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Ridge Waveguides and
Passive Microwave
Components
J. Helszajn
IET ElEcTromagnETIc WavEs sErIEs 49
Series Editors: Professor P.J.B. Clarricoats
Professor E.V. Jull
Ridge Waveguides and
Passive Microwave
Components
Other volumes in this series:
Volume 1 Geometrical theory of diffraction for electromagnetic waves, 3rd edition
G.L. James
Volume 10 Aperture antennas and diffraction theory E.V. Jull
Volume 11 Adaptive array principles J.E. Hudson
Volume 12 Microstrip antenna theory and design J.R. James, P.S. Hall and C. Wood
Volume 15 The handbook of antenna design, volume 1 A.W. Rudge, K. Milne, A.D. Oliver
and P. Knight (Editors)
Volume 16 The handbook of antenna design, volume 2 A.W. Rudge, K. Milne, A.D. Oliver
and P. Knight (Editors)
Volume 18 Corrugated horns for microwave antennas P.J.B. Clarricoats and A.D. Oliver
Volume 19 Microwave antenna theory and design S. Silver (Editor)
Volume 21 Waveguide handbook N. Marcuvitz
Volume 23 Ferrites at microwave frequencies A.J. Baden Fuller
Volume 24 Propagation of short radio waves D.E. Kerr (Editor)
Volume 25 Principles of microwave circuits C.G. Montgomery, R.H. Dicke and E.M. Purcell
(Editors)
Volume 26 Spherical nearfeld antenna measurements J.E. Hansen (Editor)
Volume 28 Handbook of microstrip antennas, 2 volumes J.R. James and P.S. Hall (Editors)
Volume 31 Ionospheric radio K. Davies
Volume 32 Electromagnetic waveguides: theory and application S.F. Mahmoud
Volume 33 Radio direction fnding and superresolution, 2nd edition P.J.D. Gething
Volume 34 Electrodynamic theory of superconductors S.A. Zhou
Volume 35 VHF and UHF antennas R.A. Burberry
Volume 36 Propagation, scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves
A.S. Ilyinski, G. Ya.Slepyan and A. Ya.Slepyan
Volume 37 Geometrical theory of diffraction V.A. Borovikov and B.Ye. Kinber
Volume 38 Analysis of metallic antenna and scatterers B.D. Popovic and B.M. Kolundzija
Volume 39 Microwave horns and feeds A.D. Olver, P.J.B. Clarricoats, A.A. Kishk and L. Shafai
Volume 41 Approximate boundary conditions in electromagnetics T.B.A. Senior and
J.L. Volakis
Volume 42 Spectral theory and excitation of open structures V.P. Shestopalov and
Y. Shestopalov
Volume 43 Open electromagnetic waveguides T. Rozzi and M. Mongiardo
Volume 44 Theory of nonuniform waveguides: the crosssection method
B.Z. Katsenelenbaum, L. Mercader Del Rio, M. Pereyaslavets, M. Sorella Ayza and
M.K.A. Thumm
Volume 45 Parabolic equation methods for electromagnetic wave propagation M. Levy
Volume 46 Advanced electromagnetic analysis of passive and active planar structures
T. Rozzi and M. Farinai
Volume 47 Electromagnetic mixing formulas and applications A. Sihvola
Volume 48 Theory and design of microwave flters I.C. Hunter
Volume 49 Handbook of ridge waveguides and passive components J. Helszajn
Volume 50 Channels, propagation and antennas for mobile communications
R. Vaughan and J. BachAnderson
Volume 51 Asymptotic and hybrid methods in electromagnetics F. Molinet, I. Andronov
and D. Bouche
Volume 52 Thermal microwave radiation: applications for remote sensing
C. Matzler (Editor)
Volume 53 Principles of planar nearfeld antenna measurements S. Gregson,
J. McCormick and C. Parini
Volume 502 Propagation of radiowaves, 2nd edition L.W. Barclay (Editor)
Ridge Waveguides and
Passive Microwave
Components
J. Helszajn
The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom
© 2000 The Institution of Electrical Engineers
First published 2000
This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright
Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research
or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in
the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued
by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those
terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:
The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Michael Faraday House
Six Hills Way, Stevenage
Herts, SG1 2AY, United Kingdom
www.theiet.org
While the author and the publishers believe that the information and guidance given
in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when
making use of them. Neither the author nor the publishers assume any liability to
anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether
such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such
liability is disclaimed.
The moral rights of the author to be identifed as author of this work have been
asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN (10 digit) 0 85296 794 2
ISBN (13 digit) 9780852967942
First printed in the UK by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall
Toujours, Ille
Contents
Preface xiii
1 The ridge waveguide 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide 1
1.3 Impedance of ridge waveguide 3
1.4 Attenuation of ridge waveguide 4
1.5 Ridge waveguide junctions 5
1.6 Waveguide transitions 10
1.7 Filter circuits 11
1.8 Turnstile junction circulator 11
2 Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 The wave equation 13
2.3 Dominant mode in rectangular waveguides 14
2.4 Impedance in waveguides 15
2.5 Power transmission through rectangular waveguides 17
2.6 Impedance in rectangular waveguides 18
2.7 Circular polarisation in rectangular waveguides 19
2.8 Calculation of impedance based on a mathematical
technique 22
2.9 Orthogonal properties of waveguide modes 24
3 Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides using the
transverse resonance method 26
J. Helszajn and M. Caplin
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide 26
3.3 Power ¯ow in ridge waveguide 31
3.4 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide 31
3.5 Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide 32
3.6 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide 33
3.7 Admittances of double ridge waveguide 34
3.8 Closed form polynomials for single and double ridge
waveguides 35
3.9 Synthesis of quarterwave ridge transformers 38
4 Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Finite element calculation (TE modes) 47
4.3 Finite element method (TM modes) 50
4.4 Cuto space (TE mode) 50
4.5 Standing wave solution in double ridge waveguide 52
4.6 TE ®elds in double ridge waveguide 54
4.7 TM ®elds in double ridge waveguide 56
4.8 MFIE 59
4.9 The Poynting vector 61
4.10 Attenuation in waveguides 61
5 Impedance of double ridge waveguide using the ®nite element
method 63
J. Helszajn and M. McKay
5.1 Introduction 63
5.2 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 64
5.3 Calculation of voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 66
5.4 Powercurrent and powervoltage de®nitions of impedance 67
5.5 Impedance of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ribs 71
6 Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element
method 73
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
6.1 Introduction 73
6.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide 74
6.3 Fields in single ridge waveguide 75
6.4 Impedance of single ridge waveguide 78
6.5 Insertion loss in single ridge waveguide 79
6.6 Higher order modes 80
viii Contents
7 Propagation constant and impedance of dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide using a hybrid ®nite element solver 83
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
7.1 Introduction 83
7.2 Hybrid functional 84
7.3 Cuto space of dielectric loaded rectangular ridge
waveguide 88
7.4 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded rectangular ridge
waveguide 90
7.5 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded square waveguide 91
7.6 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 92
8 Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded ridge waveguides 99
8.1 Introduction 99
8.2 Circular polarisation 100
8.3 Open halfspace of asymmetrically dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide 100
8.4 Circular polarisation in dielectricloaded parallel plate
waveguides with open sidewalls 102
8.5 Circular polarisation in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 105
8.6 Circular polarisation in homogeneous ridge waveguide 107
9 Quadruple ridge waveguide 117
9.1 Introduction 117
9.2 Quadruple ridge waveguide 117
9.3 Cuto space in quadruple ridge waveguide using MFIE
method 119
9.4 Cuto space of ridge waveguide using MMM 121
9.5 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using FEM 121
9.6 Fields in quadruple ridge waveguide 126
9.7 Cuto space of dielectric loaded quadruple ridge
waveguide 127
9.8 Impedance in quadruple ridge circular waveguide using
conical ridges 132
10 Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 134
10.1 Introduction 134
10.2 Faraday rotation section 135
10.3 Scattering matrix of Faraday rotation section 138
10.4 Gyrator network 139
10.5 Gyromagnetic waveguide functional 141
10.6 Ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic ring 144
10.7 Quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles 144
Contents ix
10.8 Faraday rotation isolator 145
10.9 Fourport Faraday rotation circulator 148
10.10 Nonreciprocal Faraday rotationtype phase shifter 148
10.11 Faraday rotation in dualmode triple ridge waveguide 149
11 Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single ridge waveguide 153
11.1 Introduction 153
11.2 ABCD parameters of 2port step discontinuity 154
11.3 Frequency response 157
11.4 Characterisation of halfwave long ridge waveguide testset 157
11.5 Experimental characterisation 160
11.6 Symmetrical short section 163
12 Ridge crossguide directional coupler 170
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
12.1 Introduction 170
12.2 Operation of crossguide directional coupler 170
12.3 Bethe's smallhole coupling theory 173
12.4 The 0degree crossedslot aperture 175
12.5 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in rectangular waveguide 177
12.6 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in single ridge waveguide 178
12.7 The 45degree crossedslot aperture 179
12.8 Circular polarisation in rectangular and ridge waveguides 181
12.9 Rectangular and ridge waveguide crossguide couplers
using 45degree crossedslot apertures 182
12.10 Coupling via waveguide walls of ®nite thickness 184
13 Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 189
13.1 Introduction 189
13.2 Immittance inverters 189
13.3 Lowpass ®lters using immittance inverters 190
13.4 Bandpass ®lters using immittance inverters 193
13.5 Immittance inverters 195
13.6 Practical inverter 198
13.7 Immittance inverters using evanescent mode waveguide 200
13.8 Eplane ®lter 201
13.9 Element values of lowpass prototypes 204
13.10 Frequency response of microwave ®lters 205
14 Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 207
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
14.1 Introduction 207
14.2 Mode matching method 207
x Contents
14.3 MMM characterisation of 1port networks 212
14.4 Double septa and thick septum problem regions 215
14.5 MMM characterisation of symmetrical waveguide
discontinuities 216
14.6 Eigensolutions of waveguide sections 218
14.7 Immittance inverters 221
14.8 Eplane bandpass ®lters using metal inverters 221
14.9 Lowpass ridge ®lters using immittance inverters 222
15 Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 226
15.1 Introduction 226
15.2 Nonreciprocal ferrite devices in rectangular waveguide 227
15.3 Dierential phase shift, phase deviation and ®gure of merit
of ferrite phase shifter 230
15.4 90degree phase shifter in dielectric loaded WRD 200 ridge
waveguide 231
15.5 Isolation, insertion loss and ®gure of merit of resonance
isolator 233
15.6 Resonance isolator in dielectric loaded WRD 750 ridge
waveguide 234
15.7 Resonance isolator in bifurcated ridge waveguide 236
15.8 Dierential phase shift circulator 238
16 Finline waveguide 241
16.1 Introduction 241
16.2 Finline waveguide topologies 241
16.3 Normalised wavelength and impedance in ®nline 242
16.4 Empirical expressions for propagation in bilateral and
unilateral ®nline 245
16.5 Fields in unilateral ®nline waveguide 247
16.6 Bilateral ®nline 250
16.7 Empirical formulation of impedance in bilateral ®nline
waveguide 251
16.8 Circular polarisation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline
waveguides 251
16.9 Finline isolator using hexagonal ferrite substrate 251
17 Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 256
17.1 Introduction 256
17.2 Turnstile junction circulator 256
17.3 Reentrant Hplane waveguide circulator 261
17.4 Reentrant Eplane waveguide circulator 262
17.5 Closed gyromagnetic resonator 262
Contents xi
17.6 Perturbation theory of closed cylindrical gyromagnetic
resonator 264
17.7 Quality factor of closed gyromagnetic resonator 266
17.8 Eplane ®nline circulator using coupled Hplane turnstile
resonators 266
17.9 Experimental adjustment of ®nline turnstile circulator 268
18 Semitracking ridge circulator 270
18.1 Introduction 270
18.2 Phenomenological adjustment 271
18.3 Impedance matrix 272
18.4 Complex gyrator circuit 277
18.5 Semitracking complex gyrator circuit 278
18.6 Direct magnetic ®eld and magnetisation of semitracking
circulators 281
18.7 Physical variables of semitracking circulators 285
18.8 Network problem 285
18.9 Frequency response 287
18.10 Design of octaveband semitracking circulators 294
19 Variational calculus, functionals and the RayleighRitz procedure 296
19.1 Introduction 296
19.2 Stationary value of functional 297
19.3 Electrical and magnetic energies in planar circuits 298
19.4 Electric and magnetic ®elds in planar circuits with top and
bottom electric walls 299
19.5 Derivation of functional for planar isotropic circuits 301
19.6 RayleighRitz procedure 303
19.7 Field patterns 305
19.8 Derivation of energy functional based on a mathematical
technique 306
Bibliography 308
Index 322
xii Contents
Preface
An important transmission line met in microwave engineering is the ridge
waveguide. It consists of a regular rectangular waveguide with one or
more metal inserts or ridges. The main advantage of this type of waveguide
over a conventional one is the wider separation between the dominant mode
and the ®rst order one. Important quantities that enter into the description
of any waveguide are the de®nitions of its propagation constant, attenuation
and mode spectrum. The powervoltage, powercurrent and voltagecurrent
de®nitions of its impedance are other salient properties. The text includes
closed form descriptions and ®nite element calculations on each of these
quantities. Another quantity of some importance in the design of non
reciprocal devices is the existence of circular polarisation of the alternating
magnetic ®eld. Its study is given special attention. Propagation in the ridge
waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between the ridges is separately investigated
using the ®nite element method. Such ®llers support planes of counter
rotating circular polarisation on either side of the interfaces between the
dielectric and free space regions and everywhere outside. Another ridge
structure is the circular or square waveguide with more than one ridge.
Propagation in the quadruple ridge waveguide with and without a gyro
magnetic ®ller is separately attended to. The latter arrangement supports
socalled Faraday rotation, which plays an important role in the design of
a number of nonreciprocal ferrite devices. It is also given special attention.
The important problem of a step discontinuity between a regular and single
ridge waveguide is separately addressed. One canonical representation of
this sort of step is a shunt susceptance in cascade with an ideal transformer.
Most standard passive components met in microwave engineering can, in
practice, be realised in ridge topology. One typical device dealt with is the
crossguide directional coupler. An introduction to the design of lowpass
and bandpass ®lters based on the mode matching method is also included.
Nonreciprocal ferrite devices such as isolators, phase shifters, dierential
phase shift and junction circulators are also readily constructed in this wave
guide. The text includes typical realisations of some of these components.
A closely related waveguide to the ridge one is the ®nline geometry about
which much has already been written. Only a brief introduction to it is
included here for completeness' sake. One typical component is the 3port
®nline circulator. Since much of the material presented in this text relies in
its formulation on the ®nite element method an introductory chapter on
the origin of this method is included for completeness.
November 2000
xiv Preface
Chapter 1
The ridge waveguide
1.1 Introduction
A waveguide used in many broadband microwave equipments is the ridge
geometry. An important feature of this sort of waveguide compared to the
conventional rectangular waveguide is the wider separation between the
cuto numbers of its dominant and ®rst higher order mode. Another is
the fact that its impedance is bracketed between that of the regular rect
angular waveguide (377 ) and those of coaxial and stripline structures
(50 ). The original ridge waveguide consisted of a regular rectangular
waveguide with one or two ridge inserts. Most passive components that
may be realised in conventional rectangular waveguides are also available
in ridge geometry. This chapter includes some typical arrangements by
way of introduction. Some more recent con®gurations have various arrange
ments of two or more ridges. Typical geometries are illustrated in Figure 1.1.
Square or round waveguides with one or more ridges have also been
described. Figure 1.2 depicts some such structures. Figure 1.3 illustrates
the ®eld patterns for the ®rst quasiTE mode for two dierent geometries
in this sort of waveguide.
1.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide
An important fundamental quantity entering into the description of any
waveguide is its cuto number. The in¯uence of the ridge inserts on the
cuto space of the dominant mode in the double ridge arrangement is
illustrated in Figure 1.4 by way of example. One property of this sort of
waveguide is that its cuto number can be varied by adjusting the details
of the ridge without altering its outside dimensions. The guide wavelength
(z
g
) is related to the cuto (z
c
) and free space (z
0
) wavelengths in the usual
way by
2¬
z
g
2
=
2¬
z
0
2
÷
2¬
z
c
2
2 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.1 Schematic diagrams of rectangular ridge waveguides
Figure 1.2 Schematic diagrams of square and round ridge waveguides
A table of standard commercial double ridge waveguides for various
frequency bands is reproduced in Table 1.1.
The cuto space of the ridge waveguide may be deduced by making use of
the mode matching method (MMM), the ®nite element method (FEM) or
other numerical techniques.
1.3 Impedance of ridge waveguide
A feature of the ridge waveguide is that the value of its characteristic
impedance can be readily adjusted between that of a regular rectangular
waveguide and of a coaxial cable. Another property of the ridge waveguide,
in keeping with the conventional one, is that it has no unique de®nition of
impedance. The three usual choices are based on voltagecurrent (Z
vi
),
powervoltage (Z
pv
) and powercurrent (Z
pi
) de®nitions. Still another
property of this waveguide is that its impedance at ®nite frequency is related
to that at in®nite frequency by
Z(o) = Z(o)
z
g
z
0
This identity holds equally for each of the de®nitions of impedance in
common usage. Figure 1.5 depicts the relationship between the power
voltage de®nition of impedance and the details of the double ridge wave
guide.
The ridge waveguide 3
Figure 1.3 Standing wave solutions of dominant TE mode of double ridge waveguide
for two dierent values of s/a (b/a = 0.5, d/b = 0.5)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
1.4 Attenuation of ridge waveguide
An important quantity in the speci®cation of any transmission line is its
attenuation per unit length (o).
If the dissipation per unit length is small, the time averaged power trans
mitted through the waveguide may be approximately written as
P
t
÷P
t
exp(÷2oz)
The power loss per unit length is separately de®ned by
P
¹
= ÷
oP
t
oz
= 2oP
t
The attenuation per unit length (o) is therefore described by
4 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.4 Cuto space of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Cohn (1947)
o =
P
¹
2P
t
dB¡m
Figure 1.6 summarises the relationships between frequency and attenuation
per unit length of various waveguides and lines.
1.5 Ridge waveguide junctions
Most commercial passive microwave components which are available in
regular rectangular waveguides can also be fabricated in ridge geometry.
One practical component that embodies both rectangular and circular
ridge waveguides is the turnstile junction. It is a 6port network with four
The ridge waveguide 5
Figure 1.5 Powervoltage impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Hopfer (1955)
6 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
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8
9
.
4
0
±
0
.
0
8
2
2
.
3
5
±
0
.
0
8
1
1
.
9
4
±
0
.
0
8
3
.
0
5
±
0
.
0
5
0
.
5
1
1
.
0
9
5
.
0
8
±
0
.
0
5
6
5
0
6
.
5
0
±
1
8
.
0
0
0
.
0
8
0
0
.
7
2
0
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
3
2
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
8
2
0
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
4
2
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
1
0
1
±
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
2
0
0
.
0
2
2
0
.
1
7
3
±
0
.
0
0
2
1
8
.
2
9
±
0
.
0
8
8
.
1
5
±
0
.
0
8
2
0
.
8
3
±
0
.
0
8
1
0
.
6
9
±
0
.
0
8
2
.
5
7
±
0
.
0
5
0
.
5
1
0
.
5
6
4
.
3
9
±
0
.
0
5
7
5
0
7
.
5
0
±
1
8
.
0
0
0
.
0
6
4
1
0
.
6
9
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
3
2
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
7
9
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
4
2
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
1
3
6
±
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
2
0
0
.
0
2
7
0
.
1
7
3
±
0
.
0
0
2
1
7
.
5
5
±
0
.
0
8
8
.
1
5
±
0
.
0
8
2
0
.
0
9
±
0
.
0
8
1
0
.
6
9
±
0
.
0
8
3
.
4
5
±
0
.
0
5
0
.
5
1
0
.
6
9
4
.
3
9
±
0
.
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
.
0
0
±
2
6
.
5
0
0
.
1
1
4
0
.
4
7
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
2
1
9
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
5
5
1
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
2
9
9
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
9
3
±
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
1
5
0
.
0
1
9
0
.
1
1
8
±
0
.
0
0
2
1
1
.
9
6
±
0
.
0
8
5
.
5
6
±
0
.
0
8
1
4
.
0
0
±
0
.
0
8
7
.
5
9
±
0
.
0
8
2
.
3
6
2
±
0
.
0
5
0
.
3
8
0
.
4
8
2
.
9
9
7
±
0
.
0
5
1
8
0
1
8
.
0
0
±
4
0
.
0
0
0
.
2
3
8
0
.
2
8
8
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
1
3
4
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
3
6
8
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
2
1
4
±
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
5
7
±
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
1
5
0
.
0
1
1
0
.
0
7
2
±
0
.
0
0
2
7
.
3
2
±
0
.
0
8
3
.
4
0
±
0
.
0
8
9
.
3
5
±
0
.
0
8
5
.
4
4
±
0
.
0
8
1
.
4
4
8
±
0
.
0
5
0
.
3
8
0
.
2
8
1
.
8
2
9
±
0
.
0
5
The ridge waveguide 7
Figure 1.6 Attenuation in ridge and various other waveguides
Courtesy of Litton Inc.
ports in the rectangular waveguide and two in the circular one. Figure 1.7
depicts its geometry. The scattering matrix of this junction is described by
S] =
o , o ,
F
F
F
c 0
, o , o
F
F
F
0 c
o , o ,
F
F
F
÷c 0
, o , o
F
F
F
0 ÷c
c 0 ÷c 0
F
F
F
[ 0
0 c 0 ÷c
F
F
F
0 [
H
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
d
I
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
e
If the junction is matched, then
o = 0
[ = 0
o = 0
[,[ =
1
2
[c[ =
1
2
Another classic component is the crossguide directional coupler. It is
de®ned as a matched 4port network with one adjacent port decoupled
from any input port. Single and double ridge geometries are illustrated in
8 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.7 Ridge waveguide turnstile ± a symmetrical 6port junction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 1.8. The waveguide section containing ports 1 and 3 is sometimes
referred to as the primary waveguide, while that containing ports 2 and 4
is denoted the secondary waveguide. The scattering matrix of the ideal,
symmetric and lossless network with port 2 decoupled from port 1 is
given in the usual way by
S] =
0 0 S
31
S
41
0 0 S
41
S
31
S
31
S
41
0 0
S
41
S
31
0 0
P
T
T
T
R
Q
U
U
U
S
The relationship between the transmitted (S
31
) and coupled (S
41
) coecients
is given by the unitary condition
S
31
S
+
31
÷S
41
S
+
41
= 1
S
31
S
+
41
÷S
+
31
S
41
= 0
One solution is
S
31
= o
S
41
= j[
Another much used ridge component is the magictee. Acommercial version
is reproduced in Figure 1.9. It may be visualised as a combination of H and
Eplane tee junctions. A wave incident at the Hplane port of the junction
divides equally between the symmetric ports; a wave at the Eplane port
produces outofphase equal amplitude waves at the two symmetric ports.
