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KSB-Centrifugal-Pump-Design

KSB-Centrifugal-Pump-Design

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Sections

  • 2.2 Pump Head
  • 2.3 System Head
  • 2.6 Calculating the Power Consumption
  • 2.10 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
  • 5.1 Changing the Speed
  • 6 Handling Viscous Liquids
  • 7 Typical Selection Examples
  • 7.2 Calculating the Power Consumption
  • Vapour Pressure
  • 7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size
  • 9.5 Conversion 01 British and U.S. Units

Centrifugal Pump Design

~
KSB_
r"""lIb, Pump.
a.Jv8lves
_KSB
I
I
KSB Aktiengesellschaft engages in the manufacture, marketing
1
and sale of pumps and valves and ranks as a world leader in
this field.
KSB's manufacturing programme covers an extensive range
of products for the water supply sector, power stations, marine
and offshore applications, building services as well as process
and environmental engineering.
KSB employs around 10.000 people worldwide and is repre­
sented in almost every country of the globe through more than
100 factories, agencies and representatives.
© Copyright by KSB
2
C""'II P,mp.
b,
D.Jvalve9
_KSB
Contents Page Page
Symbols, Units and Designations 4 8 General 22
8.1 National and International Standards for
2 Design 4
Centrifugal Pumps 22
2.1 Pump Capacity 4 8.2 Shaft Deflection 24
2.2 Pump Head 4 8.3 Improving the NPSH Requirement 24
2.3 System Head 4 8.4 Impeller Types 25
2.4 Speed 4 8.5 Pump Types 26
2.5 Selecting the Pump Size 6 8.6 Pump Installation Arrangements 27
2.6 Calculating the Power Consumption 6 8.7 Pump Sump Contiguration 28
2.6.1 Pump Power Input 6 8.8 Suction Pipe Layout 28
2.6.2 Caiculating the Drive Rating 6 8.9 Shaft Couplings 30
2.7 Pump Characteristic Curve 6
2.8 System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic) 7 9 Technical Data 31
2.9 Operating Point 7
9.1 Vapour pressure Po and Density p of Water 31
2.10 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 7
9.2 Vapour pressure Po of Various Liquids 32
9.3 Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric
3 Suction Characteristics 8
Pressure 33
3.1 NPSH Required 8 g.4
Extract of Main Legal Units for Centrifugal
3.2 NPSH Available 8 Pumps 34
9.5 Conversion of British and U.S. Units 35
4 Pressure Losses Pv 9 9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v 37
9.7 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head v'/2 g 38
4.1 Head Losses H, in Straight Pipes 9
9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head
4.2 Head Losses H
v
in Plastic Pipes 11
Differential I!. v'/2 g 39
4.3 Head Losses H
v
for Viscous Liquids
9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Losses H, 40
in Straight Pipes 11
9.10 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors
4.4 Head Losses H
v
in Valves and Fittings 13
fa,w, fH,w and fTI,w for Viscous Liquids 41
9.11 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fo,l
5 Changing the Pump Performance 16
and fH,z for Viscous Liquids 42
5.1 Changing the Speed 16
9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n
q
43
5.2 Trimming the Impellers 16
Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point
or Pump Size for Viscous Liquids 44
6 Handling Viscous Liquids 17
7 Typical Selection Examples 18
7.1 Selecting the Pump Size 18
7.2 Calculating the Power Consumption 19
7.2.1 Pump Power Input 19
7.2.2 Calculating the Drive Rating 19
7.3 Calculating the NPSH" 19
7.3.1 Suction Lift from Open/Closed Tank 19
7.3.2 Positive Suction Operation from Open/Closed
Tank 20
7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank
at Vapour Pressure 21
7.4 Changing the Speed 21
7.5 Trimming the Impeller 21
7.6 Handling Viscous Liquids 21
7.6.1 Calculating the Operating Point 21
7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size . 22
3
nb, Pump.
a.Jvalv9s
_KSB
1 Symbols, Units and Designations
A
a
b,
D
DN
d
F
f
H
fa

g
H
H
A
H
geo
H
o
Hs geo
Hz geo
H,
Hv.s

K
k
L
n
NPSH
req
NPSH"
n
q
P
p
Pb
Po
p,

Q
Q
min
R
Re
U
v
y
Z
I'
v
p
Indices
a
B
d
e
G
geo
K
s
opt
R
sch
W
Z
1,2,3
4
m
2
mm
m
mm (m)
(mm)
mm
N
m/s:2
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
1
mm
m
llmin
m
m
1/min
kW
bar (N/m')
bar (N/m')
bar (N/m
2
)
bar (N/m
2
)
lis (m
3
/h)
lis (m
3
/h)
lis (m
3
/h)
mm
1
m
mls
mm
llh
m
1
m
2
/s
kg/m
3
(kg/dm
3
)
1
o
Area
Width
Impeller outlet width
Impeller diameter,
pipe diameter
Nominal bore of pipe
Smallest inner diameter
Force
Conversion factor for head
Conversion factor for flow rate
Conversion factor for efficiency
Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s
2
Head
System head
Static head
Shut-off head
Static suction lift
Static positive suction head
Head loss
Head loss - suction side
Differential head
Coefficient
Absolute roughness
Length of pipe
Speed
NPSH required
NPSH available
Specific speed
Pump power input
Pressure
Barometric pressure
Vapour pressure of liquid
Pressure loss
Differential capacity
CapacitylFlow rate
Minimum flow rate
Radius
Reynolds number
Circumference
Flow velocity
Stroke
Switching frequency
Height differential between pump
suction and discharge nozzles
Loss coefficient
Pump efficiency
Pipe friction coefficient
Correction coefficient
Kinematic viscosity
Density
Temperature factor
Opening angle
at outiet cross section of the systemlbranching off
at operating point
at discharge nozzle of pumplflowing through
at inlet cross section of plant/branching off
for cast iron
geodetic
tor plastic
suction side, at suction nozzle of pump
at best efficiency point
radial
for sulphuric acid
for water
for viscous liquids
consecutive numbers, items
2 Design
2.1 Pump Capacity
The capacity Q is the external volume flow per unit of time in
m
3
/s (lis and m
3
/h are also commonly used). Balance water,
leakage water etc. do not count as part of the capacity.
2.2 Pump Head
The head H of a pump is the useful mechanical energy trans­
mitted by the pump to the medium handled, related to the
weight of the medium, expressed in m. It is independent of
the density p of the medium handled, i.e. a centrifugal pump
will generate the same head H for all fluids irrespective of the
density p. The density p determines the pressure within the
pump
p=p·g·H
and influences the pump power input P.
2.3 System Head
The total head of the system H
A
is made up of the following
(see Figs. 1 and 2):
• H"a. Static head = height difference between the suction
and discharge fluid levels. If the discharge pipe emerges
above the liquid level, then H
geo
is referred to the centreline
of the outflow section.
• Pa - Po, the pressure head difference between the suction
p.g
and discharge fluid levels in closed tanks.
• the sum of all pressure head losses (pipe friction,
friction in valves, fittings etc. in suction and discharge
pipes).
2 2
• V
a
;gV
e
, the difference in velocity heads in the tanks.
The system head H
A
is thus:
Pa - Pe va
2
- va
2
HA = Hoe, +-p.g + +
In practice the difference between the velocity heads can be
ignored, leaving
for closed tan ks
= H + p, - p, +
HA gao --
p.g
for open tanks
H
A
= H
geo
+
2.4 Speed
With three-phase motor drives (asynchronous squirrel cage
motor) the approximate pump speeds are as follows:
No, of poles
Frequency
Aororenca speeds In curve documentallon In l/mln
al 50 Hl
2900 11450 I 960 1725 1580 1"0 1
415
at 60 Hl 3500 1750 1160 875 I 700 5aO 500
In practice, however, motors usually run at slightly higher
speeds which - upon consent of the customer - are taken
into account by the pump manufacturer at the design stage
(see section 7.4).
Different speeds are possible using a speed adjustment
device, gearbox or belt drive.
nb, P"mp.
Q."V8Ives
_KSB
H
geo
~ I t - - - - - - - - - - - , s . ======;-)---4
d
H
sgeo

Fig. 1 Pumping system with suction lift
H
geo
P.
Fig. 2 Pumping system with positive sucllon
5
C"'lb, Pump.
Q.Jv8lves
_KSB
2.5 Selecting the Pump Size (see 7.1)
The data needed for selecting fhe pump size - capacity Q and
head H at the required duty point - is known, as is the mains
frequency. The pump size and speed can be determined from
the performance chart (also called selection chart) (see 8.0
Fig. 26); then the other parameters olthe pump seiected, such
as efficiency ~ , input power P and NPSH, can be established
from the appropriate individual performance curve (see 8.0,
Fig. 3).
Unless there is a particular reason to the contrary, arrange
the operating point near Q
opt
(b.e.p.).
For pumps handling viscous liquids see sections 6 and 7.6.2
2.6 Calculating the Power Consumption
2.6.1 Pump Power Input
(see exampie in 7.2.1)
The pump power input P of a centrifugal pump is the mechan­
ical energy at the pump coupling or pump shaft absorbed
from the drive. It is determined using the following equation:
p·g·Q·H.
P ~ 1000. ~ tn kW
with p in kg/dm
3
9 in m/s
2
Q in lis
H in m
~ between 0 and 1
or another equation which is still used:
p·Q·H.
P = 367. ~ In kW
with p in kg/dm
3
Q in m
3
/h
H in m
367 conversion factor (constant)
The pump power input P in kW can also be directly read with
sufficient accuracy off the characteristic curves (see 2.7) where
the depsity p = 1000 kg/m'. The pump power input P must
be cdnverted (see 7.2.1) for other densities p.
2.6.2 Calculating the Drive Rating
(see example under 7.2.2)
Since it is possible that the system volume flow, and thus the
operating point, will fluctuate, which could mean an increase
in the pump power input P, it is standard practice to use the
following safety margins when determining the motor size,
unless the customer specifies otherwise:
up to 7.5 kW approx. 20%
from 7.5 to 40 kWapprox. 15%
from 40 kW approx. 10%.
If extreme volume flow fluctuations are expected, the motor
size must be selected with reference to the maximum possible
pump capacity on the characteristic curves, taking the follow­
ing into consideration:
• impeller diameter required,
• condition NPSH" <: NPSH"q (see 3.2),
• permissible Pin values for the bearings.
Handling liquids with a high proportion of solids, as well as
handling pulp, means using special pumps andlor special
impellers.
6
2.7 Pump Characteristic Curve
In contrast to positive-displacement pumps (e,g, reciprocating
pumps) at constant speed (n = consl.) centrifugal pumps
have a capacity Q which will increase if the head decreases.
They are thus capable of self-regulation. The pump power
input P, and therefore the efficiency ~ , plus the NPSH"q
depend on the capacity.
The behaviour and relationship of all these variables are shown
by the curves (see Fig. 3) which thus illustrate the operating
characteristics of a centrifugal pump.
The characteristic curves apply to the density p and kinematic
viscosity v of water, unless stated otherwise.
=
~ ~ ~ 100 \!S q GPr 1411 180 180 200 Z20
=
~ ~ eoIG13l14O 180
~
~
~
""
=
&2,5_
"'
,
I"
"
= ""
E
"
I;:
57 ,
"
=
I
" ~
"

""
=
~
=
"
"
,
,
,
J"
,
"

,
=

/9'W1112U
"'3,M:J:l ~ '"
u
=
"
=
~
~
I;:
"
§;

, .
•.=
-=
~
" ~
,.=
-
,.=
9101112131.<1:1
Flg.3 Centrlfugel pump characteristic curves
The duty conditions determine which is the more favourable
- a flat or a steep curve. With a steep curve the capacity
changes less than with a flat curve under the same differen­
tial head conditions t.H (see Fig. 4). The steep curve thus
possesses better control characteristics.
nb, P.mp.
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_KSB
Pump characteristic curves

Flat curve
Sleep curve
l!.Qsleep aOUal
Capacity Q
Fig.4 Steep and lIe\ pump characteristic curves
2.8 System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic)
The system head H
A
is plolted against the capacity Q to give
the system curve (piping curve) (Fig. 5). This curve is made
up of the static and dynamic characteristics 01 the installation.
The static part consists of the static head H
geo
, which is
independent of the capacity, and the difference in pressure
head between the system inlet and outlet section PB - Pe.
p.g
The lalter does not apply with open tanks (see Fig. 1 and 2).
The dynamic part consists of the head loss H", which increases
quadratically with the capacity (see 4.1) and the difference in
velocity head between the system inlet and outlet section
va? - Va?
2g
-- f
SY51em curve HA
slatic pari = H + De - Pe
geo
p 9
'------------------------'1=­
Capacity Q
Fig. 5 System (piping) characteristic
2.9 Operating Point
Every centrifugal pump will establish an operating point B
which is the point of intersection between the pump curve
(QH curve) and the system curve H
A
, I.e. the operating point
B (and with it the capacity Q and head H) can with radial
impellers generally only be changed by altering the speed n
(see 5.1), the impeller diameter 0 (see 5.2) or by modifying
the system characteristic H
A
, always assuming this does not
increase the risk of cavitation (see Figs. 6 and 7).
The only practical ways to modify the system characteristic
when handling solid-free, normal viscosity liquids are to
increase or reduce the pipe friction (i.e. by opening or closing
a valve, changing the piping diameter, incrustations etc.) or
to alter the static part (e.g. by increaslng'orredUcing the "
tank pressure or the water level).
r-----__
I I ,/'
,------­
/OHlines
B Operating point
n Speed

Capacity Q
Fig.6 Changing the position althe operating point/rom 81 to 82 on the system curve
HA by raising the pump speed n1 to n2
Gale valve I
further closed I
y
Gate valve open
B Operating point
11"
Capacity Q
QIOQ
Fig. 7 Changing the position of Ihe operating point trom e, to 82 on [he QH line by
progressively closing the valve
2.10 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
Where one pump is unable to deliver the required capacity Q
at the operating point B, it is possible to have two or more
pumps working in parallel in the same piping system. The
pumps should preferably (for economic operation) be of the
same type (see 8.5 pump types) and have the same shut-off
head.
In the example (Fig. 8) each pump is designed for 0.5 X Q at
the same head.
7
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_KSB
Pump II Pumpe II curve
F
Hp r=::::::::::::t:- JPoc""'m"'p'" II curve
H
____--"""
8 Operating point
HO Shut-off head

Capacity Q
Fig. 8 Parallel operation altwo similar centrllugal pumps with the same shut-oil head HO
Fig. 9 shows an alternative solution: two pumps with the same
shut-off head H
o
but different capacities Q
1
and Q
II
pumping
at a given operating point B in one piping system. Q
1
of
pump I and 011 of pump II combine to produce the total
capacity Q
1
+ II at the same head H.
Pump I curve
// Pump II curve
HO
__ // I + II curve
/'
H
System curve
B Operating point
HO Shut-oil head

01 all a"OI+OIl
Capacity Q
Fig,9 Parallel operation of 2 pumps with the same shut-oil head HO
3 Suction Characteristics
3.1 NPSH Required (= NPSH,,,)
(NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head)
Centrifugal pumps will only operate satisfactorily if there is no
build-up of vapour (cavitation) within the pump. Therefore the
pressure head at the NPSH datum point must exceed the
vapour pressure head of the medium handled. The NPSH
datum point is the impeller centre, Le. the point of intersection
between the pump shaft centreline and the plane at right
angles to the pump shaft and passing through the outer
points of the vane inlet edge.
The NPSH"q isthe value required by the pump and is expressed
in meters on the pump characteristic curves. The value often
includes a safety margin of 0.5 m.
B
3.2 NPSH Available (= NPSH,,)
The datum point for the NPSH.. is the centre of the pump's
suction nozzle. With standard, horizontal volute casing pumps
the centrelines of the suction nozzle and impeller are on the
same level (Figs. 10 and 11), Le. the geodetic height is O.
However, iI there is a difference of geodetic height (e.g.
with vertical pumps), it has to be taken Into account.
NPSH" is calculated as follows:
a) Suction 11ft operation; the pump is above the liquid level
(Fig. 10)
NPSH
av
is defined as:
Pe+Pb-PD + ve'2 _ H _ H
NPSH..
p.g 2g V,s. 9geo'
However, with a cold liquid, e.g. water, and an open tank,
i.e. Pb = 1 bar (= 10' N/m')
p, = a bar
p = 1000 kg/m
3
g = 10 mis' (incl. 2% error on 9.81 m/s')
v
e
2
/2g can be eliminated because of the negligible
velocity head in the tank.
The following simplified version is used in practice:
NPSH = 10 - H - Hsgeo,
"
'.'
level
I
I


J
Opan H,g.o
lank IClosed
Pb j lank
Pe = 0
Pe t Pb
,
I I
1
'1-',' ....
::-..::-_'--;:----:----.::---- =- --=------=_:=-_-=­
t-- Po' t,s,v.
./
Fig. 10 NPSH
av
lor suction lift opemtlon
b) Suction head operation; the pump is below the liquid level
(Fig. 11)
NPSH.. is defined as:
Pe + Pb- PD v
a
'2
NPSHav = + -2 - Hvs + Hz,,,.
p.g g'
The following equation is used in practice, assuming the same
conditions as in a):
NPSHlIv = 10 - Hv,s + Hz geo·
Open
tank. Closed
Pb lank
Pe=O Pe+Pb
H,g.o
Datum level
Fig. 11 NPSH
av
'or suction head operation
In all cases the following is a prerequisite for cavitation-free
operation:
NPSH
av
;;;;; NPSH
req
I
t"""'IIb, Pump.
Q..IV8IV8S
_KSB
4. Pressure Losses Pv Straight lengths of circular cross-section piping are defined
by the following equation:
The pressure loss Pv is the pressure differential arising as
a result of wall friction and internal friction in piping runs, J.·L p·v'
fittings, valves and fittings etc.
P'=D'-2­
where
The generally valid formula for the pressure loss of a flow in
D bore of pipe.
a straight length of pipe is:
The pipe friction coefficient A varies with the state of flow
J.·U·L p·v'
of the medium and the internal surface finish of the pipeline
p, = ----;jA' -2­
through which the medium is flowing. The state of flow is deter­
where
mined by the REYNOLDS number (model laws):
Pv pipe friction loss,
v' D
A pipe friction coefficient,
Re=-­
v
U wetted periphery of section A through which the fluid
fiows,
for non-circular sections
L length of pipe,
v· 4 A
R e ~ - -
p density of the medium pumped,
v·U
v flow velocity across a section A characteristic of the pres­ where
sure loss. v kinematic viscosity.
Table 1: Mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness)
Material Condition of pipe interior 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000 0
4
5000 1
Steel new, seamless, skin
acid-cleaned
galvanized

straight- skin
welded, bituminized
galvanized
cemented

riveted
used, moderately rusty
I-
slight incrustation
~
heavy incrustation
after cleaning

Cast iron new, with skin
bituminized
~
galvanized

cemented
used, moderately rusty
slight incrustation
~

heavy incrustation
after cleaning
Asbestos-cement new
Heavy-clay (drain.) new
Concrete new, unfinished
with smooth finish
Spun concrete new, unfinished
with smooth finish
~
Reinforced concrete
All concretes
new, with smooth finish
used, with smooth finish
~

1)
drawn
I-
Glass, plastic
Rubber tubing
Wood
new,
new
not embrittled


Masonry
after long exposure to water


k in ~ m - 5 10 50 100 500 1000 5000 10
4
I) Nonferrous metals, light alloys
9
210
2
r"""\b, Pump.
Q.JVelv88
_KSB
A can be calculated for smooth bore pipes (new rolled steel
pipes):
in the region of laminar flow in the pipe (Re < 2320) the
friction coefficient is:
64
A=-·
Re
In the region of turbulent flow in the pipe (Re > 2320) the
test results can be represented by an empirical equation
by ECK:
A = 0.309 .
(Ig
In the region of 2320 < Re < 10' the deviations are less than
1 %.
Fig. 12 shows, that A is solely dependent on the parameter
D/k at relatively high REYNOLDS numbers; kiD is the "relative
roughness", obtained from the "absolute roughness" k and the
pipe bore diameter D, where k is defined as the mean depth
of the wall surface roughness (coarseness).
According to MOODY the following applies:
A= 0.0055 + 0.15.

Table 1 gives rough approximations of k.
4.1 Head Losses H. in Straight Pipes
Fig. 13 gives the losses of head H, per 100 m of straight pipe
run for practical usage. The head losses H" in this context are
calculated according to '2
v
H,=(· 2g
Fig. 13: Head losses In straight pines (casllron pipe, naw condition) from DN 15102000 mm
and for Capacities Q from 0.5 to 50000 m
3
/h (flow velOCity v in mis, nom. bore In mm, waler
al200).
0.100
1\
'I'
, 2·10
"E ,
;
,
,I"
0.050
\
1':'-.
",
,
,
R
t=::::
I S10
1
i
I:::::c
§ 0.020
"I
: Ii
2-10)
S-10
l
13 laminar!lurbulent
.. 19" ...

; 0.010 +-e
"
0,

--<"<-I­
C>
1--- F':
Nt
t-''.oL
ii:
t-.J'I --
,
,
"
0.005 •
2 468 2468 2468 2468 2 4 6 B
10' 10' 10' 10
6
10' 10'
REYNOLDS number Re = vJl.
v
Fig. 12: Pipe trlcUon coolliclonl),. In function 01 REYNOLDS number and ot relative wall
roughness D/k
where
( loss coefficient,
v flow velocity,
g gravitational constant.
The values in Fig. 13 apply to clean water at 20°C and to fluids
of equal kinematic viscosity, assuming the piping is completely
filled, and consists of new cast iron pipes, with an internal bi­
tumen coating (k = 0.1 mm). The head losses H, of Fig. 13
should be multiplied by:
0.8 for new rolled steel pipes,
1.7 for pipes with incrustations (the reduced pipe cross­
section due tothe incrustations is the determining factor),
1.25 for old slightly rusty steel pipes.
10
I
C"'p.mp,
a.Jvalves
_KSB
In the case of pipes with very heavy incrustations, the actual
head loss can only be determined by experiments. Deviations
from the nominal diameter have a profound effect on the head
loss, e.g. an actual bore of 0.95 times the nominal bore (Le.
only a slight bore reduction) pushes up the head ioss H, to
1.3 times the "as new" loss. New rubber hoses and rubber­
lined canvas hoses have H
v
values approximately equal to
those indicated in Fig. 13.
How to use Rg. 13 - an example:
Assuming a rate of flow Q = 140 m
3
/h and a new cast iron pipe,
inside diameter D = 150 mm, we obtain: head loss H, 3.25
m/100 m pipe length, flow velocity v 2.2 m/s.
4.2 Head Losses H
y
in Plastic Pipes
Head losses In plastic pipes H
v
K' The head losses of PVC and
poiylhene "hard" and "soft" (drawn) plastic pipes are approxi­
mately equal. For the practical calculation of H'K' the respective
head losses for cast Iron pipes H
VG
(Fig. 13) should be multi­
plied by the correction coefficients of Rg. 14, which are de­
pendent on the flow veiocity v. The head losses evaiuated in
this way apply to water at a temperature of 10°C.
If the water temperature is other than 10 cC, these head losses
must in addition be multiplied by a temperature factor <jl (Fig.
15).
Thus
where
H
VK
head losses in plastic pipes,
H
VG
head losses in cast iron pipes acc.
to Fig. 13,
correction coefficient ace. to Fig. 14,
Ip temperature factor ace. to Fig. 15.
1.0
-- - - -

0.9
>=
­
'0
f-
- - I­
i'­

0.8
Q
c 1- - ­
o
'.:::
­
I-­
0.7
r---.­
-
l- f-
--I­
<3
,
,
0.6
0.2 0.5 1.0 2 mls 5
Flow veiocity v
Fig. 14: Correction coellicient I-l for convarsion 01 head lossas in a cast Iron pipe at
20°C weIer temperature to value:> In a plsstic pipe at 10°C waler temperalura; ploUed
in lunctlon oillowvalocily v
1.1
-
-
I-I-- r-
f-
I--1­
-
l- I- I-­
I-- I-I-­
1- -1--
-
I-I-­
9-
r\
'"
­
1.0

1'\ -
1--
- 1-­

r-
1-­

I-- i'"
'(
- -
I-­
I-- I-- I-
Ii'-
­
1i 0.9
E
,-
-I-

'" I--
'k
t-- 1
f-
f- I--
T
--­ :
I
0.8
o 20 40 cC 60
Temperature t
Fig. 15: Temperature factor <f> lor calculallon 01 head losses in plastic pipes al water
lemperatures between 0 arld 60 °C
Increments of 20 to 30 Ofo should be added for sewage or un­
treated water.
4.3 Head Losses H
y
for Viscous Liquids in Straight Pipes
The head ioss of a viscous fluid (subscript FI) can be ascer­
tained for practical purposes with the aid of Fig. 16, after having
obtained the head loss for cold water (20 cC, v = 10-' m'/s)
(subscript W) from Fig. 13:
H - AFI' Hvw

See viscosity for conversion of viscosity values.
"
JZ
"
50
o
65"'
80 l
100
".
ISO mm
00
0.015
J

::S
'"
"E
'0
'"
lffi
o
Q 0.025
.§ ::
10-6
't3 C 0.030
,
; .5 0.035
>
a:::
0.
0.0(,0
llJ'hrn

