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ENGLISH TENSES[1][1]

ENGLISH TENSES[1][1]

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Міністерство освіти і науки України Одеський національний університет ім. І. І.

Мечникова Інститут соціальних наук

О.М. Набока Н.О. Коваль

ENGLISH TENSES THEORY

«Астропринт» Одеса 2006

2

Автори-укладачі: О.М. Набока , старший викладач кафедри іноземних мов гуманітарних факультетів ОНУ; Н.О. Коваль, викладач кафедри іноземних мов гуманітарних факультетів ОНУ;

Друкується за рішенням Вченої ради Інституту соціальних наук Одеського національного університету ім. І. І. Мечникова Протокол № ____ від _________ 2006 р.

3 CONTENTS

The Present Indefinite Tense……………………………………………………………….4 The Present Continuous Tense……………………………………………………………..8 The Present Perfect Tense……………………………………………………………….. 30 The Present Perfect Continuous Tense…………………………………………………….33 The Past Indefinite Tense…………………………………………………………………15 The Past Continuous Tense……………………………………………………………….20 The Past Perfect Tense……………………………………………………………………36 The Past Perfect Continuous Tense………………………………………………………39 The Future Indefinite Tense……………………………………………………………….26 The Future Continuous Tense…………………………………………………………….29 The Future Perfect Tense …………………………………………………………………41 The Future Perfect Continuous Tense …………………………………………………….43 The Future-In-The-Past Tense……………………………………………………………..45

4 THE PRESENT INDEFINITE (SIMPLE) TENSE I. The formation of the Present Indefinite. 1. The Present Indefinite is formed from the infinitive without the particle to. The third person singular adds –s; -es to the Infinitive. 2. The interrogative and the negative forms are formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to do and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to. Affirmative I work He works She works We work You work They work Interrogative Do I work? Does he work? Does she work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Negative I do not work He does not work She does not work We do not work You do not work They do not work

3. The contracted negative forms are: I don’t work He doesn’t work They don’t work 4. The negative-interrogative forms are: Do you not work? Don’t you work? Does he not work? Doesn’t he work? II. SPELLING NOTES

Verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x and -о add es, instead of s alone, to form the third person singular: I kiss, he kisses I rush, he rushes I watch, he watches I box, he boxes I do, he does I go, he goes

When -у follows a consonant we change the у into i and add -es: I carry, he carries I copy, he copies I try, he tries but verbs ending in у following a vowel obey the usual rule: I obey, he obeys I say, he says III. The Present Indefinite is used in the following cases: 1. to denote habitual actions, to state facts in the present.

5 I live in St.-Petersburg. Most dogs bark. 2. to state general rules or laws of nature, that is to show that something was true in the past, is true in the present, and will be true in the future. Snow melts at 0 C. Two plus two makes four. 3. to denote recurrent actions or everyday activity. This use is often associated with such adverbial modifiers of frequency as often seldom sometimes occasionally always never ever every year ( week, month, day ) usually once ( twice, thrice ) a year daily on Sundays and the like He usually wakes up around six o’clock and has his cup of coffee. On Sundays we stay at home. Do you often go to the dancing hall? 4. to denote actions and states continuing at the moment of speaking (with stative and relational verbs). He wants to see you at the moment. Who does the car belong to? I do not understand you at all. 5. to express an instantaneous action which takes place at the moment of speaking but it is not viewed in its progress. The speaker just names the occurrence itself, the actions as such. You leave me no choice. I swear it to you. I refuse to listen to you .You talk such nonsense. 6. to express declarations, announcements, etc. referring to the moment of speaking. I declare the meeting open. I agree to your proposal. 7. to express a succession of point actions taking place at the moment of speaking (in the outlines of novels, plays, stage directions, films, demonstrations, etc. It is often used by radio commentators at sports events).

to leave. I’ll have dinner whenever it’s ready.) usually if the actions denote a settled plan and the future time is indicated: I go to Moscow next. to denote future actions in adverbial clauses of condition after conjunctions if unless in case on condition that provided providing But I must have the doctor handy. 11. (demonstration ) When the curtain rises. (the action of the play) Now watch me closely: I take a match. Unless you take the brake off the car won’t move. 12. to start. She leaves for England in two months 9. to denote future actions in adverbial clauses of concession after conjunctions even if even though no matter how whenever whatever however Even if he hates me I shall never do him any harm. 10. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters. As soon as he earns any money he spends it. to sail. in case she feels worse. etc. to denote past actions in newspapers headlines. Juliet is writing at her desk. to denote future actions. to come. light it.6 Now I peel the apples. to arrive. Mostly with verbs of motion ( to go. to return. . slice them and put them into the dish. put it into the glass and … oh. to denote future actions in adverbial clauses of time after conjunctions when till (until) as soon as as long as before after while once She won’t go to bed till you come. nothing happens! 8.

16. I forget your telephone number. In this case the sentence usually contains an indication of time. » Neither a borrower nor a lender be” . to take care. to be told). command or arrangement worked out for a person or persons officially. To express immediate future in some special questions. Can you tell me what time the game starts today.7 Students Say No To New Weapon. His ship sails tomorrow. turned on the light and Whom do you see I think? Jack. 15. What does that letter say? I see you have got a letter from Ann. to hear. programme. What do we do next? Where do we go now? What happens next? 19. It was so unexpected. 14. to indicate a future action which is certain to take place according to a timetable. in object clauses after to see (to). with the verb say. notices or very recently received letters. in exclamatory and interrogative sentences. old Jack. He will take care that no one interferes with them. and to make (be) sure. schedule. I give a cry and rush to him. sleeping in the chair. You see. 13. My dear. in narratives or stories to express a succession of actions in the past to make it more vividly (the so-called historic or dramatic present). please? When does Tom return from honeymoon? 18. to denote completed actions with the meaning of the present perfect (with the verbs to forget. What does she say? Shakespeare says. I came home late last night. how you throw about your money! Why do you talk like that to me? 17. I’ll see that the lady is properly looked after. when we are asking about or quoting from books. I hear you are leaving for England? I am told she returned from France last week.

In the interrogative from the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. arguing Hate. The negative. dye and singe: Ageing Dyeing Singeing and verbs ending in ее: agree. Affirmative I am reading He is reading She is reading We are reading You are reading They are reading Interrogative am I reading? is he reading? is she reading? are we reading? are you reading? are they reading? Negative I am not reading He is not reading She is not reading We are not reading You are not reading They are not reading 3. this e is dropped before in: Argue. loving Except after age. The Present Continuous is formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. When a verb ends in a single e. 2.8 THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE I. The contracted negative forms are: She isn’t reading We aren’t reading 5. SPELLING NOTES 1. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb.interrogative forms are: Am I not reading? Is she not reading? Isn’t she reading? Are you not reading? Aren’t you reading? II. The formation of the Present Continuous Tense 1. agreeing . The contracted affirmative forms are: I’m reading She’s reading We’re reading 4. hating Love.