Inphase or outofphase waves at the symmetric ports recombine at the
H and Eplane ports. The scattering matrix of the circuit is
The ridge waveguide 9
Figure 1.8 Schematic diagrams of single and double ridge crossguide directional
coupler
S] =
0 0 o [
0 0 [ o
o [ 0 0
[ ÷o 0 0
P
T
T
T
R
Q
U
U
U
S
where
o = [ =
1
2
1.6 Waveguide transitions
It is not unusual, in any piece of equipment, to have some of its components
in one sort of waveguide and some in another. Transitions between various
types of transmission lines are therefore necessary in practice. One common
transition is that between the standard and the ridge waveguide; another is
between a coaxial cable and a ridge. The waveguide transition consists of
one or more quarterwave long impedance transformers with intermediate
crosssections to those being joined. A single section arrangement is
indicated in Figure 1.10a and a coaxial to ridge waveguide transition in
Figure 1.10b.
10 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.9 Commercial ridge magictee
Courtesy of Israel Microwave Components Ltd.
1.7 Filter circuits
No passive piece of microwave equipment is complete without one or more
®lter circuits. The ridge waveguide is again appropriate in this instance. One
possible topology is a bandpass ®lter made up of halfwave long UEs
separated by suitable immittance inverters. One realisation of a typical
inverter is a short section of cuto rectangular waveguide. Figure 1.11
depicts the overall structure in question.
1.8 Turnstile junction circulator
Another important class of ridge waveguide components is the non
reciprocal one. One possible assembly is the 4port turnstile circulator. It
is realised fromthe 6port turnstile junction by a 45 degree Faraday rotation
bit in the round waveguide. This arrangement is shown in Figure 1.12. The
operation of the circulator in question may be understood by considering a
typical input wave at port 1. Such a wave produces no re¯ection at port 1,
decouples ports 3 and 6, establishes equal inphase waves at ports 2 and 4
The ridge waveguide 11
Figure 1.10 Schematic diagrams of ridge transitions
a Single ridge section; b coaxial to ridge
and produces a component at port 5. The wave at port 5, upon traversing up
and down the 45 degree rotator section, is now aligned with port 6 at the
plane of the rectangular waveguide. Such a wave decouples ports 1, 3 and
5 and produces outofphase waves at ports 2 and 4 which have equal ampli
tudes to those established by the original incident wave. The net eect is to
produce a single output at port 2. Similar considerations indicate that a
wave at port 2 is emergent at port 3 and so on in a cyclic manner. The
port notation of the circulator is that introduced in connection with the
description of the turnstile junction in Figure 1.7.
12 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.11 Schematic diagram of ridge bandpass ®lter using immittance inverters
Figure 1.12 Turnstile circulator: polarisation 5 is rotated 45 degrees, re¯ected, then
rotated 45 degrees further to polarisation 6
After Allen (1956)
Chapter 2
Propagation and impedance in
rectangular waveguides
2.1 Introduction
The description of any waveguide includes its cuto number, its propa
gation constant, one or more de®nitions of impedance, power ¯ow and
attenuation and a description of its ®eld pattern. Since the rectangular wave
guide embodies all the salient properties of the ridge waveguide it is apt to
review some of its more important features before tackling the ridge struc
ture. The ®elds in this sort of waveguide are usually deduced by obtaining
a solution for E
z
or H
z
or both which satisfy the wave equation. The
other ®eld components are then obtained by using Maxwell's equations.
A feature of particular importance in this sort of waveguide is the lack of
uniqueness in the de®nition of its characteristic impedance. Another is the
existence of planes of circular polarisation between the top and bottom
walls of the waveguide on either side of its symmetry plane. Counter
rotating alternating magnetic ®elds are also displayed with dierent hands in
a ridge waveguide. The chapter is restricted to a description of the dominant
mode in the geometry but the existence of higher order modes is understood.
The orthogonal property of any two modes of the waveguide is separately
established.
2.2 The wave equation
The property of an inhomogeneous waveguide is that the transverse
components of the electric and magnetic ®elds may be written in terms of
the longitudinal ones. This property is a classic result in the literature.
The required result in Cartesian coordinates is
H
x
=
÷,
k
2
c
oH
z
ox
÷
joc
0
k
2
c
oE
z
oy
(1a)
H
y
=
÷,
k
2
c
oH
z
oy
÷
joc
0
k
2
c
oE
z
ox
(1b)
E
x
=
÷joj
0
k
2
c
oH
z
oy
÷
,
k
2
c
oE
z
ox
(1c)
E
y
=
joj
0
k
2
c
oH
z
ox
÷
,
k
2
c
oE
z
oy
(1d)
E
z
and H
z
satisfy both the wave equation and the boundary conditions of the
problem region:
(V
2
t
÷k
2
c
)H
z
= 0 (2a)
(V
2
t
÷k
2
c
)E
z
= 0 (2b)
The solution to this sort of problem therefore amounts to ®nding E
z
or H
z
(or both) which satis®es both the wave equation and the boundary con
ditions and thereafter deducing the other components of the ®eld by using
equation (1). The modes in this and other waveguides are labelled TE,
TM or EH according to whether H
z
, E
z
or E
z
and H
z
exist. The work is,
however, restricted to the dominant TE
10
mode.
2.3 Dominant mode in rectangular waveguides
The dominant mode in the rectangular waveguide is designated TE
10
. It is
described by
H
z
= A
10
cos
¬x
a
(3a)
H
y
= 0 (3b)
H
x
= jA
10
z
c
z
g
sin
¬x
a
(3c)
E
z
= 0 (3d)
14 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
E
y
= ÷jA
10
z
c
z
0
j
0
c
0
sin
¬x
a
(3e)
E
x
= 0 (3f)
The guide wavelength (z
g
) is separately de®ned in the usual way by
2¬
z
g
2
=
2¬
z
0
2
÷
2¬
z
c
2
(4)
The cuto wavelength (z
c
) is related to the wide dimension of the wave
guide (a) and the separation constant (k
c
) by
k
c
=
2¬
z
c
(5a)
For the TE
10
mode with m = 1, n = 0,
z
c
= 2a (5b)
The phase constant of the waveguide ([) is related to z
g
by
[ =
2¬
z
g
(6)
The transverse wave impedance of the waveguide is denoted by Z
TE
,
Z
TE
=
E
y
H
x
=
z
g
z
0
j
0
c
0
(7)
The free space wave impedance n
0
is given by
n
0
=
j
0
c
0
= 120¬ (8)
The rectangular waveguide considered here is indicated in Figure 2.1 and a
typical ®eld pattern is shown in Figure 2.2.
2.4 Impedance in waveguides
The characteristic impedance of a uniform transmission line supporting
TEM propagation may be de®ned in one of three possible ways:
Z
PV
=
VV
+
2P
t
(9a)
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 15
16 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 2.1 Schematic diagram of rectangular waveguide
Figure 2.2 Field pattern of dominant TE
10
mode in rectangular waveguide
Z
PI
=
2P
t
II
+
(9b)
Z
VI
=
V
I
(9c)
and
Z
PV
= Z
PI
= Z
VI
(9d)
However, in rectangular or circular waveguides, the de®nitions of voltage
and current are not unique, so that
Z
PV
,= Z
PI
,= Z
VI
(10)
It is readily observed that one relationship between the various de®nitions of
impedance is
Z
VI
=
Z
PV
Z
PI
(11)
2.5 Power transmission through rectangular waveguides
An important quantity in the description of any waveguide is the average
power (P
t
) transmitted through it. It may be evaluated by making use of
the complex Poynting theorem,
P
t
=
1
2
s
Re(
"
Ex
"
H
+
) d
"
S (12)
where
"
S is the total surface perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
For the dominant TE
10
mode in a rectangular waveguide
1
2
(
"
Ex
"
H
+
) =
1
2
" a
x
" a
y
" a
z
0 E
y
0
H
+
x
0 H
+
z
¸
¸
¸
(13a)
and
1
2
(
"
Ex
"
H
+
) =
1
2
 " a
x
(E
y
H
+
z
) ÷ " a
y
(0) ÷ " a
z
(÷E
y
H
+
x
)] (13b)
Noting that E
y
H
+
z
is a pure imaginary quantity gives
1
2
Re(
"
Ex
"
H
+
) =
1
2
z
c
z
g
z
c
z
0
j
0
c
0
sin
2
¬x
a
(14)
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 17
The derivation now proceeds by integrating this quantity over the wave
guide crosssection:
P
t
=
1
2
z
c
z
g
z
c
z
0
j
0
c
0
a
0
b
0
sin
2
¬x
a
dx dy (15)
The required result is
P
t
=
ab
4
z
c
z
g
z
c
z
0
j
0
c
0
(16)
The amplitude term A
2
10
in the description of P
t
is understood.
2.6 Impedance in rectangular waveguides
The derivations of each of the three de®nitions of impedance met in the case
of a rectangular waveguide propagating the TE
10
mode will now be
illustrated by way of an example. The voltage V across the waveguide is
de®ned as the line integral of the electric ®eld at the midpoint of the wave
guide and the current I as the total longitudinal current ¯owing in the wide
surface of one of the waveguide walls. The power ¯ow P
t
is given by
equation (16).
The derivation of the powervoltage de®nition of impedance Z
PV
starts by
forming V at the symmetry plane of the waveguide:
V =
b
0
E
y
dy (17)
Evaluating this quantity at x = a¡2 gives
V = ÷j
2ab
z
0
j
0
c
0
(18)
Combining this result with the description of the power ¯ow in the wave
guide produces the required result:
Z
PV
=
2b
a
Z
TE
(19)
The powercurrent de®nition for the impedance (Z
PI
) is established by
evaluating the total longitudinal current ¯owing in the wide dimension of
the waveguide:
18 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
I =
a
0
J
z
dx (20)
This may be done by noting the relationship between the current density and
the magnetic ®eld:
[J
z
[ = [H
x
[ (21)
The total longitudinal current is therefore
I = j
z
2
c
¬z
g
(22)
The corresponding powercurrent de®nition of impedance is
Z
PI
=
¬
2
b
8a
Z
TE
(23)
The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a rectangular waveguide is
now deduced by making use of the relationship between it and the power
voltage and powercurrent de®nitions in equation (11). The ensuing result is
Z
VI
=
¬b
2a
Z
TE
(24)
A scrutiny of the three descriptions of impedance in the waveguide suggests
that Z
PV
is of the order of Z
TE
in a standard rectangular waveguide.
2.7 Circular polarisation in rectangular waveguides
An important property of a rectangular waveguide propagating the domi
nant TE
10
mode is that it displays regions on either side of the symmetry
plane at which the alternating magnetic ®eld is circularly polarised with
opposite senses of rotation. Such polarisation is de®ned by two equal ampli
tude waves in the timespace quadrature. Furthermore, if propagation is in
the negative z direction the two hands of polarisation are interchanged.
These features of a rectangular waveguide are of particular signi®cance in
that the operation of a number of nonreciprocal ferrite devices relies on
such polarisations. The positions at which the magnetic ®eld is circularly
polarised can be derived without any diculty by ®rst putting down the
three ®eld components for the waveguide:
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 19
H
z
= cos
¬x
a
exp j(ot ÷[z) (25a)
H
x
= j
z
c
z
g
sin
¬x
a
exp j(ot ÷[z) (25b)
E
y
= ÷j
z
c
z
0
j
0
c
0
sin
¬x
a
expj(ot ÷[z) (25c)
where propagation is assumed along the positive z direction.
Scrutiny of the preceding equations indicates that H
x
and H
z
are in time
space quadrature. If a region can now be located where the amplitudes are
also equal, then it would exhibit circular polarisation there. This condition is
in fact satis®ed on either side of the centre line of the waveguide provided
that
tan
¬x
a
=
z
g
z
c
(26)
The two possible solutions to the preceding equation are satis®ed in the
vicinity of
x 
a
4
(27a)
x 
3a
4
(27b)
The nature of the circular polarisation in either direction of propagation in
a rectangular waveguide may now be examined by taking the real parts of
H
x
and H
z
along each direction. Taking the solution at x = a¡4 by way of
example gives
H
z
= 0.707 cos(ot ÷[z). x =
a
4
(28a)
H
x
= ÷0.707 sin(ot ÷[z). x =
a
4
(28b)
and
H
z
= 0.707 cos(ot ÷[z). x =
a
4
(28c)
H
x
= 0.707 sin(ot ÷[z). x =
a
4
(28d)
respectively.
20 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Taking the solution at x = 3a¡4 gives
H
z
= ÷0.707 cos(ot ÷[z). x =
3a
4
(29a)
H
x
= ÷0.707 sin(ot ÷[z). x =
3a
4
(29b)
and
H
z
= ÷0.707 cos(ot ÷[z). x =
3a
4
(29c)
H
x
= 0.707 sin(ot ÷[z). x =
3a
4
(29d)
respectively. Figure 2.3 shows the required results at ot = 0 and [z = 0,
¬¡2. ¬ and 3¬¡2. Figure 2.4 indicates the corresponding result with [z = 0,
÷¬¡2, ÷¬ and ÷3¬¡2.
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 21
Figure 2.3 Planes of circular polarisation in rectangular waveguide for forward
direction of propagation
2.8 Calculation of impedance based on a mathematical technique
One mathematical technique that may be used to calculate the impedance of
any homogeneous waveguide will now be outlined. It relies for its imple
mentation on the fact that the amplitude distributions of the electric and
magnetic ®elds are identical at both cuto and in®nite frequency and on
the fact that the ®elds are related by the wave impedance at in®nite
frequency. This means that a knowledge of the amplitude distribution of
either the electric or magnetic ®eld at cuto is sucient to evaluate the
impedance of this class of waveguide. The required procedure may be under
stood by construction of the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a
rectangular waveguide by way of an example. It amounts to writing the
impedance Z
VI
(o) at ®nite frequency as
Z
VI
(o) =
z
g
z
0
Z
VI
(o) (30)
22 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 2.4 Planes of circular polarisation in rectangular waveguide for reverse
direction of propagation
where
Z
VI
(o) =
V(o)
I(o)
(31)
Forming V(o) and I(o) in terms of the electric ®eld E(o) gives
V(o) =
b
0
E
y
(o) dy (32)
n
0
I(o) =
a
0
E
y
(o) dx (33)
The calculation is completed once the electric ®eld distribution in the wave
guide is at hand. For a standard rectangular waveguide propagating the
dominant TE
10
mode the distribution of the electric ®eld is described by
E
y
= Asin
¬x
a
(34)
Introducing this relationship in the preceding equations readily gives
V(o) = Ab (35)
n
0
I(o) = A
2a
¬
(36)
The impedances at in®nite and ®nite frequencies are
Z
VI
(o) = n
0
¬b
2a
(37)
and
Z
VI
(o) = n
0
z
g
z
0
¬b
2a
(38)
in agreement with the original result. While z
0
and z
g
tend to zero at in®nite
frequency the ratio of the two quantities is ®nite there.
The other de®nitions of impedance encountered in the description of this
sort of waveguide may also be expressed in a like manner:
Z
PV
(o) =
z
g
z
0
Z
PV
(o) (39)
Z
PI
(o) =
z
g
z
0
Z
PI
(o) (40)
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 23
The original choice of ®elds in the waveguide does not readily permit the
power at ®nite frequency to be expressed in terms of that at in®nite
frequency. To do so it is necessary to assume that E
y
rather than H
z
is
frequency independent:
E
y
= A
10
sin
¬x
a
(41)
H
x
= ÷A
10
z
0
z
g
c
0
j
0
sin
¬x
a
(42)
H
z
= jA
10
z
0
z
c
c
0
j
0
cos
¬x
a
(43)
The power ¯ow at ®nite frequency is then given in terms of that at in®nite
frequency by
P
t
(o) = P
t
(o)
z
0
z
g
(44)
where
P
t
(o) = A
2
10
ab
4
c
0
j
0
(45)
A
10
is again an arbitrary constant that may be used to set the power ¯ow
along the waveguide to unity or some other suitable value.
2.9 Orthogonal properties of waveguide modes
An important feature of any two modes of a waveguide that enters into a
number of calculations is its orthogonal properties. The required relation
ships are readily demonstrated in the cases of the longitudinal components
E
z
or H
z
and with a little more diculty in the case of the transverse com
ponents. The desired derivation in the case of either H
z
or E
z
starts by noting
the wave equations for two typical solutions c
i
and c
j
:
V
2
t
c
i
÷k
2
i
c
i
= 0 (46)
V
2
t
c
j
÷k
2
i
c
j
= 0 (47)
It proceeds by multiplying the ®rst equation by c
j
and the second one by c
i
,
forming the dierence between the two, and integrating each quantity over
the crosssection of the waveguide. This gives
24 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
(k
2
i
÷k
2
j
)
s
(c
i
c
j
) ds =
s
(c
i
V
2
t
c
j
÷c
j
V
2
t
c
i
) ds (48)
The derivation now proceeds by recalling Green's second identity
s
(AV
2
t
B) ds =
c
A
dB
dn
dc
s denotes the crosssectional surface of the waveguide and c the guide
boundary. Introducing this identity in the preceding relationship gives
(k
2
i
÷k
2
j
)
s
(c
i
c
j
) ds =
c
c
i
dc
j
dn
÷c
j
dc
i
dn
dc (49)
Since c
i
and c
j
are zero for TE type modes and dc
i
¡ dn and dc
j
¡ dn for TM
modes then, as asserted,
s
(c
i
c
j
) ds = 0. i ,= j (50)
It may be separately demonstrated that this condition is equally valid in the
case of degenerate modes.
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 25
Chapter 3
Impedance and propagation in ridge
waveguides using the transverse
resonance method
J. Helszajn and M. Caplin
3.1 Introduction
Important quantities in the description of any waveguide are the de®nition
of its propagation constant and the voltagecurrent, powervoltage and
powercurrent de®nitions of its characteristic impedance. One purpose of
this chapter is to summarise some closed form descriptions of propagation,
power ¯ow and impedance in the ridge waveguide based on the transverse
resonance method (TRM). Since the dierent notations introduced in its
characterisation are on occasion dicult to follow readily, another purpose
of this chapter is to reproduce the existing literature in a single nomencla
ture. Still another is to summarise graphically its voltagecurrent, power
voltage and powercurrent de®nitions of impedance in a uni®ed way. No
view is, however, taken about which de®nition of impedance is appropriate
in any single application nor any attempt made to derive any result from ®rst
principles. The topologies of the single and double ridge versions of the ridge
waveguide are illustrated in Figure 3.1. It is convenient in this sort of wave
guide to write the impedance at ®nite frequency in terms of that at in®nite
frequency in that it avoids the need to make separate calculations at each
and every frequency. The approach adopted here is in keeping with this
convention. The cuto space of the waveguide is established by using the
transverse resonance condition.
3.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide
One quantity that enters into the description of any waveguide is its cuto
number. Its knowledge is sucient for the description of the propagation
constant of the waveguide. Figure 3.1 illustrates the two possible ridge
arrangements considered here. The physical variables entering into the
descriptions of these waveguides are separately indicated on these diagrams.
Figure 3.2 indicates the nature of the electric ®elds of the dominant modes in
these sorts of waveguides.
One early calculation of the cuto condition for either the single or the
double ridge waveguide for the even TE
no
family of modes is based on the
transverse resonance method. It is determined by
÷cot ±
1
÷
Y
02
Y
01
tan±
2
÷
B
Y
01
= 0 (1)
where
Y
01
=
k
c
oj
0
1
b
(2a)
Y
02
=
k
c
oj
0
1
d
(2b)
and
±
1
=
¬(a ÷s)
z
c
= ¬
1 ÷
s
a
a
z
c
(3a)
±
2
=
¬s
z
c
= ¬
s
a
a
z
c
(3b)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 27
Figure 3.1 Schematic diagrams of single and double ridge waveguides
Figure 3.2 Electric ®elds in single and double ridge waveguides
The cuto wavenumber k
c
is related to the corresponding wavelength z
c
by
k
c
=
2¬
z
c
(4)
B/Y
01
represents the step discontinuity on either side of the ridge. One
approximation in the case of the single ridge is (Marcuvitz, 1964)
B
Y
01
 4
b
a
a
z
c
lncosec
¬d
2b
(5)
The corresponding result for a double ridge is
B
Y
01
 2
b
a
a
z
c
lncosec
¬d
2b
(6)
The relationship between the fringing capacitances of the single and double
ridge waveguides may be understood by introducing an electric wall at the
plane of symmetry of the latter arrangement. A scrutiny of this arrangement
indicates that the two capacitors formed in this way are in series due to the
fact that the top and bottom ridges are at dierent potentials in order to
support the electric ®eld. The normalised capacitance of the single ridge
with the nomenclature used to label the details of the waveguide is therefore
twice that of the double one as asserted. The equivalent circuit met in this
problem region is indicated in Figure 3.3. The natural log term entering in
these relationships is also sometimes written as
lncosec
¬o
2

1
2
1 ÷o
2
o
ln
1 ÷o
1 ÷o
÷2 ln
4o
1 ÷o
2
!
(7)
where
o =
d
b
Figure 3.4 illustrates the cuto space of the single ridge structure and
Figure 3.5 that of the double ridge arrangement. The cuto condition at
s/a equal to zero corresponds to that of an in®nitely thin ®nline; at
s/a equal to unity it reduces to that of a standard rectangular waveguide.
