. Their written explanations admitted their refusal to obey petitioner¶s directive to return the vehicles.

The first notice dated July 27. 2005]. Respondent was not notified of the specific act or omission for which her dismissal was being sought. June 15. (BPI Credit Corporation vs. and nothing more. At any rate. The employee must be dismissed based on the same grounds . petitioners violated respondent¶s right to due process. petitioner was not sufficiently apprised of the gravity of the situation he was in. 165586.. for she knew no cause to answer to. 19. 20. Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. as required by law. In dismissing employees. The evidence in this case is crystal-clear. 154315. vs. Consequently. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2005 case of Cruz vs. Inc. The notice was also couched in general terms that it only mentions the specific sections and rule numbers of the Red Book that was violated without defining what such violation was. Inc. It has already been held that nothing in the law gives an employer the option to substitute the required prior notice and opportunity to be heard with the mere payment of 30 days¶ salary. The notice to the employee should embody the specific charges for which he is being asked to explain. were different from the ones cited for his termination. particularly the requirement of first notice because the offense notice petitioners gave to respondent is insufficient since it did not comply with the requirement of the law that the first written notice must apprise the employee that his termination is being considered due to the acts stated in the notice. An employee cannot be dismissed if the charges mentioned in the notice for which he was required to explain and for which he was heard. together with the equivalent of a one-month pay. she c ould not have defended herself effectively. Notice to explain must correctly and fully inform the employee of the charges against him. around 11:30 to 11:45 p. even if she were given the opportunity to be heard. 1998. No. [G. Neither was she given any chance to be heard. No. July 25. G.m.. the employer must furnish them the two written notices. All that petitioner tendered to respondent was a notice of her employment termination effective the very same day. R.procedural due process. The first notice issued in this case merely stated that respondent is being charged of dispensing and drinking beer o n December 5. May 9. 1994). R. A cursory reading of this notice likewise shows that it does not st ate that petitioner was in fact facing a possible dismissal from the company. 2005]. 1997. R. chanrobles virtual law library In Philippine Pizza. the notices given to petitioner were declared legally deficient.. and neither of these elements can be eliminated without running afoul of the constitutional guarantee. [G. 106027. No. NLRC. There is here a deprivation of procedural due process. Bungabong. did not contain the particulars of the charges nor the circumstances in which the violation happened.

BPI Credit Corporation vs. No. 158693. where it sought an explanation from them on their alleged absence without official leave or. Series of 1997. NLRC. 1995]. not sufficient. the petitioners were guilty of both abandonment and dishonesty or misconduct. (See also Imperial Textile Mills. the employer must also observe the procedural aspect of due process in giving the employee notice and the opportunity to be heard to defend himself. For in this situation. 22. (Glaxo Wellcome Phils. chanrobles virtual law library If indeed.. he is deemed to have been deprived of procedural due process. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Nagkakaisang Empleyado ng Wellcome -DFA. then the company should have put them down in black and white. the Supreme Court declared that there was no abandonment or commission of dishonest acts by the dismissed workers when the employer merely sent notices individually addressed to the workers on 6 September 1991. vs. R.R. the notices shall be served on the employee¶s last known address. (Section 2. No. vs. in short. San Miguel Corporation vs. Notice should be served at employee¶s last known address. supra). Nothing was mentioned therein about dishonesty or any other misconduct on the part of the petitioners. [G. The dismissal of an employee must be based on the same grounds cited in the first notice given to him to explain. 14. It is less than fair for management to charge an employee with one offense and to dismiss him for having committed another offense with which he had not been charged and against which he was unable to adequately defend himself. 222 SCRA 818 [1993]). their abandonment. In case of termination. Sept. Inc. NLRC. NLRC. 17. NLRC. Rule I. The letters cum notice cannot be considered to include dishonesty or misconduct. Book VI. Nov. according to the Supreme Court. 217 SCRA 237 [1993]. . Agabon vs. Inc. chanrobles virtual law library In Artemio Labor vs. NLRC. It would be a gross violation of the workers¶ right to due process to dismiss them for that cause of which they were not given notice or for a charge for which they were never given an opportunity to defend themselves. If an employee is dismissed based on grounds different from those cited in said notice. supra.mentioned in the first notice. chanrobles virtual law library 21. he could not be expected to adequately defend himself as he was not fully or correctly informed of the charges against him which management intended to prove. and warned them in the form of a reminder that such absence is a ground for separation or dismissal from the company. Department Order No. 110388. A dismissal must not only be for a valid or substantial cause. Notice posted in bulletin board. 2004). 10. as amended by Article III. G.

2005]. CAINGAT is no longer connected with RS Night Hawk Security and Investigation Agency and with RS Maintenance and Services. R. nor the demand letter could constitute substantial compliance. Remedy if employee refused to receive notice . 110731. chanrobles virtual law library ³All transactions with Mr. it was shown that on July 31. it was held that the allegation on the part of the petitioner-employer that the respondent-employee refused to receive the memorandum that is why it was not served to him is too self-serving a claim in the absence of any showing of the signature or initial of the proper serving officer. chanrobles virtual law library 24. chanrobles virtual law library 25. In the position paper. In the 2005 case of Nueva Ecija Electric Cooperative [NEECO] II vs. NLRC. petitioner could have easily remedied the situation by the expediency of sending the memorandum to private respondent by registered mail at his last known address as usually co ntained in the Personal Data Sheet or any personal file containing his last known address. June 23. No. R. 1996. Notice in a newspaper. How should answer be made in case of termination for just cause? .´ (Underscoring supplied) The Supreme Court ruled that neither the public notice in the Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2005]. July 26. In the 2005 case of Caingat vs. NLRC. The pro-forma notice made even more glaring management¶s intent to separate him from the companies¶ service. 259 SCRA 411). 1996 are no longer honored by these offices. Moreover. a newspaper of general circulation. the respondent-employer denied it dismissed the complainant. the following appeared in the Philippine Daily Inquirer: ³NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC ³This is to notify the public that as of June 20. BERNARDINO A. the same day he was suspended.´ On record. [G. not sufficient.The mere posting of the notice to terminate the employee¶s employment on the employees¶ bulletin board is not sufficient compliance with the statutory requirement. 1996. Caingat after June 20. 157603. March 10. [G. it stated that ³there is no evidence that respondents dismissed the complainant. MR. (Shoppers Gain Supermart vs. The termination was a fait accompli. No. however. 23. The order for petitioner to submit a written explanation under oath was just a formality. 154308.service by registered mail to last known address. No. 1996. NLRC. G. R. 1996. What the public notice did was to inform the public that petitioner was already separated as of June 20.

chanrobles virtual law library For instance. 2001]. 2004. Cindy & Lynsy Garment vs. as the due process requirements are satisfied where the parties are afforded fair and reasonable opportunity to explain their side of the controversy at hand. an opportunity to explain one¶s side or an opportunity to seek a reconsideration of the action or ruling complained of. The law mandates that every opportunity and assistance must be accorded to the employee by the mana gement to enable him to prepare adequately for his defense. 23 half-days and 108 tardiness). What is frowned upon is the absolute lack of notice and hearing. 284 SCRA 38 [1998]). 146621. 16. NLRC. No. CA. or as applied to administrative proceedings. petitioner was also made to answer for loitering and wasting company time. 124382. considering that she was charged with several offenses and infractions (35 absences. Inc. the Supreme Court. July 31. (IBM Philippines. 129329. 1999). Apart from chronic absenteeism and habitual tardiness. not to mention the fact that the charges leveled against her lacked particularity. considered the two-day period given to petitioner to explain and answer the charges against her as most unreasonable. No. G. What is hearing requirement in termination for cause? The essence of due process is simply an opportunity to be heard. NLRC. (Austria vs. This is in consonance with the express provision of the law on the protection to labor and the broader dictates of procedural due process. R. if he so desires. Non-compliance therewith is fatal because these requirements are conditions sine qua non before dismissal may be validly effected. some of which were allegedly committed almost a year before.The worker may answer the allegations stated against him in th e first notice within a reasonable period from receipt of such notice. A formal or trial-type hearing is not at all times and in all instances essential. (Valiao vs. R. NLRC. getting salary of an absent employee without acknowledging or signing for it and disobedience and insubordination. No. NLRC. The decision to dismiss must come only after the employee is given a reasonable period from receipt of the first notice within which to answer the charge and ample opportunity to be heard and defend himself with the assistance of a representative. G. The law does not specify what constitutes reasonable period within which an employee being cited administratively must submit his answer or explanation. Aug. Hon. vs. 305 SCRA 592 [1999]). Hon. in the case of Asuncion vs. The reasonableness of the period necessarily depends on the distinctive circumstances of each case. chanrobles virtual law library . R. [G. 26. July 30.

May 9. his termination was tinged with bad faith. Otherwise. The termination letter was issued by the HRD Vice President on December 15. July 5. (IBM Philippines.³Ample opportunity´ means every kind of assistance that management must accord to the employee to enable him to prepare adequately for his defense including legal representation. while there was just cause for the employee¶s dismissal. the opportunity to explain or present his side. 154315. 1989). one day before respondent went to the HRD Office for the alleged investigation. Guianan. The employee who had served the company for more than two decades was first dismissed on the basis of an anonymous letter. No. Inc. . NLRC and Felizardo A. Inc. 1997. 1999] presents an extreme case of illegal dismissal. 117221. R. Clearly then. but he was not given a fair and reasonable opportunity to confront his accusers and defend himself against the charge of theft. No. nothing that respondent could say or do would have changed the d ecision to dismiss him. Such failure by petitioners to give respondent the benefit of a hearing and an investigation before his termination constitutes an infringement of respondent¶s constitutional right to due process. Indeed. even before respondent could present his side and refute the charges against him. Thus. vs. R. There should be no outright termination of his employment without due process. [G. November 16. 305 SCRA 592). The employer should give an employee who committed an act considered lawful cause for his dismissal. The Supreme Court ruled that the composition of the fact-finding committee 22 days after the employee was first terminated was obviously an afterthought to give a semblance of compliance with the 30 -day notice requirement provided by law. [G. R. it will be a violation of his right to security of tenure and due process of law. R. When dismissal was already a foregone conclusion. was already final. Outright termination violates due process. 2005]. It was merely a token gesture to cure the obviously defective earlier dismissal. Benguet Corporation vs. Bungabong. Inc. (Robusta Agro Marine Products. 1999. Bizarre case of employee illegally dismissed twice. NLRC. G. however. 124166. No. 1997. In Philippine Pizza. No. He was able to submit his explanation denying that he stole beer from the company dispenser. at that point. April 13. Gorombalem. 80500. the decision to terminate respondent which was made effective on December 19. the records of the case. vs. show that he was not afforded due process. G. The employer investigated him 22 days after the first dismissal and was again served with a termination letter for the second time sometime later. vs.

m. j. Termination due to expiration of tenure made coterminous with lease. Termination due to lapse of season in case of seasonal employment. (Limketkai Sons Milling. chanrobles virtual law library e. G. NLRC.´ (Section 17. the onus of proving that the employee was not dismissed or if dismissed. a. that the dismissal was not illegal. Termination due to authorized causes under Article 283. What is the quantum of evidence required in labor cases? All administrative determinations require only substantial proof and not clear and convincing evidence. b. 29. k. 112203. Llamera. therefore. chanrobles virtual law library h. Termination after 6 months of bona-fide suspension of operation. R. c. chanrobles virtual law library n. July 12. 152514. Termination due to expiration of fixed-period employment. Who has the burden of proof in illegal dismissal cases? Time and again. (Segismundo vs. G. What are the instances when hearing is not required? In the situations mentioned below. chanrobles virtual law library May this constitutionally-guaranteed right. No. 1987 Constitution). hearing is not required to be conducted by the employer in order for the termination to be valid. May the right against self-incrimination be invoked in administrative proceedings? The Constitution provides: ³SECTION 17. be validly invoked in administrative proceedings? . 13. 1994). Admission of guilt by employee.27. Article III [Bill of Rights]. l. 28. Inc. No. Termination by the employee (resignation). Termination due to abandonment. Termination of casual employment. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. 30. i. Termination due to closure or stoppage of work by government authorities. f. rests on the employer and failure to discharge the same would mean that the dismissal is not justified and. R. vs. Dec. 2005). d. Termination due to completion of project in project employment. the rule is that in illegal dismissal cases. Termination due to expiration of contractual employment. usually invoked in criminal cases. Termination due to disease under Article 284. g. illegal. Termination due to expiration of period of probationary employment.

Jr. It is not true that the citizens have no recourse against such assaults. Nov. R. Jr. L-25018. 280 SCRA 735). Board of Medical Examiners. No. On the contrary.. No. Marti. Therefore. 1969. Construction Supply. 1962). the admissions made during such investigation may be used as evidence to justify dismissal. 1997. [G. 162994. May the right against unreasonable searches and seizures be invoked in administrative proceedings? As applied to labor cases. if the hearing partakes of the nature of a criminal proceeding because of the nature of the penalty that may be imposed for the offense. 29. chanrobles virtual law library 33. the Supreme Court declared that it finds no reason to revise the doctrine laid down in People vs. R. 113271. 2004]. September 17. that the Bill of Rights does not protect citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures perpetrated by private individuals. R. May the right to equal protection of the laws be asserted in administrative proceedings? In the case of Duncan Association of Detailman-PTGWO vs. 31. G. N. 282 SCRA 326). Dec. No. May 16. vs. such an invasion gives rise to both cri minal and civil liabilities. [193 SCRA 57 (1991)]. (Manuel vs. Custodial investigation is the stage where the police investigation is no longer a general inquiry into an unsolved crime but has begun to focus on a particular suspect who had been taken into custody by the police to carry out a process of interrogation that lends itself to elicit incriminating statements. 16. It is that point when questions are initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way. If the investigation is merely an administrative investigation conducted by the employer and not a criminal investigation. C. NLRC..The answer is in the affirmative. No. May the right to counsel be asserted in administrative proceedings? The right to counsel under Section 12 of Article III [Bill of Rights] of the 1987 Constitution is meant to protect a suspect in a criminal case under custodial investigation. the exclusionary rule under said p rovision of the Bill of Rights of the 1987 Constitution applies only to admissions made in a criminal investigation but not to those made in an administrative investigation. chanrobles virtual law library 32. 28. G. (Waterous Drug Corporation vs. where the employer prohibited its employees against personal or marital . (Pascual. Inc. Cabal vs. No. Oct. R. 127553. G. Glaxo Welcome Philippines. G. 1997. L19052. The right to counsel attaches only upon the start of such investigation. R. Kapunan.

When may the effects of termination be suspended? Grounds. from the wordings of the contractual provision and the policy in its employee handbook. The only exception occurs when the state. The legal basis for the valid imposition thereof is found in the Rules to Implement the Labor Code.relationships with employees of competitor companies. In any event. or 2. . with due regard for the lot of the employee. period. Significantly. it is clear that Glaxo does not impose an absolute prohibition against relationships between its employees and those of competitor companies. has been found to have become entwined or involved in a wrongful private conduct. this exception is not present in this case. the termination is in implementation of a mass lay-off.).The Secretary may suspend the effects of termination pending resolution of the case in the event of a prima facie finding by the appropriate official of the Department of Labor and Employment before whom the dispute is pending that: 1. in any of its manifestations or actions. chanrobles virtual law library 34. chanrobles virtual law library b. the company actually enforced the policy after repeated requests to the employee to comply with the policy. Its employees are free to cultivate relationships with and marry persons of their own choosing. What is preventive suspension? a. Legal basis. The employer may place the worker concerned under preventive suspension for a period of 30 days if his continued employment poses a serious and imminent threat to the life or property of the employer or of . Indeed. It is a settled principle that the commands of the equal protection clause are addressed only to the state or those acting under color of its authority. the termination may cause a serious labor dispute. (Ibid. the application of the said policy was made in an impartial and even-handed manner. What the company merely seeks to avoid is a conflict of interest between the employee and the company that may arise out of such relationships. Justification for imposition of preventive suspension (not a penalty). however. The Labor Code does not contain any provision on preventive suspension. it was held tha t such prohibition is reasonable under the circumstances because relationships of that nature might compromise the interests of the company and the same does not violate the equal protection clause in the Constitution. (Article 277 [b]) 35. Obviously.

But if the 30-day period is extended because the employer has not finished its investigation of the case. the absence of malice or the fact that the employee is a first offender. individual petitioner should first ha ve been given a mere warning. No. it was ruled that the extreme penalty of dismissal was too harsh and manifestly disproportionate to the infraction committed. ‡Extension of period must be justified. Phils. to be not inexcusable under the circumstances. 2005]. R. the respondent-employee was dismissed for dishonesty. suspension is deemed sufficient penalty. it was ruled that for his infractions. ‡Period of preventive suspension must be definite. conspiring or conniving with. 36. negligence and blatant disregard of or deviation from established control and other policies and procedures. then a reprimand or even a suspension. vs. Inc. What is suspension as a penalty? When dismissal is too harsh a penalty due to certain mitigating factors such as. no demonstration of such moral perverseness as would have justified the claimed loss of confidence attendant to the job. or even violated. the employee should be paid his wages during the period of extension. more specifically for violation of the company policy on fictitious sales transactions. certain company rules of internal control procedures. the petitioner-employer failed to adduce clear and convincing evidence that the respondent had committed said acts. inter alia. falsification of company records/data/documents/reports. the employee is not entitled to his wages.his co-workers. and he cannot be deprived thereof without due process and unless it was commensurate to his acts and degree of moral depravity. The company must bear a share of the blame for entrusting a mere driver-helper with a highly fiduciary task knowing that he did not possess the require d skills. Considering the factual backdrop in this case. but certainly not outright dismissal from employment. At most.. only 15 days. During the said period. the respondent-employee should be meted a suspension of two (2) months instead of dismissal. but to say that it was deliberate is gratuitous. or directing others to commit fictitious transactions. 148205. and. in fact. One must keep in mind that a worker¶s employment is property in the constitutional sense. Kapisanan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Coca-Cola-FFW. However. [G. . There was no dishonesty. which appears to have been fully explained. chanrobles virtual law library Perhaps. In the 2005 case of Coca-Cola Bottlers. February 28. chanrobles virtual law library ‡Preventive suspension of workers in the constru ction industry. Consequently. and inefficiency in the performance of duties. the employee failed to comply with.

however. applies in a case where reinstatement was not prayed for in the complaint but the payment of separation pay in lieu thereof. by expressly asking for separation pay. No. A different rule. the petitioner therein would have been entitled to reinstatement as a consequence of his illegal dismissal from employment. Dec. 1994]. 1998. may be availed of as soon as the Labor Arbiter renders a judgment declaring that the dismissal of the employee is illegal and ordering said reinstatement. R. Reinstatement when what is prayed for is separation pay. there is nothing left to be done except the execution thereof. As pronounced in Dela Cruz vs. NLRC.The consequence of illegality thereof is reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and with full backwages (inclusive of allowances and other benefits computed from the time his compensation was withheld up to the time of his actual reinstatement). It is a settled principle that technicalities have no place in labor cases as rules of pr ocedure are designed primarily to give substance and meaning to the objectives of the Labor Code to accord protection to labor. respondent¶s omission to pray for reinstatement in his position paper before the Labor Arbiter was not considered as an implied waiver to be reinstated. 13]. effect. 161158. No. What is reinstatement? a. Reinstatement under Article 279 presupposes that the judgment has already become final and executory. The failure to allege reinstatement as one of the reliefs in the complaint for illegal dismissal is not fatal.37. NLRC. Nov. chanrobles virtual law library ‡ In case of illegal dismissal . Reinstatement should be granted although he failed to specifically pray for the same in his complaint. It was considered a mere procedural lapse which should not affect his substantive right to reinstatement. the Labor Arbiter¶s ruling where he granted petitioner separation pay instead of ordering his reinstatement should be corrected. distinguished. 299 SCRA 1. 27. R. (See also General Baptist Bible College vs. however. However. 121288. [G. R. he is . 105338. No. Reinstatement under Article 223 of the Labor Code. although the issue of the grant of separation pay was never contested even at the level of the Labor Arbiter nor assigned as error at the NLRC level. In the interest of justice. Consequently. NLRC. May 9. 2005]. [G. Moldez. [G. 219 SCRA 549 [1993]). It may be availed of even pending appeal. chanrobles virtual law library In Pheschem Industrial Corporation vs. according to Manipon vs. 20. Reinstatement when not prayed for. Reinstatement under Articles 279 and 223 of the Labor Code.

In such a case. If ordered reinstated later on after the end of the proceedings. CA. at the end of the proceeding. [G. the company¶s Tondo Plant. R. However. Bondesto. While reinstatement is a relief mandated in illegal d ismissal cases. G. Consequently. 112678. R. it failed to indicate the absence of an unfilled position more or less of a similar nature as the one previously occupied by the respondent at its other plant/s. the same cannot be awarded in instances where it is no longer feasible as in a case where private respondent is already over -aged. chanrobles virtual law library Reinstatement not possible due to old age. [G. Espejo vs. the Supreme Court said that by so doing. NLRC. he forecloses reinstatement as a relief by implication. This is the tenor of the holding in Reformist Union vs. The employee who files an illegal dismissal case may choose between reinstatement and payment of separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. the respondent is entitled to reinstatement. No. he has no other option but to abide thereby. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2003 case of Solidbank Corporation vs. Nov. He is bound by the relief he prayed for in his complaint. [266 SCRA 713. NLRC. (Benguet Corporation vs. In the 2004 case of Procter and Gamble Philippines vs. . chanrobles virtual law library Employee ordered reinstated may. where the employee explicitly prayed for an award of separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. March 5. if the respondent no longer desires to be reinstated. 151026. No. from the time of his illegal dismissal up to the finality of this judgment. 25. Clearly. G. opt for separation pay instead. No. R. where the respondent was assigned. 1999. 139847. NLRC and Felizardo A. as an alternative to reinstatement. However.deemed to have opted for separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. It should be stressed that while the petitioner manifested the closure of the Tondo Plant. 124166. March 29. after more than a year after the respondent was placed on payroll reinstatement. Since the respondent¶s employment could not be maintained at the Tondo Plant. was shut down. 728-729 (1997)] to the effect that separation pay is awarded as an alternative to reinstatement. without loss of seniority rights to another position of similar nature in the company. Aug. 2003]. 16. R. he should be award ed separation pay at the rate of one (1) month for every year of service as an alternative. 2004]. the proper remedy is to award separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. No. so the petitioner maintains. Guianan. following settled jurisprudence. he is entitled to separation pay equivalent to one month pay for every year of service. it was constrained to discontinue the respondent¶s payroll reinstatement. the Supreme Court recognizes an exception.

Meris. unless such position no longer exists at the time of his reinstatement. Vicente. An illegally dismissed employee is ent itled to be reinstated to his former position. chanrobles virtual law library 38. 197 SCRA 471). G. 1994]. Dec. in lieu of reinstatement and in addition to the three-year back salaries. No. Declaration of insolvency by the court. 5. (See also RCPI vs. (Section 4. G. [G. Jr. R. R. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. NLRC. 73352. Torillo vs. 1988). No. R. July 27. Rule I. However. Inc. 70615. Rule I. What is the distinction between reinstatement and . 2004). (Section 4[b]..1996. chanrobles virtual law library Reinstatement rendered moot and academic by supervening events. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Pedroso vs. as held in Tanduay Distillery Labor Union vs. R. he should be given a substantially equivalent position in the same establishment without loss of seniority rights. 06. (Electruck Asia. 1986). NLRC. NLRC. Rule I. 147031. Jan. 3. 255 SCRA 430. No. separation pay equivalent to at least one (1) month pay for every year of service. Book VI. Closure of the business of the employer. 2004). G. 4. R. 73334. No. Leogardo. Oct. No. 10. (Bagong Bayan Corporation vs. in which case. Castro. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. Philtread Tire & Rubber Corporation vs. G. Non-existence of the employee¶s former position at the time of reinstatement for reasons not attributable to the fault of the employer. R. (Section 4[b]. chanrobles virtual law library 2. in the event that the previous positions of petitioners may no longer be open or available. Dec. June 28. 142759. 70361. Fire which gutted the hotel and resulted in its total destruction. chanrobles virtual law library Reinstatement when position no longer exists. 28. Carnation Philippines. (Callanta vs. No. considering that more than ten (10) years have since elapsed from the date of their dismissal. Nov. vs. G. R. private respondent-employer has to pay. Take over of the business of the employer by another company and there is no agreement regarding assumption of liability by the acquiring company. Reinstatement should no longer be ordered when it is rendered moot and academic by reason of supervening events such as: 1. 435). 1986). No. 210 SCRA 222. G. 1986). Ople. Book VI. 30. Book VI. 74531. 8. Pizza Inn vs.

then. Sept. R. i. 158759. if the strained relations engendered as a result of litigation are sufficient to rule out reinstatement. 82511. G.backwages? Reinstatement restores the employee who was unjustly dismissed to the position from which he was removed. CA. (Paguio Transport Corporation vs. No. G. (Cabatulan vs. Tolentino. Strained relations must be demonstrated as a fact. otherwise. 1992). the same may not be allowed. No. 21.R. chanrobles virtual law library As a rule. does not give rise to strained relations that may justify non-reinstatement. No. (Paguio Transport Corporation vs. NLRC. No. Feb. R. 2004). chanrobles virtual law library . [292 SCRA 109 (1998)].. the Supreme Court ruled that the existence of strained relations is a factual issue which must be raised before the Labor Arbiter for the proper reception of evidence. by itself. What is the doctrine of ³Strained Relations´? In a plethora of cases. G. PLDT vs. March 3. supra). Strained relations must be raised before the Labor Arbiter. No. If the issue of strained relations is raised only in the appeal from the Labor Arbiter¶s decision. (Sagum vs. Indeed. 119500. to his status quo ante dismissal. G. 39. while the grant of backwages allows the same employee to recover from the employer that which he had lost by way of wages as a result of his dismissal. No. R. R. March 5. the Supreme Court has been consistent in its holding that the existence of strained relations between the employer and the illegally dismissed employee may effectively bar reinstatement of the latter. G. (Procter and Gamble Philippines vs. 2004). R. (Globe-Mackay Cable and Radio Corporation v. 14. Bondesto. 139847. an employee who asserts his right could be easily separated from the service by merely paying his separation pay on the pretext that his relationship with his employer had already become strained. Aug. May 26. NLRC. Litigation. 2005. 1998). 143171. the filing of the complaint for illegal dismissal does not by itself justify the invocation of this doctrine. a.e. 2005). No strained relations should arise from a va lid and legal act of asserting one¶s right. Buat. reinstatement would thus become the exception rather than the rule in cases of illegal dismissal. Mercury Drug Corporation. 28. In Quijano vs. 147142. b. NLRC. G.

G. Mercury Drug case [supra]: ³To protect labor¶s security of tenure. R. Inc. R.´ chanrobles virtual law library In the same breadth. the complainants are mere rank-and-file workers consisting of cooks. Daniel. Jan. It is only normal to expect a certain degree of antipathy and hostility to arise from a litigation between parties. 152321. this doctrine was not applied in the 2002 case of Abalos vs. productivity and performance of the latter. May 9. Pheschem Industrial Corporation vs. No.. 215 SCRA 501. requires the trust and confidence of the employer upon the employee occupying it as would make reinstatement adversely affect the efficiency.This doctrine should not be used so indiscriminately as to bar the reinstatement of illegally dismissed workers. [G. 26. 2005. vs. 156893. we emphasize that the doctrine of strained relations should be strictly applied so as not to deprive an illegally dismissed employee of his right to reinstatement. chanrobles virtual law library Thus. helpers and mechanics of the respondent company. Acesite [Philippines] Hotel Corporation. but not in every instance does such an atmosphere of antagonism exist as to adversely affect the efficiency and productivity of the employee concerned. CA. where the employee was the Chief of Security of the hotel whose duty was to ³manage the operation of the security areas of the hotel to . Nature of position. (Maranaw Hotels and Resorts Corp. 140374. chanrobles virtual law library As held in the Quijano vs. No. G. whatever antagonism occasioned by the litigation should not be taken as a bar to reinstatement. 2005). strained relations will justify nonreinstatement. R. (Coca -Cola Bottlers Phils. Philex Mining Corporation. miners. [G. Moldez. June 21.´ It appears from the Supreme Court rulings involving the doctrine of ³strained relations´ that the common denominator which bars reinstatement is the nature of the position of the employee. No. 2005]. otherwise an unjustly dismissed employee can never be reinstated. this doctrine should not be applied to a situation where the employee has no say in the operation of the employer¶s business. 161158. NLRC. in Acesite Corporation vs. R. 2002] to deprive the workers of their right to reinstatement. c. November 27. Absent this circumstance. especially when they themselves have not indicated any aversion to returning to work. vs. G. Every labor dispute almost always results in strained relations and the phrase cannot be given an overarching interpretation. Here. Hence. material in determining validity of ³strained relations. 507 [1992]). No. then. 152308 and Gonzales vs. If the nature of the position. therefore. R. No.

the complainant and his employer failed to settle their dispute amicably does not prove that the relationship between them is already too strained as to be beyond redemption . NLRC. An officer in such a key posit ion can work effectively only if she enjoys the . The refusal of the employees to be reinstated is indicative of strained relations. Criminal prosecution indicates strained relations. Long period of time that elapsed without any settlement of the case does not. Aug. indicate the existence of strained relations. (RDS Trucking. it was held that the fact that for six years. NLRC. gives rise to no other conclusion than the categorical fact that antagonism already caused a severe strain in the relationship between them. staff and their properties according to company policies and local laws. et al. Inc. Hence. 21. d. 113290-91. Sept. 3. Aug. No. 1994]. indicates strained relations. No. The position of manager is an important consideration in determining the val idity of reinstatement. Inc. he being in charge of the over-all security of said hotel. chanrobles virtual law library e. chanrobles virtual law library g. R. [G. chanrobles virtual law library As held in Cabatulan vs.´ the Supreme Court ruled that such position is one of trust and confidence. NLRC. vs. Criminal prosecution confirms the existence of ³strained relations´ which would render the employee¶s reinstatement highly undesirable. visitors. 14. 123941. f. Non-reinstatement of a managerial employee. R. (Sentinel Security Agency. G. R. the fact that the employee was charged by his employer with qualified theft and was even coerced into withdrawing the labor case filed by the former against the latter. vs. But she was a Vice President for Marketing of the company. If the employee is a laborer. NLRC. by itself. No. 27. 2005]. No. there would be no problem in ordering her reinstatement with facility. 122468. 147142. Feb. vs. 1998). Buat. G. 3. In lieu thereof. in view of the strained relations between him and management.provide and ensure the safety and security of the hotel guests. Non-settlement of dispute after long period of time does not indicate strained relations. [G. A person holding a managerial position may not be ordered reinstated if strained relations exist. R. clerk or other rank-and-file employee. In Palmeria vs. Nos. reinstatement is no longer possible. 1995]. management. Feb. [G. 1998). Refusal to be reinstated. 105758-59. exception. the hotel is liable to pay separation pay of one (1) month for every year of servic e. This was the holding in Golden Donuts. R.

absent any competent evidence in the records to support the employer¶s assertion that a peaceful working relationship with the employee is no longer possible. in Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company vs. considered as additional ground for ordering payment of separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. NLRC. Hence. the latter must be reinstated. Inc. thereby making such award of separation pay appropriate. the Supreme Court.virtual law library full trust and confidence of top management. chanrobles virtual law library h. i. While strained relations may have existed between the employee and the former owner of the company. 2. the length of time respondent-employee has been out of petitioners¶ employ. 40. September 21. G. reinstatement should be ordered. vs. Ople. 2004]. L-56398. when termination is due to closure of establishment or reduction of personnel under Article 283. has absolutely nothing to do with the controversy involved in the case. vs. the Supreme Court ordered the reinstatement of the managerial employee despite allegation of existence of strained relations inasmuch as the same were not adequately proven by the employer which had the burden of doing so. 311 SCRA 289 [1999]). R. Reinstatement is proper if strained relations existed wit h former owner but not with new owner. vs. In the same case of PLDT [supra]. 2001]. in the case of EDI Staff Builders International. the same do not exist now between him and the new owner. Inc. No. 139430. [G. Tolentino. [G. (See also Asiaworld Publishing House. What is separation pay? The only instances under the Labor Code and pertinent jurisprudence where the employer is liable to pay separation pay are the following: chanrobles virtual law library 1. July 23. 1987). when ordered as substitute for reinstatement in illegal dismis sal cases. chanrobles But if the alleged strained relations between a managerial employee and his employer was not adequately proven. Inc. No. Thus. the alleged strained relations can no longer be invoked since there has been a change in the ownership and control of the company. No. Length of time may prevent reinstatement. The new owner. R. 143171. This fact makes reinstatement feasible. R. in fact. (See also Jardine Davies. June 20. Strained relations must be proven as a fact. Magsino. . In addition to existence of strained relations.