I'm just tying up my shoe-laces. etc. just. at the moment. signalling travel. enjoying hurry. budgeting enter. -ing can be added to a verb ending in у without affecting the spelling of the verb: carry.) 3. He's working at the moment. this consonant is doubled before -ing: hit. He is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. A final 1 after a single vowel is. travelling (except in American English. stopping Verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains only one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable: admit. preferring but budget. hitting run. actions or events which are in progress at the moment of speaking. Can you answer it? What are you doing? . . hurrying III. we often use adverbials like now.9 see. seeing 2. The Present Continuous Tense is used to denote: 1. entering (stress not on the last syllable). To emphasize this. We can emphasize the idea of duration with still.: Someone's knocking at the door. When a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a single consonant. running stop. admitting begin. He is still talking to his girlfriend on the phone. What's the baby doing? ~ He's tearing up a £5 note Actions in progress are seen as uncompleted. beginning prefer. always doubled: signal. however. so he can't come to the telephone. carrying enjoy.

emotionally coloured tone. . usually when the frequency annoys the speaker or seems unreasonable to him: Tom is always going away for weekends.When no emotional colouring is implied. for an action happening about this time but not necessarily at the moment of speaking: He is teaching French and learning Greek.10 The Present Continuous can be used to denote a certain state or quality peculiar to the person at a given moment.) 5. 4. Note that the time of the action must always be mentioned. You people always think I’ve a bag of money. bringing out the person’s typical traits. with a point in time to indicate an action which begins before this point and probably continues after it: At six I am bathing the baby. however. You are being nervous. He is having a meeting with the boss this afternoon. for a frequently repeated action. can be used in this way without a time expression. to express the action generally characterizing the person denoted by the subject. (I start bathing him before six. 6. come and go. He is taking me to the theatre. probably too often in the speaker's opinion. 2. Often the adverbial modifiers always and constantly are found in these sentences: You are constantly complaining that you have too much to do. He is always losing his keys. They are getting ready to move to their new house. 3. as otherwise there might be confusion between present and future meanings. Indications of time are not necessary. the Present Indefinite is used: Old uncle Harry is always thinking he’s going to be ruined. for a definite arrangement in the near future (the most usual way of expressing one's immediate plans): I'm meeting Peter tonight. The Present Continuous in this case imparts a subjective. (Present continuous) would imply that he goes away very often.

care for (= like). III. love. respect. These verbs can be grouped as follows: I. know. and hate meaning the opposite. 1 adore. also notice and observe (= notice). long for.Verbs of the senses (involuntary actions): feel. for an action which appears to be continuous: He's always working = He works the whole time. taste used as link verbs. though it is safer to use the simple tenses with like. He is listening to a tape. believe. value meaning 'estimate the financial worth of. . like. look. wish. Verbs of mental activity. Some verbs are. mind meaning 'look after/concern oneself with'. see. II. appreciate (= value). not normally used in the continuous and have only one present tense.g. but he's wearing earphones so nobody else hears it. mind (= care). fear. Verbs expressing feelings. VERBS NOT NORMALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS TENSES The continuous tenses are chiefly used for deliberate actions. and can. This sort of action quite often annoys the speaker but doesn't necessarily do so 8. loathe. mean. love and hate: He's enjoying his holiday in the Arctic He hates touristy places and he doesn 't mind the cold. appreciate ( = understand). stare and watch imply deliberate use of the senses. want. hate. dislike.emotions and wish. I just don't like work. How are you liking/Do you like your new job? ~ I'm hating it/I hate it. appreciate meaning 'increase in value'. listen. look (at). smell. you see. to describe current trends: People are becoming less tolerant of smoking these days The population of the world is increasing. I'm minding my own business. enjoy and sometimes like/love meaning 'enjoy'. forget. value. e. care for meaning 'look after'. feel (= think).g. hear. observe (= watch). perceive. be used in the continuous tenses: Watch! ~ I am watching but I don't see anything unusual. agree. the simple present. But the continuous can be used with admire meaning 'look at with admiration'. Verbs such as gaze. of course. desire. feel sure/certain. expect (= think). and feel. e. assume. detest. admire (= respect).11 7. therefore.

e. concern. understand. see (= understand). nervous/confident. suppose. fit. Verbs of possession: belong. happy/sad. satisfy. VI. VII. resemble. smell and taste used in the continuous forms 1. please. taste (=have a flavour). trust (= believe/have confidence in). consist. angry/pleased. feel for meaning 'try to find something by touching': He was feeling for the keyhole in the dark. own. Verbs denoting physical properties of objects: measure (=have length.feel feel. sound (= seem/appear): It concerns us all. possess: How much do I owe you? V. etc. include. e. feel. signify. recognize. appear (= seem). doubt. have. look The continuous is not used with look used as a link verb. lack. hot/cold. see through someone (= penetrate his attempt to deceive). weigh (=have weigh). That cake looks good. width. keep (= continue). contain. surprise.). prefer. matter. impress. Verbs denoting abstract relations: be.g. feel meaning 'touch' (usually in order to learn something) can be used in the continuous: The doctor was feeling her pulse. recall. recollect. But appear meaning 'to come before the public' can be used in the continuous. But . is normally used in the simple tenses but can also be used in the continuous: How do you feel/are you feeling? ~ I feel/am feeling better. But feel is not used in the continuous when it means 'sense': Don't you feel the house shaking? when it means 'think': I feel you are wrong and when it is used as a link verb: The water feels cold. Verbs denoting effect or influence: astonish. Similarly. remember. deserve. owe. look up to (= respect) and look down on (= despise) (see chapter 38). tense/relaxed. But the continuous can be used with appreciate meaning 'to increase in value'.12 realize. imagine.g. hold (= contain). seem. look. smell (=give a smell). This box contains explosives. when followed by an adjective indicating the subject's emotions or physical or mental condition. involve. need. IV. depend. or with look on (= consider). think ( = have an opinion). guess. 2.

look for/in/into/out and look on (= watch) are deliberate actions and can be used in the continuous tenses: He is looking for his glasses. (has a bitter taste) But taste meaning 'to test the flavour of can be used in the continuous: She was tasting the pudding to see if it was sweet enough. see can be used in the continuous when it means 'meet by appointment' (usually for business). I smell gas. see somebody out = escort him/her to the door. but can be used with smell meaning 'sniff at': Why are you smelling the milk? Does it smell sour? 4.taste taste as a link verb is not used in the continuous: This coffee tastes bitter. see and hear used in the continuous forms 1. 2. Also when it means 'visit' (usually as a tourist): Tom is seeing the town/the sights. see someone off = say goodbye to a departing traveller at the starting point of his journey (usually the station. I'm looking out for a better job. see somebody to + place = escort him/her to + place: ANN: Is Bill seeing you home after the party? MARY: No.): The court is hearing evidence this afternoon. Bill is seeing us off at the airport.g. It can also be used in the continuous in the following combinations: see about = make arrangements or enquiries: We are seeing about a work permit for you. smell The continuous is not used with smell meaning 'perceive a scent/an odour'. 1 am seeing my solicitor tomorrow. see somebody home = escort him/her home. e. He is seeing to the leak in our tank. deal with: The plumber is here. he's just seeing me to my bus. airport etc. 'interview': The director is seeing the applicants this morning. (trying to arrange this) see to = arrange. hear can be used in the continuous when it means 'listen formally to' (complaints/evidence etc. 3.13 look (at). put right.): We 're leaving tomorrow. . or with smell used as a link verb.

(opinion given) Tom is thinking of emigrating. The interrogative and the negative forms are formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to do and the Infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to. The Past Indefinite is formed by adding -ed or -d to the stem (regular verbs). 3. The formation of the Past Indefinite. She's expecting a baby in May. What do you think of the idea? ~ I think it is a stupid idea. THE PAST INDEFINITE (SIMPLE) TENSE I. Verbs ending in -e add -d only: Infinitive: to love Simple past: loved The same form is used for all persons: I worked you worked he worked etc.14 hear meaning 'receive news or letters' can also be used in the continuous form but only in the present perfect and future: I've been hearing all about your accident. He should stay where he is. assume and expect used in the continuous forms 1. or in some other ways (irregular verbs).expect can be used in the continuous when it means “await‘: I'm expecting a letter. or by changing the root vowel. 2. 2. think. assume power/control of a country or organization can also be the continuous: The new government is assuming power at once.I ' m thinking about the play we saw last night. Affirmative I worked (wrote) Interrogative Did I work? (write) Negative I did not work (write) . But What do you think of it? (opinion asked for) ~ / don't think much of it. You 'll be hearing about the new scheme at our next meeting. assume can be used in the continuous when it means 'accept as a starting point': I'm assuming that you have time to do a lot of research.think can be used in the continuous when no opinion is given or asked for: What are you thinking about? .