One closed form approximation for the cuto space of the dominant
mode in the double ridge waveguide is (Hoefer and Burton, 1982)
a
z
c
=
a
2(a ÷s)
1 ÷
4
¬
1 ÷0.2
b
a ÷s
r
b
a ÷s
lncosec
¬d
2b
÷
2.45 ÷0.2
s
a
sb
d(a ÷s)
!
÷
1
2
(8)
28 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 29
Figure 3.3 Equivalent circuit of ridge waveguide
Figure 3.4 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.45)
After Cohn (1947)
This representation agrees with numerical methods within 1% provided that
0.01 4
d
b
41
0 4
b
a
41
0 4
s
a
40.45
The corresponding approximate single ridge solution is obtained from that
of the double one by replacing b by 2b in the coecient multiplying the log
term, which may be taken to represent the susceptance one.
One possible computation procedure is to initialise the root ®nding
subroutine for a¡z
c
in the exact transverse resonance condition of the
problem region by the closed form solution for a¡z
c
.
30 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.5 Cuto space of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Cohn (1947)
3.3 Power ¯ow in ridge waveguide
The power ¯ow (P
t
) in the waveguide at ®nite frequency is also usually
expressed in terms of that at in®nite frequency. One description of the
power ¯ow at in®nite frequency applicable to both single and double
ridge waveguides is (Hopfer, 1955)
P
t
(o) =
E
2
0
d
2
2¬n
0
@
d
b
b
a
2ma
z
c
lncosec
¬d
2b
cos
2
±
2
÷
±
2
2
÷
sin 2±
2
4
÷
d
b
cos ±
2
sin ±
1
2
±
1
2
÷
sin2±
1
4
!
A
a
b
b
d
z
c
a
(9)
The power ¯ow at ®nite frequency is then given by
P
t
(o) = P
t
(o)
z
0
z
g
(10)
To cater for the lumped element susceptances of single and double ridge
waveguides m takes the value 1 for double ridge and 2 for single ridge wave
guides, and E
0
is the peak electric ®eld intensity (V/m) at the centre of the
waveguide,
E
0
=
V
d
(11)
When s = a and d = b, ±
1
= 0 and ±
2
= ¬¡2 and P(o) reduces to the result
for the ordinary waveguide in Chapter 2, as is readily veri®ed.
3.4 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide
The approach used to calculate the impedance of the ridge waveguide
consists of initially forming this quantity at in®nite frequency prior to
recovering it at ®nite frequency by introducing the dispersion factor z
g
¡z
0
.
The impedance in a ridge waveguide is again not unique. Taking the
voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance by way of example gives
Z
VI
(o) = Z
VI
(o)
z
g
z
0
(12)
The calculation of impedance at in®nite frequency relies on the fact that
the ®eld distributions at the cuto frequency and at in®nite frequency are
identical and that E
y
and H
x
are related there by the wave impedance of
free space. Knowledge of the distribution of E
y
either at cuto or at in®nite
frequency is, therefore, sucient for the solution of this sort of problem.
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 31
One approximate voltagecurrent de®nition for this problem region based
on this observation but which omits the step discontinuities on either side of
the ridge has been historically described by (Cohn, 1947)
Z
VI
(o) =
¬n
0
sin ±
2
÷
d
b
tan
±
1
2
cos ±
2
b
a
d
b
a
z
c
(13)
In obtaining this result the voltage has been taken as the line integral over
the electric ®eld between the ridges and the current has been de®ned as
the total longitudinal surface current in the three regions of the structure.
±
1
and ±
2
are described in terms of z
c
in equations (3a) and (3b) and the
physical variables are speci®ed in Figure 3.1.
One solution which supersedes that in equation (13), in that it caters for
the fringing eect at the steps, is (Hoefer and Burton, 1982)
Z
VI
(o) =
¬n
0
sin±
2
÷
d
b
B
Y
01
÷tan
±
1
2
!
cos ±
2
b
a
d
b
a
z
c
(14)
The value of the normalised susceptance given in equation (5) is used in
evaluating the impedance for a single ridge and that given in equation (6)
is utilised in calculating that of a double ridge. The normalised cuto
frequency a¡z
c
is given by either equation (1) or (8). The result for a single
ridge is depicted in Figure 3.6 and that for a double ridge in Figure 3.7.
3.5 Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide
The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency is given by
using its de®nition,
Z
PV
(o) =
V(o)V
+
(o)
2P
t
(o)
(15)
The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency is extracted
from this relationship as
Z
PV
(o) =
¬n
0
b
a
d
b
a
z
c
&
d
b
b
a
2ma
z
c
ln cosec
¬d
2b
cos
2
±
2
÷
±
2
2
÷
sin2±
2
4
÷
d
b
cos ±
2
sin ±
1
2
±
1
2
÷
sin 2±
1
4
!'
(16)
32 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
m = 2 for a single ridge and m = 1 for a double ridge. Figure 3.8 indicates
the result in the case of a single ridge structure and Figure 3.9 that of the
double structure.
Z
PV
(o) is connected to Z
PV
(o) by a similar relationship to that between
Z
VI
(o) and Z
VI
(o) in equation (12).
3.6 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide
The powercurrent de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency in a ridge
waveguide may also be deduced once those of the voltagecurrent and
powervoltage are at hand. It is given by using the relationship between
the three possible descriptions,
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 33
Figure 3.6 Voltagecurrent impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.45)
After Hoefer & Burton (1982)
Z
PI
(o) =
Z
2
VI
(o)
Z
PV
(o)
(17)
The nature of this impedance is indicated in Figure 3.10 in the case of
a single ridge con®guration and in Figure 3.11 in that of a double ridge
waveguide.
3.7 Admittances of double ridge waveguide
It is sometimes advantageous to work with admittance instead of
impedance. The purpose of this section is to reproduce some data on each
admittance de®nition met in this sort of waveguide. Since the double ridge
wave is the more common commercial geometry the data are restricted to
that situation. Figures 3.12±3.14 illustrate the required results.
34 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.7 Voltagecurrent impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Hoefer & Burton (1982)
3.8 Closed form polynomials for single and double ridge waveguides
Some closed form polynomials for the cuto wavelength and impedance of
single ridge waveguides in terms of the gapfactor (d/b) with the aspect ratio
(s/a) equal to 0.50 are summarised below:
a
z
c
= 0.109 ÷0.735
d
b
÷0.596
d
b
2
÷0.273
d
b
3
(18)
Z
VI
(o) = ÷226.57
d
b
4
÷414
d
b
3
÷201.51
d
b
2
÷279.86
d
b
÷0.6237 (19)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 35
Figure 3.8 Powervoltage impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.45)
After Hopfer (1955)
Z
PV
(o) = ÷274.75
d
b
4
÷495.25
d
b
3
÷168.5
d
b
2
÷286.73
d
b
÷0.5054 (20)
Z
PI
(o) = ÷192.67
d
b
4
÷368.41
d
b
3
÷241.38
d
b
2
÷274.11
d
b
÷0.717 (21)
The graphical solutions are indicated in Figures 3.15 and 3.16.
36 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.9 Powervoltage impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Hopfer (1955)
The corresponding quantities for a double ridge are:
a
z
c
= 0.103 ÷0.924
d
b
÷1.090
d
b
2
÷0.667
d
b
3
(22)
Z
VI
(o) = ÷23.958
d
b
3
÷25.422
d
b
2
÷293.6
d
b
÷1.9553 (23)
Z
PV
(o) = ÷45.635
d
b
3
÷130.27
d
b
2
÷291.37
d
b
÷2.1205 (24)
Z
PI
(o) = 3.8777
d
b
3
÷65.419
d
b
2
÷293.02
d
b
÷1.8943 (25)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 37
Figure 3.10 Powercurrent impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.45)
Figures 3.17 and 3.18 summarise the graphical solutions.
Figure 3.19 separately compares the various de®nitions of impedance for
b¡a = 0.5 and s¡a = 0.45 for dierent values of d¡b.
3.9 Synthesis of quarterwave ridge transformers
Provided s/a is ®xed, the design procedure for a ridge impedance trans
former involves the solution of a transcendental equation in d/b. The back
ground to this calculation will now be demonstrated by way of an example.
It starts by using the usual relationship between the immittances met in
connection with an ideal quarterwave long impedance transformer,
Y
2
r
(o) = rY
0
(o)G(o)
38 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.11 Powercurrent impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
G(o) is the load conductance and
Y
r
(o) = Y
r
(o)
z
0
z
gr
Y
0
(o) = Y
0
(o)
z
0
z
g0
r is the VSWR at the input terminals of the transformer. Y
r
(o) represents
either the voltagecurrent, powervoltage or powercurrent de®nition of
impedance of the ridge transformer. The characteristic equation for d/b is
therefore speci®ed by
Y
r
(o)
z
0
z
gr
÷
r
Y
0
(o)
z
0
z
g0
G(o)
p
= 0
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 39
Figure 3.12 Voltagecurrent admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Hoefer & Burton (1982)
40 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.13 Powervoltage admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
After Hopfer (1955)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 41
Figure 3.14 Powercurrent admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50)
42 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.15 a/z
c
against d/b for single ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.45, s/a = 0.50)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 43
Figure 3.16 Polynomial descriptions of impedance in single ridge waveguide
(b/a = 0.45, s/a = 0.50)
44 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.17 a/z
c
against d/b for double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50, s/a = 0.50)
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 45
Figure 3.18 Polynomial descriptions of impedance in double ridge waveguide
(b/a = 0.50, s/a = 0.50)
46 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 3.19 Comparison between dierent de®nitions of characteristic impedance in
double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.50, s/a = 0.45)
Chapter 4
Fields, propagation and attenuation
in double ridge waveguide
4.1 Introduction
A knowledge of the ®elds in any waveguide is necessary in order to calcu
late its power ¯ow, its attenuation and its impedance. The purpose of this
chapter is to summarise some approximate closed form relationships for
the ®elds in this type of waveguide and present some calculations based
on the ®nite element method (FEM) procedure. The TE family of solu
tions is obtained by calculating H
z
of the related planar problem region
with top and bottom magnetic walls and forming the other components
of the ®eld by using Maxwell's equations. The TM family of solutions is
obtained by solving the dual planar circuit with top and bottom electric
walls. Comparison between the closed form and FEM procedures suggests
that the closed form representation is adequate for engineering purposes.
Some results on the standing wave solutions of the dominant and higher
order modes of this sort of waveguide based on a magnetic ®eld integral
equation (MFIE) are also included. The power ¯ow and attenuation are
separately summarised.
4.2 Finite element calculation (TE modes)
The only components that can exist at cuto in a double ridge waveguide
in the case of the dominant quasiTE
10
mode are those associated with the
appropriate planar circuit (E
x
, E
y
, H
z
) and at in®nite frequency those
associated with TEM propagation (E
x
, E
y
, H
x
, H
y
). The calculation of
impedance undertaken elsewhere in this text only involves a knowledge
of the transverse electric ®elds at either frequency. The description of
the ®elds in this sort of waveguide starts with a calculation of H
z
at cuto
by recognising that it is a solution of the related planar problem region
with top and bottom magnetic walls. It continues with the evaluation of
the electric ®elds by employing Maxwell's equations. One way of obtain
ing H
z
is by using an FEM solver. The functional to be minimised in
conjunction with this planar problem region is
F(H
z
) =
s
(÷[V
t
H
z
[
2
÷ k
2
0
c
f
[H
z
[
2
) ds (1)
where
k
2
0
= o
2
0
c
0
j
0
(2)
and c
f
is the relative permittivity of the region. j
0
and c
0
are the usual con
stitutive parameters of free space. The preceding functional automatically
satis®es the wave equation and the Neumann boundary condition
oH
z
on
= 0 (3)
on the electric sidewalls. At a magnetic wall the Dirichlet condition
H
z
= 0 (4)
must be separately enforced.
In the RayleighRitz approach the true solution is replaced by a trial
function which is expanded in terms of a suitable set of real basis or
shape functions o
i
(x. y) which contains the spatial variation of the pro
blem with complex coecients u
i
. In the ®nite element problem the com
plex coecients represent the ®elds at the nodes of the elements. This step
reduces the problem to a set of simultaneous equations which when extre
mised produces the required eigenvalue problem:
{A] ÷ k
2
a
B]}
"
U = 0 (5)
A] and B] are square matrices given by
A
ij
=
S
(V
t
o
i
) · (V
t
o
j
) ds (6)
and
B
ij
=
S
(o
i
o
j
) ds (7)
"
U is a column vector containing the unknowns of the problem.
48 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The transverse components of the electric ®eld of the TE
10
mode can
now be calculated from a knowledge of H
z
at cuto by using Maxwell's
equations:
H
x
=
÷,
k
2
c
oH
z
ox
(8a)
H
y
=
÷,
k
2
c
oH
z
oy
(8b)
E
x
=
joj
0
,
H
y
(8c)
E
y
=
÷joj
0
,
H
x
(8d)
E
z
= 0 (8e)
n
0
is the free space wave impedance
n
0
=
j
0
c
0
(9)
The propagation constant , is determined by the free space and cuto
wavenumbers in the usual way:
,
2
= k
2
0
÷ k
2
c
(10)
The waveguide wavelength (z
g
) is separately given in terms of the free
space wavelength (z
0
) and the cuto one (z
c
) by
2¬
z
g
2
=
2¬
z
0
2
÷
2¬
z
c
2
(11)
where
, = j
2¬
z
g
k
0
=
2¬
z
0
k
c
=
2¬
z
c
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 49
4.3 Finite element method (TM modes)
In the variational calculation of the TM family of modes the functional to
be minimised is
F(E
z
) =
s
(÷[V
t
E
z
[
2
÷ k
2
0
c
f
[E
z
[
2
) ds (12)
with top and bottom electric walls. This functional satis®es the dual
boundary conditions met in connection with the problem region with
top and bottom magnetic walls. Extremising this functional by using the
RayleighRitz procedure produces a similar eigenvalue equation to that
met in the dual problem already dealt with. The complete solution is
given in terms of E
z
by
H
x
=
÷,
k
2
c
oE
z
ox
(13a)
H
z
= 0 (13b)
H
y
=
÷,
k
2
c
oE
z
oy
(13c)
E
x
=
joj
0
,
H
y
(13d)
E
y
=
÷joj
0
,
H
x
(13e)
4.4 Cuto space (TE mode)
To calculate the ®elds at the nodes of the problem region of a typical
eigenvector it is ®rst necessary to deduce its eigenvalue. The use of the
FEM in solving this kind of eigenvalue problem is a standard result in
the literature. The purpose of this section is to outline this solution
in the case of the dominant TE mode in a double ridge waveguide.
The topology in question is indicated in Figure 4.1. The details of the
two discretisations utilised here are illustrated in Figure 4.2. These are
®xed by
50 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
p = 2
m = 6
n = 149
n m = 894
q = 338
and
p = 2
m = 6
n = 168
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 51
Figure 4.1 Schematic diagram of double ridge waveguide
Figure 4.2 Typical discretisations of double ridge waveguide
n m = 1008
q = 385
respectively.
p is the degree of the interpolation polynomial within each ®nite element
triangle, m is the number of nodes inside each ®nite element triangle, n
is the number of triangles, n m is the total number of nodes before
assembly of the ®nite element mesh and q is the number of nodes after
assembly of the mesh. The boundary condition at the electric walls are
natural boundaries of the functional and are satis®ed by de®nition. The
one at the magnetic wall must, however, be separately imposed.
Figure 4.3 indicates one typical result using each mesh arrangement. It
also gives a comparison between the FEM employed here and the TRM
(transverse resonance method).
4.5 Standing wave solution in double ridge waveguide
The electric ®eld and current density of any mode in this sort of waveguide
is readily established once the related eigenvalue is deduced. The FEM is
52 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 4.3 Comparison between cuto spaces of double ridge waveguide using FEM
and TRM methods. (Á, q = 338, ´, q = 385, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
also admirably suited for this purpose. The governing equation is
equation (4). Figure 4.4 illustrates the distribution of the electric ®eld of
the dominant mode in a double ridge waveguide for three typical ridge
geometries. The density of the lines indicates the relative strength of the
®eld. The details of the discretisations utilised to evaluate these solutions
are the same as those employed in the construction of the corresponding
cuto space. Figure 4.5 separately depicts the current distribution in the
waveguide. The bunching of the current on either side of the symmetry
plane of the ridge is of note. This suggests that the calculation described
here respects the singularity in the electric ®eld mentioned elsewhere.
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 53
Figure 4.4 Standing wave solutions of dominant TE mode of double ridge waveguide
for three dierent values of s/a (b/a = 0.5, d/b = 0.5)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
4.6 TE ®elds in double ridge waveguide
While the ®nite element method provides one means of evaluating the
®elds in any waveguide a closed form description is often convenient.
One such formulation has been given by Getsinger. It is based on retaining
a single mode in the gap region whilst expanding that in a typical trough
region in an in®nite series. This solution is characterised by E
z
= 0. The
®elds obtained in this way on matching the two regions are summarised
below.
In the gap region (Gestinger, 1962):
E
y
= cos k
c
a
2
÷ x
exp(÷j[z) (14a)
H
x
=
÷[
oj
0
cos k
c
a
2
÷ x
exp(÷j[z) (14b)
54 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 4.5 Magnetic ®eld at symmetry plane of double ridge waveguide (b/a = 0.5,
d/b = 0.5, s/a = 0.25)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
E
z
= 0 (14c)
H
z
=
jk
c
[
sin k
c
a
2
÷ x
exp(÷j[z) (14d)
In the trough region:
E
x
=
¸
N
n=0
A
n
n¬
b
cos(o
n
x) sin
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (15a)
E
y
=
¸
N
n=0
A
n
(÷o
n
) sin(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (15b)
E
z
= 0 (15c)
H
x
=
¸
N
n=0
A
n
[o
n
oj
0
sin(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (15d)
H
y
=
¸
N
n=0
A
n
n¬[
boj
0
cos(o
n
x) sin
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (15e)
H
z
=
¸
N
n=0
A
n
÷jk
2
c
oj
0
cos(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (15f )
where
[
2
= k
2
0
÷ k
2
c
o
2
n
= k
2
c
÷
n¬
b
2
and
A
n
=
÷À
n
cos
k
c
s
2
n¬o
n
sin o
n
a ÷ s
2
¸ ¸
¸
sin
¸
b ÷ d
2
n¬
b
¸
÷ sin
¸
b ÷ d
2
n¬
b
¸¸
À
n
= 1 for n = 0 and À
n
= 2 for n = 1. 2. 3. . . . .
The ®elds in the double ridge waveguide summarised here fail at the
boundary between the two regions but are adequate everywhere else
and provide both a reasonable description of power ¯ow and impedance.
The failure at the boundary has its origin in the use of a single mode in the
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 55
ridge gap. The agreement between the ®nite element method and the
closed form solution is indicated in Figure 4.6.
4.7 TM ®elds in double ridge waveguide
An approximate closed form description of the TM family of solutions in
a ridge waveguide has also been described in the literature. This solution
is characterised by H
z
equal to zero. The ®elds in the gap region are
(Mansour, Tong, MacPhie, 1988):
E
x
= , sin ,
a
2
÷ x
sin
¸
¬
d
y ÷
÷b ÷ d
2
¸
exp(÷j[z) (16a)
E
y
=
¬
d
cos ,
a
2
÷ x
cos
¸
¬
d
y ÷
÷b ÷ d
2
¸
exp(÷j[z) (16b)
E
z
= j
k
2
c
[
cos ,
a
2
÷ x
sin
¸
¬
d
y ÷
÷b ÷ d
2
¸
exp(÷j[z) (16c)
56 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 4.6 Comparison between E
Y
and E
Z
for TE mode at symmetry plane of double
ridge waveguide based on closed form and FEM
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
and
H
x
=
÷oc
0
[
¬
d
cos ,
a
2
÷ x
cos
¸
¬
d
y ÷
÷b ÷ d
2
¸
exp(÷j[z)
(16d)
H
y
=
,oc
0
[
sin,
a
2
÷ x
cos
¸
¬
d
y ÷
÷b ÷ d
2
¸
exp(÷j[z) (16e)
H
z
= 0 (16f )
where
,
2
= k
2
c
÷
¬
d
2
In the trough region:
E
x
=
¸
N
n=1
(B
n
o
n
) cos(o
n
x) sin
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (17a)
E
y
=
¸
N
n=1
B
n
n¬
b
sin(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (17b)
E
z
=
¸
N
n=1
jB
n
k
2
c
[
sin(o
n
x) sin
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (17c)
H
x
=
¸
N
n=1
÷B
n
oc
0
n¬
[b
sin(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (17d)
H
y
=
¸
N
n=1
B
n
oc
0
o
n
[
cos(o
n
x) sin
n¬y
b
exp(÷j[z) (17e)
H
z
= 0 (17f )
where
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 57
B
n
=
2
¬
d
cos
,s
2
b sin o
n
¹
¸
¬
d
2
÷
n¬
b
2
¸
¸
sin
n¬
b
b ÷ d
2
÷ sin
n¬
b
b ÷ d
2
¸
The agreement between this result and the FEM method is indicated in
Figure 4.7 for one typical geometry. The calculation of E
y
is omitted
from Figures 4.6 and 4.7. It is related to H
x
by the wave impedance in
the usual way,
E
y
=
n
0
k
0
[
H
x
(18)
58 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 4.7 Comparison between H
X
and H
Z
for TM mode at symmetry plane of
double ridge waveguide based on closed form and FEM
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
4.8 MFIE
Another numerical technique that has been employed to investigate the
properties of the ridge waveguide is the magnetic ®eld integral equation
(MFIE) method. This section summarises some calculations on the
electric ®eld distribution of this sort of waveguide. Figures 4.8 and 4.9
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 59
Figure 4.8 Electrical ®eld contour plots of a double ridge waveguide (ridge thickness
x/a = 0.3 and ridge gap d/a = 0.15)
a TE
10
; b TE
20
; c TE
30
; d TE
11
mode
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1993)
60 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
9
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
®
e
l
d
c
o
n
t
o
u
r
p
l
o
t
s
o
f
T
E
1
0
m
o
d
e
i
n
d
o
u
b
l
e
r
i
d
g
e
w
a
v
e
g
u
i
d
e
s
w
i
t
h
v
a
r
i
o
u
s
s
/
a
a
n
d
d
/
b
r
a
t
i
o
s
R
e
p
r
i
n
t
e
d
w
i
t
h
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
,
S
u
n
&
B
a
l
a
n
i
s
(
1
9
9
3
)
indicate the ®rst three modes in the waveguide for a number of dierent
aspect ratios of the structure.