This is not allowed. R. October 4. 148410. where the cause for the termination of employment cannot be considered as one of mere inefficiency or incompetence but an act that constitutes an utter disregard for the interest of the employer or a palpable breach of trust reposed in him. when the employee has been dismissed for serious misconduct or some other causes reflecting on his moral character or person al integrity. the Court of Appeals. 2 002] and was further expounded the 2005 decision in Philippine Commercial International Bank vs. 890. R. February 28. though. when the employer terminates without just cause. In Gustilo vs.. 2005]. it was declared that while it would be compassionate to give separation pay to a salesman if he were dismissed for his inability to fill his quota. when termination is due to disease under Article 284. however. No. chanrobles virtual law library 41. In PLDT vs. chanrobles virtual law library This equitable principle was emphasized again lately in the 2002 case of San Miguel Corporation vs. however. Sulpicio Lines. 6. No. Abad. Lao. [164 SCRA 671]. still . July 11. A reading of Article 279 in relation to Article 282 of the Labor Code reveals that an employee who is dismissed for cause after appropriate proceedings in compliance with due process requirements is not entitled to an award of separation pay. despite its finding that the dismissal was legal. Inc.3. May separation pay be awarded despite lawful dismissal for cause? An employee who is dismissed for just cause is generally not entitled to separation pay. the services of a househelper prior to the expiration of the fixed -term employment under Article 149. vs. [433 Phil. Wyeth Phils. 2004].. (Etcuban. Jan. Inc. No. 897. As stated in San Miguel. In some cases. when employment is deemed terminated after the lapse of six (6) months in cases involving bona -fide suspension of the operation of business or undertaking under Article 286. G. he does not deserve such generosity if his offense is the misappropriation of the receipts of his sales. NLRC and Abucay. R. Jr. when resignation pay or separation pay (or sometimes called ³financial assistance´) is required under a unilaterally promulgated voluntary policy or practice of the employer or under an agreement such as a Collective Bargaining Agreement. surely. 17. chanrobles virtual law library 5. the Supreme Court awards separation pay to a legally dismissed employee on the grounds of equity and social justice.. the grant of separation benefits is hardly justifiable. 149629. 4. 158045. 2005). [G. [G.

Simply stated. 2005). A party in a case who did not appeal is not entitled to any affirmative relief. if the dismissal does not fall under the first qualification (serious misconduct). No. notwithstanding a valid dismissal. (See also PCIB vs. reversed said award based on the aforementioned case of PLDT. (Camua vs. Despite this holding. R. G. 1997). 158045. Abad. or (2) the dismissal reflected on the employee¶s moral chara cter. 466. separation pay may be awarded to him. say loss of trust and confidence.awarded the complainant separation pay of P106.890. Abad. if the employee is dismissed due to some grounds other than serious misconduct. 460. There had been jurisprudence granting separation pay for dismissals based on this ground. the High Court ³commiserate(d) with him but it can do no more than to appeal to an act of compassion by SMC and to ask it to see . chanrobles virtual law library Incidentally. supra). in the light of the plight of respondent who has spent the best years of his useful life with petitioner. however. If the answer is in the negative. NLRC. it is now a matter of established rule that the question of whether separation pay should be awarded depends on the cause of the dismissal and the circumstances of each case. In line with the 2002 case of San Miguel [supra]. no affirmative relief can be extended to it. 28. Sept.´ provided that the dismissal does not fall under either of two circumstances: (1) there was serious misconduct. 12. (PCIB vs. Hence. the Supreme Court was constrained not to disturb the award of separation pay in this case because respondent company did not interpose an appeal from said award. Moreover. Feb. the next query shifts to whether the alleged wrongful act was reflective of the moral character of the employee. It ruled that an employee who was legally dismissed from employment is not entitled to an award of separation pay. Consequently. chanrobles virtual law library The San Miguel test. however.00 allegedly by reason of several mitigating factors mentioned in its assailed Decision. The Supreme Court. 344 Phil. separation pay may ³exceptionally´ be awarded as a ³measure of social justice. the High Court reversed the decision and resolution of the Court of Appeals insofar as it decreed the payment of retirement benefits or separation pay to respondent but. Under the San Miguel test. in San Miguel. an employee¶s lack of moral depravity could evoke compassion and thereby compel an award of separation pay. separation pay may be awarded to the employee.

Dec. No. it reiterated its wish in the decretal portion of the decision when it said: ³It is hoped. the following benefits. Oct. current wage level of the employee¶s position. the sympathy of the Supreme Cour t towards the workingmen is best exemplified in this case. 42. No. R. R. if applicable: 1. Jan. L-75510. NLRC. in lieu of reinstatement. NLRC. (St. chanrobles virtual law library Separation pay. transportation and emergency allowances. G. Louise College of Tuguegarao vs. a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year inc luding regular allowances.´ Indeed. NLRC. Aug. Soriano vs. No. Other benefits must be paid in addition to backwages. G. 74214 . No. (Acesite Corporation vs. G. 31. not included. (Food Traders House. holiday pay. Following several decisions of the Supreme Court. 27. 3.´ While the Supreme Court did not mention any amount of such financial assistance. 2. Sept. . fringe benefits or their monetary equivalent. 300 SCRA 360). G. G. 120677. 21. however. 26. What is the amount of separation pay in lieu of reinstatement? Separation pay is only proper to substitute for reinstatement (not for backwages)]. 4. 1998. 152308. If not regular. 1987). 76721. R.its way clear to affording some form of financial assistance to respondent who has served it for almost three decades with no previous blemished record. vs. (Santos vs. NLRC. 21. increases in compensation and other benefits. Inc. 1989. in addition to the basic salary. 43. whichever is higher. The computation should be based on the wage rate level at the time of the illegal dismissal and not in accordance with the latest. 1987. NLRC. 2005). R. chanrobles virtual law library Other benefits must be paid in addition to backwages. vacation and sick leaves and service incentive leaves. No. including 13th month pay. should be taken into account in the computation of backwages. What are backwages? Full Backwages have to be paid by an employer as part of the price or penalty he has to pay for illegally dismissing his employee. that petitioner will heed the Court¶s call for compassion. shall include the amount equivalent at least to one (1) month salary or to one (1) month salary for every year of service. R.

301 SCRA 223). G. 285 SCRA 149). not covered by backwages.00 equivalent to 16% of his monthly salary increase starting from January 1997 on the fact that. (Blue Dairy Corporation vs. chanrobles virtual law library Salary increase during period of demotion. Feb. NLRC. 14. R. Inc. car and representation allowances.000. 105892. R. gasoline. CA. R. ruled that the illegally dismissed employee is entitled to backwages even during the period of his incarceration noting that the first criminal case was dismissed for lack of probable cause and the second has yet to be finally decided. 1996. and from November 21. No. R. is whether petitioner is entitled to an amount equal to 16% of his monthly salar y representing his salary increase during the period of his demotion. 154072. 1998. in his favor. R. Raised as an issue in Paguio vs. (Maranaw Hotels & Resort Corporation vs. 1999). from June 10. 123810. Sept. 23. No. The award of backwages is not conditioned on the employee¶s ability or inability to. the presumption of innocence until his guilt is proved beyond reasonable doubt. throughout his employment until his illegal transfer in 1997. G. 1999. Inc. Petitioner based his right to the award of P384. (Consolidated Rural Bank [Cagayan Valley]. NLRC. [G. The computation of said benefits should be up to the date of reinstatement as provided under Article 279 of the Labor Code. 6.On service incentive leave. G. 16. No. Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co. in the interim. earn any income. (Fernandez vs. Jan. A classic case to illustrate this legal principle is the 2004 case of Tomas Claudio Memorial College. supra). 28. [G. just share in the service charges. No. No. hence. irrelevant in the award of backwages. 152568.any other allowances and benefits or their monetary equivalent. 1999). NLRC. No. the employee has. December 3. R. 1996 up to July 5. The petitioner-employer took the position that it cannot be lawfully compelled to pay backwages for the period of time that the private respondent-employee was twice incarcerated in jail on account of his violation of the Dangerous Drugs Act. Dismissed employee¶s ability to earn. The Supreme Court... 20. he had been consistently given by the company annual salary increases on account of his above - . Feb. 1997. Inc. 2004]. Jan. vs. NLRC. 129843. 5. however. see Fernandez vs. 2002]. G. 123880. NLRC. 7. vs. 1996 up to February 17.

When backwages should not only be for one (1) year. is based simply on expectancy or his assumption that. It agreed with the findings of the NLRC and the Court of Appeals that in view of the respondent-employee¶s absences that were not wholly justified. and thus he should not be moved to any other position where management would require his services. In Procter and Gamble Philippines vs. 139847. petitioner has now been left behind career-wise. he should be entitled to backwages which should be limited to one (1) year. because in the past he had been consistently rated for his outstanding performance and his salary correspondingly increased. He claims that his contemporaries now occupy higher positions as they had been promoted several time s during the course of this case. Thus. however. [G. Petitioner claims that there is a high probability that he would have been granted the increase had he not been transferred from the Garnet Exchange of respondent PLDT. ³In contrast to a grant of backwages or an award of lucrum cessans in the civil law. Bondesto.´ chanrobles virtual law library When backwages should only be for one (1) year. qualify for the said increase later. R. as evaluated according to a specified criteria. while affirming the illegality of the dismissal of the employee. it is probable that he would similarly have been given high ratings and salary increases but for his transfer to another position in the company. the Supreme Court. March 5. his claim is tantamount to saying that he had a vested right to remain as Head of the Garnet Exchange and given salary increases simply because he had performed well in such position. therefore. even if he ranked higher and performed better than they during the past years. He argued that justice and equity requires that he be given the monetary award deleted by the Court of Appeals from the decision of the NLRC. As held by the Court of Appeals. . it assumes that in the other position to which he had been transferred petitioner had not been given any performance evaluation. did not. It ruled: ³Petitioner¶s claim. this contention is based merely on speculation. No.average or outstanding performance. Petitioner averred that this would not have taken place had he not been illegally tran sferred. Petitioner likens his claim to that for backwages in illegal dismissal cases. however. grant full backwages. the mere fact that petitioner had been previously granted salary increases by reason of his excellent performance does not necessarily guarantee that he would have performed in the same manner and. this particular award which petitioner is seeking is not based on any wage order or decree but on an employee¶s performance during a certain period. Furthermore. The Supreme Court was unconvinced. Undeniably. What is more. 2004]. however.

where the employer . No. NLRC. No. chanrobles virtual law library In Chronicle Securities Corporation vs. it was ruled that the award of backwages should be computed up to said age. NLRC. how computed when valid retrenchment . 60 years is the optional retirement age. how computed when company has already ceased operations. March 29. [G. Full backwages. As held in the case of Pizza Inn/Consolidated Foods Corporation vs. the Supreme Court. chanrobles virtual law library Full backwages. full backwages should be computed only up to the date of the closure. This rule holds true even if the employer is found guilty of unfair labor practice in dismissing the employee. 2003]. tantamount to grave abuse of discretion on the part of the NLRC. 157907. 4. 108405. 255 SCRA 430. where the dismissed employee has already reached the compulsory retirement age of 65. Dec. NLRC. how computed when dismissed employee has reached 65 years of age. NLRC. in limiting to one (1) year the backwages awarded to petitioners. April 4.the Manila Chronicle . [G. R. Full backwages. But in the 2001 case of St. 112678. 1993 when she reached 60 years of age cannot be subscribed. 2001]. R. R. The view of the employer that payment of backwages to the illegally dismissed teacher should be computed only up to December 11. Michael¶s Institute vs. G. how computed when dismissed employee has reached 60 years of age.R. 28 June 1988. 435). No. 162 SCRA 773]. Nov.In Viernes vs.had already permanently ceased its operations. 1996. 145280. No. considered it patently erroneous. the backwages should only cover the time when he was illegally dismissed up to the time when he reached 60 years. L-74531. 25. Santos. following the mandate of Article 279 on the payment of full backwages to an illegally dismissed employee. an employer found guilty of unfair labor practice in dismissing his employee may not be ordered so to pay backwages beyond the date of closure of b usiness where such closure was due to legitimate business reasons and not merely an attempt to defeat the order of reinstatement. 2004]. chanrobles virtual law library Full backwages. (Espejo vs. R. To allow the computation of the backwages to be based on a period beyond that would be an injustice to the employer. Under Article 287. [G. No. [G. If the dismissed employee has already reached sixty (60) years of age.

119724. Jan. deductible from backwages. 1998 and made effective one month therefrom. Chrysler Philippines Labor Union. 148738. R. or to at least one-half month pay for every year of service. whichever is higher. his termination being illegal. 1996 to May 21. No. the Supreme Court considered th e date of effectivity of the retrenchment as the date when backwages should be reckoned. The Hon. the computation of backwages was made subject to deduction for the three (3) days when the employee was under suspension. R. [G. respondent Paras should be paid full backwag es from the date of his illegal dismissal up to March 25. No. In the 2002 case of Buhain vs. 1999]. 26. [G. such non-reinstatement was not considered a sufficient ground to deny him his backwages. 152308. CA. July 2. May 31. Such formula runs counter to the letter and spirit of the Labor Code. 1990 up to the time of his actual reinstatement. the illegally dismissed employee was no longer ordered reinstated because of the occurrence of a supervening event ± that of retrenchment which covered him because he was a newly regularized employee at the time of his termination. No. 2004]. chanrobles virtual law library In Acesite Corporation vs. 1990 to June 26. Pursuant to Article 283 of the Labor Code. Inc. [G. 1998. 143709. In Mitsubishi Motors Philippines Corporation vs. NLRC.supervened. R. Backwages should include period of preventive suspension. June 29. In reckoning the backwages. However. he should be paid separation pay equivalent to one (1) month salary. and including allow ances and other benefits or their monetary equivalent. 2005]. vs. [G. from May 13. NLRC. a fraction of at least six months to be considered as one (1) year. the Supreme Court directed the payment thereof from the time of his illegal dismissal on March 29. Thus: ³Considering that notices of retrenchment were mailed on February 25. No. In conformity with Article 279. In computing the backwages. inclusive. the employee¶s dismissa l on the ground of abandonment was declared illegal but he was found guilty of absence without official leave (AWOL) for which he was ordered suspended for three (3) months. No deductions therefrom were allowed for the earnings derived elsewhere by the employee during the period of his illegal dismissal. petitioner should be . less backwages for three (3) months corresponding to the period of his suspension for the period March 29. 2002]. the Supreme Court ruled that the Court of Appeals committed a reversible error in merely fixing the backwages from the time he was placed under preventive suspension up to the time he was illegally dismissed. This period covers only a total of eight days.´ chanrobles virtual law library Period of suspension. 1990. R. 1996. In Metro Transit Organization.

Mere offer to reinstate a dismissed employee. (Phi lippine Rabbit Bus Lines. in case of refusal of employer to reinstate. Full backwages. R. G. No. up to the date of the finality of this judgment. In Condo Suite Club Travel. January 28. G. NLRC. (Medina vs. chanrobles virtual law library Therefore. It explained that the failure of the employee to work. given the circumstances in this case. May 28. Nos. Inc. 1996. In reversing the NLRC. vs. The petitioner should thus be held liable for the entire amount of backwages due the private respondent from the day he was illegally dismissed up to the date of his reinstatement. 125671. 222 SCRA 707). after the supposed offer was made. an employee who is unjustly dismissed is entitled to his full backwages computed from the time his compensation was withheld from him up to the time of his reinstatement. As previously stated. vs. 306 SCRA 155). Inc. May 13. peti tioner should have at the very least reinstated him in its payroll right away. Only then could observance of labor laws be promoted and social justice upheld. can no longer be attributed to the fault of the employer. backwages were limited by the NLRC from the date of the employee¶s dismissal up to the time when the employer alleged ly offered to reinstate him. What are the distinctions between separation pay and backwages? Separation pay and backwages are two (2) different things. R. NLRC. If the petitioner (employer) were sincere in its intention to reinstate the private respondent (dismissed employee). 122078. 2000]. 1999. [G. 1993. R. Payment of . in light of the Voluntary Arbitrator¶s conclusion that reinstatement is no longer possible.given full backwages and all the benefits accruing to him from the first day of his preventive suspension. 99054-56. April 21. the payment of backwages by petitioner to respondent employee for the period he was not reinstated despite the alias writ of execution up to the time he opted for separation pay in lieu of reinstatement is equitable and justified under the law. 44. No. Consolidated Broadcasting System. is not enough. chanrobles virtual law library Employer¶s offer to reinstate does not forestall payment of full backwages. the Supreme Court ruled that this does not suffice to provide complete relief to the painful socio economic dislocation of the employee and his family. The unjustified refusal of the employer to reinstate an illegally dismissed employee entitles him to paymen t of his salaries effective from the time the employer failed to reinstate him despite the issuance of a writ of execution.

or when reinstatement is no longer possible.. while the latter is normally computed until the employee is reinstated. Separation pay is paid when reinstatement is not possible. et al. Is legal interest allowed? In a 1998 case.It is settled that in actions for recovery of wages or where an employee was forced to litigate and has incurred expenses to protect his rights and interests. 123421. with twelve percent (12%) interest per annum from the date of promulgation of the decision until fully paid. The former is paid as a wherewithal during the period that an employee is looking for another employment. while backwages is paid for the compensation which otherwise the employee should have earned had he not been illegally dismissed. R. backwages were made subject to interest of 6% per annum for the period from the date the employee was illegally dismissed from service until the decision becomes final and executory. 3. if any. December 28. 46. the said damages are awarded. the dismissed employee was awarded a se paration pay of 1/2 month salary for every year of service inclusive of allowances. Award of attorney's fees when employee is forced to sue. G. including attorney's fees.separation pay is not inconsistent with payment of backwages. What are damages and attorney¶s fees? No proof of pecuniary loss is necessary in orde r that moral. 5. an award of attorney's fees equivalent to ten percent (10%) of the total award is legally and morally justifiable. nominal or exemplary damages may be adjudicated. 1998). No. 4. if dismissal is attended with bad faith. The former is computed normally on the basis of the employee¶s length of service. until the fi nality of the decision. The two may be distinguished as follows: 1. The former is oriented towards the immediate future. 2. while the latter is paid for the loss of earnings during the period between illegal dismissal and reinstatement. (Magos vs. . 45. The assessment of such damages is left to the discretion of the court. according to the circumstances of each case. NLRC. whimsicality and oppression. . while the latter is restoration of the past income lost. In another 1998 case. even if not so claimed. Normally. Separation pay cannot be paid in lieu of backwages.

Inc.´ (Underscoring supplied) In Skippers Pacific. March 14. 1998. G. the remedies provided for under Article 279 such as reinstatement. NLRC. G.. Mira. (See Ravago vs. the worker shall be entitled to the full reimbursement of his placement fee with interest at twelve percent (12%) per annum. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF OVERSEAS FILIPINO WORKERS (OFWs). 121288. with interest at 12% per annum from the date of promulgation of the decision until actually paid. No. No. 1997). 2005). 113658. et al.after which time. plus his salaries for the unexpired portion of his employment contract or for three (3) months for every year of the unexpired term. a. No. it was held that . No. 119536. 15). NLRC. [G. (De la Cruz vs. 20. (Dela Cruz vs. R. November 20. MONETARY AWARDS. the Supreme Court had already declared that a seafarer. Adorable. 2004). The proper basis for the monetary awards of the overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) is Section 10 of R. 158324. March 31. OFWs are not entitled to the reliefs under Article 279. Esso Eastern Marine. NLRC. A. the Supreme Court has imposed interest at the legal rate on the full backwages awarded to an illegally dismissed employee computed from the time she was temporarily laid off until she is fully paid her separation pay. 1995. and separation pay at the rate of one (1) month's pay for every year of service computed from the date he was first employed until the finality of the decision. February 17. 8042. whichever is less.. by R. Monetary awards to illegally dismissed OFWs. In a 1997 case. 8042 and not Article 279 of the Labor Code. R. G. is not entitled to separation or termination pay.R. R. valid or authorized cause as defined by law or contract. G. No. A. or separation pay in lieu of reinstatement or full backwages. No. chanrobles virtual law library b. how reckoned. vs. are not available to OFWs. 243 SCRA 190 (1995)]. Consequently. Ltd. No. [392 SCRA 371 (2002)]. more importantly. R. Aug. (Gu-Miro vs. the interest rate shall be 12% per annum until the amounts due are actually paid or satisfied. 160952. 47. This is so because the OFWs are contractual employees whose rights and obligations are gov erned primarily by the Rules and Regulations of the POEA and. As early as the 1995 case of Coyoca vs. Section 10 of Republic Act No. not being a regular employee.. et al. 299 SCRA 1. 8042 (Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995) provides: ³In case of termination of overseas employment without just.

G. care should be taken that every part or word thereof be given effect since the lawmaking body is presumed to know the meaning of the words employed in the statute and to have used them advisedly. (See also Phil.´ To follow petitioners¶ thinking that private respondent is entitled to three (3) months salary only simply because it is the lesser amount is to completely disregard and overlook some words used in the statute while giving effect to some. No. i. OFW who worked for only 21 days of her 1-year contract. [G. No. the Supreme Court explained when an OFW is entitled to the three (3) months salary mentioned in the aforequoted Section 10 of R. he is entitled to receive his salaries equivalent to the unexpired portion of his contract. [313 SCRA 88 (1999)]. This is evident from the words ³for every year of the unexpired term´ which follows the words ³salaries xxx for three months. Consequently. whether his salaries for the unexpired portion of his employment contract or three (3) months salary for every year of the unexpired term. 8042 [supra] clearly reveals that the choice of which amount to award an illegally dismissed overseas contract worker comes into play only when the employment contract has a term of at least one (1) year or more. 2004). November 12. 2003]. NLRC. whichever is lower. To reiterate. (Phil. vs. Inc. or three months¶ salary f or every year of the unexpired term. said the High Court. if his contract is for a period of at least one year. 148407. a plain reading of the provision of Section 10 of Republic Act No. which involves a one-year contract and yet. Employ Services and Resources.e. R. Noteworthy is the holding of the Supreme Court in Olarte vs. whichever is less. vs. Paramio. 144786. 144786. No. it was ruled therein that the 3-month salary principle should be applied thereto. Nayona. chanrobles In the earlier case of Marsaman Manning Agency. Employ Services and Resources. April 15. G. However. Paramio. is entitled only to an amount corresponding to her three (3) months salary. an illegally dismissed overseas Filipino worker whose actual employment was only for twenty one (21) days of her 1-year contract. the OFW having worked for only 21 days of the 1-year period. R. 8042. vs. which is obviously less than her salaries for the unexpired portion of her one-year employment contract. . Inc. It was ruled therein that a plain reading of said provision clearly reveals that the choice of which amo unt to award an illegally dismissed overseas contract worker.virtual law library an overseas Filipino worker who is illegally terminated shall be entitled to his salary equivalent to the unexpired portion of his employment contract if such contract is less than one year. Inc. No. This is contrary to the wellestablished rule in legal hermeneutics that interpreting a statute.. R. comes into play only when the employment contract concerned has a term of at least one (1) year or more. A. 2004). April 15. Ut res magis valeat quam pereat.

All the costs attendant thereto should be borne by the agency concerned and/or its principal. 10 months and 28 days.). vs. R. R. Inc. The OFW in Athenna was contracted to render work in Taiwan for one year. 144786. had granted full reimbursement of the placement fee with 12% interest per annum. ten months and twenty-eight days.040. nine months and twenty -eight days. (Ibid. He was. terminated after only a month of service.000 would be paid on a monthly salary deduction upon his deployment. however. Note that the fraction of nine months and twenty-eight days is considered as one whole year following the Labor Code. 2005]. the unexpired portion of his contract is admittedly one year. No. that while respondent was assessed P94. OFW¶s monetary awards include reimbursement of placement fee. since respondent was dismissed after only one month of service. Thus. No. Inc. the same award of full reimbursement of the OFW¶s placement fee with interest at twelve percent (12%) per annum was ordered by the Supreme Court. 151303. Villanos. No. Likewise. with the qualification.840 = NT$95. chanrobles virtual law library As held in Athenna International Manpower Services.000 on the agreement that the balance of P64. the Supreme Court. in Athenna [supra]. he paid only P30.OFW who worked for only a month of his contract for 1 year.000 in placement fee. and the other is the grant of three months salary for every year of the unexpired term. [G. Under Section 15 of R. subject to proper conversion to Philippine currency by Labor Arbiter Cresencio Iniego. Paramio. . April 15. in addition to the monetary award. the repatriation of the worker and the transport of his personal belongings are the primary responsibilities of the agency which recruited or deployed the overseas contract worker. respondent¶s lumpsum salary should be computed as follows: 3 months x 2 (years)= 6 months worth of salary 6 months x (NT$) 15. vs. Employ Services and Resources. for the computation of the lump-sum salary due an illegally dismissed overseas employee. Consequently. hence it is what is due the respondent. however. [G. there are two clauses as points of reckoning: first is the c umulative salary for the unexpired portion of his employment. In Phil. 2004]. 8042. But the applicable clause is not the first but the second: three months salary for every year of the unexpired term. A. as the lesser amount. whichever is lesser. April 15.

[G. The High Court ruled: chanrobles virtual law library ³In order to give substance to the constitutional right of labor to security of tenure. No. which is the P30. [International] Corp. private respondents are entitled to separation pay. In the case of ATCI Overseas Corporation vs. nowhere in the records does it appear that private respondents desire to be reinstated to their former employment.¶ Prevailing jurisprudence dictates that the employee be given one month pay for every year of service. inclusive of allowances. August 9. 143949. 2001]. respondent cannot be granted reimbursement of the entire assessed amount of P94. Therefore. as an alternative to reinstatement. Article 279 provides that the illegally dismissed employee shall be entitled to reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and other privileges and to his full backwages. [G. He is only entitled to the reimbursement of the amount of placement fee he actually paid. 2001]. No. This was by reason of the illegality of his dismissal.Hence. But more significantly. chanrobles virtual law library Reimbursement of repatriation expenses such as return airfare. The illegally dismissed employee is granted separation pay in order to provide him with µthe wherewithal during the period that he is looking for another employment. the Supreme Court awarded them backwages and separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. ³As to the second remedy granted by Article 279. any order of reinstatement issued by this Court will be difficult for private respondents to enforce against the Ministry of Public Health of Kuwait.000 he gave as downpayment plus interest at twelve percent (12%) per annum. allowed the refund for the repatriation plane ticket of the OFW. or from 17 October 1991 to 19 August 1993.T. R. The POEA held that the backwages to be awarded to private respondents should be computed from the time they were illegally dismissed until the expiration of their contract of employment. Considering that private respondents herein have only . We concur for this is the amount which private respondents would have received had they not been unlawfully dismissed. The case of Sevillana vs. 99047. in lieu of reinstatement.. chanrobles virtual law library ³The award of backwages is intended to restore to the employee the earnings which he lost due to his illegal dismissal. and to his other benefits or their monetary equivalent computed from the time his compensation was withheld from him up to the time of his actual reinstatement. R. April 16.000. CA. where the two (2) private respondent-OFWs were declared as regular employees. upheld. I. Award of backwages and separation pay to OFWs.

Concept and legal basis. the monetary award equivalent to the salary for the unexpired portion should be paid at its prevailing peso equivalent at the time of payment in accordance with Republic Act No. Aug. 113363. in the case of ATCI Overseas [supra]. for all claims filed by recruited workers which may arise in connection with the recruitment agreements or employment contracts.000 as exemplary damages.´ Entitlement to moral and exemplary damages and attorney¶s fees. partnership. the foreign-based employer.000 in moral damages and P50. (Sevillana vs. 24. Inc. the High Tribunal ruled that because of the breach of contract and bad faith alleged against the employer and the petitioner recruitment agency.. only the employer-corporation.T. Likewise. No. NLRC. As a general rule. 8183 which provides in its Section 1 that ³[a]ll monetary obligations shall be settled in the Philippine currency which is legal tender in the Philippines. the parties may agree that the obligation or transaction shall be settled in any other currency at the time of payment. vs. the award of P50. PERSONAL LIABILITY OF STOCKHOLDERS OR CORPORATE OFFICERS FOR CLAIMS OF EMPLOYEES. association or any other entity. Empire Insurance Company vs. However. supra. must be sustained. 48. In the same 2005 case of Athenna [supra]. which may be held liable for . [International] Corp. the award of attorney¶s fees equivalent to ten percent (10%) of the total award was held legally and morally justified as the OFWs were compelled to litigate and thus incur expenses to protect their rights and interests. in addition to attorney¶s fees of ten percent (10%) of the aggregate monetary awards.worked for two months. a. Asia World Recruitment. chanrobles virtual law library Monetary awards in foreign currency. how paid. Private employment or recruitment agencies are jointly and se verally liable with its principal. G. Joint and solidary obligation of local agency and foreign principal. In case the salary of an illegally dismissed employee is in foreign currency (say. NLRC.´ (Republic Act No. 294 SCRA 263). R. and not its officers. US Dollars) as in the case of OFWs. 1999). 8183 entitled ³An Act Repealing Republic Act Numbered Five Hundred Twenty-Nine Entitled µAn Act to Assure the Uniform Value of Philippine Coin and Currency¶´. I. they are entitled to a separation pay equivalent to one-sixth of their monthly salary.

113907. [G.illegal dismissal of employees or for other wrongful acts. the NLRC declared the corporate officers of a hotel solidarily liable in order ³to deter other foreign employer[s] from repeating the inhuman treatment of their Filipino employees who should be treated with equal respect especially in their own land and prevent further violation of their human rights as employees. R. there must be an allegation or showing that the officers of the corporation deliberately or maliciously designed to evade the financial obligation of the corporation to its employees or a showing that the officers indiscriminately stopped its business to perpetrate an illegal act as a vehicle for the evasion of existing obligations. responsibility for the payment of separation pay in lieu of reinstatement. No. G. Jan. No. Inc. No. attorney¶s fees and other monetary awards in an illegal dismissal case devolves upon the employer-corporation. 117593. R. R. July 10. 1997). R. NLRC.´ chanrobles virtual law library In Acesite Corporation vs. Oct. [G. 2005]. (Seaborne Carriers Corporation vs. . 152308. it was held in Malayang Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa M. Greenfield [MSMG-UWP] vs. R. Even assuming that the respondent company officials are also officers and incorporators of the satellite companies. G. such circumstance does not in itself amount to fraud. and to confuse legitimate issues. NLRC. (Brent Hospital. 1989 and that these corporations have different sets of incorporators aside from the respondent officers and are holding their principal offices at different locations. chanrobles virtual law library Hence. 1994). In such a case. No. That the superiors just happened to be foreigners is of no moment. moral and exemplary damages.´ The Supreme Court disagreed and reversed the said finding of the NLRC considering that the ³records of the case do not show any inhuman treatment of the (illegally dismissed employee) and the allegation of bad faith or malice was not proven. April 20. (Citing Del Rosario vs. 2001]: ³Petitioners¶ claim that the jobs intended for the respondent company¶s regular employees were diverted to its satellite companies where the respondent company officers are holding key positions is not substantiated and was raised for the first time in this motion for reconsideration. The documents attached to petitioners¶ motion for reconsideration show that these satellite companies were established prior to the filing of petitioners¶ complaint against private respondents with the Department of Labor and Employment on September 6. NLRC. backwages. Substantial identity of incorporators between respondent company and these satellite companies does not necessarily imply fraud. April 15. vs. respondent company¶s corporate personality remains inviolable. To justify solidary liability. (Reahs vs. Thus. Ramos. 117473. G. NLRC. No. 1998). 26. in circumvention of statutes. 187 SCRA 777). NLRC. 04. 88795.