1. left. last year. the day before yesterday. . The action is cut off from the present. travelled Verbs ending in -у following a consonant change the -у into -i before adding -ed: carry. saw. The Past Indefinite denotes a single action performed within a period of time which is already over. The contracted negative forms are: I didn`t work She didn`t work 4. SPELLING NOTES The rules about doubling the final consonant when adding ing (see p. to speak Simple past: ate. to leave. admitted stop. obeyed. The time of the action may be indicated by adverbials of past time. but once this is done there is no other difficulty. a week ago. spoke The simple past form of each irregular verb must therefore be learnt. such as yesterday. The negative-interrogative forms are: Did you not work? Didn`t you work? Irregular verbs: form These vary considerably in their simple past form: Infinitive: to eat.6) apply also when adding ed: admit. The use of the Past Indefinite.15 He worked (wrote) She worked (wrote) We worked (wrote) You worked (wrote) They worked (wrote) Did he work? (write) Did she work? (write) Did we work? (write) Did you work? (write) Did they work? (write) He did not work (write) She did not work (write) We did not work (write) You did not work (write) They did not work (write) 3. A list of irregular verbs will be found on page 49 II. III. stopped travel. carried try. to see. tried but -у following a vowel does not change: obey. as irregular verbs (like regular verbs) have no inflexions in the past tense.

and then went out walking with the dog. The answer can be either in the Past Indefinite or in the Present Perfect. I slept very badly. He smoked in silence for a few minutes (курил). today. is used in questions beginning with when. because when implies a certain moment in the past. depending on the situation: — — When did you see him? I saw him two days ago . Note: The Simple Past. The Present Perfect is not common here because the attention in such sentences is drawn to the circumstances of the action rather than to the occurrence itself. etc. . Sorry! I didn’t mean to hurt you. Or: I have just seen him. Ellean breakfasted two hours ago. (just now) When did you actually arrive? The Past Indefinite is also used in special questions beginning with where and how when they refer to the past events. tonight. he has a key. The Past Indefinite can correspond to the Russian past perfective and past imperfective (совершенный и несовершенный вид). The sun came out a moment ago. which means that the speaker has a definite action in mind. "Oh. and Evans said." Where is my hat? Where did I leave my hat?" Yet the Past Indefinite may also be found in present time context with such adverbial modifiers of time as this morning. The translation depends on the context and the lexical character of the verb.16 in 1971. Where did your uncle receive his guests?" "Right here." How did he get in?" I asked. I ate turnips in Germany. Не smoked a cigarette and left the room (выкурил). Did you belong to any society at the University? But sometimes the mention of the time or place of the action appears unnecessary because reference is made to a particular action which is definite in the mind of the speaker and the hearer. The time of the action may be implied in the situation through the mention of the place of the action or other attending circumstances.etc. Miss Helstone stayed the whole evening. never the Present Perfect.

But sometimes he found his work difficult. Compare: I wonder if you could give me a lift. They are used to + infinitive and would + infinitive. Note. It generally serves to express recurrent actions which may be either point actions or actions of some duration. Used (pronounced [ju:st]) to + infinitive has only one form — that of the past tense which occurs in present-time. and saw no one except me. It is generally supported by the use of adverbial modifiers of frequency such as often.and pasttime contexts. . The simple past does not always refer to past time. never now and again. To express polite inquiries. I wondered if you could give me a lift. She lived alone in London. sometimes always. He threw down his spade and entered the house. 4. In English there are special means of expressing a recurrent or permanent action in the past. You often mentioned her in your letters. It can also be used for polite inquries (particularly asking for favours). Did the telephone ring? Who left the door open? 5. uninterrupted processes in the past. To express recurrent actions. He made an entry in his diary every night. "She used to give me chocolate. 6. think or wonder. but they always quarrelled. I knew they loved each other." murmured Imogen.17 if the period is over or reference is made to a particular past point of time within that period Did you see the letter in the “Times” this morning?(It is no longer morning) 2. etc. To express the immediate past. 3. giving a general characteristic of the person or thing denoted by the subject. often with verbs like hope. We can sometimes use the simple past without a time reference to describe something that happened a very short time ago: Jimmy punched me in the stomach. etc. In narrations to express a succession of action of past actions. To express permanent actions which indicate continuous.

I don't exactly hear as I used to. sit under one of the apple-trees and read. Generally this meaning is rendered by the Past Continuous . and sat down in the very corner. I used to be as sentimental as anyone a few years ago. but sometimes he would have fits of depression. Lena didn't use to like the clock. This meaning is naturally found in present-time contexts. 7. of course. I used to live there as a girl. But you have been lately. Would + infinitive is more restricted in its application than used to + infinitive. He ordered dinner. On the whole. I used to take out a deck-chair. The negative and interrogative forms of used to + infinitive are very seldom found and there is fluctuation in the way they are built up.18 I used to meet him sometimes when he was working on the Chronicle here. "And what did they use to give you on Sundays?" he was asking as I came in." Used you to climb the old apple-tree in the garden? It is necessary to point out that occasionally used to + infinitive is found where normally the Past Perfect would be used. at which he and young Jolyon used to sit twenty-five years ago. It is found only in past-time contexts and serves to express only recurrent actions. I liked reading in the garden. She seemed able to do nothing for an infinite time without feeling bored. She would often wake up screaming in the night. what's come over you? You used not to talk like that. But we resort to the Past Indefinite in the following cases: . I know. did she? "I'm not mean. haven't you?" Cedric. "Who do writers write for now?" "Who did they use to write for? People." said Ann. He was usually active and interested. at the very table perhaps. would + infinitive is typical of literary style. dear. In this case it implies contrast between the past and the present — what was typical of the past is no longer true at present." "You usedn't to be. To express an action going on at a given past moment. You wouldn't have the same comforts in the country. Sometimes used to + infinitive with a durative verb serves to express an action giving a permanent characteristic of the subject of the sentence in the past. Sometimes I would go out and sit with her for a little on the grass.

to hang. Barbara and Basil sat in the garden after lunch. 8. to talk. She thought it tasted horrible. In such cases the action as such is only named. The Past Indefinite may have a special form which is used for emphasis. This emphatic form is built analytically. to walk and some others. Note that when we speak of inanimate things the Past Indefinite is the norm with the verbs mentioned above. She was ill at ease. 9. to gleam. but a rising moon gleamed against one window in the room where little Mary slept. to shine. a thin gold watch-chain and other marks of respectability. beyond the colonnade. It occurs in clauses of time. On the table lay three rows of cards face upwards. to speak. a bowler hat. and he felt sorry for her. The full moon shone down on the lightless blindfaced street. His hair was newly cut. To express a future action viewed from the past. The lights in the house were out. if she thought it useful. and would. and it is often the circumstances under which it takes place that are really important. He talked with acute intensity. to stand. and he carried a new umbrella.by means of the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to do followed by the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to.The auxiliary is heavily stressed in this case. he wore a stiff white collar. Note. to carry. Her face was heavy: she spoke with deep emotion. listening attentively to our conversation. lie and cheat and steal until she brought it off. He walked between us. condition and concession. He wanted all her troubles for himself at that moment. He knew that she was determined to marry him.the Future-in-the-Past or modal verbs are usually used in the principal clause in this case. . She sipped her coffee and pulled a face. to wear. the ground froze hard and the trees stood out white against the leaden sky. to lie. b) The Past Indefinite may be used instead of the Past Continuous with certain durative verbs. The smoke from Basil's cigar hung on the humid air. This use is found in reported speech and is structurally dependent. We went to the bus stop. Outside.19 a) The use of the Past Indefinite becomes obligatory with stative verbs. They are to sit.