4.9 The Poynting vector
The power rating and the powervoltage de®nition of impedance both
require statements of the Poynting vector of the waveguide. The relation
ship between this quantity at ®nite and at in®nite frequency is given by
P(o) = P(o)
z
0
z
g
(19)
where P(o) is
P(o) =
1
2
s

"
E
t
(o)
"
H
+
t
(o)] ds (20)
"
E
t
and
"
H
t
denote the transverse electric and magnetic ®elds, respectively.
For the purpose of calculation this relationship may be written as
1
2
s

"
E
t
(o)
"
H
+
t
(o)] ds
= A
2
r
0
d
0
¹
1
0
E
x
(o
c
)E
+
x
(o
c
) ÷ E
y
(o
c
)E
+
y
(o
c
)] dx dy
÷ A
2
r
0
b
0
¹
5
¹
4
E
x
(o
c
)E
+
x
(o
c
) ÷ E
y
(o
c
)E
+
y
(o
c
)] dx dy (21)
The factor A may be deduced by equating the Poynting vector to 1 W.
4.10 Attenuation in waveguides
An important quantity in the description of any waveguide is its dissipa
tion per unit length. When this quantity is small, the time average power
(P
t
) transmitted through the waveguide may be written approximately as
P
t
÷ P
t
exp(÷2oz) (22)
The power loss per unit length (P
¹
) is then given by
P
¹
= ÷
oP
t
oz
= 2oP
t
(23)
Fields, propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 61
The attenuation per unit length (o) is therefore described by
o =
P
¹
2P
t
(24)
Since P
t
has been evaluated in the preceding section, it only remains to
deduce P
¹
. This may be done by determining the dissipation in each wall
of the waveguide. This may be done by forming the following quantity:
P
¹
=
1
2
Z
s
A
[J[
2
dA (25)
Z
s
is the skin resistance of the metal enclosure:
Z
s
=
oj
0
2o
(26)
J is the current density and o is the resistivity of the waveguide wall.
Figure 4.10 indicates the attenuation in a double ridge waveguide based
on the MFIE method.
62 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1 1.75 2.5 3.25 4
f/f
c
α
η
a
/
R
s
TE
10
b/a = 0.5
s/a = 0.6
s/a = 0.6
s/a = 0.4
s/a = 0.2
s/a = 0.2
d/b = 0.2
d/b = 0.4
d/b = 0.6
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.2
Figure 4.10 Normalised attenuation constant of double ridge waveguide (f
c
= cuto
frequency of TE
10
mode)
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1993)
Chapter 5
Impedance of double ridge waveguide
using the ®nite element method
J. Helszajn and M. McKay
5.1 Introduction
One means of calculating the cuto space and impedance of a ridge wave
guide which avoids the need to describe the fringing ®elds at the edges of the
ridges is the ®nite element method (FEM). One way of obtaining any of the
de®nitions of impedance at any frequency in such a waveguide is to make use
of the relationship between that at ®nite and in®nite frequencies. The impe
dance at in®nite frequency is readily deduced by recognising that the electric
®eld distribution is invariant at cuto and at in®nite frequency and that the
magnetic ®eld at in®nite frequency is simply related to the electric ®eld there
by the impedance of free space. This suggests that a knowledge of the electric
®eld at in®nite frequency or at the cuto space is in practice sucient for
calculation. One simple means of solving this problem at the cuto fre
quency is to recognise that these quantities correspond to the eigenvectors
and eigenvalues of the related planar circuit with electric sidewalls and
top and bottom magnetic ones. Since this eigenvalue problem is readily
solved by using the FEM it provides one classic solution to this sort of pro
blem region. The FEM employed here is based on standard nodal triangular
elements and thus mesh re®nement is necessary in the neighbourhood of any
singularities to ensure convergence. The resulting number of nodes can be
reduced by supplementing the basis functions with singular trial functions
or by implementing scalar singular elements to emulate the behaviour of
the ®eld distributions at metal discontinuities. While the main endeavour
of this chapter is the evaluation of the voltagecurrent de®nition of impe
dance in a ridge waveguide the powervoltage and powercurrent ones are
also calculated for completeness' sake. Each of these two calculations may
also be reduced to the ratio of two suitable integrals in the electric ®eld at
cuto.
One advantage of numerical methods is that it is not necessary to intro
duce the notion of fringing eects at the sidewalls of the ridge structure
as is the case with some early calculations based on the transverse resonance
method (TRM). Some calculations on the impedance of waveguides with
trapezoidal ridges are included for completeness.
5.2 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance
One means of calculating the impedance of a homogeneous waveguide is to
form this quantity at in®nite frequency prior to recovering it at ®nite
frequency by introducing the dispersive factor z
g
¡z
0
. The topology under
consideration is indicated in Figure 5.1. The calculation of the impedance
in a ridge waveguide at in®nite frequency relies on the fact that the distri
bution of the electric ®eld in a homogeneous waveguide is the same at all
frequencies, including cuto and in®nite frequency, and that its wave
impedance at in®nite frequency is that of free space. Since the electric ®eld
at cuto is readily evaluated using the FEM it provides one attractive
means of tackling this problem. One possible de®nition of impedance in a
homogeneous waveguide at ®nite frequency is the voltagecurrent one. It
is given by
Z
VI
(o) = Z
VI
(o)
z
g
z
0
(1)
where
Z
VI
(o) =
V(o)
I(o)
(2)
V(o) and I(o) are the voltage at the centre of the waveguide and the total
longitudinal current in either the top or bottom half of the waveguide at
in®nite frequency, respectively. z
g
is the usual waveguide wavelength,
64 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of double ridge waveguide
2¬
z
g
2
=
2¬
z
0
2
÷
2¬
z
c
2
(3)
Making use of the observation that the distributions of the electric ®elds are
identical at both cuto and in®nite frequency gives
V(o)
I(o)
=
V(o
c
)
I(o
c
)
(4)
In terms of the original variables,
V(o) =
d
0
E
0
(o
c
) d¹ (5)
I(o) = 2r
0
¹
1
0
E(o
c
)
wall
d¹
÷ 2r
0
¹
3
¹
2
E(o
c
)
wall
d¹
÷ 2r
0
¹
5
¹
4
E(o
c
)
wall
d¹
÷ 2r
0
¹
7
¹
6
E(o
c
)
wall
d¹ (6)
provided that
H(o) = r
0
E(o)
wall
(7)
E(o
c
)
wall
is the electric ®eld at the wall of the waveguide at cuto. r
0
is the
free space wave admittance, and ¹
1
. ¹
2
. F F F ¹
7
are the integration paths. The
latter quantities are speci®ed by
¹
1
=
s
2
¹
2
=
(b ÷ d)
2
¹
3
= 0
Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 65
¹
4
=
s
2
¹
5
=
a
2
¹
6
= 0
¹
7
=
b
2
A scrutiny of the symmetry attached to the problem region of the double
ridge waveguide suggests that, insofar as the dominant TE
10
mode is
concerned, it is sucient to solve onequarter of the original topology.
The electrical paths met in connection with this problem region are indicated
in Figure 5.2. The solution is complete once the electric ®elds on the interior
metal boundaries are established.
5.3 Calculation of voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance
The main task of this chapter is the calculation of the voltagecurrent de®ni
tion of impedance at in®nite frequency in a ridge waveguide by using the
FEM. This is done by calculating V(o) and I(o) in equations (5) and (6)
for each of the two dierent ®nite element meshes illustrated in Figure 5.3.
The required transverse components of the electric ®eld can now be calcu
lated from a knowledge of H
z
at cuto by using Maxwell's equations,
E
x
=
÷n
0
k
c
oH
z
oy
(8a)
E
y
=
Hn
0
k
c
oH
z
ox
(8b)
66 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 5.2 Path of current integral
The other components of the TEM wave are related at in®nite frequency by
E
x
= n
0
H
y
(9a)
E
y
= ÷n
0
H
x
(9b)
n
0
is the freespace wave impedance
n
0
=
j
0
c
0
r
(10)
Figure 5.4 compares the solutions obtained in this way for one range of
ridge geometry. A comparison between the voltagecurrent de®nition of
impedance based on the ®nite element method and the closedform expres
sion developed in Chapter 3 is separately indicated in Figure 5.5.
5.4 Powercurrent and powervoltage de®nitions of impedance
The two other de®nitions of impedance met in this sort of waveguide besides
that of the voltagecurrent are the powercurrent and powervoltage ones.
The powervoltage de®nition of impedance based on the FEM has also
been dealt with in the literature but has so far been restricted to one value
of the s/a ratio. The required de®nitions are
Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 67
Figure 5.3 Discretisations of double ridge waveguide
Z
PV
(o) = Z
PV
(o)
z
g
z
0
(11)
and
Z
PI
(o) = Z
PI
(o)
z
g
z
0
(12)
where
Z
PV
(o) =
V(o)V
+
(o)
2P
t
(o)
(13)
and
Z
PI
(o) =
2P
t
(o)
I(o)I
+
(o)
(14)
Since the three classic de®nitions of impedance are related, a knowledge of
any two is sucient to describe the third. The approach utilised here is to
calculate the powercurrent one in terms of the voltagecurrent and
68 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 5.4 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide using
two possible discretisations (Á, q = 338, ´, q = 385, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
powervoltage de®nitions rather than directly. This is done by noting the
classic relationship between the three quantities,
Z
2
VI
(o) = Z
PV
(o)Z
PI
(o) (15)
Making use, again, of the fact that the ®eld distributions at cuto and in®
nite frequency are identical gives
V(o)V
+
(o)
2P
t
(o)
=
V(o
c
)V
+
(o
c
)
2P
t
(o
c
)
(16)
This quantity is again independent of the absolute value of the electric ®eld.
It can therefore be readily evaluated using the FEM without having to be
concerned with the absolute value of the ®elds met in any calculation. For
computational purposes equation (16) may be expressed as
Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 69
Figure 5.5 Comparison between voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of double
ridge waveguide using Sharma & Hoefer (1983) de®nition and FEM (b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
Z
PV
(o) =
d
0
E
y
(o
c
)E
+
y
(o
c
)] dx
2r
0
&
d
0
¹
1
0
E
x
(o
c
)E
+
x
(o
c
) ÷ E
y
(o
c
)E
+
y
(o
c
)] dx dy
÷
b
0
¹
5
¹
4
E
x
(o
c
)E
+
x
(o
c
) ÷ E
y
(o
c
)E
+
y
(o
c
)] dx dy
'
(17)
Figure 5.6 compares the results obtained with the FEMin Garb and Kastner
(1995) and the closed form expression based on the TRM described in
Chapter 3.
Figure 5.7 summarises the powercurrent de®nition of impedance in this
sort of waveguide.
70 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 5.6 Comparison between powervoltage de®nition of impedance of double ridge
waveguide using Hopfer (1955) and FEM de®nitions (! Garb & Kastner (1995),
´, q = 385, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
5.5 Impedance of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges
The impedance of rectangular waveguides with trapezoidal ridges is also of
some interest. Figure 5.8 depicts the geometry under consideration. It is
®xed by the ratio s
1
/s. The purpose of this section is to brie¯y summarise
some calculations on its voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance at in®nite
frequency. This is done for s
1
/s equal to 1.0, 0.80 and 0.60 with b¡a = 0.50,
s¡a = 0.50 and d¡b = 0.50. The results obtained here are summarised by
s
1
¡s = 1.0, z
c
¡a = 2.69, Z
VI
(o) = 151.91, s
1
¡s = 0.80, z
c
¡a = 2.70,
Z
VI
= 150.75 and s
1
¡s = 0.60, z
c
¡a = 2.71 and Z
VI
= 149.51. These
calculations suggest, at ®rst sight, that varying these quantities has no
notable eect on the impedance of this sort of waveguide. The relative
magnitude of the electric ®eld is indicated graphically in Figure 5.9.
Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 71
Figure 5.7 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide
(´, q = 385, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998, IEE Proc.)
72 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 5.8 Schematic diagram of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges
Figure 5.9 Standing wave solution in ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges
Chapter 6
Characterisation of single ridge waveguide
using the ®nite element method
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
6.1 Introduction
The various de®nitions of impedance in a single ridge waveguide are also of
some interest. The purpose of this chapter is to summarise some calcula
tions. The description of this problem region follows closely that introduced
in connection with the double ridge arrangement except that the limits of the
integral used to de®ne the current in the waveguide walls are in this instance
dierent. It corresponds, instead, with the position at which the polarity of
the electric ®eld on the boundary contour on either side of the symmetric
plane reverses. This condition ensures that the magnitude of the total cur
rents ¯owing in the equivalent top and bottom walls of the waveguide are
equal. A careful scrutiny of this problem suggests that the interior contour
of the waveguide breaks up in every instance into one interval consisting of
the top and sidewalls of the structure and a second interval comprising the
remaining walls. The calculation undertaken here suggests that the error
resulting in approximating the discontinuity at a typical ridge edge by a
shunt capacitance and retaining the contributions from the top and side
walls of the ridge and bottom waveguide wall is negligible. This observation
may be understood by recognising that the ®eld is concentrated between the
ridge and upper wall of the waveguide. This diculty does not arise in the
powervoltage de®nition of impedance. The powercurrent de®nition is
simply obtained by using the relationship between the three classic
de®nitions of impedance. The analysis of the ®eld distribution and power
voltage de®nition of impedance in various nonsymmetrical ridge structures
has included mode matching techniques, a variational method and a surface
integral approach. The work outlined here is based on the nodal FEM.
6.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide
The calculation of impedance at ®nite frequency involves a knowledge of
the cuto space. The single ridge structure diers from the double ridge
geometry in that it only supports one plane of symmetry about its wide
dimension. The cuto space of this structure is the same as that of the
double ridge structure with twice the height and twice the gap opening.
The evaluation of the cuto space of various ridge topologies by the
FEM is a standard result in the literature. The geometry in question is
depicted in Figure 6.1. A comparison of the results obtained in this work
and that based on the transverse resonance condition is shown in
Figure 6.2. The discretisation used to obtain these data is de®ned by
74 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 6.1 Schematic diagram of single ridge waveguide
Figure 6.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.45)
p 2
m 6
n 168
n Âm 1008
q 385
p is the degree of the polynomial approximation inside each element, m is the
number of nodes, n is the number of elements, n Âm is the number of nodes
prior to assembly of the mesh and q is the number of nodes after assembly of
the mesh. The mesh arrangement is indicated in Figure 6.3.
6.3 Fields in single ridge waveguide
A scrutiny of the symmetry attached to the problem region of the single
ridge waveguide suggests that, insofar as the dominant TE
10
mode is
concerned, it is again sucient to solve onehalf of the original topology.
The electrical paths of the problem region are indicated in Figure 6.4:
Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 75
Figure 6.3 Discretisation of single ridge waveguide
Figure 6.4 Path of current integral
1
s
2
2
b Àd
3
0
4
s
2
5
a
2
6
0
7
b
8
a
2
9
0
Figure 6.5 shows a typical electric ®eld distribution around the interior
contour of the single ridge waveguide for two typical geometries. The distri
bution of a typical electric ®eld indicated in this illustration is compatible
with the magnetic ®eld of the partitioned double ridge waveguide at the
same walls dealt with in Chapter 3. It indicates that a unique voltagecurrent
de®nition of impedance is obtained by taking either the current in the top
76 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 6.5 Electric ®eld distribution on interior waveguide wall (b/a 0.45,
d/b 0.35)
and side walls or that in the ridge and bottom walls for the purpose of
calculation. It is also observed that the electric ®eld is zero at all 90 degree
corners of the structure.
Figure 6.6 separately depicts the distribution of the electric ®elds of the
dominant mode in a single ridge waveguide for three dierent geometries.
Approximate closed form expressions for the ®elds in a single ridge wave
guide are also of interest. These may be constructed from those in the double
ridge waveguide summarised in Chapter 4 without diculty. The ®elds in a
single ridge waveguide are given from those in the double ridge by replacing
d by 2d and b by 2b in the latter arrangement prior to introducing an electric
wall at the symmetry plane of the problem region. The dimensions s and a
are unaltered by this operation, as is readily understood.
Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 77
Figure 6.6 Standing wave solutions of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.45, d/b 0.50)
(a) saa 0X25; (b) saa 0X50; (c) saa 0X75
6.4 Impedance of single ridge waveguide
The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a homogeneous waveguide
at ®nite frequency is again given in terms of the calculated one at in®nite
frequency by
Z
VI
3 Z
VI
I
!
g
!
0
1
where
Z
VI
I
V
I
I
I
2
and !
g
is the usual guide wavelength
2%
!
g
2
2%
!
0
2
À
2%
!
c
2
3
The calculation of the voltage between the ridge and upper waveguide wall
proceeds as in the case of the double ridge geometry but the absence of a
symmetry plane means that the integration limits associated with the two
possible current paths in the top and bottom walls of the single ridge struc
ture must be given separate consideration. One way to overcome this di
culty is to recognise that the polarisation of the electric ®eld reverses
around the boundary contour of the waveguide. The limits on the integrals
met in connection with the calculation of the total current may therefore be
taken to coincide with the two locations where the electric ®eld passes
through zero on either side of the symmetry plane.
Figure 6.7 compares the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance obtained
here with a closed form expression.
The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at ®nite frequency is given in
terms of that at in®nite frequency by
Z
PV
3 Z
PV
I
!
g
!
0
4
The absence of any current integral in this de®nition avoids the diculty
encountered in the calculation of Z
VI
. The calculation proceeds as for
the double ridge waveguide (Helszajn & McKay, 1998, IEE Proc.).
Figure 6.8 indicates the agreement between the FEM result and some
previous calculations.
78 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The powercurrent de®nition of impedance is obtained easily from the
classic relationship
Z
2
VI
I Z
PV
IZ
PI
I
5
It is depicted in Figure 6.9.
6.5 Insertion loss in single ridge waveguide
The insertion loss in a single ridge waveguide is also, of course, of some
interest. It is de®ned in a like manner to that given in connection with the
double ridge arrangement,
P
2P
t
dB
Figure 6.10 indicates some normalised results for the dominant TE
10
mode
based on some MFIE calculations. They are carried out on three typical
values of gap ratios (d/b) for parametric values of s/a. The aspect ratio of
the waveguide is baa 0X45.
Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 79
Figure 6.7 Comparison between voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of single ridge
waveguide using FEM (, q 385) and Sharma Hoefer (1983) de®nition
(b/a 0.45)
6.6 Higher order modes
The bandwidth of any waveguide is ®xed by the onset of the ®rst higher
order mode of the structure. This problem has already been tackled in con
nection with the double ridge waveguide and is brie¯y dealt with here in the
case of the single ridge arrangement. It is de®ned as the ratio of the cuto
wavelengths of the fundamental and the ®rst higher order mode. The ®rst
higher order mode in this waveguide has odd symmetry about the problem
region. The transverse resonance condition from which its cuto number
may be obtained is
Àcot
1
À
Y
02
Y
01
cot
2
B
Y
01
0
The original variables entering into this equation are available in Chapter 3.
80 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 6.8 Comparison between powervoltage de®nition of impedance of single ridge
waveguide using FEM
and Hopfer, 1955 and Utsumi, 1985
Á, (b/a=0.45)
Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 81
Figure 6.9 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance of single ridge waveguide using
FEM (, q 385), (b/a=0.45)
82 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
12
10
8
6
4
2
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
f/f
c
α
η
a
/
R
s
TE
10
b/a = 0.45
s/a = 0.6
s/a = 0.6
s/a = 0.4
s/a = 0.2
s/a = 0.6
d/a = 0.1
d/a = 0.2
d/a = 0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
Figure 6.10 Normalised attenuation constant of single ridge waveguide (f
c
cuto
frequency of TE
10
mode)
Chapter 7
Propagation constant and impedance of
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
using a hybrid ®nite element solver
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
7.1 Introduction
The ®nite element method (FEM) has been widely utilised in the analysis of
the cuto space and propagation constant of dielectric loaded waveguides
containing isotropic and anisotropic media. It includes variational expres
sions based on the twocomponent E
z
/H
z
hybrid notation and the three
component (magnetic
"
H or electric
"
E) vector formulation. The purpose of
this chapter is to give some calculations on the cuto space, the propaga
tion constant and the impedance of the ridge waveguide with a dielectric
®ller between its ridges based on a hybrid E
z
/H
z
®nite element calculation.
Modes in this sort of waveguide may in general be described as quasi
LSE
mn
or quasiLSM
mn
, depending on whether E
x
or H
x
is equal to zero
as the dielectric loaded ridge waveguide is reduced to a rectangular one.
The ®rst three modes may be denoted as quasiLSE
10
, LSE
20
, LSE
11
or
LSM
01
. One feature of this type of waveguide is that the separation between
the cuto frequencies of the dominant and ®rst order quasiLSE
mo
modes is
increased. The exact details of the cuto space are dependent on the dielec
tric constant (c
r
) of the insert and the geometry of the ridge waveguide. Some
existing experimental data obtained on the propagation constant of a square
waveguide are in engineering agreement with the theory. A feature of any
dielectric loaded waveguide is the existence of planes of quasicircular
polarisation at the boundary between the two dielectrics. It has been utilised
historically in the design of a number of nonreciprocal 2port devices.
A calculation of the ellipticity in this sort of waveguide is dealt with in a
separate chapter. The spurious modes encountered in the numerical
solutions of this sort of waveguide may be suppressed by either enforcing
the divergence free constraint in association with tangential and normal
boundary conditions or by employing vector elements to ensure only
tangential continuity of the ®eld components across element boundaries.
The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance for various ridge topologies is
separately investigated.
7.2 Hybrid functional
The problem region tackled in this chapter consists of a ridge waveguide
with a dielectric ®ller between its two ridges. Figure 7.1 indicates the top
ology considered here. In general this structure supports hybrid modes,
except in the case of the pure TE
mo
ones which can exist when the dielectric
extends across the full waveguide. The solution to this type of problem
involves the cuto space, the propagation constant and one or more de®ni
tions of impedance. In an inhomogeneous geometry the latter two quantities
have to be calculated at each and every frequency.