´ If not so included. The term ³employer. C. (Concorde Hotel vs. CA. The rule is clear. chanrobles virtual law library The reason is simple: as held in Kay Products.b. NLRC. 144089. June 13. Ransom Labor Union-CCLU vs. NLRC. ³includes any person acting in the interest of an employer. 2001). vs. A person cannot be held jointly and severally liable for the obligations of the company arising from illegal dismissal if the dismissed employee failed to establish that such person is a stockholder or an officer thereof. (Gudez vs. 273 SCRA 352]. may be held liable for the payment of the employee¶s claims. directly or indirectly. R. 183023. No. Rule when company ceased operations. 102467. June 10. Aug. No.´ according to Article 212 [e] of the Labor Code. 1997. [G. there must be a natural person who should be acting for its interest. the employees will have no recourse if corporate employers will evade the payment of their lawful claims. March 22. the officers. R. The corporate officer must be identified as suc h to hold him liable. the Supreme Court. 1986. Pursuant to prevailing jurisprudence. it was held in Equitable Banking Corporation vs. particularly the president. NLRC. it was ruled that a corporation is the employer only in its technical sense. R. 142 SCRA 269]. R. . 146267. the President or highest officer should be held liable. No. No. c. 1990). Ransom [supra]. When the company ceased to operate. Inc. G. [L-69494. the manager cannot be exonerated from her joint and several liability in the payment of monetary award to the illegally dismissed employee in her capacity as manager and responsible officer of the company. February 17. chanrobles virtual law library In A. G. No. 9. C. conformably with its ruling in A. [G. When officers are solidarily liable. that the President of the corporation should be considered as the ³officer´ who should be held liable. who may be held jointly and severally liable for the obligations of the corporation to its dismissed employees. R. chanrobles virtual law library d. e. [G. NLRC. CA. Being an artificial person. chanrobles virtual law library In NYK International Knitwear Corporation Philippines vs. Absence of clear identification of officer directly responsible. chanrobles virtual law library In the absence of a clear identification of the officer directly responsible for failure to pay backwages or other monetary claims. 2003]. held the manager as falling within the meaning of an ³employer´ as contemplated under Article 212 [e] of the Labor Code.

Equitable [supra] pronounced that it is the Vice-President of the company who should be held liable being the highest and most ranking official of the corporation next to the complaining President. R. March 13. of course. chanrobles virtual law library The rule. and plant security officer were impleaded in the case does not make them solidarily liable absent any showing . June 21. 269 SCRA 564]. [G. chanrobles virtual law library f. 141926. the corporate officer cannot be held liable for the said monetary awards. Inc. vs. none of them may be compelled to satisfy in full said judgment. (Inciong. R. 257 SCRA 578 [1996]). vs. In this situation. No. assistant vice-president and general manager. vs. Corporate officers cannot be held liable absent any finding in the decision to that effect. says that if the Labor Arbiter neither made any finding in his decision that the corporate officer acted with malice or bad faith in ordering the suspension or dismissal of the employee nor did he hold the said corporate officer liable. is different if it was the President who was dismissed and who filed the claim for unpaid wages. citing Naguiat vs. Daniel. There is a solidary liability on ly when the obligation expressly so states. falls within the meaning of an ³employer´ as contemplated by the Labor Code. [G. CA. either jointly or severally with the corporation. July 14. [G.as in this case . declares that the mere fact that the president and chief exec utive officer. who may be held jointly and severally liable for the obligations of the corporation to its dismissed employees. Decision must state in its fallo that the obligation is solidary.162472. 2004]. Timbal. Tan vs. It appears that the only reason they were impleaded was the fact that they were officers and/or agents of petitioner company. for failure of the parties to appeal therefrom. R. 156893. [G. chanrobles virtual law library Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. Jr. had already become final and executory.that the dismissal was attended with malice or bad faith. chanrobles virtual law library g.. No. NLRC. More so in a case where the decision of the Labor Arbiter. NLRC. No. 1997. chanrobles virtual law library In the dispositive portion of the Labor Arbiter¶s decision in the 2000 case of Industrial Management International Development Corp. when the law so provides or when the nature of the obligation so requires. 2005]. July 28.. 116123. chanrobles virtual law library When it is not provided in a judgment that the defendants are liable to pay jointly and severally a certain sum of money. 2005]. for the monetary award in favor of the employee. . the president of the company who actively manages the business. Jr.

3. ³Project employment´ where the employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee. ³Regular employment´ where. the employee is allowed to work after a probationary period. project or seasonal employment as these kinds of employment are defined under Article 280 of the Labor Code. c. their liability sho uld merely be joint. with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists. chanrobles virtual law library . whether such service is continuous or not. 101723. chanrobles virtual law librar y REGULAR EMPLOYMENT 49. the correction . Once a decision or order becomes final and executory.which is substantial . the employee has rendered at least one year of service. Moreover. ³Casual employment´ which is not in the nature of a regular.R. chanrobles virtual law library b. May 11. ³Seasonal employment´ where the work or service to be performed by the employee is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. The fallo expressly states the parties liable without mentioning therein that their liability is solidary. notwithstanding any written or oral agreement between the employer and the employee to the contrary: a. the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. even granting that the Labor Arbiter has committed a mistake in failing to indicate in the dispositive portion that the liability of respondents therein is solidary. 2000].can no longer be allowed because the judgment has already become final and executory. shall be considered a regular employee with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists. the word ³solidary´ does not appear. that any employee who has rendered at least one year of service. What are the kinds of employment? 1. No. whether such service is continuous or broken. and such job. provided. There is casual employment where an employee is engaged to perform a job. 2. In this case. 4. work or service which is merely incidental to the business of the employer. work or service is for a definite period made known to the employee at the time of engagement. it is removed from the power or jurisdiction of the court which rendered it to further alter or amend it.

Jr. 162472. there is no more need to dwell further on the question of whether or not they had rendered one (1) year of service (regularity of employment by period of service) under the second paragraph thereof which applies only to casual employees. 556 (1998)]. July 28. Repeated rehiring. Casual employee becomes regular after one year of service by operation of law. G.5. effect. What is the concept of regular and casual employment? Once it is established that the employees are regular under the first paragraph of Article 280 (regularity of employment by nature of work). No. They also include contracts to which the parties by free choice. chanrobles virtual law library 50. 7. CA. Hence. If the employee has been performing the job for at least one year. 2005). chanrobles virtual law library b. 2002). [284 SCRA 539. The status of regular employment attaches to the casual worker on the day immediately after the end of the first year of service. ³Probationary employment´ where the employee is on trial by an employer during which the employer determines the qualification of the employee for regular employment. even if the performance is not continuous or merely intermittent. 52. ³Fixed-period employment´ contracts are not limited to those by nature. G. "Part-time employment´ is a single. 51. the employment is also considered regular but only with respect to such activity and while such activity exists. regular or voluntary form of employment with hours of work substantially shorter than those considered as normal in the establishment. according to Maraguinot. R. seasonal or for specific projects with pre-determined dates of completion provided under the Labor Code. (Tan vs. 15. When may a project employee become regular employee? A project employee. vs. (Kay Products. vs. Aug. Lagrama. Inc. When does a casual employee become a regular employee? a. 6. may acquire the status of a regular employee when the following factors concur: . 151228. the law deems the repeated and continuing need for its performance as sufficient evidence of the necessity if not indispensability of that activity to the business. NLRC. have assigned a specific date of termination. R. No.

R. not separated from service but merely on leave of absence without pay until they are reemployed in another project. the petitioner-employer insisted that the employees were project employees . NLRC. 762 (1997)]. they performed work which was usually necessary and desirable to petitioner¶s business which involves construction of roads and bridges. 5. 79869. No. 201 SCRA 332). 468). however. NLRC. 269 SCRA 453. the completion or termination of the project at the time the employee was engaged if the objectives of Article 280 are to be achieved. No. and (2) The tasks performed by the alleged ³project employee´ are vital. G. strictly speaking. NLRC.(1) There is a continuous (as opposed to intermittent) rehiring of project employees even after cessation of a project for the same tasks or nature of tasks. Regular employment is inconsistent with project employment. 22. The employees are. 1991. Sept. R. Like regular seasonal employees. [345 Phil. chanrobles virtual law library Project employment is akin to seasonal employment. [G. NLRC. 1997. or a clear agreement on. No. the agreement between a project employee and his employer must strictly conform to the requirements and conditions under Article 280 of the Labor Code. (Mercado vs. necessary and indispensab le to the usual business or trade of the employer. G. R. 2004]. (See also Imbuido vs. G. Court of Appeals. Article 280 states that regular employees are those whose work is necessary or desirable to the usual business of the employer. 114734. Jr. 125837. The two exceptions mentioned therein following the general description of regular employees refer to either project or seasonal employees. (Maraguinot. It is not enough that an employee is hired for a specific project or phase of work. vs. 120969. March 31. Regular employees cannot certainly be at the same time project employees. The term ³project employee´ has also been equated to seasonal employee where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. the employment of project employees is not severed but merely suspended after the completion of the project. R. (Magcalas vs. There must also be a determination of. Jan. The facts. In Chua vs. G. show that as masons. As held in Violeta vs. to be exempted from the presumption of regularity of employment. carpenters and fine graders in petitioner¶s various construction projects. NLRC. No. 1998). No. R. October 6. 100333. 2000). March 13. .

Moreover. Inc. No. R. [348 SCRA 441. NLRC. the Supreme Court ruled that ³the length of service of a project employee is not the controlling test of employment tenure but whether or not µthe employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee. C. citing Rada vs. makes specific exception with respect to projec t employment. or legally dissolve. 1996). vs. The re-hiring of petitioners on a project-to-project basis did not confer upon them regular employment status. those employed in a particular phase of a construction project are also not separated at the same time. R. January 9.3. In D. Some phases of the project are completed ahead of others. 2004]. in the construction industry.¶´ In Cioco vs. Sept. NLRC. not to project employees. Series of 1993). less and less employees are required as the phase draws closer to completion. their status as project employees. the last day of service with the employer in the preceding project should be indicated in the employment agreement. G. the project employee may be re-hired for another undertaking provided. vs. 2000]. not determinant of regularity of employment. NLRC. 385 SCRA 306 [2002]). The practice was dictated by the practical consideration that experienced construction workers are more preferred. 9. that such rehiring conforms with the provisions of law and Department Order No. E. Normally. 114290. Consunji. did not automatically make them regular employees considering that the definition of regular employment in Article 280 of the Labor Code. Sept. The second paragraph of Article 280 of the Labor Code providing that an employee who has served for at least one (1) year shall be considered a regular employee. . For this reason.[a] and [b]. 1992]. Department Order No. The simple fact that the employment as project emplo yees has gone beyond one (1) year does not detract from. Length of service. the employees of a particular project are not separated from work at the same time. No. 19. December 18. [G.M. It did not change their status as project employees. (Raycor Aircontrol Systems. (Section 2. the completion of a phase of the project is considered the completion of the project for an employee employed in s uch phase. 19. Inc. (See also Millares vs. it was emphasized that the fact that the workers have been employed with the company for several years on various projects. Upon completion of the project or a phase thereof. 156748. relates to casual employees. In such a case. [205 SCRA 69. Meanwhile. the longest being nine (9) years. 447. NLRC. Construction Corporation. 8. however. Series of 1993.

1994). [G. his employment was held to have ceased to be coterminous with specific projects when he was repeatedly re-hired due to the demands of petitioner¶s business. 104444-49. Where from the circumstances it is apparent that periods have been imposed to preclude the acquisition of tenurial security by the employee. are legally entitled to remain in the service of their employer until that service is terminated by one or . NLRC. is extended long after the supposed project had been finished. distinguished. Dec. No. [G. Consequently. R. 2005] where the employee involved was employed with the company for ten (10) years in various projects. Inc. it can be a strong factor in determining whether the employee was hired for a specific undertaking or in fact tasked to perform functions which are vital. R. Sept. 27. 2005]. R. Where the employment of project employees. For while length of time may not be a controlling test for project employment. good customs or public order. 152427. (Phesco. in contrast. chanrobles virtual law library Termination of employment of project and regular employees. Nos. When length of service of project employee indicates regularity of employment. 153832. Inc. March 18. No. Regular employees. Puente. NLRC. Inc. (Tomas Lao Construction. morals. 5. NLRC. The Supreme Court said that such length of time did not ipso facto make him a regular employee or change his status as a project employee. vs. R. private respondent had been a project employee several times over. The services of project employees are coterminous with the project and may be terminated upon the end or completion of the project for which they were hired. vs. 116781. in Integrated Contractor and Plumbing Works. G.The same holding was made in Filipinas Pre -Fabricated Building Systems [Filsystems]. August 9. Thus. 1997). the employees are removed from the scope of project employees and they shall be considered regular employees. necessary and indispensable to the usual business or trade of the employer as when the employees had already gone through the status of project employees and their employments became non-coterminous with specific projects when they started to be continuously re-hired due to the demands of the employer¶s bus iness and were re-engaged for many more projects without interruption. G. vs. vs. they should be struck down as contrary to public policy. Repeated extensions of the employment contracts long after the completion of the project for which they were allegedly hired will make them regular employees. however. No.

G.another of the recognized modes of termination of service under the Labor Code. No. 1999). Being project employees whose nature of employment they were fully informed about at the time of their engagement. C. R. [April 1.or the phase of work therein to which respondent had been assigned . R. 1993] which superseded said Policy Instructions. No. (Cioco vs.was already completed by October 1. 156748. Sept. Nov. 2004). NLRC. G. Construction Corporation. No. 2000). E. 24. enshrined it as one of the ³indicators´ that a worker is a project employee. the termination was illegal. 24. No prior notice of termination is required if the termination is brought about by completion of the contract or phase thereof for which the worker has been engaged. NLRC. report to DOLE necessary. G. 153832. supra. No. the date when he was dismissed. 114671.computed from the . ALU-TUCP vs. not required. petitioners claim that respondent-employee¶s services were terminated due to the completion of the project. 156748. March 18. 100518. 1999. (Salinas vs. the law merely requires that the employer should render a report to the DOLE on the termination of the employment. however. Here. instead. 20 required the employer-company to report to the nearest Public Employment Office the fact of termination of project employees as a result of the completion of the project or any phase thereof. Puente. inclusive of allowances and other benefits or their monetary equivalents . Policy Instructions No. Legal consequences of termination of project employment. did not eradicate the notice requirement but. There is no allegation or proof. Notice of termination. instead of the notice of termination to the affected project employees upon completion of the project. Jan. 19. vs. 8. The termination of their employment could not be regarded as illegal dismissal. Reinstatement with full back wages. G. that the World Finance Plaza project . R. R. (Magcalas vs. C. their employment legally ends upon completion of said project. (Association of Trade Unions [ATU] vs. 8. (Cioco vs. [G. R. The inescapable presumption is that his services were terminated for no valid cause prior to the expiration of the period of his employment. in which one is employed. E. Accordingly. Abella. No. This is because completion of the work or project automatically terminates the employment. Construction Corporation. Department Order No. Sept. 2004). 234 SCRA 678). Inc. NLRC. hence. The legal effects of termination of project employees is best exemplified by the 2005 case of Filipinas Pre-Fabricated Building Systems [Filsystems]. 2005].

2000).can no longer be reinstated. R. until the date of the completion of the World Finance Plaza project. However. 2004] and in the 2005 case of Ravago vs. Adorable. July 29. they can never become regular employees because their employment contract is for a fixed term. Instead. (Millares. supra). this does not alter the status of his employment from being contractual. petitioner was preferred because of practical considerations ± namely. 2004]. even if the contract provides for an unlimited period. if indeed the World Finance Plaza project has already been completed during the pendency of this suit. Adorable. this should be interpreted not as a basis for regularization but rather as a series of contract renewals sanctioned under the doctrine set down by the second Millares case [supra] rendered on July 29. However. July 27. as clearly expounded in the above-mentioned cases. 157373. then respondent .being a project employee . NLRC. Adelantar. chanrobles virtual law library . Inc. [G. 1999. 2002. 2005]. The exigencies of their work necessitates that they be employed on a contractual basis. No. Esso Eastern Marine. specifically from the time of the termination of his employment on October 1. the same is not valid as it contravenes the explicit provision of the said POEA Rules and Regulations on fixed period employment. Clearly. (Gu -Miro vs. 110524. 158324. That overseas Filipino workers cannot acquire regularity of employment was reiterated in the 2004 case of Gu-Miro vs. G.date of his dismissal until his reinstatement . he shall be entitled to the payment of his salary and other benefits corresponding to the unexpired portion of his employment. No. [G. the Supreme Court ruled that OFWs can become regular employees]. In the same Gu-Miro case [supra]. an OFW cannot be considered a regular employee notwithstanding the fact that the work he performs is necessary and desirable in the business of the company. May OFWs acquire regularity of employment? No. August 20.. No. [Note: in the first decision in the same case (March 14. his experience and qualifications. If at all. 53. R. vs. R.is thus in order. [G. March 14. it was stated that even with the continued re-hiring by the company of the OFW to serve as Radio Offic er on board the employer¶s different vessels. et al. R. No. Ltd. 2002). chanrobles virtual law library OFWs do not become regular employees by reason of nature of work. 160952. vs. And as held in Pentagon International Shipping.

The validity of regular seasonal employment has been affirmed by the Supreme Court in a plethora of cases. The non -deployment of the ship overseas did not affect the validity of the perfected employment contract. it argues that since he was not deployed overseas. 149440. What is regular seasonal employment? Is it valid? Yes. becaus e its object was allegedly absent. Not being considered regular or permanent employees under Article 280. They must have also been employed only for the duration of one season. the decision to use the vessel for coastwise shipping was made by petitioner only and did not bear the written conformity of private respondent. 54. then. (Ravago vs. National Federation of Sugarcane Workers .The contracts of OFWs cease upon expiration thereof. condition. 149440. (Hacienda Fatima vs. NLRC. R. chanrobles virtual law library Seasonal workers who are called to work from time to time and are temporarily laid off during off-season are not separated from the service in said period. Ltd. If the evidence proves the existence of the first. effect. March 5. The claim of petitioner that it processed the con tract of private respondent with the POEA only after he had started working is also without merit. Esso Eastern Marine. Inc. supra. 2003]. which was the rendition of service by private respondent on board the vessel. 2003]. OFWs¶ employment automatically cease upon the expiration of their contracts. but not of the second. However. [G. NLRC. his employment contract became ineffective.Food and General Trade. vs. chanrobles virtual law library In OSM Shipping Philippines. No. January 28. Petitioner cannot use its own misfeasance to defeat his claim. but are merely considered on leave until re-employed. 138193.. the petitioner does not deny hiring private respondent Guerrero as master mariner. Petitioner contends that using the vessel in coastwise trade and subsequently chartering it to another principal had the effect of novating the employment contract. No. No. R. After all . National Federation of Sugarcane Workers -Food and General Trade (G. 2003) The 2003 case of Hacienda Fatima vs. [G. supra). Contrary to petitioner¶s contention. The Supreme Court was not persuaded by this argument. A contract cannot be novated by the will of only one party. the workers . For respondent-workers to be excluded from those classified as regular employees. R. reiterated this rule. January 28. it is not enough that they perform work or services that are seasonal in nature. Hiring of seaman for overseas employment but assigning him to local vessel. the contract had an object. Millares vs.

April 15. 2005). Pancho. 1993]. In fact. (Hacienda Fatima vs. April 14. valid and legal cause for the termination of employment. chanrobles virtual law library If the foregoing criteria are not present. (Philips Semiconductors [Phils. the Supreme Court set down two (2) criteria under which fixed contracts of employment cannot be said to be in circumvention of security of tenure. This is so because alt hough the employer had shown that the employees performed work that was seasonal in nature. chanrobles virtual law library 55.]. 150478. National Feder ation of Sugarcane Workers ± Food and General Trade. . April 29. (See also Hacienda Bino/Hortencia Starke. Fadriquela. petitioners employed respondents for more than one season. It satisfactorily appears that the employer and employee dealt with each other on more or less equal terms with no moral dominance whatever being exercised by the former on the latter. supra). the law considers the matter a case of illegal dismissal and the burden is on the employer to prove that the termination was for a valid and authorized cause. Hence. R. 141717. The fixed period of employment was knowingly and voluntarily agreed upon by the parties. R. [G. No. 141717. without any force. R. Inc. No. 2004). Where there is no showing of cl ear. vs. or 2. the general rule of regular employment is applicable.]. What are the criteria for fixed conracts of employment? In the case of Philippine National Oil Company -Energy Development Corporation vs. G. No. 97747. to wit: 1. No. the employer does not deny that the workers have served for several years already. [G. Starke vs. Inc. R. Inc. 151827. 2005. the contract should be struck down for being illegal. In Philips Semiconductors [Phils. chanrobles virtual law library Failure to re-hire regular seasonal employee for next season amounts to illegal dismissal.not seasonal . they are regular ./Hortencia L. Cuenca. duress or improper pressure being brought to bear upon the employee and absent any other circumstances vitiating his consent. R. Fadriquela. NLRC. G. No. vs. The fact that the employees repeatedly worked as sugarcane workers for petitioner-employer for several years is not denied by the petitioners. Therefore.have become regular employees. the former failed to prove that the latter worked only for the duration of one particular season. [G. The refusal of the employer to furnish work to regular seasonal workers would amount to illegal dismissal. March 31.employees. Evidently. Benares vs.

2004]. (Pangilinan vs. G. the petitioners were employees of the Philippine Veterans Bank (PVB). the parties are forbidden from agreeing on a period of time for the performance of such activities. There is thus nothing essentially contradictory between a definite period of employment and the nature of the employee¶s duties. [G. 1985. domestic and international. 1985. the Supreme Court rejected petitioner¶s submission that it resorted to hiring employees for fixed terms to augment or supplement its regular employment ³for the duration of peak loads´ during short -term surges to respond to cyclical demands. As such. effect if duties are usually necessary or desirable in the employer¶s usual business. 127673. However. 2004]. they cannot be said to be regular employees. but are merely ³contractual employees.April 14. 149329. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2004 case of Pangilinan vs. No. 2000]. General Milling Corporation. It should be noted that it does not necessarily follow that where the duties of the employee consist of activities usually necessary or desirable in the usual business of the employer. R.´ Consequently. the petitioners were hired as ³emergency workers´ and assigned as chicken dressers. R. Fixed-term employment. On the same day of their termination. ad infinitum. hence. packers and helpers at the Cainta Processing Plant of General Milling Corporation (GMC). any worker hired by it for fixed terms of months or years can never attain regular employment status. 612 dated June 7. July 12. No. they were employed on a mere temporary basis. On June 15. there was no illegal dismissal when the petitioners¶ services were terminated by reason of the expiration of their contracts. R. their services were terminated as a result of the liquidation of PVB pursuant to the order of the Monetary Board of the Central Bank embodied in MB Resolutio n No. petitioners were re-hired through PVB¶s Bank Liquidator. and is a distributor of dressed chicken. March 13. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2000 case of Medenilla vs. depending upon the needs of its customers. 149329. No. General Milling Corporation. 2004). Philippine Veterans Bank. [G. all of them were required to sign employment contracts which provided that ³[t]he employment shall be on a strictly tempo rary basis and only for the duration of the particular undertaking for which you are hired and only for the particular days during which actual work is available as determined by the Liquidator or his representatives since the work requirements of the liquidation process merely demand intermittent and temporary rendition . The respondent GMC is a domestic corporation engaged in the production and sale of livestock and poultry. While the petitioners¶ employment as chicken dressers is necess ary and desirable in the usual business of the respondent. Under the petitioner¶s submission. July 12. since their employment was limited to a fixed period. it may hire and retire workers on fixed terms.

the petitioner-employees were initially employed on a fixed -term basis as their employment contracts were only for October 8 to 31. After October 31. [G. Fifteen days into his one-month employment. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of Pantranco North Express. he was dismissed and his contract was no longer renewed. Furthermore. it terminates on the expiration of such period. 2003]. 1994]. 106654. 1994]. No. did not in any way impair the validity of the contractual nature of private respondents¶ contracts of employment which specifically stipulated that their employment was only for one month. No. however. 218 SCRA 366 [1993]). In the 2004 case of Viernes vs. PNOC and Philippine Village Hotel [supra]. lack of notice of termination is of no consequence because when the contract specifies the period of its duration. February 28. The Supreme Court ruled against the complainant. a bus driver was. ³An Act to Rehabilitate Philippine Veterans Bank´. he reappeared and out of generosity. the Supreme Court ruled that the fact that the private respondents therein were required to render services necessary or desirable in the operation of the petitioner¶s business for the durat ion of the one month dry-run operation period. General Milling Corporation. [G. NLRC. NLRC. 1990. dismissed by the bus company for cause. R. 108405. In the case of Philippine Village Hotel vs. was re-hired on a fixed-term contractual basis of one (1) month. which was promulgated on January 2. NLRC. vs. 1992. Later. R. April 4. NLRC. he filed against the company a comp laint for illegal dismissal. After investigation. A contract for employment for a definite period terminates by its own term at the end of such period.´ The Supreme Court interpreted this stipulation as a valid form of fixed-term employment. Blancaflor vs. 105033. (Pangilinan vs. No. supra. Fifteen (15) years later. Notice to terminate not necessary in fixed-term employment. 1990. he figured in a vehicular mishap. claiming that he was constructively dismissed because of the refusal of the latter to renew his contract. it is evident from the records that the subsequent re-hiring of petitioners which was to continue during the period of liquidation and the process of liquidation ended prior to the enactment of RA 7169 entitled. December 16. R. [G. long time ago. Inc. holding that his termination was justified and that the one-month fixed-term contract was valid following the consistent rulings in the cases of Brent School. they were allowed to continue working in the . In a fixed-period employment.of services. chanrobles virtual law library Employees allowed to work beyond fixed term become regular employees.

effect. Inc. Work rendered for more than one year. The continuing need for her services is sufficient evidence of the necessity and indispensability of her services to the company¶s business. 1990. Fadriquela. not merely as probationary employees (since they never were engaged on probationary basis). the private respondent-workers were hired as gardeners. In resolving the issue of whether they had become regular employees. NLRC. April 14. Petitioner employees have attained the status of regular employees. R. is definitely a regular employee. Such re-employment was but a catch-all excuse to prevent her regularization. No. Successive renewal of fixed-period contracts. 141717. In hiring laborers. By operation of law. they are entitled to be reinstated to their former position as regular employees. she had attained the regular status of her employment and is thus entitled to security of tenure . No. although hired initially as contractual employees. In the 2004 case of Philips Semiconductors [Phils. June 19. 274 SCRA 147. if the worker has worked for more than a year and there is a reasonable connection between the particular activity performed by the employee in relation to the usual business or trade of the employer.]. had been converted into regular employees by the sheer length of service they had rendered for the employer by virtue of the proviso in the second paragraph of Article 280. In Megascope General Services vs. vs. the employment of the employees should no longer be treated as being on a fixed -term basis. with the same chores and who remained in the employ of the company without any interruption. R. not only an employmen t relationship is deemed to exist between them but the workers. Hence. it was ruled that an employee who has been engaged to perform work which is necessary or desirable in the business or trade of the company and whose original contract of employment had been extended or renewed for four (4) times ranging from two to three months over a period of one year and twenty-eight days to the same position. [G. 156]. 109224. helpers and maintenance workers. the Supreme Court pronounced that even if there was a contrary agreement between the parties. The complexion of the employment relationship of the employees and private respondent-employer is thereby totally changed. petitioner whose business is contracting out general services. Reinstatement means restoration to a state or condition from which one had been removed or separated.same capacity as meter readers without the benefit of a new contract or agreement or without the term of their employment being fixed anew. then. 1997. effect. [G. The Supreme Court ruled that after October 31. since petitioners are already regular employees at the time of their illeg al dismissal from employment. 2004]. would give them work from 5 to 10 days as the need arose and there were periodical gaps in the hiring of employees.

G. R. 283 SCRA 133]. If thus hired. he became a regular employee. Ultimately.. respondent workers asked petitioner company to extend to them regular appointments. No. NLRC G. 122653. 12.. 71664. 70705. Feb. the workers would then be paid their wages at the end of the day. De Leon vs. respondent workers were employed by petitioner co mpany on a day-to-day basis. Dec. After five months. is a contract which has the purpose of circumventing the employee¶s security of tenure. engaged the services of respondent workers as ³sales route helpers´ for a limited period of five months. No. No. May 9. (Baguio Country Club Corporation vs. Aug. R. NLRC. The practice was for the workers to wait every morning outside the gates of the sales office of petitioner company. Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. [G. No. on e year after he was employed. respondent workers were hired to substitute for regular sales route helpers whenever the latter would be unavailable or when there would be an unexpected shortage of manpower in any of its work places or an unusually high volume of work. Owing to the worker¶s length of service with the company and considering that the nature of his work is usually necessary or desirable in the usual trade or business of the company. sick leave. 1997. the scheme of the employer in hiring workers on a uniformly fixed contract basis of 5 months and replacing them upon the expiration of their contracts with other workers with the same employment status was found to have been designed to prevent the ³casual´ employees from attaining the status of a regular employee. the Supreme Court reasoned that the repeated rehiring of respondent workers and the . In declaring that the workers have become regular employees. holiday pay. Employment on a ³day-to-day basis for a temporary period.).. In Pure Foods Corporation vs.´ A contract which states that the employment of the worker ³shall be on a day-to-day basis for a temporary period´ and that the same may be terminated at any time without liability to the employer other than for salary actually earned up to and including the date of last service. It was a clear circumvention of the employee¶s right to security of tenure and to other benefits like minimum wage. 2003].O. by operation of law. 28.as provided for in Article 279 of the Labor Code. R.W. 21. Inc. chanrobles virtual law library Hiring of employees on a 5-month period basis. vs. 148492. NLRC.M. 1989). Petitioner company refused. cost-of-living allowance. [G. R. Inc. National Organization of Working Men (N. According to petitioner company. 1992. The court rigorously disapproves such contracts which demonstrate a clear attempt to exploit the employee and deprive him of the protection sanctioned by the Labor Code. and 13th month pay. In the 2003 case of Magsalin & Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils.

continuing need for their services clearly attest to the necessity or desirability of their services in the regular conduct of the business or trade of petitioner company. More so here where the Court of Appeals has found each of respondents to have worked for at least one year with petitioner company. The pernicious practice of having employees, workers and laborers, engaged for a fixed period of few months, short of the normal six-month probationary period of employment, and, thereafter, to be hired on a day-to-day basis, mocks the law. Any obvious circumvention of the law cannot be countenanced. The fact that respondent workers have agreed to be employed on such basis and to forego the protection given to them on their security of tenure, demonstrate nothing more than the serious problem of impoverishment of so many of our people and the resulting unevenness between labor and capital. chanrobles virtual law library Employment on ³as the need arises´ basis. In the same 2004 case of Philips Semicond uctors [supra], the employer¶s general and catch-all submission that its policy for a specific and limited period on an ³as the need arises´ basis is not prohibited by law or abhorred by the Constitution; and that there is nothing essentially contradictory between a definite period of employment and the nature of the employee¶s duties, was rejected and struck down by the Supreme Court for being contrary to law. Illegal dismissal of fixed-term employee, liability is only for salary for unexpired portion. As held in the case of Medenilla vs. Philippine Veterans Bank, [G. R. No. 127673, March 13, 2000], if the contract is for a fixed term and the employee is dismissed without just cause, he is entitled to the payment of his salaries corresponding to the unex pired portion of the employment contract. 56. May part-time workers attain regularity of employment? Yes. Probationary employment of part-time employees. Using the legal principles enunciated in Article 281 of the Labor Code on probationary employment vis-à-vis Article 13 of the Civil Code on the proper reckoning of periods, a part-time employee shall become regular in status after working for such number of hours or days which equates to or completes a six-month probationary period in the same establishment doing the same job under the employment contract.