0,045 • 0
'"
Q
O,OSO
,a'

nOS5
,

E
c
'"
'"
OI'O'UI1
Fig. 16: ResisJence coefficIents}, lor flow of viscous fluids in straighl pipes
How to use figure 16 - an example:
Given: capacity a = 100 m'lh, new cast iron pipe, inside
diameter D = 250 mm, kinematic viscosity v = 2 . 10-
4
m'/s.
Found in figure 13: H,w = 0.14 m/100 m.
It follows from figure 16 that: AFI = 0.08, Aw = 0.021.
Thus, H
YFI
= 0.08 . 0.14 "'- = 0.53 m/100 m.
0.021·100m
One qUite common viscous fluid is celluiose (pulp pumping),
the viscosity of which depends on the fiow velocity. since the
material in question is "non-NEwrONian"! Figures 17 a through
17 f offer reference values for the head losses H, per 100 m
iength of straight steel pipe run plotted against capacity a
(H, = flO); nominal bore: 100, 150,200, 250, 300 and 350 mm)
for conveying unbleached sulfite cellulose at 15 "C, 26 cSR
11
---
(grinding state, °SR -- Schopper-Riegler degree of freeness) 200
Pulp density
and with a pulp density (pulp pumping) of 1.5 to 7 % bone dry.
--!!l.­
ON 250
100m
in % bone dry
If the pump slurry concerned differs from that used for the pur­
A
100
pose of plotting the curves of Fig. 17, then the values obtained
10
5.5
from Fig. 17 should be multiplied by the following factors:
5.0
50 5.5
5.0
K O.g for bleached sulphite - sulphate cellulose, waste paper
40
4.5
:i
30
pulp 4.0
K 1.0 for boiled (digested) wood pulp, 20
3.5
r-- I­
.Q 30
K = 1.4 for white and brown raw wood pulp.
m10 --
1-1-
l-
f--
I-
A lS
A
2
I
300
- Pulp density 7, 1.5 f----- 1-
ON 100 5
200
in % bone dry
5
--!!l.­
4
A
5,5
100m
"" 3
,0
100 2
.0
r--
­
- ,5 ,.-
!
50
3,0
1
10 20 30 50 100 200 m
3
/h 500 1000
40
A
:i 30
Fig.17d Rate of flow Q
20
.Q ---
-
-
---
"
"
r--
I--
-
--
\5
"0
10

--
­
1----.
I
100
f----- A.Pulp density
m
ON 300 f-- f­
5
100m
in % bone dry
4

,



1=
1=
50
3
, 40
2
30
5.0-

1 2 3 5 10 20 m
3
/h 50 100 4.5
,20 4.0- f-
Fig. 17a Rate of flow Q I­
I V
3,5_
f-
I-­
300
l-
I-
3.0
10
ON 150 --­
"0 - A A 2.5-

200
A
7.0
m
--
- -_...
-

5.5
I 5 2.0_
f­ 100m 50
100
5.5
4
5.0 1.5_

-- -- - 4.5
3
-_...
4.0 A
50
-- 3.5
2
:i
40
;:::;
3.0
'" 30

"
2.5
--­
.Q '" 20
-- I-
I-
--
A A
y
1
-
.
-g 20 30 50 100 200 m
3
/h 5,00 1000 2000
j!! 10

H
Fig. 17e Rate of flow Q
1.5
Pulp density
5
-._.
in % bone dry
, 4
3
100
!
2 ON 350
Pulp density
in % bone dry
10 20 30 50 100 200 m
3
/h 500 1000
t
Fig. 17 b Rate of flow Q 50


40
;,....5.0_
_5.5_
200 30
Pulp d

5,0­
--!!l.­
ON 200 -- -- f-- -­
ry
in%b
one 4.5_
100m
. 1.0
,20
_4.0
100
5.5 I
5.0 __ 3.5
5.s
'"
5.0
10
3.?-==
50
_.' -
4.5
"0
40
4.0
A
3.5
:i 30
3.0
I 5
2.?-==
20
1 4
.Q A
2.S
- A 3
1.5­
-g 10
V -:::::
_l-
I-
I

2.0 A
---
- - 2H---:b4-1"fH+-t±>-""""'I-H--+-:bH-Ft++++-t--I,
I
" 1.5
V

A 1­
3
20 30 50 100 200 m
3
/h 500 1000 2000
Fig, 171
2
Rate of flow Q
!
,
,
1
Figs. 17a-f: sllow a plot oltha head losses H
v
lor conveying sulphite cellulose a/various
10 20 30 50 100 200 m
3
/h 500 1000 pulp densities at a temperalure 01 150 QC and a grinding grade 0126 QSR (piPe dlameter6
DN 100 10 DN 350)
Fig. 17 c Rate of flow Q A-A= maximum velocity (2,44 or 3.05 m/s) in the discharge pipe loreconomical operation.
12
---
- -
I
nb,Pumps
Q.JValvoe
_KSB
Furthermore, the head loss obtained from Fig. 17, and if ne­
cessary corrected by one of the factors listed above, should
be corrected additionally if the pulp slurry concerned is at a
temperature higher than 15°C. In this case, 1 % of the head
loss value which applies to 15°C should be deducted for
every 2 DC of temperature difference. In the case of plastic
pipes, the H'K value is obtained by multiplying the H, value for
steel pipes by 0.9.
The head loss value is reduced even further if fillers such as
kaolin (China clay) are contained in the pulp slurry concerned.
For an 18 % kaolin content, the head loss value will decrease
by 12 %, and for a 26.5 % kaolin content, it will decrease by
16 %.
4.4 Head Losses H
y
in Valves and Fittings
10
,,"'/
,
/ '/
2
II/
V
I
....

/ 1/ V /7
'1

/ /
/ IV / / 1
5 O:::>'rl\
/ / 1/
-j-
/ /
4
/ <:>' .... '?j
V V IV
,y
,'t
IV
II /
II V IV IV / /
I;
II 1/
II
/ )
Y'

/ I
..,,,
-/--I
1/
1/ /
/ V IV vv
/ / IV Vv I I I

1--
,Ltt 7"-;1/

IV V V V vv
V V
L
-I
0.5
IV 1/ / / 1/ /
.;
. _.
/ / /

0.4
/ 1/ /
7
0.3
-/
Iv
V IV
/IV / 1/ Vv
.'.
0.2
I
/ 1/
/1

f
,


0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 m 2.0 3.0
Head loss H,
Fig. 18: 01 losses H
v
In valves and fillings: flow velocity v relating
\0 Ihe croBB-sectlonal area through whleh the fluid flows
Knee piece
,
45' 50' 90'
Surface Surlace Surlace
smoothl rough smoothl ,rOUgh smoothl rough
. I
( 0,25 0.35 0.50 0.70 1.15 1,30

Combinations with goo knee pieces
,= 2.5 (=3 (=5
T pieces (subdivision or 1I0w)


&
0100'10 ---..,
r= ;
CCI?
with sharp edges rounded wllh spherical with spherical
straight bollom Inward-rounded
(= 1.3 (= 0.7 neck (=2.5104.9
I; =O.g
Fig. 19: illustration of IllIings wllh relaled 105S coeffiCients I;
For pressure losses in valves and fittings the following equa­
tion applies:
P
· v'
p,=(- -2­
where
( loss coefficient,
p density of pumped medium,
v flow velocity across a section A which is characteristic
of the head loss.
Tables 2 to 4 and Figs. 18 to 24 give details of the indivi­
dual loss coefficients ( and head losses H
v
in valves and fitt­
ings for operation with water.

1.2
I
-'
" t
"-'
c \ -aoORK _
'" 0.8
'13 Outside radiused
iE
\
()

"-
r-­
0.4
.3
- -f-------_a
Cl

with guide I Inside radiused

.
vane cascade
o

g
o 0.4 0.8 1.2
Elbow radius R
K
Duct width aD
Fig. 20: Influence of rounding orr of concave and convex side on the 1055 coelflclent 01
elbows with quadrallc cr05S section
10'
\\
.
1\
5

-l- I­
2


-0- 'PO = 45° .
_ 50° c" , "" "
10' ,- 60
0
\
-.-
74
0

i'-,

"-' 5
-.
90
0
_._­
--
1\-
-l- I­
C
1-\
\\-'r--

2
iE
k\
10
'
,
()
'\,
[\
i2 5
®
0
2

.3
I-
I'"

1 ,

9
i_
0.5 "
,
0.2
--v
- I'
t=:v ytJ to -
=::e
....... <jJ­
-·0 ',-
l-I-
1-, , ,', , , " T
0.1 0
0.5 1.0 0 0.5 1.0
Relative opening Degree of
angle ('1'0- '1')/'1'0 opening y/a
Fig. 21 Loss coelficients 01 butterlly valves, globe and gate valves in function 01 ope­
ning angle or degrea 01 opening (position number5 according 10 Table 2, design)
13
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6

1
.
5

1
.
5

1
.
4

1
.
3

1
.
2

1
.
2

1
.
1

1
.
0

o
u
t

l
e
v
e
r
s

a
n
d

w
e
i
g
h
t
s

2
)

h
y
d
r
o
s
l
o
p
s

v

=

4

m
l
s

1
7

0
.
9

3
.
0

3
.
0

2
.
5

2
.
5

1
.
2

2
.
2

v
=

3

m
l
s

1
.
8

4
.
0

4
.
5

4
.
0

4
.
0

1
.
8

3
.
4

v
=
2

m
l
s

5
.
0

6
.
0

8
.
0

7
.
5

6
.
5

6
.
0

7
.
0

f
i
l
t
e
r
s

1
8

2
.
8

2
.
8

i
n

c
r
e
a
n

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n

s
c
r
e
e
n
s

1
9

1
.
0

1
.
0

1
)

I
f

t
h
e

n
a
r
r
o
w
e
s
t

s
h
u
t
-
o
f
f

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

d
E

i
s

s
m
a
l
l
e
r

t
h
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n

t
h
e

n
o
m
i
n
a
l

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

O
N
,

t
h
e

l
o
s
s

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

m
u
s
t

b
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

b
y

(
O
N
/
d
E
)
x
,

w
i
t
h

x

=

5

t
o

6

2
)

I
n

t
h
e

c
a
s
e

o
f

p
a
r
t
i
a
l

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p
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n
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n
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,

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e
.

l
o
w

f
l
o
w

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
i
e
s
,

t
h
e

l
o
s
s

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
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n
t
s

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n
c
r
e
a
s
e

3
)

D
e
s
i
g
n
s
:

c
f
.

p
a
g
e

1
5

I
r"""lIb, Pump,
Q.Jvalv8s
_KSB
,
<=i c=
1
!-
I+_i_
1"
+
O ~ 1 J ~ ~
~
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
Designs according to Table 2
The minimum and maximum values listed in Table 2 include
figures taken from the most pertinent trade iilerature and
apply to fully open valves and fittings under uniform conditions
of flow. The losses attributable to flow disturbances in a length
of pipe equalling ca. 12 x DN downstream of the valve or
fitting are also included in those values (cf. VDIIVDE guideline
2173). Nonetheless, the actual values are subject to wide
variance, depending on the conditions of inflow and outflow,
the model in question, and the design objectives.
Table 3: Loss coefficients for fittings
Elbows:
Cast elbows goo, R = D + 100 mm,
all nominal size, = 0.5
Pipe bends goo, R = 2 to 4 x D
Nominal size DN 50 100 200 300 500
, = 0.26 0.23 0.21 0.19 0.18
If the deflection angle only
amounts to the above, values
should be multiplied by 0.85 0.7 0.45 0.3
Knee pieces:
Deflection angle
goo
60° 45° 30° 15°
,
~ 1.3 0.7 0.35 0.2 0.1
Combinations of elbows and pipe bends:
The, value of the single goo elbow should not be doubled,
but only be multiplied by the factors indicated to obtain the
pressure loss of the combination elbows illustrated:
~
1.4 1.6 1.8
Expansion joints:
Bellows expansion joint with I without
guide pipe , = 0.3/0.2
Smooth bore pipe harp bend , =0.6 to 0.8
Creased pipe harp bend , = 1.3 to 1.6
Corrugated pipe harp bend , = 3.2 to 4
16 17 18 19
Inlet pipe fittings:
GOllA D'1
!" ... 'Of
t t t +
Inlet edge
sharp , = 0.5 3 for" =
,=
75°60° 45°
0.6 0.7 0.8 chamfered, = 0.25 0.55 0.20 0.05
Discharge pieces:
,= 1 downstream of an adequate length of straight pipe
with an approximately uniform velocity distribution in
the outlet cross-section.
, = 2 in the case of very unequal velocity distribution, e.g.
immediately downstream of an elbow, a valve etc.
Loss coefficients of flow meters:
Short venturi tube a = 30 ° Standard orifice plate
ffit[[J fJJDJ
O I ~ O : l ' l
, is related to the velocity v at diameter D.
Diameter
ratio diD 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80
Aperture
ratio m = (diD)' o.Og 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64
Short venturi tube , = 21 6 2 0.7 0.3 0.2
Standard orifice , = 300 85 30 12 4.5 2
plate
Water meters (volumetric meters) , =10
In the case of domestic water meters, a max. pressure drop
of 1 bar is prescribed for the rated load, and in practice the
actual pressure loss is seldom below this figure.
Branch pieces: (Branch of equal bore)
The resistance coefficients " for the diverted flow a, or 'd
respectively for the main flow ad = a - a, relate to the velo­
city of the total flow a in the nozzle.
On the basis of that definition, " andlor 'd may take on
negative values, in which case they are indicative of pres­
sure loss. Not to be confused with reversible pressure
changes according to BERNOULLI's equation (cf. annota­
tion to Table 4).
15
: ,
b:)pum
p

Vailles
_KSB
0,/0= 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Qd---- a
(, = -0.4 0.08 0.47 0.72 0.91
---r
a. (d = 0.17 0.30 0.41 0.51
a .1 ad (, = 0.88 0.89 0.95 1.10 1.28
a,
(d =
-0.08 -0.05 0.07 0.21
Qd-Q
(,
=
-0.38 0 0.22 0.37 0.37
'W·­
a, (d = 0.17 0.19 0.09 -0.17
Q Qd (,
=
0.68 0.50 0.38 0.35 0.48

(d =
-0.06 -0.04 0.07 0.20
Table 4: Pressure change coefficients in transition piece for
arrangements illustrated in Fig. 14
A coefficient f: in accordance with the values in the table below
applies to each ot the illustrated shapes of transition pieces/
reducers. If the pressure rises across the transition piece in
the direction of flow (divergent section), E is positive, and if the
pressure drops (reducer), E is negative.
Coefficients:
Expansion IReduction
rn
v£[t¢
'0100:24'
Form I II III IV
Form diD = 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
(= 0.56 0.41 0.26 0.13 0.04
(= 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01
r= 8°
II for a = 15° (= 0.15 0.11 0.07 0.03 0.01
ct = 20° (= 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.05 0.02
III (= 4.80 2.01 0.88 0.34 0.11
IV for 20° < a < 40° ( = 0.21 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01
Note:
In the case of branch pieces as per Table 3 and transition
pieces as per Table 4, differentiation is made between irrevers­
ible pressure loss (= pressure reduction)
P
'v'
P'=('T
on the one hand and reversible pressure changes involving
frictionless flow as per BERNOULLI's equation (fluid dynamics)
p, - p, = (vl - v;)
on the other. In the case of accelerated flow, e.g. through
a pipe constriction, P2 - Pl negative. Conversely, it is positive in
pipe expansions. By contrast, the pressure losses ascertained
by way of the loss coefficients ( are always negative, if the
overall pressure change is calculated as the arithmetic sum
of P... and P2- Pl'
In the case of water transport through valves and fittings,
the loss coefficients ( is occasionally neglected in favour of
the so-called k",-value:
- (0 )' p
P,- k; '1000
16
where
Q volume flow in m
3
/h,
p density of water in kg/m
3
(effective temperature vapour
pressure, Table 1),
P.... pressure loss in bar.
The k,-value [m
3
/h] represents the volume flow of cold waler
(p = 1000 kg/m
3
) at p, 1 bar through a valve or fitting; it
therefore gives the relationship between the pressure loss P...
in bar and the volume flow Q in m
3
/h.
Conversion: d
4
(= 16·­
k;
where
d reference diameter (nominal diameter) of the valve or
fitting in em.
5 Changing the Pump Performance
5.1 Changing the Speed
The same centrifugal pump has different characteristic curves
for different speeds; these curves are interconnected by the
similarity law. 11 the values for 0
1
, H
1
and P1 are known at
speed nj, then the new values for n2 will be as follows:
A change in the speed also causes the operating point to
shift (see 2.9). Fig. 22 plots three OH curves for the speeds
n1, n2 and n3, each curve is intersected by the system curve
H
A
at points B" B, and 8
3
respectively. The operating point
will move along the system characteristic H
A
from 8
1
to 8
3
when the speed is changed as indicated.
B,
,/
r
/Hllnes
r
B Operating point
n Speed

Capacity Q
Fig.22 Eltec\ of change in speed
5.2 Trimming the Impellers
Permanently reducing the output of a centrifugal pump oper­
ating at constant speed (see Fig. 23) entails reducing the
impeller diameter D. The characteristic curve booklets contain
the pump curves of selected impeller diameters in mm.
When trimming radial flow impellers (see 8.4) (trimming is not
a geometrically similar reduction of an impeller since the
outlet width normally remains constant), the relationship
between 0, H and impeller diameter Dis:
D - 2 1· D
1
• -.
0, H,
I
r"""tb, Pump.
a.Jv8lves
_KSB
The actual diameter can be determined as follows (see Fig. 23):
Run a line in the QH graph (linear graduation) passing from
the point of origin (take into consideration with curves with a
suppressed point of origin) through the new operating point
B
2
and intersecting at B, the full diameter curve 0,. The Q and
H values 1 and 2 can then be plotted and used in the equation
to obtain the approximate diameter D
2
.
82
H2 ..
I

I
Capacity Q
Fig. 23 Influence of Impeller diameter
6 Handling Viscous Liquids
As the viscosity v of the medium handled increases (at con­
stant speed) the capacity Q, head H and efficiency fall; at the
same time the pump power input P rises. The best efficiency
point shifts to smaller flow rates. The operating point B
w
drops
to B
z
(see Fig. 24).
I

I
Capacity Q
Fig. 24 Change In operating point when handling viscous liquids (Z) end waler (W)
The standard operating point for water B
w
with Q
w
• H
w
and
(W = water) is converted to the viscous liquid operating
point B
z
with Qz, Hz and (Z = viscous liqUid) using the
conversion factors for viscous liquids fa, f
H
and fl] (see Figs.
25a and 25b).
'I
This conversion process can be used
• to convert from B
w
to operating point B
z
using Fig. 25a
(see 7.6.1)
• and to select the appropriate pump size from the given
operating point B
z
via the operating point B
w
using Fig. 25b
(see 7.6.2).
The conversion is valid for
• single-stage volute casing pumps with radial flow impellers
(see 8.4),
• specific speeds n
q
of 6 to 45 1/min (see 7.6.1 and 9.12),
• kinematic viscosities V
z
of 1 to 4000 . 10-
6
m
2
/s (kinematic
viscosities below 22 . 10-
6
m
2
/s are normally disregarded).
10
",.

1::f-H--f+I+++i-=

::
" ... " ","
m' I
Capacity QZ,Betr. QW,oplln h;;
Fig. 25a Determining the conversion factors fa,w, [H Wand ['l,W lor handling viscous
liquids (enlarged version sae 9.1 0), II the operating pornt lor handling watar Is given
17
-- -
-----
- - --- -- -- -
----- -
-- ----------
L
Fig. 25b Determining the conversion faclors fa,z and fH,Z lor handling viscous liquids
{enlarged version see g,11}, If the operating pO,lnt lor handling viscous liquids IS given
200
10
I
U.S.gpm 20
10 20
30
I
40
I
30
50
I
40 50
'00
, I
'00
- -­ --­
--- -­
r-­
100
!
I

1/
_ .. -
-r-.
80
H
m
I
I
-
32-250

1/ 40-250
L
1/
i'.
-.I.
i'-­
50
3Z -ZOO 40-200
40
/
.. _.. ­
- -- --- ----- --- - ------ ------ t'--­
"
30
32-160 /"0-160
/
/
--
;--
'-


20
--­
"-
J
32-125°
---- --- --
_
-
1/
,...... I··
t--

10
/
1
Q[/s
2 3 4 5
2 4
,
c'
Fig. 26 CPK/HPK, selection chart n = 2900 1/mln
18
7 Typical Selection Examples
7.1 Selecting the Pump Size (see 2.5)
• The following variables are known:
Q = 25 lis (= 90 m
3
/h)
H =80 m
Frequency 50 Hz
Medium 60% sulphuric acid (index sj
Density p, = 1.5 kg/dm
3
Temperature t
s
= 20°C
Kinematic viscosity V
s
= 3.8 ' 10-6 m
2
/s (can be
disregarded. see 6)
(p, and v, taken from standard reference tables)
The pump selected for this particular liquid is a CPK series
standardized chemical pump.
Technical data and characteristic curves for the CPK are given
in the characteristic curve booklet and selection booklet (Figs.
26 and 27 are extracts) .
• Selecting the size of the pump:
Using the CPK/HPK characteristic curve booklet for 50 Hz
the selection charts give the following pump selections for
the specified operating data:
CPK 65-250 at n = 2900 1/min and
CPK 150-250 at n = 1450 1/min.
The CPK 65-250 is selected for reasons of economy.
200 300 400 500 1000 2000
I I, I ! I
, 200
I
300 400 500 1000
+-­
500
I"'"
-r--:
i'-
r--. i'--
400
----
---
T--­
1/ 50-315 65-315 80-315 125-315 ,
7 I
f '--
1--- /
I
300
"'N
I"<
t', K.
­
50-250 65-250 80-250
1/ --
j
----
/ 100-250
1
125-250
"-
/
H
It

f:::::
-
k
-.......,
'--
t--r--( / 1/
200
50-200 )._65-200 'J
80-200
- "'­
/ 100-200 A
/
,......
11-_____..
1/
r--
K
/
---
N
100
50-160 65-160 60-160
1/
l
/
/ /
---
["';
-

/
"-
--
- ­
rv
'v

f
50
- 40
f--­
'0
20 2 30 40 50 '00 14
4p 5.0
I
t"""'lIb, Pump,
a.Jvatva8
_KSB
7.2 Calculating the Power Consumption
7.2.1 Pump Input Power (see 2,6.1)
Using the known variables and pump selection from 7.1 the
power input is calculated as follows:
1.5·9.81·25·80
P = ",p'",,'
43,3 kW
1000.0.68
1
)
with p, in kg/dm
3
9 in m/s
2
Q in lis
H in m
P in kW
or an alternative frequently used in practice:
p,·Q·H 1.5·90·80
P = 367 = 367.0.68 1) = 43.3 kW
with p, in kg/dm
3
Q in m
3
/h
H in m
P in kW
The pump power input Pcan also be established with sufficient
accuracy from Fig. 27.
P is interpolated as = 29 kW for water, the value for sulphuric
acid is:
P = 29 .f'.L-= 29· 43.5 kW,
Pwater 1
'} Efllciency 11 (from Fig. 27) interpolated


:oqo
LL L L .
""
..
..,
.. ..
1M GPM
..,
'"
. "t·· . '"
..
..
..
.: F
..
!;:
"
'"
'" ..
..
- ­
.,
...
..
.,
..
..
,
..
.,
;
0
..
" "
.. ..
" s
,'" '"
...