One solution to this sort of problem is to use a variational technique. This
involves constructing an energy functional which when extremised by using
the RalyeighRitz method produces a solution which satis®es the original
wave equation. The functional formulation for this sort of problem region
may be developed in terms of the longitudinal ®eld components (E
z
/H
z
)
or the three component magnetic (H) or electric (E) ®eld vectors. The
former choice is adopted here. The required construction starts by noting
the vector form of the Helmholtz equation
Lcc = 0 (1)
where
"
L is the matrix of the form
L =
L
ee
L
eh
L
he
L
hh
¸ ¸
(2)
84 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.1 Schematic diagram of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
and the hybrid vector cc represents the ®eld variables,
cc =
E
z
H
z
¸ ¸
(3)
For an isotropic dielectric region the wave equations associated with E
z
and
H
z
are uncoupled and the entries of the matrix of the form reduce to the
standard scalar Helmholtz equations. The entries of the form are separately
given by
L
ee
= c
0
c
r
(V
2
t
÷ k
2
cr
) (4a)
L
hh
= j
0
(V
2
t
÷ k
2
cr
) (4b)
L
eh
= 0 (4c)
L
he
= 0 (4d)
where
k
2
cr
= k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
(5)
and
k
0
= o
c
0
j
0
(6)
k
cr
, c
r
and [ represent the cuto wavenumber, the relative permittivity and
the propagation constant of a typical region, respectively. The construction
of the associated functional proceeds by premultiplying the vector form of
the Helmholtz equation in a typical region by the transpose of the conjugate
vector ®eld, integrating the ensuing quadratic equation over the cross
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 85
Figure 7.2 Homogeneous problem region with inhomogeneous boundary condition
section of the region in question and utilising Green's theorem in a plane to
map a surface integral into a contour one. Application of the appropriate
boundary conditions on the contour s of a homogeneous region of cross
sectional area produces the functional of a typical region,
F
r
(E
z
. H
z
) = c
r
÷(V
t
E
z
) · (V
t
E
+
z
) ÷ k
2
cr
[E
z
[
2
] d
÷ n
2
0
¸
÷ (V
t
H
z
) · (V
t
H
+
z
) ÷ k
2
cr
[H
z
[
2
¸
d
÷ n
0
[
k
0
¸
k
1
s
k
¸
H
+
z
oE
z
ot
÷ E
+
z
oH
z
ot
¸
dt
÷ jn
0
k
2
cr
k
0
¸
k
1
s
k
(E
+
z
H
t
) ÷ (H
+
z
E
t
)] dt (7)
t is an anticlockwise directed unit vector tangential to the boundary s, and k
denotes the number of media interfaces met on the boundary.
n
0
is the freespace wave impedance
n
0
=
j
0
c
0
(8)
Figure 7.2 summarises this situation.
The ®rst surface integral term is the energy functional associated with the
planar problem region with top and bottom electric walls. It automatically
satis®es the Neumann boundary condition
oH
z
on
= 0 (9)
at any magnetic sidewall. The Dirichlet boundary condition
E
z
= 0 (10)
must, however, be separately enforced at any electric sidewalls. The second
surface integral corresponds to the energy of the dual problem with top
and bottom magnetic walls for which the natural boundary condition is
the Neumann one at electric sidewalls and the Dirichlet condition must
be enforced at magnetic sidewalls. The two contour integral terms also
produce real parts and ensure conservation of energy across dielectric
boundaries.
86 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The energy functional for the total inhomogeneous problem region can
therefore be expanded in terms of a typical region
F(E
z
. H
z
) =
¸
r
1
F
r
(E
z
. H
z
) (11)
It is of note that [ has the same value in each region and that the second con
tour integral in equation (7) makes no contribution to the overall functional
in equation (11) since each common contour s
k
is traversed along opposite
directions in the connected media and may be discarded.
The RayleighRitz procedure approximates the ®eld solutions (E
z
, H
z
) in
terms of a set of linearly independent shape functions o(x. y) prior to
extremising the functional to produce a matrix eigenvalue problem.
Noting that a priori ®elds exist at electric, magnetic and resistive walls, E
z
and H
z
in a typical region may be expanded in terms of the free components
in its interior and the free and prescribed components on its boundaries:
E
z

¸
f
e
1
e
rf
o
f
(x. y) ÷
¸
p
e
1
e
rp
o
p
(x. y) (12a)
and
H
z

¸
f
h
1
h
rf
o
f
(x. y) ÷
¸
p
h
1
h
rp
o
p
(x. y) (12b)
The following work is only concerned with electric and magnetic walls and
the prescribed nodes are hereafter set to zero. Introducing the preceding
approximations into equation (11) and extremising with respect to the
unconstrained variables (e
rf
. h
rf
) produces the eigenvalue problem for the
inhomogeneous region,
¸
r
1
1
c
r
÷
[
k
0
2
c
r
n
2
0
S]
(1)
1
2n
0
[
k
0
U]
1
2n
0
[
k
0
U]
T
S]
(2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
rf
]
h
rf
]
¸
=
¸
r
1
k
2
0
c
r
n
2
0
T]
(1)
0
0 T]
(2)
¸
¸
¸
e
rf
]
h
rf
]
¸ ¸
(13)
The order of the symmetric matrices [S]
(1)
and [S]
(2)
corresponds to the
degrees of freedom (r) of the free nodal electric ( f
e
) and magnetic ( f
m
)
®elds of the region, respectively. A similar de®nition applies to the [T]
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 87
matrices. The entries of the S and T matrices are the classic ones met in con
nection with a planar circuit with either top and bottom magnetic or electric
walls
S
i j
=
(V
t
o
i
) · (V
t
o
j
) d (14a)
T
i j
=
o
i
o
j
d (14b)
[U] is a matrix of order ( f
e
f
m
) and represents the physical coupling
between the electric and magnetic ®elds at the dielectric boundaries of the
region. [U]
(T)
is the transpose of [U]. The entries of this matrix are given by
U
i j
=
¸
k
1
s
k
o
i
oo
j
ot
÷ o
j
oo
i
ot
dt (14c)
At cuto, e
rf
and h
rf
are decoupled.
7.3 Cuto space of dielectric loaded rectangular ridge waveguide
The ®rst task of this chapter is the evaluation of the cuto space of the
dielectric loaded double ridge waveguide. The aspect ratio of the waveguide
(b/a) is 0.50 and the ridges are described by parametric values of d/b and
s/a, respectively. At cuto, [ is zero and the functional in equation (7)
reduces to the sum of the two independent functionals associated with the
planar problem region with top and bottom electric and magnetic walls,
respectively. Imposing appropriate symmetry planes and extremising the
functional in conjunction with the FEM yields the quasiLSE and LSM
modes of the problem region. The purpose of this section is to summarise
some results. The segmentation employed in this work is depicted in
Figure 7.3. The discretisations in the dielectric and air regions are de®ned by
p = 2
m = 6
n = 43
n m = 258
88 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
and
p = 2
m = 6
n = 49
n m = 294
respectively.
p is the degree of the interpolation polynomial within each ®nite element
triangle, m is the number of nodes inside each ®nite element triangle, n is the
number of triangles and n m is the total number of nodes before assembly
of the ®nite element mesh.
The corresponding free (f) and prescribed (p) electric and magnetic nodes
in the individual regions are
f
h
= 97
f
e
= 88
p
h
= 9
p
e
= 18
and
f
h
= 120
f
e
= 91
p
h
= 0
p
e
= 29
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 89
Figure 7.3 Discretisation of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
Figure 7.4 indicates the variation of the normalised cuto wavelength of the
dominant quasiLSE
10
mode when a dielectric (c
r
= 9) is inserted between
the ridges. Figure 7.5 indicates the separation between the quasiLSE
10
and
LSE
20
modes.
Although the emphasis of this section has been on the calculation of the
quasiLSE
10
and LSE
20
modes, in general, the cuto space of ridge and
dielectric loaded waveguides is more complicated. Figure 7.6 indicates one
typical range of topologies for which the quasiLSE
11
or quasiLSM
01
mode is actually the ®rst higher order one.
Figure 7.7 depicts the electric and magnetic ®eld patterns of the quasi
LSE
10
and LSE
11
modes for one typical geometry.
7.4 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded rectangular ridge
waveguide
The purpose of this section is to summarise some calculations on the
propagation constant of the dominant quasiLSE
10
mode in a double ridge
90 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.4 Cuto space of quasiLSE
10
mode in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide for
c
r
= 1 and c
r
= 9.0
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between the ridges. This is done for one
waveguide topology and two dierent materials. Figure 7.8 indicates the
agreement between some calculations on a standard rectangular waveguide
with a dielectric insert and some calculations using the transverse resonance
method (d¡b = 1.0). Figure 7.9 shows the main result obtained here.
Some calculations on a ridge waveguide with an inhomogeneous dielectric
®ller have also been carried out for completeness' sake. The topology con
sidered here is illustrated in Figure 7.10 and some typical data are given
in Figure 7.11.
7.5 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded square waveguide
Figure 7.12 indicates some calculations on the normalised propagation con
stant of a square ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its ridges.
Some measurements in the open literature are separately superimposed on
this result. The measurements are obtained by using a 1port re¯ection
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 91
Figure 7.5 Ratio of cuto numbers of quasiLSE
10
and LSE
20
modes for c
r
= 1 and
c
r
= 9.0
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
cavity. The segmentation utilised here is the same as that employed in the
rectangular geometry.
7.6 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance
The impedance of a dielectric loaded double ridge waveguide is also of some
interest in microwave engineering. The purpose of this section is to give
some calculations on its voltagecurrent de®nition. The voltage is obtained
in the usual way by evaluating the electric ®eld along the magnetic symmetry
plane extending between the two ridges,
E
y
=
jk
0
n
0
(k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
)
oH
z
ox
÷
j[
k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
oE
z
oy
(15)
92 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.6 Higher order modes in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide c
r
= 9.0
(b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
The current is separately obtained by integrating the magnetic ®eld along the
contour de®ned by the electric symmetry plane. This calculation may be
undertaken by using H
x
and H
y
as follows:
H
x
=
÷j[
(k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
)
oH
z
ox
÷
jk
0
c
r
n
0
(k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
)
oE
z
oy
H
y
=
÷j[
(k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
)
oH
z
oy
÷
jk
0
c
r
n
0
(k
2
0
c
r
÷ [
2
)
oE
z
ox
(16)
Figure 7.13 indicates the result in the case of a dielectric constant of 9.0.
Unlike the homogeneous problem region, for which it is sucient to calcu
late the impedance at in®nite frequency and use the dispersion relationship
to obtain that at the actual frequency, it is necessary in this instance to make
the calculation at each individual frequency. Each curve is truncated at
the cuto frequency of the quasiLSE
20
mode in the respective topologies.
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 93
Figure 7.7 Electric and magnetic ®eld distribution of quasiLSE
10
and LSE
11
modes
at cuto (c
r
= 9.0, b/a = 0.50, s/a = 0.50, d/b=0.50)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
94 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.8 Comparison between propagation constants of dielectric loaded rectangular
waveguide using TRM and FEM techniques (b/a = 0.50)
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 95
Figure 7.9 Propagation constant of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide (c
r
= 3.47 and
9.0, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
96 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.10 Schematic diagram of partially dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
Figure 7.11 Propagation constant of partially dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
(c
r
= 3.47 and 9.0, b/a = 0.50, s/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 97
Figure 7.12 Comparison of theoretical and experimental propagation constants in
square ridge waveguide FEM; experiment: &, !,~,* (c
r
= 3.47, s/a = 0.25,
a = 8.55 mm)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
98 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 7.13 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide, c
r
= 9.0 (b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Chapter 8
Circular polarisation in ridge
and dielectric loaded ridge
waveguides
8.1 Introduction
An important concept in microwave engineering is that of circular polar
isation. The two possibilities correspond to two equal vectors in space
quadrature with one or the other advanced or retarded in time quadrature.
Counterrotating magnetic ®elds occur naturally on either side of the
symmetry plane of an ordinary rectangular waveguide propagating the
dominant TE mode; and at the interface and everywhere outside two dier
ent dielectric regions. Furthermore, in each instance, the hand of rotation is
interchanged if the direction of propagation is reversed. Situations in which
the rotation of these waves are dierent in the two directions of propagation
are, of course, of special interest. One interesting aspect of the single or
double ridge waveguides is that neither display planes of circular polarisation
in its trough regions. The single ridge waveguide, however, supports such
planes on its ¯at wall and the double ridge one on the symmetry plane
de®ned by its electric wall. The exact nature of the polarisation in a ridge
waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its ridges based on the FEM
method is separately summarised. Since either halfspace of the more
simple problem of a dielectric rib between two parallel plates has many of
the properties of the halfspace revealed by a dielectric brick in a ridge wave
guide it is investigated prior to tackling the exact problem. One feature of the
parallel plate waveguide is the fact that the alternating magnetic ®eld is
quasicircularly polarised with counterrotating hands at each interface
between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside it.
8.2 Circular polarisation
An alternating radio frequency wave is either vertically, horizontally or
clockwise and anticlockwise elliptically or circularly polarised. Since circular
polarisation plays such an important role in the operation of ferrite and
other devices it is helpful to recall its de®nition in some detail. The two
possibilities correspond to counterrotating waves and are de®ned in
Cartesian coordinates by
E
÷
(ot. [z) = (a
x
E
0
÷ja
y
E
0
) exp j (ot ÷[z)
E
÷
(ot. [z) = (a
x
E
0
÷ja
y
E
0
) exp j (ot ÷[z)
Whether E
÷
or E
÷
represents a clockwise or anticlockwise circularly
polarised wave may be readily established by constructing the real parts
of these quantities and evaluating the same at ot = 0, [z = 0,
¬
2
, ¬,
3¬
2
, etc.
or at [z = 0, ot = 0,
¬
2
,
3¬
2
, etc. This gives
E
÷
(ot. [z) = a
x
E
0
cos(ot ÷[z) ÷a
y
E
0
sin(ot ÷[z)
E
÷
(ot. [z) = a
x
E
0
cos(ot ÷[z) ÷a
y
E
0
sin(ot ÷[z)
Taking ot = 0 by way of an example gives
E
÷
(0. [z)¬ = a
x
E
0
cos([z) ÷a
y
E
0
sin([z)
E
÷
(0. [z) = a
x
E
0
cos([z) ÷a
y
E
0
sin([z)
A scrutiny of the preceding equations also indicates that
E
÷
(ot. [z) ÷E
÷
(ot. [z) = a
x
E
0
cos(ot ÷[z)
This result suggests that a linearly polarised wave can always be decomposed
into a linear combination of counterrotating circularly polarised waves.
Figures 8.1a and b show pictorial displays of the two magnetic ®eld patterns
at ot = 0 in free space entering into the description of this problem region.
Figure 8.2 indicates the corresponding solution for the electric ®eld.
8.3 Open halfspace of asymmetrically dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide
The open halfspace between the ridges of an asymmetrically dielectric
loaded ridge waveguide has at ®rst sight some similarity to the open regions
of a single dielectric rib between two parallel plates. The topology of the
100 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
parallel plate waveguide may therefore be utilised to establish the nature of
the halfspace revealed by a ridge waveguide with the other halfspace ®lled
by a suitable dielectric medium. The solution to this problem is a classic one
in the literature. The topology considered here is illustrated in Figure 8.3.
One property of the parallel plate waveguide is that it displays counter
rotating elliptically polarised magnetic ®elds at each boundary between
the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside. Another property is
that the hands of polarisations are interchanged when the direction of pro
pagation is reversed. Such a waveguide may therefore be employed, in con
junction with suitably magnetised ferrite plates, in the construction of
nonreciprocal isolators and phase shifters. It may also be used to provide
some insight into the operation of nonreciprocal ridge components.
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 101
Figure 8.1 Linear polarisation, clockwise, counterclockwise circular polarisation
(magnetic ®eld)
8.4 Circular polarisation in dielectricloaded parallel plate
waveguides with open sidewalls
Dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguides with open sidewalls or with
electric or magnetic sidewalls all support, under appropriate boundary con
ditions, planes of circular polarisation at the boundaries between dielectric
and air regions. The con®guration treated in this section is the open side
wall arrangement in Figure 8.3. A solution of this problem region indicates
that the ®elds decay exponentially outside the dielectric region and that the
ratio of the transverse to longitudinal components of the RF magnetic ®eld
102 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
y
z
x
E
+
= (a
x
– ja
y
)E
o
~
z
y
x
+
E
–
= (a
x
– ja
y
)E
o
~
y
x
z
=
E = E
+
+ E
–
~ ~ ~
Figure 8.2 Linear polarisation, clockwise, counterclockwise circular polarisation
(electric ®eld)
at the interface between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside it
is given by
H
x
H
z
=
÷j
1 ÷(k
0
¡[)
2
p (1)
where k
0
is the free space propagation constant and [ is the phase constant
along the structure.
To maintain the ellipticity below 1.05 (say) it is necessary to have
[
k
0
53 (2)
The derivation of this important result starts by establishing the ®eld
components of the TE family of modes in the threeregion dielectric
loaded parallel plate waveguide with open sidewalls. The solutions are
labelled even or odd according to whether an electric or magnetic wall can
be introduced along the plane of symmetry at x = 0. The dominant mode
in such a waveguide is the socalled even one with no low frequency cut
o condition. One solution in the dielectric region is
H
z
= Asin(k
1
x) exp(÷j[z) (3)
It satis®es the wave equation with
÷k
2
1
÷(÷[
2
÷o
2
j
0
c
0
c
1
) = 0 (4)
and the magnetic wall boundary condition at the symmetry plane of the
dielectric region. The other ®eld components in region 1 are now readily
constructed in terms of H
z
as
H
x
=
÷j[
k
1
Acos(k
1
x) exp(÷j[z) (5)
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 103
Figure 8.3 Schematic diagram of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide with open
sidewalls
E
y
=
jj
0
o
k
1
Acos(k
1
x) exp(÷j[z) (6)
A suitable decaying solution in region 2 in keeping with the open wall
boundary condition adopted for this region at x = ÷ois
H
z
= B expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (7)
It satis®es the wave equation with
k
2
2
÷(÷[
2
÷o
2
j
0
c
0
) = 0 (8)
The constant B is determined by noting that H
z
must be continuous at the
boundary between the two regions
B = ÷Asin(k
1
a) (9)
The complete solution in region 2 is therefore described by the dispersion
relationship in equation (8) and by
H
z
= ÷Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (10)
H
x
=
÷j[
k
2
Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (11)
E
y
=
jj
0
o
k
2
Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (12)
The solution in region 3 has the same form as that in 2 but with the sign of
H
z
reversed:
H
z
= Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (13)
H
x
=
÷j[
k
2
Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (14)
E
y
=
jj
0
o
k
2
Asin(k
1
a) expk
2
(a ÷x) ÷j[z] (15)
and satis®es the same wave equation as that in region 2.
The magnetic ®eld is therefore elliptically polarised with one hand of
rotation everywhere in region 2:
H
x
H
z
=
j[
k
2
(16)
104 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
That in region 3 is elliptically polarised with the other hand of rotation as
asserted:
H
x
H
z
=
÷j[
k
2
(17)
For completion, it is nownecessary to evaluate [ and the ®eld patterns of the
structure. This may be done by ®rst noting that the propagation constant [
must be the same in each region:
k
2
2
÷o
2
j
0
c
0
= ÷k
2
1
÷o
2
j
0
c
0
c
1
(18)
and furthermore noting that the electric ®eld E
y
must be continuous across
the two regions. Applying this boundary condition gives
k
2
= k
1
tan(k
1
a) (19)
The preceding two relationships may now be employed to evaluate k
1
a and
k
2
a for parametric values of c
1
and o
2
j
0
c
0
, and either separation constant
may be employed with the appropriate wave equation to determine [.
A knowledge of these three parameters is sucient to construct the ®eld
patterns of the waveguide. Figure 8.4 depicts one result. The relationship
between [¡k
2
and (ka)
c
1
is separately illustrated in Figure 8.5.
The derivation of the second family of TE solutions for which the intro
duction of an electric wall at the plane of symmetry leaves the solution
unperturbed is outside the remit of this text. It is actually the next higher
order mode of this class of waveguide. It is indicated in Figure 8.6 for
completeness.
8.5 Circular polarisation in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
A scrutiny of the ®eld pattern of a dielectric loaded ridge waveguide indi
cates that it also supports planes of elliptical or circular polarisation at
the boundary between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside.
One way to solve this problem region is to use the twocomponent E
z
/H
z
hybrid FEM outlined in Chapter 7. One solution which displays a quasi
circularly polarised solution at the symmetry plane of the problem region is
the dominant quasiLSE
10
mode of the structure. One feature of this result is
that the alternating magnetic ®eld is not only circularly polarised at the
boundary between the two dielectrics but also everywhere outside. This
result is obtained by calculating H
x
from a knowledge of E
z
and H
z
:
H
x
=
÷j[
(÷[
2
÷k
2
0
c
r
)
oH
z
ox
÷
jk
0
c
r
n
0
(÷[
2
÷k
2
0
c
r
)
oE
z
oy
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 105
106 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.4 Electric and magnetic ®elds of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide
with open sidewalls (dominant even mode solution)
Source: Cohn (1959)
A typical result at the symmetry plane of the waveguide is indicated in
Figure 8.7. It applies for a normalised phase constant of
[
k
0
= 2.5
The relationship between the normalised frequency and the ellipticity at the
dielectric interface is separately illustrated in Figure 8.8. The truncation of
each curve corresponds to the onset of the quasiLSE
20
mode in the wave
guide. The ®nite element mesh employed in obtaining these results is
indicated in Figure 8.9.
8.6 Circular polarisation in homogeneous ridge waveguide
A property of a ridge is that is does not have planes of circular polarisation
on the ¯oors of the trough regions. It does, however, display such polar
isations at the plane of the electric wall de®ned by the symmetry of the
waveguide. The failure of a single ridge waveguide to exhibit this sort of
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 107
Figure 8.5 Relationship between [¡k
2
and (k
1
a)
c
1
Source: Anderson & Hines (1960)
polarisation in the trough regions may be understood by mapping a rect
angular waveguide into a ridge arrangement with equivalent path length
around its periphery. This operation is illustrated in Figure 8.10. It high
lights howthe sidewalls of the rectangular waveguide, which do not support
planes of circular polarisation, are translated into the bottom walls of the
ridge channels.