Once a part-time employee becomes a regular employee, he is entitled to security of tenure under the law and he can only be separated for a just or authorized cause and after due process. Indicators of regular employment of part-time employees. One may know if a part-time worker is a regular employee if any of the following conditions exist: a.the terms of his employment show that he is engaged as regular or permanent employee; b.the terms of his employment indicate that he is employed for an indefinite period; chanrobles virtual law library c.he has been engaged for a probationary period and has continued in his employment even after the expiration of the probationary period; or d.the employee performs activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. On the other hand, where the employment contract is fixed or for a definite period only as contemplated by law, part-time employees are likewise entitled to tenurial rights during the entire period of their fixed employment. In other words, they cannot be separated from work without just or authorized cause. In the 2003 case of Philippine Airlines, Inc. vs. Pascua, [G. R. No. 143258, August 15, 2003], involving the regularization of part-time workers to full-time workers, the Supreme Court ruled that although the respondent-employees were initially hired as part -time employees for one year, thereafter the over-all circumstances with respect to duties assigned to them, number of hours they were permitted to work including overtime, and the extension of employment beyond two years can only lead to one conclusion: that they should be declared full -time employees. PROBATIONARY EMPLOYMENT 57. Who is a probationary employee? A probationary employee is one who, for a given period of time, is on observation, evaluation and trial by an employer during which the employer determines whether or not he is qualified for permanent employment. During the probationary period, the employer is given the opportunity to observe the skill, competence, attitude and fitness of the employee while the latter seeks to prove to the employer that he has the qualifications to meet the reasonable standards for permanent employment. (De la Cruz, Jr. vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 145417, Dec. 11,

2003). The word ³probationary´ is appropriately used to underscore the objective or purpose of the period, and not its length which is immaterial. (International Catholic Migration Commission vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 72222, Jan. 30, 1989). The length of time is immaterial in determining the correlative rights of both the employer and the employee in dealing with each other during said period. (Escorpizo vs. University of Baguio, 306 SCRA 497, 507 [1999]). 58. What is the period of probationary employment? General rule. - Probationary period should not exceed six (6) months from the date the employee started working. One becomes a regular employee upon completion of his six-month period of probation. Exceptions. - The six (6) months period provided in the law admits of certain exceptions such as: 1. when the employer and the employee mutually agree on a shorter or longer period; chanrobles virtual law library 2. when the nature of work to be performed by the employee requires a longer period; 3. when a longer period is required and established by company policy. In Buiser vs. Leogardo, (G. R. No. L-63316, July 13, 1984), the Supreme Court considered the probationary period of employmen t of eighteen (18) months as valid since it was shown that the company needs at least 18 months to determine the character and selling capabilities of the employees as sales representatives. 59. May probationary employment be extended? Extension of probationary period. - Probationary period of employment may be extended provided there is mutual consent thereto by the employer and the employee. Employer¶s act of rehiring a probationary employee, effect. The act of the employer in repetitively rehir ing a probationary employee negates the former¶s claim that the latter failed to qualify as a regular employee. As held in Octaviano, vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 88636, Oct. 3, 1991], these successive hirings and firings are a ploy to avoid the obligations imposed by law on employers for the protection and benefit of

probationary employees who, more often than not, are kept in the bondage, so to speak, of unending probationary employment without any complaint due to the serious unemployment problem besetting the country. If no stipulation on probationary period, employment is deemed regular. In the case of ATCI Overseas Corporation vs. CA, [G. R. No. 143949, August 9, 2001], it was ruled that in the absence of any evidence that there is a provision in the employ ment contract providing for a probationary period, or that the employees were apprised of the fact that they were to be placed on probationary status and the requirements that they should comply with in order to qualify as regular employees, no other conclusion can be drawn but that they were regular employees at the time they were dismissed. Probationary employment cannot be ad infinitum. In the 2005 case of Voyeur Visage Studio, Inc. vs. CA, [G. R. No. 144939, March 18, 2005], the Supreme Court had occasion to reiterate its earlier ruling in Bernardo vs. NLRC, [310 SCRA 186 (1999)] that ³Articles 280 and 281 of the Labor Code put an end to the pernicious practice of making permanent casuals of our lowly employees by the simple expedient of extending to them probationary appointments, ad infinitum. The contract signed by petitioners is akin to a probationary employment during which the bank determined the employees¶ fitness for the job. When the bank renewed the contract after the lapse of the six -month probationary period, the employees thereby became regular employees. No employer is allowed to determine indefinitely the fitness of its employees.´ (Emphasis supplied) 60. How should the six-month probationary period be computed? The computation of the 6-month probationary period should be reckoned from the date of appointment up to the same calendar date of the 6th month following. (Cals Poultry Supply Corp. vs. Roco G.R. No.150660. July 30, 2002). However, in the 2004 case of Mitsubishi Motors Ph ilippines Corporation vs. Chrysler Philippines Labor Union, [G. R. No. 148738, June 29, 2004], the Supreme Court, in reckoning the probationary period, applied to the letter, Article 13 of the Civil Code which basically states: chanrobles virtual law libra ry ³Article 13. When the law speaks of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty -five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-four hours; and nights from sunset to sunrise.

³If months are designated by their name, they shall be computed by the number of days which they respectively have. chanrobles virtual law library ³In computing a period, the first day shall be excluded, and the last day included.´ In this case, the respondent employee (Paras) was employed as a management trainee on a probationary basis. During the orientation conducted on May 15, 1996, he was apprised of the standards upon which his regularization would be based. He reported for work on May 27, 1996. As per the company¶s policy, the probationary period was from three (3) months to a maximum of six (6) months. Applying said Article 13 of the Civil Code, the probationary period of six (6) months consists of one hundred eighty (180) days. This is in conformity with paragraph one, Article 13 of the Civil Code, which provides that the months which are not designated by their names shall be understood as consisting of thirty (30) days each. The number of months in the probationary period, six (6), should then be multiplied by the number of days within a month, thirty (30); hence, the period of one hundred eighty (180) days. chanrobles virtual law library As clearly provided for in the last paragraph of Article 13, in computing a period, the first day shall be excluded an d the last day included. Thus, the one hundred eighty (180) days commenced on May 27, 1996, and ended on November 23, 1996. Consequently, when the termination letter dated November 25, 1996 was served on respondent Paras at 3:00 a.m. of November 26, 1996, he was, by then, already a regular employee of the petitioner under Article 281 of the Labor Code. chanrobles virtual law library But in the earlier case of Cebu Royal vs. Deputy Minister of Labor, [153 SCRA 38 (1987)], the 6-month probationary period was reckoned from the date of appointment up to the same calendar date of the 6th month following. The 2002 case of Cals Poultry Supply Corporation vs. Roco, [G. R. No. 150660, July 30, 2002], followed the said reckoning/computation enunciated in the Cebu Royal case [supra]. In this case, the probationary employee was hired on May 16, 1995 and her services were terminated on November 15, 1995. The Court of Appeals set aside the NLRC ruling on the ground that at the time the probationary employee¶s serv ices were terminated, she had attained the status of a regular employee as the termination on November 15, 1995 was effected four (4) days after the 6-month probationary period had expired, hence, she is entitled to security of tenure in accordance with Article 281 of the Labor Code.

Petitioner Cals argues that the Court of Appeals¶ computation of the 6 month probationary period is erroneous as the termination of the probationary employee¶s services on November 15, 1995 was exactly on the last day of the 6-month period. Citing Cebu Royal [supra], the Supreme Court agreed with petitioner Cals¶ contention as upheld by both the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC that the probationary employee¶s services were terminated within and not beyond the 6-month probationary period. 61. Standards should be made known to employee at start of engagement. The rudiments of due process demand that an employee should be apprised beforehand of the conditions of his employment and the basis for his advancement. (Servidad vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 128682, March 18, 1999; Orient Express Philippines, vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 113713, June 11, 1997). If standards are not made known to the employee at start of employment, he is deemed a regular employee from day one. According to the Rules to Implement the Labor Code, in all cases of probationary employment, the employer should make known to the employee the standards under which he will qualify as a regular employee at the time of his engagement. Where no standards are made known to the employee at that time, he should be deemed a regular employee. (Section 6 [d], Rule I, Book VI, Rules to Implement the Labor Code, as amended by Article V, Department Order No. 10, Series of 1997). This rule was applied in the 2005 case of Clarion Printing House, In c. vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 148372, June 27, 2005], where it was held that since at the time the employee was hired on probationary basis she was not informed of the standards that would qualify her as a regular employee, she was deemed to have been hired from day one as a regular employee. (See also Cielo vs. NLRC, 193 SCRA 410, 418 [1991]). However, in the case of Aberdeen Court, Inc. vs. Agustin, Jr., [G. R. No. 149371, April 13, 2005], the Supreme Court cautioned that the above rule should not be used to exculpate a probationary employee who acts in a manner contrary to basic knowledge and common sense, in regard to which there is no need to spell out a policy or standard to be met. In this case, the electrical engineer undergoing probationary employment was dismissed because he failed in the performance of his task as such. Quoting with approval the findings of the NLRC, the Supreme Court ruled: ³It bears stressing that even if technically the reading of air exhaust balancing is not within the realm of expertise of the complainant, still it ought not to be missed that prudence and due diligence imposed upon

him not to readily accept the report handed to him by the workers of Centigrade Industries. Required of the complainant was that he himself proceed to the work area, inquire from the workers as to any difficulties encountered, problems fixed and otherwise observe for himself the progress and/or condition/quality of the work performed. chanrobles virtual law library ³As it is, We find it hard to believe that complainant would just have been made to sign the report to signify his presence. By saying so, complainant is inadvertently degrading himself from an electrical engineer to a mere watchdog. It is in this regard that We concur with the respondents that by his omission, lack of concern and grasp of basic knowledge and common sense, complainant has shown himself to be undeserving of continued employment from probationary employee to regular employee.´ 62. What is the effect of allowing an employee to work beyond the probationary period? An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period is considered a regular employee. (Article 281, Labor Code; Philippine National Bank vs. Cabansag, G. R. No. 157010, June 21, 2005). chanrobles virtual
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An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period shall be considered a regular employee. Thus, in one case, an employee was considered already on permanent status when he was dismissed four (4) days after he ceased to be a probationer. (Cals Poultry Supply Corp. vs. Roco G.R. No.150660. July 30, 2002). 63. What are the grounds to terminate probationary employment? Under Article 281, a probationary employee may be terminated on two (2) grounds, to wit: (a) for a just cause; or (b)when employee fails to qualify as a regular employee in accordance with reasonable standards made known by the employer to the employee at the start of the employment. (Aberdeen Court, Inc. vs. Agustin, Jr., G. R. No. 149371, April 13, 2005). Assignment to a job different from that applied for. In the 3005 case of Athenna International Manpower Services, Inc. vs. Villanos, [G. R. No. 151303, April 15, 2005], the OFW was terminated while, as alleged by petitioner, still undergoing probationary employment for a period of forty (40) days. In declaring the termination as illegal, the

Supreme Court ruled that even assuming respondent was a mere probationary employee as claimed by petitioner, respondent could only be terminated for a pertinent and just cause, such as when he fails to qualify as a regular employee in accordance with reasonable standards of employment made known to him by his employer at the time of his engagement. Here, it appears that the petitioner failed to prove that, at the time of respondent¶s engagement, the employer¶s reasonable standards for the job were made known to respondent. Moreover, in this case, respondent was assigned to a job different from the one he applied and was hired for. Termination due to poor performance; effect of high performance rating after temporary reinstatement. A probationary employee was dismissed in Lucero vs. CA, [G. R. No. 152032, July 3, 2003], for unsatisfactory performance prior to the expiration of his probationary employment. He was ordered reinstated by the NLRC while the case was pending appeal. During the period of his reinstatement, he was given a high rating of ³very satisfactory´ in his work performance. The Supreme Court, however, did not give any weight to said high rating. It ruled: ³It would be difficult to sustain the stand taken by petitioner that the Court of Appeals erred in ignoring his subsequent high performance rating. The high rating of ³very satisfactory´ obtained by petitioner after his reinstatement, in compliance with the order of the NLRC, was not controlling, the point in question being his performance during the probationary period of the employment.´ Peremptory termination of probationary employment. In the 2003 case of Cebu Marine Beach Resort vs. NLRC, [G. R. No. 143252, October 23, 2003], the respondents-probationary employees, while undergoing special training in Japanese customs, traditions, discipline as well as hotel and resort services of the newly opened resort, were suddenly scolded by the Japanese conducting the training and hurled brooms, floor maps, iron trays, fire hoses and other things at them. In protest, respondents staged a walk-out and gathered in front of the resort. Immediately, the Japanese reacted by shouting at them to go home and never to report back to work. Heeding his directive, respondents left the premises. Eventually, they filed a complaint for illegal dismissal and other monetary claims against petitioners. chanrobles virtual
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The Supreme Court, in holding that the dismissal of the probationary employees were illegal, ruled that the respondents could not have failed to qualify for their positions since at the time they were dismissed, they were still in a ³trial period´ or probationary period. Being in the nature of a ³trial period,´ the essence of a probationary period of employment

No. on the other hand. In the 2005 case of Aberdeen Court. in the case at bar. April 13. the employer is liable for nominal damages in the amount of P30. propriety and efficiency of a probationer to ascertain whether he is qualified for permanent employment. it was held that if a probationary employee was dismissed for just cause but without affording him the required notice. the doctrinal ruling in the leading case of Agabon vs. Agabon doctrine applies if dismissal of probationary employee is without due process. NLRC. While the employer observes the fitness. 2004]. vs. far from allowing the respondents to prove that they possessed the qualifications to meet the reasonable standards for their permanent employment. No. 158693. Inc. [G. To reiterate. 65. seeks to prove to the employer that he has the qualifications to meet the reasonable standards for permanent employment which obviously were made known to him. G. and (e) Other causes analogous to the foregoing. (b) Gross and habitual neglect by the employee of his duties. Jr. (d) Commission of a crime or offense by the employee against the person of his employer or any immediate member of his family or his duly authorized representatives..R. 2005]. Agustin. What is serious misconduct? . What are the just causes for termination of employment under Article 282 of the Labor Code? An employer may terminate an employment for any of the following causes: (a) Serious misconduct or willful disobedience by the employee of the lawful orders of his employer or representative in connection with his work.000. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT BY THE EMPLOYER JUST CAUSES FOR TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT 64. November 17. 149371. shall apply. R. petitioners peremptorily dismissed them fro m the service. Consequently. the probationer.fundamentally lies in the purpose or objective sought to be attained by both the employer and the employee during said period. (c) Fraud or willful breach by the employee of the trust reposed in him by his employer or duly authorized representative.

In the 2005 case of Fujitsu Computer Products Corporation of the Philippines vs. the Supreme Court ruled in a 2000 case that the act of the employee in throwing a stapler and uttering abusive language upon the person of the plant manager may be considered from a layman¶s perspective as a serious misconduct. 2005]. 4. 153 SCRA 500). 2004). (b) it must relate to the performance of the employee¶s duties. and (c) it must show that the employee has become unfit to continue working for the employer.For misconduct or improper behavior to be a just cause for dismissal: (a) it must be serious. G. may constitute serious misconduct. G. may constitute serious misconduct. April 8. chanrobles virtual law library Series of irregularities. when considered together or in their entirety. 73735. [G.. Lanao del Norte Electric Cooperative.. No. To reiterate. R.Requisites. in order to consider it a serious misconduct that would justify dismissal under the law. Aug. the act must have been done in relation to the performance of his duties as would show him to be unfit to continue working for his employer. R. Indeed. a series of irregularities when put together may constitute serious misconduct. (Piedad vs. CA. 31. Wyeth Phils. when put together.. R. 149629. Inc. Inc. 158232. No. Throwing a stapler and uttering invectives against a plant manager. Oct. chanrobles virtual law library In a 2004 case where the employee was shown to have committed various violations of the company¶s rules and regulations. (Gustilo vs. the respondent¶s act of sending an e-mail message as an expression of sympathy for the plight of a superior can hardly be characterized as serious misconduct as to merit the penalty of dismissal.. No. Applying the foregoing standards. A series of irregularities. the Supreme Court ruled that his dismissal from the service is in order. There is no showing that the sending of such e-mail message had any bearing or relation on respondent¶s competence and proficiency in his job. it must have been done in relation to the performance of her duties as would show her to be unfit to continue . An employee¶s fitness for continued employment cannot be compartmentalized or taken in isolation from one act to another. However. a valid ground to termi nate employment. 1987. in order to consider it a serious misconduct that would justify dismissal under the law.

the Supreme Court affirmed the validity of the dismissal of petitioner who was caught red -handed possessing and using methampethamine hydrochloride or shabu in a raid conducted inside the company premises by PAL security officers and NARCOM personnel. 124617. Her employment identification card discloses the nature of her employment as a nurse and no other.working for her employer. immorality was defined as a course of conduct which offends the morals of the community and is a bad example to the youth whose ideals a teacher is supposed to foster . No. As a general rule. Roquero was tasked with the repair and maintenance of PAL¶s airplanes. In the 2003 case of Roquero vs. Inc. Hence. For instance.. His failure to do his job can mean great loss of lives and properties. did not in any way pertain to her duties as a nurse. [G. Philippine Air Lines. He cannot discharge that duty if he is a drug user. G. There is no question that the possession and use by an employee of methampethamine hydrochloride or shabu is a just cause to terminate employment as it constitutes s erious misconduct under Article 282 of the Labor Code. 152329. He took the drugs fully knowing that he was on duty and more so that it is prohibited by company rules. in a case involving a teacher. No. immorality is not a just ground to terminate employment. The acts complained of. Said the Supreme Court: ³It is of public knowledge that drugs can damage the mental faculties of the user. (Philippine Aeolus Automotive United Corporation vs. Hence. she cannot be held in violation therefor. even if he was instigated to take drugs he has no right to be reinstated to his position. under the circumstances they were done. the memorandum informing her that she was being preventively suspended pending investigation of her case was addressed to her as a nurse. NLRC. R. Instigation is only a defense against criminal liability. April 28. 2003]. Also. Use of shabu.´ Immorality. 2000). The exception is when such immoral conduct is prejudicial or detrimental to the interest of the employer. April 22. The standard to be used to determine whether the immoral conduct adversely affects the interest of the employer is whether the immoral act is of such nature which may be considered calculated to undermine or injure such interest or which would make the worker incapable of performing his work. It cannot be used as a shield against dismissal fro m employment especially when the position involves the safety of human lives. R. valid ground to terminate employment.

If the two eventually fell in love despite the disparity of t heir ages and academic levels. Inc. Sexual intercourse inside company premises constitutes serious misconduct. 1998. No. 28. 115795. 4515). (Navarro III vs. R. such behavior amounts to immorality. G. Damasco. G. 1988). when a teacher engages in extra-marital relationship. is not an immoral act which would justify the termination of her employment. yielding to this gentle and universal emotion is not to be so casually equated with . No. Jr. 101875. L-74187. No. A security coordinator committed serious breaches of company rules when he caused the introduction of intoxicating liquor into the premises which he drank with another guard on duty. NLRC. Ang Tibay. 1995). Jan. not immoral. especially when the parties are both married. The act of a 30-year old lady teacher. The school utterly failed to show that petitioner took advantage of her position to court her student. G. justifying his termination from employment. chanrobles virtual law library Immoral act committed beyond office hours. R. But. the dismissal of the supervisor who maintained a concubine and practically drove his family away because of his illicit relationship was held legal. R. the same including sexual misconduct. The Code of Employee Discipline is very clear that immoral conduct ³within the company premises regardless of whether or not [it is] committed during working time´ is punishable. NLRC. of falling in love with her student whose age is 16. July 14. The act of a lady teacher in falling in love with a student. vs. As supervisor. In another case. definitely. (Sanchez vs. while the other guard pretended to be asleep during all the time that the lustful act was commenced until consummated. G. 287 SCRA 117). and allowed two female security guards to come inside the Security Office and had sexual intercourse with one of them on top of the desk of the Security Head. (Santos. (Stanford Microsystems. the gravity and seriousness of the charges against the teacher stem from his being a married man and at the same time a teacher. Thus.and to elevate. this only lends substance to the truism that the heart has reasons of its own which reason does not know. March 6. vs. The act of sexually harassing a co -employee within the company premises (ladies¶ dormitory) even after office hours is a work -related matter considering that the peace of the company is thereby affected. 54 O. he failed to set a good example to the several personnel under him. Therefore.

Barreda. R. considering the length of service and the surrounding circumstances of the incident. No. Aug. The act of an employee in hurling obscene. R. Fighting within work premises may be deemed a valid ground for the dismissal of an employee. 109362. (North Camarines Lumber Co. insulting or offensive language against his superior is not only destructive of the morale of his co employees and a violation of the company rules and regulations. R. No. does not necessa rily mean that the former was the aggrieved party. 116568. vs. G. 256 SCRA 735). disrupts operations and creates a hostile work atmosphere. (Flores vs. 3. the dismissal of the employee w ho figured in the fight was considered too harsh a penalty. Clave. Sept. 21. G. G. G. (Autobus Workers¶ . Sept. 1998. Sept. R. Such act adversely affects the employer¶s interests for it distracts employees. 25. No. Utterance of obscene. (Chua-Qua vs. No. about 15 meters from the gate. 25. chanrobles virtual law library In one case where the fisticuffs between an employee and a security guard occurred in a store within the company auxiliary compound. The deviation of the circumstances of their marriage from the usual societal pattern cannot be considered as a defiance of contemporary social mores. within company premises in which an employee is involved would warrant his dismissal.immorality. 125548. This attitude towards a supervisor amounted to insubordination and conduct unbecoming of an employee which should merit the penalty of dismissal. Inc. R. 1987).. but also constitutes gross misconduct which is one of the grounds prov ided for by law to terminate the services of an employee. G. This is especially true when the employee concerned did not instigate the fight and was in fact the victim who was constrained to defend himself. 1990). R. Aug. 1999). L-49549. vs. 296 SCRA 432. however. NLRC. chanrobles virtual law library Fighting as ground for termination. (Solvic Industrial Corp. Not every fight. 1998). 75436. G. May 15. NLRC. (Garcia vs. vs. NLRC. insulting or offensive words constitutes serious misconduct. No. 125548. The fact that an employee filed a criminal case against the other employee involved in a fight while the latter did not. (Solvic Industrial Corp. 441). 30. NLRC. 1996. No. And in another case where the fight occurred outside the work premises and did not lead to any disruption of work or any hostile environment in the work premises. the Supreme Court ruled that the penalty of dismissal was not commensurate with the misconduct.

291 SCRA 219. [G. NLRC. 121035. bullshit yan´ while making the ³dirty finger´ gesture.´ and ³sabihin mo kay EDT. you have to give a goat. 1998. [G. 291 SCRA 219. 276 SCRA 288]. utterances on different occasions towards a co -employee of the following: -´Di bale bilang na naman ang araw mo.´ ± ³Matakot ka sa Diyos. [G. NLRC. you will be terminated. NLRC. 1989.´ was held to constitute insubordination and conduct unbecoming an employee which should warrant his dismissal. R. anti-Filipino utterances and activities. bullshit yan. In De la Cruz vs. [142 SCRA 79 (1986)]. inefficiency. 177 SCRA 626]. the dismissed employee therein likewise posted a notice in the comfort room of the company premises which read: ³Notice to all Sander ± Those who want to remain in this company. 1998.´ The Supreme Court declared the dismissal of said e mployee based on these malicious statements valid and legal.´ ± ³Sige lang. No. the act of an employee in hurling invectives at a company physician such as ³sayang ang pagka -professional mo´ and ³putang ina mo. No. bilang na ang araw mo. Eslava. Titong. µtang ina mo´ was held sufficient ground to dismiss the former. 1997. If you want to remain in this company. . 117453.´ and accusing him of ³mismanagement. June 26. G. Deputy Minister of Labor. 2000]. you must give anything to your foreman. one-man rule. said employee¶s dismissal was held legal in view of these utterances. NLRC. 228]. Mag-ingat ka sa paglabas mo sa Silahis Hotel. NLRC. April 12. 103209. were not held to be sufficient to merit the dismissal of the .Union vs.´ Further. In Bondoc vs. Failure to do so will be terminated ± Alice 80. No. dictatorial policies. [G. R. contemptuous attitude to labor. June 26. petty favoritism. R. R. July 28. eh bilang na bilang na ang araw mo.Unggoy xxx ulol´ were held unquestionably as partaking the form of grave threat or coercion which justified the dismissal of the offender. the dismissed employee circulated several letters to the members of the company¶s board of directors calling the executive vice -president and general manager a ³big fool. lack of planning and foresight. the act of the employee in calling his supervisor ³gago ka´ and taunting the latter by saying ³bakit anong gusto mo. September 15. 228).´ ³sabihin mo kay EDT yan. In Reynolds Philippine Corporation vs.´ As a r esult of this. 117453. R. the dismissed employee made false and malicious statements against the f oreman (his superior) by telling his coemployees: ³If you don¶t give a goat to the foreman. General Manager and President of the company). the following utterances: ³Si EDT (referring to Epitacio D. But in Samson vs.´ ³anti-Filipino. No. [137 SCRA 259 (1985)]. 82703. No. In Autobus Workers¶ Union vs. patawa tawa ka pa. In Asian Design and Manufacturing Corporation vs.

chanrobles virtual law library Intoxication as ground for termination. joined a drinking spree at a birthday party of a co-guard in a sari-sari store near the FTI security office. R. NLRC. in that the said offensive utterances were not made in the presence of the employee¶s superior. 2. constitutes serious misconduct. July 23. failing which. Secretary of Labor. the lesser penalty of 30 -day suspension. No. to drink one evening at the coffee shop of a hotel in Cebu City. of forcing two co -pilots with the rank of First Officers. 1989). No. (Philippine Airlines. For instance. he ordered them to stand erect and were hit on the stomach. G. 121449. Oct. Gambling within company premises. 2. G. 85490. (Del Val vs. R. within thirty minutes. a serious misconduct. 83854. The incident occurred with his full knowledge that his co-pilots have flight duties as early as 7:10 a. Club Filipino. the next day and as late as 12:00 p. 25. G. 121806. Asian Design and Reynolds cases [supra]. R. 1983). was held as constitutive of serious misconduct. L-62961. G. an employee was validly t erminated when he was caught gambling within the company premises. In one case. NLRC. six bottles of beer each.employee. Sept. No. R. the act of a managerial employee of reporting for work under the influence of liquor and sleeping while on duty reflect his unworthiness of the trust and confidence reposed on him. NLRC. 1997. In another case involving two (2) security guards who. Autobus.m. not dismissal. must be taken into account. was the penalty held to be appropriate under . No. It is well-settled by jurisprudence that serious misconduct in the form of drunkenness and disorderly or violent behavior is a just cause for the dismissal of an employee. G. Inc. (Dimalanta vs. and that the penalty of dismissal was unduly harsh considering his 11 years of service to the company. R. (Sanyo Travel Corporation vs. intoxication of an employee which interferes with his work. 296 SCRA 283). May 24. vs. the dignity of his position and the surrounding circumstances of the intoxication. 1992. 1998. No. while off -duty. the nature of the employee¶s work. vs.m. 211 SCRA 717). it being a prohibited act carrying the penalty of termination under the Company Rules. that the company¶s rules and regulations merely provide for ³verbal reminder´ for first offenders. Sept. However. Inc. Sebastian. As a general rule. The Supreme Court justified said finding by distinguishing this case from the De la Cruz. The act of a pilot with the rank of captain.

R. (Tanduay Distillery Labor Union vs. [G. R. vs. June 13.´ Accordingly. No. G. 105763. Dec. No. . 1997. 1965]. vs. R. in the 2000 case of VH Manufacturing. No. July 27.´ If indeed the Night Manager chanced upon respondent-employees sleeping on the job. NLRC. vs. R. 130957. CIR. Meris. are not applicable in this case since the function involved in said cases was ³to protect the company from pilferage or loss. Inc. No. coupled with gross insubordination. 147031. The pressure and influence exerted by a teacher on his colleague to change a failing grade of a student to a passing one.the circumstances. No. Inc. under the attendant circumstances of the case. L-18683. Sleeping while on duty as a ground for termination. However. because the authorities cited. the doctrine laid down in those cases is not applicable to the case at bar. Eating while at work. G. July 14. constitute serious misconduct. NLRC. In Luzon Stevedoring Corporation vs. R. 2000]. G. R. the act of an employee of sleeping in his post. Dismissal is too harsh a penalty for the offense of eating while at work. where more than fifty employees were alleged to have slept at the same time. 31. and A¶ Prime Security Services. Luzon Stevedoring [supra] and A¶ Prime [supra]. (Padilla vs. NLRC. the Supreme Court found it ³highly unlikely and contrary to human experience that all fifty-five employees including respondents were at the same time sleeping. 19. dereliction of duty and challenging superiors to a fight. Inc. The reason cited was the fact that the company rules and regulations merely provided for suspension for first offenders. (Qui ones vs. 273 SCRA 457). Pressure exerted by a teacher upon a colleague to change a failing grade of a student. [220 SCRA 142 (1993)]. which is a valid ground for dismissing an employee. was held as serious misconduct. why he did not at least rouse some or all of them to put them on notice that they were caught in flagrante defies understanding. [G. it was pronounced that to cite that sleeping on the job is always a valid ground for dismissal is misplaced not only because the same was not substantiated by any convincing evidence other than the bare allegation of the employer but most sig nificantly. as well as his misrepresentation that the student is his nephew. 06. [G. Jan. 1995). Urinating in the workplace. 1995). No. NLRC. NLRC. In the 2004 case of Electruck Asia. 114764. 2004]. Dec. 73352.

demands. An employee cannot be terminated based on this ground if there is no evidence that he did urinate in a place other than a rest room in the premises of his work. education or training environment. 15.). A. 7877. 66. In a sexual harassment case involving a manager. chanrobles virtual law library Any person who directs or induces another to commit any act of sexual harassment as defined in the law. Ibid. he provides a justifiable ground for . requests or otherwise requires any sexual favor from another. agent of the employer. education-related. influence or moral ascendancy over another in a work or training or education environment. training-related. the Supreme Court said: ³As a managerial employee. 282 [1] of the Labor Code for purposes of terminating employment. Work. employee. 1995.). Republic Act No. G. (Section 3. 151228. or any other person who. R.In a 2002 case. approved on February 14. Aug. but the same must be shown by evidence. Ibid. 7877 punishes sexual harassment if the same is: 1.). 2002). He failed to live up to this higher standard of responsibility when he succumbed to his moral perversity. regardless of whether the demand. Lagrama. education or training-related sexual harassment is committed by any employer. petitioner is bound by a more exacting work ethics. No. Who may be liable for sexual harassment. trainor. work-related. request or requirement for submission is ac cepted by the object of said act. instructor. No. otherwise known as the ³Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995´ declares sexua l harassment unlawful in the employment. professor. or who cooperates in the commission thereof by another without which it would not have been committed. coach. Sexual Harassment. (Tan vs. shall also be held liable under the law. And when such moral perversity is perpetrated against his subordinate. it was held that urinating in a workplace other than the one designated for the purpose by the employer constitutes violation of reasonable regulations intended to pr omote a healthy environment under Art. having authority. or 3. (Section 3. or 2. teacher. Ibid. chanrobles virtual law library R. supervisor. (Section 3. manager.

supra). caressing her nape and telling other people that the subordinate was the one who hugged and kissed or that she responded to the sexual advances´ was considered act of sexual harassment for which he was penalized by the comp any with a 30-day suspension which the Supreme Court affirmed. Fear of retaliation and backlash.00 and P20. R. it was held that the delay of more than four (4) years to expose the manager¶s sexual harassment is of no moment. not to forget the social humiliation and embarrassment that victims of this human frailty usually suffer. No. 1999]. Moreover. supra). According to Libres vs. The gravamen of the offense in sexual . a delay of one (1) year in instituting the complaint for sexual harassment is not an indicium of afterthought. Delay in filing the case for sexual harassment. 124617.000. are all realities that the subordinate had to contend with. March 6. 2000]. Prescription of action. moral damages and exemplary damages. respectively. NLRC and Golden Donuts. and penaliz ing him with imprisonment of six (6) months and to pay a fine of Twenty Thousand (P20. Additionally.000. Republic Act No. Rico Jacutin y Salcedo guilty of the crime of Sexual Harassment defined and punished under Republic Act No. he was ordered to indemnify the offended party. the act of the manager in ³touching a female subordinate¶s hand and shoulder. In fact. chanrobles virtual law library In another case.000. 123737. R.his dismissal for lack of trust and confid ence. with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency. He only raised issue on the complaint¶s protracted filing. No. NLRC. Juliet Yee. No. May 28. [G. in the amount of P30. Any action arising from sexual harassment shall prescribe in three (3) years. particularly Sections 3 and 7 thereof. [G. the duty of every employer to protect its employees from over -sexed superiors.´ (Villarama vs. NLRC. April 28. (Libres vs. Jacutin vs. in the 2002 case of Philippine Aeolus Automotive United Corporation vs. It is the right. 7877).00 by way of.00) Pesos. the delay did not detract from the truth derived from the facts. (Section 7. Rico S. NLRC. People of the Philippines. [G. nay. Inc.. The delay could be expected since the respondent was the subordinate¶s immediate superior. Likewise. the narration of the respondent even corroborated the subordinate¶s assertion in several material points. An illustrative criminal case involving sexual harassment is the 2002 case of Dr. 140604. 7877. Jacutin vs. R. 2002] where the Supreme Court affirmed the Sandiganbayan¶s decision finding Dr. People.