'" '"

"
!;:
,
"


!l! '" "
...
..
.,
'"
..
II!
;;:
50

;;:
..
..
"
'"
"
, "
..
",
..
.,
0
" '" '" "
Fig. 27 Characlarlallc curvas CPK/HPK 65_250
7.2.2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see 2,6.2)
Taking the pump power input P (see 7.2.1)
• a 10% safety margin is added to the 43.3 kW at the operating
point.
So the drive rating must be at least 47,6 kW:
• the selection is a standard 55 kW motor, 2pole, IP 54/1P 44,
type B 3.
• Pin value must be Checked (see selection booklet, section
Technical Data).
If the operating point temporarily changes to higher flow rate,
the motor rating must be increased accordingly, if necessary
up to the maximum possible pump power consumption.
A recheck of the Pin value then becomes important as a
criterion for the bearing bracket.
7.3 Catculating the NPSH.. (see 3,2)
To achieve cavitation-free operation of the pump the limit of
maximum possible suction lift He gao, max. or the minimum
required suction head Hz gao, min. must be adhered to.
7.3.1 Suction Lift from Open/Closed Tank
Here the pump is above the liquid level (see Fig. 10).
Selected pump is a CPK 65-250, technical data see 7,1.
Calculation of H
s
gao, max. is based on following system and
pump data:
p
= 1500 kg/m
3
Pb
=1 bar=1·10'N/m'
Po
= 0,0038 bar = 0.0038'10' N/m'
(from reference table)
(60% sulphuric acid at 20 "C)
Hv.s
= 1.5 m (estimated from Fig. 13 for 10m suction
pipe ON 100, inci. fitlings and valves)
v, can be disregarded because negligible
NPSH"q= 3.3 m (interpolated from Fig. 27 inci. 0.5 m safety
margin)
19
t""""IIb, Pump.
Q.JValv88
_KSB
Open tank
Given: P. = 0 bar
Closed tank
Given: Po + Pb = 1.5 bar = 1.5 . 10' N/m'
Datum level
I

I
I

II-==p-
J
HOg.,
,


p
'I
i
Po?"
I
J

t-- Po,t,s,v,
/
He geo, max =
Pe+Pb-PO .
Pe.g - Hv,s - NPSH
r8Q
(ace. to 3.2 with NPSHreq = NPSH
av
)
0+1·10'-0.0038·10' 1.5·10'-0.0038·10'
H"",, m" = 1500.9.81 - 1.5 - 3.3 H,goo,m,,= 1500.9.81 -1.5-3.3
6.77 -1.5 - 3.3 = 10.17 - 1.5 - 3.3
= 1.97 m. =5.37 m.
With He geo, max = 1.97 m. NPSH
sv
= NPSH
req
= 3.3 m; With He geo, max = 5.37 m, NPSH
av
= NPSHraq =3.3 m;
therefore NPSH
av
NPSH
req
requirement is satisfied. therefore NPSH
av
NPSH
req
requirements is satisfied.
7.3.2 Positive Suction Operation from Open/Closed Tank
Here the pump is below the liquid level (see Fig. 11).
Selected pump is a CPK 65-250, technical data see 7.1 to
7,3.1,
::o,ep::::e:..on-.::ta"n"k"----:c-;- I.::C"loo::s:::;eood-.::ta"n"k'-----,c-::-:---,-::--:-:c::-:-:-:-:------­
Given: p, = 0 bar Given: p, + Pb = 1.5 bar = 1.5 . 10' N/m'
I P.+Pb
i i
j
,
I I
---==,
t-v.,po
H'Qeo
Datum lavel
I iIJl3::3­ e--.-JtoII
.....
-J

H
zgeo, min =
NPSH
req +
H
V,8 - Ps'g
0+1·10'-0.0038·10' 1.5 ·10' - 0.0038·10'
H, "0, ml' = 3.3 + 1.5 - 1500.9.81 H, "0, m" = 3.3 + 1.5 - 1500.9.81
= 1.5 + 3.3 - 6.77 =3.3 + 1.5 -10.17
= -1.97 m. = -5.37 m.
Negative heads -H
zgeo
ere suction lift heads +H
aQeo
of the
same value. The minus sign in the result tells us that the
centrifugal pump, with an open or closed tank. could draw
roughly the absolute amounts as in example 7.3.1 where the
requirement NPSH
av
NPSH
req
is just about satisfied. This
requirement would be more than satisfied in example 7.3.2
with a positive static suction head (as shown in the diagram).
20
I
nb,Pum••
a."V8IV9a
_KSB
7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank at Actual (now):
Vapour Pressure
Q , = 25.56 lis
(Internal tank pressure Vapour pressure of liquid, H, = 73.2 m
Le. P. + Pb = PD) 0, =240 mm.
The pump is below the liquid level (see Fig. 11). Desired:
The selected pump is a CPK 65-250, see 7.1 for technical data.
Q, = 25 lis
See 7.3.1 for system and pump data required to calcuiate H, = 70 m
Hz geo, min but with Pe + Pb = PD,
Le.
H H
z geo, min = reQ+, "',e- Ps.g
0, 0
,
. = 240 . V;;.56 = 237 mm.
= 3.3 + 1.5 - 0
=4.8 m. Turning the impeller down from 240 mm (0, ) to 237 mm (0,)
restores the original duly given in 7.4.
From 4.8 m upwards (Hzgeo,mln)the condition
is fulfilled. It is, however, standard practice not to make such minor
changes (less than 5 mm) to the impeller diameter.
7.6 Handling Viscous Liquids (see 6)
7.4 Changing the Speed (see 5.1)
Schedule on page 44.
The CPK 65-250 selected in 7.1 but with the following per­
formance data (present duty: index 1, new duly: index 2)
0 , 25 lis (= 90 m'/h)
7.6.1 Calculation the Operating Point
H, 70 m .
at n, = 2900 1/min
The prodUct is a mineral oil with a kinematic viscosity Vz of
and 0 , = 240 mm (impeller diameter)
500 . 10-
6
m'ls and density pz = 0.897 kg/dm'.
is driven by a 55 kW three-phase motor with a nominal speed
We know the characteristic curve and operating data of a pump
(n,) of 2965 1/min. The higher speed shifts the operating
handling water, where:
point, without considering the system characteristic H
A
, as
follows to: Ow = 34 lis (= 122.4 m'/h)
H
w
= 18 m
2965
n 1450 1/min
0, = 2900 . 25 = 25.56 lis (= 92.02 m'/h)
To obtain the new data for mineral oil, the pump data at the
2965)') b.e.p. must also be calculated and the following additional
H, =
(
2900 . 70 = 73.2 m.
information must be known:
If this increase is not acceptable, the original duty can be
Capacity Q
Woot
31 1) lis
restored by e.g. reducing the impeller diameter (see 7.5).
Head Hwoot
20
1
) m
Efficiency
llw oot
0.78
1
) ­
Speed n 1450 1/min
Kinematic viscosity
Vz
500.10-
6
m
2
/s
7.5 Trimming the Impeller (see 5.2)
Density pz 0.897 kgldm'
The unacceptably high pump output (see 7.4) caused by the
Gravitational constant g 9.81 m/s
2
higher motor speed is rectified as follows by trimming the
impeller (present duty: index 1, new duty: index 2). 1) Irom Individual characteristic curve (aee Fig. 27)
4 points on the new characteristic curve can be established using the calculation chart below:
nQ,W from graph in 9.12 27 1/min

from Fig. 258 0.78 -
M
ffl,W
or sect. 9.10,
page 41
0.83
0.49
-
-
0/0
0
t 0 0.8 1.0 1.2 -
"""-
from charact. 0 24.8 31 37.2 lis

curve booklet
25 21.6 20 18.2 m
'1w
for 4 points
on curve
0 0.74 0.78 0.73 - H
, HwBot•
Qz = Ow' fQ,w 0 19.3 24.2 29 lis
Hz =

Hw·fHW·1.03 = Hw·fHW Hw·fftY'
These velues meen
4 pointe on OH
z
end

Hz Btlr.
TJz = Tlw' f.."w
25'
0
') 18.5
0.36
16.6
0.38
15.1
0.36
m
-
Q"1z line plus :3 points
on the QP
z
line ere
establishsd,
Plotted over Q
,.
Pz=pz·g·Hz·Qz
IX
8.7 9.3 10.7 kW
(see Fig. 28)
0'0""
QzStir, Q wBII•.
Q
2) if Hz > Hw, use Hz = Hw Calculation in graphic form
21
7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size
The product is mineral oil, we are looking for the size of the
pump capable of meeting the following operating data:
Capacity
Qz Selr 31 lis
Head
HZ,Selr
20 m
Kinematic viscosity
Vz 500· 10-
6
m
2
/s
Density
pz 0.897 kg/dm
3
Use the following calculation table to convert to operating data with water and thereby find the appropriate pump size.
n selected 1450 1/min
n,.w 3) from graph in 9.12 27 1/min
H
from Fig. 25b or 0.8 -
, HWlhtr.
~
section 9.11,
fH,l 0.86 ­
page 42
Q _ Qz Selr
W,Belr - f
38.8 lis
az
H _ Hz Selr

W,Belr - 1
23.3 m
HZ
3) where QZ,Betr = Qopi ) approx.

Hz, Betr = HOpl
Calculation in graphic form
The definitive operating data when handling water are thus:
25,,__
Qw.•", = Q
W
= 38.8 lis (= 139.7 m
3
/h)
H
m HW,Belr = H
w
= 23.3 m
20
Based on these data a suitable pump is seiected from the
sales documents selection chart. Using the curve thus estab­
lished, follow section 7.6.1 to establish 4 points on the new
H
w characteristic curve.
15 These 4 points can now be used to establish the curve to be
H,
1)
expected for handling mineral oil, see Fig. 28.
I
'1.
"0
ro
<I) 80
I
10 70
~ w
60
""
~
<I)
50
c
'0
5
40 w
"'
8 General
~ ~ ,
30
8.1 National and International Standards for Centrifugal
Pumps
0 20
0 10 2001/530 40
A series of national standards have been introduced in
Germany since the early sixties governing the manufacture,
0- design, procurement and use of centrifugal pumps.
P
'5
0.
kW These standards are drawn up by both operators and manu­
.S facturers and are now established in virtually all sectors of
15
P,
industry using and producing pumps (see Fig. 29, page 23).
~
0
10
_ --:::::::-- P
w
This is particularly true of DIN 24256 "End suction centrifugal
0.
0.
pumps (PN 16) (chemical pumps)" which even in its first
5
E edition was virtually identical to the international standard
0-
::J
0
ISO 2858 "End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar)
40 0101:1
- Designation, nominal duty point and dimensions".
0 10 20 0 115 30
These two standards occupy a central position because they
Capacity Q
form the basis for a range of standards already in existence
and under preparation covering centrifugal pumps, access­
Fig. 26 Characteristic curves lor both water (W) and VISCOUS liquids (Z) (see 7.6.1) ories, guidelines and specifications.
22



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-- - --
--
------
I
nb,Pump.

_KSB
\
The high degree of similarity between DIN 24 256 and ISO 2656
0,5
means that a series of national standards and draft standards
such as:
DIN 24259 "Pump baseplates".
DIN 24960 "Mechanical seals; shaft seal chamber.
principal dimensions, designations and material
codes",
VDMA 24297 "Centrifugal pumps; technical requirements,
specifications"
need minor or no changes in content even after the publication
of the corresponding ISO standard,
8.2 Shaft Deflection
Shaft deflection is principally caused by radial forces resulting
from the hydraulic thrust in the impeller plane generated by
the interaction between the impeller and pump casing (or
diftuser). The magnitude and direction of the thrust changes
with the rate of flow and affects the shaft and bearings.
The pump maker can favourably influence these hydraulic
radial forces by selecting the right casing (see Figs, 30 and 31),
This guarantees conformity with the specified maximum per­
missible shaft deflection (e,g. API 610 or ISO) and also means
cost-effective sizing of shafts, especially seals and bearings.
The radial thrust F
R
can be calculated with the help of the
equation
F
R
K· p' g . H . D,. b,
with
F
R
Radial thrust
K Radial thrust coefficient ace, to Fig, 31
p Density of the medium pumped
9 Gravitational constant
H Head
D, Impeller outside diameter
b, Impeller outlet width
Circular casing
Volute casing
-- """"- Special circular
volute casing
, -=:::::::::=.. Double voluta
casing
Q/Q
o
PI-1.0
Flow level Q
Combined
Single volule cirCUlar Double volute
calling volute caelng Circular ceslng casing
Fig. 30 Radiallhtullt in centrifugal pumpll with various calling typell
24
-_._­
I"
rZ
0,4
0.5
0,3
/ '"
'"
/
0,2
/ 7
/'
0,7

I--G
-

fI71:1
'"
0,1
V, V q -1.0

I
I
10 20 30 40 rnln-
1
60
°
° Spezlfic speed nQ
Fig. 31 Magnitude of lhe radial thrust coefficient K lor volule eaelng pumps es a
luncllon or the specific speed I1Q and the pump !low level q = Q/QoPI
8.3 Improving the NPSH Requirement
It is possible in special cases to reduce the NPSH require­
ment of a pump to approx, 50-60% of the original level by
fitting an inducer in front of the impeller, for example when
\
a plant is extended and the available NPSH is inadequate or
where economic factors prevent the available NPSH being
I
increased (by raising the suction tank) or a lower speed
larger-sized pump (with lower NPSH requirement) being
fitled,
Fig. 32 Centrlrugel pump titled With inducer
It must be noted that the reduction in the NPSH requirement \
applies only to a particular section of the flow range and not
the complete range of the pump concerned (see Fig, 33),
J
i------ "'-pump characteristic curve
I
1ij
0"
• .c
Ie.
CfJE
a. ::>
za.
b
Capacity Q
a = NPSH
req
- without inducar
b = NPSHrllQ - with Inducer A
c = NPSHreq - with Inducer B
I
A and Bare dlflllrontlypes or inducers
Flg.33 NPSH raqulremanl with and without Inducer plotted egainstthe capacily
I
Mb, Pump.
Q.Jvalves
_KSB
\\
8.4 Impeller Types
8.4.1 Vaned Impellers
Centrifugal pumps handling clean products have standard
impellers fitted with vanes. Such impellers go from the radial
flow type through the mixed flow type for higher flow rates
up to the axial flow impeller for high flow rates and low heads.
Radial flow impeller")
\\
ft
Mixed flow impeller"J closed
Mixed flow impeller open
Mixed flow impeller") closed, double enfry
Axial flow impeller
O} Front view with coverplate removed
H} Single-vane Impellers ere also available with slightly reduced passage for greater
oHlciency
8.4.2 Non-clogging Impellers
Large-clearance impellers are used on pumps handling con­
taminated liquids containing solids, the single-vane impeller
has an unrestricted passageway from inlef fa outlet (so-called
free passage) "").
Single-vane impeller"J closed
Two-passage impeller") closed
Three-passage impeller"J closed
8.4.3 Special Impellers
For contaminated and gaseous liquids.
Three-vane impeller open
Free flow impeller
25
n.,m.,
Q.JValv8a bo
_KSD
8.4.4 Star Wheels
Mainly used in self-priming pumps handling clean media.
Fig. 36 Multistage, suction and discharge side bearings, e.g. ring section high pressure
centrifugal pump
Star wheel for side channel pump
8.4.5 Peripheral Impellers
Used for clean media, low flow rates and high heads.
Flg.37 Close-c6upled, e.g. In-line pump
Peripheral impeller
8.5 Pump Types (typical examples)
Figs, 34 to 39 show the various main design features:
Fig. 36 Verllcel shaft-driven sump pump, e.g. SUbmersible chemical pump
Fig. 34 Single-entry, single-siege, overhung, e.g. elanderdlz:ed chemlcel pump
Fig.35 Double-entry, suction and discharge side bearings, e.g. pipeline pump Fig. 39 Submersible close-coupled pump, e.g. sewage pump
26
----- ---
I

Q."VaIV8e
_KSB
8.6 Pump Installation Arrangements
The factors which determine how a pump is installed are:
• the position of the shaft, i.e. horizontal or vertical, • the arrangement of the drive,
• the position of the feet, i.e. underneath or shaft centreline, • the weight distribution of the pump and drive
(see Figs. 40 and 41).
_____ _ _
Mb.. horizontal underneath coaxial with coupling >l!lIJ\fRno I
_ or gearbox IbcoaSmemPolante
horizontal centreline coaxial with coupling
or gearbox baseplate
-aX-i-s-a-b·o-v-e-p-u-m-p-,+c-o-m-p-a-ct-,--­

horizontal

horizontal
:1;
L
Fig. 40 Examples or horizonlallnslallaUon
Alternative installation 'Shaft
a b c
vertical
1\


'i'> >
vertical
\'

.J >bo

I
vertical
, .
.if


FIQ.41 Examples 01 vertical mounting
underneath
underneath
Feet
-
soleplate
beneath
discharge
nozzle
belt drive simpie speed variation
with parallei axis above pump
with belt drive and outboard
bearing or jackshaft
close-coupled, forming a
water tight unit with pump
L
Drive
above ground on drive stool
a) above ground on drive stool
b) above ground on drive stool
through cardan shaft
I c) below surface on drive stool
a) automatic submersible close-coupled
engagement I unit
with claw
b) on support
stand
compact,
simple speed variation
fully submersible
L
Remarks
wet installation
al surface level discharge pipe
dry installation
I wet installation
a) permanent
b) portable
I
27
nb,Pumps
Q."Valve9
_KSB
8.7 Pump Sump Configuration
Pump sumps are designed to receive liquids and be inter­
mittently drained. The sump size depends on the capacity
Q and permissible start-up frequency Z of the pump set,
Le. the electric motor.
The start-up frequencies of dry motors are as follows:
Start-up frequency Z
Motor rating up to 7.5 kW max. 15/h
Motor rating up to 30 kW max. 12/h
Motor rating above 30 kW max. 10/h
Start-up frequency is calculated using:
3600 . Q
w
(Qm - Q
w
)
Z
V
N
• Q
m
where Z no. of starts per hour
Q
zu
inlet flow in I/s
Qe+Qs,
Q
m 2
Q
s
capacity at switch-on pressure in I/s
Q, capacity at switch-off pressure in lis
V
N
useful volume of pump sump including possible
flowback volume in I
The maximum start-up frequency occurs when am = 2 x Ow.
Le. when the capacity am is twice the incoming flow Q
zu
. The
max. start-up frequency is therefore:
With dirty liquids, soiids must be prevented from being de­
posited and collecting in dead zones and on the floor. 45
0
walls, or better still 60
0
walls, help prevent this (see Fig. 42).
- Suction pipe
Flg.42 Inclined sump walls 10 prevent solids from being deposited and collecting
8,8 Suction Pipe Layout
The suction pipe should be as short as possible and run with
a gentle slope up to the pump. The suction pipe and inlet pipe
must be sufficiently wide apart to prevent air entrainment in
the suction pipe. Furthermore the mouth olthe inlet pipe must
aiways lie below the liquid level (see Fig. 43).
Suction pipe
-'
,

-
,... \
Inle( L
' ..­
pipe
f-
"
Sump
e-'
'-

pas. deflector
"
Fig. 43 Piping arrangement to prevent air entrainment
The medium handled must cover the suction pipe inlet to a
suitable depth, otherwise rotation of the liquid could cause
air-entraining vortices (hollow vortices) to form; starting with
a funnel-shaped depression at the liquid surface, a tube­
shaped air cavity forms instantaneously, extending from the
surface to the suction pipe.
By ensuring that the medium handled always has a suitable
level (see Figs. 44 and 45) or by taking measures to prevent
vortices (see Figs. 46 to 48) this can be prevented. which is
the more important, the higher the flow rate is.
- 0

!.---_.----.J /
-Suction pipe to pump
Fig. 44 Arrangement of pipes in the suction tank (eump) 10 prevent vortices
The minimum liquid cover 8
mln
in m must be the velocity
head plus a 0.1 m safety margin for non-uniform velocity
distribution. The maximum flow velocity Vii! in the suction pipe
or inlet pipe should not exceed 3 m/s; we recommend 1 to
2 m/s.
v'
2
S
8 mIn = 9 +0.1
with v, flow velocity in mls
8
m
In minimum liquid cover in m.
28
I
I
2
m
t 1,0
0,8
(/)
~
8°,6
0,5
0,4
- t r-+­
This is preferred rr ~
0,3
arrangement, - . > . . ~ i L J ~ +-+­
--Jr--._. -1-7 . . j . . j ~
0,2 f----/---I---I--I---Ic-+++-+-+-H-I----II----+--+ /' ~ ~ +-1­
,
Curves are for ---- /; ~
this suction pipe ~ W ~
arrangement -I- -1-1­
0.1
100
5 6 7 8 9 1000 2
Capacity Q -----­
Fig. 45 Liquid cover S 8S a function of the piping bore DlII and capacity Q
Fig. 45 shows the interdependence between liquid cover S, Figs. 46 and 47 show typical arrangements used to prevent
I piping bore ON and capacity Q. The values obtained give air-entraining inlet vortices where the minimum liquid cover
sufficient protection against vortices. The graph can be used is either not available or cannot be ensured.
for the suelion pipe layout illustrated.
Fig. 48 shows a speciai arrangement which Is frequently
used - a round tank with a tangential inlet pipe which causes
the contents to rotate.
r
(
/" Suction
'-.I......,.----,P'P'
'-- -=....J
D
/
Fig. 46 Raft \0 prevent lormElUon 01 vorHeBS
_ 10 pump
Bema
Baffle
Radial baffle to pump
8affle
\ )
Inlet ___
T,"',""@
Suction
I II I
pipe
o
U
Axial b&ffle
Fig. 47 Use 0' sWlrl-prevenling bellies Flg.46 Use 01 bafflee in the lank 10 ensure disturbance-free flow 10 pump
29
~ b . Pump.
Q.Jv8/vee
_KSB
8.9 Shaft Couplings
Shaft couplings used with centrifugal pumps can be divided
into rigid and flexible types. Rigid couplings are mainly used
to connect shafts in perfect alignment. The smaliest degree
of misalignment will cause considerable stress on the coupling
and on the shafts. The following types are used:
• Sleeve couplings,
• Muff couplings,
• Serrated couplings,
• Split couplings (DIN 115),
• Face plate couplings (DIN 758, DIN 759),
• Flange couplings (DIN 760).
Flexible couplings to DIN 740 are elastic, slip-free connecting
elenlOnts between drive and driven machine which accom­
modate ax-lal, radial and angular misalignment (Fig. 49) and
damp shock loads. The flexibility is usualiy achieved by the
deformation of damping and rubber-elastic spring elements
whose life is governed to a large extent by the degree of
misalignment.
Fig. 50 shows the most common types of flexible couplings.
Fig. 51 shows a spacer coupling between a pump and drive;
its function is to permit removal olthe pump rotating assembly
without disturbing the pump casing or drive (back-puli out
design).
. -I .
' ""'·.11
9JfP
ttl!}
·,!l
Fig. 49 Misalignment
FIQ. 50 Typical couplings
Flg.51 Pump with spacer coupling
30
---1
I
i
9 Technical Data
9.1 Vapour Pressure Po and Density p of Water
npumo,
a.JV8lves bo
_KSB
t T
°C
K
Po
bar
p
kg/dm
3
t
°C
T
K
Po
bar
p
kg/dm
3
t
OC
T
K
Po
bar
p
kg/dm
3
0 273.15 0.00611 0.9998 138 411.15 3.414 0.9276
1 274.15 0.00657 0.9999 61 334.15 0.2086 0.9826 140 413.15 3.614 0.9258
2 275.15
3 276.15
4 277.15
5 278.15
6 279.15
0.00706
0.00758
0.00813
0.00872
0.00935
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
62
63
64
65
66
335.15
336.15
337.15
338.15
339.15
0.2184
0.2286
0.2391
0.2501
0.2615
0.9821
0.9816
0.9811
0.9805
0.9799
145
150
155
160
418.15
423.15
428.15
433.15
4.155
4.760
5.433
6.181
0.9214
0.9168
0.9121
0.9073
7 280.15 0.01001 0.9999 67 340.15 0.2733 0.9793
165 438.15 7.008 0.9024
8 281.15 0.01072 0.9999 68 341.15 0.2856 0.9788
170 433.15 7.920 0.8973
9 282.15 0.01147 0.9998 69 342.15 0.2984 0.9782
175 448.15 8.924 0.8921
10 283.15 0.01227 0.9997 70 343.15 0.3116 0.9777
180 453.15 10.027 0.8869
11 284.15 0.01312 0.9997 71 344.15 0.3253 0.9770
185 458.15 11.233 0.8815
12 285.15 0.01401 0.9996 72 345.15 0.3396 0.9765
190 463.15 12.551 0.8760
13 286.15
14 287.15
15 288.15
0.01497
0.01597
0.01704
0.9994
0.9993
0.9992
73
74
75
346.15
347.15
348.15
0.3543
0.3696
0.3855
0.9760
0.9753
0.9748
195
200
468.15
473.15
13.987
15.55
0.8704
0.8647
16 289.15 0.01817 0.9990 76 349.15 0.4019 0.9741
205 478.15 17.243 0.8588
17 290.15 0.01936 0.9988 77 350.15 0.4189 0.9735
210 483.15 19.077 0.8528
18 291.15 0.02062 0.9987 78 351.15 0.4365 0.9729 215 488.15 21.060 0.8467
19 292.15 0.02196 0.9985 79 352.15 0.4547 0.9723 220 493.15 23.198 0.8403
20 293.15 0.02337 0.9983 80 353.15 0.4736 0.9716
225 498.15 25.501 0.8339
21 294.15 0.02485 0.9981 81 354.15 0.4931 0.9710 230 503.15 27.976 0.8273
22 295.15
23 296.15
24 297.15
25 298.15
26 299.15
0.02642
0.02808
0.02982
0.03166
0.03360
0.9978
0.9976
0.9974
0.9971
0.9968
82
83
84
85
86
355.15
356.15
357.15
358.15
359.15
0.5133
0.5342
0.5557
0.5780
0.6011
0.9704
0.9697
0.9691
0.9684
0.9678
235
240
245
250
508.15
513.15
518.15
523.15
30.632
33.478
36.523
39.776
0.8205
0.8136
0.8065
0.7992
27 300.15 0.03564 0.9966 87 360.15 0.6249 0.9671
255 528.15 43.246 0.7916
28 301.15 0.03778 0.9963 88 361.15 0.6495 0.9665
260 533.15 46.943 0.7839
29 302.15 0.04004 0.9960 89 362.15 0.6749 0.9658
265 538.15 50.877 0.7759
30 303.15 0.04241 0.9957 90 363.15 0.7011 0.9652
270 543.15 55.058 0.7678
31 304.15 0.04491 0.9954 91 364.15 0.7281 0.9644
275 548.15 59.496 0.7593
32 305.15 0.04753 0.9951 92 365.15 0.7561 0.9638
280 553.15 64.202 0.7505
33 306.15
34 307.15
35 308.15
0.05029
0.05318
0.05622
0.9947
0.9944
0.9940
93
94
95
366.15
367.15
368.15
0.7849
0.8146
0.8453
0.9630
0.9624
0.9616
285
290
558.15
563.15
69.186
74.461
0.7415
0.7321
36 309.15
37 310.15
0.05940
0.06274
0.9937
0.9933
96
97
369.15
370.15
0.8769
0.9094
0.9610
0.9602
295
300
568.15
573.15
80.037
85.927
0.7223
0.7122
38 311.15 0.06624 0.9930 98 371.15 0.9430 0.9596 305 578.15 92.144 0.7017
39 312.15 0.06991 0.9927 99 372.15 0.9776 0.9586 310 583.15 98.700 0.6906
40 313.15 0.07375 0.9923 100 373.15 1.0133 0.9581
315 588.15 105.61 0.6791
41 314.15 0.07777 0.9919 102 375.15 1.0878 0.9567 320 593.15 112.89 0.6669
42 315.15
43 316.15
44 317.15
45 318.15
0.08198
0.08639
0.09100
0.09582
0.9915
0.9911
0.9907
0.9902
104
106
108
110
377.15
379.15
381.15
383.15
1.1668
1.2504
1.3390
1.4327
0.9552
0.9537
0.9522
0.9507
325
330
340
598.15
603.15
613.15
120.56
128.63
146.05
0.6541
0.6404
0.6102
46 319.15 0.10086 0.9898 112 385.15 1.5316 0.9491
350 623.15 165.35 0.5743
47 320.15 0.10612 0.9894 114 387.15 1.6362 0.9476
360 633.15 186.75 0.5275
48 321.15
49 322.15
50 323.15
0.11162
0.11736
0.12335
0.9889
0.9884
0.9880
116
118
120
389.15
391.15
393.15
1.7465
1.8628
1.9854
0.9460
0.9445
0.9429
370
374.15
643.15
647.30
210.54
221.2
0.4518
0.3154
51 324.15 0.12961 0.9876
52 325.15 0.13613 0.9871 122 395.15 2.1145 0.9412
53 326.15 0.14293 0.9866 124 397.15 2.2504 0.9396
54 327.15 0.15002 0.9862 126 399.15 2.3933 0.9379
55 328.15 0.15741 0.9857 128 401.15 2.5435 0.9362
56 329.15 0.16511 0.9852 130 403.15 2.7013 0.9346
57 330.15 0.17313 0.9846
ij1.15
59 332.15
0.18147
0.19016
0.9842
0.9837
132
134
405.15
407.15
2.8670
3.041
0.9328
0.9311
60 333.15 0.19920 0.9832 136 409.15 3.223 0.9294
31
C""pump.
Q.J1valves
_KSB
9.2 Vapour Pressure Po of Various Liquids
S J;'
II 'i1,
d"
9:
'-' ~
x
'-'
0 ~ ~ w
'i\ x :E 0 x
x"
~
N
"i.
~
z S '-'
""
:f: }j ro
~
If
0 '-'
~
"
x
z }j
~
~
'iJ,
~
~
'-' 0 "
~
01
0
~ "i.
'='
0
'-'
'-' ~
~
.,.
u ~
x
§
1;! '-' . ~
.,.
u w
w '-' '-' "i.
"
ro ."
ro ro
e S
w w ~
0 w '-' u a
0 0
E
ro fj E >, ~
~
~