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb. The use of the Past Continuous. In the interrogative from the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. The Past Continuous is characterized by the same features as the Present Continuous but unlike the Present Continuous it is associated with a certain moment in the past. 3. The contracted negative forms are: She wasn’t reading We weren’t reading 5. When I called him up . The Past Continuous is formed by means of the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. The fire began at midnight when everybody was sleeping. At 10 it was still raining. The negative. Affirmative I was reading He was reading She was reading We were reading You were reading They were reading Interrogative Was I reading? Was he reading? Was she reading? Were we reading? Were you reading? Were they reading? Negative I was not reading He was not reading She was not reading We were not reading You were not reading They were not reading 4.20 I did insist on it.he was still having breakfast.interrogative forms are: Was I not reading? Wasn’t I reading? Was she not reading? Wasn’t she reading? Were you not reading? Weren’t you reading? II. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE I. He did participated in this conference. It serves to express an action which is going on at a given moment in the past. A given past moment indicated in these sentences by stating the precise time or with the help of another action which is normally a point action expressed in the Past Indefinite. 1. The formation of the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. .

e. Wakefield was in New York when news of the illness of Nicholas reached him. for ever. This idea is derived from the descriptive character of the Continuous form. i. Surely he was joking. She was speaking with difficulty. Often such adverbial modifiers as always. The Past Continuous is used to express an action going on at a given period of time in the past. it usually means that the action does not fill up the whole period. Owing to its dynamic character. She looked unbelievingly at him. Andrew had no idea whether he was doing well or badly in his exams.when there is an adverbial modifier of manner or comparison in the sentence. The indication of the past period of time is generally deduced from the context but it may be also indicated in the sentence in various ways which have no special form. bringing out the person's typical traits. . is in progress at that moment and will continue for some time after it. the Past Continuous may be used to express actions generally characterizing the person denoted by the subject. etc. too. i. 3.However. the main implication being that it is generally the most characteristic feature of the doer of the action during that period of time. Note. The most typical feature of this use of the Past Continuous is that the precise time limits of the action are not known. In this case the precise limits of the action are not known either. He was acting in a play that had had a success in London.That means that the action begins before that definite past moment. He remembered that Helen had met her first husband when she was working in a New York publishing house. as though she had to think hard about each word. perpetually. Yet he was speaking with absolute nakedness. are found in this case in the sentence.21 Sometimes no indication of a given past moment is necessary. they all knew that he was referring to June. its beginning and its end are not specified. the Past Indefinite is preferred to the Past Continuous when attention is focused on the manner in which the action is performed. Moreover. the Past Continuous is occasionally found. constantly. As a rule. Though there was no apparent sense in his words. this use of Past Continuous does not imply that the action is in process uninterruptedly all that period of time.e. As has been said. 2.

the Past Continuous may be found with verbs which normally do not admit of the Continuous form. in clauses of comparison and in object clauses after the expression it is time. Like the Present Continuous. You said you were going. . expressing irritation: I thought you were never coming. indicating it with a bandaged thumb. 1 think. It is an action which is supposed to take place in the near future due to a previous arrangement. as though they were making an experiment in the college laboratory. Why didn't you tell me you were starting? He did not know how he could send word that he was not coming. It is emotionally coloured." Adeline said. Even if he were not being offensive.22 "Archer's tray. They were eating their ice-cream with concentration. She was noisy and constantly trying to attract attention by any means. in object clauses after the verb to wish. But I knew that Uncle Nicholas was leaving me money. He was always experimenting. 5. She was always suffering from a cut or a burn. If I were describing the chap in one of my unsaleable stories I should write of him as being five-foot-nine. Mrs Whiteoak. 4. Notice the following sentence which is a stereotype. The Past Continuous may serve to denote unreality (referring to the present or future or simultaneous with another action). This application also has descriptive force. It occurs either because the verb has changed its meaning or for reasons of emotional colouring. the characteristic given to the subject of the sentence is emotionally coloured. he was a bacteriologist. Frank. Note. At the end of the week she wired that she was returning. he would have tempted me to say something hard. " I wish you were coming with us. *** It should be borne in mind that there are the same restrictions to the use of the Past Continuous as to the application of the Present Continuous in so far as the lexical character of verbs is concerned. The Past Continuous is also found to indicate a future action viewed from the past. He wasn't really a doctor. mainly in clauses of condition and concession. The time of the action need not always be mentioned as it is easily understood from the situation." said Swift. This use is structurally dependent as it is found in certain types of subordinate clauses.

He had always liked it. and she seldom looked at my father as she spoke. He took me as an equal. This. I watched him as he drank his tea. Christian listened with a kind of hypnotized boredom as Norman continued to hold forth. as 1 was going out of the college." he said. but it seemed that now he was seeing it for the first time. Cf. A few minutes later he came from the direction of the stables. half-out of the shadow. His thoughts were interrupted by Ted Newton. She was sitting half-in. I met the Master in the court. I was seeing George regularly now. He wore riding breeches. in the first place. who stopped at the table for a quick straight drink. They followed the path across a stubble field where small birds were finding their evening meal. He felt he was being the little ray of sunshine about the home and making a good impression. the dentist. The butler had replied that Lord Percy was confined to bed and was seeing nobody. "1 was wanting to catch you. I had a horrid feeling that she was seeing right through me and knowing all about me. Renny and Piers talked little as they drove home. Ted was wearing a racoon coat. With some verbs the Past Continuous or the Past Indefinite may be used without any marked change of meaning as these verbs in themselves imply continuity or duration. Within that pattern there may be three different kinds of time relation between the actions of the principal and the subordinate clauses. 1) There is a sentence pattern which is a complex sentence with a clause of time introduced by the conjunction as. Eliot. It is important for practical purposes to consider the following sentence patterns in which we find the Past Indefinite and/or the Past Continuous used in different combinations with each other. a) The actions of the two clauses may be fully simultaneous. refers to the verbs to feel. It surprised him. The next morning. Nothing that I could say would convince him that I was not being intentionally humourous. In this case the Past Indefinite is commonly found in both clauses. to wear and to look. .23 He gazed at the picture.

In this case. I saw his eyes flash. as exciting. I knew in my heart that his resolve was formed. a fresh breeze stirred the new curtains at the window. And as 1 poured her out a glass of sherry. . wouldn't you?" One evening just as I was leaving the office. she was saying: "I always imagined you darker than Martin. 2) There is a sentence pattern which is a complex sentence with a clause of time introduced by the conjunction while. As I turned back into the room a gust of wind crashed the door shut behind me. As we walked along the country footpath. c) The actions of the two clauses may form a succession. As they met mine." b) The actions of the principal and the subordinate clauses may be partially simultaneous. Occasionally the Past Indefinite is found in both clauses. naturally. It usually happens when the verb in the principal clause is terminative and the Past Indefinite would indicate a completed action. all of a sudden: "Lewis. Here we find two different kinds of time relation between the actions of the two clauses. "In there is my Uncle Nicholas. In this case we normally find the Past Continuous in the subordinate clause and the Past Indefinite in the principal clause. As the sun disappeared. As she turned the corner and advanced toward the court a man standing near the gates moved in her direction. when the action of the subordinate clause serves as a background for the action of the principal clause which is usually a shorter accomplished action. You'll meet him later." But as I was playing with the baby she remarked. only the Past Indefinite is found. as different a slice of existence. As we talked I realized that to Irene it seemed as strange. as Martin had found hers. 1 was myself sorting out my official thoughts collecting what I could safely say to Drawbell.24 Occasionally the Past Continuous is found in the principal clause whereas the Past Indefinite is still used in the clause of time. Martin rang me up. you'd rather be alone. As he and Renny were passing the closed door of a bedroom Renny said.