The time to do so may vary depending upon the needs. Any employee. scandal. What are the requisites to validly invoke willful disobedience of lawful orders as a just ground to terminate employment? In order that the willful disobedience by the employee of the orders. the emotional threshold of the employee. said orders. circumstances.). fraud. the employee¶s assailed conduct must have been willful or intentional. chanrobles virtual law library 68. by all tolerable means. and 3. male or female. the following requisites must concur. . What legal ground/s may be cited for acts of dishonesty? An act of dishonesty may constitute either of the following grounds: serious misconduct. lawful and reasonable. the willfulness being characterized by a µwrongful and perverse attitude. chanrobles virtual law library Private respondent admittedly allowed four (4) years to pass before finally coming out with her employer¶s sexual impositions. even corporate. Not many women. few persons are privileged indeed to transfer from one employer to another. namely: chanrobles virtual law library 1. sufficiently known to the employee. are made of the stuff that can endure the agony and trauma of a public. may rightfully cry ³foul´ provided the claim is well substantiated. in connection with the duties which the employee has been engaged to discharge. Moreover. there is no time period within which he or she is expected to complain through the proper channels.For the ground of ³willful disobedience´ to be considered a just cause for termination of employment. The dearth of quality employment has become a daily ³monster´ roaming the streets that one may not be expected to give up one¶s employment easily but to hang on to it. or instru ctions must be: 1. especially in this country. we could only speculate how much longer she would keep her silence. Requisites of lawful dismissal on the ground of willful disobedience. Strictly speaking. and more importantly.¶ and . regulations or instructions of the employer may constitute a just cause for terminating his employment. so to speak. 2. If petitioner corporation had not issued the third memorandum that terminated the services of private respondent. willful breach of trust and confidence.harassment is not the violation of the employee¶s sexuality but the abuse of power by the employer. (Ibid. 67. regulations.

Book III. the same could not serve as a basis for termination. R. Marinduque Mining Industrial Corporation. No. Where a violation of company policy or breach of company rules and regulations was found to have been tolerated by management. a woman employee shall be deemed resigned or separated. . R. 13. his act should be deemed in good faith. The provision in a contract between an airline company and a flight attendant which states that ³flight attendant-applicants must be single and that they shall be automatically separated from employment in the event they subsequently get married´ is a null and void provision. Clearly. Rules to Implement the Labor Code. (Zialcita vs. (See also Section 13 [e]. NLR C. when valid.2. A. that a woman employee shall not get married. 1997). when not valid. the order violated must have been reasonable and lawful and made known to the employee and must pertain to the duties which he had been engaged to discharge.. Inc. Rule where violation of the rules was tolerated by employer. Gualberto vs. Inc. R. as a condition of employment or continuation o f employment. to actually dismiss. 154384. Philippine Airlines. Rule against marriage. hence. discharge. 20. June 28. decided by the Office of the President). C. Sept. Article 136 of the Labor Code considers as an unlawful act of the employer to stipulate. Rule XII. if an employee was merely following the instructions of his supervisor. Case No. Rule against marriage.-G. It is likewise an unlawful act of the employer. discriminate or otherwise prej udice a woman employee merely by reason of her marriage. No. Vital. 1978). No. and the right against. or that upon getting married. his dismissal from the service on the ground of willfu l disobedience or violation of company rules and regulations is not justified. May 23. (PT&T vs. RO4-3-398-76. 52753-R. discrimination afforded all women workers by our labor laws and by no less than the Constitution. 2004]. 118978. [G. A company policy of not accepting or considering as disqualified from work any woman worker who contracts marriage runs afoul of the test of. As held in the 2004 case of Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines. vs. G. 1977. Feb. cannot be enforced for being contrary to Article 136 of the Labor Code and the protection-to-labor clause in the Constitution.

‡ Element of actual loss or damage. [G. 2004]. To put it otherwise. The prohibition against personal or marital relationships with employees of competitor -companies upon its employees is reasonable under the circumstances because relationships of that nature might compromise the interests of the company.In the 2004 case of Duncan Association of Detailman -PTGWO vs. 2003]. petitioner exerted reasonable effort . September 17. the Supreme Court found that the petitioner tried to turn left to avoid a collision. Still. notwithstanding the green light in his lane. According to the Supreme Court in the 2003 case of Reyes vs. 140853. Clearly. [G. you agree to resign voluntarily from the Company as a matter of Company policy. Test to determine negligence. Maxim¶s Tea House. ‡ Element of habituality may be disregarded if totality of evidence justifies dismissal.. not an essential requisite. Should it pose a possible conflict of interest in management discretion. the collision took place as the ten -wheeler careened on the wrong lane. the test to determine the existence of negligence is as follows: Did the employee.´ The Supreme Court ruled that this stipulation is a valid exercise of management prerogative. You agree to disclose to management any existing or future relationship you may have. No. 69. 162994. It provides: ³10. ‡ Habitual tardiness or habitual absenteeism may be a ground for termination. use that reasonable care and caution which an ordinarily prudent person would use in the same situation? chanrobles virtual law library In this case involving a vehicular collision leading to the dismissal of the petitioner-employee on the ground of gross negligence. In laying down the assailed company policy. either by consanguinity or affinity with co employees or employees of competing drug companies. the employer only aims to protect its interests against the possibility that a competitor company will gain access to its secrets and procedures. No. What constitutes the ground of gross and habitual neglect of duties? ‡ Element of habituality may be disregarded where loss is substantial. R. R. the contract of employment expressly prohibited an employee from having a relationship with an employee of a competitor company. in doing the alleged negligent act. Inc. Glaxo Welcome Philippines. February 27. petitioner did not insist on his right of way.

No. Unfortunately for the employer. while the validity of the dismissal based on abandonment was upheld. (Icawat vs. a clear intention to sever the employer-employee relationship. the failure to report for work or absence without valid or justifiable reason. It appears that he was more a victim of a vehicular accident rather than its cause. to wit: chanrobles virtual law library 1. [G. In the 2004 case of Agabon vs. subsequent notice to inform him of the employer¶s decision to dismiss him.R. chanrobles virtual law library 70. and 2. 133573. June 20. R. the notices should be served at the worker¶s last known address. In case of abandonment of work. What are the requisites to validly invoke abandonment of work? Requisites. This is the more determinative factor being manifested by some overt acts. where sent.Abandonment of work is a valid ground to terminate an employment. notice to apprise the employee of the particular acts or omissions for which his dismissal is sought. the employer was deemed to have violated due process when it did not follow the notice requirements and instead argued that sending notices to the last known addresses would have been useless because they did not reside there anymore. and 2. .under the circumstances to avoid injury not only to himself but also to his passengers and the van he was driving. 17. To hold that petitioner was grossly negligent under the circumstances goes against the factual circumstances shown. this is . G. two (2) elements must concur. however. Requirement of notice before declaring abandonment. Nov.The notice required consists of two (2) parts to be separately served on the employee in his last known address. No. Notices in abandonment cases. petitioner¶s dismissal is illegal. 2000). NLRC. This notice requirement is not a mere technicality but a requirement of due process to which every employee is entitled to insure that the employer¶s prerogative to dismiss or lay -off is not abused or exercised in an arbitrary manner. There being no clear showing that petitioner was culpable for gross negligence. NLRC. . To constitute abandonment. namely: chanrobles virtual law library 1. 158693. 2004].

NLRC. (Hodieng Concrete Products vs. vs. 1994) or six (6) months before filing the complaints for illegal dismissal as an indication of abandonment. Thus. 1999). Under the law. No. 25. negates the finding of abandonment. (Artemio Labor vs.not a valid excuse because the law mandates the twin notice requirements be sent to the employee¶s last known address. be said to have abandoned their work. No. it was ruled that the immediate filing of complaint for illegal dismissal by the employees praying for their reinstatement. No. R. NLRC. 2002) or two (2) days after receiving the termination letter (EgyptAir. it should be held liable for non-compliance with the procedural requirements of due process. G. Immediate filing of complaint negates abandonment. 2005). (Pare vs. Nov. NLRC. In a 2004 case. 1989) or six (6) days (Masagana Concrete Products vs. The Supreme Court did not likewise consider the lapse of nine (9) months (Kingsize Manufacturing Corp. An employee who had truly forsaken his job would not have bothered to file a complaint for illegal dismissal. No. 16. Bolanio. 154689. That he was illegally dismissed is belied by his own pleadings as well as contemporaneous conduct. Nos. Sept. NLRC. . G. R. 1999) or four (4) days from the time the employees were prevented from entering their workplace. R. the filing by an employee of a complaint for illegal dismissal is proof enough of his desire to return to work. 27. the filing of such complaint the very next day after the employee was removed (Anflo Management & Investment Corp. No. Sept. NLRC. (Unicorn Safety Glass. G. is an indication that they have not abandoned their work. 3. For instance. G. vs. No. 110388. G. 2004). The rule that abandonment of work is inconsistent with the filing of a complaint for illegal dismissal is not applicable to a case wher e the complainant does not pray for reinstatement and just asks for separation pay instead. R. R. (Jo vs. the employee has four (4) years within which to institute his action for illegal dismissal. G. 63185. Basarte. It goes without saying that the prayer for separation pay. for as the Supreme Court had consistently ruled. When filing of complaint does not negate abandonment. NLRC. R. Oct. consequence of failure to pray for reinstatement. Feb. 141608. vs. 128957. R. 4. 14. Feb. thus negating the employer¶s charge of abandonment. being the alternative remedy to reinstatement. contradicts private respondent-employee¶s stance. Dante Emilia. G. 14. 149180. by any reasoning. Nov. They cannot. G. 110452-54. 1995). vs. 24. Inc. R. No. 106916. Nov.

No. 148241. R. the fact that complainants did not pray for reinstatement was considered by the Supreme Court as not sufficient proof of abandonment. September 27. It considered the refusal to be reinstated as more of a symptom of strained relations between the parties. 121605. No. rather than an indicium of abandonment of work as obstinately insisted by petitioners. When refusal to return to work does not constitute abandonment. Again. he was asking for reinstatement. Feb. In fact. among others. [G. Inc. the petitioners made an offer to reinstate him to his former position. would be absurd. Offer of reinstatement during proceedings before Labor Arbiter. vs. the petitioners extended the offer in its position paper filed with the Labor Arbiter but was likewise rejected by the respondent. she had already filed a case for illegal dismissal against her employer. 2002]. Nov. R. 122468. ruled otherwise. during the initial hearing before the Labor Arbiter. NLRC. the Assistant VicePresident was directed to report to her new assignment and submit to a medical examination. The two requisites for abandonment are not present here. vs. However. R. but he ³defiantly´ refused the offer despite the fact that in his complaint. 156963. [G. Inc. for reinstatement. 2004]. A strong indication of the intention of the complainants to resume work is their allegation that on several dates. 11. CA. accused of abandoning his work. There was no abandonment as the latter is not compatible with constructive dismissal. No. No. She did not comply leading to her being declared as having abandoned her work. The petitioners consequently asserted that these circumstances are clear indications of respondent¶s lack of further interest to work and effectively negate his claim of illegal dismissal.G. But in Sentinel Security Agency. the Supreme Court ruled that the there could not have been an abandonment since at the time she was being asked to report to her new assignment. effect. Abandonment has recently been ruled to be incompatible with constructive dismissal. vs. Sept. but were not given any. they reported to the Security Agency for reassignment. For the employer to anticipate the employee to report for work after the latter already filed a case for illegal dismissal before the NLRC. the contention of complainants was that the Agency constructively dismissed them. however. While the respondent desires to have his job . chanrobles virtual law library The Supreme Court. filed a complaint and prayed therein.. 3. The respondent-employee in the 2002 case of Hantex Trading Co. R. [G. In the 2004 case of The Philippine American Life and General Insurance Co. Gramaje. 1998]. However. 2000). 2.

Their belated gesture of goodwill is highly suspect. As observed by the Court of Appeals. to detect every small shortcoming of his as a ground for vindictive disciplinary action. In Ranara vs. petitioner Jose Suan in the latter case who suffered a stroke. petitioners¶ offer of reinstatement was made only after more than one (1) month from the date of the filing of the illegal dismissal case. The wrong had been committed and the wrong done. the Supreme Court stated: ³The fact that his employer later made an offer to re-employ him did not cure the vice of his early arbitrary dismissal. to invite Ranara back to work in his store. however.back. their intentions in making the offer are immaterial. [212 SCRA 631]. The Supreme Court. We doubt if his offer would have been made if Ranara had not complained against him. it must have later dawned on him that the filing of the complaint for illegal dismissal and the bitter incidents that followed have sundered the erstwhile harmonious relationship between the parties. chanrobles virtual law library Neither does the fact that petitioners made offers to reinstate respondent legally disproves illegal dismissal.´ Curiously. No. The private respondents incurred liability under the Labor Code from the moment Ranara was illegally dismissed and the liability did not abate as a result of Chang¶s repentance. he will find it uncomfortable to continue working under the hostile eyes of the petitioners who had been forced to reinstate him. At any rate. they could have made the offer much sooner. [G. NLRC. the offer may very well be ³a tacit admission of petitioners that they erred in dismissing him verbally and without observance of both substantive and procedural due process. reinstatement would no longer be beneficial to him. it was only after the complaint had been filed that it occurred to Chang. He had every reason to fear that if he accepted petitioners¶ offer. R. He must have surely realized that even if reinstated. 141441. Notably. to which the Supreme Court was in full agreement. did not find any analogy between the two cases as the factual backdrop of Ranara [supra] is not the same as Suan. In such instance. If petitioners were indeed sincere in inviting respondent back to work in the company. NLRC. In contrast. where the employer offered to reemploy the illegally dismissed employee. was not dismissed but was only asked to go on exten ded leave . sincere or not. 2001]. their watchful eyes would thereafter be focused on him. the offer of reinstatement could not correct the earlier illegal dismissal of the petitioner. June 19. in a belated gesture of good will. He found refuge in the above case of Ranara. In any case. a letter was sent to the petitioner almost one (1) month after the filing of the complaint for illegal dismissal which required him to explain his absence without leave (AWOL). for the offer to reemploy respondent could not have the effect of validating an otherwise arbitrary dismissal. Chang¶s sincerity is suspect.´ In the 2001 case of Suan vs.

[December 11. Commission of fraud or deceit leading to loss of trust and confidence. G. In the 2003 case of De la Cruz. 158693. respondent Oripaypay noticed that petitioner¶s left arm down to his left limb was paralyzed. he committed a transgression that betrayed the trust and confidence of his employer . thus Oripaypay could readily see that petitioner was not yet ready and physically well to perform his usual assignment as master fisherman. His position required the full trust and confidence of his employer. thus confirming his dismissal without proper notice. Jr. the Supreme Court held that the act of the petitioners who were frequently absent to engage in subcontracting work for another company clearly shows the intention to sever the employer-employee relationship with their employer. Subcontracting for another company indicates abandonment. R. wherein petitioner Ranara.from July 10 to August 10. No. 1997 because when petitioner reported for work on July 10. 1997. No. 145417. after more than six months of sick leave. 1997 requiring him to explain why no disciplinary action should be taken against him for his absence without official leave. As found by the court a quo. they are guilty of abandonment.reimbursing his family¶s personal travel expenses out of company funds. NLRC. Hence. What constitutes the ground of fraud? Commission of fraud by an employee against the employer will necessarily result in the latter's loss o f trust and confidence in the former. NLRC. vs. Proof of loss is not required under this ground.R. this obviously did not cover acts for his own personal benefit. Lack of damage or losses not necessary in fraud cases. after petitioner¶s extended leave expired. The said letter clearly shows that respondent Oripaypay was waiting for the return of petitioner unlike in Ranara. While petitioner could exercise some discretion. His act amounted to fraud or deceit which led to the loss of trust and confidence of his employer. In Agabon vs. Petition er failed to present any persuasive evidence or argument to prove otherwise. 2004]. However. . the petitioner was holding a managerial position in which he was tasked to perform key functions in accordance with an exacting work ethic. November 17. upon reporting for work. a driver. 2003]. he did not return to work which prompted private respondent Oripaypay to send him a letter dated August 16. [G. 71. was surprised to find some other person who replaced him in handling the vehicle previously assigned to him.

203-204 [1986]). NLRC. Inc. March 16. Restitution does not have absolutory effect. even if the shortages have been fully restituted. Inc. 149416. In Gonzales vs. R.. March 14. No. Phils. San Miguel Corporation. R. R. ruled that it is not material that the teller and cashier did not ³misappropriate any amount of money. The Supreme Court has reiterated this rule in Santos vs. immaterial. [G. the Supreme Court in Central Pangasinan Electric Cooperative. No. Deputy Minister of Labor and Employment. the fact that the employee has misappropriated company funds is a valid ground to terminate the services of an employee of the company for loss of trust and confidence. 2003] and in the earlier case of Philippine Airlines. it was held that the fact that the employer ultimately suffered no monetary damage as the employee subsequently settled his account is of no moment.The fact that the employer did not suffer losses from the dishonesty of the dismissed employee because of its timely discovery does not excuse the latter from any culpability. 145800. The respondents here held positions of utmost trust and confidence. 2003]. nor incur any shortage relative to the funds in their possession. vs. No. G. 151981. January 22. In Diamond Motors Corporation vs. NLRC. This was not the reason for the termination of his employment in the company but t he anomalous scheme he engineered to cover up his past due account which constitutes a clear betrayal of trust and confidence. That the dismissed employee attempted to deprive the employer of its lawful revenue is already tantamount to fraud against the company which warrants dismissal from the service. CA. Inc. Lack of misappropriation or shortage. [G. It must be stressed that actual defraudation is not necessary in order that an employee may be held liable under the company rule against fraud. The betrayal of this trust is the essence of the offence for which an employee is penalized. No. 1. [G. 2001]. No. Dec. 1998). vs. 2000] involving the commission of fraud against the company. March 26. 131653. 129413. (Villanueva vs.. [G. Hence. they are expected to possess a high degree of fidelity. 126805. Macaraeg. [G. 145 SCRA 196. They are entrusted with a considerable amount of . 2003]. NLRC and Pepsi-Cola Products. R. As teller and cashier. (See also San Miguel Corporation vs. it was ruled that the fact that the employer failed to show it suffered losses in revenue as a consequence of the employee¶s act is immaterial.´ The basic premise for dismis sal on the ground of loss of confidence is that the employees concerned hold positions of trust. No. R. R. July 27. Where there was a series of unauthorized encashments of personal checks.

156283. Breach must be work-related. 160404.the position of respondent at the time of his dismissal . not a mere afterthought. R. R. the following guidelines must be followed: 1. In order to constitute a just cause for dismissal. in the 2005 case of Philippine National Construction Corporation vs. the Supreme Court held that. No. No. 2005].cash. The loss of confidence must not be simulated. to justify earlier action taken in bad faith. and 5. 22. 149930. It may not be arbitrarily asserted in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary. June 8. Gulde. 2. the questioned act pertained to an unlawful scheme deliberately engaged in by petitioner in order to evade a constitutional and legal . The Honorable Court of Appeals and Union Bank of the Philippines. the position of project controller . G. It must be genuine.required trust and confidence. Matias. It should not be used as a subterfuge for causes which are illegal. [G. Respondent de Vera accepted payments from petitioner¶s consumers while respondent Macaraeg received remittances for deposit at petitioner¶s bank. PLDT. For instance. for it related to the handling of business expenditures or finances. June 29. 2004]. 2005). They did not live up to their duties and obligations. his act allegedly constituting breach of trust and confidence (referring to the unlawful scheme by PNCC of using its employees as µdummies¶ for the acquisition of vast tract of land in Bukidnon and thereafter compelling them to assign all rights over same properties in favor of PNCC ± a scheme by PNCC which is a flagrant violation of the Constitution as regards the maximum area of real property which a corporation can acquire under the CARP Law) was not in any way related to his official functions and responsibilities as controller. 3. Feb. In fact. Inc. vs. 4. May 6. R. (Sulpicio Lines. the act complained of should be ³work-related´ and must show that the employee concerned is unfit to continue to work for the employer. [G. undeniably. G. No. improper or unjustified. No. However. in order to validly dismiss an employee on the ground of loss of trust and confidence under Article 282. The employee involved holds a position of trust and confidence. Ramos vs. (Tolentino vs.R. 2002). 145405. 72. What are the requisites for the ground of willful breach of trust? In the 2004 case of Charles Joseph U.

122033. March 14. Loss of trust and confidence must be based on a willful breach and founded on clearly established facts. March 10. nor should it appear as a mere afterthought to justify earlier action taken in bad faith or a subterfuge for causes which are improper. NLRC.. have some basis. Proof beyond reasonable doubt is not required. Coca -Cola Bottlers Phils. No. (Caingat vs. It is sufficient that there must only be some basis for such loss of confidence or that there is reasonable ground to believe if not to entertain the moral conviction that the concerned employee is responsible for the misconduct and that the nature of his participation therein rendered him absolutely unworthy of trust and confidence demanded by his position. illegal or unjustified. (Santos vs. May 21. G. (Central . caprices or suspicion. Farolan. No. loss of trust and confidence as a just cause for termination of employment is premised on the fact that an employee concerned holds a position where greater trust is placed by management and from whom greater fidelity to duty is correspondingly expected. 2003). 2005). It must rest on substantial grounds and not on the employer¶s arbitrariness. G. No. or care and prot ection of the employer¶s property. (Cruz vs. Breach must be willful and without justifiable excuse. 165586.. There must be ³some basis´ for the loss of trust and confidence. G. Dec. 2005). Inc. 149416. 151370.mandate. It has never been intended to afford an occasion for abuse because of its subjective nature. G. however. R. (Asia Pacific Chartering [Phils. such as the custody. San Miguel Corporation. This includes managerial personnel entrusted with confidence on delicate matters. June 15. While it is true that loss of trust and confidence is one of the just causes for termination. 154308. vs. whims. (Atlas Consolidated Mining & Development Corporation vs. NLRC. No. 2002). R. such loss of trust and confidence must. 4. the employee would eternally remain at the mercy of the employer. It should be genuine and not simulated. The betrayal of this trust is the essence of the offense for which an employee is penalized. 1998). Employee¶s position must be reposed with trust and confidence. As firmly entrenched in our jurisprudence.]. R. R. No. G. This situation also holds in the case of supervisory personnel occupying positions of responsibility. R. otherwise. Inc. handling.

R. where the employer alleged inefficiency and loss of trust and confidence as grounds for termination of employment. NLRC. absence of derogatory record and small amount involved. it was held that prolonged practice of encashing personal checks among payroll personnel does not excuse or justify petitioner¶s misdeeds. Macaraeg. Llamera. considering the following: first. Said allegation alone. when deemed inconsequential. [G. July 12. 152514. San Miguel Corporation. vs. the petitioner theorizes that even assuming that there was evidence to support the charges against him. [G. the High Tribunal said that these are negated by the fact that the evidence shows that the employee received several promotions since his employment in 1986 and was given bonuses for his collection efforts and a compensation adjustment for his excellent performance. second. lastly. R. Therefore. Sulpicio Lines. cannot feign ignorance of such policy as she is duty -bound to keep abreast of company policies related to financial matters within the corporation. he . Inc. third. In Norkis Distributors. the dismissal must be deemed contrary to the provisions of the Labor Code. No. R. his dismissal from the service is unwarranted. hence illegal. Jr. his 16 long years of service with the company. Petitioner¶s willful and deliberate acts were in gross violation of respondent company¶s policy against encashment of personal checks of its personnel. No. and. G. chanrobles virtual law library Prolonged practice. Inc. 2003]. not an excuse for wrongful act. 2005]. The Supreme Court ruled that not only is petitioners¶ logic flawed. In Limketkai Sons Milling. vs. chanrobles virtual law library Long years of service. 149416. vs. petitioners simply allege that respondent¶s failure to report to the quality control head the batch that did not meet the minimum standard showed connivance to sabotage petitioners¶ business. he had no previous derogatory record. could not and did not suffice as a basis for a finding of willful breach of trust. 148410. R. as Finance Director. harsh and is not commensurate to his misdeeds. R. No. Jan. She. 112230. 145800. 2003). 1995]. Grant of promotions and bonuses negates loss of trust and confidence. the amount involved is miniscule.Pangasinan Electric Cooperative. without proven facts to back it up. July 17. 2005]. Inc. No. Petitioners failed to prove the existence of a valid cause for the dismissal of respondent. Inc. January 17. no loss or damages was suffered by the company since the tickets were unissued. it is an instance of arguing non sequitur. 22. No. In Santos vs. vs. March 14. [G. [G.. Citing jurisprudence. In Etcuban.

2003]. it will actually become a prize for disloyalty. Fairness dictates that the respondent should not be allowed to continue with the employment of the petitioner who has breached the confidence reposed on him. if it is to be considered at all. (Citing Gonzales vs. 355 SCRA 195 [2001]). trust in an employee. NLRC. perverting the meaning of social justice and unde rmining the efforts of labor to cleanse its ranks of all undesirables. 145800. generally. found no merit in the petitioner¶s contention: ³We are not unmindful of the foregoing doctrine. [G. for the law. Unlike other just causes for dismissal. vs. i s difficult. the Court is convinced that the petitione r¶s reliance thereon is misplaced. are allowed a wider latitude of discretion in terminating the employment of managerial personnel or those of similar rank performing functions which by their nature require the employer¶s trust and confidence. Loyalty that he should have strengthened instead of betrayed. but after a careful scrutiny of the cited cases. Central Pangasinan Electric Cooperative. January 22. if not impossible. Inc. ³The fact that the petitioner has worked with the respondent for more than 16 years. 115 SCRA 329 [1982]). No. insofar as fiduciary employees are concerned. authorizes neither oppression nor self-destruction of the employer. Employers.´ (San Miguel Corporation vs. penalties for infractions. If an employee¶s length of service is to be regarded as a justification for moderating the penalty of dismissal. Macaraeg. 395 SCRA 729 [2003]). vis-à-vis his long years of service with the company. chanrobles virtual law library ³xxx ³It cannot be over-emphasized that there is no substitute for honesty for sensitive positions which call for utmost trust. NLRC. As pointed out earlier. are not necessarily the same as those applicable to the termination of employment of ordinary employees. NLRC. the teller and cashier (who were charged and dismissed for unauthorized encashments of . In another case. The infraction that he committed. to regain. given separation pay for his length of service. 219 SCRA 350 [1993]). reflects a regrettable lack of loyalty. or at the very least. There can be no doubt that the petitioner¶s continuance in the extremely sensitive fiduciary position of Chief Purser would be patently inimical to the respondent¶s interests. (Citing Salvador vs. (Citing Flores vs.appeals for compassion and requests that he be merely suspended. in protecting the rights of the employee. It must be stressed that in all of the cases cited. It would be oppressive and unjust to order the respondent to take him back. should be taken against him. once lost. than in the case of ordinary rank-and-file employees. the rules on termination of employment. Philippine Mining Service Corporation. the employees involved were all rank -and-file or ordinary workers. The Supreme Court. however. R.

June 15. Indeed. He occupied a high position of responsibility. once lost is difficult. respondent has every right to dismiss petitioner. employers are allowed wider latitude of discretion in terminating the employment of managerial employees as they perform functions which require the employer¶s full trust and confidence.checks) have been employed with the petitioner-electric cooperative for 22 and 19 years of continuous service.. if not impossible. involving the spiriting out of thirty (30) cases of canned soft drinks . Philippine National Bank. Unlike other just causes for dismissal. ³In the case at bar. considering his long years of service with the company. Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils. [G. 355 SCRA 195 [2001]). a managerial employee. (Citing Gonzales vs. The Supreme Court. his dismissal from service is unwarranted. if to be considered at all. R. 148766. Fairness dictates that respondent should not be allowed to continue with the employment of petitioner who has breached the confidence reposed on him.´ In Cruz vs. 165586. should be taken against him. petitioner argues that assuming there was evidence to support the charges against him. to regain. 219 SCRA 350 [1993]). petitioner was not an ordinary rank-and-file employee. Inc. R. 2005]. in cases of this nature. No. It is irreconcilable with trust and confidence that has been irretrieva bly lost. Well to emphasize. As foreman and shift boss. as his act of pilferage reflects a regrettable lack of loyalty which he should have strengthened. (Citing Flores vs. 29 SCRA 293 [1969]). disagreed. however. instead of betrayed. Nonetheless. their dismissal was held justified consider ing the breach of trust they have committed. supervision and operations of respondent¶s entire plant. It cannot be over-emphasized that there is no substitute for honesty for sensitive positions which call for utmost trust. Considering that they have mishandled the funds of the cooperative and the danger they have posed to its members. the fact that petitioner has been employed with the respondent for a long time. Moreover. he had over-all control of the care. respectively. In Salvador vs. (Citing Galsim vs. the greater is his responsibility for knowledge and compliance with the norms of conduct and the code of discipline in the company. However. trust in an employee. for breach of trust and loss of confidence as a measure of self-preservation against acts patently inimical to its interests.. [G. NLRC. thusly: ³To be sure. length of service is taken into consideration in imposing the penalty to be meted an erring employee. January 22. NLRC. their reinstatement is neither sound in reason nor just in principle. As a general rule. the longer an employee stays in the service of the company. harsh and grossly disproportionate to his act. Philippine Mining Service Corporation. 2003]. and this is the first time that either of them has been administratively charged. the case at bar involves dishonesty and pilferage by petitioner which resulted in respondent¶s loss of confidence in him. No.