~
. ~
~
iii
a

0
0 €
0
'" u >,
E
'"
0
~
w u E w 0
u ~ S ro " ro
r-
I,j
« «
I,j
~ ~ CO ~ ~ ~ « 0 <n
'-' ~ '-'
"
1 T
Vapour pressure Po in bar
°C K
-50 223 5.517 0.00319 0.409 0.103 0.0127 0.707 0.1157
-45 228 6.574 0.545 0.890 0.1598
-40 233 7.776 0.718 0.179 0.0255 1.115 0.2157
-35 238 9.129 0.932 1.379 0.2883
-30 243 10.65 0.0149 1.195 0.294 0.483 0.050 1.672 0.3805 0.0335
-25 248 12.34 1.516 2.017 0.4942
-20 253 14.23 0.0293 1.902 0.469 0.748 0.0883 2.423 0.6355 0.0609 0.0129
-15 258 16.31 2.363 2.889 0.8071 0.0180
-10 263 18.59 0.0516 2.909 0691 1.103 0.150 3.405 1.014 0.1047 0.0246
- 5 268 21.10 3.549 4.015 1.2611 0.0330
±O 273 23.76 0.0856 4.294 0.0159 1.039 1.613 0.0354 0.247 0.0044 4.684 0.0381 1.554 0.1697 0.0439
5 278 26.86 0.115 5157 0.311 5.453 1.899 0.0576
10 283 30.16 0.1542 6.149 0.0306 1.50 2.201 0.0606 0.389 0.0245 0.0085 6339 0.0699 2.302 0.2648 0.017 0.0746
15 288 33.76 0.196 7.283 0.481 7.298 2.768 0.0956
20 293 37.75 0.246 8.572 0.0568 2.069 3.119 0.0996 0.589 0.0419 0.0156 8.334 0.1227 3.305 0.3996 0.0298 0.1213
25 298 42.15 0.306 10.03 0.716 9.489 3.9197 0.1527
30 303 47.07 0.377 11.67 0.1008 2824 4.232 0.1578 0.864 0.0688 0.0275 10.807 0.2068 4.619 0.5848 0.0489 0.1907
35 308 0.462 13498 12.219 5.411 0.2349
40 313 0.562 15.54 0.1722 3.765 5.609 0.2412 1.228 0.1097 0.0464 13739 0.336 6.303 0.8306 0.0784 0.2876
45 318 0.681 17.81 15.455 7.303 0.3499
50 323 0.817 20.33 0.2836 4.98 7.257 0.3589 0.00319 1.702 0.1696 0.0754 17.269 0.5283 8.417 1.1466 0.121 0.4228
55 328 0.5057
60 333 1.118 04519 6.37 9.267 0.5188 0.0075 2.306 0.2549 0.1186 20.89 0.8095 1.549 0.1863 0.6010
65 338 0.7078
70 343 1.55 0.6979 8.14 11.719 0.7301 0.0139 3.061 0.3733 0.1812 25.79 1.1954 02689 0.8296
-
75 348
80 353 2.08 1.047 10.20 1.0052 0.0239 3.991 0.533 0.269 31.38 1.7298 2.700 0.3818 1.1169
85 358 34.127
90 363 2.76 1.531 12.55 1.355 0.0389 5.121 0.7439 0.3915 36.58 2.445 0.5369 1.4828
95 368 39.91
100 373 360 2.184 15.40 1.795 0.0609 6.478 1.0159 0.556 3.384 4.333 0.7354 1.9505
105 378
110 383 4.65 3.045 1834 2.331 0.0922 8.092 0.774 4.595 0.9924 2.5164
115 388
120 393 5.89 4159 21.77 2.984 0.1327 9.992 1.059 6.131 6.999 1.267 3.1911
125 398
130 403 7.38 5.572 25.69 3766 0.1926 12.209 1.423 8.050 1.7407 3956
135 408
140 413 9.15 4.694 0.2719 14.768 1.885 10399 2.2457 4.945
145 418
150 423 11.28 17.711 2.499 2.824 6.073
L
32
~ b . Pump.
Q.J1valves
_KSB
I
I
9.3 Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure
.2
C; U
<E
u
0 8 8 ~ I
u
m :g
m
I
9, "<
I ~
u 0
0 ~ u
I
N
£:
u
I
£ u u
u
:g ~
~
~
~ M
S "i.
~ u
:c
J" 8
£ "0 u I
z
OJ
~ u 0 ~
OJ
I
~
di: s 0 OS
'"
·u
=§ '"
m
~
u ~
u
~
u
m U ~ c 'i5
i
m c
m
0
E
c
m U
'"
~
. ~
~ ~
"e
c
co
c
~
~ >,
i'l.
!'l
u " ~
"
0 "0
0
E
iii E
"
>, ~ ~
E
·10
~
e
'!j
~

~
m ~ E "? "
~ £ ." ~
;;;;
" ~
>-
w « « w c ~ ~ ~ W
,j'
~ u U I
'" '"
t T
'"
"
"
Density P In kg/dm:.J
°c K
-100 173 0.5569 0920 06900 0.642 1.432
- 90 163 0.5479 0.6627 0.9697
- 60 193 0.5367 0.6744 0.6240 0.9604
- 70 203 0.5250 0.6663 0.6134 0.9509
- 60 213 0.5125 06577 0.6025 0.9419
- 50 223 0.4993 0.868 0.695 0.6492 0.790 0.5910 1.555 1.362 0.9327
- 40 233 0.4650 0.655 0.6400 0.5793 0.9234
- 30 243 0.4700 0.6306 0.6156 0.5660 1.509 0.9141
- 20 253 0.4526 0.632 0.6210 0.6052 0.5555 0.9049 1.670
- 10 263 0.4339 0.6107 0.5940 0.5430 1.460 0.6956
± 0 273 0.4117 0812 0.636 0.8080 0.6008 0.5635 0.9001 1.039 0.736 0.5300 0.610 1.435 1.292 0.6863 1.630 (1.105)
10 283 0.3665 0.7990 0.5696 0.5716 0.6920 0.5160 0.601 0.8769 1.107
20 293 0.3502 0.791 0.609 0.7902 0.5786 0.5590 0.6790 1.022 0.714 1.220 1.049 0.5015 0.792 1.380 1.262 0.8677 1.565 1.105
30 303 0.2860 0.7815 0.5665 0.5462 06675 0.4860 0.783 0.8563
40 313 0.765 0.7726 0.5546 0.5340 0.6576 1.192 1.026 0.4690 0.774 0.8469 1.545 1.100
50 323 0.756 0561 0.7634 0.5422 0.5196 0.6460 0.996 0.676 1.164 1.018 0.4500 0.765 0.8395
60 333 0.740 0.7546 0.5264 0.5052 0.6357 1.169 1.003 0.4326 0.755 0.6301 1.505 1.090
70 343 0.7452 0.5146 0.4900 0.6246 0.4090 0.746 0.8205
60 353 0.7357 0.5003 0.6145 0.980 0.3764 0.736 0.6110 1.460 1.070
90 363 0.7260 0.4848 0.6041 0.3230 0.725 0.6012
100 373 0.456 0.7156 0.4660 0.7927 0.951 0.611 0.960 0.714 1.110 0.7914 1.420 1.040
110 363 0.7046 0.4492 0.7609 0.702 0.7813
120 393 0.6927 0.4272 0.7692 0.691 0.7710
130 403 0.6791 0.4003 0.7566 0.676 0.7606
140 413 0.3620 0.7440 0.7501
150 423 0.2900 0.7310 0.518 0.896 0.7392 1.310
n.,m.,
a.JValves bo
_KSB
9.4 Extract of Important legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps
Legal units No.longer Recom­ Remarks
authorized
dimension \ symbol
mended
units
legal
units
(not
complete)
Length m Metre km. dm, em, m Basic unit
mm, ..
Volume V
3 3 3 3
I m dm
3
, cm , mm , . Em, cdm,. . m
_____+-__-+__+ Fli_t-r"e'-(1'.:..1= 1dm
3
) ---- ----------­
Capacity, Q, jm
3
/s m
3
/h, lis lis and
volume flow '(f m
3
/s
--f------f----- ------- --=---+c-c--c----------­
Time t s\Second s, ms, ns,... I s Basic unit
_______ Illin, h,
speed n 1Is __ f--__1.'1C-'/m=in'--__--l _
Mass kg Kllogramme g, mg, Pound, kg Basic unit. III
I ton houndred- The mass of commercial
(1 t = 1000 kg) weight commodity is described as
__c----, ___,--c--------­
Density p kg/m
3
kg/dm
3
kg/dm
3
The designation
and "specific gravity" must no
kg/m
3
longer be employed,
because it is ambiguous
(see DIN 1305).

Moment of J kg m' kg m' Moment of inertia
inertia 2 grade

/vIass flow m tis, tlh, kg/,,-- _
Force F N INewton kN, mN, kp, Mp,... N 1 kp=9.81 N. The weight
(= kg m/s') force is the product of
mass m by the local
i
----L gravitational constant g. _
Pressure !p Pa IPascal bar kp/cm', at, bar 1 at = 0.981 bar
(= N/m') (1 bar=10
5
Pa) m WS, Torr,.. = 9.81' 10
4
Pa
1 mmHg = 1.333 mbar
r
I
k 1 mm WS = 0.098 mbar
Mechanical cr,' IPa - Pascal -- N/mm', N/cm', .. kp/cm',... N/mm' 1 kp/mm' = 9.81 N/mm'
I
stress +" (= N/m')
(strength) --f----­
Bending M, N m kp m, ... Nm 1 kp m= 9.81 N m
moment, T
torque
Energy, W, J Joule kJ,Ws, kWh,. .. kpm JundkJ 1 kpm=9.81 J
work, quantity Q (= N m 1 kW h = kcal, cal, WE 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ
of heat s) __1
600
k.J........... f----I------------­
Head H m Metre m.l.c. m The head is the work
done in J = N mapplied to
the mass unit of the medium
pumped, reiated to the
weight force of this
I
mass unit in N.
Power
P 1W -- Walt -- MW,-kw' ..·--1kp mis, ps- 'kw
1 kp mls = 9.81 W;
(=J/s 1 PS = 736 W
__-r=:-:-N,m..l.. s=-)-c------+:---'---'--TCC----- f--------------­
Temperature T K Kelvin "C oK, deg. K Basic unit
-t­
difference L-___ __,
Kinematic v I m'ls St (stokes), m'ls 1 Sf = 10-
1
m'ls
viscosity I °E,... 1 cSt = 1 mm'ls
34
I
!""'b, P,mp.
Q.Jvalv8s
_KSB
9.5 Conversion 01 British and U.S. Units
British U.S.
Length 1 mil 25.4
I"m 25.4 I"m
1 point 0.3528 mm 0.3528 mm
1 line 0.635 mm 0.635 mm
1 inch (in) 25.4 mm 25.4 mm
1 hand 10.16 em 10.16 em
1 link (Ii) 20.1168 em 20.1168 em
1 span 22.86 em 2286 em
1 loot (ft) = 12 in 0.3048 m 0.3048 m
1 yard (yd) = 3 ft = 36 in 0.9144 m 0.9144 m
1 fathom (lath) =2yd 1.8288 m 1.8288 m
1 rod (rd) 5.0292 m 5.0292 m
1 chain (eh) 20.1168 m 20.1168 m
1 furlon9 (fur) 201.168 m 201.168 m
1 mile (mi)
(statute mile) = 1760 yd 1.6093 km 1.6093 km
1 nautical mile 1.8532 km 1.8532 km
Area 1 circular mil 506.709
I"m'
506.709
I"m'
1 circular inch 5.067 em' 5.067 em'
1 square inch (sq in) 6.4516 em' 6.4516 em'
1 square link (sq Ii) 404.687 em' 404.687 em'
1 square foot (sq ft) 929.03 em' 929.03 em'
1 square yard (sq Yd) 0.8361
m'
0.8361
m'
1 square rod (sq rd) 25.2929
m' 25.2929 m'
1 square chain (sq eh) 404.686 m' 404.686
m'
1 rood 1011.7124
m'
1011.7124
m'
1 acre 4046.86
m'
4046.86
m'
1 square mile (sq mil 2.59 km' 2.59 km'
Volume 1 cubic inch (eu in) 16.387 em' 16.387 em'
1 board foot (fbm) 2.3597 dm' 2.3597 dm'
1 cubic foot (eu ft) 28.3268 dm' 28.3268 dm'
1 CUbic yard (eu yd) 0.7646 m' 0.7646
m'
1 re91ster ton (RT) = 100 eu ft 2.8327
m' 2.8327 m'
1 British shipping ton = 42 eu ft 1.1897
m'
­
1 US shipping ton =40euft - 1.1331
m'
Basic unit gallon 1 minim (min) 59.1939
mm' 61.6119 mm'
for fluids 1 fluid scruple 1.1839 em' ­
1 fluid drachm (11.dr.) 3.5516 em' ­
1 fluid dram (fl.dr.)
- 3.6967 em'
1 fluid ounce (f1.oz.) 28.4131 em' 29.5737 em'
1 gill (gl) 142.065 em' 118.2948 em'
1 pint (liq pt) 0.5683 dm' 0.4732 dm'
1 quart (liq qt) 1.1365 dm' 0.9464 dm'
1 pottle 2.2730 dm'
­
1 gallon (gal) 4.5460
dm' 3.7854 dm'
1 peck 9.0922 dm' ­
1 bushel 36.3687 dm' ­
1 US oil-barrel (for crude oil) - 0.159 m'
1 quarter 0.291 m' ­
1 ehaldron 1.3093 m' ­
Basic unit bushel 1 dry pint (dry pt)
- 0.5506 dm'
for dry goods 1 dry quart (dry qt)
-
1.1012 dm'
1 peck (pk) - 8.8098 dm'
1 bushel (bu) 36.3687 dm' 35.2393 dm'
1 dry barrel (bbl) - 0.1156 m'
Mass and Weight 1 grain (gr) 64.7989 mg 64.7989 mg
Avoirdupois system 1 dram (dr avdp) 1.7718 g 1.7718 g
(trade and commerce 1 ounce (02 avdp) 28.3495 g 28.3495 g
weights) 1 pound (lb) 0.4536 kg 0.4536 kg
1 stone 6.3503 kg ­
1 quarter 12.7006 kg ­
1 eental 45.3592 kg
­
1 short hundredweight (sh ewt)
- 45.3592 kg
1 hundredweight (ewt) 50.8024 kg
­
1 long hundredweight (I cwt)
-
50.8024 kg
1 short ton (sh tn)
-
907.1849 kg
1 ton 1016.0470 kg ­
1 long ton (I tn)
- 1016.0470 kg
Troy system 1 pennyweight (dwt) g 1.5552 g
~ 1.5552
(for precious metals) 1 troy ounce (02 tr)
3 ~ . 1 0 3 5
g 32.1035 g
1 troy pound (Ib t) 0.3732 kg
35
C'1p,mp.
Q.J1v8Ives
_KSB
British U.S.
Density 1 ounce (av) per cubic foot (ollcu It) 0.0010 kg/dm' 0.0010 kg/dm'
1 pound per cubic foot (Ib/cu It) 0.0160 kg/dm' 0.0160 kg/dm'
1 ounce (av) per cubic inch (ozlcu in) 1.7300 kg/dm' 1.7300 kg/dm'
1 pound per cubic inch (Ib/cu in) 27.6799 kg/dm' 27.6799 kg/dm'
1 short ton per cubic yard (shtn/cu yd)
-
1.1865 kg/dm'
1 long ton per cubic yard (Itn/cu yd) - 1.3289 kg/dm'
1 pound per galion (Ib/gal) 0.09978 kg/dm' 0.1198 kg/dm'
Velocity 1 foot per second (lt/s) 0.3048 mls 0.3048 mls
1 foot per minute (lt/min) 0.00508 mls 0.00508 mls
1 yard per second (yd/s) 0.9144 mls 0.9144 mls
1 yard per minute (yd/min) 0.01524 mls 0.01524 mls
Capacity 1 gallon per second 4.5460 lis 3.7854 ils
(rate of volume .flow) 1 gallon per minute (gpm) 0.07577 lis 0.06309 lis
1 cubic foot per second (cusec) 28.3268 lis 28.3268 lis
1 cubic yard per second 0.7646 m
3
/s 0.7646 m
3
/s
Mass flow 1 ounce per second (olls) 28.3495 gls 28.3495 gls
1 ounce per minute (ollmin) 0.4725 gls 0.4725 gls
1 pound per second (Ibis) 0.4536 kg/s 0.4536 kg/s
1 pound per minute (Ib/min) 0.00756 kg/s 0.00756 kg/s
1 short ton per hour (shtn/h) - 0.2520 kg/s
1 ton per hour 0.2822 kg/s ­
1 long ton per hour (Itn/h) - 0.2822 kg/s
Force 1 ounce (force) (Ol) 0.2780 N 0.2780 N
(weight force) 1 pound (force) (Ib) 4.4483 N 4.4483 N
1 short ton (force) (shtn) 8.8964 kN 8.8964 kN
1 long ton (force) (Itn) 9.9640 kN 9.9640 kN
Pressure 1 pound (force)
('b (force))
47.88025 Pa 47.88025 Pa
square foot sq It
1 pound (force)
('b (force)) ( si)
68.9476 mbar 68.9476 mbar
square inch
sq In ,P
1 short ton (force)
(Sh tn (fOrCe»)
137.8951 bar 137.8951 bar
square inch sq'ln
1 inch H
2
O (in H
2
O) 2.4909 mbar 2.4909 mbar
1 foot H
2
O (It H
2
O) 29.8907 mbar 29.8907 mbar
1 inch Hg (in Hg) 33.8663 mbar 33.8663 mbar
Mechanical 1 pound (force)
('b
N N
0.006895 0.006895
stress square inch sq In mm' mm'
1 short ton (force)
(Sh tn (fOrCe»)
N N
13.78951 13.78951
square inch sq In mm' mm'
Work, energy, 1 foot-pound (It Ib) 1.3558 J 1.3558 J
quantity of heat, 1 Horse power hour (Hp h) 2.6841 MJ 2.6841 MJ
internal (intrinsic) 1 Brit. Thermal Unit (BTU) 1.0558 kJ 1.0558 kJ
energy and enthalpy
Power 1 foot-pound (av)
(It 1.3558 W 1.3558 W
(heat fiow) per second
1 Horse power(Hp) 0.7457 kW 0.7457 kW
1 British Thermal Unit
(B:U)
1.0558 kW 1.0558 kW
per second
Dynamic 1 pound (mass)
('b (;:SS») 1.4882 Pas 1.4882 Pas
Viscosity foot x second
1 pound (force) x second
('b (force) s)
47.8803 Pas 47.8803 Pas
square foot sq It
Temperature Conversion of temperature points: Conversion of temperature differences:
5 5 5
T = 9 t
F
+ 255.37; t = 9 (t
F
- 32)
5 5 5
T=4tR+273.15; t=4 tR /IT=/lt=4/l tR
Where:
T thermodynamic temperature in K
t Celsius temperature in °C
t
F
Fahrenheit temperature
in OF
t
R
temperatur
in OR
Conversion of the specific speed (type number) K customarily
used in English-speaking contries into n,acc. to ISO 2548:
K = n,/52.919
36
I
9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v
as a Function of Capacity Q and 1.0. of Pipe 0
· .
·
0
·
a {
a
. ~
~
•n
n

';
·

u


u
'b,
~ " ' E
0 < " ~
"..
."

·
·
'!! CD a> ....
\
37
_
_
9.7 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head v'/2g
as a Function of Capacity a and I.D. of Pipe D

u
i
o

{] 0
U
,
+'
"::
".-.h- .
I-i,: I j + . H 1
,
" "
E
38
I
_
L

9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential tI v
2
/2g
as a Function of Capacity a and Pipe 1.0. Differential 0 ,/0,
BlI,A V le!luaJ811IP pea4 "1!:J0la/l
39
Mb, P,mp,
a."vaIV8S
_KSB
9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Loss H.
as a Function of 1.0. of Pipe 0, Flow Velocity v and Capacity Q
tlZS 0010 ."
.... 'f..... I
40
I
C"'lb, Pump.

_KSB
9.10 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fa,wI fH,w and fll,w for Viscous Liquids
Available: data for operation with water
Required: data for operation with viscous liquid
Calculation example: see page 21

Calculation chart: see page 44
I
....;
:-" ::0­
......
......
"
"'­
l'
"­ •••
I
O.9t-+
0.1-1-+
lo.• +-H-+-+-H-+-+­
law
a
.
s
+-+-HH-+-+-+-t-++-+-ttt-H"'TI"'l""''''''-+-+-1
I
i
"
nq.w 30 20
'10
­
'"0

;:
...... I I
0.'

o"t-t-t-f-H-t-t-t-+++-++++-+"'l-Plf",I"'Ir!-I
0.'
I
0.'
0.7t-t-t-r-HH--+'
0.8 Q
wopl
Q
wopl
1.20
Wopt
Q
0.6
...
1/ 1/ Yr/ '/
1/ / 1/ /,
/ / 1// r/ 1/
/ 1/
.J' (/
1<\./
l/
1/
r/
1/
/:
'/,
r/
1/
1/
r/
1/.
1/,
'/
'/
'/
1/
/.
1/ 1// '/1/
/ 1/
/ 1)</ 1/,
/ 1/
/ /
/ f/
/ / /
/ /X/V '/ 1\:7­
/ '// / '/.'7'
/. '/ 1/ '/J /
1// /. 1/ '/.
1/ / 1// /,
'/
'/
/
// 1/ /.
1/ 1/
/ I/V
/ I/o V
/
//. 1/
/ / / V f/
"// '/
y/ /
',( ////
'r /
/ 1/ '/. '/ f/
1/ 1/ V /// /, /!/.I/
1
"
0,1, 0.5
I ! I I I
,
,
• •
,
I I
'"
10
• •
I I I I
30 40
f 10
II )
m"h
II. 20
I I
IDa
30
,I
40 80
I, I "
200
100
,I
JOO 400 500
:too
I
2000 3000 5000 1000
300 400 1000
I, I ,I [! .J
'""'"
"""
I
m' I
Capacity QZ,Belr, QW,optl n h;;
41
'..