b) The actions may be partially simultaneous. I heard a splash from the bath and I realized that Martin must be there. Roma said nothing but looked from one face to the other while they discussed plans. the minds of both were fixed on the woman whom Chase had lately married. while he played the piano. While Christian was still regarding the broken glass in dismay Pheasant appeared in her nightdress. While I was reading. While this chilly interchange was being carried on. still as a statue. while Christian regarded them both with a detached interest. Affirmative I shall (will) work He will work She will work We shall work You will work They will work Interrogative Shall I work? Will he work? Will she work? Shall we work? Will you work? Will they work? Negative I shall not work He will not work She will not work We shall not work You will not work They will not work II. While he stood there wondering what sort of pictures to hang on the walls he heard a step and Maurice stood in the doorway looking in at him. The formation of the Future Indefinite Tense 1. THE FUTURE INDEFINITE (SIMPLE) TENSE I.25 a) The actions may be fully simultaneous. They gave each other appraising looks. "See what I've done. In this case either the Past Continuous or the Past Indefinite is used in the subordinate clause and the Past Indefinite is normally found in the principal clause. The conracted negative forms are: . The Future Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbs shall/will and the notional verb without the particle to. In this case the action of the subordinate clause serves as a background for the action of the principal clause which is a shorter accomplished action. So the Past Indefinite is always used in the principal clause while in the subordinate clause either the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous is found." he exclaimed. She sat.

It can express a single point action that will be completed in the future or an action occupying a whole period of time in the future. tea and onions. think.surely. I hope you'll live for many years. I know I'm right. and one of these days you'll realize it. i. assumptions. I think I shall remain in love with you all my life. suppose etc. It can also express some permanent future actions generally characterizing the person denoted by the subject of the sentence. The old age pension will keep me in bread. It will ruin her. be afraid. necessary or desirable. assume. speculations about the future (often with I believe. He will be here any minute. probably. Water will boil at 100 Centigrade. that of possibility. i. wonder. I shall graduate next year. hope.26 I’ll work He’ll work They’ll work The contracted negative forms are: I shan’t work? He won’t work The negative-interrogative forms are: Shall we not work? Shan’t we work? Will he not work? Won’t he work? III. Thus any action in the future is an action which is possible. I think it will be a difficult game. I'm afraid he'll be a bit lonely. The Future Indefinite Tense is used: 1. or accompanied by adverbs such as perhaps. The peculiarity of this tense is that its meaning contains some modelity. The use of the Future Indefinite. Perhaps he will find him at the hotel. know. e. and what more does an old man want? 2. necessity or volition.expect. to express the idea of the inevitability of an action. but can be used without them). possibly. e. poor darling. . No gentleman will remain seated with a lady standing. in statements of general meaning to denote something that will be always true. to denote the speaker’s opinions.

6. a succession of actions in the future I shall wait in the next room and come back when she's gone. 11. time and sometimes purpose If I drop this glass it will break. 3. We'll just talk about the weather and the crops for a few minutes and then we'll have dinner.for formal announcements of future plans and for weather forecasts THE PRESIDENT WILL OPEN A NEW AIRPORT TODAY. The form “will+ Infinitive” may be used even in subordinate clauses of condition when the meaning of modality (volition) prevails over that of time indication. Other pupils will sit at my desk. 4. in newspapers and newsbroadcasts. NB! In if-clause or time clause we don’t use the future indefinite even when the meaning is future It will get warmer soon but when it gets warmer… 5. in threats I won’t speak to you ever again. 10. Going my way?” “Yes. 7. promises I shall love you for ever. in sentences containing clauses of condition. Spring will come again. I’ll be with you in ten minutes if you will wait for me. to denote future habitual actions which we assume will take place. 8. in firm intentions. decisions made at the moment of speaking All right. I am putting this letter on top of the pile so that he’ll read it first. The fog will persist in all areas. If you will give me a lift. in requests Will you do me a favour? 9. When it gets warmer the snow will start to melt. in suggestions Shall I go for a work? .27 Note.I shall see you at 8.

1. I am sure the next time you call we shall still be wavering. The Future Continuous is formed by means of the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.28 Shall I start reading? 12. The definite moment is indicated either by another future action expressed by a verb in the Present Indefinite or by an adverbial phrase. Good luck with the exam. This time tomorrow I’ll be skiing. We’ll be thinking of you. The use of the Future Continuous. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. I wonder whether we shall ever arrive at a decision. 1. The contracted negative forms are: I`ll be working He`ll be working They `ll be working The contracted negative forms are: I shan`t be working He won`t be working 4. The negative-interrogative forms are: Shall I not be working? Shan`t I be working? Will he not be working? Won`t he be working? II. in asking for advice What shall I say if he calls? THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE I. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. The formation of the Future Continuous. Affirmative I shall (will) be working He will be working She will be working We shall be working You will be working They will be working Interrogative Shall I be working ? Will he be working ? Will she be working ? Shall we be working ? Will you be working ? Will they be working ? Negative I shall not be working He will not be working She will not be working We shall not be working You will not be working They will not be working 3. . The Future Continuous is used to denote an action which will be going on at a definite moment in the future.

Affirmative I have worked You have worked He/She/It has worked We have worked They have worked Interrogative Have I worked? Have you worked? Has he/she/it worked? Have we worked? Have they worked? Negative I have not worked You have not worked He/She/It has not worked We have not worked They have not worked II. he will be working. But my dear Ann Veronica. shan’t be seeing her again. to denote a future action. If you don’t take care. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE I. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb. he’ll be getting transferred to China and marrying a purser’s daughter. irregular verbs are used in the form of Participle II according to the list of irregular verbs). I am sure you won’t be able to speak to him. The Future Continuous is very often used in modern English in the same meaning as the Future Indefinite. Give my love to Lady Mont. especially when we want something or want someone to do something -Will you be using your car this evening? -No. e.Do you want me to get anything? In this meaning it is similar to the Present Continuous I am going to the shop later. 4. you will be getting into debt. 3. The formation of the Present Perfect Tense The Present Perfect is built by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the Present Indefinite and Participle II of the notional verb (with regular verbs the Participle is formed by adding the suffix – ed. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. you can take it. At 12 o’clock I shall still be working. The definite moment is often not expressed. To ask about people’s plans. To talk about things which are already planned or decided I shall be going to the shop later.29 I shall already be working when you return. but is understood from the situation. The contracted affirmative forms are: . i. 2.

. I am still in Vienna now.) I have worked for this company for over two years. The use of the Present Perfect 1. We use the present perfect to show that an action happened during a period of time up to now. The time is not important. (It doesn’t matter when I broke the window. (I was in Vienna two years ago. 3. What matters is that now I’m in trouble!) 2. (We are not interested in when. In English we usually use the Present Perfect to talk about actions in the past when we are not thinking or talking about the exact time that they took place.) Vicky has already eaten her lunch.) This means that we can use the present perfect for actions where the time has not yet finished. I have lived in Vienna for two years. only if you have or not. However there may be results or effects now. (In my life up to now. I’ve only seen six tigers. We can use the Present Perfect for longer actions which started in the past and are still happening.30 I’ve worked He’s worked You’ve worked The contracted negative forms are: I haven’t worked He hasn’t worked You haven’t worked The negative-interrogative forms are: Has she not worked? Hasn’t she worked? Have you not worked? Haven’t you worked? III. Have you met Peter? (We are not interested in when you met him.) I’ve broken the window.) Have you been to Denmark? (In your life up to now.