Since the closed form descriptions of the ®elds in a ridge waveguide are in
good agreement with those produced by using the ®nite element method
these may be used for the purpose of calculation. Figure 8.11 shows one
typical result at six dierent planes along the thickness of the waveguide
108 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.6 Electric and magnetic ®elds of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide
with open sidewalls (dominant odd mode solution)
Source: Cohn (1959)
inside the halfspace formed by placing an electric wall at its symmetry wall.
Figure 8.12 illustrates a similar result for another geometry. Figures 8.13
and 8.14 compare some closed form and ®nite element calculations in the
same two geometries.
The closed form relationships for the ®elds in this sort of waveguide may
also be readily employed to calculate the positions of circular polarisation at
the plane of the electric wall for dierent values of the gap spacing d/b. This
result is indicated in Figure 8.15. It is obtained by retaining the ®rst 15 modes
in the trough and ridge regions.
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 109
Figure 8.7 Circular polarisation at symmetry plane in dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide (s/a = 0.25, d/b = 0.50, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
110 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.8 Relationship between ellipticity at electric symmetry plane and normalised
frequency in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide for parametric values of s/a
(d/b = 0.50)
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 111
Figure 8.9 Finite element discretisation of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
Figure 8.10 Mapping between rectangular and single ridge waveguides
112 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.11 FEM calculations of H
x
and H
z
in layered planes parallel to the electric
symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a = 0.25, b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.35, k
0
/k
c
= 2.0)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 113
Figure 8.12 FEM calculations of H
x
and H
z
in layered planes parallel to the electric
symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a = 0.25, b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.50, k
0
/k
c
= 2.0)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
114 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.13 Comparison between FEM and closed form calculations of H
x
and H
z
in
layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a = 0.25,
b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.35, k
0
/k
c
= 2.0)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 115
Figure 8.14 Comparison between FEM and closed form calculations of H
x
and H
z
in
layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a = 0.25,
b/a = 0.50, d/b = 0.50, k
0
/k
c
= 2.0)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
116 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 8.15 Position of circular polarisation at plane of electric symmetry wall in
double ridge waveguide (s/a = 0.25, b/a = 0.50)
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
Chapter 9
Quadruple ridge waveguide
9.1 Introduction
The ridge waveguide is not in practice restricted to the rectangular wave
guide with one or two ridges. One or more ridges have by now been intro
duced into circular, square and triangular waveguides. A property of the
round or square waveguide symmetrically loaded by four ridges is that its
dominant mode can be decomposed into counterrotating circular polarised
waves on its axis. This sort of ridge waveguide supports Faraday rotation
provided it is perturbed by a gyromagnetic material along its axis. Since
the dominant mode solution of this structure has twofold symmetry it is
sucient, insofar as it is concerned, to investigate the problem regions
revealed by introducing suitable orthogonal magnetic and electric walls in
all combinations. Its mode nomenclature coincides with that of the round
or square waveguide obtained by removing the ridges. The nodal ®nite
element method (FEM) again provides one means of investigating this
sort of isotropic waveguide. The eect of depositing dielectric tiles on the
ridges is also given some attention. Its description necessitates the use of
a hybrid (E
z
aH
z
) or vector H
x
, H
y
, H
z
functional. A quarterwave plate
can be readily realised in this sort of waveguide by employing unequal
orthogonal pairs of ridges.
9.2 Quadruple ridge waveguide
One quadruple ridge waveguide consists of a square waveguide symmetri
cally loaded by four ridges in the manner indicated in Figure 9.1a. Its details
are again completely described by a normalised gap (d/a) and a normalised
ridge width (s/a). The normalised cuto number (!
c
aa) completes its de®ni
tion. The ®eld patterns and cuto of this type of waveguide space may be
evaluated without ado by once more using the FEM or other numerical
techniques. The geometry of the related circular waveguide is separately
illustrated in Figure 9.1b. Its topology is ®xed by the same variables as
those employed to specify the square arrangement except that the side
dimension represents, in this instance, the diameter of the waveguide.
A square quadruple ridge waveguide with diagonal ridges is depicted in
Figure 9.1c.
The cuto spaces of these sorts of waveguides have been calculated using
the FEM, the mode matching method (MMM), the magnetic ®eld integral
equation (MFIE) and other numerical procedures. The cuto spaces of
118 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.1 Schematic diagrams of square and round ridge waveguides
the TE family of modes of these waveguides correspond to those of planar
circuits with top and bottom magnetic walls and an electric sidewall. Its TM
mode spectrum corresponds to that of planar circuits with top and bottom
electric walls and a magnetic sidewall. The ®eld patterns of either problem
region are obtained from the eigenvectors of the problem region in question
in conjunction with Maxwell's equations.
9.3 Cuto space in quadruple ridge waveguide using MFIE method
A comprehensive investigation of the cuto spaces of various quadruple
ridge waveguides has been undertaken based on the MFIE method. The
cuto spaces obtained in this way are separately depicted in Figures 9.2±
9.4. The TE
21U
and TE
21L
solutions are obtained by introducing orthogonal
electric and magnetic walls at the symmetric planes of the problem
region, respectively. A property of these mode charts is the splitting of the
degenerate TE
2,1
modes by the introduction of the ridges. This feature
may be understood by recalling that an inward deformation of an electric
wall of a cavity resonator in the vicinity of a pure electric ®eld produces
an increase in the resonant frequency whereas the same deformation in
the vicinity of a pure magnetic ®eld has the opposite eect. The ®eld patterns
of the split TE
2,1
modes are indicated in Figure 9.5.
Quadruple ridge waveguide 119
Figure 9.2 Cuto space of square ridge waveguide using MFIE
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
120 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.3 Cuto space of round ridge waveguide using MFIE
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
Figure 9.4 Cuto space of square waveguide using diagonal ridges using MFIE
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
9.4 Cuto space of ridge waveguide using MMM
A mode matching procedure has also been utilised to establish the cuto
space of a ridge waveguide in the special case of one or more conical
ridges. Figure 9.6 depicts the details of a typical ridge. The use of conical
instead of rectangular ridges permits closed form radial variables to be
used throughout. Figures 9.7±9.10 illustrate the cuto spaces of these
sorts of structures. The details of the radial MMM encountered in this
problem region are described in the original literature, as are a number of
related ®lter structures.
9.5 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using FEM
The cuto space of the TE family of solutions in a quadruple ridge wave
guide may also be again readily established by using the FEM. It coincides
with the eigenvalues of the related planar geometry with top and bottom
magnetic walls, and an electric sidewall. The functional met with this
Quadruple ridge waveguide 121
Figure 9.5 Field patterns of quadruple ridge circular waveguide using FEM
a TE
11
; b TE
21L
; c TE
21U
; d TE
01
122 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.6 Geometry of a single ridge circular waveguide
a Ridge depth < radius; b ridge depth > radius
Figure 9.7 Cuto space of circular waveguide with single conical ridges using the
MMM (t/D = 0.04)
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
Quadruple ridge waveguide 123
Figure 9.8 Cuto space of circular waveguide with two conical ridges using the
MMM (2 = 108)
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
Figure 9.9 Cuto space of circular waveguide with three conical ridges using the
MMM (2 = 108)
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
topology is that encountered in connection with the single or double ridge
geometry. The matrix equation produced by extremising this functional is
{A] ÷ k
2
a
B]}H
z
= 0 (1)
The square matrices [A] and [B] have the meaning met in connection with
the single and double ridge problem regions. k
a
and H
z
represent a typical
eigenvalue and a typical eigenvector.
Since this structure has four fold symmetry it is sucient to solve the
problem region obtained by partitioning it into four equal regions by intro
ducing orthogonal electrical and magnetic walls in all combinations. One
possible discretisation in the case of the circular con®guration is speci®ed by
p = 2
m = 6
n = 71
n m = 426
q = 172
124 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.10 Cuto space of circular waveguide with four conical ridges using the
MMM (b = 20mm, 2 = 208)
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
p is the degree of the polynomial approximation inside each element, m is the
number of nodes, n is the number of elements, n m is the number of nodes
prior to assembly of the mesh and q is the number of nodes after assembly of
the mesh. Figure 9.11 summarises the required cuto space.
The cuto space of the TM eigensolution is obtained by replacing the
top and bottom magnetic walls by electric walls and again introducing
orthogonal electric and magnetic walls in all combinations. The functional
in this instance involves E
z
instead of H
z
:
{A] ÷ k
2
a
B]}E
z
= 0 (2)
The cuto space of the TM eigensolution is separately superimposed on
Figure 9.11. The ®rst symmetric TM
01
mode.
Quadruple ridge waveguide 125
Figure 9.11 Cuto space of quadruple ridge circular waveguide using FEM
9.6 Fields in quadruple ridge waveguide
The ®elds in the round ridge waveguide can be established easily by recalling
that the eigenvectors of the problem region coincide with the magnetic ®eld
H
z
or E
z
at the nodes of the two possible planar problem regions. The other
components of the ®eld are then deduced by using Maxwell's equations.
Figures 9.12±9.14 reproduce, however, some results on the dominant and
higher order TE modes in a round waveguide based on an MFIE calcula
tion. The mode nomenclature met in the description of the round waveguide
is that obtained by withdrawing the ridges. The nature of the ®elds in the
square waveguide can be inferred from those of the round geometry without
diculty. The ®eld patterns of the TE family of solutions correspond to the
planar problem region with top and bottom magnetic walls and an electric
sidewall. Those of the TM eigensolutions are obtained by replacing the top
and bottom magnetic walls with electric walls.
126 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.12 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a square quadrupleridge waveguide
using MFIE
a TE
10
mode; b TE
11
mode; c TE
20L
mode; d TE
20U
mode
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
9.7 Cuto space of dielectric loaded quadruple ridge waveguide
The quadruple ridge waveguide can also be dielectric loaded in various
ways. Figure 9.15 illustrates some possibilities. Since such a typical structure
supports hybrid modes, an E
z
aH
z
or a threecomponent vector formulation
is necessary for its description. The hybrid E
z
aH
z
formulation is adopted
here. It reduces to the set of simultaneous equations reproduced below:
Quadruple ridge waveguide 127
Figure 9.13 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a circular quadrupleridge
waveguide using MFIE
a TE
11
mode; b TE
01
mode; c TE
21L
mode; d TE
21U
mode using MFIE
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
Figure 9.14 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a diagonal quadrupleridge
waveguide using MFIE
a TE
10
mode; b TE
20L
mode using MFIE
Reprinted with permission, Sun & Balanis (1994)
r
1
1
4
r
÷
k
0
2
4
r
2
0
S]
(1)
1
2
0
k
0
U]
1
2
0
k
0
U]
(1)
S]
(2)
P
T
T
T
R
Q
U
U
U
S
e
rf
]
h
rf
]
4 5
=
r
1
k
2
0
4
r
2
0
T]
(1)
0
0 T]
(2)
P
R
Q
S
e
rf
]
h
rf
]
!
(3)
The notation entering in this result is in keeping with that met in Chapter 8.
Since there is at ®rst sight no standard size tabulated for the quadruple
ridge waveguide the dimensions chosen here are based on the corresponding
opening of a double ridge rectangular waveguide. Adopting this convention
gives
s
d
= 0X25
128 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.15 Schematic diagrams of round and square ridge waveguide loaded by
dielectric tiles and rods
Reprinted from Helszajn & Shrimpton (1996)
The gap between the ridges is again described by
d
D
Once the waveguide size is settled it is necessary to ®x the aspect ratio (S/H)
of the ferrite tile. This quantity is bracketed in this work by
2 4
s
h
44
The de®nition of the geometry is complete once the gap between the ridges is
selected. This parameter is de®ned in terms of a ®lling factor
k =
2h
d
Its maximum value, to prevent the orthogonal pairs of ridges touching, is
k
max
= 1 ÷
ks
2h
The range of ®lling factors investigated here is bracketed by
k
max
2
4k 4
3k
max
4
The value of the relative dielectric constant (4
r
) completes the physical
description of the waveguide structure in question.
The cuto space for one gyromagnetic arrangement is depicted in
Figure 9.16. The segmentation employed in obtaining this result is indicated
in Figure 9.17.
The ®eld patterns in this sort of waveguide can be deduced without di
culty once the cuto space and propagation constant at any frequency are
available. Figure 9.18 illustrates some results on a square ridge waveguide
with four dielectric tiles.
Since the problem region under consideration is inhomogeneous the
propagation constant cannot be deduced from a knowledge of the cuto
space but must be calculated at each and every frequency.
Figure 9.19 summarises some experimental work on the propagation
constant of one square ridge waveguide using a single pair of ridges in the
7.0±15 GHz band for dierent values of daa with saa = 0X25. The side of
the waveguide is 8.55 mm. The thickness of the tiles was 11 mm and the
width was 2.14 mm. The relative dielectric constant of the dielectric tiles
was 15.0.
Quadruple ridge waveguide 129
130 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.16 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Figure 9.17 Discretisation of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Quadruple ridge waveguide 131
Figure 9.18 Standing wave solutions of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric
tiles
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
9.8 Impedance in quadruple ridge circular waveguide using conical
ridges
A speci®cation of the impedance of the quadruple ridge circular waveguide
is also essential for its complete characterisation. The purpose of this section
is to summarise some calculations on its powervoltage de®nition in the case
of a circular waveguide with four conical ridges. This quantity is given in the
usual way by
Z
PV
(3) =
U
2
2P
(4)
P is the power carried along the waveguide, and U is the voltage across a
typical gap.
Figure 9.20 indicates the relationship between the impedance at in®nite
frequency against the gap factor d/b for two values of s/a based on some
FEM calculations. A scrutiny of these data suggests that the impedance of
this sort of waveguide is proportional to the gap factor d/b. This is a general
result. The relationship between the impedances at ®nite and in®nite
frequencies is
132 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 9.19 Experimental phase constant of square waveguide (s/a = 0.15,
s/a = 0.25) using single pair of dielectric loaded ridges
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & Shrimpton (1996)
Z
PV
(3) = Z
PV
(o)
!
g
!
0
(5)
Figure 9.21 compares the impedances of double and quadruple circular
ridge waveguides for one typical situation.
Quadruple ridge waveguide 133
Figure 9.20 Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in round waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
Figure 9.21 Characteristic impedance of quadruple and double ridge circular
waveguide against ridge depth, b = 2 cm, ridge thickness (2) = 108
Reprinted with permission, Balaji & Vahldieck (1996)
Chapter 10
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic
quadruple ridge waveguide
10.1 Introduction
A feature of either the round or square quadruple ridge waveguide is the
existence of counterrotating degenerate magnetic ®elds on its axis. Such a
degeneracy can be split by a suitably magnetised gyromagnetic insulator,
thereby producing socalled Faraday rotation of the polarisation of the
®eld pattern along the direction of propagation. This situation may be
understood by recalling that such a medium will display one value of
scalar permeability if the alternating radio frequency magnetic ®eld rotates
in the same direction as the electron spin and another value if it rotates in
the opposite direction. One unique property of Faraday rotation is that
it is nonreciprocal. This means that a wave propagating in one direc
tion which is rotated by an angle ± does not rotate back to its original
position when it is returned to its starting point. It is therefore a suitable
structure for the construction of nonreciprocal Faraday rotation devices
such as circulators, phase shifters and isolators. It is also an appropriate
prototype for a host of reciprocal power dividers and other components.
Propagation in a dual mode triple ridge gyromagnetic waveguide is handled
separately.
One model of a Faraday rotation bit is a nonreciprocal 4port directional
coupler. The chapter includes the scattering matrix of the arrangement.
A threecomponent magnetic ®eld formulation of the sort of functional
met in the RayleighRitz calculation of propagation in this type of wave
guide is included separately. It is employed in the calculations of propa
gation of a number of the gyromagnetic waveguides addressed in this
chapter. The descriptions of some typical nonreciprocal components are
also given.
10.2 Faraday rotation section
A circular quadruple waveguide symmetrically loaded along its axis by a
suitably magnetised gyromagnetic material supports Faraday rotation along
the direction of propagation. Figure 10.1 indicates four structures which
have the symmetry in question. A physical appreciation of Faraday rotation
may be obtained by decomposing a linearly polarised wave into a pair of
degenerate counterrotating ones which are then split by the gyrotropy.
If the linearly polarised wave is now reconstituted in terms of the split
counterrotating ones then its polarisation is rotated as it propagates
along the waveguide. This situation is illustrated in Figure 10.2 in the case
of the magnetic ®eld and in Figure 10.3 in the case of the electric one. The
angle of rotation is de®ned by the dierence between the split phase
constants [
±
,
± =
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2
¹ (1)
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 135
Figure 10.1 Schematic diagrams of round and square ridge waveguides loaded with
ferrite regions
The phase constant of the rotated wave is related to the sum of the propaga
tion constants,
[
0
=
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2
(2)
This result is obtained easily by decomposing a linearly polarised wave at
the origin into a linear combination of two counterrotating waves with
dierent propagation constants,
¸
E
x
E
y
¸
=
E
0
2
¸
1
÷j
¸
exp( j[
÷
¹) ÷
E
0
2
¸
1
÷j
¸
exp( j[
÷
¹) (3)
136 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.2 Faraday rotation (magnetic ®eld)
This equation is satis®ed at the origin by
E
0
¸
1
0
¸
=
E
0
2
¸
1
÷j
¸
÷
E
0
2
¸
1
÷j
¸
(4)
One possible con®guration is obtained by introducing a ferrite rod along the
axis of the waveguide. Another is to introduce a ferrite or garnet ring insert
along the waveguide. Still another is to place ferrite tiles on each ¯at face of
the ridges. While the rotation per unit length of such an arrangement is less
than that met with an axial ferrite rod con®guration it has the merit of being
more amenable in the development of high peak and average power devices.
To proceed with the design of this class of component it is necessary to have
a description of the degenerate or demagnetised propagation constant of the
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 137
Figure 10.3 Faraday rotation (electric ®eld)
waveguide and also its split or magnetised propagation constants. The ®nite
element method is again one means of making such calculations.
10.3 Scattering matrix of Faraday rotation section
One way to model the Faraday eect is to treat the rotator section as a
4port nonreciprocal directional coupler. The entries of its scattering matrix
with an input at port 1 may then be expressed in terms of the properties of
the counterrotating re¯ection (a
±
) and transmission variables (t
±
) of the
system by
S
11
=
a
÷
÷ a
÷
2
(5a)
S
21
=
a
÷
÷ a
÷
÷j 2
(5b)
S
31
=
t
÷
÷ t
÷
2
(5c)
S
41
=
t
÷
÷ t
÷
j 2
(5d)
If the magnetised line is matched to the demagnetised one by a stepped
impedance transformer, then the re¯ection coecients a
±
are given in
terms of the normal mode phase constants by
a
±

÷[
0
÷ [
±
[
0
÷ [
±
(6)
The transmission coecients t
±
are related in the usual way to the re¯ection
coecients [
±
by
t
±
= (1 ÷ a
±
a
+
±
)
1
2
exp(÷j[
±
¹) (7)
It is readily veri®ed that equations (5a)±(5d) satisfy the unitary condition
S
11
S
+
11
÷ S
21
S
+
21
÷ S
31
S
+
31
÷ S
41
S
+
41
= 1 (8)
For symmetric splitting the scattering parameters in equations (5a)±(5d)
become
S
11
 0 (9a)
S
21
 j
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2[
0
(9b)
138 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
S
31

¸
1 ÷
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2[
0
2
¸1
2
cos
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2
¹
exp(÷j[
0
¹) (9c)
S
41

¸
1 ÷
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2[
0
2
¸1
2
sin
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2
¹
exp(÷j[
0
¹) (9d)
which also satis®es the unitary condition.
One consequence of this result is that matching port 1 in a 4port non
reciprocal network is not sucient to decouple port 2. To do so by at least
20 dB it is necessary to have
[
÷
÷ [
÷
2[
0
40.10 (10)
The above condition imposes an upper bound on the normalised splitting
and a lower bound on the overall length of the device.
A scrutiny of the preceding scattering parameters indicates that a wave
propagating a certain distance in one direction is rotated through an angle
± with respect to its original polarisation. When it is re¯ected to its starting
point it is again rotated by ±. The nature of this phenomenon may be under
stood by recognising that the signs of [
÷
and [
÷
are interchanged for
propagation in the ÷z direction and, furthermore, that the phase constants
of [
±
are separately exchanged. The total rotation of the re¯ected wave is
therefore 2± with respect to the outgoing wave, i.e. it is not rotated back
to its original orientation. Figure 10.4 illustrates the situation for a 908
section. Thus Faraday rotation is nonreciprocal and leads to a number of
nonreciprocal devices.
10.4 Gyrator network
The simplest component that illustrates the nonreciprocal property of a
Faraday rotator is the gyrator circuit. This element is a 4terminal 2port
device that has zero relative phase shift in one direction of propagation
and 180 degree in the other. It is characterised by the following scattering
matrix:
S =
¸
0 ÷1
1 0
¸
(11)
One realisation of this network consists of a rectangular waveguide with a
90 degree twist followed by a 90 degree Faraday rotation section. The
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 139
output port is orientated in the same plane as the input one in the manner
indicated in Figure 10.5. A vertically polarised wave propagating from left
to right has its polarisation rotated 90 degrees by the twisted rectangular
waveguide and a further 90 degrees by the Faraday rotator; it therefore
emerges at the output port having been rotated 180 degrees with respect
140 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.4 Faraday rotation in positive and negative directions of propagation
Figure 10.5 Nonreciprocal gyrator circuit
Reprinted with permission, Hogan (1952)
to the input port. A vertically polarised wave propagating in the opposite
direction is rotated by the 90 degree Faraday rotator in the same sense as
before. In this case, however, the waveguide twist will cancel the Faraday
rotation instead of adding to it; the wave therefore displays no rotation in
this direction of propagation. The eective length of this gyrator is an
odd integral number of halfwavelengths for transmission in one direction
of propagation and an even number in the other.