The rules on termination of managerial employees are different from those applicable to rank-and-file employees. No. it must be shown that the employee is a managerial employee since the term ³trust and confidence´ is restricted to said class of employees. 121348. and that mere uncorrobo rated assertions and accusations by the employer will not be sufficient. Sulpicio Lines. 131653. which spans almost fifteen (15) years. Jr. the Supreme Court took his long years of service as militating against his claim of good faith. a managerial employee is tasked to perform key and sensitive functions. NLRC. NLRC. No. No. R. the doctrine of loss of trust and confidence may not be appropriately applied. 20. March 26. Phils. G. It is thus important that in termination based on this ground. it has long been held that the longer an employee stays in the service of the company. G. the mere existence of a basis for believing that such employee has breached the trust of his employer would suffice for his dismissal. Jr. (Etcuban. The reason is. in the case of managerial employees. NLRC and Pepsi -Cola Products. the greater is his responsibility for knowledge and compliance with the norms of conduct and the code of discipline in the company. G. 17. 2001).loaded on petitioner¶s truck without the required documentation. As a managerial employee. Petitioner¶s length of service (as driver/helper). and thus he is bound by more exacting work ethics. But as regards a managerial employee. proof beyond reasonable doubt is not required. R. with respect to rank -and-file personnel. loss of trust and confidence as ground for valid dismissal requires proof of involvement in the alleged events in question. does not fall squarely under this category. the task of a janitor. Inc. such as when the employer has reasonable ground to believe that the employee concerned is responsible for the purported misconduct. vs. Rules on termination of managerial employee. (Deles. said the Supreme Court. Dec. Jan. Inc. any transgression on her part gives the employer a wide r latitude of discretion in terminating her services. No. different from rank-and-file. R. it being sufficient that there is some basis for such loss of confidence. vs. For instance. (Gonzales vs. . Obviously. works against his favor in this case. Hence. R.. 2005). (De los Santos vs. G.. 2000). and the nature of his participation therein renders him unworthy of the trust and confidence demanded by his position.. March 9. 2001). Thus. This distinction has been underscored by the Supreme Court in recent decisions involving the application of the doctrine of loss of trust and confidence. 148410. If what is involved in a case is a rank -and-file employee. 121327.

the employer may take proper disciplinary action on them. for breach of which he shall be meted the penalty of dismissal. Inc. In holding that the dismissal of the food attendant was valid. for only three days. the doctrine of loss of trust and confidence may only be invoked against managerial employees. vs. the relationship of the employer and the employee necessarily involves trust and confidence. there are instances when the doctrine may also be successfully invoked against rank -and-file employees who. and when such confidence is breached. vs. 109809.. when respondent drank stolen beer from the dispenser of Pizza Hut-Ermita on Decem¬ber 6. vs. as held in Coca -Cola Bottlers Philippines. [G. [G. July 17. There is a high degree of trust and confidence reposed on them. While generally. 1997. No. NLRC. said employee remained a driver-helper of the petitioner. he cannot be dismissed based on loss of trust and confidence. But in another case involving the same company. it was pronounced that the temporary assignment as route salesman for a period of three (3) days of an employee who was employed as driver-helper does not automatically make him an employee on whom his employer reposed trust and confidence. 148205. Despite his additional duties. Feb. Coca -Cola Bottlers. 154315. the Supreme Court. Phils. in Philippine Pizza. NLRC. Inc. [G. it was held that a non-managerial position such as a bus driver does not . For example. 1995]. by reason of the nature of their positions. No. Kapisanan ng Malayang Manggagawa sa Coca -Cola-FFW. [172 SCRA 751 (1989)]. are reposed with trust and confidence. May 9. did not automatically make him an employee holding a position of trust and confidence. route salesmen are rank-and-file employees but they are highly individualistic personnel who roam around selling products. 28. Hence. vs. No.When rank-and-file employees may be dismissed based on loss of trust and confidence. R. Inc. deal with customers and are entrusted with large assets and funds and property of the employer. Examples of cases where rank-and-file employees may not be dismissed based on loss of trust and confidence. 2005]. R. Thus. Inc. Bungabong. The assumption by said employee. R. he gave cause for his termination and his termination was within the ambit of Article 282 of the Labor Code. 2005]. In Vallacar Transit. of some of the duties of a route salesman on orders of his e mployer. ruled that where the employee has access to the employer¶s property in the form of merchandise and articles for sale.

the following requisites must concur: . The ground of inefficiency. closure or cessation of business. 4. his employer¶s duly authorized representative. if such crime or offense is commi tted against any of the following persons: chanrobles virtual law library 1. Violation of the company code of conduct or company rules and regulations. 2. What are the authorized causes for termination of employment? Grounds. 2. 73. 2. redundancy. 3. Ban on one¶s employees imposed by another company. any immediate member of his employer¶s family. and disease. retrenchment. AUTHORIZED CAUSES FOR TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT. 75. That he figured in several accidents prejudicial to petitioner cannot se rve as basis for the loss of trust and confidence. 3. 1. What constitutes the ground of commission of crime or offense? The commission of a crime or offense by the employee may justify the termination of his employment. What are the requisites for the ground of installation of laborsaving devices? In order to validly invoke this ground. 74. Violation of safety rules. installation of labor-saving devices. What are other analogous causes under Article 282 of the Labor Code? Instances considered analogous causes.The grounds cited in Articles 283 and 284 are technically calle d the authorized causes for termination of employment. his employer. or 3. They are: chanrobles virtual law library 1. 5.. 4.hold a position of trust and confidence. 76.

chanrobles virtual law library 3. In Philippine Sheet Metal Workers Union vs. must be paid to the affected employees. It then brought into its Mandaue plant high-speed machines to be used in the manufacture of its beer. CIR. there should be reasonable and fair standards or criteria in selecting who to terminate such as nature of work. 30. status of the employee (whether casual. 433]. among other considerations. As earlier mentioned. 2004]. [83 Phil. 4. equipment or device and the consequent termination of employment of those affected thereby.1. experience. the termination of employment of the affected employees due to the introduction of machinery in the manufacture of its products for purposes of effecting more economy and efficiency. and 6. the company (San Miguel Corporation) conducted a viability study of its business operations and adopted a modernization program. Proof of losses. the purpose for such introduction must be valid such as to save on cost. not required. In the 2004 case of Abapo vs. the introduction of the machinery. 77. in installation of labor -saving devices. The Supreme Court held that the installation of labor-saving devices at its Mandaue plant was a proper ground for terminating employment. [G. chanrobles virtual law library Modernization program through introduction of machines. No. Installation of machines for more economy and efficiency. efficiency rating and seniority. Sept. temporary or regular). enhance efficiency and other justifiable economic reasons. What are the requisites for the ground of redundancy? . there is no other option available to the employer than the introduction of the machinery. was decl ared valid. separation pay under the law or company policy or Collective Bargaining Agreement or similar contract. CA. 2. 5. 142405. when appropriate. equipment or other devices must be done in good faith. R. the 30-day notice requirement under Article 283 should be complied with. there is no need for the employer to show proof of losses or imminent losses.

Characterization of service as redundant by employer. however. Inc. temporary employee]. fair and reasonable criteria in ascertaining what positions are to be declared redundant and accordingly abolished [such as less preferred status [e. . The Supreme Court. R. It is not enough. In Dole Philippines. g. the following requisites must be present: 1. vs. The only exception is when there is a showing that the same was done in violation of law or attended with arbitrary and malicious action. not an indication of bad faith. In the 2001 case of Santos vs. As a general rule. not subject to review. Pepsi-Cola Products Phils. It must produce adequate proof that such is the actual situation in order to justify the dismissal of the affected employees for redundancy. for a company to merely declare that it has become overmanned. Inc. payment of separation pay equivalent to at least one (1) month pay or to at least one (1) month pay for every year of service. therefore. whichever is higher. the characterization of the services of the employee who was terminated for redundancy is an exercise of business judgment of the employer. 2001]. ruled that it is not too keen on attaching such a sinister significance to these allusions. the private respondent-employees point to references in petitioner¶s studies of the redundancy program to the elimination of ³undesirables. good faith in abolishing the redundant positions. [G. (b) efficiency.. R. exception. Elimination of undesirables. CA. and (c) seniority]. NLRC. 13. 2. written notice served on both the affected employees and the Department of Labor and Employment at least one (1) month prior to the intended date of termination. 120009. and 4.. No. The wisdom or soundness of such characterization or decision is not subjec t to discretionary review by the Labor Arbiter or the NLRC and the Court of Appeals. 3. abusers and worst performers through redundancy. [G.For redundancy to be a valid ground to terminate employment. It may be argued that the elimination of the so-called ³undesirables´ was merely incidental to the redundancy program or that past transgressions could have been part of the criteria in determining who among the redundant employees is to be dismissed.´ ³abusers´ and ³worst performers´ as another indicia of petitioner¶s bad faith. Sept..

R. under the guise of invoking its prerogative.R. the same must be respected if clearly undertaken in good faith and if no arbitrary or malicious action is shown. one position for electrician was abolished resultin g in one position for school electrician and the consequent termination of the employment of the person occupying the position. Clearly there was here no abolition of position to achieve a reduction in the number of electricians employed by the UIC. respondent Pepsi. February 7. Petitioners do not claim that the position of school electrician has become useless or redundant such that it had to be abolished. U. 2001]. In that case. sales quotas. however. therefore. Teaching and Non-Teaching Personnel and Employees Union. the latter¶s employment was terminated and the student-trainee took the vacated position. While it is true that management may not. said that this argument cannot be accepted. properly terminable. [G. There is no showing that there were two (2) positions for school electricians. in Wiltshire File Co. 82249. petitioner company effected some changes in its organization by abolishing the posit ion of Sales Manager and simply adding the duties previously discharged by it to the duties of the General Manager to whom the Sales Manager used to report. No. July 5. was an exercise of business judgment on the part of petitioner company. The Supreme Court. and that in order to achieve a reduction in personnel. That there is need for an electrician is shown by the fact that his work is being performed by the student-scholar. 2001]. .I. The soundness of this business judgment of Pepsi has been assailed by petitioners. vs. But the above rule was not applied in the 2001 case of University of the Immaculate Concepcion. the studenttrainee merely replaced respondent as school electrician because petitioners found it to their advantage to let the work be done by the student for free. and on the fact that new positions were subsequently created. 141947. 193 SCRA 665]. arguing tha t it is more logical to implement new procedures in physical distribution. it was held that the characterization of private respondent¶s services as no longer necessary or sustainable and. July 31. Inc. When the time came that the student-trainee became capable of performing his functions.C. 144702.. Rather. wanted to restructure its organization in order to include more complex positions that would either absorb or render completely unnecessary the positions it had previously declared redundant. In other words. the facts show that there was only one position for electrician which was occupied by respondent. [G. ease out employees and defeat their constitutional right to security of tenure. 1991. based on the fact that its Metro Manila Sales Operations were not meeting its sales targets. Similarly. and other policies aimed at improving the performance of the division rather than to reduce the number of employees and create new positions. vs. No.No. NLRC.

NLRC. it is presumed that it acted in good faith. IAC. the ground of redundancy does not require the exhibition of proof of losses or imminent losses.´ while denominated as such. G.´ on the other hand. (San Miguel Corporation vs. R. An employer is not precluded from adopting a new policy conducive to a more economical and effective management. Just like installation of labor-saving devices. (Cosico. not required. 149 SCRA 641 [1987]). Abolition of position or department. In the absence of proof that the act of the employer was ill-motivated. distinguished. 99266. Inc. No. (International Harvester Macleod. NLRC. No. ³Redundancy Program. G. vs. Redundancy and retrenchment. Reorganization as a cost -saving device effected through redundancy is acknowledged as valid by jurisprudence.Burden of proof in redundancy rests on the employer. (Dole Philippines. vs. is one of the economic grounds for dismissing employees and is resorted to primarily to avoid or minimize business lo sses. (Atlantic Gulf and Pacific Company of Manila. valid. May 28. R. vs. chanrobles virtual law library Reorganization through redundancy. Redundancy and retrenchment are not synonymous but distinct and separate grounds under Article 283. Contracting out of abolished position to independent contractors held valid. 1999). [AG & P]. is more precisely termed ³retrenchment´ if it was primarily intended to prevent serious business losses. May 23. supra). ³Redundancy´ exists when the services of an employee are in excess of what is required by an enterprise. 1999). No. NLRC. the Supreme Court cannot erase that initiative simply to protect the person holding the position. . Evidence of losses. Inc. Jr. R. It is the burden of the employer to prove the factual and legal basis for the dismissal of its employees on the ground of redundancy. G. March 2. 127516. The abolition of departments or positions in the company is one of the recognized management prerogatives. vs. ³Retrenchment. 1997). In valid abolition of positions. NLRC. Inc. 118432.

the Supreme Court upheld the termination of employment of water pump tenders and their replacement by independent contractors. eventually deference is to be made to what management decides. absent proof that management acted in a malicious or arbitrary manner. chanrobles virtual law library Duplication of work. 2001] submit that the subsequent hiring of casual employees to replace the dismissed regular employees on the ground of redundancy is an indication of bad faith. Inc. NLRC.In Serrano vs. the Supreme Court upheld the termination of employment of three mechanics in a transportation company and their replacement by a company rendering maintenance and repair services. supra). vs. R. held valid. that it has always hired casuals to augment the company¶s manpower requirements in accordance with the demands o f the industry. 117040. the act of the employer of phasing-out its security section and the hiring of an independent security agency to perform its task constitutes a legitimate business decision. the management of a company cannot be denied the faculty of promoting efficiency and attaining economy by a study of what units are essential for its operation. Indeed. Consequently. as shown by the graph appended as Annex ³J´ of its supplement to the motion for reconsideration before the NLRC. March 25. the Supreme Court will not interfere with the exercise of judgment by an employer. September 13. however. NLRC. R. 131108. R. . Private respondent-employees in Dole Philippines. January 27. Petitioner explains. NLRC. NLRC. To it belongs the ultimate determination of whether services should be performed by its personnel or contracted to outside agencies. Hiring of casuals after redundancy. In De Ocampo vs. [G. 120009. (Serrano vs. While there should be mutual consultation. [G. [213 SCRA 652 (1992)]. No. In Asian Alcohol Corporation vs. Petitioner further asserts that the number of casuals remained relatively constant after the implementation of the redundancy program. It ruled that an employer¶s good faith in implementing a redundancy program is not necessarily put in doubt by the availment of the services of an independent contractor to replace the services of the terminated employees to promote economy and efficiency. No. Petitioner company does not deny that they hired casual employees after the implementation of the redundancy program. The Court finds the foregoing explanation sufficient to negate the allegations of bad faith by its former employees. 1999]. No. 2000]. [G. NLRC.

. in any well-organized business enterprise. (Wiltshire File Co. LIFO RULE. That no other person was holding the same position that private respondent held prior to the termination of his services.Where two or more persons are performing the same work which may be effectively accomplished by only one. one of the issues raised was the validity of application of the ³Last In. Verily. This contemplates a situation where employees occupying the same position in the company are to be affected by the retrenchment program. supra). exception. ³Last In. 1994]. the employer may terminate the excess personnel and retain only one. does not necessarily or even ordinarily refer to duplication of work. what is contemplated in the LIFO rule is that when there are two or more employees occupying the same position in the company affected by the retrenchment program.¶´ LIFO rule. NLRC. the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) Rule must always be strictly observed. No. Redundancy in an employer¶s personnel force. however.´ (Section 2. First Out´ [LIFO] rule. the employee who was employed on the latest date must be the first one to go. NLRC. It is ordained that in cases of retrenchment resulting in termination of employment in line of work. Indeed. Inc. . the length of service of each employee is the determining factor.. The provision speaks of termination in the line of work. involving termination due to redundancy. the reason why there was no violation of the LIFO rule was amply explained by public respondent in this wise: µxxx. it would be surprising to find duplication of work and two (2) or more people doing the work of one person. December 28. First Out [LIFO]´ rule embodied in the CBA which states: ³Section 2. [G. CBA). does not show that his position had not become redundant. R. the Supreme Court declared: ³It is not disputed that the LIFO rule applies to termination of employment in the line of work. 106256. Since there ought to be a reduction in the number of personnel in such positions. In the case of Maya Farms Employees Organization vs. In holding that the employer did not violate said rule. Article III.In all cases of lay-off or retrenchment resulting in termination of employment in the line of work. The LIFO rule under the CBA is explicit. vs. the last one employed will necessarily be the first to go. ³Moreover. such that the employee who has a longer period of employment will be retained.

it is maintained that in the meat processing department. No. thus: ³We cannot sustain the union¶s argument. [G. management has to enjoy a pre-eminent role. A host of relevant factors come into play in determining cost efficient measures and in choosing the employees who will be retained or separated to save the company from closing shop. NLRC. and both were Assistant Superintendents. The union pointed out that the employee who was retained by management was employed on a much later date than the other employee. Superintendents assigned as head of the 3 sections thereat. (Asian Alcohol Corporation vs. no basis in law. as employer has prerogative to choose who to terminate. Superintendent for meat processing. 1966).In the same case of Maya Farms [supra]. The Supreme Court affirmed the ruling of the NLRC which declared that despite the LIFO rule. LIFO or FILO rule. 106256. 109002. It is indeed true that Roberta Cabrera was employed earlier (January 28. Dec. First out´ [LIFO] or ³First in. she could µalready take care of the operations of the other sections. R. supra). respectively. NLRC. either by law or agreement. Such criteria was not shown to be whimsical nor capricious. In determining these issues. Superintendent for packing and Asst. the Asst. R. Superintendent for meat processing. The union relied on social justice and equity to support its proposition. 28. No.¶ The nature of work of each assistant superintendent as well as experience were taken into account by management. 1961) and [sic] Lydia Bandong (July 9. And the reason is simple enough. the petitioners contended that the LIFO rule was violated by management in the case of two (2) employees. termination due to retrenchment and transfer of employees. the union proposed the use of the "last-in-first-out" method in case of lay-off. De la Salle University Employees Association. there were 3 Asst. Last out´ [FILO]. The reason advanced by the company in retaining Bandong was that as Asst. the nature of work and experience were correctly taken into account by management. April 12. The union further insists that its proposal is ³«in keeping with the avowed State policy µ(q) To ensure the participation of workers in . No law mandates the so-called rule of ³Last in. However. especially where the exercise of this prerogative might result in the loss of employment. G.´ (Maya Farms Employees Organization vs. 1994). chanrobles virtual law library LIFO rule. 2000]. In the 2000 case of De la Salle University vs. not controlling. and submitted that the University¶s prerogative to select and/or choose the employees it will hire is limited.

´ On the other hand. be retrenched or dismissed. Hobson¶s choice means no choice at all. R. Labor Code. an employer is free to regulate. 2). does not automatically entitle the union to dictate as to how an employer should choose the employees to be affected by a retrenchment program. they were forced to swallow the bitter pill of dismissal but afforded a chance to sweeten their separation from employment. [should be Article XIII]. among others. covers: work assignment. No. or limited by special laws. 156658. work supervision. All that the employees were offered was a choice on the means or method of terminating their services but never as to the status of their employment. the University has the right to adopt valid and equitable grounds as basis for terminating or transferring employees.´ The Supreme Court ruled as follows: ³We agree with the voluntary arbitrator that as an exercise of management prerogative. [291 SCRA 219 (1998)]. where the employees. 2004]. working methods. [G. said participation. More bluntly stated. be retrenched with benefits or be dismissed without receiving any benefit at all. according to his own discretion and judgment. vs. as amended). National Labor Relations Commission. They either had to voluntarily retire. As we ruled in the case of Autobus Workers' Union (AWU) and Ricardo Escanlar vs. duties and welfare¶ (Art. however. March 10. This principle was applied in the 2004 case of Asufrin. Except as provided for.decision and policy-making processes affecting their rights. par. supervision of workers. chanrobles virtual law library . dismissal and recall of workers. 211. Jr. µ[a] valid exercise of management prerogative is one which.¶´ (emphasis supplied) Hobson¶s choice. In short. a choice between accepting what is offered or having nothing at all. were m ade to understand that they had no choice but to leave the company. of offering only the horse nearest the stable door. an English stable-owner in the 17th century. all aspects of employme nt. the University asserted its management prerogative and countered that ³[w]hile it is recognized that this right of employees and workers to µparticipate in policy and decision -making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law¶ has been enshrined in the Constitution (Article III. Section 3. It refers to the practice of Tobias Hobson. transfer of employees. they were never asked if they wanted to work for petitioner-company. The employer still retains the prerogative to determine the reasonable basis for selecting such employees. and the discipline. San Miguel Corporation. even if given the option to retire. time.

78. if already incurred. whether they are temporary. (2) that the employer serves a written notice both to the employees and to the Department of Labor and Employment at least one (1) month prior to the intended date of retrenchment. physical fitness. a drastic recourse with serious consequences f or the livelihood of the employees retrenched or otherwise laid off. as such imminence can be perceived objectively and in good faith by the employer. actual and real or. are not merely de minimis but substantial.e. efficiency. Secondly. are reasonably imminent as perceived objectively and in good faith by the employer. and (5) that the employer uses fair and reasonable criteria in ascertaining who would be dismissed and who would be retained among the emplo yees. the following are the requisites for a valid retrenchment which must be proved by clear and convincing evidence: (1) that the retrenchment is reasonably necessary and likely to prevent business losses which. after all.. if only expected. casual. the losses expected should be substantial and not merely de minimis in extent. (4) that the employer exercises its prerogative to retrench employees in good faith for the advancement of its interest and not to defeat or circumvent the employees' right to security of tenure. seniority. whichever is higher. If the loss purportedly sought to be forestalled by retrenchment is clearly shown to be insubstantial and inconsequential in character. (3) that the employer pays the retrenched employees separation pay equivalent to one (1) month pay or at least one-half (1/2) month's pay for every year of service. The general standards in terms of which the act of an employer in retrenching or reducing the number of its employees must be appraised are as follows: Firstly. regular or managerial employees). age. serious. . the bona-fide nature of the retrenchment would appear to be seriously in question. in other words. and financial hardship for certain workers. the substantial loss apprehended must be reasonably imminent. What are the requisites for the ground of retrenchment? Under Article 283. There should. be a certain degree of urgency for the retrenchment which is. Standards to be observed in retrenchment. such as status (i.

No. No. G. its manner of implementing the scheme of selecting the employees to be retrenched may render the retrenchment invalid. See also Clarion Printing House. NLRC. Petitioner claims that the retrenchment was based on a numbe r of criteria. flexibility. based on the formula provided in the rank-and-file¶s . must be reasonably necessary and likely to effectively prevent the expected losses. It has not explained why said employees had to be laid off without considering their many years o f service. Philex Mining Corporation. R. modified. 2005]. retrenchment. 25. August 9. what it failed to do was to implement its retrenchment program in a just and proper manner. The reason for requiring this quantum of proof is apparent. if already realized. must be proved by sufficient and convincing evidence. i. to wit: (1) whether the positions of the employees are to be retained or abolished. No. 2005). 148372. In the 2005 case of Ariola vs. Inc. Aug. April 8.e. vs. 147756. 1998]. however. and the expected imminent losses sought to be forestalled. F. R. 2005. one of the criteria for retrenchment in the supervisors¶ MOA was held inconsistent with Article XVIII of the CBA. 152039. R. 115414. but certainly not the least important. because of its consequential nature.. The fact that these employees had accumulated seniority credits indicates that they had been retained in the employ of the employer because of loyal and efficient service. however. vs. [G. NLRC. efficiency. (2) the qualifications required by the positions to be retained. June 27.Thirdly. G. (F. any less exacting standard of proof would render too easy the abuse of this ground for termination of services of employees. cut other costs than labor costs. Marine Corporation vs. R. Petitioner has not shown. While an employer may be justified in ordering retrenchment because it actually suffered financial distress. Here. while respondent Philex had complied with some of the requisites for retrenchment. The employer should have taken other measures prior or parallel to retrenchment to forestall losses. and trainability of the employees. and (3) the attitude. Lastly. or created. The system in the supervisors¶ MOA for computing demerits points. No. The burden of proving the contrary is on petitioner. that certain employees were selected for retrenchment because they did not meet these criteria. chanrobles virtual law library Failure to follow fair criteria in selection. In the case of Philippine Tuberculosis Society. The Honorable Second Division NLRC. the alleged losses. discipline. effect. Its failure to use a reasonable and fair standard in the computation of the supervisors¶ demerits points is not merely a procedural but a substantive defect which invalidates petitioners¶ dismissal. [G. Inc. the Supreme Court invalidated the retrenchment program for its improper implementation despite proof of financial losses.

Aug. . 1998). reduction of both management and rankand-file bonuses and salaries. petitioners may not fall under those to be retrenched. the Supreme Court noted that it did not try other measures. chanrobles virtual law library Cost reduction measures prior to retrenchment. Thus. An employer who.e. trimming of marketing and advertising costs. it was held that the employer is required to take other measures prior or parallel to retrenchment to forestall losses. going on reduced time. reduction of the bonuses and salaries of both management and rank-and-file. The Honorable Second Division NLRC.e. trimming of . improving manufacturing efficiencies. In short. 2004].g. the employer¶s prerogative to bring down labor costs by retrenching must be exercised essentially as a measure of last resort. improvement of manufacturing efficiency. etc. 118973. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2004 case of Emco Plywood Corporation vs.MOA. Inc. inadequate or insufficient. Abelgas. the use of the MOA instead of the CBA becomes a substantive defect.. 152039. cut other costs than labor costs. To impart operational meaning to the cons titutional policy of providing ³full protection´ to labor. April 8. lays off substantial number of workers while continuing to dispense fat executive bonuses and perquisites or so -called ³golden parachutes´. adjustment of the work routine to avoid the scheduled power failure. vs. [G. regardless of the penalty involved. No. (F. where the only less drastic measure that the company undertook was the rotation work scheme: the three-day-work per employee per week schedule. Since the supervisors¶ union did not ratify the MOA. the MOA cannot prevail over the CBA.have been tried and found wanting. The inconsistency between the supervisors¶ MOA and the CBA is a substantive defect because what the CBA removes from petitioners¶ record the supervisors¶ MOA treats as a factor in evaluating petitioners¶ demerits points. evaluates the employee¶s disciplinary record over a three -year period. NLRC. can scarcely claim to be retrenching in good faith to avoid losses. R. Under Article XVIII of the CBA. such as cost reduction. i. This contravenes Article XVIII of the CBA which provides that offenses punishable by ³reprimands and warnings of separation´ will be stricken-off the record every February 1st of each year. R. lesser investment on raw materials. R. for ins tance.. Retrenchment is only a measure of last resort when other less drastic means have been tried and found to be wanting. G. (Polymart Paper Industries. No. 12. Cost reduction measures should first be taken prior to retrenchment. 2005). F. This is not true under the supervisors¶ MOA. G. April 14. chanrobles virtual law library In a 2005 case. No. after less drastic means . 148532. necessary. Marine Corporation vs. if the CBA governs instead of the MOA. petitioners and their co-supervisors will not get demerits points for sanctions of reprimands and warnings of separation.

supra). the financial statements submitted as evidence to prove losses were duly audited by the Commission on Audit (COA). 148372.´ Article 283 uses the phrase ³retrenchment to prevent losses. 2001]. [G. April 15. In the 2005 case of Clarion Printing House. Inc.. chanrobles virtual law library Rehabilitation receivership presupposes existence of losses. R. NLRC. June 27. Inc. F. March 25. Inc. The Hon. These financial documents duly audited by COA constitute the normal and reliable method of proof of the profit and loss performance of a government-controlled corporation. The Supreme Court. 110740. August 9. the financial statements can be assailed as self -serving documents. (F. it was held that the appointment of a receiver or management committee by the SEC (now RTC under the Securities . No. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2001 case of NDC-Guthrie Plantations.audited financial statements. No. vs. R. 131108. (Asian Alcohol Corporation vs. vs. 154368. 2005). has interpreted the law to mean that the employer need not keep all his employees until after his losses shall have materialized. [G. NLRC. Unless duly audited by independent auditors. Daguman. vs. chanrobles virtual law library Meaning of the phrase ³retrenchment to prevent losses. Marine Corporation vs.marketing and advertising costs. (Danzas Intercontinental. The fact that the company did not resort to other such measures seriously belies its claim that retrenchment was done in good faith to avoid losses. Otherwise. this phrase means that retrenchment must be undertaken by the employer before losses are actually sustained. G. No. the law could be vulnerable to attack as undue taking of property for the benefit of another. The Supreme Court ruled that in the context of the submitted financial statements prepared by COA itemizing and explaining the losses suffered by petitioner companies. R. The Supreme Court has consistently ruled that financial statements audited by independent external auditors constitute the normal method of proof of the profit and loss performance of a company.´ In its ordinary connotation. 2005]. And yet. G. chanrobles virtual law library Best evidence of losses in a government-controlled corporation financial statements audited by COA. No. chanrobles virtual law library Best evidence of losses . R. and so on. 305 SCRA 416). involving the retrenchment of workers in government-controlled corporations. Second Division NLRC. the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC rejected them. however. the Court is unable to understand the rationale behind the NLRC¶s challenged judgment. NLRC. 1999.

respectively.´ shows that Clarion. wastage or destruction of assets of other properties or paralyzation of business operations. inter alia. together with the other member-companies of the EYCO Group of Companies. even on appeal. 152039. . The financial statements show that in 1994 and 1995. employers may. Marine Corporation vs. 155278. April 8. No.Regulation Code.. . [G. In the 2005 case of F. Evidence of losses in a retrenchment case may be presented for the first time on appeal with the NLRC.79 and P155.609. June 27. was suffering business reverses justifying. F. on cogent grounds. evidence of bus iness losses to justify the retrenchment of workers. 148372. NLRC. it was declared that pursuant to the policy that technical rules of procedure are not strictly applied in labor cases. effect. delay in the submission of evidence should be clearly explained and should adequately prove the employer¶s allegation of the cause for termination.339. petitioners seek to justify the retrenchment on the ground of serious business losses brought about by the Asian economic crisis. No. A. among other things. were prepared only by petitioners¶ accountant and approved by the manager. In contrast. respectively.316. No. and thus resulting to ³complications and problems .005. petitioners adduced before the Labor Arbiter the 1994 and 1995 Financial Statements. However. R.´ That the SEC appointed an interim receiver for the EYCO Group of Companies on its petition in light of ³factors beyond the control and anticipation of the management´ rendering it unable to meet its obligation as they fall due. In the 2003 case of Tanjuan vs. .072. Philippine Postal Savings Ban k. The Honorable Second Division NLRC. September 16. (See also Clarion Printing House. R. to arise that would impair and affect [its] operations . G. To prove their claim. No. petitioner corporation earned an income of only P77.96. vs. 2005]. They wer e not audited by an independent external auditor. the 1996 and 1997 Financial Statements showed loss es of P18. R. 2005). however. loss. a company possesses sufficient property to cover all its debts but ³foresees the impossibility of meeting them when they respectively fall due´ and ³there is imminent danger of dissipation. the retrenchment of its employees. Inc. chanrobles virtual law library Audited financial statements belatedly filed in the CA. [G. delay in the submission of evidence should be clearly explained and should adequately prove the employer¶s allegation of the cause for termination. and P21.918.89. It was only before the Court of Appeals that the financial statements for the years 1996 and 1997 as audited by an independent external auditor . R. . 8799) presupposes a finding that. Said Financial Statements. be allowed to present.08. Inc. 2003]. However.

313 (1995)] as in Tanjuan vs. NLRC. NLRC. if there was any truth that the company . The same cannot be said of the private respondent in this case. the same is belied by the fact that the private respondent-employees remained employed by petitioner c ompany until October 15. March 10. That was why this Court in Cañete ratiocinated that the petitioner therein had the opportunity to rebut the truth of the additional documents. the Supreme Court ruled in the latter case: chanrobles virtual law library ³Petitioners cite Cañete vs. per its financial statements for the period 1986 to December 31. In Cañete vs. No. Inc. 155278. 1999]. This Court has ruled that financial statements audited by independent external auditors constitute the normal method of proof of the profit and loss performance of a company. Inc. No. Philippine Postal Savings Bank. But in F. [320 Phil. 120971. A careful examination of financial statements may be resorted to especially if on their face relevant facts appear to have been ignored that will warrant a contrary conclusion. Marine cases. The Supreme Court ruled: ³Petitioners¶ failure to adduce financial statements duly audited by independent external auditor casts doubt on their claim of losses for financial statements are easy prey to manipulation and concoction. Indeed. F.´ Retrenchment effected long after business losses. Distinguishing the Cañete from the F. Marine [supra]. In Taggat Industries. [G. Even this. several months prior to the filing of the complaint for illegal dismissal on 12 January 1999. 313 (1995)] where the Court upheld the NLRC¶s consideration of documents submitted to it by the respondent therein for the first time on appeal.. the Supreme Court did not allow the presentation of evidence of losses for the first time before the Court of Appeals. is not a hard and fast rule as the norm does not compel this Court to accept the contents of the said documents blindly and without thinking. R. [320 Phil. They were not presented before the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC although they were executed on 30 March 1998. the Supreme Court allowed the presentation of documentary evidence for the first time on appeal with the NLRC. 1991.were introduced. [G. unlike in this case where the new financial statements were submitted for the first time before the Court of Appeals. 1987. 2003 (supra)]. September 16. The holding is clearly not apropos since the documents were presented to the NLRC. while sufficient evidence of the company¶s business losses was submitted by the petitioner company. NLRC. however. more than four (4) years since the company declared losses in 1987. R. F. vs.´ Evidence of losses may be allowed to be presented for the first time on appeal with NLRC but not with CA.

the decision to close or cease operations should be made in good faith. when appropriate. This contention. R. [G. Moreover. May 28. the purpose should not be to circumvent the provisions of Titl e I of Book Six of the Labor Code. it should have retrenched the private respondent-employees as soon as th e business losses became evident. there is no other option available to the employer except to close or cease operations. there should be clear proof thereof since no separation pay to the employees is required to be paid under the law. whether or not the closure or cessation of operations is due to serious business losses or financial reverses. [AG & P]. [NOTE: If the ground is serious business losses or financial reverses. chanrobles virtual law library 79. which prompted private respondents to retrench.was reeling from business reverses. . it was contended that the ³redundancy program´ was actually a union-busting scheme of management.] 3. and 5. What are the requisites for the ground of closure or cessation of business operations? The requisites for the valid invocation of this statutory ground are as follows: 1. 127516. Inc. it has been shown that such action was made only as company projects became available and that it was done in pursuance of the company¶s policy of giving preference to its former workers in the rehiring of project employees. while it is true that the company re-hired or re-employed some of the dismissed workers. cannot stand in the fact of evidence of substantial losses suffered by the company. aimed at removing union officers who had declared a strike. The rehiring or re-employment does not negate the imminence of losses. if such is the cause invoked. the notice requirement under Article 283 should be complied with. vs. 4. this requisite becomes relevant. 1999]. In Atlantic Gulf and Pacific Company of Manila. No. effect. NLRC. If not due to serious business losses. separation pay under the law (when not due to serious business losses) or company policy or Collective Bargaining Agreement or similar contract. 2. must be paid to the affected employees. however. chanrobles virtual law library Re-hiring of retrenched employees.