I have been here since Monday. always.) He has been to Spain. We use the Present Perfect with This is the first time….) Compare: I went to the circus last year. (He has visited and come back. It’s his first time behind the wheel of a car. Ron is driving a car. of late. 7. lately. It’s the first time…. I have been to the Moscow State Circus.31 Thursday: I’ve seen two films this week. never.) He has been in Spain for a week. We can show that something will not happen again by using the past simple. We use the Present Perfect after a superlative.) 4. recently.) I’ve lived here all my life. We use the Present Perfect for an action that happened in the past and may happen again. have you just arrived? I have already started my new job. This is the first time he has driven a car. (He left a week ago and is still there. How long have you been here? . We use the Past Indefinite to say when something happened. ◆In the clause introduced by since the Past Indefinite is used to indicate the starting point of an action. We do not use for in expressions with all (all day / all morning / all week / all my life etc. We haven’t seen George recently. often. (He has left and is still there. We can use the Present Perfect with the following “time guides”: just. 6. We use the Present Perfect with for + length of time and since + a time in the past. What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen. (The week has not finished yet.I have been here for two weeks. already. up to now. ever.) 5. repeatedly. They haven’t had any problems so far. (Now it has left and I can’t go again. Is this the first time you’ve been in hospital? 8. Hello. (And may go again.) ◆BEEN and GONE He has gone to Spain. yet. We use the Present Perfect to ask or say how long something has been happening up to now. so far. .

Affirmative I have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working We have been working They have been working Interrogative Have I been working? Have you been working? Has he/she/it been working? Have we been working? Have they been working? II.32 Your daughter has become a real beauty since I saw her last. (He hasn’t visited us for ages. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. ◆Note the structure How long is it since…? -How long is it since you had a holiday? -It’s two hours since I had a holiday. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.) It’s ages since Tom visited us. The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Present Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. The contracted affirmative forms are: I’ve been working He’s been working You’ve been working The contracted negative forms are: I haven’t been working He hasn’t been working You’ve been working The negative-interrogative forms are: Negative I have not been working You have not been working He/she/it has not been working We have not been working They have not been working . In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.) THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE I. (I haven’t had a holiday for two years.

) 2. (They have lived in Paris for three years. We can also use the continuous form when we want to emphasize how long something has been happening. rest. Alex has been sleeping for hours. . 4. Have you been running? That man over there is bright red. I have been studying for three hours. stay. often when we can see the result. (I started studying three hours ago and I am still studying. We use the Present Perfect Continuous for action that started in the past and is still happening. sit. We use the Present Perfect Continuous for actions that have just finished. Usually if the action started a few minutes or hours ago. We use the Present Perfect Continuous when we talk about an action (quite a long action) which began in the past and has recently stopped or just stopped. live.) They have been living in Paris for three years. We often use the Present Perfect Continuous with verbs like learn. I’ve been learning Italian for six years and I still can’t speak it properly! Sorry I’m late. I think he’s been sunbathing. we can use either the simple or continuous form. Have you been waiting long? Sometimes the action is a repeated action. stand. You are out of breath. 5. which describe states of being rather than actions.The use of the Present Perfect Continuous 1. Tom has been driving for ten years. and are still there. 3. How long have you been smoking? The continuous or simple form can be used for actions repeated over a long period. I’ve been collecting / I’ve collected stamps since I was a child. sleep. we use the Present Perfect Continuous.33 Has he not been working? Hasn’t he been working? Have you not been working? Haven’t you been working? III. and if it has been happening for longer. lie (on the bed).

We use since when we say the beginning of the period (8 o’clock). The Present Perfect Continuous is used with for. they are usually used in the Present Perfect. 7. 6. I have been staying with Aunt Olga this week as my mother is in Paris.34 The road is wet. I’ve been meeting. it has been raining. -How long have you been waiting for me? -I’ve bee waiting for you since 8 o’clock / for two hours. The Past Perfect is formed by means of the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary verb Participle II of the notional verb. Remember that some verbs are not usually used in the continuous form. The formation of the Past Perfect Tense. 8. For actions that are temporary. So instead of the Present Perfect Continuous. The contracted affirmative forms are: . and I’ve met two friends of mine. (Not. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE I. since and How long…? to say how long something has been happening. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb. I’ve been sitting here in the park for an hour. We use for when we say the period of time (two hours). In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. unusual or continue for some time. to have and Affirmative I had worked You had worked He/she/it had worked We had worked They had worked Interrogative Had I worked? Had you worked? Had he/she/it worked? Had we worked? Had they worked? Negative I had not worked You had not worked He/she/it had worked We had not worked They had not worked II.) Tom and I have known each other since we were at school.

by the end of the week. The Past Perfect expresses an action accomplished before a given past moment and viewed back from that moment. . By that time the children had already gone to school. When I came home. by that time. b) By another action expressed by a verb in the Past Indefinite. ◆ The definite moment need not necessarily be expressed in the same sentence as the action expressed by the Past Perfect. The storm had died away but very far off the thunder was still muttering. Everybody noticed how sad she was the whole evening. etc. She had got an unpleasant letter. The past moment from which the accomplished action is viewed may be indicated: a) By means of an adverbial expression: by four o’clock. The use of the Past Perfect 1. By six o’clock they had already gathered in the hall. By the end of the week we had already done half of the work.35 I’d worked We’d worked The contracted negative forms are: I hadn’t worked We hadn’t worked The negative-interrogative forms are: Had he not worked? Hadn’t he worked? Had you not worked? Hadn’t you worked? III. I knew that she had left for the South. ◆ Notice that the tense does not change depending on the positive or negative meaning of the context: We had gone far when we suddenly noticed that dark clouds were beginning to gather. The porter said that our friend had just left the club. everybody had gone to the concert. We had not gone far when we suddenly noticed that dark clouds were beginning to gather.

sat down in the armchair and began reading his newspaper. to open. already.36 2. 6. Elsie. to look in. He closed the window. Sometimes the Past Perfect does not denote priority but only the completion of the action. I noticed that somebody was sitting at the table only when I had already entered the room. barely…when. He had hardly entered the room when he heard some noise. 4. Verbs of motion and sense perception such as to come. he recognized it at once. in adverbial clauses of time are generally used in the Past Indefinite and not in the Past Perfect. I noticed that somebody was sitting at the table. was sweeping the stairs. . The Past Perfect is used with the conjunctions hardly…when. He knew the poem by heart when he had heard it several times. etc. For the sake of emphasis the word order is often inverted. No sooner had the bell gone than the teacher entered the classroom. to return. The Past Indefinite is sometimes used instead of the Past Perfect in clauses introduced by before and after owing to the lexical meaning of these conjunctions. to arrive. to hear. When he heard the first line of the poem. ◆ Notice the use of the Past Perfect and the Past indefinite in the following examples: a) b) he had closed the window and was sitting in his armchair reading a newspaper. who had not yet assumed the white cap. The actions are practically simultaneous. The Squire was purple with anger before his son had done speaking. the Past Indefinite is used when two actions closely follow each other. When I entered the room. merely…when. to enter. he recollected that he hadn’t locked the door. When the completion of the action is emphasized the Past Perfect is used. 3. The Past Perfect is frequently used with the adverbs just. 5. to see. yet. no sooner…than. With verbs which have terminative meaning as to arrive. He stood motionless after she disappeared. After he left (had left) the house. scarcely…when.

to travel. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE I. To indicate the starting point the preposition since is used. He had turned on the light and was sitting at his desk writing letters. to last. etc. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. b) in negative sentences: Those two had not spoken to each other for three days and were in a state of rage. The starting point or the whole period of duration of the action is indicated. to teach. a) with verbs not admitting of the Continuous form: Examination convinced him that the deacon was dead – had been dead for some time. with non-terminative verbs such as to work. The Past Perfect is used to denote the action which began before a definite moment in the past. The rain had stopped and the sun was shining brightly. to indicate the whole period of duration for is used. when the truck suddenly swerved to a halt. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb. The rain stopped and the sun came out again. The formation of the Perfect Continuous Tense The Past Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Past Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. He turned on the light. to study. Affirmative I had been working You had been working He/she/it had been working We had been working They had been working Interrogative Had I been working? Had you been working? Had he/she/it been working? Had we been working? Had they been working? II.: The ride had lasted about ten minutes. sat down at his desk and began writing letters.37 a) b) a) b) 7. The contracted affirmative forms are: Negative I had not been working You had not been working He/she/it had not been working We had not been working They had not been working . continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment. to live.

continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment. We couldn’t go out because it had been raining for two hours. We couldn’t go out because it had been raining since early morning. ◆ With verbs not admitting of the Continuous form the Past Perfect is the only tense possible. (The fact is emphasized. With certain non-terminative verbs both the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous are used. b) by a subordinate clause of time introduced by the conjunction when: I had been working at my English for about two hours when my friend came. . When she began to study English. The use of the Past Perfect Continuous 1. By the end of July they had been living at the seaside for a fortnight. He said he had worked for twenty years.) He said he had been working for a long time without achieving final results. The preposition for is used to denote the whole period of duration. The past moment from which the action expressed by the Past Perfect Continuous is viewed may be indicated: a) by an adverbial expression introduced by the preposition by: By that time she had been studying English for three years. Since is used to indicate the starting point of the action. she had been taking French lessons for two years. Either the starting point of the action is indicated or the whole period of duration.) 1. The Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which began before a definite moment in the past. (The process is emphasized.38 I’d been working We’d been working The contracted negative forms are: I hadn’t been working We hadn’t been working The negative-interrogative forms are: Had he not been working? Hadn’t he been working? Had you not been working? Hadn’t you been working? III.

no previous duration is expressed. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. had been raining for days the miserable fall rains of Eastern France. The contracted affirmative forms are: I’ll have worked We’ll have worked The contracted negative forms are: I shan’t have worked Negative I shall not have worked You will not have worked He/she/it will have worked We shall not have worked They will not have worked . Affirmative Interrogative I shall have worked Shall I have worked? You will have worked Will you have worked? He/she/it will have worked Will he/she/it have worked? We shall have worked Shall we have worked? They will have worked Will they have worked? II. The Past Continuous is used to denote an action going on at a definite moment in the past. He had been smoking a cigarette. She rose from the bench where she had been sitting for half an hour. now he threw the end of it into the grate and rose from the bed where he had been sitting. coming very close to that past moment but no longer going on that past moment. It had been waiting for two hours. The magnificent motor-car was waiting at the kerb.39 2. The formation of thePerfect Continuous Tense The Future Perfect is formed by means of the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. The wind which had been blowing harder than ever from the south-west all day. dropped at sunset. this is shown by the context. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE I. And now it was raining. The Past Perfect continuous is used when the previous duration of the action is expressed. and the moon climbed out of the ocean into a clear sky. ◆ The Past Perfect Continuous should not be confused with the Past Continuous. The Past Perfect Continuous may also be used to express an action begun before a given past moment.

If you ring me up after seven o’clock. By six o’clock I shall have finished my translation. The Future Perfect denotes an action completed before a definite moment in the future d viewed back from that future moment. I shall have done my work. (That means that the action of finishing will take place before six o’clock. by the first of June. b) By means of another action: If you come at seven. and I hope you will have had a good sleep by that time.40 He won’t have worked The negative-interrogative forms are: Will he not have worked? Won’t he have worked? Shall we not have worked? Shan’t we have worked? III. 2. the Future Perfect may be purely temporal and may show that the action already accomplished at the given future moment is connected in its results or consequences with that future moment. you will have learnt many new words and expressions. (You will know those words and expressions). etc.: By the end of the term we shall have learnt many new words and expressions. Like the Past Perfect. by seven o’clock. I shall have spoken to the secretary. ◆ The future moment from which the completed action is viewed may be indicated: a) by means of an adverbial expression: by that time. . By this time tomorrow they will have crossed the Channel. When you have finished this book.) I shall be back by six. Tomorrow at three o’clock he will have received my letter. The use of the Future Perfect 1. (He will have the letter).

41 The Future Perfect can denote an action which will begin before a definite moment in the future. Future perfect is used with verbs not admitting of the Continuous form. We shall have known each other for five years by the end of this year. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. to live. I shall have been a teacher for 20 years by next May. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE I. I shall have worked as a teacher for 20 years by next May. By the first of July we shall have been at the seaside for a fortnight. in negative sentences. The contracted affirmative forms are: I’ll have been working We’ll have been working The contracted negative forms are: I shan’t have been working He won’t have been working The negative-interrogative forms are: Negative I shall have not been working You will have not been working He/she/it will have not been working We will have not been working They will have not been working . Affirmative I shall have been working You will have been working He/she/it will have been working We shall have been working They will have been working Interrogative Shall I have been working? Will you have been working? Will he/she/it have been working? Shall we have been working? Will they have been working? II. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. with non-terminative verbs such as to work. will continue up to that moment and will be going on at that moment. to study. 3. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous Tense The Future Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Future Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. to teach etc. This meaning is shown by the context.

42 Will he not have been working? Won’t he have been working? Shall we not have been working? Shan’t we have been working? III. THE FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST TENSE The English language has a special form of the future. By the first of July he will have bee working at this office for six months. THE FUTURE-INDEFINITE-IN-THE-PAST I. The formation of the Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past The Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past is formed by means of the auxiliary verbs should and would and the infinitive without to of the notional verb. Affirmative I should work You would work He/she/it would work We should work They would work Interrogative Should I work? Would you work? Would he/she/it work? Should we work? Would they work? Negative I should not work You would not work He/she/it would not work We shouldn’t work They shouldn’t work II. to express a future action viewed from a past moment (sequence of tenses). the Future-in-the-Past. If the action expressed in the principal clause is posterior to that of the principal clause the Future-in-the-Past is used.The use of the Future Perfect Continuous 1. The Future Perfect Continuous denotes an action begun before a definite moment in the future and continued into that future moment. Should is used for the first person singular and plural. The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d work He’d work The contracted negative forms are: . a past tense (or Future-in-the-Past) must be used in the subordinate clause. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb. Would is used for the second and the third person singular and plural. If the verb in the principal clause is in one of the past tenses. I shall have been writing for two hours by the time you come back. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

43 I shouldn’t work He wouldn’t work The negative-interrogative forms are: Should I work? Shouldn’t I work/ Would he not work? Wouldn’t he work? III. The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d be working He’d be working The contracted negative forms are: I shouldn’t be working He wouldn’t be working The negative-interrogative forms are: . I was sure he would agree with me. THE FUTURE-CONTINUOUS-IN-THE-PAST I. The formation of the Future-Continuous-in-the-Past The Future-Continuous-in-the-Past is formed by means of the Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. The Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past denotes an action which was future from the point of view of the past. Affirmative I should be working You would be working He/she/it would be working We should be working They would be working Interrogative Should I be working? Would you be working? Would he/she/it be working? Should we be working? Would they be working? Negative I should not be working He would not be working He/she/it would not be working We should not be working They would not be working II. In the interrogative form of the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. The use of the Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past.

The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d have worked He’d have worked The contracted negative forms are: I shouldn’t have worked He wouldn’t have worked The negative-interrogative forms are: . The formation of the Future-Continuous-in-the-Past The Future-Continuous-in-the-Past denotes a concrete action going on at a definite moment (occasionally covering a whole period of time in the future) when that future moment is viewed from the past.44 Should I not be working? Shouldn’t you be working? Would he not be working? Wouldn’t he be working? THE USE OF THE FUTURE-CONTINUOUS-IN-THE-PAST I. THE FUTURE-PERFECT-IN-THE-PAST I. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. The formation of the Future-Perfect-in-the-Past The Future-Perfect-in-the-Past is formed by means of the Future-Indefinite-in-the-Past of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. I felt sure they would be discussing the same problem when I called. Affirmative I should have worked You would have worked He/she/it would have worked We should have work They would have work Interrogative Should I have worked? Would you have worked? Would he/she/it have worked? Should we have worked? Would they have worked? Negative I should not have worked You would not have worked He/she/it would not have worked We shouldn’t have worked They shouldn’t have worked II. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. I told him not to come at six o’clock because I should be having my lesson at that time.

