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Lenses and mirrors play important roles in our daily lives even though we may not notice them. Even now, as you are reading this, you are using the cornea lens in each eye and if you use eyewear such as contacts or glasses, you are also those lenses to view this page. Recently you have probably seen your reflection in a mirror. In this lesson, we will explore different types of lenses and see how they impact vision. First we will focus on mirrors, but before we go onto the specifics, here are a few basic terms that will help you throughout the section:
Focal Point, Focal Length, Virtual Image, Real Image, Parallel ray, Radial ray, Focal ray Now, that we got that straight, let's learn about the different types of mirrors and what kind of images they produce. There are two basic types of mirrors: plane mirrors and spherical mirrors.
A plane mirror has even surfaces. The normal is a line perpendicular to all points of a plane mirror. The angle of incidence is an angle that light hits the mirror relative to the normal. The angle of reflection is an angle of that light's reflection, on the other part of the normal, and is equal to the angle of incidence. The image seen in a plane mirror seems to be behind the mirror. This is an example of a virtual image It is also rightside up, but reversed from right to left. This can be seem noticably by holding up a word to a plane mirror. The letters would each be flipped and the order of the word would be reversed. To determine the size of an image seen through a plane mirror, the following equation is used:
A spherical mirror is a mirror in the form of a slice of a spherical surface. A convex mirror is curved outward, like the outside of a sphere. When parallel light rays pass through a convex mirror, the reflected light appears to have come from behind, hence making it a virtual image. Because the rays reflected from a convex mirror diverge from any length, a diverging mirror will always produce a virtual image. This explains why the passenger side mirrors of cars, which are convex mirrors, display objects that look smaller than they are: the brain considers the diverging rays to have come from an image behind the mirror itself. A concave mirror curves inward like the hollow inside of a sphere. Or, in other words, it appears "caved-in", which could help you differentiate from both spherical mirrors. The light hitting the surface of concave mirror converges, and the image made by the mirror is either virtual or real, depending on the position of the object that is reflected. If the object is between the mirror and the focus, it will be right side up, virtual, and larger, while objects farther than the focus will be real images that subject to the position once again, may appear upside-down, larger, or smaller.
Spherical Mirror Equations
Here are equations that analytically explain the image results discussed in the previous section. Where M is the magnification factor sobject is distance from object to the mirror, simage is the distance from the image to the mirror, f is focal length, and R is radius of curvature. The focal length of a spherical mirror:
the light is concentrated on one point where a real image is produced. When the light enters from the lens’ focal point. it can be ignored. then the image is smaller than the object. here are equations that analytically explain the image results described above: Where M is the magnification factor sobject is distance from object to the lens. the light is concentrated on one point-the focal point. As done previously with the mirrors section. forming a virtual image. which are converging lenses and biconcave lenses. simage is the distance from the image to the lens. and if it is less than one. as to seem to have come from behind the lens. When the light enters from an object that is closer to the lens than the focal length. Note: In this lesson. the lens makes the light a parallel beam. which are diverging lenses. Lenses An optical lens is made from see-through materials and is generally spherical in shape. while diverging lenses are thicker at the edges that in the center. Concave or diverging lenses produce virtual images. Let’s compare the images each type of lens produces: Convex or converging lenses can form real or virtual images: • • • • When the light enters in parallel rays. the light diverges. But sometimes light rays emanating from the same point pass through the lens or mirror and converge to different foci. . then the image is larger than the object. Analyzing certain relationships with thick lens characteristics will be too complex because of the possibly large displacements resulting from the refraction from them. This is called aberration. Converging lenses are thicker in the center than at the edges. When the light enters from an object that is further away from the lens that the focal length. Types of Lenses Two types of lenses are biconvex lenses. we will assume the lenses are thin lens. The light rays appear to diverge from the virtual image on the side of the lens with the object. where the displacement of light as a result of refraction is so small. f is focal length: Lens Equations Thins Lens Equation: OR Magnification equation with a thin lens: Aberration So far we've assumed that light rays all focus correctly on a single point--the focus point.The spherical mirror equation: The magnification equation for a spherical mirror: Note: If the magnitude. or the absolute value of M is greater than one.