10.5 Gyromagnetic waveguide functional
It is convenient in the variational solution of the gyromagnetic waveguide to
use a threecomponent magnetic ®eld vector formulation of the functional.
The use of such a functional avoids spurious solutions that sometimes
exist with other formulations. The wave equation is in this instance given
easily by
VVV
1
c
f
VVV H
÷ k
2
0
j]H = 0 (12)
One solution to this sort of equation is obtained by constructing the func
tional of the problem region and recognising that the ®eld which extremises
the functional is also a solution of the wave equation. One mathematical
means of constructing a functional is to premultiply the wave equation by
the complex conjugate of the ®eld variable prior to integrating the ensuing
quantity over the surface of the problem region. This gives
F =
s
{H
+
· VVV (c
÷1
f
VVV H) ÷ H
+
k
2
0
j]H} ds (13)
The functional obtained in this way embodies a natural boundary condition
at any electric or magnetic wall of the problem region. To reveal this prop
erty it is rewritten in a slightly dierent form by using some standard matrix
identities. The required result is
F =
s
{(VVV H
+
) · (c
÷1
f
VVV H) ÷ k
2
0
H
+
j]H} ds
÷
c
{H
+
(c
÷1
f
VVV H)} · n dc (14)
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 141
c is the contour of the problem region s and n is the outward unit vector
normal to c. The necessary matrix relationships employed in establishing
this result are
VVV · (A B) = B · (VVV A) ÷ A · (VVV B)
A · (B C) = C · (A B) = B · (C A)
s
VVV · A ds =
c
A · n dc
It may be demonstrated that the contour integral term appearing in the
functional is zero at both electric and magnetic walls. It is hereafter not
given any further consideration. The functional to be extremised is therefore
speci®ed by
F =
s
{(VVV H
+
) · (c
÷1
f
VVV H) ÷ k
0
H
+
j]H} ds (15)
This equation may now be reduced to a matrix equation by using the
RayleighRitz procedure. The ®rst step in this development amounts to
replacing the unknown components of the vector ®eld in the functional by
a suitable polynomial approximation with arbitrary coecients. The
second step adjusts the unknown coecients by extremising the functional.
The detailed procedure is dealt with in Chapter 19.
The ®nite element method produces in practice spurious solutions for
which (VVV · H) ,= 0. One means of alleviating this problem, to a large
extent, is to introduce a penalty term into the functional. One possibility
is to add the quantity (VVV · H
+
)(VVV · H) to the functional. Introducing this
penalty term into the preceding functional gives the modi®ed version for
calculation purposes,
F =
s
{(VVV H
+
) · (c
÷1
f
VVV H) ÷ k
2
0
H
+
j]H ÷ (VVV · H
+
)(VVV · H)} ds (16)
It is usual in this type of problem to split the ®eld and vector operations into
longitudinal and transverse components:
H = H
t
÷ a
z
H
z
(17)
VVV = VVV
t
÷ j a
z
[ (18)
j] = j
t
] ÷ j
z
] (19)
142 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
where
j
t
] =
j
xx
j
xy
0
j
yx
j
yy
0
0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
(20)
j
zz
] =
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 j
zz
¸
¸
¸
(21)
Introducing these relationships into the functional in equation (14) gives
F =
s
{c
÷1
f
[V
t
H
t
[
2
÷ k
2
0
H
+
t
j
t
]H
t
÷ H
+
z
j
zz
H
z
]
÷ c
÷1
f
[V
t
H
z
÷ j[H
t
[
2
} ds (22)
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 143
Figure 10.6 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using ferrite ring insert
Reprinted with permission, Dillion & Gibson (1993, IEEE MTTS Digest)
10.6 Ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic ring
The purpose of this section is to summarise some calculations on the cuto
space and propagation of a ridge structure containing a gyromagnetic ring
in contact with the four ridges. The calculations are based on a magnetic
vector FEM formulation of the problem region. Figure 10.6 depicts, ®rst
of all, the cuto space for its ®rst three HE
m.n
modes. It indicates, in keep
ing with theory, that the cuto space displays no splitting for this family of
modes. Figure 10.7 separately indicates the rotation per unit length of two
arrangements for one typical value of gyrotropy.
10.7 Quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles
A more practical ridge waveguide geometry is a quadruple one with ferrite
tiles cemented on each ridge. It is suitable for the construction of devices
144 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.7 Faraday rotation of quadruple ridge waveguide using ferrite ring insert
Reprinted with permission, Dillion & Gibson (1993, IEEE MTTS Digest)
with large CW power ratings. The relationship between the split phase
constants and the gyrotropy is indicated in Figure 10.8 for one geometry.
The standing wave patterns for the ®rst pair of split modes and the ®rst
symmetric mode are indicated in Figure 10.9 for two typical values of
gyrotropy.
10.8 Faraday rotation isolator
The operation of this type of isolator can be understood with the help of
Figure 10.10. The rotator prototype is matched to a rectangular waveguide
at each end by a taper or a quarterwave transformer in a round waveguide.
Resistance vanes are inserted in the round waveguide sections in a plane
perpendicular to the electric ®elds of the input and output rectangular wave
guides. A signal incident at the input port will be perpendicular to the ®rst
resistance card, and after a clockwise rotation through 45 degrees will also
be perpendicularly polarised with respect to the card at the output port.
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 145
Figure 10.8 Split phase constants in quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic
tiles
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
146 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.9a Standing wave solutions in quadruple ridge waveguide using
gyromagnetic tiles
(a) k¡j = 0.50, k
0
a
c
f
= 8.0; (b) k¡j = 1.0, k
0
a
c
f
= 8.0
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 147
Figure 10.9b Standing wave solutions in quadruple ridge waveguide using
gyromagnetic tiles
(a) k¡j = 0.50, k
0
a
c
f
= 8.0; (b) k¡j = 1.0, k
0
a
c
f
= 8.0
Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
It will, therefore, be transmitted without attenuation through the isolator.
A re¯ected signal at the output port is likewise perpendicular to the card
there, but after rotation through 45 degrees in a clockwise sense will now
be in the plane of the input vane where it is attenuated. The wavelength
of the transformer section is approximately the geometric mean of the wave
length of the rectangular waveguide and that of the isotropic round wave
guide containing the ferrite rod. This device may also be used as an
amplitude modulator by suitably varying the direct magnetic ®eld in an
appropriate manner.
10.9 Fourport Faraday rotation circulator
Another important application of the Faraday section is in the realisation of
the 4port Faraday rotation circulator. A schematic diagram of this com
ponent is indicated in Figure 10.11. In this device, power entering port 1
emerges at port 2, and so on in a cyclic manner. The physical arrangement
is similar to the Faraday rotation isolator except that the sections containing
the resistance vanes are replaced by twomode transducers. Such trans
ducers allow orthogonal linearly polarised waves to be applied to the
round waveguide section. The Faraday rotator is again a 45degree section.
A wave entering port 1 with its electric ®eld vertically polarised is rotated
clockwise by 45 degrees by the ferrite rotator and emerges at port 2.
A wave entering port 2 is also rotated clockwise, so that its electric ®eld is
now horizontally polarised at the input of the ®rst twomode transducer;
it therefore emerges at port 3. Similarly, transmission occurs from port 3
to port 4, port 4 to port 1, and so on. This arrangement may also be used
as a switch by reversing the direction of the direct magnetic ®eld.
10.10 Nonreciprocal Faraday rotationtype phase shifter
Afeature of a gyromagnetic mediumis that if the excitation to a typical rota
tion section corresponds to one of its normal modes, no Faraday rotation
will occur. Instead, the wave travels in the same normal mode through the
rotator section, but phase shifted through either [
÷
z or [
÷
z. This principle
can be utilised to design a nonreciprocal phase shifter. One arrangement is
illustrated in Figure 10.12. It uses two reciprocal quarterwave plates at
either end of the Faraday rotation section. The ®rst quarter plate converts
a linearly polarised input wave into a positive circularly polarised wave at
148 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
the input of the rotator section. This wave is then phase shifted through [
÷
z
radians in the rotator section. The phaseshifted circularly polarised wave is
reconverted to a linearly polarised wave at the output by the second quarter
wave plate. In the reverse direction of propagation the circularly polarised
wave is in the opposite sense and the wave is therefore phase shifted through
[
÷
z. The overall assembly therefore behaves as a nonreciprocal phase
shifter. A forward wave can, of course, also be switched from [
÷
z to [
÷
z
by reversing the direct magnetic ®eld on the rotator section.
10.11 Faraday rotation in dualmode triple ridge waveguide
While the triple ridge gyromagnetic waveguide can support planes of pure
Faraday rotation on its axis it cannot decouple one pair of ridges from
another. The only arrangement for which a wave between one pair of
ridges will produce a corresponding wave at periodic planes between
either of the other two pairs corresponds to the notion of an ideal circulator.
One prerequisite for this situation is that the waveguide supports propaga
tion of a pair of counterrotating degenerate modes and one symmetric
mode along its axis. The other is that the degeneracy of the counterrotating
modes should be removed by the gyrotropy of the waveguide. The concept
of Faraday rotation in a triple ridge waveguide is therefore only of value in
this restricted class of circuit and is otherwise inappropriate.
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 149
Figure 10.10 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation isolator
A physical understanding of propagation on this waveguide starts by
decomposing a single generator setting or incident wave between one pair
of ridges into a linear combination of three normal modes comprising
triplets of generator settings between each possible pair of ridges:
1
0
0
¸
¸
¸
=
1
3
1
1
1
¸
¸
¸
÷
1
3
1
o
o
2
¸
¸
¸
÷
1
3
1
o
2
o
¸
¸
¸
where
o = exp( j 120)
o
2
= exp( j 240)
It proceeds by splitting the degenerate pair of counterrotating modes by the
gyrotropy of the waveguide. This gives
150 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.11 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation circulator
a
1
=
1 exp÷j ±
0
] ÷ 1 exp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)] ÷ 1 exp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)]
3
a
2
=
1 exp÷j ±
0
] ÷ oexp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)] ÷ o
2
exp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)]
3
a
3
=
1 exp÷j ±
0
] ÷ o
2
exp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)] ÷ o exp÷j (±
1
÷ ±
÷
)]
3
To couple one pair of ridges to a second one it is necessary to have
a
1
= 0
a
2
= 1
a
3
= 0
One solution to this problem region is
±
1
= ±
0
÷ ¬
±
÷
= ÷±
÷
=
¬
3
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 151
Figure 10.12 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation phase shifter
In the absence of the third normal mode the wave will be in general
elliptically polarised along the waveguide.
If the gyrotropy is removed, then
±
÷
= ±
÷
= 0
and a
1
=
1
3
. a
2
=
2
3
and a
3
=
2
3
.
152 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Chapter 11
Characterisation of discontinuity eects
in single ridge waveguide
11.1 Introduction
The transition between any two dierent waveguides is of some interest in
the design of ®lters and other waveguide components. One canonical repre
sentation of such a discontinuity is a lumped element susceptance in cascade
with an ideal transformer. The purpose of this chapter is to summarise some
experimental data on a transition between an ordinary waveguide and a
single ridge one. This sort of data may be experimentally extracted by
making separate measurements on the external quality factor and resonant
frequency of a halfwave long prototype. The network variables of the over
all arrangement are separately established by using the ABCD notation. The
chapter includes a careful characterisation of this problem region for each
possible de®nition of impedance in the waveguide. The work outlined here
omits, in keeping with some prior art, the eect of the lumped element
susceptance of the discontinuity on the description of the external quality
factor but, in keeping with some previous work, retains it in that of the
midband frequency. It diers, however, in that it does not restrict the turns
ratio of the ideal transformer to unity. The value of the turns ratio involves
the choice of impedance employed in the calculation; the normalised lumped
element susceptance is independent of its de®nition. This sort of problem is
of interest in the design of halfwave plates, ®lters and matching networks.
It is often dealt with by resorting to a mode matching technique. While this
and other techniques are able to model such discontinuities without
diculty these are usually part of a general computer package and are not
dedicated to extracting speci®c data.
11.2 ABCD parameters of 2port step discontinuity
The nature of the step discontinuity between any two waveguides is of
interest in the design of microwave components. The problem region
under consideration is that between a regular and ridge waveguide. It is
depicted in Figure 11.1. One canonical 2port topology which has its origin
in a variational approach is indicated in Figure 11.2. It consists of a shunt
susceptance (B) across the primary winding of an ideal transformer with a
turns ratio n. The values entering into the description of its elements may
be established either through measurement or calculation. One arrangement
which may be used to extract the discontinuity eects at the junction
between a ridge and a standard rectangular waveguide is a halfwave
long section of waveguide between standard rectangular waveguides.
Figure 11.3 shows the overall equivalent circuit of the halfwave ®lter section
utilised here. In the experimental approach the characteristic admittance
and the electrical length of the halfwave prototype are the given variables
and the susceptance and turnsratio are the unknown ones; the experimental
quantities are the quality factor and the frequency. The notation employed
in this work is ABCD.
154 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 11.1 Halfwave ridge prototype
Figure 11.2 Canonical equivalent circuit of step discontinuity
The individual ABCD matrices associated with a simple shunt element
(B), an ideal transformer (n) and a uniform ridge waveguide with a charac
teristic admittance (Y
r
) are
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
1 0
jB 1
¸ ¸
(1a)
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
n 0
0
1
n
¸
(1b)
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
cos ±
j sin±
Y
r
jY
r
sin± cos ±
¸
¸
(1c)
respectively.
± is de®ned by
± 
¸
1 ÷
1
2
[
[
r
÷
[
r
[
¸
([
r
¹) (2)
The derivation of this quantity starts with the de®nition of the radian angle ±,
± = [¹ (3)
It is continued by writing the phase constant [ at ®nite frequency in terms of
that at the midband
[ = [
r
[
[
r
(4)
Expanding this quantity about the midband phase constant [
r
gives
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 155
Figure 11.3 Canonical equivalent circuit of halfwave long ridge prototype
[ = [
r
¸
1 ÷
[ ÷[
r
[
r
¸
(5)
This relationship is also sometimes written as
[  [
r
¸
1 ÷
1
2
[
[
r
÷
[
r
[
¸
(6)
It is instructive, before proceeding with the construction of the overall
ABCD matrix of the topology in question, to construct that of the three
inner sections:
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
1
n
0
0 n
¸
¸
cos ±
j sin ±
Y
r
jY
r
sin ± cos ±
¸
¸
n 0
0
1
n
¸
¸
(7)
or
A = cos ± (8a)
B =
j sin±
(n
2
Y
r
)
(8b)
C = j (n
2
Y
r
) sin± (8c)
D = cos ± (8d)
A scrutiny of this result suggests that the eect of the ideal transformers
amounts to scaling the characteristic admittance of the transmission line
by a factor n
2
. The ABCD matrix of the overall arrangement is now speci®ed
by
A = cos ± ÷
Bsin ±
(n
2
Y
r
)
(9a)
B =
j sin±
(n
2
Y
r
)
(9b)
C = j
¸
2Bcos ± ÷(n
2
Y
r
) sin ± ÷
B
2
sin±
(n
2
Y
r
)
¸
(9c)
D = cos ± ÷
Bsin ±
(n
2
Y
r
)
(9d)
The above entries satisfy the reciprocity condition below, as is readily
veri®ed:
AD÷BC = 1 (10)
156 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
In the vicinity of [
r
¹ = p¬
sin ±  ÷
[
[
r
÷
[
r
[
p¬
2
(11a)
cos ±  ÷1 (11b)
11.3 Frequency response
The validity of the entries of the equivalent circuit of the halfwave ®lter
section may be veri®ed by constructing its frequency response. The ampli
tude squared transmission coecient (,,
+
) of a symmetrical network for
which A = D is given in terms of its ABCD parameters by
,,
+
=
1
1 ÷
1
4
(B ÷C)
2
(12)
The amplitude squared re¯ection coecient (aa
+
) is deduced in terms of the
amplitude squared transmission coecient by using the unitary condition
,,
+
÷aa
+
= 1 (13)
Scrutiny of equation (12) indicates that the condition for perfect trans
mission coincides with
BY
2
0
= C (14)
The normalisation factor Y
2
0
ensures that the units of equation (14) are
consistent.
11.4 Characterisation of halfwave long ridge waveguide testset
One testset which may be employed to extract some remarks about the dis
continuity eect of the ridge waveguide is the halfwave long ridge structure.
The problem region in question is sometimes solved by setting the turns
ratio of the ideal transformer in its equivalent circuit to unity and by neglect
ing the shunt susceptance in constructing the external quality factor. In the
approximation adopted here the eect of the ideal transformer is retained
but that of the shunt susceptance on the quality factor is again disregarded.
The external quality factor (Q
ex
) or normalised susceptance slope parameter
(b
/
) of such a degree1 section is described in the absence of fringing eects
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 157
at the input and output planes of the section by
Q
ex

¬
2
n
2
Y
r
(o)
Y
0
(o)
÷
Y
0
(o)
n
2
Y
r
(o)
z
gr
z
0
2
(15)
Y
r
(o) is the admittance of the ridge waveguide at ®nite frequency, Y
0
(o) is
that of the input and output rectangular waveguides,
Y
r
(o) = Y
r
(o)
z
0
z
gr
(16)
Y
0
(o) = Y
0
(o)
z
0
z
g0
(17)
Y
r
(o) and Y
0
(o) take on the values Y
VI
(o), Y
PV
(o) and Y
PI
(o),
respectively, and z
gr
and z
g0
are the wavelengths in the ridge and rectangular
waveguides.
The external Qfactor of the circuit is de®ned in the usual way by
Q
ex
=
o
2Y
0
oB
in
oo
o=o
0
(18)
One convenient way to evaluate the input immittance of a cascade arrange
ment of a number of sections is to use the ABCD notation. The admittance
of such a network terminated in a load Y
0
is a standard result in the
literature:
Y
in
(o) =
C ÷DY
0
A ÷BY
0
(19)
The real and imaginary part of Y
in
(o) may be deduced by using the sym
metry and reciprocity properties of the ABCD parameters and by noting
that A and D are pure real numbers and that C and B are pure imaginary
ones. This gives
Y
in
(o) =
(2A
2
÷1)Y
0
÷A(C ÷BY
2
0
)
A
2
÷B
2
Y
2
0
(20)
The ®rst term in the numerator polynomial of Y
in
(o) represents its real part
and the second one its imaginary part.
The input admittance in the vicinity of [
r
¹ = p¬ in the absence of the
fringing susceptances at either the input or output terminals of the network
is therefore
Y
in
(o)  Y
0
(o)
¸
1 ÷j
n
2
Y
r
(o)
Y
0
(o)
÷
Y
0
(o)
n
2
Y
r
(o)
[
[
r
÷
[
r
[
p¬
2
¸
(21)
158 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
where
[
2
r
= k
2
0
÷k
2
cr
[
2
= k
2
÷k
2
cr
k
cr
is the cuto number of the ridge waveguide.
The real part of the complex admittance at the input terminals in the
vicinity of [
r
¹ = p¬, in keeping with simple transmission line theory, is
merely that at the output terminals.
Since the cuto numbers entering into the descriptions of Y
0
(o) and
Y
r
(o) in standard and ridge waveguides are ®nite both quantities are
dispersive. It is therefore strictly speaking necessary, in order to evaluate
Q
ex
, to write B
in
in the form
B
in
= uu
where
u = Y
0
(o)
n
2
Y
r
(o)
Y
0
(o)
÷
Y
0
(o)
n
2
Y
r
(o)
u =
[
[
r
÷
[
r
[
p¬
2
and to form
oB
in
oo
= u
ou
oo
÷u
ou
oo
A scrutiny of ou¡oo for both d¡b and [
r
¡[ in the vicinity of unity suggests
that the product of these two quantities is small. It is neglected here. This
readily gives the required result in equation (15).
Solving the relationship in equation (15) for n
2
Y
r
(o)¡Y
0
(o) gives
n
2
Y
r
(o)
Y
0
(o)
=
Q
ex
¬
z
0
z
gr
2
÷
Q
ex
¬
2
z
0
z
gr
4
÷1
(22)
The turns ratio n for each de®nition of impedance may therefore be readily
evaluated once Q
ex
and the other quantities are at hand. The parameters of
the ridge waveguide may be calculated by referring to Chapter 3.
The midband frequency condition may be established exactly and straight
forwardly by making use of the fact that it coincides with the condition in
equation (14). The required result is
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 159
tan ± =
2b
b
2
(n
2
y
r
)
÷
1
(n
2
y
r
)
÷(n
2
y
r
)
(23)
It reduces to the classic condition associated with two susceptances
separated by a transmission line when y
r
= 1 and n = 1:
tan± =
2
b
(24)
The characteristic equation in equation (23) is recognised, for calculation
purposes, as a quadratic in the required unknown b,
b
2
tan±
(n
2
y
r
)
÷2b ÷
¸
1
(n
2
y
r
)
÷(n
2
y
r
)
¸
tan± = 0 (25)
The two unknowns of the problem region may now be evaluated once [¡[
r
and Q
ex
are at hand. The meaning of the normalised variable utilised here is
understood:
b =
B
Y
0
(o)
(26)
y
r
=
Y
r
(o)
Y
0
(o)
(27)
The angle ± is de®ned in equation (11).
11.5 Experimental characterisation
The experimental characterisation of a typical step using a halfwave long
test piece involves a measurement of its frequency and its quality factor.
Figure 11.4 indicates the relationship between the frequency of this sort of
arrangement for four dierent inserts and the gap factor with s¡a = 0.50.
Some numerical calculations based on the mode matching method
(MMM) are separately superimposed on these data. These calculations
represent an upper bound on the measured data. Figure 11.5 gives the rela
tionship between the wavelength and the gap factor.
The aspect ratios (b¡a) of both the mating and ridge waveguides used in
this work coincide with that of the WR62 waveguide. The results obtained
here apply, therefore, to a single ridge structure with an aspect ratio of 0.50
rather than 0.45 usually associated with this kind of waveguide.