_
9.11 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fo,z and fH,z for Viscous Liquids
Available: data for operation with viscous liquid
Required: data for operation with water
Calculation chart: see page 44

0.9+-+ r-.
H
I't:--t:-- I--­
0.' +-·+--H-i--+
,
,,1''­
0.'
r-:: I'-. '- "
Io·'t-H-+-+-+-H-f--I-I- -- - I-- --- """,;;C-f-.2I'-d-+-H

0.4 --- --- -10
,.
0
28
.". °we.t'
­
Qwopt Q
,I,::
-'0.' t-H--+-+-+--I
45 30 "120'
0.'
nq.w
'"0
1/ / ,X/ r/ 1/
,,,
1/ / 1/. /
000
/ / / 1/. r/ V
1000
/
G./
.J' (/
1/
1500
2000
'"00
1/
1/,
. -ff·!AIf--Jt-t

N l/ r/ ./
1/
/
1/
3000

r-..:
1/
'Ii' '/
r/ y//
1/
/
/ 1/ '/ /
;<''''
'/IA
-
/(7
,/ r/,
/.V 1/,
/,1/.
1//1/,
/ '/V/
/
//
/ / 'I,
'/ '/ /
'IXI
/ /1/ 1/ 1/ 'I.
/
, , .
1//, /.
"
20 30 40 50 '" Ih
iI! /,r/
100 200 300 400 1000 2000 3000 4000 10000
0.3 0,10 0.6
-.L! I ! I! !
1
I I
4
, I
5
,! ,
10
"I
lis :10
I,
30
I

I
50
I
100
,I
200
!
100
I
400 6DO
! I
1000
I
lODO
I
rna I
Capacity QZ,Belr, OW,opt in h;;
42
nb,Pumps
Q.Jv8lves
_KSB
9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n
q
I
..

I
I
960 1450 2900
3000
10000
1/
8000
2000
/
I
6000
1.

s
h
4000
1000
3000
800
800
2000
400
"
'"'
IX '/
300
1000
800
" 't-
0
¢
200
_p.-rr;o
800 ,,-,'
o? ...::1.
500
C:!-...'Ii
"
<>
'00

300
80
,
300
400 400
a
a
a
80
200

200

•0 "- 'l.
lImln
0

40
V
30
100
"-
"
IV
"
'00
80

X
"
v 60
/0:
20
60 "

60
,<>
3
40
40
IA"
10
'"
30
30
8
it)

8

20 '§l
20

vv

./
­
4
'y

,
3
:/ '0
10
8
"V
,
,<><>

6
2
­
6
8

4
4
500 600 700800 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 4000 lImin 6000 6000 10000 15000 20000 25000
I I 1 Speed n
960 1450 2900
Equations Units
Qapl HOPI n n
q
9 9.81
n = n . -/Oopll 1
q
m
3
/s m l/min l/min
(H
opt
11) 31'
n 333 . n . -v'Qopt
m
3
/s m 1Is 1 m/s
2
DIN 24260
q (g . H
opt
) 31'
n
q
5.55 . n . -v'Qopt
m
3
/s m l/min 1 m/g
2
(g . Hopt) 31'
All equations give numerically equal results.
With multistage pumps use the stage head.
1 With double-entry impeller pumps use only half the capacity.
Example: Q
opt
= 66 m
3
/h 18.3 lis; n = 1450 l/min; Hopi = 17.5 m. Established: no = 23 l/min
43
n Pomp'
a.Jvalvee bo
_KSB
Type series Quotation No.
C'""1b. Pumps
Q.Jvalves
Rated speed Item No.
KSB
1/min
Schedule lor Calculating the Operating Point and Pump Size lor Handling Viscous Liquids.
Operating Point
To determine the new operating data it is also necessary to
Available data: calculate the data at b.e.p.
Capacity Q
w
lis Capacity OWOO!!) lis
Head H
w
m Head HW,ODl
1
) m
Speed n 1/min Efficiency
tlw oot 1) ­
Kinematic viscosity
Vz m
2
/s I) lrom Individual characteristic curve
Density
pz
kg/dm
3
Gravitational constant
9
9.81 m/s
2
Procedure
n
q
, w from graph in 1/min
section 9.12

from section -
9.10
-

fn,w
-
0/00 I

0 0.8 1.0 1.2 -

from curve 0 lis
H
I::IYL

booklet for
4 points
on curve
0
m
-

------.........
Qz=Qw' fa w
H
z
=
0
=H
w
= Hw·f
H
w·1 ,03 =Hw·f
HW
=Hw·f
HW
lis
H
w
T)z = T)W' f
11
,w
pz=pz·g·Hz·Qz
0
') m
-
kW
Theee values mean
4 points on QH
z
and
Q11z line plus 3 points
on the OP
z
line are
established.
PloUed over Q.
'lIwopt
'w
."
'Hz
o.aQ
WOpl
QWOPI 1.2Q
wopt
Q
2) If Hz > H
w
, use Hz = Hw Calculation in graphic form
Pump Size
Available data:
Capacity
Q z Selr
lis
Head
Hz Setr
m
Kinematic viscosity Vz m
2
/s
Density
pz
kg/dm
3
Procedure
n selected 1/min
na.w 3) from section 9.12 1/min

,
from section 9.11
­
1
Hz - H
w

Hz Bev.
Q _ QZ,Betr
lis
W,Betr - 1 Z
0
'w
H - HZ,Betr
W,Setr - 1 Z
m
Oz Blv. Ow Bltr.
H
3) where QZ,Selr = Q opt ) approx.
Q
Hz, Belr = Hept
Calculation in graphic form
44
I
nb,Pum••
Q.JV8lvea
_KSB
Notes
I .
-------------------------_. __ ._­
i
45
-
Notes
,
46
Divisions
Gate and Globe Valves Division
Globe valves with soft or metallic seat, gate valves, ball valves,
swing check valves, non-return valves and actuated valves
for building services, industrial applications, chemical and
process engineering as well as for conventional and nuclear
power stations.
Sector: Building Services
location and factory: Frankenthal
Sector: Industrial Enginnering, Conventional and Nuclear
Power Stations
Location and factory: Pegnitz
Butterfly Valves Division
Butterfly valves with soft and metallic seat, swing check valves
and actuators for building services, industrial applications,
chemical and process engineering as well as for conventional
and nuclear power stations.
Location: Bagnolet
Factory: la Roche Chalais
Building Services Division
Heating and industrial water pumps. Submersible motor pumps
for the handling of sewage, eftluent and faeces lifting plants,
pumps for water supply, complete pump sets for pressure
boosting and fire-fighting, pumps for irrigation and sprinkling,
garden pumps. Systems for pump speed control.
Location: Courbevoie
Factories: Frankenthal, Neuvy, Pegnitz
Engineered Pumps Division
Centrifugal pumps for conventional and nuclear power plants:
boiler feed and circulating pumps, condensate pumps, main
coolant pumps, reactor feed pumps, cooling water pumps,
pumps for seawater desalination plants, pumps for onshore
and offshore applications as well as for refineries and the
petrochemical industry.
location: Frankenthal
Factories: Frankenthal, Annecy
New Technologies
Development and manufacture of new pump types, valves,
systems and electronic controls as well as engineering
services in the fields of hydrodynamics, materials technology,
measurement techniques, open and closed loop control,
plastics technology, cold-drawing methods for chrome nickel
steel, machine dynamics, product and packing design, patent
rights.
location: Frankenthal
Factories: Frankenthal, CMteauroux
Environmental Engineering Division
Pumps for the treatment of municipal effluents (purification
and transport), industrial ettluents, surface drainage (shore
protection, locks, lifting plants), aquaculture, agriculture
(storage and transport of liquid manure), drainage In deep
mining, delivery of cooling water and clean water. Planning,
optimization, rehabilitation, supply, installation and commis-
sioning of pumping stations for clean water and effluents.
Components and systems for sewage treatment. Services to
the planners and operators of the plants.
location: Frankenthal
Factories: Pegnitz, Bremen, Lille
Industrial and Process Pumps Division
Standardized pumps and mUlti-stage pumps tor heat transfer
and industrial water. Process pumps for the chemical and
petrochemical industries, for refineries, high-temperature
heating systems and cryogenics. Pumps for flue gas desul-
phurization plants and for air and gas purifiers. Non-clogging
centrifugal pumps tor paper, cellulose, sugar and foodstuffs
industries and for the handling of solids.
Location: Pegnitz
Factories: Pegnitz, CMteauroux, Deville, Frankenthal
Water Pumps Division
Multi-stage submersible motor pumps for municipal and
industrial water supply, irrigation, building services, offshore
and mining applications as well as all special appliccdions.
Borehole shaft-driven pumps for irrigation, water supply, fire-
fighting, and industrial applications.
Single-stage bearing pedestal mounted pumps for irrigation
duties.
Vertical propeller pumps for irrigation, water supply and
agricultural drainage duties.
Horizontal and vertical multi-stage pumps for irrigation and
water supply systems.
Location: Courbevoie
Factories: Homburg (Saar), CMteauroux, Annecy
Telephone: (06233) 86-0
'b.)'" """,",.",,,,""
Postfach 1725 Fax: (06233) 863401
D-6710 Frankenthal Teletex: 62333=KSBFT

KSB Aktiengesellschaft engages in the manufacture, marketing
and sale of pumps and valves and ranks as a world leader in

this field.
KSB's manufacturing programme covers an extensive range

of products for the water supply sector, power stations, marine and offshore applications, building services as well as process
and environmental engineering.

KSB employs around 10.000 people worldwide and is repre­ sented in almost every country of the globe through more than
100 factories, agencies and representatives.

© Copyright by KSB

2

Contents
Symbols, Units and Designations

Page 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 11 11 13 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 21 21 21 21 21 . 22 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 General
National and International Standards for

Page 22 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 28 30 31 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5

Design

Pump Capacity Pump Head System Head Speed Selecting the Pump Size Calculating the Power Consumption Pump Power Input Caiculating the Drive Rating
Pump Characteristic Curve

Centrifugal Pumps Shaft Deflection Improving the NPSH Requirement Impeller Types Pump Types Pump Installation Arrangements Pump Sump Contiguration Suction Pipe Layout Shaft Couplings
Technical Data Vapour pressure Po and Density p of Water Vapour pressure Po of Various Liquids

System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic) Operating Point Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
Suction Characteristics

NPSH Required NPSH Available

Pressure Losses Pv
Head Losses H, in Straight Pipes
Head Losses H v in Plastic Pipes Head Losses H v for Viscous Liquids

in Straight Pipes
Head Losses H v in Valves and Fittings

Changing the Pump Performance

Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure g.4 Extract of Main Legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps 9.5 Conversion of British and U.S. Units 9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v 9.7 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head v'/2 g 9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential I!. v'/2 g 9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Losses H, 9.10 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fa,w, fH,w and fTI,w for Viscous Liquids 9.11 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fo,l
and fH,z for Viscous Liquids

5.1 Changing the Speed 5.2 Trimming the Impellers 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 Handling Viscous Liquids Typical Selection Examples

9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed nq Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point
or Pump Size for Viscous Liquids

Selecting the Pump Size Calculating the Power Consumption Pump Power Input Calculating the Drive Rating Calculating the NPSH" Suction Lift from Open/Closed Tank Positive Suction Operation from Open/Closed Tank 7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank
at Vapour Pressure

7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2

Changing the Speed Trimming the Impeller
Handling Viscous Liquids

Calculating the Operating Point Establishing the Pump Size

3

fa

Conversion factor for flow rate

g

f~

H

HA
Hgeo

Ho H,

Hs geo
Hz geo

H v.s
~H

K k

L n
NPSH req

NPSH"

nq
P
p Pb

Po

p,

~Q

Q Q min

R Re U

v
y Z

Conversion factor for efficiency m/s:2 Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s 2 m Head m System head m Static head m Shut-off head m Static suction lift m Static positive suction head Head loss m Head loss - suction side m Differential head m 1 Coefficient mm Absolute roughness Length of pipe m llmin Speed NPSH required m m
NPSH available 1/min
Specific speed kW
Pump power input bar (N/m')
Pressure bar (N/m')
Barometric pressure bar (N/m 2 )
Vapour pressure of liquid bar (N/m 2)
Pressure loss lis (m 3 /h)
Differential capacity lis (m 3 /h)
CapacitylFlow rate lis (m 3 /h)
Minimum flow rate mm Radius 1 Reynolds number m Circumference mls Flow velocity mm Stroke llh Switching frequency Height differential between pump m suction and discharge nozzles
Loss coefficient

The head H of a pump is the useful mechanical energy trans­ mitted by the pump to the medium handled, related to the weight of the medium, expressed in m. It is independent of the density p of the medium handled, i.e. a centrifugal pump will generate the same head H for all fluids irrespective of the density p. The density p determines the pressure within the pump p=p·g·H and influences the pump power input P.

2.3 System Head
The total head of the system HA is made up of the following (see Figs. 1 and 2): • H"a. Static head = height difference between the suction and discharge fluid levels. If the discharge pipe emerges above the liquid level, then Hgeo is referred to the centreline of the outflow section.

• Pa - Po, the pressure head difference between the suction p.g
and discharge fluid levels in closed tanks.
• ~H" the sum of all pressure head losses (pipe friction, friction in valves, fittings etc. in suction and discharge pipes).
• Va ;gV e , the difference in velocity heads in the tanks. The system head HA is thus: HA = Hoe,
2 2

a a + -p.g + ~ + ~H,.

Pa - Pe

v

2-

v

2

v

I' p

1 m 2/s kg/m 3 (kg/dm 3 ) 1
o

Pump efficiency Pipe friction coefficient Correction coefficient Kinematic viscosity Density Temperature factor Opening angle

In practice the difference between the velocity heads can be ignored, leaving for closed tan ks HA = Hgao

+ --- + ~H p, p,
p.g

~"

for open tanks
HA

=

H geo

+ ~Hv·

Indices

a
B d

e
G geo
K

s
opt R sch

W
Z

1,2,3 4

at outiet cross section of the systemlbranching off at operating point at discharge nozzle of pumplflowing through at inlet cross section of plant/branching off for cast iron geodetic tor plastic suction side, at suction nozzle of pump at best efficiency point radial for sulphuric acid for water for viscous liquids consecutive numbers, items

2.4 Speed With three-phase motor drives (asynchronous squirrel cage motor) the approximate pump speeds are as follows:
No, of poles Frequency Aororenca speeds In curve documentallon In l/mln

al 50 Hl at 60 Hl

2900 3500

11450 1750

I1160 960

1725 875

1580 I 700

1"0
5aO

1415 500

In practice, however, motors usually run at slightly higher speeds which - upon consent of the customer - are taken into account by the pump manufacturer at the design stage (see section 7.4). Different speeds are possible using a speed adjustment device, gearbox or belt drive.

1 Pumping system with suction lift d Hsgeo Hgeo P. ======. Fig. 2 Pumping system with positive sucllon 5 .-)---4 • Fig.Hgeo ~It-----------.s.

5 kW approx.6 Calculating the Power Consumption 2. P = 367.5 to 40 kWapprox.6. it is standard practice to use the following safety margins when determining the motor size.1 Pump Power Input (see exampie in 7. as well as handling pulp. which could mean an increase in the pump power input P. " " "" . means using special pumps andlor special impellers. For pumps handling viscous liquids see sections 6 and 7.: ~ " = = 57 .M:J:l =" u = I.5_ "' " "" "" I.2 The characteristic curves apply to the density p and kinematic viscosity v of water.1) for other densities p.2) Since it is possible that the system volume flow.). will fluctuate. 4).= ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 100 q GPr 1411 180 180 eoIG13l14O \!S 200 Z20 180 ~ = = E I" J" &2.6.= - 9101112131. 20% from 7.p. taking the follow­ ing into consideration: • impeller diameter required. Handling liquids with a high proportion of solids.2).2.<1:1 Flg. the motor size must be selected with reference to the maximum possible pump capacity on the characteristic curves. P ~ 1000. 10%.2. With a steep curve the capacity changes less than with a flat curve under the same differen­ tial head conditions t. ~ In kW ~ ~ ~ = . " = • .2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see example under 7.7) where the depsity p = 1000 kg/m'. .= ~ ~ 2.3 Centrlfugel pump characteristic curves The duty conditions determine which is the more favourable . .. § ". 15% from 40 kW approx.6. 2.= -= " . If extreme volume flow fluctuations are expected. The steep curve thus possesses better control characteristics. . • condition NPSH" <: NPSH"q (see 3. unless stated otherwise. The pump power input P must be cdnverted (see 7.the operating point near Qopt (b.e. . •.1) The pump power input P of a centrifugal pump is the mechan­ ical energy at the pump coupling or pump shaft absorbed from the drive.. • permissible Pin values for the bearings.: with p in kg/dm 3 Q in m3 /h H in m 367 conversion factor (constant) The pump power input P in kW can also be directly read with sufficient accuracy off the characteristic curves (see 2. and thus the operating point. unless the customer specifies otherwise: up to 7. ~ tn kW with p in kg/dm 3 9 in m/s2 Q in lis H in m ~ between 0 and 1 or another equation which is still used: p·Q·H. 6 .H (see Fig. .a flat or a steep curve.2. It is determined using the following equation: p·g·Q·H. • • I"" ~ " ~ = '" /9'W1112U "'3. ~ • .

/' /OHlines The static part consists of the static head Hgeo . by opening or closing a valve. by increaslng'orredUcing the " tank pressure or the water level).e. normal viscosity liquids are to increase or reduce the pipe friction (i. 5).6 Changing the position althe operating point/rom 81 to 82 on the system curve HA by raising the pump speed n1 to n2 The dynamic part consists of the head loss H".:~B~I:::::::: ~ B Operating point n Speed . changing the piping diameter. 7 . In the example (Fig. -------------------OiOl'~ Capacity Q Fig.-----.f SY51em curve HA Capacity Q 11" Fig. This curve is made up of the static and dynamic characteristics 01 the installation.10 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps Where one pump is unable to deliver the required capacity Q at the operating point B. it is possible to have two or more pumps working in parallel in the same piping system.5 pump types) and have the same shut-off head. 7 Changing the position of Ihe operating point trom e.4 Steep and lIe\ pump characteristic curves 2. I ~ ~ .Pe p 9 '------------------------'1= ­ Capacity Q Fig. p. and the difference in pressure head between the system inlet and outlet section PB . to 82 on [he QH line by progressively closing the valve slatic pari = Hgeo + De . 8) each pump is designed for 0. The pumps should preferably (for economic operation) be of the same type (see 8.Pe.8 System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic) The system head HA is plolted against the capacity Q to give the system curve (piping curve) (Fig. incrustations etc.Va? Gale valve further closed I I y 2g Gate valve open B Operating point QIOQ -.g.) or to alter the static part (e. 1 and 2).g The lalter does not apply with open tanks (see Fig.5 X Q at the same head. which is independent of the capacity.­ I r-----__"".1) and the difference in velocity head between the system inlet and outlet section va? .Qsleep aOUal -~ The only practical ways to modify the system characteristic when handling solid-free. Capacity Q Fig. which increases quadratically with the capacity (see 4. 5 System (piping) characteristic 2.l!.

Q 1 of pump I and 011 of pump II combine to produce the total capacity Q 1+ II at the same head H. the pump is below the liquid level (Fig.H .' . The NPSH"q isthe value required by the pump and is expressed in meters on the pump characteristic curves.::-_'--.o I ~ J r""''''~.. Pb p. The NPSH datum point is the impeller centre. H.s + Hz geo· Open tank. NPSH " = 10 . p. 2% error on 9..:::--7':::-' _ _ // :~_f!lP I + II curve /' I Pe Pb ::-..::---.g. 9 shows an alternative solution: two pumps with the same shut-off head Ho but different capacities Q 1 and Q II pumping at a given operating point B in one piping system. 8 Parallel operation altwo similar centrllugal pumps with the same shut-oil head HO g = 10 mis' (incl./ H Fig...-l~-Q/2=------~Q-o~QLI+~ a Fig.s. 10 NPSH av lor suction lift opemtlon ~ --t---~i System curve b) Suction head operation. NPSH req . e. the point of intersection between the pump shaft centreline and the plane at right angles to the pump shaft and passing through the outer points of the vane inlet edge.Hsgeo....:----:----. 11) NPSH. I Opan lank Pump I curve HO // Pump II curve .e. ~ Pb Pe = 0 Ilank Closed j t I Po' t. 1 . 11 NPSH av 'or suction head operation In all cases the following is a prerequisite for cavitation-free operation: NPSH av .1 NPSH Required (= NPSH. 8 Operating point HO Shut-off head Pe+Pb-PD + ve'2 p. and an open tank. water.~. p Capacity Q = 1 bar (= 10' N/m') = bar = 1000 kg/m 3 '----------Q~...s..e----------occ---~01 all a"OI+OIl The following equation is used in practice.5 m. assuming the same conditions as in a): NPSH lIv = 10 .--=------=_:=-_-=­ t-- '1-'..PD va'2 + -2 .81 m/s') ve2 /2g ~ can be eliminated because of the negligible velocity head in the tank... Therefore the pressure head at the NPSH datum point must exceed the vapour pressure head of the medium handled.g 2g _ H V. The value often includes a safety margin of 0.' D~tum level . is defined as: NPSH av = Pe + Pb. Pb Pe=O Capacity Q Fig.=. Le. _ H 9geo' However. with a cold liquid.-o~Q-.g.9 Parallel operation of 2 pumps with the same shut-oil head HO Closed lank Pe+Pb 3 Suction Characteristics 3..) (NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head) Centrifugal pumps will only operate satisfactorily if there is no build-up of vapour (cavitation) within the pump. '.o Datum level Fig..NPSH av is defined as: NPSH.Hv.g g' B Operating point HO Shut-oil head L----.v.g. B H.Hvs + Hz. i. The following simplified version is used in practice: Fig.

unfinished with smooth new. unfinished with smooth new. 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000 5000 104 skin acid-cleaned galvanized skin bituminized galvanized cemented straightwelded. A pipe friction coefficient.) Concrete Spun concrete Reinforced concrete All concretes 1) • new new new. not embrittled new • after long exposure to water k in I) Nonferrous metals. moderately rusty slight incrustation heavy incrustation after cleaning Cast iron new. seamless. with smooth used. v· 4 A v·U Table 1: Mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness) Material Steel Condition of pipe interior new. p density of the medium pumped. with smooth drawn finish finish finish finish ~ ~ Glass. U wetted periphery of section A through which the fluid fiows. moderately rusty slight incrustation heavy incrustation after cleaning Asbestos-cement Heavy-clay (drain. L length of pipe. with skin • 1­ ~ ~ bituminized galvanized cemented used. plastic Rubber tubing Wood Masonry II­ • • new. where v kinematic viscosity. • • I~ riveted used. light alloys ~m- 5 10 50 100 500 1000 • 5000 104 9 . v flow velocity across a section A characteristic of the pres­ v' ­ Re=-D v for non-circular sections Re~-- sure loss.Pv pipe friction loss.

13 should be multiplied by: 0. 13 apply to clean water at 20°C and to fluids of equal kinematic viscosity. 12 shows. per 100 m of straight pipe run for practical usage.oL --<"<-I ­ . The head losses H" in this context are '2 calculated according to v H.1 Head Losses H. where k is defined as the mean depth of the wall surface roughness (coarseness). 1. obtained from the "absolute roughness" k and the pipe bore diameter D. 4. Table 1 gives rough approximations of k. nom.25 for old slightly rusty steel pipes. with an internal bi­ tumen coating (k = 0.0055 + 0.J'I t-''. 12: Pipe trlcUon coolliclonl). in Straight Pipes Fig. (Ig ii: C> ~e)' < Re < 10' the deviations are less than 0. 13 gives the losses of head H. g gravitational constant. of Fig.. bore In mm. kiD is the "relative roughness". waler al200). Fig.8 for new rolled steel pipes. 10 .~ 1--- -- F': 2468 2468 • Nt . v Fig.005 t-. naw condition) from DN 15102000 mm and for Capacities Q from 0.309 .5 to 50000 m 3/h (flow velOCity v in mis. V~ where ( loss coefficient. The head losses H.by ECK: A = 0. In function 01 REYNOLDS number and ot relative wall roughness D/k A = 0. 1. 13: Head losses In straight pines (casllron pipe. v flow velocity.15. assuming the piping is completely filled.7 for pipes with incrustations (the reduced pipe cross ­ section due tothe incrustations is the determining factor). that A is solely dependent on the parameter D/k at relatively high REYNOLDS numbers. 10' 10' 10' 106 10' 10' REYNOLDS number Re = vJl.1 mm). and consists of new cast iron pipes.. According to MOODY the following applies: Fig. " 2 4 6B 2 468 2468 In the region of 2320 1 %.=(· 2g The values in Fig.