A cut off portion from a glass sphere or a portion has two dissimilar surfaces form the spherical mirror. with a short wavelength bends more than red and focuses closer to the lens than red. For example the rear view mirrors we often see in the vehicles have a curved surface such mirrors are spherical mirrors. Violet. and astronomical. Spherical aberration causes light to spread. this lenses causes the image seen through a camera to be blurry. The expanding surface in the spherical mirror which expands out is called the convex surface. Image Formation in Plane Mirror Consider a point object O placed just in front of a plane mirror. Light rays falling from O fall on the plane mirror and gets reflected . light takes about eight minutes to reach Earth and appears to travel at an angle. is not related to the focus of light rays. If concave surface is . So the light we see is from eight minutes ago.One surface of glass is polished to a high degree of smoothness forming the front surface of the mirror .When the light falls on this plate it falls on silver passing the opaque paint and gets reflected and we neglect the thickness of plate and represent the mirror as single surface. Spherical aberration is generated by spherical lenses or mirrors. The front surface the silvering is protected because coating of opaque paint . As a result. Here is an exmaple of it: From the sun. Concave mirrors or lenses: If the parallel light rays reflect from it.) don't focus on the same point.The back surface is silvered that is then painted with silver or mercury or some opaque material. The spherical mirror has one polished and other smooth surface when we silver on other surface we get two types of spherical mirrors. the rays that hit the edge of the lenses are blocked out. For instance. Convex mirrors or lenses: The rays that pass through the edges of the lens focus closer to the lens than the rays that pass through the center. the individual colors (ROYGBIV-red.but using the stop mechanism of the camera. So as white light passes through a lenses. The same phenomenon occurs with stars. you are actually watching the past! Introduction to plane and spherical mirrors: Plane mirror are commonly used for looking glasses. resulting in a single focus and a sharper image. chromatic. Chromatic aberration: Lenses refract light differently based on their wavelength.Hence we see the image of O at I and image is formed in the plane mirror Spherical Mirror All mirrors we use in day to day life are not plane and there comes the picture of spherical mirror. yellow. the rays that reflect from the center meet at one point while the rays that reflect beyond the center meet at points around the mirror's surface. orange. Astronomical aberration: This type of aberration. which results in a blurry image.The reflected rays reflect backwards to meet at a point I and the reflected rays fall on our eyes they pretend to come from I . etc. when you are watching the stars. unlike the other two types. except with longer lengths of time.There are three types of aberration in optics: speherical.The same side of surface as the centre of the original sphere is called the concave surface. A plane mirror is generally made of glass plate of few millimeters thickness .
Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors: Spherical mirrors: The spherical mirrors are of two shapes. . Because of the reflection all the objects should be visible and seen by people. the light is bouncing back after it is striking a surface called reflection. If concave surface is smoothed and convex surface is silvered we get a concave mirror. Introduction: When a light falls on a surface. When we are cutting the spherical shell into circular cross sections then we get a curved shape mirrors. • • Concave mirrors Convex mirrors Concave mirror: The mirror whose inner part of the surface makes reflection of light is called concave mirrors.silvered and convex surface is made smooth we get a convex mirror.When the light falls on the smooth surface of the spherical mirror it enters the glass and it gets reflected at the opaque silver surface The thickness of the glass is not of that concern and that represents the single curved surface spherical mirror. Convex mirror: The mirror whose outer part of the surface makes reflection of light is called convex mirrors. The surface may be plane or spherical shapes.