The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d have been working He’d have been working The contracted negative forms are: . They assured me that they would have finished their work by six o’clock. The formation of the Future-Continuous-in-the-Past The Future-Continuous-in-the-Past is formed by means of the Future-Perfect-in-the-Past of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb. In the interrogative form of the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. 2. in both cases when the future moment is viewed from the past. HE FUTURE-PERFECT-CONTINUOUS-IN-THE-PAST TENSE I. I wondered whether they would have reached the place by noon. Affirmative I should have been working You would have been working He/she/it would have been working We should have been working They would have been working Interrogative Should I have been working? Would you have been working? Would he/she/it have been working? Should we have been working? Would they have been working? Negative I should not have been working He would not have been working He/she/it would not have been working We should not have been working They would not have been working II. The Future-Perfect-in-the-Past is used to denote an action completed before a definite moment which was future from the point of view of the past. An action begun before a given future moment and continued into that future moment.45 Should I have worked? Shouldn’t I have worked? Would he not have worked? Wouldn’t he have worked? III. She wrote to me that by the first of July she would have been at the seaside for a fortnight. The use of the Future-Perfect-in-the-Past 1.

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS .46 I shouldn’t have been working He wouldn’t have been working The negative-interrogative forms are: Should I not have been working? Shouldn’t you have been working? Would he not have been working? Wouldn’t he have been working? III. The use of the Future-Perfect-Continuous-in-the-Past The Future-Perfect-Continuous-in-the-Past denotes an action lasting during a certain period of time before a definite moment which was future from the point of view of the past. I wondered how long they would have been packing by the time I returned.

bereave 15. beat 8. awake 5. bend 14. Present and infinitive 2. Compounds of irregular verbs form their past tenses and past participles in the same way as the original verb: come came come overcome overcame overcome set upset set upset set upset Simple past abode arose awoke/awaked was bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereaved besought betted/bet bade bid bound bit Past participle abode arisen awoken/awaked been borne/born* beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent bereaved/bereft* besought betted/bet bidden bid bound bitten 1. bid (» offer) 19. bear 7. become 9. behold 13.47 The verbs in roman type are verbs which are not very common in modern English but may be found in literature. the less usual one will be printed in roman. be 6. bite . befall 10. When a verb has two possible forms and one is less usual than the other. bind 20. arise 4. bet 17. begin 12. bid (= command) 18. beget 11. abide 3. beseech 16.

burn 9. feel 38. buy 11. crow 23. drive 33. hew 60. hang 57. hear /hiэ(г)/ 59. dare 25. burst 10. bring 6. go 54. сап 12. gird 52. clothe 19. eat 35. cast 13. fall 36. forget 46. fly 43. chide 15. have 58. cling 18. grind 55. fight 39. freeze 49. forgive 47. forbear 44. break 4. gild 51. broadcast 7. forbid 45.1. hide bled blew 48 broke bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought could cast caught chid chose clove/cleft clung clothed/clad came cost crept crowed/crew cut dared/durst dealt /delt/ dug did drew dreamed/dreamt /dri:md. come 20. catch 14. do 28. draw 29. breed 5. fling 42. get 50. deal /di:l/ 26. feed 37. bleed 2. flee 41. blow 3. give 53. cut 24. creep 22. dremt/ drank drove dwelled/dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbore forbade forgot forgave forsook froze got gilded/gilt girded/girt gave went ground grew hanged/hung had heard /h3:d/ hewed hid bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought be able cast caught chidden chosen cloven/cleft* clung clothed/clad come cost crept crowed cut dared/dmst dealt /delt/ dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt /dri:md. dwell 34. choose 16. dremt/ drunk driven dwelled/dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forborne forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got gilded/gilt girded/girt given gone ground grown hanged/hung* had heard /h3:d/ hewed/hewn hidden . cleave 17. grow 56. /dri:m/ 31. build 8. cost 21. find 40. dream 30. drink 32. dig 27. forsake 48.

outfit. Note 2. SOME SPELLING RULES I.g. It is not doubled if preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong: e. Final l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel (stressed or unstressed). worshippedworshipping-worshipper.g. repeating. worship are exceptions: handicapped-handicapping. and b) the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel represented by a single letter. begin-beginning. Final r is doubled if preceded by a letter representing a stressed vowel.g. The words handicap. A final single consonant letter is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel (-able. outfitted-outfltting-ouifitter. thinner. etc. kidnapped-kidnapping. e.49 APPENDIX I. reddish. occur-occurred refer-referred But: differ-differed appear-appeared Note 3. Rule 1. developing. Doubling the final consonant. Note 1.) if a) the last syllable of the word is stressed. no matter if it is long or short (but not a diphthong): e. -ing. -er. kidnap. redden. red-redder. -est. travel-travelling expel-expelled But: reveal-revealed . thin-thinned. But: repeat-repeated. develop-developed.

look-looked-looking turn-turned-turning. Gatsby-the Gatsbys. But: age-ageing. forty-fortieth. slyly. II. advantageadvantageous. Rule 1.g. shyest. -ical. But: drying. amuse-amusing. sly-slyer. Double e (ее) is retained before all suffixes except those beginning with e (• ed. whole-wholesome. frying. Note 1. happy happily. A final single consonant is not doubled if a) preceded by an unstressed vowel: e. merry-merriment. dryness (both forms are possible in dryer-drier. -ly.g. fame-famous. Note 4. whole-wholly. Mute Final e. slyness. crying. Verbs ending in -ie change the ie into у before -ing to avoid a double i: die-dying. nine-ninth. c) the suffix begins with a consonant: e. true-truly. argue-argument. -ism. Rule 1. b) preceded by a vowel sound represented by two letters: e. Note 1. dry-dryly.50 Rule 2. Final -y and Its Modifications. -est. -like. tiptoe-tiptoeing. canoe-canoeing. -est): agree-agreeable. III. anything. -1st. -thing: babyhood.g. geology-deological. flyer-flier). open-opened. e is also kept after o: toe-toeing. Words ending in -y preceded by a consonant change -y into -.' before all endings except -ing: dry-dries. Final mute e is usually dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel letter. shyness. hot-hotly (but: hottest) forget-forgetful (but: unforgettable). Words ending in -y preceded by a consonant drop the -y before suffixes beginning with -4: -ic. Final -y is retained: a) in personal names: Mary-Marys. service-serviceable. opening limit-limited-limiting. nine-nineteen. copyist. seatable. refuse-refusal. Note 3. Note 2. Mute e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant (to keep the pronunciation): safesafety. Exceptions to the rule: due-duly. pity-pitiful. c) in some monosyllabic words before -er. economical. care-careful. b) in some words before the suffixes -hood. Rule 1 is not strictly observed in the case of monosyllabic words when they are likely to be misread: likeable. e is retained to show pronunciation in such words as: courage-corageous. clumsy-clumsier. historical. geologist Note 2. Rule 2. otherwise it would make two consecutive vowels: guide-guidance. slyest. lie-lying. -ish. cry-cried. history-historic. carry-carriage. applying. ladyship. -er. everything. -ist: economy-economic. shoe-shoeing. -ness: shy-shyer. tie-tying. seatable or likable. . ladylike. see-seeing. Note 5.

gaiety. beauteous.51 Note 3. enjoy-enjoyable. plenteous. day-daily. Rule 2. . play-playful. Final -y changes to -e before -ous: piteous. duteous. Final -y preceded by a vowel letter is retained before all suffixes: day-days. Exceptions: gay-gaily. pay-pays. payment.

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