9 E Ii'I--~ I.200.~ ~ '" "E '0 '" lffi o Q >= o c ­ - - ~ 0.Il­ t-- '" . 300 and 350 mm) for conveying unbleached sulfite cellulose at 15 "C.9 f['-. 13. . The head losses evaiuated in this way apply to water at a temperature of 10°C.015 J i­ I­ ­ ::S ~ -. nominal bore: 100.5 'C~ 0.Assuming a rate of flow Q = 140 m3 /h and a new cast iron pipe. = See viscosity for conversion of viscosity values. inside Given: capacity diameter D = 250 mm. flow velocity v ~ 2.I ­ .6 ~ 0.1 - '" OI'O'UI1 c '" 9- ~ 1.2 Head Losses Hy in Plastic Pipes Head losses In plastic pipes Hv K' The head losses of PVC and poiylhene "hard" and "soft" (drawn) plastic pipes are approxi­ mately equal. 16: ResisJence coefficIents}. Ip temperature factor ace. = flO).= 0. 14: Correction coellicient I-l for convarsion 01 head lossas in a cast Iron pipe at 20°C weIer temperature to value:> In a plsstic pipe at 10°C waler temperalura. 14. " JZ "o 80 50 ~ 65"' If the water temperature is other than 10 cC. Thus. ~ correction coefficient ace. which are de­ pendent on the flow veiocity v.0 ~ '" I. since the material in question is "non-NEwrONian"! Figures 17 a through 17 f offer reference values for the head losses H.1. 14.8 1I-­ - i'­ ~- ~ 0. a T I 40 --­ cC : ~ 0. 250. kinematic viscosity v = 2 . Found in figure 13: H.53 m/100 m.035 0.w = 0. where HVK head losses in plastic pipes.08.1­ I.a' • '" 0 ~ .­ ~I-- ~I ~ ~ ~ I-- 1.030 't3 C r---. lor flow of viscous fluids in straighl pipes i'" ' ( r. 15). For the practical calculation of H'K' the respective head losses for cast Iron pipes HVG (Fig. the viscosity of which depends on the fiow velocity..OSO .::: l- ­ f- .I 1 f- f- I-I--~ 'k ~+- How to use figure 16 . these head losses must in addition be multiplied by a temperature factor <jl (Fig. HVG head losses in cast iron pipes acc.- I-.­ 0.14 m/100 m.. to Fig. 10-4 m'/s. ~ a::: ~ > 0. 150.2 2 mls 5 nOS5 .I-lI-- - ~ r- fI­ - ~ r\ 1'\ I-- 1- ~ -1.§ :: 0. to Fig. 0.­ I. 13) should be multi ­ plied by the correction coefficients ~ of Rg.6 -. It follows from figure 16 that: AFI = 0. 26 cSR a 11 . HYFI = 0.025 10.0 0. inside diameter D 150 mm. 1.0 0.5 1. 15.7 '. per 100 m iength of straight steel pipe run plotted against capacity (H. 15: Temperature factor <f> lor calculallon 01 head losses in plastic pipes al water lemperatures between 0 arld 60 °C Increments of 20 to 30 Ofo should be added for sewage or un ­ treated water.0(. llJ'hrn <3 0. .'0 Q f-~ - - ~ 0.­ I.25 m/100 m pipe length.045 O. Thus 00 l 100 ISO mm ". we obtain: head loss H. to Fig. ~ E 1. Aw = 0.08 . ~ 3.14 "'.­ - ­ 1i 0.0 .021·100m One qUite common viscous fluid is celluiose (pulp pumping).8 o 20 60 Temperature t Fig. ploUed in lunctlon oillowvalocily v . 4.I. 0.021.. new cast iron pipe..I. 0.~ Q Flow veiocity v Fig.- - 1-­ Fig.2 m/s.an example: = 100 m'lh.­ I-.

0 2.5- _l-g 10 V -::::: I- " --100 I ~ A A 5 4 2.00 Rate of flow Q -.' - '" ~ 10 "0 . 7.-­ ~ Pulp d enSi~ in%b one ry .s 5.IA A 5.0 1.5. 12 .?-== A ~2.~_ 5.5 4.f 3.­ 100m 100 ON 200 -- -.­ 50 " " \5 4 5 3 2 f----- 100 .5 5.. 17e j!! 10 5 4 ---- ~ I- ~ A A ~ I- -- 2.20 ~ 300 200 m ON 150 "0 A ~ 10 ~ - 100m --- - -_ .0 __ 3.0.~_ 1 Fig.5_ 5..~_ 3.5 4.5_ f ­ A 3 2 1 20 30 Fig.Q I _.0_ f ­ 1. 17a 50 40 30 I 7.- 2H---:b4-1"fH+-t±>-""""'I-H--+-:bH-Ft++++-t--I 1­ 20 30 ! ..5 A .0 3.5 H y 1.0 "" .5 50 5. ! 100 50 40 30 . 5 100m 5.5 -:.5 3.?-== 1. -. Pulp density in % bone dry 3 2 10 Fig.17d 5 r-- 50 40 :i 30 ~ 20 .5 A ON 100 Pulp density in % bone dry 7. 10 20 m3 /h Rate of flow Q 100 m 100m ON 300 f-- f­ A.200 100 I -..5 .~= 6. I r-- ~ --. - 100 50 -_ .5 ­ 3 I­ A 2.5 50 - --­ ON .0 5.0 4 3 2 1 10 Fig. 17 c Rate of flow Q Figs. 171 .0 4.f ­ 1= 1= f­ I 5 4 2..S I 50 40 :i 30 ~ 20 .5.Q "0 A .~= 200 --!!l.20 I 20 30 50 100 200 m Rate of flow Q 3 /h 350 500 1000 Pulp density in % bone dry t ".5_ f 3. 17a-f: sllow a plot oltha head losses Hv lor conveying sulphite cellulose a/various pulp densities at a temperalure 01 150 QC and a grinding grade 0126 QSR (piPe dlameter6 DN 100 10 DN 350) A-A= maximum velocity (2.7.._..­ 300 f----.5 3.0 ! 50 100 200 m3 /h 500 Rate of flow Q 1000 ­ ~ 10 1----.Pulp density in % bone dry 6.5 3.1.Q 20 -g '" '" 30 . 17 b .44 or 3..­ I­ l..m 10 --!!l.5 4.0 --­ V I.O----=--~ .f . 1000 2000 " 100 200 m3 /h 5..0 5.0 1 2..0­ 4.0 5.0 3. . .6.-- :i 40 .0_ _5.20 30 A 2 1.".:::. Fig. 1.5 5.5_ _4.05 m/s) in the discharge pipe loreconomical operation. ~ ~ V 50 100 200 m /h 500 3 3 2 1 10 1000 2000 Rate of flow Q 20 30 50 200 m3 /h 500 1000 Fig..0 4.I-2 --- -- 3 5 -.04.

~ .. V V V V 1/ / / 1/ / .30 0.- -- 1\- _.~ o o - with guide vane cascade ~ 0.-. g / 1/ /1 0. 1/ vv V -..3 ~ 0.4 -f-------_a Cl I ~tJ ~~ Inside radiused / / / / 0.2 -~ <jJ­ .. / / / O:::>'rl\ / 1/ .3 spherical CCI? JI~ 0.g with sharp edges (= 1.'t IV II 7.. I ~ . ..-I 1/ / / IV ) Y' ~ .4 ".5 Relative opening angle ('1'0.7 & spherical with Inward-rounded neck I. the head loss value will decrease by 12 %.5 % kaolin content.. 7"-.8 Elbow radius RK Duct width aD 1.5 0..4 Head Losses Hy in Valves and Fittings 10 5 4 '1 / 2 V ~~. '\.2 ~ f _. Tables 2 to 4 and Figs.. 0 _ 'PO = 50° .0 3.8 iE () c \ - / V IV vv Vv I I I 1-. '?j /­ / 1 / 1.4 0. 4. design) 13 .50 smoothl rough 1.2 0.. I' ~ 9 i_ t=:v ytJ to 1-. -0- 1\ -l- ..l.For an 18 % kaolin content.'. Fig.. and for a 26. 21 Loss coelficients 01 butterlly valves.0 Head loss H. it will decrease by 16 %.=::e " T 1. [\ ~ ® "­ . 20: Influence of rounding orr of concave and convex side on the 1055 coelflclent 01 elbows with quadrallc cr05S section 0. I/~ ~ \ -aoORK _ Outside radiused " t ..3 .\ I- .. 45° 60 0 74 900 0 f~ c" "" " .2 I -' I.5 ~ 0100'10 ---..5 (=3 (=5 T pieces (subdivision or 1I0w) 0.3 . / ~ V IV . IV ~~~~I -j/ <:>' ..~ 2 \\-'r-.. =O.= I'" ~ --v . ~ I­ I­ I­ .03 0..­ "-' '" '13 0.0 (=2.5 1.5104. II/ V / 1/ f/~~" ~.rOUgh 2 10' ~ . 2. 45' Surface 50' Surlace 90' Surlace ..25 0. 18: Delermin~lion 01 he~d losses H v In valves and fillings: flow velocity v relating \0 Ihe ~CIUEl...'.0 0 0. 19: illustration of IllIings wllh relaled 105S coeffiCients I..35 0._­ i'-. • Fig. r= rounded wllh straight bollom (= 0. / '/ V /7 / / I .~ '. _._.. I smoothl ( rough smoothl 0.~ IV IV II V / / / / -"J~~ II 1/ II / 1/ -/. 18 to 24 give details of the indivi­ dual loss coefficients ( and head losses Hv in valves and fitt­ ings for operation with water.I croBB-sectlonal area through whleh the fluid flows 10' 5 Knee piece \\ ... ..05 7I -/ Iv /IV 0.r-­ ~ IV IV L -I 0.'1')/'1'0 1....15 1. Fig.I ­ k\ -.1 V IV / 1/ Vv 1/ / --- 0."'/ .2 • . . -lI­ Combinations with goo knee pieces i2 ' 5 2 1 ~\.5 Degree of opening y/a Fig. .Ltt v'~JG~. " .0 m 2. -·0 '.70 "-' 5 C iE ~ 10 () ~~ \ 1-\ .1 0 . globe and gate valves in function 01 ope ­ ning angle or degrea 01 opening (position number5 according 10 Table 2..I- 0. JL~. • .9 0.y.

1 0.8 " max slanted-seat valves min PN '" 40 min max min max 3.8 1.!.22 0.0 3.5 3.4 0.5 2.0 6. axially expanded non-return valves.0 6.23 0.2 2.4 2.6 0.0 5.9 1.2 3.0 3.08 0.4 3.1 1.4 3. 3.0 1) If the narrowest shut-off diameter dE is smaller than the nominal diameter ON.2 3.0 4.~ .90 0. the loss coefficien 2) In the case of partial opening.8 5. .6 1.0 1.31 0.0 18 19 2.07 0.2 4.8 2.7 5.32 0.07 0.5 0.0 6.. page 15 .. forged valves.45 0.24 0.0 1.76 " "' (J) .8 3.5 3.0 15 max swing-type check min ~9 16 valves hydroslops v = 4 mls v= 3 mls v=2 mls filters screens 0.8 1.06 0.1 1.4 13 max min "' B c '" > i!! ~ 3.5 32 40 50 65 80 100 flat gate valves 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (dE=DN) round-body gate min max min max 15 20 0.3 2.1 2.3 0.60 0. max min max min ~ 10 max min 11 max min straight-seat non-return valves.4 2.65 0.09 0.5 2. Type of valve/fitting Table 2: Loss coefficients (of valves and fittings (referred to the velocity of flow in the Design 3 Loss coefficient (for DN = 25 0.5 0.4 4.6 0.8 • 6.8 3.50 0.55 0.0 0.5 '.2 0.1 4.42 "' > " > valves.8 0.08 0.6 3.3 2.7 full-bore valves diaphragm valves non-return valves.0 6.9 1.4 7.25 0.2 3. 12 max min axial non-return valves.10 0. low flow velocities.: 2. Le. cast angle valves min swing-type valves PN 5.0 6.c 0 6.3 8.7 1.6 1.8 4.35 0.4 2.9 1.10 0.28 0.2 14 2.0 3.6 varves (dE = DN) cocks (dE = DN) min max 0.1 0 0 3 ~ slanted seat fool valves 1Il max min 2.30 0.1 3.15 0.5 2.7 max 17 0.0 2.09 0.0 6.0 0. the loss coefficients increase 3) Designs: cf..

5 Pipe bends goo.= = 75° 60° 45° 0.1 ffit[[J Diameter ratio diD fJJDJ OI~O:l'l .25 chamfered. = 300 85 Standard orifice plate 2 30 0. = 2 in the case of very unequal velocity distribution. = Corrugated pipe harp bend . the actual values are subject to wide variance.8 Branch pieces: (Branch of equal bore) The resistance coefficients " for the diverted flow or respectively for the main flow ad = a .5 0. 50 = 0.55 0.6 0.05 D'1 !" for" .50 0.6 1..30 0.7 60° 0.49 0. In the case of domestic water meters. relate to the velo­ city of the total flow in the nozzle.2 to 4 'd 15 .45 0. the model in question. Loss coefficients of flow meters: .Og 0. = 0.19 500 0.21 300 0. Knee pieces: Deflection angle ~ goo 1.= 1 downstream of an adequate length of straight pipe with an approximately uniform velocity distribution in the outlet cross-section.g. in which case they are indicative of pres­ sure loss.. and the design objectives. = a. a max.3/0.26 100 0.20 0.40 0. value of the single goo elbow should not be doubled.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Designs according to Table 2 The minimum and maximum values listed in Table 2 include figures taken from the most pertinent trade iilerature and apply to fully open valves and fittings under uniform conditions of flow. depending on the conditions of inflow and outflow.23 200 0.25 0.36 0. Nonetheless. Not to be confused with reversible pressure changes according to BERNOULLI's equation (cf. Creased pipe harp bend .7 12 0. 12 x DN downstream of the valve or fitting are also included in those values (cf. Table 3: Loss coefficients for fittings Elbows: Cast elbows goo.35 0. = 21 .80 .8 Discharge pieces: .2 Combinations of elbows and pipe bends: The. pressure drop of 1 bar is prescribed for the rated load.60 0. R = 2 to 4 x D Nominal size DN Inlet pipe fittings: Inlet edge sharp .4 Expansion joints: 10 Water meters (volumetric meters) .70 0.6 3.16 0. is related to the velocity v at diameter D. 1. VDIIVDE guideline 2173). On the basis of that definition.18 Short venturi tube a = 30 ° Standard orifice plate If the deflection angle only amounts to the above. . " andlor may take on negative values. 0.2 0.3 45° 30° 0. = = 0.64 6 Short venturi tube . immediately downstream of an elbow. and in practice the actual pressure loss is seldom below this figure.5 0. 'd a Bellows expansion joint with I without guide pipe .3 4. all nominal size.7 0. = Smooth bore pipe harp bend .2 2 ~ 1.6 to 0. GOllA t t t + 3 0. 'Of = .7 0.85 0.a. a valve etc. The losses attributable to flow disturbances in a length of pipe equalling ca. = 0. but only be multiplied by the factors indicated to obtain the pressure loss of the combination elbows illustrated: Aperture ratio m = (diD)' o. annota­ tion to Table 4).3 15° 0. e. R = D + 100 mm. values should be multiplied by 0.3 to 1.8 1.

02 0.17 0. H and impeller diameter Dis: P.07 0. The characteristic curve booklets contain the pump curves of selected impeller diameters in mm. Fig.-value: 5. n2 and n3.a. if the overall pressure change is calculated as the arithmetic sum of P.05 0.34 0. 11 the values for 0 1.21 B.22 Eltec\ of change in speed P 'v' p.) on the other.(0 )' '1000 p k. 22 plots three OH curves for the speeds n1.17 0.2 Trimming the Impellers Permanently reducing the output of a centrifugal pump oper­ ating at constant speed (see Fig.v. ~ 16 .56 0.80 0. the loss coefficients ( is occasionally neglected in favour of the so-called k".6 0. through a pipe constriction. E is positive. = ~ (vl .13 0. ~ 0. If the pressure rises across the transition piece in the direction of flow (divergent section). and 8 3 respectively. the relationship between 0. P2 . 14 A coefficient f: in accordance with the values in the table below applies to each ot the illustrated shapes of transition pieces/ reducers.68 -0. D2 ~D 1· ~.26 0.. .07 0.50 -0.g.9).03 0. 23) entails reducing the impeller diameter D.p. these curves are interconnected by the similarity law.02 0.7 0.10 0.04 0. fitting in em.88 0. e.06 0.01 (= (= 8° II for a = 15° (= = 20° (= III (= IV for 20° < a < 40° ( = A change in the speed also causes the operating point to shift (see 2. r= ct 0.01 0.04 0./ /Hllnes P'=('T on the one hand and reversible pressure changes involving frictionless flow as per BERNOULLI's equation (fluid dynamics) '-------------------. and if the pressure drops (reducer). Note: In the case of branch pieces as per Table 3 and transition pieces as per Table 4.01 0.8 0.Pl' In the case of water transport through valves and fittings.1 Changing the Speed The same centrifugal pump has different characteristic curves for different speeds. H1 and P1 are known at speed nj. (d = = = 0.07 -0.02 0.. When trimming radial flow impellers (see 8.48 (= 16·­ where d reference diameter (nominal diameter) of the valve or k.19 0.05 0.4) (trimming is not a geometrically similar reduction of an impeller since the outlet width normally remains constant).- .11 0..03 0.5 III IV 0. differentiation is made between irrevers­ ible pressure loss (= pressure reduction) r ~ r B Operating point n Speed . H.05 0. The operating point will move along the system characteristic HA from 8 1 to 8 3 when the speed is changed as indicated. Conversely. and P2.Pl negative.38 0.23 4. In the case of accelerated flow. each curve is intersected by the system curve HA at points B" B.u"o~ Capacity Q Fig. it is positive in pipe expansions.09 0. 5 Changing the Pump Performance Table 4: Pressure change coefficients in transition piece for arrangements illustrated in Fig. By contrast. E is negative. then the new values for n2 will be as follows: IReduction ~ ~ Form I Form rn v£[t¢ '0100:24' II diD = 0. the pressure losses ascertained by way of the loss coefficients ( are always negative. Coefficients: Expansion 5.11 0.9 0.~ D1 • I~'.01 0.17 2.11 0.20 0. Q (d ~50 Qd ~Qa (.15 0.35 0.41 0.

10-6 m2/s (kinematic viscosities below 22 . " . Hz and ~z (Z = viscous liqUid) using the conversion factors for viscous liquids fa.4)...oplln h.J'--e'L'l'=~'"---c-"'~""­ Capacity QZ. • kinematic viscosities V z of 1 to 4000 ." ~. head H and efficiency ~ fall.~o> 1::f-H--f+I+++i-= :: 6.12).. II the operating pornt lor handling watar Is given 17 . 1. 23 Influence of Impeller diameter ". The best efficiency point shifts to smaller flow rates. The operating point Bw drops to Bz (see Fig. 25a and 25b). " ".. 24).. 24 Change In operating point when handling viscous liquids (Z) end waler (W) The standard operating point for water Bw with Q w• Hw and ~w (W = water) is converted to the viscous liquid operating point Bz with Qz.~f. 10 . 6 Handling Viscous Liquids As the viscosity v of the medium handled increases (at con­ stant speed) the capacity Q.. f H and fl] (see Figs.~ r.1 0)..6... I I ~ Capacity Q Fig. H2 e--------------~ 82 ..1 and 9. • specific speeds nq of 6 to 45 1/min (see 7. QW. [H Wand ['l. at the same time the pump power input P rises. m' I Fig. 25a Determining the conversion factors fa.Betr.(see 8.W lor handling viscous liquids (enlarged version sae 9.l:rl:l:rl:l: I I ~ Capacity Q Fig.w. 10-6 m2 /s are normally disregarded).~ft~~~i~i~I~~.

26 and 27 are extracts) . Fig... If the operating pO. ---- 1--/ / K.--..-- / "­ _ --­ " / '- r-- K --. I 40~315 i'50-315 1/ ---. see 6) (p...-.. I .­ .--. • Selecting the size of the pump: Using the CPK/HPK characteristic curve booklet for 50 Hz the selection charts give the following pump selections for the specified operating data: CPK 65-250 at n = 2900 CPK 150-250 at n = 1450 1/min and 1/min.5 kg/dm 3 ts = 20°C Vs = 3...J - --..I.- -----.. 65-315 - 80 H m I -r-. 200 300 400 500 1000 I 2000 ! I 1000 -­ -- +-­ I"'" - r-­ ! 100 _ .-~ 100-:~'5 1/ 125-315 I - 1/ 40-250 L i'. 26 CPK/HPK.------ t'--­ /"0-160 - .["'.. 30 I 40 I 30 50 I 40 50 -. 80-250 100-250 1 ­ I I 400 300 "125-250 / H It t--r--( 40 . 50-160 'J / 80-200 ----/ / "'­ A 1/ 1/ 200 100-200 11-_____.8 ' 10-6 m 2/s (can be disregarded......Density Temperature Kinematic viscosity p....--. ­ --. selection chart n = 2900 1/mln 18 .N / 1/ / l 60-160 r­ 32-125° C~ ".p.- _.­ ­ 50 40 10 t-._65-200 65-160 j '-- I"< t'.Z lor handling viscous liquids {enlarged version see g. )..- f::::: k 50-200 - 3Z -ZOO rv -- ~- -. -.r--.. Technical data and characteristic curves for the CPK are given in the characteristic curve booklet and selection booklet (Figs..f f-. 40-200 "'N 1/ 65-250 1/ i'-­ 50 .. -.r­ ~5 1 Q[/s 4 5 c' 2 4 .0 20 2 30 40 50 '00 14 Fig..­ Imp..~. - ~- / / -- 1/ / 2 3 I·· 'v I~ ".... 25b Determining the conversion faclors fa... / .g.. = 1...lnt lor handling viscous liquids IS given 10 I U.z and fH. . and v.---------- 32-160 ----- . '0 4p 5.11}.-. The CPK 65-250 is selected for reasons of economy. / 100 30 20 ---. taken from standard reference tables) The pump selected for this particular liquid is a CPK series standardized chemical pump. 32-250 -~ f 50-250 '-- 7 80-315 --- -r--: T--­ 500 i'-.gpm 10 20 20 200 --. '00 I '00 200 300 400 500 I I.S.

" Fig..3 kW with p.. 27 inci. if necessary up to the maximum possible pump power consumption.3 Catculating the NPSH.Q in lis H in m in kW • Pin value must be Checked (see selection booklet. ".. .·Q·H 1. 0 .. ~_. '" '" . max. ""'" . '" " . "t·· ~-..1 Suction Lift from Open/Closed Tank Here the pump is above the liquid level (see Fig. 27 Characlarlallc curvas CPK/HPK 65_250 7. .. Q A recheck of the Pin value then becomes important as a criterion for the bearing bracket..L_L. ~+ -­ . Selected pump is a CPK 65-250. . '" .5·90·80 P = 367 .. U~.. can be disregarded because negligible NPSH"q= 3.. 1 '} Efllciency 11 (from Fig. .. .: F ..... '" . "" " ..L 1~ L L L L . 0..Gp~ 1M GPM -r~ :oqo . " '" !. .L-= 29· Pwater ~= 43. . " s .. " .5 kW.5 m (estimated from Fig. '" ... '" .. 13 for 10m suction Hv... . .. " . fitlings and valves) v.3... '" '" '" . .. ".. inci.0...s pipe ON 100. must be adhered to. . or the minimum required suction head Hz gao.~ = 367. P is interpolated as = 29 kW for water.: ~ .. . Calculation of Hs gao. . H P in kg/dm 3 in m3 /h in m in kW The pump power input P can also be established with sufficient accuracy from Fig.0038'10' N/m' Po (from reference table) (60% sulphuric acid at 20 "C) = 1.5 m safety margin) 19 .-3llO ..: " .: ~ 50 . the value for sulphuric acid is: P = 29 .3 m (interpolated from Fig.. !.. the motor rating must be increased accordingly. " '" !l! ~ • . (see 3.: 7. is based on following system and pump data: = 1500 kg/m 3 p =1 bar=1·10'N/m' Pb = 0.. If the operating point temporarily changes to higher flow rate.0038 bar = 0.2) To achieve cavitation-free operation of the pump the limit of maximum possible suction lift He gao. 10). . 0 ..68 1) = 43. min. technical data see 7. II! . max.1. 27.f'. ... ~ . section Technical Data)... P or an alternative frequently used in practice: p. 27) interpolated .

9.37 m.ep::::e:.on-. max = 5. H"".3 m.~o i I P.17 .2 with a positive static suction head (as shown in the diagram). max = 1. ~_~-_C1==~_-".eood-.6.81 -1. =3.97 m.3 6.5 -10. I ~ I. = 0 bar .3 = 1. technical data see 7.1. could draw roughly the absolute amounts as in example 7.-::--:-:c::-:-:-:-:------­ Given: p. He geo. e--..3.t.Hv.5 0+1·10'-0. therefore NPSHav ~ NPSH req requirements is satisfied.5·10'-0.-JtoII I iIJl3::3­ -J Hzgeo.- Given: p. "0.2 with NPSH req = NPSH av) .. NPSH av = NPSH raq = 3. 11). ::o.77 -1.3.. Negative heads -H zgeo ere suction lift heads +H aQeo of the same value.5 = 1.::C"loo::s:::.1. ml' = 3.3..0038·10' 1500. The minus sign in the result tells us that the centrifugal pump.81 + 3.0.s ._= ~ p ~O ~ 'I Po?" i I t-- J / Po.77 = -1.3 =5. 7.5 .::ta"n"k"----:c-. 10' N/m' ~---=et==: ---==.17 = -5. This requirement would be more than satisfied in example 7.c-::-:---..2 Positive Suction Operation from Open/Closed Tank Here the pump is below the liquid level (see Fig.po . = 10.goo. m" = ~ 0+1·10'-0.NPSH Pe.9.37 m.1 to 7. + Pb = 1.5 ·10' . Selected pump is a CPK 65-250.0038·10' 1500..37 m.t~ H'Qeo Datum lavel . With He geo.9.v. 20 . min = NPSH req + HV.97 m. therefore NPSH av ~ NPSH req requirement is satisfied. with an open or closed tank.97 m.3 + 1.0038·10' 1500.81 .::ta"n"k'-----.5 ..5 .3 H.3.1.m.3 . With He geo.5-3. max = Pe+Pb-PO . to 3..8 ~+~-~ - Ps'g H. ~ I p.3. m" = 3.0038·10' 1500.5 - 1.3 + 1.3 m.9..+Pb i j t-v.g r8Q (ace.3.81 H.s. "0.3.1 where the requirement NPSH av ~ NPSH req is just about satisfied.= 1.5 bar = 1. NPSH sv = NPSH req = 3.5 .3 + 1.