A. be stretching the intent and spirit of the law if we were to unjustly interfere in management¶s prerogative to close or cease its business operations just because said business operation or undertaking is not suffering from any loss. We reasoned out. the closure of a part thereof to minimize expenses and reduce capitalization should similarly be recognized. March 10. as long as he pays his employees their termination pay in the amount corresponding to their length of service. 395. G. 405 (1997)]. NLRC. [339 Phil. in fact. the Supreme Court ruled as valid the closure of . In Dangan vs. branches.Employer may close its business whether it is suffering from business losses or not. General Services vs. R. It would.´ the Supreme Court ruled in Coca -Cola Bottlers [Phils. 2004]. Inc. NLRC.´ Principle of closure under Article 283 applies in cases of both complete and partial cessation of business operation. 153021. 26. Inc.]. R. that since the greater right to close the entire establishment and cease operations due to ad verse economic conditions is granted an employer. [G. provides for the payment of separation pay to employees terminated because of closure of business not due to losses. R. chanrobles virtual law library Closure of outlets. Joni¶s Food Services. NLRC. [G. No. No. the Supreme Court had occasion to reiterate management¶s prerogative to close or abolish a department or section of the employer¶s establishment for economic reasons. the Supreme Court held more emphatically that: chanrobles virtual law library ³In any case. court cannot order employer to continue its business. that said statutory provision applies to closure or cessation of an establishment or undertaking. NLRC. Jan. whether it be a complete or partial cessation or closure of business operation.. 1998]. 148340. said the Supreme Court. indeed. March 11. In the 2004 case of Cama vs. In Industrial Timber Corporation vs. vs. 125887. Article 283 of the Labor Code is clear that an employer may close or cease his business operations or undertaking even if he is not suffering from serious business losses or financial reverses. (J. A careful examination of Article 283 indicates that closure or ces sation of business operation as a valid and authorized ground of terminating employment is not limited to those resulting from business losses or reverses. 2004).T. Although Article 283 uses the phrase ³closure or cessation of operation of an establishment or undertaking. thus implying that termination of employees other than closure of business due to losses may be valid. departments or sections. Said provision. [127 SCRA 706]. No.

Inc. Daguman. the employees affected were not entitled to separation pay. Daguman. NLRC. R. It is well settled that the burden of proving that the closure is bona -fide falls upon the employer. Batangas is neither a closure nor retrenchment. Tomas. Jan. General Services vs. although the more overriding consideration . 2004). No. R. hence. Inc. 148340. 2005). G. [G.outlets or branches. vs. Moreover. 2005]. petitioner has to accord its employees some relief in the form of severance pay. G. April 15. Audited financial statements necessary in closure due to losses. the same evidence is generally requ ired when the termination of employees is by reason of closure of the establishment or a division thereof for economic reasons.A. 2000]. NLRC. R. chanrobles virtual law library Burden of proof in case closure is due to losses. The Supreme Court considered this contention without merit. 154368. (Danzas Intercontinental. there appears no complete dissolution of petitioner¶s business undertaking but the relocation of petitioner¶s plant to Batangas. NLRC. separation pay should not be awarded to the private respondents.] Inc.´ (Citing Coca -Cola Bottlers [Phils. It must be stressed that the phrase µclosure or cessation of operation of an establishment or undertaking not due to serious business losses or reverses¶ under Article 283 of the Labor Code includes both the complete cessation of all business operations and the cessation of only part of a company¶s business. vs. thus: chanrobles virtual law library ³Broadly speaking. 26. vs. amounts to cessation of petitioner¶s business operations in Makati. According to the 2005 case of Danzas Intercontinental. Cheniver Deco Print Technics Corporation vs. 194 SCRA 592. No. No. (J. Relocation of business amounts to cessation of operations. No. The condition of business losses is normally shown by financial documents duly audited by independent auditors. 599 [1991]). not necessarily the entire business operations. in our view. April 15. 122876. petitioner contends that the transfer of its business from its site in Makati to Sto. February 17.T. R. it held that since the closure was due to s erious losses duly proven by clear evidence. 154368. [G. chanrobles virtual law library It is worth noting in this regard that the employer¶s prerogative to close or abolish a department or section of his establishment for economic reasons such as to minimize expenses and reduce capitalization is as much recognized as management¶s prerogative to close the entire establishment and cease operations due to adverse economic conditions. In a 2000 case. It ruled that even though the transfer was due to a reason beyond its control.

who are in the position to evaluate evidence. NLRC. Me-Shurn Workers Union FSM. A. The termination of their employment was not caused by the private respondents. under justifiable circumstances. the petitioners are not entitled to separation pay. 2005] and Danzas Intercontinental [supra]. Otherwise. PEARA. 6657. Patalon Coconut Estate. if any. No. [G. January 11. 6657. That they failed to do so and only presented these documents to the Court of Appeals on certiorari is lamentable considering that the admission of evidence is outside the sphere of the appellate court¶s certiorari jurisdiction. Parenthetically. if the business losses that justify the closure of the establishment are duly proved. The Supreme Court thus said in National Federation of Labor vs. good faith. they should have presented the company¶s audited financial statements before the Labor Arbiter or. Article 283 does not contemplate a situation where the closure of the business establishment is forced upon the employer and ultimately for the benefit of the employees as in the case of closure of the employer¶s business because a large portion of its estate was acquired b y the Department of Agrarian Reform pursuant to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program under Republic Act No. chanrobles virtual law library Evidence of losses in a closure case should not be presented for the first time on appeal with the Court of Appeals or Supreme Court. Matters regarding the financial condition of a company . R. The resulting closure of the business establishment. of course. for the termination of petitioners¶ employment can even be laid upon the petitioner-employees themselves inasmuch as they formed themselves into a cooperative. occurred through no . 127718. the employer closing his business is obligated to pay his employees their separation pay. even on appeal with the NLRC. [G. The blame. No. R. March 2. when it was placed under CARP. private respondents¶ landed estate pursuant to R. In the 2005 case of Me-Shurn Corporation vs. 156292.is. 2000]: ³(S)ince the closure was due to the act of the government to benefit the petitioners as members of the Patalon Estate Agrarian Reform Association by making them agrarian lot beneficiaries of said estate. as agrarian lot beneficiaries.those that justify the closing of its business and show the losses in its operations . ultimately to take over . the right of affected employees to separation pay is lost for obvious reasons.are questions of fact that must be proven below. Closure due to CARP. The employer must prove that the cessation of or withdrawal from business operations was bona-fide in character and not impelled by a motive to defeat or circumvent the tenurial rights of employees. the High Tribunal held that as the employer-petitioners have the burden of proving the existence of an authorized cause.

R. Sarphil Corporation. Rather.¶ (Emphasis supplied) ³The ruling in the parallel case of National Federation of Labor vs. R. It would be the height of injustice and inequity if the workers who benefited from the takeover of the lands and becoming new owners in the process would still be allowed to exact payment from their former employer-landowner in the form of separation pay benefit. We quote with approval the following disquisitions of public respondent which We have found to be substantiated by the evidence. distinguished.A. is apropos. NLRC. There.fault of the private respondents. [G. 150915. The resulting severance of employment relationship between the parties came about INVOLUNTARILY. [G. the Supreme Court said: ³Anent the legality of the Labor Arbiter¶s award of separation pay in favor of petitioners. NLRC. viz: µx x x The resulting severance of employment relation between the parties does not make out a case of illegal dismissal nor of termination due to cessation of business operation or undertaking under Article 283 of the Labor Code warranting payment of separation pay. primarily because dismissal presupposes a unilateral act by the employer in terminating the employment of its workers. 2005]. No. Thus.´ chanrobles virtual law library In 2005. in the case of Manaban vs. xxx. Quoting the Court of Appeals¶ decision affirming the ruling of the NLRC. 148340. it was not because they wanted to. The closure of business operations contemplated under Article 283 refers to a voluntary act or decision on the part of the employer. the Supreme Court had occasion to re-affirm the ruling in the above 2000 case of National Federation of Labor [supra]. not one forced upon it. If the landowners ceased their operation. it was something forced upon them by an act o f law or the State. . No. General Services vs. the Supreme Court categorically held that former employees who became beneficiaries of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program are not entitled to separation pay because the closure of the business of their employer is compelled by law and not by the decision of its management.T. by an act of the Law or State to benefit petitioners by making them agrarian lot beneficiaries. as in this case. The 2004 case of J. respondent NLRC correctly ruled that the termination of employer-employee relationship as a result of the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law does not make out a case for illegal dismissal or termination due to authorized cause under Article 283 of the Labor Code as to warrant the payment of separation pay. Such would be tantamount to dealing a DOUBLE WHAMMY against the landowner who was forced to relinquish or part with the ownership of his land by an act of the State. April 11.´ chanrobles virtual law library Retrenchment and closure of business.

24. Inc. It is sometimes also referred to as d own-sizing. Pulp and Paper. it is not excused from complying with the required written notice served both to the employee concer ned and the DOLE at . R. retrenchment is reduction of personnel usually due to poor financial returns so as to cut down on costs of operations in terms of salaries and wages to prevent bankruptcy of the company. it cited jurisprudence relating to retrenchment to support its resolution and conclusion. Jan. Notices required under Article 283. is the reversal of fortune of the employer whereby there is a complete cessation of business operations and/or an actual locking-up of the doors of establishment. 157611. mandatory. 266 SCRA 24. 32. chanrobles virtual law library The foregoing distinction was reiterated in the 2005 case of Alabang Country Club. vs. 2004] discusses in clear terms the distinction between retrenchment and closure of business. In this case. usually due to financial losses. Retrenchment is an authorized cause for termination of employment which the law accords an employer who is not making good in its operations in order to cut back on expenses for salaries and wages by laying off some employees. vs. While an employer may have a valid ground for implementing a retrenchment program. Inc. however. No. NLRC. (Fuentes vs. NLRC. 1997). R. chanrobles virtual law library Closure of business. The purpose of retrenchment is to save a financially ailing business establishment from eventually collapsing. No. The reason is that when petitioner decided to cease operating its F & B Department and open the same to a concessionaire. while the Court of Appeals defined the issue to be the validity of dismissal due to alleged closure of business. 116593. This requirement is mandatory. 1997. Article 283 requires that separate 30-day prior notices should be sent to the affected employees and to the Department of Labor and Employment. it did not reduce the number of personnel assigned thereat. found closure as the most appropriate ground. It terminated the employment of all personnel assigned at the department. On the other hand. 80. the ground cited by petitioner in terminating its employees working in its Food and Beverage Department (F & B Department) was retrenchment. [G. 2005]. Termination of an employment may be predicated on one without need of resorting to the other. In this case. they are actually two separate and independent authorized causes for termination of employment. While the two are often used interchangeably and are interrelated. Sept. on one hand. August 9. 2.January 26. Closure of business as an authorized cause for termination of employment aims to prevent further financial drain upon an employer who cannot pay anymore his employees since business has already stopped. The Supreme Court. NLRC. G.

R. NLRC. Abelgas. Notice to the employee. R. No. April 15. R. effect per Agabon case. 2005). R. the Supreme Court ruled that dismissal for authorized cause but without complying with the notice requirement does not make the dismissal illegal or ineffectual. 2005]. it should not invalidate the dismissal. However. February 11. (Explanatory Note. No. while this infirmity cannot be cured. . it was ruled that a notice served on the employee to be retrenched and to the DOLE three (3) days short of the 30 days required by law is procedurally defective. 2. Failure to observe 30-day prior notice rule. 149090. No.least one month prior to the intended date of retrenchment. No. 148532. In the 2005 case of Cajucom VII vs. The notice requirement is a substitute for the prior -clearance requirement in case of termination of employment. R. [G. April 15. The notice to the employee is required to enable him to contest the factual bases of the management decision or good faith of the termination before the DOLE. 1. G. NLRC. G. 147002. (PT & T vs. Rationale for the notice requirement. 147002. In Agabon. April 14. The notice to the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) is necessary to enable it to ascertain the verity and truth of the cause of termination. [G. (PT & T vs. TPI Philippine Cement Corporation. G. vs. rationale. NLRC. Consequently.000. this notice requirement gives employees some time to prepare for the eventual loss of their jobs and their corresponding income. 2004). Cabinet Bill No. 45 which was later enacted into law as Batas Pambansa Bilang 130). (Emco Plywood Corporation vs. 2004]. 158693 November 17. Notice to DOLE. In addition. defective or illegal.00 as nominal damages for non-compliance with the procedural requirements of due process. No. The dismissal remains valid and legal but the employer is made to pay an indemnity in the form of nominal damages for non compliance with the procedural requirements of due process. the employer should be held liable in the amount of P20. 2005 Absence of notice does not render the dismissal ineffectual. rationale.

however. Well-settled is the rule that notice to the Department of Labor and Employment need not be complied with if the termination of employment under Article 283 was made voluntarily by the employees pursuant to a valid personnel reduction program. (Ibid. The notice required to be sent to the DOLE should state clearly the correct number of workers to be terminated based on the grounds cited in Article 283.000. the supervisors and the department heads instructing them to retrench some of the workers based on certain guidelines is not the required notice contemplated by law. 120009. In International Hardware. [176 SCRA 256 (1989)]. Inc. supra). vs.). [G. it was ruled that if an employee consented to the retrenchment or voluntarily applied for retrenchment with the employer due to the installation of labor-saving devices. closure or cessation of operation or to prevent financial losses to the business of the employer. R. No. not on their supervisors. Notice to DOLE need not be complied with in case of voluntary personnel reduction program.In another 2005 case. redundancy. September 13. renders the same defective. Inc. NLRC. vs. The written notice should be served on the employees themselves. chanrobles virtual law library Notice to DOLE should state correct number of workers to be terminated. 2005]. Abelgas. Based on prevailing jurisprudence. entitling the dismissed employee to payment of indemnity in the form of nominal damages. (Emco Plywood Corporation vs. the amount of indemnity is pegged at P30. NLRC. R. Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Corporation vs.00. does not render the voluntary redundancy program void. the section heads. Such notice is defective if it stated that the company would terminate the services of 104 of its workers but had actually dismissed 250. according to the Supreme Court in Dole Philippines. 147002. the required previous notice to the Department of Labor and Employment is not necessary as the employee thereby acknowledged the existence of a valid cause for termination of his employment. Petitioner accurately invoked the case of International Hardware . the Supreme Court held that while the employer¶s failure to comply with the one-month notice requirement prior to retrenchment does not render the termination illegal. No. April 15. A notice sent to the foremen. the lack of notice to the DOLE. [G. 2001]. Notice should be served to employees themselves. NLRC. chanrobles virtual law library In a subsequent 2001 case. it..

Such advance payment cannot be treated as a replacement or substitute for the notices required under the law. [G. was cited. May the employer validly pay in advance. R. NLRC. 2001]. Advance payment of one month salary. had the occasion to reiterate the rule that . Santos vs. CA. 141947. it must be stressed that the service of separate notices to the employees affected and to the Department of Labor and Employment at least thirty (30) days from the effectivity of the termination for authorized cause s hould still be duly complied with. The employer paying the advance salaries should still comply with said notice requirement one month prior to the intended effectivity of the termination. However. unimpeded time to look for a new job during the one (1) month period he is no longer required to work by his employer. May 4. No. the advance payment of the salary for one month does not dispense with the requirement of the 1-month prior notice. No.. the same ruling in International Hardware [supra] that the mandated one (1) month notice prior to termination given to the worker and the DOLE is rendered unnecessary by the consent of the worker himself. The case in point is the 2000 en banc case of Serrano vs. 2000]. not a substitute for written notice requirement. Having established private respondent¶s good faith in undertaking the assailed redundancy program.. The law requires that the notice to the employee who will be terminated for authorized causes and notice to the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) must be served at least one (1) month before the intended date of effectivity thereof. where the Supreme Court. in its Resolution on the Motion for Reconsideration. Inc. In other words. R. July 5. Pepsi-Cola Products Phils. they would not have agreed to their termination.[supra]. Here. [G. there is no need to rule on this contention. upon the service of notice to the employee and to the DOLE. the salary of the employee equivalent to said one (1) month period but without requiring him to report for work within said period? This question may be answered in the affirmative considering that the law does not preclude such procedure and the same is more beneficial to the employee who will then have enough. nor would they have signed the corresponding releases and quitclaims. 117040. most of the private respondents even filled up application forms to be considered for the redundancy program and thus acknowledged the existence that their services were redundant. chanrobles virtual law library In another 2001 case. Petitioners assail the voluntariness of their consent by stating that had they known of PEPSI¶s bad faith.

in this manner: ³Article 283 speaks of a permanent retrenchment as opposed to a temporary lay-off as is the case here. The petitioners insist that the one-month notice requirement does not apply in this situation. 147002. They aver that this has been recognized by the Supreme Court. Indeed. It must be stressed that compliance with the one-month notice rule is mandatory regardless of whether the retrenchment is temporary or permanent. It cannot be a fully effective substitute for the thirty (30) days written notice required by law especially when. Besides.´ chanrobles virtual law library The petitioners¶ adherence to the above pronouncement of the Court is . chanrobles virtual law library This is the conclusion of the Supreme Court in the 2005 case of Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Corporation vs. [G. hence.R. No. This is so because Article 283 itself does not speak of temporary or permanent retrenchment. and they quote Sebuguero vs. R. NLRC. 1998 to February 15.nothing in Article 283 of the Labor Code gives the employer the option to substitute the required prior written notice with payment of thirty (30) days salary. 1999. to commence from September 1. No. as by then the loss of employment would have been a fait accompli. which involves the temporary retrenchment of some employees dubbed as Temporar y Staff Reduction Program (TSRP) lasting for not more than five and a half (5½) months. April 15. It is not for the employer to make substitutions for a right that a worker is legally entitled to. One-month notice requirement. Payment of thirty (30) days salary cannot compensate for the psychological effect or the stigma of immediately finding one¶s self laid off from work. there is no need to qualify the term. applies to both permanent and temporary-lay off. as the retrenc hment involved was merely temporary and not permanent. Ubi lex non distinguit nec nos distinguere debemus (when the law does not distinguish. as in this case. There is no specific provision of law which treats of a temporary retrenchment or lay-off and provides for the requisites in effecting it or a period or duration therefor. the purpose of such previous notice is to give the employee some time to prepare for the eventual loss of his job as well as the DOLE the opportunity to ascertain the verity of the alleged authorized cause of termination. 2005]. 1995. a job is more than the salary that it carries. t he fact is that no notice was given to the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). September 27. 248 SCRA 532]. continues the High Court. 115394. [G. Such purpose would not be served by the simple expedient of paying thirty (30) days salary in lieu of notice of an employee¶s impending dismissal. NLRC. we must not distinguish).

The respondents had barely two weeks¶ notice of the intended retrenchment program. Jr. and not the compliance with the one-month notice requirement. Amount of separation pay depends on the ground cited. the vicepresident of the COG. Hearing in termination of employment for authorized causes need not b e conducted by the employer. Further. to begin with. The said memorandum was received by Castillo on August 24. Separation pay under Article 283. to respondents Bayao and Castillo informing the latter that they were included in the TSRP to be implemented effective September 1. allege any malfeasance or nonfeasance on the part of the employee. Davide. there are no allegations which the employee should refute and defend himself from. to require the company to hold a hearing at which private respondent would have had a right to be present. the one-month notice rule was not complied with. the Supreme Court.misplaced. would be to impose upon the employer an unnecessary and inutile hearing as a condition for legality of termination. the petitioners never showed that any notice of the retrenchment was sent to the DOLE. 1998. For purposes of reckoning the appropriate separation pay to be paid to terminated employees under Article 283. Clearly then. Thus. on the business and financial circumstances compelling retrenchment and resulting in redundancy. there is no need for an investigation or hearing to be conducted by the employer who does not.. Hearing is not required in termination for authorized causes under Article 283 (and Article 284). Nowhere can it be found in Sebuguero that the one-month notice may be dispensed with. 1998 was dated August 21. . while the other two grounds of retrenchment and closure or cessation of operations not due to serious business losses or financial reverses are also separately grouped as one. On the contrary. 81. emphasized the mandatory nature of the said notice. In such case. At the same time. the gro unds of installation of labor-saving devices and redundancy are grouped together. 1998. The particular issue involved in the said decision was the duration of the period of temporary lay-off. 1998 and Bayao on August 26. The rationale behind this rule is that where the ground for the dismissal or termination of services does not relate to a blameworthy act or omission on the part of the employee. speaking through Chief Justice Hilario G. the memorandum of Del Rosario. in the case at bar. 82.

vs. chanrobles virtual law library ³One month´ pay. An employee is entitled to termination pay equivalent to at least his one (1) month pay or at least one (1) month pay for every year of service. whichever is higher. By way of illustration. the minimum amount of separation pay under Article 283. Rules to Implement the Labor Code). Thus. whichever is higher. (See also Section 9 [a]. closure or cessation of operations of establishment or undertaking not due to serious business losses or financial reverses. the former will be applied if the ground is installation of labor -saving device or redundancy. a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year. 1997 was held to be entitled to a separation pay equivalent to one (1) month salary. 148372. Book VI. June 27. R. irrespective of the period of service he has rendered for the employer since the law itself does not impose any such minimum period of service as requisite for entitlement thereto. while the latter will be paid if the ground is retrenchment or closure or cessation of business operations not due to serious business losses or financial reverses. Inc. NLRC. [G. Separation pay in cases of retrenchment or closure not due to serious business losses or disease. the respondent-employee who had rendered service from April 21. disease under Article 284. (See also Section 9 [b].Separation pay in cases of installation of labor-saving devices or redundancy. Book VI. (2) The employee should receive either ³one month pay for every year of service´ or ³one-half (½) month pay for every year of service´ depending on the ground invoked for the termination. in Clarion Printing House. (1) ³One month pay´ is the minimum amount an employee terminated under Article 283 should receive. The employee is entitled to separation pay equivalent to one (1) month pay or at least one-half (½) month pay for every year of service. retrenchment to prevent losses. 1997 to October 22. . a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year where the termination of employment is due to either: a. 2005]. Rule I. or b. in case his termination is due to the installation of labor-saving devices or redundancy. or chanrobles virtual law library c. Rules to Implement the Labor Code). Rule I. No.

irrespective of the ground invoked for the termination under Article 283. No. 153021. the employer is not liable to pay any separation pay. 2004]. Indeed. By way of illustration. R. Inc. grants the minimum amount of separation pay of one (1) month pay.(3) In case the employee has served for one (1) year. where it was pronounced that since the closure was due to serious losses duly proven by clear evidence. or chanrobles virtual law library b. Joni¶s Food Services. (4) In case the employee has served for at least two (2) years: a. Payment of separation pay under Article 283 is justified only if the ³closure or cessation of operations´ is not due to serious business losses or financial rev erses. if an employee has served for 1 year and 5 mont hs. his period of service shall be deemed at least two (2) years for purposes of computing his separation pay. he shall be entitled to a separation pay equivalent to two (2) months pay (1 month pay x 2 years). the employees affected were not entitled to separation . This ruling was reiterated in the 2004 case of Cama vs. 1996]. In the leading case of North Davao Mining Corporation vs. his period of service shall only be considered one (1) year. no distinction should be made. March 10. Indeed. It does not pertain to employees whose service is less than one (1) year as the law. It must be noted that the phrase ³a fraction of at least six (6) months shall be considered one (1) whole year´ found in Article 283 refers only to the computation or reckoning of the separation pay of affected employees who have served for more than one (1) year. irrespective of the length of service of the affected employee. requisite for entitlement to separation pay. it is absurd to hold that affected employees who have serve d for less than six (6) months are not entitled to the minimum separation pay of one (1) month prescribed thereunder. [G. R.. NLRC. [G. if the ground invoked is retrenchment or closure or cessation of business operations not due to serious business losses or financial reverses. No. March 13. Nor water out of parched land. he shall be entitled to a separation pay equivalent to one (1) month pay (½ month pay x 2 years). If he has served for 1 year and 6 months. one cannot squeeze blood out of a dry stone. the Supreme Court en banc categorically declared that when the closure or cessation of operations is due to seriou s business losses or financial reverses. 112546. When the law does not distinguish. he shall be entitled to at least one month pay. as earlier posited.if the ground invoked is installation of labor-saving device or redundancy. Closure or cessation of operations.

NLRC. it was held that the separation pay mandated to be paid under Article 283 cannot be reduced by any deductions for attorney¶s fees that may have accrued as a result of the renegotiations for a new CBA. No. (Emco Plywood Corporation vs. F. Inc. No. [338 Phil. 148532. where the retrenchments were found to be illegal as the employers had failed to prove that they were actually suffering from poor financial conditions. Quitclaim. 1998).pay. No. Philippine Carpet Manufacturing Corporation. The same holding was made by the Supreme Court in the 2005 case of F. May 5. September 14. Receipt of separation pay and execution of quitclaims by employees terminated under Article 283 do not bar them from instituting an action for illegal dismissal. In this case. 152039. Accordingly. Their consent was similarly vitiated by mistake or fraud. the Supreme Court. 2005]. Abelgas. G. 2000]. R. R. Marine Corporation vs. Separation pay not subject to deduction for attorney¶s fees or negotiation fees. April 8. scrutini zed the balance sheets and income statements by using such basic accounting tools as the working capital ratio. (Bogo -Medellin Sugarcane Planters Association. 25. R. the company was suffering from serious losses and. not voluntarily entered into by them. 681. vs. [340 SCRA 383. G. The law looks with disfavor upon qu itclaims and . 1997] and Philippine Carpet Employees¶ Association vs. therefore. NLRC. the retrenchment was declared illegal and of no effect. gross profit ratio and net profit (loss) ratio. 394. 2004). The obligation to pay attorney¶s fees belongs to the union and cannot be shunted to the individual workers as their direct responsibility. the quitclaims were deemed illegal as the employees¶ consent had been vitiated by mistake or fraud. 148532. Considering that the ground for retrenchment availed of by petitioners was not sufficiently and convincingly established. [G. [G. Abelgas. debt-equity ratio. not a bar to question validity of termination under Article 283. therefore. R. the employer is not obligated to pay separation benefits. and in the earlier cases of Trendline Employees Association-Southern Philippines Federation of Labor (TEA-SPFL) vs. In a 2004 case. No. The Honorable Second Division NLRC. April 14. it concluded that indeed. In the 2004 case of Emco Plywood Corporation vs. The quitclaims executed by retrenched employees in favor of petitioners were. The Labor Code prohibits such arrangement under Article 222 of the Labor Code. 97846. Sept. April 14. The law has made clear that any agreement to the contrary shall be null and void ab initio. to determine the veracity of the claim of the company that it has suffered extreme losses. 2004].

As a rule. What are the requisites for the ground of disease? The following requisites must be complied with before termination of employment due to disease may be justif ied: . What are the legal principles that may be invoked in cases of sale. however.Liable to the employees. not an authorized cause to terminate employment. not indicative of bad faith. Rule 86 of the Rules of Court. ‡ Liability of buyer or transferee of business in good faith . ‡ Transfer of business due to death . Thus. (Martinez vs. G. the employees of the merged companies or entities are deemed absorbed by the new company. chanrobles virtual law library ‡ Sale or transfer of business in bad faith . be deducted from their respective monetary awards.obligations of deceased not enforceable against the transferee. deeds of release or quitclaim cannot bar employees from demanding benefits to which they are legally entitled or from contesting the legality of their dismissal. 272 SCRA 793). transfer or spin-off of business? ‡ Change of ownership of business. No. NLRC. 117495. ‡ Generous termination pay package indicates good fait h. What is the legal consequence of merger? In merger. 84. ‡ New owner is not assignee of CBA in sale in good faith. The obligation of the new company involves not only to absorb the workers of the dissolved companies but also to include the length of service earned by the absorbed employees with their former employers as well. 85.releases by employees pressured into signing by unscrupulous employers minded to evade legal responsibilities. 1997. May 29. The amounts already received by the retrenched employees as consideration for signing the quitclaims should. et al. claims f or unpaid benefits should be filed in the intestate proceedings involving the estate of the deceased in accordance with Section 5.. ‡ Appointment of same directors and employees. R.Not obligated to absorb employees except when this is specifically stipulated. 83. The acceptance of those benefits would not amount to estoppel.

a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year. Deputy Minister of Labor. chanrobles virtual law library Medical certificate. an indispensable requisite. and 6. whichever is greater. ‡Company physician is not a ³competent public health authority. ³Competent public health authority´ refers to a government doctor whose medical specialization pertains to the disease being suffered by the employee. Hon. prohibited by law. notice of termination based on this ground should be served to the employee. 153 SCRA 38 [1987]). A medical certificate issued by a company¶s own physician is not an acceptable certificate for purposes of terminating an employment based on Article 284. it having been issued not by a ³competent public health authority.1. not acceptable. the employee is suffering from a disease. there is a certification by a competent public health authority that the disease is of such nature or at such stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. 58639. or b. 2. (Cebu Royal Plant [San Miguel Corporation] vs. an employee who is sick of tuberculosis should consult a government-employed pulmonologist who is competent to make an opinion thereon. Medical certificate issued by company doctor. or c.´ ‡Medical certificate issued by company doctor is not sufficient. For instance. Aug. 1987. G. prejudicial to his health. In the absence of the required certification by a competent public health authority. prejudicial to the health of his co-employees. the Supreme Court has consistently ruled against the validity of . 4. If the employee has cardiac symptoms.separation pay shall be paid to him in the amount equivalent to at least one (1) month salary or to one-half (1/2) month salary for every year of service. the competent physician in this case would be a cardiolo gist. ‡Burden of proof rests on the employer. 12. his continued employment is either: a.´ the person referred to in the law. R. 3. No.

April 4. 116384. Here. NLRC. vs. R. 7. Common sense dictates that an ordinary worker does not need to have these medical certificates to be notarized for proper presentation to his company to prove his ailment. Ltd. 102969. the High Court reiterated its earlier ruling in Triple Eight Integrated Services. of the Rules to Implement the Labor Code. the nature and the duration of the procedures performed by the dentist on him. Medical certificates presented by an employee to prove (a) his illness. Inc. that the requirement for a medical certificate under Article 284 cannot be dispensed with. had written their respective license numbers below their names and signatures. when she returned to the company clinic five (5) days after her initial examination. 614 1998]. the termination of the employee due to PTB sickness was declared not justified in the absence of medical certificate issued by a competent public health authority that the disease is of such nature or at such a stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. [G. 142293. In General Textile. otherwise. and (b) the period during which he was incapacitated to work are admissible in evidence and have probative weight even if not notarized. NLRC. [G. It is sufficient that the physician and the dentist who examined the employee. 1995]. vs. No. 2000). Feb. Book VI. G. No. On the contrary. NLRC. NLRC. CA. 2003]. Rule I. 141702-03. aside from their respective letterheads. No. [299 SCRA 608. hence. 2001]. they bear all the earmarks of regularity in their issuance and are entitled to full probative weight. chanrobles virtual law library In the 2001 case of Cathay Pacific Airways. R. It did not likewise show proof that the employee¶s asthma could not be cured in six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. vs. It has been said that verification of documents is not necessary in order that the said . it would sanction the unilateral and arbitrary determination by the employer of the gravity or extent of the employee¶s illness and thus defeat the public policy in the protection of labor. the employee was dismissed based only on the recommendation of its company doctors who concluded that she was afflicted with asthma. No. Inc. chanrobles virtual law library Medical certificate as evidence of illness. (Cruz vs. [G. R. the company doctor diagnosed her condition to have vastly improve d. In the 2003 case of Sy vs.the employee¶s dismissal. a requirement under Section 8. August 2. the dismissal of the employee based on a finding that she was suffering from asthma was declared illegal because of the absence of a certification by a competent public health authority that the disease is of such nature or at such a stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. R. February 27.