Principal axis: The principal axis is an imaginary line which is passing through the pole and center of curvature.9 and Fig. Focal length: it is the distance among the pole and the principal focus. The size of the mirror required to see the image of an object depends upon the position of the object and the eye.10). Principal focus: The principal focus is the point where the rays meet after the process of reflection. (ii) The image formed by a plane mirror is virtual. Aperture: Reflecting surface whose diameter is called aperture. 11. Pole: reflecting surface center is called pole denoted p. . (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) This change in the direction of "path of light is called the deviation. only the small portion AB' of the mirror is used (Fig.Terms Related to Spherical Mirrors: Terms in reflection by spherical mirrors: • • • • • • • Radius of curvature: spherical shell radius Center of curvature: spherical shell center. 11. (iii) The image formed by a plane mirror is of the same size as that of the object It is interesting to note that to see the image of 00'. the ray after reflected it is passing along principal focus F and in convex mirror it appears to pass along the principal focus F. Rays in Spherical Mirrors: There are 3 rays should be taken for spherical mirrors. the ray 2 has the property of passes along the principal focus F and in convex mirror it is directed towards the principal focus • Ray 3: In concave mirror the ray is allowed to pass along the middle of curvature and reflected back along its original axis. PLANE MIRRORS IMAGE FORMATION (i) The image formed by a plane mirror lies as far behind it as the object lies in front of it. erect but laterally inverted i..e. 11. In concave mirror. In convex mirrors ray is striking towards the middle of curvature as normal incidence is reflected back to its original path. the right-hand side of the object becomes the left-hand side of the image (Fig. Ray 2: For concave mirror. The remaining portion of the mirror is useless.10). • Ray 1: Ray 1 has the property of parallel to the principal axis.
if this be changcd. This can be verified by actual drawing. the angle through which the reflected ray of light gets rotated is Z B OB. then the number of images will be rounded off to the nearest integer. the direction of the reflected beam will also change.. 11. Hence. Image Formation When an Object is Placed between Two Inclined Mirrors It has been found that if the mirrors are inclined at an angle q then the number of images is given by the relation If is not a whole number. . (vii) Rotation of a Plane Mirror (viii) Let the mirror MXM2 be rotated through an angle 6 when AO be ihe incident ray of light. The direction of the reflected beam depends upon the position of the mirror. In Fig.11. when a mirror rotates through a certain > angle.(vi) \ Another point which may be borne in mind is that to see the image of an object. The following rays are usually considered while constructing ray diagrams. the reflected ray rotates through twice that angle. it need not be directly in front of the plane mirror. A ray of light falling on a plane mirror at any angle gets reflected from the mirror such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. A Ray Diagram Showing the formation of an Image by a Plane Mirror A ray of light incident on a plane mirror at 90o gets reflected from the mirror along the same path. Hence for a fixed incident ray.
I Let MM and MM' be two plane mirrors inclined at an angle 120o and O be the object placed in between these mirrors.If the mirrors are inclined at 120o the number of images formed by the mirrors is given by the relation Case . In this case the number of images formed by the mirror is . O1 and O2. Case II Now let us consider the mirrors MM and MM' to be mutually perpendicular. In this case there will be only two images viz..
Similarly EF the reflected ray gets internally reflected by the mirror MM along FH. The reflected ray BC gets internally reflected by the mirror MM' along CG.The Angle of Inclination Between the Mirrors is 900. . which is the image of O1. which is the virtual image of O. The ray FH appears to come from O4. They meet at O2. OD is perpendicular to the mirror MM' and hence gets reflected along the same path. OB makes an angle i with the normal N and gets reflected along BC according to the laws of reflection Extend the rays OA and BC backwards. The ray DG appears to comes from O3. which is the virtual image of O. which is the image of O2. The position of O1 and O2 coincide. An object O is kept in between these mirrors. the angle of inclination between them is 00. OA being normal to the surface retraces its path. • • • • Place the mirrors MM' perpendicular to MM. They meet at O1. OD and OE represent the rays which are incident on the mirror MM'. OA and OB are the two rays. which are incident on the mirror MM. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Case III Let us now calculate the number of images formed if the two mirrors are placed parallel to each other i. Thus when the angle of inclination between the mirrors is 900 we get three images.e.. OE is the incidentray and N2 is the normal at the point of incidence and OE gets reflected along the path EF. Extend OD and EF backwards.
In this manner. OA makes an angle i with the normal N1 and gets reflected along AB according to the laws of reflection. which is the virtual image of the object O. I2. are formed. The reflected ray AB gets reflected by the mirror MM' and forms an image I2.• • • • Place the mirrors MM and MM' parallel to each other. many images are formed but the intensity of the remote images goes on decreasing due to absorption of light energy at every successive reflection and thus we see only finite number of images even though infinite images will be formed. I4 etc. . An object O is kept between these mirrors. I3. I4 etc. OA and OO' represent the rays which are incident on the mirror MM. gets reflected and forms their images. They meet at I1. • • • • • • The light from I1. Extend the rays AB and OM backwards. OO' being normal retraces its path. Similarly I3.