897 kg/dm'. Q w BII•. = 240 mm (impeller diameter) is driven by a 55 kW three-phase motor with a nominal speed (n.6.) of 2965 1/min. 25 lis (= 90 m'/h) 70 m . 9.2) The unacceptably high pump output (see 7. H.6 0.0 =4. From 4.) restores the original duly given in 7. . curve booklet ~ for 4 points '1w on curve Qz = Ow' fQ.2 37.5 .1 but with the following per ­ formance data (present duty: index 1. = 2900 1/min at n. ~ 0 .897 9. • ') 18.36 8. If this increase is not acceptable. the original duty can be restored by e.74 19.36 10.p.1) The CPK 65-250 selected in 7.7 15. H HwBot • = =~ 25' 0 Hw· fHW·1.10. Plotted over Q (see Fig.2 0.4 Changing the Speed (see 5.3 Hw·fftY' m Hz Btlr.2 lis m lis These velues meen 4 pointe on OH z end Q"1z line plus :3 points on the QP z line ere establishsd. reducing the impeller diameter (see 7. ~ = 240 .6 0. the pump data at the b.6 Handling Viscous Liquids (see 6) Schedule on page 44. new duly: index 2) 7. ) to 237 mm (0. however. Q z Stir.1 Calculation the Operating Point The prodUct is a mineral oil with a kinematic viscosity Vz of 500 .4 m'/h) Hw = 18 m n ~ 1450 1/min To obtain the new data for mineral oil.02 m'/h) 2965)') H.mln)the condition NPSHav~NPSHreq is fulfilled.83 0. where: 0."w kW .7 TJz = Tlw' f.78 24.5 Trimming the Impeller (see 5. V.03 = Hw·fHW 16. must also be calculated and the following additiona information must be known: Capacity Head Efficiency Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravitational constant Q Woot Hw oot llw oot n 7. 27) 4 points on the new characteristic curve can be established using the calculation chart below: nQ.4) caused by the higher motor speed is rectified as follows by trimming the impeller (present duty: index 1. as follows to: 7.8 21. use Hz = Calculation in graphic form 2 .5 0.8 24. = ( 2900 . 25 = 25.81 m/s 2 1) Irom Individual characteristic curve (aee Fig.W from graph in 9. 0.. The higher speed shifts the operating point. 2965 Ow = 34 lis (= 122.W from Fig.56 = 237 mm.2 18. Turning the impeller down from 240 mm (0 .78 1) ­ 1/min 1450 500. 1.3 ~ 1/min M ~ ffl. It is.w 1.= 3.. 28) .e.78 0.73 29 ~ page 41 t 0/00 """Hz from charact. 70 = 73.5). We know the characteristic curve and operating data of a pump handling water..6 m'ls and density pz = 0.4.56 lis (= 92. Vz pz g 31 1) lis 20 1) m 0. 10..2 m. 258 or sect. new duty: index 2). standard practice not to make such minor changes (less than 5 mm) to the impeller diameter. without considering the system characteristic HA .38 9.49 0 0 25 0 0 0.8 m.8 m upwards (Hzgeo. 0. and 0 . 0'0"" Pz=pz·g·Hz·Qz ~z·1000 IX Hw Q 2) if Hz > Hw.0 31 20 0.g.1 0.12 27 0. = 2900 .10-6 m2 /s kgldm' 0. 7.3 + 1.

6. design.Belr - f 38. section 9.7 m3 /h) HW. 25b or fH. These two standards occupy a central position because they form the basis for a range of standards already in existence and under preparation covering centrifugal pumps.86 1/min 1/min ~ from Fig. <I) 80 10 ~w I 70 60 50 ~ <I) "" 8 General Pumps c 5 '0 ~~.8 lis (= 139.1 to establish 4 points on the new characteristic curve.12 1450 27 0.1) 22 .l - ­ lis .•". see Fig. guidelines and specifications.. These standards are drawn up by both operators and manu ­ facturers and are now established in virtually all sectors of industry using and producing pumps (see Fig. These 4 points can now be used to establish the curve to be expected for handling mineral oil. Using the curve thus estab ­ lished.11. access­ ories.6. 0 0 10 2001/530 40 30 40 20 w "' 8. = QW = 38. 26 Characteristic curves lor both water (W) and VISCOUS liquids (Z) (see 7. 1) H.Designation._ _ H m The definitive operating data when handling water are thus: Qw.w 3) from graph in 9. page 23). 28.Use the following calculation table to convert to operating data with water and thereby find the appropriate pump size. procurement and use of centrifugal pumps. az H 3) W. ~ 15 10 _ P. 0- ..3 m 20 Hw 15 I "0 Based on these data a suitable pump is seiected from the sales documents selection chart. 0.S P '5 kW 0. This is particularly true of DIN 24256 "End suction centrifugal pumps (PN 16) (chemical pumps)" which even in its first edition was virtually identical to the international standard ISO 2858 "End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar) . 0 0. Betr = HOpl Calculation in graphic form 25.8 0. n selected n.Pw E ::J 5 0 0 10 20 0 115 30 Capacity Q 40 0101:1 0- Fig. H H Wlhtr. 29. nominal duty point and dimensions". ro '1.Betr = Qopi ) Hz.Belr - _ Hz 1 Selr HZ m where QZ.1 National and International Standards for Centrifugal A series of national standards have been introduced in Germany since the early sixties governing the manufacture.3 approx. --:::::::-.8 23. follow section 7. page 42 _ Q z Selr Q W.Belr = Hw = 23.

29 Charf 01 German and international standards for centrifugal pumps.• Scope of Application and Responsibilities Dimensional Standards . nominal duty point and dimensions ISO 3661 Endsuction centrifugal pumps Baseplate and installation dimenSlons ISO 3069 EndsuctiOn centrifugal pumps Dimensions of cavities tor mechanical seals and for soft packing • 12 EC and 6 EFTA member countries W '" Fig. single-flow. shaft seal chamber.Pumps Accessories I VDMA I Associatjon of Gerrnan Engineering l Pump Committee ~ "0 ~ ~ • DIN 24251 DIN 24252 DIN 24 254 • • ~ VDMA 24253 Genbtfugal pumpswiltl ermQured casing (amoured pumps). nominal duties. principal dimensions .1 Eod Eod ~ • " • ~ Side channel pumps PN 40. principal dimensions. selection I" centrifugal pumps 10 DIN 24256. dimensions. classifications Pump nameplates. designations and materia! codes ICEN I ~m" Europeen } ~ d. principal dimensiaM T.2 T. singlestage with axial inlet. principal dimen­ sions Machi!1ary baseplates. duties. accessories. designa- tion. designation. principal dimensions suction centrifugal pumps PN 10 with bearing bracket. general specifications Mechanical seals. ~ { Standards E""m w ~ Normali­ salion Coordinating Committee ~ 0 " ~ E ~ §:J • ~ • ~ ~ International Organi:relion for Standardization TC 115/ Pumps ISO 2656 Endsuc1ion centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bJ. DIN 24255 DIN 24256 DIN 24259 DIN 24299 DIN 24960 ~ ~ German Standards Institute Committee Mechanical Engineering.r)Designation. nominai duties. guidelines and specifications (as 01 February ------ . Pumps EJ Drainage pumps with heads up to 1000 m Cenbifugal pumps with wear plales PN 10. dUlies. principal dimensions suc1ion centrifugal pumps PN 16 with bearing bracket. nominal duties. designalion.

31 Magnitude of lhe radial thrust coefficient K lor volule eaelng pumps es a luncllon or the specific speed I1Q and the pump !low level q = Q/QoPI 8. V. ------=:::::::::=.c CfJE 1ij Ie. H . The pump maker can favourably influence these hydraulic radial forces by selecting the right casing (see Figs.Special circular volute casing Double voluta casing 0" • .g. to Fig. for example when a plant is extended and the available NPSH is inadequate or where economic factors prevent the available NPSH being increased (by raising the suction tank) or a lower speed larger-sized pump (with lower NPSH requirement) being fitled.with Inducer A c = NPSHreq . Circular ceslng Double volute casing Single volule calling b Capacity Q a = NPSH req . 33). D. 30 and 31). with FR Radial thrust K Radial thrust coefficient ace.3 Improving the NPSH Requirement It is possible in special cases to reduce the NPSH require­ ment of a pump to approx. API 610 or ISO) and also means cost-effective sizing of shafts.need minor or no changes in content even after the publication of the corresponding ISO standard. 30 Radiallhtullt in centrifugal pumpll with various calling typell Flg. Impeller outside diameter b.33 NPSH raqulremanl with and without Inducer plotted egainstthe capacily 24 .without inducar b = NPSHrllQ . The radial thrust FR can be calculated with the help of the equation °° I 10 20 30 Spezlfic speed nQ 40 rnln. Q/Q o PI-1.. b. FR ~ K· p' g . The magnitude and direction of the thrust changes with the rate of flow and affects the shaft and bearings. Flow level Q Combined cirCUlar volute caelng a..with Inducer B A and Bare dlflllrontlypes or inducers Fig. 31 p Density of the medium pumped 9 Gravitational constant H Head D. especially seals and bearings.1 60 Fig.2 Shaft Deflection Shaft deflection is principally caused by radial forces resulting from the hydraulic thrust in the impeller plane generated by the interaction between the impeller and pump casing (or diftuser). V W­ q -1.0 """". This guarantees conformity with the specified maximum per­ missible shaft deflection (e.0 I 8. 50-60% of the original level by fitting an inducer in front of the impeller. ::> za. 32 Centrlrugel pump titled With inducer Circular casing It must be noted that the reduction in the NPSH requirement applies only to a particular section of the flow range and not the complete range of the pump concerned (see Fig. Impeller outlet width Fig. Volute casing i-----I "'-pump characteristic curve -.

double enfry Three-vane impeller open Axial flow impeller O} Front view with coverplate removed H} Single-vane Impellers ere also available with slightly reduced passage for greater oHlciency Free flow impeller 25 . Mixed flow impeller") closed.3 Special Impellers For contaminated and gaseous liquids.4.Single-vane impeller"J closed Radial flow impeller") \\ ft Two-passage impeller") closed Mixed flow impeller"J closed Three-passage impeller"J closed Mixed flow impeller open 8.

g.Fig. e.g. 39 Submersible close-coupled pump. ring section high pressure centrifugal pump Star wheel for side channel pump 8.4. e. low flow rates and high heads.g.g. 34 to 39 show the various main design features: Fig.37 Close-c6upled. single-siege. SUbmersible chemical pump Fig. suction and discharge side bearings. 34 Single-entry. e. 36 Multistage.g. In-line pump Peripheral impeller 8.5 Peripheral Impellers Used for clean media. 36 Verllcel shaft-driven sump pump. pipeline pump Fig. e.5 Pump Types (typical examples) Figs. e. sewage pump 26 . elanderdlz:ed chemlcel pump Fig.g. Flg. overhung. e.35 Double-entry. suction and discharge side bearings.

+c-o-m-p-a-ct-. FIQ.l:.41 Examples 01 vertical mounting ~~ ~ ..c~..--with parallei axis above pump with belt drive and outboard bearing or jackshaft compact. 40 Examples horizontal underneath close-coupled.­ simpie speed variation ~_~_D horizontal underneath ----.>l!lIJ\fRno ~~::_L~_ _ ~~~. forming a water tight unit with pump fully submersible or horizonlallnslallaUon L 'Shaft vertical Feet L Drive above ground on drive stool L Remarks wet installation al surface level discharge pipe Alternative installation a b c 1\ ~ 'i'> l­ ~> - ~ . simple speed variation :1.if I 27 ..~~w~ horizontal underneath coaxial with coupling I~~~mon IbcoaSmemPolante baseplate or gearbox horizontal centreline coaxial with coupling ~~!==rr::"'=:::"::::=.J\' d. Fig. vertical a) automatic submersible close-coupled engagement unit with claw b) on support stand I I wet installation a) permanent b) portable .Mb. .1Il~ ~"~ vertical >bo soleplate beneath discharge nozzle a) above ground on drive stool dry installation b) above ground on drive stool through cardan shaft I c) below surface on drive stool I .----+:-h-O"riz-o-n"t-al:-~-n-ea-t:-h-+W-i:-th-P-a-ra-II'-e:-' ~:J~j belt drive or gearbox -aX-i-s-a-b·o-v-e-p-u-m-p-.

start-up frequency is therefore: " pas. starting with a funnel-shaped depression at the liquid surface. ' . 43 Piping arrangement to prevent air entrainment With dirty liquids. . m e-' Sump 2 Q s capacity at switch-on pressure in I/s '- ~ Q.42 Inclined sump walls 10 prevent solids from being deposited and collecting 28 . a tube ­ shaped air cavity forms instantaneously. \ L f- . when the capacity am is twice the incoming flow Q zu . flow velocity in mls 8 mIn minimum liquid cover in m..J / -Suction pipe to pump Fig. The medium handled must cover the suction pipe inlet to a suitable depth. Q w (Qm . 10/h -' Start-up frequency is calculated using: Z 3600 . 42). v' S Flg. deflector Fig. 44 and 45) or by taking measures to prevent vortices (see Figs..---_.. 450 walls. soiids must be prevented from being de­ posited and collecting in dead zones and on the floor.:~ - 0 !.~wrong . Le.1 with v. 46 to 48) this can be prevented. we recommend 1 to 2 m/s. the higher the flow rate is. capacity at switch-off pressure in lis VN useful volume of pump sump including possible flowback volume in I The maximum start-up frequency occurs when am = 2 x Ow. otherwise rotation of the liquid could cause air-entraining vortices (hollow vortices) to form. The max. help prevent this (see Fig.1 m safety margin for non-uniform velocity distribution. or better still 60 0 walls.Q w ) VN • Q m Inle( pipe - .­ " where Z no."'. By ensuring that the medium handled always has a suitable level (see Figs. of starts per hour Q zu inlet flow in I/s Q Qe+Qs. 8 mIn = 2 9 +0.Motor rating above 30 kW max.. ~~). 44 Arrangement of pipes in the suction tank (eump) 10 prevent vortices - Suction pipe The minimum liquid cover 8 mln in m must be the velocity head plus a 0. ----. extending from the surface to the suction pipe. which is the more important. The maximum flow velocity Vii! in the suction pipe or inlet pipe should not exceed 3 m/s.

>. 0..~ - t rr LJ~ i .----.5 0. 48 shows a speciai arrangement which Is frequently used .J D / _ 10 pump Bema Baffle Radial baffle I 8affle \ I ) Suction pipe U II I Axial b&ffle T.""@ o to pump Inlet ___ Fig. 47 Use 0' sWlrl-prevenling bellies Flg. 45 shows the interdependence between liquid cover S._.. -. 45 Liquid cover S 8S a function of the piping bore DlII and capacity 5 Q 6 7 8 9 1000 2 Capacity Q -----­ I Fig. Fig..2 --Jr--.1 100 Fig.a round tank with a tangential inlet pipe which causes the contents to rotate..j~ ~ r-+­ +-+­ +-1 ­ .6 0..4 0. ~ this suction pipe ~W~ arrangement -I-1-1­ ~ 0.I...~ 8°.P'P' '-- Fig. The values obtained give sufficient protection against vortices. The graph can be used for the suelion pipe layout illustrated.3 This is preferred arrangement. r /" Suction ( '-.. piping bore ON and capacity Q.. 46 Raft \0 prevent lormElUon 01 vorHeBS -=..j.. -1-7 f----/---I---I--I---Ic-+++-+-+-H-I----II----+--+ /' ~ Curves are for ---/.46 Use 01 bafflee in the lank 10 ensure disturbance-free flow 10 pump 29 ."'... Figs. 46 and 47 show typical arrangements used to prevent air-entraining inlet vortices where the minimum liquid cover is either not available or cannot be ensured.

its function is to permit removal olthe pump rotating assembly without disturbing the pump casing or drive (back-puli out design). l ""'·.• • • • • Muff couplings. ---1 9JfP .51 Pump with spacer coupling 30 . Fig. Face plate couplings (DIN 758. Fig.11 Flg. The flexibility is usualiy achieved by the deformation of damping and rubber-elastic spring elements whose life is governed to a large extent by the degree of misalignment. radial and angular misalignment (Fig.! ttl!} ' . Serrated couplings. 50 Typical couplings Flexible couplings to DIN 740 are elastic. DIN 759). slip-free connecting elenlOnts between drive and driven machine which accom­ modate ax-lal. FIQ. 49) and damp shock loads. Fig. 49 Misalignment -I ·. Split couplings (DIN 115). 50 shows the most common types of flexible couplings. 51 shows a spacer coupling between a pump and drive. Flange couplings (DIN 760).

0000 0.9168 0.15 385.00706 0.7561 0.037 85.15 311.15 356.9362 0.9923 0.920 8.2184 0.15 351.9729 0.0000 1.56 128.01497 0.07777 0.8339 0.9933 0.144 98.01936 0.15 538.9857 0.01704 0.15 493.9983 0.8760 0.03166 0.2501 0.927 92.05940 0.03778 0.6404 0.15 325.041 3.7321 0.00813 0.15 448.9753 0.00758 0.7415 0.15 528.02485 0.9876 0.15 323.19016 0.7849 0.9963 0.15 391.15 588.15 282.2 0.15 367.15 315.9678 0.15 286.9816 0.9846 0.077 21.15 320.7759 0.54 221.15 593.15002 0.15 413.03360 0.12335 0.15 383.9328 0.09100 0.08639 0.15 568.15 598.15 369.243 19.00657 0.9782 0.9811 0.9665 0.6749 0.15 338.9968 0.9760 0.15 301.7122 0.2504 1.15 363.9971 0.15 291.9644 0.19920 0.3154 31 .15 578.15 342.02062 0.9748 0.15 341.01147 0.9919 0.9704 0.9992 0.9537 0.2086 0.15 375.9445 0.15 403.7839 0.15 463.9552 0.15 372.9697 0.9214 0.060 23.9596 0.924 10.15 633.01597 0.15 397.9691 0.9966 0.8273 0.15 312.9902 0.3543 0.15 328.15 276.9294 138 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 340 350 360 370 374.9894 0.9978 0.9985 0.9997 0.9954 0.9710 0.15 350.496 64.760 5.2504 2.15 313.9889 0.5316 1.00611 0.15 433.9652 0.75 210.15 498.9998 0.4019 0.9884 0.15 281.9957 0.9586 0.15 284.8453 0.15 344.15 488.15 453.05622 0.15 275.15 543.6669 0.11162 0.5275 0.15 299.877 55.15 60 333.15 305.9898 0.15 337.7013 2.027 11.202 69.8704 0.9999 0.246 46.15 294.15 548.15 339.9927 0.632 33.9951 0.9379 0.9121 0.9871 0.15 371.15 583.9788 0.461 80.8869 0.15 347.987 15.9671 0.15 343.15 335.15 326.3116 0.15 345.12961 0.15 59 332.15 314.15 295.9476 0.523 39.9522 0.15 278.15 340.15 0.15 329.15 358.01072 0.02982 0.181 7.9793 0.5743 0.09582 0.10612 0.9990 0.3253 0.9994 0.15 349.15 395.8921 0.06624 0.9094 0.02642 0.15 518.9346 0.15 379.9999 1.0000 1.15 304.15 364.8628 1.04753 0.1145 2.9581 0.3696 0.5780 0.9658 0.00872 0.5557 0.15 573.9940 0.9311 0.9805 0.0133 1.15 279.2615 0.614 4.9907 0.9624 0.15 377.4547 0.15 381.15 288.700 105.4931 0.4736 0.02337 0.15 348.9638 0.7916 0.2733 0.15 289.15 409.9723 0.15 503.15 346.976 30.4189 0.6791 0.02196 0.2984 0.5133 0.15 321.15 302.9937 0.8136 0.8403 0.04491 0.6102 0.15 324.55 17.9862 0.6011 0.9491 0.15 336.7505 0.15 428.8647 0.15 352.03564 0.15 523.15 458.9684 0.15 296.15 365.9960 0.8670 3.3396 0.15 277.13613 0.7017 0.15 360.15 327.15 330.9258 0.18147 0.35 186.15 293.15 318.9460 0.04241 0.15 513.15 292.9776 1.155 4.9999 0.15 389.3933 2.08198 0.9993 0.15 418.8205 0.15 368.7678 0.30 3.7465 1.15 308.15 433.551 13.9630 0.9507 0.6362 1.9837 0.15 307.6906 0.15 306.4518 0.15 647.9996 0.9602 0.15 309.9765 0.9915 0.15 407.15 483.478 36.15 603.15 401.11736 0.6541 0.8065 0.15 558.8769 0.06991 0.9974 0.15 411.3855 0.89 120.01312 0.15 405.9770 0.15 317.15 ij1.05318 0.15 613.9999 0.0878 1.9616 0.9073 0.15 373.9777 0.233 12.8815 0.9412 0.9999 0.15 310.9852 0.9429 0.9024 0.15 316.9976 0.9998 0.776 43.9832 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 334.5342 0.15 0.15 357.15 623.433 6.186 74.9821 0.15 553.15 298.008 7.9735 0.9396 0.198 25.1668 1.2856 0.9567 0.9430 0.3390 1.9880 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 273.15 399.15 438.9842 0.9799 0.7593 0.6249 0.05029 0.01001 0.15 533.7011 0.06274 0.15 370.223 0.15 563.15741 0.07375 0.15 478.15 354.01817 0.15 319.8973 0.63 146.15 303.6495 0.15 355.15 285.15 393.01227 0.04004 0.9988 0.15 643.15 353.9944 0.15 362.05 165.15 280.14293 0.5435 2.8528 0.15 287.9997 0.8467 0.9866 0.02808 0.9854 2.15 300.15 361.9911 0.15 274.15 423.10086 0.15 387.9716 0.15 366.058 59.00935 0.15 359.4327 1.17313 0.15 473.9741 0.7992 0.15 322.2391 0.15 508.16511 0.9947 0.8146 0.414 3.7223 0.8588 0.943 50.15 290.01401 0.9610 0.7281 0.9987 0.2286 0.61 112.501 27.9276 0.15 297.9981 0.9826 0.9930 0.4365 0.15 468.15 283.

355 1.67 0.1598 0.681 0.303 15.8071 1.306 3.047 1.6010 0.455 7.015 1.589 0. "" '-' ~ "i.999 0.619 12.7439 0.423 2.0516 0.0381 1.718 0.411 0.58 39.4228 0.150 0.0306 7.0688 0.0489 0.3818 0.684 0.069 2824 3.445 3. 1.79 0.748 1.1812 25.3589 0.! w ~ "i.38 1.246 0.23 16.890 1.483 0.2549 0.0149 0.209 14.3733 0.1863 02689 2.549 0.899 6339 0.061 3.405 0.2883 0.0139 1.572 0.10 23.017 2. "i.0699 2.303 0.98 6.0784 1.694 0.0255 0.1213 0.89 0.15 47.050 10399 6.115 1.5 Vapour pressure Po in bar " iii S E a e ~ ~ '" € 0 0 01 ro S x 0 If § 0 0 '-' " ~ 0 € ro '-' 223 228 233 238 243 248 253 258 263 268 273 278 283 288 293 298 303 308 313 318 323 328 333 338 343 348 353 358 363 368 373 378 383 388 393 398 403 408 413 418 423 5.228 1.0389 0.1907 0.~ ~ I.86 30.0335 0.932 0.127 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 0.0293 0.0576 0.702 2.0044 0.0439 0.902 2.545 0.' w }j u 0 .179 0.613 0.556 0.3915 36.1578 5.059 1.75 42.554 5.8296 1.119 0.267 0.2349 0.885 2.0129 0.092 9.1169 1.0052 0.3499 0. I.54 0.1097 0.0609 0.481 0.294 0.1466 0.0464 13739 0.76 37.121 6.55 2.20 12.774 1.379 1.131 8.2412 7.5369 4.07 1.707 0.j ~ ~ w '-' ~ x z N ~ ~ w '-' CO '~" w '-' w ~ ~ S d" 9: x '-' u ~ 'iJ.417 0.0883 0. '-' .864 1.0156 0. " ro <n :E ~ « ~ 1 °C -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 .0245 0.2611 4.572 L 32 .991 5.039 1.2648 0.9924 1.31 18.5848 0.0246 0.298 2.1954 70 75 80 85 31.469 0691 1.489 3.0075 11.33 0." ro u u '-' ~ ro a 0 :f: ~ '-' ~ S ~ ~ '-' ~ J.984 3766 4.81 20.3996 0.0239 1.0922 0.574 7.9505 2.331 2.824 4159 5.0609 0.2157 0.6355 0.269 0.409 0.283 8.7354 1.7407 2.129 10.0956 0.478 8.1186 20.2719 0.50 2.08 2.0568 10.531 2.909 3.76 26.045 ±O 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 - 4.0180 0.014 0.776 9.050 0.0330 0.38 9.121 1..562 0.9197 0.14 10.37 8.453 1.267 1.5283 8.00319 9.6979 1.595 6.59 21.2068 4.3805 0.073 12.118 1.377 0.1008 13498 15.516 0.103 0.4942 0.7078 0.2876 0.0159 0.549 4.533 0.65 0.389 0. u 0 }j '-' ~ 0 >.91 1.0606 3.1527 0.257 0.j T K ro fj « u « E E 0 .795 2.1327 0.334 0.x II 0 ~ 0 'i1.232 0.0856 0.302 7.0419 0.768 17.69 0.0746 0.517 6.§ ~ ~ .0085 0.65 5.992 12.00319 0.363 2.7298 34.77 25. '-' 0 " '=' x 'i\ ~ E w r- ~ w x" z .7301 0.1911 3956 4.384 4.1696 0.807 0.5057 0.0354 2.945 6.1697 0.333 0.115 0.765 4.0996 4.76 360 4.700 0.196 0.1926 0.336 6.768 8.817 1. >.017 0.672 2.609 0.5188 0.311 0.89 7.5164 3.03 11.499 2.2836 04519 0.219 5.306 0.0127 0.40 1834 21.247 0.305 0.195 1.8095 1.34 14.711 0.889 3..55 15.15 11.16 33.149 0.719 0.0754 17.28 9.0298 0.184 3.1227 3.2457 2.103 1.1157 0.0275 10.0159 5157 6.1047 0.716 0.1722 17.201 0.8306 0..~ ~ " ro 0 .4828 1.423 1..1542 0.294 0.462 0.269 0.