R. In the 2001 case of ATCI Overseas Corporation vs. even assuming that the letter from the Ministry complied with the Omnibus Rules. G. Clearly. April 14. NLRC. 8. It is the employer. First of all. It was only when the case was appealed to the NLRC that petitioner belatedly introduced in evidence a letter from the Ministry stating that private respondents were found to be positive for tuberculosis and heart disease. Book VI of the Rules to Implement the Labor Code before private respondent-doctors were dismissed. Rule I. a belated. See also Phil. petitioner presented a certification issued by the Phil ippine labor attache attesting to the fact that private respondents were subjected to a medical examination after their arrival in Kuwait and were found to be unfit for employment due to lung defects. Secondly. It devolves upon the employer the obligation to obtain a certificate from a competent public authority that the employee¶s disease is at such stage or of such nature that it cannot be cured within six (6) months even with prior medical treatment. 116807. not sufficient. R. No. produced by petitioner after an adverse judgment was rendered against it by the POEA.documents could be considered as substantial evidence. 2004) Medical certificate issued by Labor Attache and Ministry of Public Health of Kuwait. of the Omnibus Rules was not complied with. thus making private respondents¶ dismissal illegal. Rather. the letter appears to have been an afterthought. No. In addition. R. Rule I. Dec. petitioner has not proven that the same was presented to private respondents prior to their termination. The letter from the Ministry and the certification by t he Philippine labor attache fall short of the demands of the Omnibus Rules. 9. 1997. ruled that there is nothing in the records to show that petitioner co mplied with Sec. 143949. (Tan vs. involving two (2) overseas Filipino workers who were recruited by the Ministry of Public Health of Kuwait to work as dental hygienists in that country for a period of 2 years but who were terminated after working for only two months based on alleged tuberculosis and heart disease. Sec. (Union Motor Corporation vs. In the proceedings before the POEA. the Supreme Court. Book VI. it is only where there is such prior certification that the employee could be validly terminated from his job. 271 SCRA 216. Clearly. 159738. 2001]. August 9. who has the burden of proof to justify that the termination was supported by said certificate. 8. G. [G. NLRC. . petitioner did not present any certification whatsoever. yet grossly unsuccessful attempt at compliance with Philippine laws. in declaring the termination as illegal. and not the employee. there is no finding that the disease allegedly afflicting private respondents is of such nature or at such a stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months with proper medical treatment. CA. The certificate should be procured by the employer. No.

The second notice above should be given not only to the employee but also to the Department of Labor and Employment. R. supra). in effect. Aug. in accordance with the . Notice to employee and the DOLE regarding termination due to disease. Tan vs. Although Article 284 does not require the service of notice to the employee. 144786. In the same 2001 case of Cathay Pacific Airways [supra]. Notice to the sick employee to submit himself for medical examination by a competent public health authority to determine not only his fitness for work but. 271 SCRA 216 [1997]. for the purpose of having his sickness certified that it is of such nature or at such a stage that it can be cured within a period of six (6) months with proper medical treatment. April 15. burden of proof is on the employer. CA. The employer is presumed to know the law and the stipulation in its Contract of Service with the employee. Employee dismissed without the medical certificate is entitled to moral and exemplary damages. because the employer summarily dismissed the employee from the service based only on the recommendation of its medical officers. and 2.Employ Services and Resources. Notably. vs. Paramio. CA. necessary. Cebu Royal Plant vs. No. Sy vs. 2001. The burden of proving the existence of such a medical certificate required under the law is upon the employer. it is necessary under the following circumstances. more importantly. 9. however. Deputy Minister of Labor. the decision to dismiss the employee was reached after a single examinati on only. R. (ATCI Overseas Corporation vs. if only to document the procedure taken by the employer prior to terminating the employment: 1. it was held that the award of moral and exemplary damages to the employee should be affirmed. G. not the employee. 2004. The employer¶s medical officers recommended the employee¶s dismissal even after having diagnosed her condition to have vastly improved. supra). 143949. It did not make even a token offer for the employee to take a leave of absence as what it provided in its Cont ract of Service. failing to observe the provision of the Labor Code which requires a certification by a competent public health authority. Inc. No. NLRC. chanrobles virtual law library Existence of certificate. Notice of termination in case the certification of the competent public health authority is to the effect that the sickness is of such nature or at such a stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. G.

Inc. G. National Federation of Labor. 07. 158693. Baby Bus. Labor Code. The separation pay of an employee terminated on the ground of disease is equivalent to at least one (1) month salary or to one-half (½) month salary for every year of service. (Article 284. 110637. 1988). the employee no longer has any right to the . 2004]. a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year. (Shie Jie Corp. 26. Minister of Labor. written (not verbal or oral) notice of the termination (commonly known as resignation letter). July 15. No. Oct. where the Supreme Court opined that if the dismissal is based on authorized causes under Articles 283 and 284. G. No hearing require in case of termination due to disease. No. Such conformity only indicates that the employee was forced to resign for which reason her ³conformity´ was obtained to make it appear as voluntary or legal. (RESIGNATION) 86. vs.R. the following requisites must be complied with by the employee: 1. November 17. the acceptance of a resignation does not require the conformity of the resigning employee. Acceptance of resignation. service of such notice to the employer at least one (1) month in advance. 2005). R. the employer must give the employee and the Department of Labor and Employment written notices thirty (30) days prior to the effectivity of his s eparation. No. Feb. R. 153148. whichever is greater. Being an authorized cause. However. 54223. Acceptance of the resignation tendered by an employee is necessary to make the resignation effective. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT BY EMPLOYEE. vs. 1994). [G. R. NLRC. as distinguished from just cause. and 2. What are the requisites for termination of employment by employee without just cause? In case of termination without just cause. Once resignation is accepted.ruling in the case of Agabon vs. NLRC. necessary. hearing is not necessary to be conducted by the employer prior to the termination of employment of the sick employee. (Rase vs. G. Separation pay in case of lawful dismissal based on disease. No.

No. however. the employee cannot claim illegal dismissal for the em ployer has the right to determine who his employees will be. chanrobles virtual law library Employment elsewhere during the pendency of case. G. effect of acceptance thereof. 30. irrespective of whether it was made revocable or irrevocable.job. vs. 28. 1990). No. Oct. R. Acuña. July 19. (Custodio vs. R. To say that the employee who has resigned is illegally dismissed is to encroach upon the right of the employers to hire persons who will be of service to them. (Philippines Today. vs. may still be withdrawn anytime before its acceptance by the employer. The assumption of a new job by an employee prior to receiving his employer¶s acceptance of his resignation is clear ly inconsistent with any desire to remain in employment. G. 140189. the employee retains the job. 2005). 280 SCRA 116). June 19. Feb. In the 2005 case of Great Southern Maritime Services Corporation vs. Once accepted. 112965. A resignation tendered by an employee. the employer¶s submission that respondent-employees voluntarily resigned because of their desire to seek employment elsewhere. No. His resignation is. 120961. It should be expected that they would seek other means of income to tide them over during the time that the legality of their termination is under . as if he were reapplying for the job. NLRC. withdrawal thereof can no longer be made by the resigning employee. effect. No. The employee who resigned cannot un ilaterally withdraw his resignation. was held as an unreasonable inference. deemed effective. Once accepted. that resignation terminates the employer-employee relationship. NLRC. R. 1997. he must ask for approval of the withdrawal of his resignation from his employer. 2. as accentuated by the concurrent fact that two of the respondents already have jobs in Singapore. If the employer accepts said withdrawal. 1997. (Philippine National Construction Corporation vs. the employee no longer has any right to the job. Inc. The fact that these two have already found employment elsewhere should not be weighed against their favor. therefore. Ministry of Labor and Employment. therefore. If the employer does not. Inc. (G. chanrobles virtual law library The acceptance of the withdrawal of resignation is the employer¶s sole prerogative. G. G. Jan. Assumption of new job by employee prior to employer¶s acceptance of resignation. R. If the employee later changes his mind. 1991. (Intertrod Maritime. except with the consent or agreement of the employer. No. It goes without saying. 643174. It will then be up to the employer to determine whether or not his services would be continued. 267 SCRA 202). 81087. effect. Withdrawal of resignation. R. 198 SCRA 318). NLRC.

commission of a crime or offense by the employer or his representative against the person of the employee or any of the immediate members of his family. 3. he is thereby estopped from filing any further money claims against the employer arising from his employment. What are the requisites for serious insult as a ground to terminate employment by employee? . Once an employee resigns and executes a quitclaim in favor of the employer. To allow him to do so would be to deprive the employer of his basic right to choose whom to employ. NLRC. R. (Philippines Today. effect. G. It has been held that an employer is free to regulate. 88. 2. supra). Inc. inhumane and unbearable treatment accorded the employee by the employer or his representative. 2. No. serious insult by the employer or his representative on the honor and person of the employee. in protecting the rights of the laborer. They should not be faulted for seeking employment elsewhere for their economic survival. vs. or when it is established that there is an unwritten agreement between the employer and employee which would entitle the employee to other remuneration or benefits upon his or her resignation. and 4. The law. chanrobles virtual law library Resignation and execution of quitclaim. Such money claims may be given due course only when the voluntariness of the execution of the quitclaim or release is put in issue. chanrobles virtual law library 87. A resigned employee who desires to take his job back has to reapply therefor. according to his own discretion and judgment. 120961. all aspects of employment including hiring. NLRC.litigation. What are the just causes for termination of employment by employee with just cause? An employee may put an end to the relationship without serving any notice on the employer for any of the following just causes: 1. Oct. (Philippine National Construction Corporation vs. 1997). other causes analogous to any of the foregoing. and he shall have the status of a stranger who cannot unilaterally demand an appointment. chanrobles virtual law library Re-employment after acceptance of resignation. He cannot arrogate unto himself the same position which he earlier decided to leave. impels neither the oppression nor self-destruction of the employer.

it must injure the honor and person of the employee. and 3. 89. the treatment is inhumane and unbearable in nature. it is perpetrated by the employer or his representative. and 3.meant to validate the action of management in inveigling. 92. a crime or offense is committed. the following requisites must concur: 1. unreasonable or unlikely as in the case of an offer involving a demotion in rank and a diminution in pay. it was committed by the employer or his representative. the insult must be serious in character.In order to be considered a just cause to warrant the valid termination of employment by the employee without notice. it must be committed by the employer or his representative. and 2. What are the requisites for serious inhumane and unbearable treatment as a ground to terminate employment by employee? This ground may be invoked if the following requisites concur: 1. What are other analogous causes that may be invoked as a ground to terminate employment by employee? Other analogous causes that may be cited are: constructive dismissal or forced resignation.submission or tender of resignation . 90. What are the distinctions between constructive dismissal and forced resignation? Both forced resignation and constructive dismissal consist in the act of quitting because continued employment is rendered impossible. it was perpetrated against the person of the employee or any of the immediate members of his family. as distinguished from constructive dismissal. luring or influencing or . th e employee is made to do or perform an involuntary act .However. chanrobles virtual law library 91. in forced resignation. What are the requisites for commission of crime as a ground to terminate employment by employee? The requisites for this ground are as follows: 1. 2. 2.

December 17. A bare reading of their content would reveal that they are in the nature of a quitclaim. Feb. 160348.´ Resignation letters similarly worded and of same tenor. R. Maghuyop. Resignation letter written and prepared by employer. No. [G. the employee¶s resignation letter reads: ³July 22. In the 2005 case of Great Southern Maritime Services Corporation vs.they are waivers or quitclaims which are not sufficient to show valid separation from work or bar the employees from assailing their termination. May 9. According to the 2000 case of A¶ Prime Security Services. 28.practically forcing the employee to effectuate the termination of employment. Voluntariness of resignation may be inferred from the language thereof. to say the least. and the second one entirely copied by the private resp ondent with his own hand from the first resignation letter. More so when the supposed resignation was not acknowledged before a notary public. 2000]. They were written in a language obviously not of respondent's and ³lopsidedly worded´ to free the employer from liabilities. Hahn . entirely drafted by the petitioner Agency for the private respondent to merely affix his signature. 2005]. The CA¶s ruling was upheld thus: ³[w]hen the first resignation letter was a pro forma one. Ompad. instead of doing the termination himself. 2005]. [G. effect. 140189. vs. January 19. No. No. 2004]. NLRC. No. R. and Mrs. R. waiver or release. Some principles on resignation. They also constitute evidence of forced resignation or that they were summarily dismissed without just cause. 107320. 93. vs. In the 2005 case of Willi Hahn Enterprises. 159195. voluntariness is not attendant. Inc. [G. Its form is of the company¶s and its wordings are more of a waiver and quitclaim. In the 2005 case of Mobile Protective & Detective Agency vs. R. the High Court agreed with the NLRC and the CA that the two resignation letters at issue are dubious. Acuña. effect. no weight should be given to the employee¶s resignation letter which appears to have been written and submitted at the instance of the petitioner -employer. [G. it was held that resignation letters which were all prepared by the employer and were substantially similarly worded and of the same tenor would reveal the true nature of these documents . 1998 ³Dear Mr.

The Court concluded that he affixed his signature in the said letter of his own free will with full knowledge of the consequences thereof. not illegal. 1998. He later filed an illegal dismissal case claiming that his consent to the resignation was vitiated as he signed the company¶s ready made resignation letter because the latter threatened to file a estafa case against him.. Inc.49 in a µspot audit¶ conducted by the company. resigned after he was found to have a shortage of P49. to submit her written explanation to the complaints against her. 1996). Lanao del Sur and Lanao Del Norte.´ chanrobles virtual law library Act of employer in giving the employee the choice between resignation or investigation. ³Very truly yours.³I am respectfully submitting my resignation from Willi Hahn Enterprises effective today. We find no merit in respondent¶s claim that being a mere clerk. she did not realize the consequences of her resignation.005. if not. Dec. G. the Supreme Court declared: ³The letter is simple. NLRC. [G. National Labor Relations Commission. 105083.. . the Supreme Court ruled that the employer did not violate any law when it gave the employee the option to resign because there is nothing illegal with the practice of allowing an employee to resign instead of being separated for just cause. and consequently. 225 SCRA 526]. R. July 22. ³Thank you for your assistance during the past. In rejecting his contention. he voluntarily signed the resignation letter though there is no urgency in signing the same. No. coerced or intimidated into signing the resignation letter. candid and direct to the point. so as not to smear her employment record. a national-promoter salesman of Distilleria Limtuaco Co. the Court ruled that a salesman -promoter could not have been confused. I hope that in some way. assigned in Iligan City. she has risen to being the manager and officer-in-charge of the Willi Hahn Enterprises in SM Cebu branch. ³In Callanta vs. ³LILIA MAGHUYOP´ In holding that the afore-quoted letter was voluntarily tendered by the employee. 23.R. I was of some help to you and your family. Instead of defending himself against the adverse audit report. (Belaunzaran vs. 120038. the em ployee immediately filed a complaint for illegal dismissal thereby preempting an investigation by the employer on the matter. In a case where the employer asked the employee to submit her resignation letter or. No. 20 August 1993. Although she started as nanny to the son of petitioner Willi Hahn.

the Court of Appeals¶ finding that respondent had no motive to resign because the charges of dishonesty were not fully substantiated has no basis. The general rule is that the filing of a complaint for illegal dismissal is inconsistent with resignation. National Federation of Labor. In the same case of Willi Hahn [supra]. R. No. 330]. November 24. exception. 140189. held: ³By vigorously pursuing the litigation of his action against petitioner. is not the case here considering her voluntary resignation. No. No. effect.´ In Great Southern Maritime Services Corporation vs. [G. Under the circumstances. 2005]. 160348. NLRC. R. She failed to discharge this burden. NLRC. R. Feb. In Willi Hahn Enterprises. Filing of complaint negates resignation. Employee who alleges that she was coerced into resigning should prove such claim. G. Acuña. 2004)]. 250 SCRA 325. (Cheniver Deco Print Technics Corporation vs. vs. It is a basic rule in evidence that the burden of proof is on the part of the party who makes the allegations. it was ruled that the execution of the alleged . Moreover. A decision to give a graceful exit to an employee rather than to file an action for redress is perfectly within the discretion of an employer. 2000). [G. it was held that the failure of the employer to pursue the termination proceedings against an employee who resigned and to make her pay for the shortage incurred did not cast doubt on the voluntary nature of her resignation. substantial evidence of the shortages and non -remittances would have been indispensable. Citing Molave Tours Corporation vs. Such. 1995. 122876. No. No. 28. vs. the failure of petitioner to file action against the employee should be considered as an act of compassion for one who used to be a trusted employee and a close member of the household.Failure of employer to criminally prosecute employee who resigned. 17. 17. July 15. 153148. the resigning employee¶s unsubstantiated and self-serving claim that she was coerced into signin g the resignation letter was not given any credence. 112909. which act is wholly incompatible to petitioner¶s assertion that he voluntarily resigned. [G.R. private respondent clearly manifested that he has no intention of relinquishing his employment. the Supreme Court in Shie Jie Corp. Maghuyop. Dec. [G. Feb. It is not uncommon that an employee is permitted to resign to save face after the exposure of her malfeasance. 2005]. Had the separation of respondent been for dismissal due to loss of trust and confidence. R.

chanrobles virtual law library However. 292 SCRA 478). supra). 119512. Michael Academy vs. May 9. April 14. effect. (Emco Plywood Corporation vs. (Mobile Protective & Detective Agency vs. 2005). It would have been illogical for the employee to resign and then file a complaint for illegal dismissal. What is bona-fide suspension of operations for a period not exceeding six months? ‡ No law on temporary retrenchment or lay-off. 2004). (Willi Hahn Enterprises. G. bona-fide suspension by the employer of th e operation of his business or undertaking for a period not exceeding six (6) months. 1998. the finding that the employee's resignation is involuntary is further strengthened by the fact that he filed an illegal dismissal case the day after the alleged tender of resignation. R. 159195.³resignation letters cum release and quitclaim´ to support the e mployer¶s claim that respondents voluntarily resigned is unavailing as the filing of the complaint for illegal dismissal is inconsistent with resignation. this rule does not apply to a case where the filing of an illegal dismissal case by the employee who resigned was evid ently a mere afterthought. . Article 286 applies only by analogy. Expression of gratitude to employer. the following situations are contemplated therein: 1. (St. fulfillment by the employee of a civic duty. No. G. NLRC. What are the situations contemplated under Article 286 of the Labor Code when employment not deemed terminated? Based on the provisions of Article 286. 2. No. Hence. 95. July 13. No. vs. Abelgas. R. It was filed not because she wanted to return to work but to claim separation pay and backwages. A resignation letter which contains words of gratitude and appreciation to the employer can hardly come from employees who are forced to resign. 148532. G. R. fulfillment by the employee of a military duty. TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF OPERATION FOR SIX MONTHS UNDER ARTICLE 286 94. Ompad. or 3. Maghuyop.

and on the part of the workers. May 16. Article 286 of the Labor Code and the Rules to Implement the Labor Code are clear in stating that the period of suspension of operation of the employer¶s business or undertaking shall not exceed six (6) months. No. Compensation of employees during the six-month suspension. NLRC. pursuant to Article 286. The reason is. Suspension of operation prior to closure. Moreover. 2005]. R. ‡ Burden to prove bona-fide suspension of operation is on the employer. 157634.the employer regarding his obligation to provide salary to his workers.T. In the 2005 case of Mayon Hotel & Restaurant vs. it was ruled that the closure of business operation was deemed not tainted with bad faith because the decision to permanently close business operations was arrived at. 148340. held as evidence of good faith.may involve only a section or department of the company . No. by the basic terms and conditions of their employment contract . 2004]. within the said period. effect.A. the employer employee relationship is deemed suspende d. after a suspension of operation for several months precipitated by a slowdown in sales without any prospects of improving. And even assuming that the closure was due to a reason beyond the control of the employer.‡ Extent of suspension of operation .not necessarily the entire operations. the High Court declared that Article 286 is clear there is termination of employment when an otherwise bona fide suspension of work exceeds six (6) months. Jan. [G. it became dismissal by operation of law when petitioners failed to reinstate respondents after the lapse of six (6) months. Adana. it still has to accord . The employment relationship being suspended. Therefore. In the 2004 case of J. [G. R. among others. at least temporarily. chanrobles virtual law library Suspension of work exceeding 6 months. General Services vs. to provide their services to the former. both the employer and the employees cease to be bound. the employer may validly suspend his business operation for a period of less than six (6) months. 26. chanrobles virtual law library Employer may suspend his business operation for less than six months but not more. Employees are not entitled to their wages and benefits during the 6 month period. even assuming arguendo that the cessation of employment on April 1997 was merely temporary when hotel operations were suspended due to the termination of the lease of the old premises.

G. Feb. And the mere fact that the transfer would be inconvenient for her does not by itself make her transfer illegal. No. It does not constitute constructive dismissal as their assignments primaril y depend on the contracts entered into by the security agency with third parties. the principle in the law which grants separation pay applies only when the employee is dismissed by the employer. CA. 2000. July 31.´ in security agency parlance. (Philippine Industrial Security Agency Corporation vs. vs. so long as such status does not continue beyond a reasonable time. Clearly. [G. 184 SCRA 74 [1990]). Inc. In seeking and obtaining employment elsewhere. 1989).´ Consequently. 8. which is not the case in this instance. it was established that private respondent -employees sought employment from other establishments even before the expiration of the six (6)-month period provided by law. 2005]. G. No. No. May 9. vs. Thus. the Supreme Court said that when a security guard is placed on ³off detail´ or ³floating status. Inc. private respondents effectively terminated their employment with JPL. In a 2005 case. Temporary ³off-detail´ or ³floating status´ of security guards. NLRC. 151966. 797. they are not entitled to separation pay. (Agro Commercial Security Services Agency. NLRC. They admitted that all three of them applied for and were employed by another establishment after they received the notice from JPL. even on the ground of compassionate justice. NLRC. it was held that petitioner JPL cannot be said to have terminated their employment for it was they themselves who severed their relations with JPL. chanrobles virtual law library ³Off-detailing´ is not equivalent to dismissal. Ompad. 96. Consequently. 1999. Superstar Security Agency. G. 175 SCRA 790.´ therefore. a relief and transfer order in itself does not sever employment relationship between a security guard and her agency. July 8. 2005). Dec. such ³floating status´ .R. This ruling is based on Article 286 of the Labor Code. R. In the 2005 case of JPL Marketing Promotions vs. 325 SCRA 758). Dapiton.´ as applied to security guards. Effect of employment of the employee in other establishments during 6-month period. it means ³waiting to be posted. 127421. Temporary ³off-detail´ or ³floating status. is lawful. (Mobile Protective & Detective Agency vs. refer to the period of time they are made to wait until they are transferred or assigned to a new post or client. ³Floating status. However. No. R. 17.its employees some relief in the form of severance pay. (See also Cheniver Deco Print Technics Corporation v. 159195. R. 122876.

NLRC. Sept. the security guards placed on ³off detail´ or ³floating status´ are not recalled and given any assignment. 279 SCRA 408). May 9. this principle was applied to merchandisers hired by petitioner which is engaged in the business of recruitment and placement of workers. Such notice. No. July 8. therefore. they may be placed on ³off detail´ or ³floating status´ following the same concept applicable to security guards. G. 152476. 159195. G. that is. vs. 24. No. it is opined that it may also be made applicable to employees of contractors/subcontractors under a valid independent contracting/ subcontracting arrangement under Article 106 of the Labor Code.should last only for a reasonable time. Security guards may be temporarily sidelined by their security agency as their assignments primarily depend on the contracts entered into by the latter with third parties. Although the application of this principle on temporary ³off detail´ or ³floating status´ is thus far confined to security guards. July 8. Consequently. apply thereto. the merchandisers are deemed to have been placed under ³floating status´ for a period of not exceeding six (6) months under Article 286. R. Inc. they are entitled to the corresponding benefits for their separation and this would apply to the two (2) types of work suspension heretofore noted. . in the earlier cited case of JPL Marketing Pr omotions vs. CA. No. Ompad. 116593. 2003. they are deemed constructively dismissed . R. but a mere note informing them of the termination of the client¶s contract and their re-assignment to other clients. the employee may be considered to have been constructively dismissed from his employment. CA. For instance. G. 2005]. R. [G. should not be treated as a notice of termination. The thirty (30)day notice rule under Article 283 does not. (United Special Watchman Agency vs. In the meantime that the dislocated employees are waiting for their next assignment. The same form of dislocation and displacement also affects their employees everytime contracts of service are terminated by their clients (principals). However. Applicability of ³floating status´ rule to employees other than security guards. the sidelining should continue only for six (6) months. If after said period. according to the Court. 151966. R. No. After they were notified of the cancellation of the contract of petitioner with a client where they were assigned and pending their re-assignment to other clients. either of the entire business or of a specific component thereof. (Mobile Protective & Detective Agency vs. Legal consequence if off-detailed security guards are not reassigned after six months. Pulp and Paper. 1997. When the ³floating status´ or ³reserve status´ lasts for more than six (6) months.

NLRC. RETIREMENT 97. designation or status and irrespective of the method by which their wages are paid. R. employees of service and other job contractors and domestic helpers or persons in the personal service of another. vs. It is a recognized fact that security guards employed in a security agency may be temporarily sidelined as their assignments primarily depend on the contracts entered into by the agency with third parties (Agro Commercial Security Agencies. except those specifically exempted. Nos. Employees of retail. What is the coverage of the Retirement Pay Law? The Retirement Pay Law applies to all employees in the private sector. July 11. has said: ³xxx The charge of illegal dismissal was prematurely filed. It also includes and covers part -time employees. Temporary µoff -detail¶ is not equivalent to dismissal. the security agency concerned could be liable for constructive dismissal. vs.¶ she readily filed a complaint against the petitioners on the presumption that her services were already terminated. not constructive dismissal. [184 SCRA 74]. vs. Inc. Inc.. if they are covered by the Civil Service Law and its regulations. The records show that a month after Hermosa was placed on a temporary µoff-detail. NLRC. service and agricultural establishments or . 82823-24. the Supreme Court. CA. chanrobles virtual law library Off-detail status for 29 days. In the 2002 case of Soliman Security Services. Otherwise. NLRC. including government-owned and/or controlled corporations. [G. with no reassignment. G. addressing a similar issue.e. However. This question posed is not ne w. In security parlance. for a period of 29 days was answered in the negative. 2.2005). 143215.. Who are the employees not covered by the Retirement Pay Law? The Retirement Pay Law does not apply to the following employees: 1. 31 July 1989). chanrobles virtual law library 98. it must be emphasized that such temporary inactivity should continue only for six months. No. In the case of Superstar Security Agency. the issue of whether or not private respondent should be deemed constructively dismissed by petitioner for having been placed on ³floating status.R. regardless of their position.´ (See also Valdez vs. Employees of the National Government and its political subdivisions. Inc. 2002].´ i. 286 SCRA 87). it means waiting to be posted.

operations regularly employing not more than ten (10) employees. among others. 99. abaca. 100. If the amount is less than those provided under the law. cultivation. an employee shall be retired upon . growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities. dairying. May an employee retire under the CBA or employment contract? Any employee may retire or be retired by his employer upon reaching the retirement age established in the CBA or other applicable employment contract and he shall be entitled to the benefits thereunder. It shall lose its retail character qualified for exemption if it is engaged in both retail and wholesale of goods. pineapple. chanrobles virtual law library 2. As used in this sub-section: ‡ ³Retail establishment´ is one principally engaged in the sale of goods to end-users for personal or household use. aquatic or other farm products. an employee may retire upon reaching the age of sixty (60) years or more if he has served for at least five (5) years in said establishment. such farming operations. What is the distinction between optional and compulsory retirement? Article 287 of the Labor Code. the employer shall pay the difference. provides for two (2) types of retirement: (a) optional. or in conjunction with. Compulsory retirement. . production. 1. This term refers to all farming activities in all branches and includes. Optional retirement. the cultivation and tillage of soil.In the absence of a retirement plan or other applicable agreement providing for retirement benefits of employees in an establishment. . coconut. ‡ ³Service establishment´ is one principally engaged in the sale o f service to individuals for their own or household use and is generally recognized as such. and any activities performed by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to. ‡ ³Agricultural establishment/operation´ refers to an employer which is engaged in agriculture. as amended by Republic Ac t No.Where there is no such retirement plan or other applicable agreement providing for retirement benefits of employees in an establishment. 7641. tobacco. the culture of fish and other aquatic products in farms or ponds. and (b) compulsory. but does not include the manufacture and/or processing of sugar. raising of livestock or poultry.

amended the terms of Article VII. . he resolved a question which was outside of the issues raised. we rule that this added requirement.reaching the age of sixty-five (65) years. in effect. It gives the pilot concerned an undue prerogative to assail the decision of management. included. 2. the requirement to consult the pilots prior to their retirement defeats the exercise by management of its option to retire the said employees. One-half (1/2) month salary. (G. No. 102. What are included in the retirement benefits under the Retirement Pay Law? chanrobles virtual law library Retirement benefits. 1. The option of an employer to retire its employees is recognized as valid. on the issue of whether petitioner should consult the pilot concerned before exercising its option to retire pilots. ALPAP. is instructive: ³Finally. Only actual service included. ³Furthermore. agreement or management policy regarding retirement at an earlier or older age. The decision o f the Supreme Court in the case of PAL vs. ³Surely. May an employee retire at an earlier or older age? The law recognizes as valid any retirement plan. 103. Is the option granted to the employer to retire an employee valid? Yes. Authorized absences. 101. when the Secretary of Labor and Employment imposed the added requirement that petitioner should consult its pilots prior to retirement. vacations. the Secretary of Labor overstepped the boundaries of reason and fairness when he imposed on petitioner the additional requirement of consulting each pilot prior to retiring him.R. 2002). Section 2 of the 1976 PAL-ALPAP Retirement Plan. Due process only requires that notice be given to the pilot of petitioner's decision to r etire him. regular holidays. 104. Hence. What are included in the minimum 5-year service requirement? The minimum 5-year service requirement includes the following. 1. January 15.143686. thereby depriving petitioner an opportunity to be heard on this point.

. 106.For covered workers who are paid by results and do not have a fixed monthly rate. One-half monthly salary of employees who are paid by results. an employee who retires shall be entitled to retirement pay equivalent to at least one -half (1/2) month salary for every year of service. Thus. (c) one-twelfth (1/12) of the 13th month pay due the employee. a private employer shall have the option to treat the coverage of the Pag-IBIG Fund as a substitute retirement benefit for the employee concerned within the purview of the Labor Code as amended. the term ³one-half month salary´ shall include all the following: (a) fifteen (15) days salary of the employee based on his latest salary rate. If said scheme provides for less than what the employee is entitled to under Republic Act No. a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year. components. 105. 7641) shall be included. A. in reckoning the length of service. May Pag-IBIG be considered as substitute retirement plan? As provided in R. 2. chanrobles virtual law library (b) the cash equivalent of five (5) days of service incentive leave. 7742. A. 7641. provided such option does not in any way contravene an existing collective bargaining agreement or other employment agreement. the basis for determination of the salary for fifteen (15) days shall be their average daily salary (ADS).In the absence of an applicable employment contract. and (d) all other benefits that the employer and employee may agree upon that should be included in the computation of the employee¶s retirement pay. 7641 (Retirement Pay Law) is applicable to services rendered prior to January 7. the employer is liable to pay the difference. One-half (1/2) month salary. . the period of employment with the same employer before the effectivity date of the law (Republic Act No. R. 1993. 7641.For the purpose of determining the minimum retirement pay due an employee.