7606 0..105 1.4339 0.070 1.4272 0.5003 0.655 0.9001 1.7710 0.9419 0.8469 1.5015 0.5660 0.2860 0.5422 0.601 0.10 263 0.5716 0.6791 0.j' E ·10 u " '!j ~ >.951 0.7501 0.7692 0.996 0.3665 0.868 0.6927 0.3230 0.632 0.039 0.9697 0.676 0561 0.20 253 .460 1. T K '" 0.J '" " 0.380 1.670 1.5665 0.7726 0.4526 0.2900 0.6134 0.432 0.5052 0.6041 0.4492 0.610 0.509 1.4848 0.460 0.7260 0.5696 0." ~ ~ u 0 ~ I ~ ~ 173 163 193 0.164 1.018 1.740 0.9141 0.4660 0.791 0.6110 1. ~ ~ " e " OJ 0 c co " .6663 06577 0.5125 iii ~ « m c 0 £ OJ "? c I 0 E « E E " '" w u >.022 0.702 0.5590 0.262 0.3502 0.6863 1.4090 0.169 1.6920 0.6012 0.6790 1.50 223 .774 0.4326 0. u 8 £: u ·u ~ ~ ~ ~ £ W u 8 ~ u =§ ~ ~ ~ u I C.691 0.60 .5146 0.9604 0.609 0.5340 0.292 1.6107 0.110 0. "< I u <E u :c 'i5 u u U m ~ :g I m 0 ~ u m c ~ ~ .7902 0.6306 0.6008 0.9234 0.6400 0.4003 0.7914 1.8205 0.980 0.3764 0.7815 0.4700 0.636 0.7392 1.6956 0.9049 1.6240 0.5635 0.4900 0.555 1.60 213 .435 1. ~ m u m c ~ OS U " ~ !'l ~ ~ ''" " U "i.310 (1.736 0.362 ± 0 273 10 283 20 293 30 303 40 50 313 323 0.6210 0.790 1.8395 0.7156 0.5479 0.7452 0.725 0.792 0.5793 0.5546 0.7634 0.6460 0.026 1.7546 0.192 1.960 0.6246 0.90 .783 0.565 0.5250 0..7566 0.5786 0.4117 0812 0.5910 0.676 60 333 70 343 60 353 90 363 100 373 110 363 120 393 130 403 140 413 150 423 1.630 0.505 0.420 0.695 0.~ '" e ~ :g 0 u ~ ~ J" 8 .70 Density P In kg/dm:.714 1.6156 0.4860 0.896 .090 1.765 0.7990 0.7927 0.5367 0.7609 0.765 0.518 0.6357 0.6145 0.9509 0.5196 0.4690 0.6744 0.5160 0.7813 0.4993 0.7310 0.5462 06675 0.6627 0.105) 1.6052 0.100 1.40 233 .30 243 .4650 0.7357 0.7046 0.7440 0.6576 0.611 0.8677 1.756 0.049 1.6492 0.3620 0.220 1.642 1.8563 0.736 0.9327 0.456 0.545 0.5555 0.8080 0.8769 0...6301 1.5300 0.4500 0.746 0.107 1.5430 " .5264 0.040 203 . I M ~ i t di: u m w s £ I S "0 ~ 0 N ~ z ~ E m >- i'l.5569 0920 06900 0.2 I 0 9.755 0. "0 ~ c € U °c -100 .003 0.6025 0.714 0.5940 0.

kWh..mm. kg Basic unit.... bar m WS. The weight force is the product of mass m by the local gravitational constant g. ~N. m 3 /s m3 /h... Pressure !p i ----L Pa ~ (= N/m') - IPascal I Mechanical stress (strength) .--=---+c-c--c----------­ Time t s \ Second s.'1C-'/m=in'--__--l _ Mass III kg Kllogramme g....1868 kJ The head is the work done in J = N m applied to the mass unit of the medium pumped. cal...81 W. cl----f----------. kp/cm'....h.---__t------- Density kg/m 3 kg/dm 3 The designation "specific gravity" must no longer be employed...1= 1dm3) .::-.kw'.. I___-------+---------~--m'ls 1 Sf = 10-1 m'ls 1 cSt = 1 mm'ls m'ls St (stokes).. lis lis and volume flow '(f m3 /s ="-=~-"=--\-'------f-----. speed n 1Is ~irl.Walt ...___. Q._ __.. ------+-:----+---+----__t------+-----+-------t"-=-'-='-'-':=-c-="c----~-Moment of J kg m' kg m' Moment of inertia inertia 2 grade __ c----..-kN. T torque Energy. ms. ns.. ·--1I __.. dm .c..f--------------­ . h.----jr------~---~tat.N/mm'.. Mp...t=_.-_ _ 1. WE JundkJ 1 kpm=9. mN. . at.. .. because it is ambiguous (see DIN 1305). ps..... °E.Ws.:... 1 PS = 736 W Basic unit ~ f----I------------­ m.__ f . moment....098 mbar 1 kp/mm' = 9. mg. 1 kp mls = 9.981 bar = 9... ~m..81 J 1 kcal = 4. kg/dm 3 and kg/m 3 i:wC::-'-ei~g..f .. reiated to the weight force of this mass unit in N....... m Power P 1 I I W ....81' 104 Pa 1 mmHg = 1..J. cm . W. Torr... N/cm'.' + " IPa Nm J Pascal ..~t___---__\___.. kg/.r---..ml....---~ ~. (= N/m') kp m. work.'kw K oK.f----..- Temperature difference Kinematic viscosity ------~--T v -tL-___ ­ K kp mis...­ Bending M.. I s Basic unit _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~-----___+_--~ Illin. s=-) Kelvin "C MW.l.~---. 1 at = 0. mm 3 .------~--- INewton (= kg m/s') tis. .--c--------­ /vIass flow Force r F m --=-~-f-N -+. -c------+:---'---'--TCC----. deg.­ Capacity. ~s. N/mm' 1 kp=9. i«I/sand~ _~ N _ kp.. (= N m 1 kW h = ~--~W s) __ 1 600 k.81 N. 34 ...::-+-------I------~--I----... quantity Q of heat _~ Head H I cr. k bar (1 bar=10 5 Pa) kp/cm'...333 mbar 1 mm WS = 0. Em. tlh..81 N m Joule kJ. .. I ton houndredThe mass of commercial (1 t = 1000 kg) weight commodity is described as _____+-__-+__+ I Volume V m 3 3 3 j ~ p ~g. cdm. Pound. (=J/s __-r=:-:-N..---. '--c-c---+-----+---. m3 Fli_t-r"e'-(1'.81 N/mm' _ Nm 1 kp m = 9. m Metre kpm kcal..

3093 ­ ­ 0.3732 ~ 1.4516 404.9144 1.709 5.86 2.3495 0.3048 0.1331 61.8288 5.3495 0.159 ­ 0.2929 404.1035 35 .dr.387 2.5506 1.7989 1.168 1.067 6.065 0.59 16.dr.0922 36.3687 mm' em' em' em' em' dm' dm' dm' dm' dm' dm' m' m' ­ ­ 3.3597 28.8327 ­ 1.4131 142.) 1 gill (gl) 1 pint (liq pt) 1 quart (liq qt) 1 pottle 1 gallon (gal) 1 peck 1 bushel 1 US oil-barrel (for crude oil) 1 quarter 1 ehaldron 1 dry pint (dry pt) 1 dry quart (dry qt) 1 peck (pk) 1 bushel (bu) 1 dry barrel (bbl) 1 grain (gr) 1 dram (dr avdp) 1 ounce (02 avdp) 1 pound (lb) 1 stone 1 quarter 1 eental (sh ewt) 1 short hundredweight 1 hundredweight (ewt) 1 long hundredweight (I cwt) 1 short ton (sh tn) 1 ton 1 long ton (I tn) 1 pennyweight (dwt) 1 troy ounce (02 tr) 1 troy pound (Ib t) 0.8024 907.6119 m m m m m m km km I"m' em' em' em' em' m' m' m' m' m' km' em' dm' dm' m' m' m' mm' em' em' em' dm' dm' dm' m' - 59.7006 45.4536 6.686 1011.8532 506.2929 404.5683 1.1012 8.9144 1.3268 0.5552 32.168 1.3503 12.3687 - - dm' mg g g kg kg kg kg kg kg g g 64.5737 118.) 1 fluid ounce (f1.5516 28.7718 28.2730 4.8327 1.067 6.5460 9.686 1011.1897 m m m m m m km km I"m' em' em' em' em' m' m' m' m' m' km' em' dm' dm' m' m' m' 0.0292 20.Area Volume Basic unit gallon for fluids Basic unit bushel for dry goods Mass and Weight Avoirdupois system (trade and commerce weights) Troy system (for precious metals) (ft) 1 loot = 12 in (yd) 1 yard = 3 ft = 36 in 1 fathom (lath) =2yd 1 rod (rd) 1 chain (eh) 1 furlon9 (fur) 1 mile (mi) (statute mile) = 1760 yd 1 nautical mile 1 circular mil 1 circular inch 1 square inch (sq in) 1 square link (sq Ii) 1 square foot (sq ft) 1 square yard (sq Yd) 1 square rod (sq rd) 1 square chain (sq eh) 1 rood 1 acre 1 square mile (sq mil 1 cubic inch (eu in) 1 board foot (fbm) 1 cubic foot (eu ft) 1 CUbic yard (eu yd) 1 re91ster ton (RT) = 100 eu ft 1 British shipping ton = 42 eu ft 1 US shipping ton =40euft 1 minim (min) 1 fluid scruple 1 fluid drachm (11.687 929.8532 506.03 0.7124 4046.387 2.3597 28.687 929.8361 25.7854 0.1939 1.1035 0.709 5.86 2.7124 4046.1849 ­ 1016.4516 404.3048 0.7646 2.291 1.2393 0.0470 - - ­ 50.59 16.2948 0.4536 dm' dm' dm' dm' m' mg g g kg ­ 36.oz.8024 ­ ­ ­ 45.3268 0.0470 1.03 0.9464 ­ 3.) 1 fluid dram (fl.1156 64.6093 1.4732 0.7989 1.6093 1.5552 3~.1168 201.6967 29.3592 kg kg kg kg g g kg 1016.0292 20.1365 2.8098 35.8288 5.1168 201.8361 25.7646 2.3592 50.7718 28.1839 3.

4909 29.5460 0.88025 68.9640 47.8907 33.4725 0.0558 1.07577 28.7457 1.9476 137.6841 1. internal (intrinsic) energy and enthalpy Power (heat fiow) (Sh tn (fOrCe») sq In (It Ib) (Hp h) (BTU) (It mbar mbar mbar N 0. to ISO 2548: K = n.4483 8.8964 9.9144 0.78951 1.9640 47.7457 Pressure Mechanical stress (fO~Ce)) Work.2520 mls mls mls ils lis lis m3 /s gls gls kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s N N kN kN Pa mbar bar - 0.32) t=4 tR 5 5 5 5 5 /IT=/lt=4/l tR Where: T thermodynamic temperature t Celsius temperature t F Fahrenheit temperature t R R~aumur temperatur in K in °C in OF in OR Conversion of the specific speed (type number) K customarily used in English-speaking contries into n.06309 28.flow) Mass flow Force (weight force) 1 foot per minute 1 yard per second 1 yard per minute 1 gallon per second 1 gallon per minute 1 cubic foot per second 1 cubic yard per second 1 ounce per second 1 ounce per minute 1 pound per second 1 pound per minute 1 short ton per hour 1 ton per hou r 1 long ton per hour 1 ounce (force) 1 pound (force) 1 short ton (force) 1 long ton (force) 1 pound (force) square foot 1 pound (force) square inch 1 short ton (force) square inch 1 inch H2 O 1 foot H2 O 1 inch Hg 1 pound (force) square inch 1 short ton (force) square inch 1 foot-pound 1 Horse power hour 1 Brit.8803 Dynamic Viscosity 1 pound (mass) foot x second 1 pound (force) x second square foot Temperature Conversion of temperature points: T = 9 t F + 255.4882 47.919 36 .15.9476 137.01524 3.0558 1.37.2780 4.3558 0. energy.7646 28.00756 0.3268 0.00508 0.8907 33.2822 0.acc.78951 mm' 1. quantity of heat. Conversion of temperature differences: /lT~/lt=9tdF 5 t = 9 (t F ./52.006895 13.2780 4.3558 J 2.4483 8.3495 0.88025 68. T=4tR+273.Capacity (rate of volume .00756 mls mls mls lis lis lis m3 /s gls gls kg/s kg/s kg/s N N kN kN Pa mbar bar mbar mbar mbar N mm' N mm' J MJ kJ W kW kW Pas Pas - 0.9144 0.8663 0.7646 28.0558 kJ 1.8803 W kW kW Pas Pas per second 1 Horse power(Hp) 1 British Thermal Unit per second ~b) (B:U) ('b (.8663 0.3495 0.:SS») ('b (force) s) sq It 1.3558 2. Thermal Unit 1 foot-pound (av) (lt/min) (yd/s) (yd/min) (gpm) (cusec) (olls) (ollmin) (Ibis) (Ib/min) (shtn/h) (Itn/h) (Ol) (Ib) (shtn) (Itn) ('b (force)) sq It ('b (force)) ( si) sq In .8951 2.4725 0.8951 2.0558 1.00508 0.7854 0.2822 ­ 0.6841 MJ 1.4536 0.4909 29.4536 0.4882 47.8964 9.006895 mm' N 13.01524 4.P (Sh tn (fOrCe») sq'ln (in H2 O) (It H2 O) (in Hg) ('b sq In 0.3558 0.3268 0.

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'f..... I 40 .....

1// r/ 1/ 1/ 1/. ....' 0. r/ 1/ '/ /.I"'Ir!-I ­ '"0 . 1// /.. .. 1/ / '/ / / '/ / / / / / / / I/V 1/ //.I 40 80 I. I 20 I 30 .m~! ~ ..1-1-+ " l' " nq.s "°"+t~~R=m~HP=+=1 . I I 0.8 Q wopl Q wopl 1..I ~o [! 3000 ~OOO 5000 I I I I I • • f 10 II ) II..I 400 500 1000 2000 400 I . .( //// /!/. I / I/o V '/./ 1/ Yr/ '/ 1/ /.I/ '" 10 30 40 ~o m"h IDa 200 JOO .optln m' I h...w 30 20 '10 o"t-t-t-f-H-t-t-t-+++-++++-+"'l-Plf". 0.9t-+ lo.. r/ '/ 1// '/1/ / 1/ 1)</ 1/ / / 1/ 1/..5 ! 1 " I I I I . 1/ 1/ / / / / 1<\. """ I '""'" 41 '. I " 100 :too I 300 I.' 0.. :-" ::0­ .7t-t-t-r-HH--+' 0.• +-H-+-+-H-+-+­ lawa.'7' ~/ '/J / 1/ '/.1.. 1/ 1/ r/ 1/ /: '/ '/..J' (/ 1/ l/ 1/.........w . o··+++++t+:!+++~UU~ 0.O... • • .' '.... V 1/ / 1/ 1/ V 0. . '/ 1/ 1// /. 1/ /. 1/ 1/ "// '/ f/ 'r / y/ / '.20 Wopt Q I~. '/ f/ /// /.Belr..: ~ 0....J 1000 Capacity QZ. .oa&l. '/ 1\:7­ '/.. / / f/ / / / / /X/V / '// / /. QW.6 "'­ ••• "­ I +-+-HH-+-+-+-t-++-+-ttt-H"'TI"'l""''''''-+-+-1 H-+-f~ 0.

/ / r-.J--1 +-f-t-f--H-+-+-+-+++-H+-+F:::-"I'F:::~~<'I-----d~-t'-­ -'0. / '/V/ / '/ / // / / / -.Belr. H L0r-rp~~~~l+P=+=1 0. 'IXI 1/ 'I.""!2~~.. I .10 0. -ff·!AIf--Jt-t 2000 ... 100 30 I ~o 200 I 300 400 100 ~oo 1000 200 ! 2000 400 6DO ! I 3000 4000 ~ooo 1000 I 10000 lODO 50 I I! I I . 0 28 . /1/ 1/ 1//.X/ r/ 1/. OW./ 1/ .- 0.I.'t-H--+-+++-+-+-H--+-+++++-..' 45 30 "120' ::e~lgt~~'~~l--it1t:-~I--ItiE"I-3'-"3 nq.9+-+ r-./ 1/ 1/ N l/ r/ .~ r-:: °we.w -10 ­ ~o '"0 1/ / 000 1/ / 1000 / / / / 1500 G. I't:--t:-.' t-t-H---1--+-+-+-+-++++f~~~~H +-·+--H-i--+ -+--+-+-+--F"':. .6 I ! '/ / 'I.c12. / 1/./ r/.' 0.V 1/. "I .! 4 40 10 50 lis '" Ih :10 I.1''­ ~ I'-..1/..I 100 I Capacity QZ.:::h~3'-<c-t-P-kjH--+--+ ..l.. ' " I-. 'O'o. /.'j-~-. 1//1/.<'''' '/IA /(7 .: 'Ii' '/ 1/ r/ y// 1/ / 1/ '/ / ~ooo / .p..J' (/ '"00 3000 WW~I'cI/fflf-WHJ'1-.--.r/ 30 .I--­ 0. 1 ! . 1/ .4 ----- Io·'t-H-+-+-+-H-f--I-I.-.L! 0.:: t-H--+-+-+--I --t-H-+-+--+J+-+-H"--"!.' ..t' Q Qwopt ..3 0. " 20 5 . /.2I'-d-+-H 3O. . rna I I 42 .opt in h.. iI! /.".""".".C-f-. 0.. /.ct-. r/ V 1/ 1/.

. -/Oopll 1 (H opt 11) 31' (g .-.' IX '/ 800 800 400 " 't-0¢ 200 _p. Established: no = 23 l/min 43 .::1.81 nq n q = n .'Ii " o? .10000 1/ 2000 8000 6000 h 4000 ~ / 1.<> IA" it) '00 60 60 40 10 30 20 8 '" .-rr.o " 500 400 a 0 a a 300 200 '00 80 80 40 .3 lis..~ ~ 4 600 700800 I 960 I 1450 4000 lImin 6000 6000 10000 15000 20000 25000 1 2900 Speed n Equations Qapl HOPI Units n l/min 1Is l/min nq l/min 1 9 ~ 9.l ­ ­ =­ 20 "V . s 1000 800 3000 2000 .~ ~ 800 400 1000 300 '"' C:!-. 1 With multistage pumps use the stage head. Hopt) 31' m3 /s m3 /s m3 /s m m m ~ 333 . Example: Q opt = 66 m 3 /h ~ 18./ 'y :/ 8 4 vv '§l • ~/J ~oll . H opt ) 31' (g . -v'Qopt 1 All equations give numerically equal results. ~"iJ.. ~ ~ 300 ~ 200 • • 0 .5 m. Hopi = 17. 'o~ <> .55 . -v'Qopt m/s2 m/g2 DIN 24260 nq ~ 5.<><> 30 ~ 10 8 6 3 2 'l. 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 '0 6 8 ~ 4 500 .~ .. n = 1450 l/min. "'l. n . n .~ V lImln 100 80 60 40 30 20 /0: "- X "• 3 IV " v ~ "" .. With double-entry impeller pumps use only half the capacity.

.8 1.81 lis m 1/min m2/s kg/dm 3 m/s2 Capacity Head Efficiency I) lrom Individual characteristic curve OWOO!!) HW ...11 1 Hz Q _ QZ.aQ WOpl QWOPI Calculation in graphic form 'w Q 1. Qz=Qw' fa w Hz = lis = Hw·fH w·1 . use Hz = Hw Pump Size Available data: Capacity Head Kinematic viscosity Density Q z Selr Hz Setr Vz pz lis m m2/s kg/dm 3 Procedure n selected na..w 3) from section 9..Selr Hz.12 1/min - ~ from section 9.Betr W.p.Betr Z H 'w Oz Blv. Hz Bev.w 0 kW pz=pz·g·Hz·Qz ~z·1000 established.Setr - Hr---~ .. Ow Bltr.Operating Point Available data: Capacity Head Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravitational constant Qw Hw n Vz pz To determine the new operating data it is also necessary to calculate the data at b...2 lis m H I::IYL ~w booklet for 4 points on curve 'I~~-- - ------ ." o.12 1/min 1/min ­ ~ from section 9.10 ~ fn.1 Z 0 W.w 0/00 I ~ ~ from curve 0 0 0 0 =Hw 0.03 =Hw·fHW =Hw·fHW m H w Theee values mean 'lIwopt 'Hz 4 points on QH z and Q11z line plus 3 points on the OP z line are ') T)z = T)W' f11 . • H w H 1 HZ.Betr .e. 9 9. w from graph in section 9.2Q wopt 2) If Hz > Hw.ODl 1) lis m tlw oot 1) ­ Procedure nq . 3) where Q QZ. PloUed over Q. Belr = H ept Calculation in graphic form 44 . .0 1. lis m = Q opt ) approx.

. __ .i 45 -------------------------_.

46 .

pumps for irrigation and sprinkling. location: Frankenthal Factories: Pegnitz. firefighting. Submersible motor pumps for the handling of sewage. Conventional and Nuclear Power Stations Location and factory: Pegnitz Butterfly Valves Division Butterfly valves with soft and metallic seat. eftluent and faeces lifting plants. cold-drawing methods for chrome nickel steel. Location: Bagnolet Factory: la Roche Chalais Building Services Division Heating and industrial water pumps. . for refineries. "" Postfach 1725 D-6710 Frankenthal Telephone: (06233) 86-0 Fax: (06233) 863401 Teletex: 62333=KSBFT . Bremen. Single-stage bearing pedestal mounted pumps for irrigation duties. main coolant pumps. Location: Pegnitz Factories: Pegnitz. offshore and mining applications as well as all special appliccdions. patent rights. systems and electronic controls as well as engineering services in the fields of hydrodynamics. Neuvy. Deville. sugar and foodstuffs industries and for the handling of solids..Sector: Industrial Enginnering. chemical and process engineering as well as for conventional and nuclear power stations. Process pumps for the chemical and petrochemical industries. Horizontal and vertical multi-stage pumps for irrigation and water supply systems. pumps for water supply. cellulose. plastics technology. Systems for pump speed control. complete pump sets for pressure boosting and fire-fighting. Location: Courbevoie Factories: Frankenthal. location: Frankenthal Factories: Frankenthal. building services.". reactor feed pumps. high-temperature heating systems and cryogenics. location: Frankenthal Factories: Frankenthal. condensate pumps. machine dynamics. CMteauroux Components and systems for sewage treatment. Borehole shaft-driven pumps for irrigation. Annecy 'b. Lille Industrial and Process Pumps Division Standardized pumps and mUlti-stage pumps tor heat transfer and industrial water. Annecy New Technologies Development and manufacture of new pump types. pumps for seawater desalination plants. product and packing design. valves. water supply.". water supply and agricultural drainage duties. pumps for onshore and offshore applications as well as for refineries and the petrochemical industry. Frankenthal Water Pumps Division Multi-stage submersible motor pumps for municipal and industrial water supply. cooling water pumps. Location: Courbevoie Factories: Homburg (Saar). Pegnitz Engineered Pumps Division Centrifugal pumps for conventional and nuclear power plants: boiler feed and circulating pumps. Vertical propeller pumps for irrigation. and industrial applications. garden pumps. Services to the planners and operators of the plants. irrigation. Non-clogging centrifugal pumps tor paper. swing check valves and actuators for building services. CMteauroux. CMteauroux. measurement techniques. materials technology. open and closed loop control.)'" """. Pumps for flue gas desulphurization plants and for air and gas purifiers. industrial applications.

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