The quality factor is obtained from a knowledge of the 20dB return loss
points by treating the network as a degree1 oneport LCR circuit:
160 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Q
L
=
(VSWR÷1)
2o
0
VSWR
(28)
where
2o
0
=
o
2
÷o
1
o
0
Figure 11.6 depicts the experimental relationship between the quality factor
of this type of element and its aspect ratio. This database was obtained in a
WR62 waveguide. When the gap factor d/b equals unity the frequency is
equal to that of a standard WR62 waveguide. One feature of these data is
that the external quality factor is essentially independent of the overall
length of the test piece. Since each test piece resonates at a dierent
frequency the elements entering into the description of a typical discontin
uity are a ¯at function of frequency over the variables investigated here.
In obtaining these data no attention has been given to the quality of the
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 161
Figure 11.4 Relationship between frequency and aspect ratio of halfwave long ridge
waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
^L = 8.5 mm, &L = 8.0 mm, ~L = 7.75 mm, L = 7.5 mm, * MMM
coaxial to waveguide transitions employed in the test set. The possibility of
some interaction between a typical transition and a typical discontinuity
cannot be ruled out.
The turns ratio of the ideal transformer may be calculated once the
frequency and the quality factor of the experimental prototype are available.
Figures 11.7±11.9 show the relationships between the gap factor and the
turns ratio of the ideal transformer for each de®nition of waveguide
impedance. Each result is deduced by curve ®tting the theoretical and experi
mental results established here. Since the turns ratio can be absorbed into
the de®nition of the impedance of the ridge section its size may be used to
determine the de®nition of impedance that is most appropriate between
any two particular waveguides.
The normalised susceptance of such a discontinuity is indicated in
Figure 11.10. It is essentially independent of the choice of the waveguide
impedance.
162 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 11.5 Relationship between wavelength and aspect ratio of halfwave long ridge
waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
^L = 8.5 mm, &L = 8.0 mm, ~L = 7.75 mm, L = 7.5 mm
11.6 Symmetrical short section
One equivalent circuit of a short symmetrical obstacle between regular
waveguides which neglects any interaction between the discontinuities at
each side is a teecircuit. The equivalent circuit in question is indicated in
Figure 11.11. It is of some importance in the design of immittance inverters
which enter into the description of directly coupled bandpass ®lters. The
element values of its series and shunt reactances may be readily expressed
in terms of the canonical representation of a typical single step. One means
of doing so may be achieved by comparing the odd and even impedances of
the two arrangements. The derivation of the required equivalence starts by
constructing the even and odd impedances of the teecircuit:
Z
even
= j (X
s
÷2X
p
) (29a)
Z
odd
= jX
s
(29b)
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 163
Figure 11.6 Relationship between loaded Qfactor and aspect ratio of halfwave long
ridge waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
^L = 8.5 mm, &L = 8.0 mm, ~L = 7.5 mm
or
jX
s
= Z
odd
(30a)
jX
p
=
Z
even
÷Z
odd
2
(30b)
The required result is now established once the even and odd impedances
of the original 2port circuit are deduced in terms of the original variables:
1
Z
even
= j
¸
oC ÷n
2
Y
r
(o) cot
±
2
¸
(31a)
1
Z
odd
= j
¸
oC ÷n
2
Y
r
(o) tan
±
2
¸
(31b)
164 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 11.7 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of
ideal transformer for Z
PV
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
L = ^8.5 mm, &8.0 mm, ~7.5 mm
Another equivalent circuit that is often encountered in this sort of problemis
the ¬circuit in Figure 11.12. The required relationships are in this instance
given simply, in terms of the even and odd admittances of the circuit, by
jB
p
= Y
even
(32a)
jB
s
= 2(Y
odd
÷Y
even
) (32b)
The even and odd immittance parameters are connected by
Y
even
=
1
Z
even
(33a)
Y
odd
=
1
Z
odd
(33b)
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 165
Figure 11.8 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of
ideal transformer for Z
PI
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
L = ^8.5 mm, &8.0 mm, ~7.5 mm
The even mode parameters of any 2port symmetric circuit are 1port vari
ables which may be obtained by placing equal amplitude inphase voltage
generators at each port. The odd mode variables are obtained by placing
equal amplitude outofphase generators there. The even and odd mode
immittances may be separately shown to coincide with the eigenvalues of
the related immittance matrices.
166 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 11.9 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of
ideal transformer for Z
VI
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
L = ^8.5 mm, &8.0 mm, ~7.5 mm
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 167
Figure 11.10 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and normalised
lumped element susceptance for Z
PV
, Z
VI
and Z
PI
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (2000)
168 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 11.11 Symmetrical teecircuit
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 169
Figure 11.12 Symmetrical picircuit
Chapter 12
Ridge crossguide directional coupler
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
12.1 Introduction
An important microwave component is the 4port directional coupler. The
two classic arrangements consist of a crossguide structure and a distributed
version. The relationships between the scattering variables in this sort of net
work are ®xed by the unitary condition. Such a network has the properties
that it is a matched device with one adjacent port decoupled from any
incident port. The object of this chapter is to present some calculations on
the coupling and directivity of a number of crossguide couplers in a ridge
waveguide. The four possibilities consist of one arrangement with both
the primary and secondary waveguides in a double ridge, a similar arrange
ment with primary and secondary waveguides in a single ridge, and con®g
urations with the primary and secondary waveguides in either single and
double ridge or double and single ridge, respectively. Figure 12.1 illustrates
the four topologies. The coupling geometry usually consists of either a cir
cular or crossslot aperture. The calculations are based on Bethe's small
hole aperture theory in conjunction with the approximate closedform
expressions for the ®elds in the waveguides introduced in Chapter 4.
Apart from discrepancies in the vicinity of the ridge discontinuities these
agree well with some Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations in the
same chapter. The closedform formulations may therefore be utilised for
engineering purposes.
12.2 Operation of crossguide directional coupler
The 4port crossguide directional coupler is a classic component in micro
wave engineering. It is de®ned as a matched 4port network with one
adjacent port decoupled from any input port. The various topologies in a
ridge waveguide are illustrated in Figure 12.1. The waveguide section con
taining ports 1 and 3 is sometimes referred to as the primary waveguide,
while that containing ports 2 and 4 is denoted the secondary waveguide.
A scrutiny of the symmetry of this sort of network suggests the possibility
of reducing the entries of the scattering matrix to linear combinations of
odd and even modes. This may be done by taking ports 1 and 2 as a typical
pair of input ports and ports 3 and 4 as typical output ports. The scattering
matrix of the ideal, symmetric and lossless network with port 2 decoupled
from port 1 is given in the usual way by
S] =
0 0 S
31
S
41
0 0 S
41
S
31
S
31
S
41
0 0
S
41
S
31
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(1)
The relationship between the transmitted (S
31
) and coupled (S
41
) coecients
is given by the unitary condition,
S
31
S
+
31
÷ S
41
S
+
41
= 1 (2a)
S
31
S
+
41
÷ S
+
31
S
41
= 0 (2b)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 171
Figure 12.1 Schematic diagrams of four possible topologies of crossguide ridge
directional coupler
One solution is
S
31
= o (3a)
S
41
= j[ (3b)
The performance of any nonideal directional coupler is de®ned in terms of
coupling and directivity factors:
coupling factor = 20 log
10
(S
41
) dB (4a)
directivity = 20 log
10
S
41
S
21
dB (4b)
The operation of the crossguide directional coupler using a pair of circu
lar apertures may be understood by examining the path lengths connecting
the two waveguides in Figure 12.2. Since the path lengths connecting
a
1
÷ a
2
÷ b
2
and b
1
÷ c
1
÷ c
2
are equal, then a wave incident on port
1 will be emergent at port 4. In a similar fashion the path lengths a
1
÷ a
2
and b
1
÷ c
1
÷ c
2
÷ d
2
dier by z
g
¡2 so that a wave incident at port 1 is
decoupled from port 2. The operation of this crossguide coupler is
frequency dependent, with perfect directivity being obtained only when
the spacing between the apertures is exactly z
g
¡4. The coupling between
172 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.2 Operation of crossguide coupler using circular apertures
any two waveguides can be associated with one of four standard topologies.
The name associated with each kind is summarised in Figure 12.3. The
seriesseries topology is that of interest here.
12.3 Bethe's smallhole coupling theory
Coupling between two waveguides by means of an aperture is a classic
problem in the literature. The coupling in the case of an in®nitesimal
common wall is determined by the ®elds in the primary and secondary wave
guides and the equivalent electric and magnetic dipoles of the aperture.
In the arrangement under consideration, the electric (p
e
) and magnetic
(m
t
. m
¹
) dipoles are de®ned in terms of electric and magnetic polarisabilities
and the unperturbed ®elds in the primary waveguide:
p
e
= a
n
c
0
P
e
E
0n
(5a)
m
t
= a
t
M
t
H
0t
(5b)
m
¹
= a
¹
M
¹
H
0¹
(5c)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 173
Figure 12.3 Coupling apertures in rectangular waveguide
a Seriesseries; b shuntshunt; c shuntseries; d seriesshunt
a
t
and a
¹
represent unit vectors along the principal axes (t. ¹) of the aperture
and a
n
denotes a unit normal to the aperture. P
e
, M
t
and M
¹
are scalar
quantities corresponding to the electric and axial magnetic polarisabilities
of the aperture, respectively. Table 12.1 summarises these for three typical
geometries. H
0t
and H
0¹
denote the components of the unperturbed tangen
tial magnetic ®eld (H
0
) along the principal axes of the aperture in the
primary waveguide. E
0n
represents the unperturbed electric ®eld normal to
the centre of the aperture in the same waveguide. The forward and back
ward transmission coecients of any mode in the secondary waveguide
are given by
A
m
=
÷jo
4P
{p
e
E
÷
mn
÷ j
0
m
t
H
÷
mt
÷ j
0
m
¹
H
÷
m¹
} (6a)
and
B
m
=
÷jo
4P
{p
e
E
÷
mn
÷ j
0
m
t
H
÷
mt
÷ j
0
m
¹
H
÷
m¹
} (6b)
H
mt
, H
m¹
and E
mn
correspond to the tangential magnetic ®elds and normal
electric ®eld of the propagating mode in the secondary waveguide. The plus
and minus signs indicate propagation along the positive and negative z
directions, respectively. P denotes the power ¯ow and the calculation
proceeds by normalising the ®elds at every frequency in the primary and
secondary waveguides such that
174 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Table 12.1 Electric and magnetic polarisabilities of circular and slot apertures
P =
1
2
Re
(E H
+
) · n ds = 1 (7)
The eect of ®nite wall thickness is treated elsewhere in this chapter. It is
determined by visualising the aperture as a cuto section of waveguide
with a length equivalent to the thickness of the wall.
12.4 The 0degree crossedslot aperture
Commercial crossguide couplers often employ single or pairs of orthogonal
slots which are located on the main diagonal and aligned with the direction
of propagation (0 degree) or at 45 degrees to it. The ®rst con®guration is
treated here and the second in the next section. Figure 12.4 depicts the
four possible arrangements in a rectangular waveguide. In keeping with con
vention it is assumed that port 2 is the decoupled port so that the topologies
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 175
Figure 12.4 Crossguide coupler using a single 0degree crossedslot aperture
in Figures 12.4a and b are the geometries of interest here. In practice, to
increase the coupling between the primary and secondary waveguides
the two arrangements are often combined in the manner shown in
Figure 12.5. The case in which the primary and secondary waveguides are
at an arbitrary orientation is understood but outside the remit of this work.
The calculation of A
m
and B
m
in the secondary waveguide starts by
evaluating the electric and magnetic dipoles along the axes of the primary
waveguide. For a slot orientated along the direction of propagation of the
primary waveguide, the magnetic dipole moments along the axes of the
secondary waveguide are given by
m
xs
= M
¹
H
zp
(8a)
m
zs
= ÷M
t
H
xp
(8b)
The corresponding results in the case of a perpendicular slot are
m
xs
= M
t
H
zp
(9a)
m
zs
= ÷M
¹
H
xp
(9b)
Introducing these quantities into the governing equations for A
m
and B
m
and assuming narrow slots (M
t
 0) gives
A
m
=
÷jk
0
P
e
E
yp
E
ys
4n
0
P
÷
jk
0
n
0
M
¹
4P
{H
xp
H
zs
÷ H
zp
H
xs
} (10a)
and
B
m
=
÷jk
0
P
e
E
yp
E
ys
4n
0
P
÷
jk
0
n
0
M
¹
4P
{H
xp
H
zs
÷ H
zp
H
xs
} (10b)
176 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.5 Crossguide coupler using a pair of 0degree crossedslot apertures
12.5 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in rectangular waveguide
To familiarise the reader with the calculations met in connection with this
sort of device, the standard problem of two rectangular waveguides propa
gating the dominant TE
10
mode will be tackled ®rst prior to dealing with the
ridge structure. The ®eld variables are given in this instance by
H
z
= A
10
k
c
n
0
k
0
cos
¬x
a
(11a)
H
x
= jA
10
[
n
0
k
0
sin
¬x
a
(11b)
E
y
= ÷
k
0
n
0
[
H
x
(11c)
The time and spatial variation exp j (ot ÷ [z) is understood. The above ®eld
description assumes that the amplitude of E
y
rather than H
z
is independent
of frequency. This permits the power ¯ow in the waveguide to be written in
the form below
P(o) = P(o)
[
k
0
(12a)
where
P(o) = A
2
10
ab
4n
0
(12b)
Introducing these quantities into A
m
and B
m
for the arrangement in
Figure 12.4a gives
A
1
=
÷M
¹
k
c
ab
sin
2¬x
a
÷
jP
e
k
2
0
ab[
sin
2
¬x
a
(13a)
B
1
=
jP
e
k
2
0
ab[
sin
2
¬x
a
(13b)
When the aperture is located on the other diagonal (Figure 12.4c),
A
1
=
jP
e
k
2
0
ab[
sin
2
¬x
a
(14a)
B
1
=
M
¹
k
c
ab
sin
2¬x
a
÷
jP
e
k
2
0
ab[
sin
2
¬x
a
(14b)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 177
The transmitted and coupled waves are dependent on the position of the
aperture due to the fact that H
z
reverses across the symmetry plane of the
waveguide.
To increase the degree of coupling between the primary and secondary
waveguides, two rather than one apertures are often used. The transmission
coecients are in this instance dependent on the phase dierence,
exp(÷j 2[d), between the apertures. By noting that the magnetic dipoles
of the two apertures in the direction of propagation of the primary wave
guide are in antiphase, the transmitted and coupled coecients in the case
of narrow slots (P
e
 0) are given by
[S
41
[ =
2M
¹
k
c
ab
sin
¬d
a
sin([d) (15a)
[S
21
[ = 0 (15b)
Optimum coupling with minimum variation over the waveband occurs when
d = a¡2 and [ = k
c
:
[S
41
[
max
=
2M
¹
k
c
ab
(16)
The maximum slot length is L = a¡2.
12.6 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in single ridge waveguide
The derivation of A
m
and B
m
in a ridge waveguide proceeds in a like manner
to that utilised in the case of the rectangular waveguide. A knowledge of the
magnetic ®eld in the plane of the aperture and the electric ®eld perpendicular
to it is sucient for the purpose of calculation. Approximate closed form
®eld expressions for the TE modes in the trough region have been given in
Chapter 4 by
H
x
=
¸
N
n=0.1.2FFF
÷jA
n
[o
n
n
0
k
0
sin(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
(17a)
H
z
=
¸
N
n=0.1.2FFF
÷A
n
k
2
c
n
0
k
0
cos(o
n
x) cos
n¬y
b
(17b)
E
y
= ÷
k
0
n
0
[
H
x
(17c)
178 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
where
A
n
=
÷À
n
cos
k
c
s
2
o
n
(n¬) sin
o
n
(a ÷ s)
2
¸ ¸
¸
sin
¸
n¬
2b
(b ÷ d)
¸
÷ sin
¸
n¬
2b
(b ÷ d)
¸¸
(17d)
and
o
2
n
= k
2
c
÷
n¬
b
2
(17e)
À
n
= 1(n = 0), À
n
= 2(n > 0). An amplitude term A
10
premultiplying each
®eld variable is understood.
An approximate expression for the power ¯ow of the dominant mode is
given by equation (12a). The Poynting vector at in®nite frequency is
P(o) =
A
2
10
n
0
ab
2¬
¸
2m
b
a
d
b
a
z
c
cos
2
±
2
ln cosec
¬d
2b
÷
±
2
2
÷
sin2±
2
4
÷
d
b
cos ±
2
sin±
1
2
¸
±
1
2
÷
sin 2±
1
4
¸¸
d
b
z
c
a
(18)
where
±
1
= ¬
1 ÷
s
a
a
z
c
±
2
= ¬
s
a
a
z
c
m = 1 for double ridge waveguide and m = 2 for single ridge waveguide.
Figure 12.6 indicates the variation of the coupling and directivity between
two single ridge waveguides using a single 0degree crossedslot aperture.
12.7 The 45degree crossedslot aperture
One practical method for increasing the coupling between any two wave
guides is to orientate the apertures at 45 degrees with respect to the primary
waveguide. This con®guration is indicated in Figure 12.7. The advantage of
this topology is that longer slot lengths and higher coupling values may be
obtained. The magnetic ®eld in the primary waveguide is elliptically
polarised with dierent senses at apertures 1 and 2. Resolving the magnetic
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 179
dipoles of apertures 1 and 2 along the axes of the secondary waveguide
gives
m
xs
=
2
M
¹
H
¹ max
cos o (19a)
m
zs
= ÷j
2
M
¹
H
¹ max
sino (19b)
and
m
xs
= ÷
2
M
¹
H
¹ max
cos o (19c)
m
zs
= ÷j
2
M
¹
H
¹ max
sino (19d)
where
H
¹ max
= H
t max
=
1
2
H
2
zp
÷ H
2
xp
(20a)
180 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.6 Coupling and directivity between two single ridge waveguides using a
single 0degree crossed slot aperture
and
o = tan
÷1
÷jH
xp
H
zp
(20b)
In the case of aperture 1, substituting the above into the governing equations
gives
A
1
=
jk
0
n
0
M
¹
H
¹ max
2
2
P
{H
xs
cos o ÷ jH
zs
sino} ÷
jk
0
P
e
E
yp
E
ys
4n
0
P
(21a)
B
1
=
jk
0
n
0
M
¹
H
¹ max
2
2
P
{÷H
xs
cos o ÷ jH
zs
sin o} ÷
jk
0
P
e
E
yp
E
ys
4n
0
P
(21b)
The above hold for aperture 2, but with a 180 degree phase change in the
coupling due to the magnetic ®eld. This may be understood by recognising
that H
z
reverses across the symmetry plane of the waveguide and the
xdirected magnetic dipoles of the apertures are in antiphase.
12.8 Circular polarisation in rectangular and ridge waveguides
A scrutiny of the forward and backward waves in the secondary waveguide
of the directional coupler indicates that these are closely related to the polar
isation of the magnetic ®eld in both waveguides and to the intensities of the
®elds. One simple solution is to place the aperture where the alternating
magnetic ®eld is circularly polarised. This solution is realisable in a regular
rectangular waveguide and in a single ridge waveguide. It is not, however,
possible in a double ridge waveguide. In the former cases
H
¹ max
= H
t max
= [H
xp
[ = [H
zp
[ (22a)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 181
Figure 12.7 Crossguide coupler using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures
and
o =
¬
4
(22b)
In the case of narrow slots it is usual to ignore the contribution due to the
electric dipoles. This then gives, for apertures 1 and 2,
A
1
=
jk
0
n
0
M
¹
[H
xp
[H
xs
2P
(23a)
B
1
= 0 (23b)
and
A
1
=
÷jk
0
n
0
M
¹
[H
xp
[H
xs
2P
(24a)
B
1
= 0 (24b)
respectively.
In a rectangular waveguide, the magnitudes of the transmitted waves
when two apertures are located at the positions of circular polarisation on
either side of the symmetry plane are given by
[S
41
[ =
4M
¹
[
ab
cos
2
¬d
2a
sin([d) (25a)
[S
21
[ = 0 (25b)
In general, the polarisation will only be unity at a single frequency.
Elsewhere, it is elliptically polarised and the general formulation in
equation (21) must be employed.
12.9 Rectangular and ridge waveguide crossguide couplers using
45degree crossedslot apertures
This section presents some calculations on a number of crossguide direc
tional couplers using 45degree crossedslot apertures in both rectangular
and ridge waveguides. To proceed with a calculation it is necessary to ®x
the location of the apertures. The position of the apertures and the geometry
have not, however, been optimised at this time. These are arbitrarily ®xed at
x¡a = 0.25 and w¡a = 0.02.
Figures 12.8±12.10 indicate the relationships between the coupling/
directivity and slot length for various combinations of primary and second
ary waveguides at three typical frequencies. The internal dimensions of
182 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
the double ridge waveguide (WRD 580) are de®ned by a = 19.82mm,
b¡a = 0.474, s¡a = 0.256 and d¡b = 0.324. The single ridge waveguide
(WRS 580) is de®ned by b¡a = 0.469, s¡a = 0.256 and d¡b = 0.396. A com
parison between the data in Figures 12.8 and 12.9 indicates that for a given
slot length the degree of coupling is largest between two single ridge wave
guides. This may be understood by recognising that this arrangement pro
duces the largest values of magnetic ®elds at the apertures. Figure 12.10
indicates the result in the case of the geometry consisting of either a single
and double, or double and single ridge arrangement. Figure 12.11 indicates
one typical result in the regular rectangular geometry. Figure 12.12 indicates
the directivities of the various arrangements for ¹¡a = 0.25. The nature of
the ®elds involved in the calculations is indicated in Table 12.2.
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 183
Figure 12.8 Coupling of crossguide coupler in double ridge waveguide using a pair of
45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a = 0.25, w/a = 0.02)
Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
12.10 Coupling via waveguide walls of ®nite thickness
In practice the thickness of the common wall cannot be neglected. One
historic approximation to this problem is to represent the aperture by a
short section of evanescent waveguide with the appropriate crosssection
(Cohn, 1952). The total attenuation of the aperture is then given by
o
t
(dB) = L
t
÷ L
a
(26)
The nature of L
t
has its origin in the relationship between E
in
and E
out
on a
section of transmission line,
E
out
= E
in
exp(÷ot) (27a)
184 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.9 Coupling of crossguide coupler in single ridge waveguide using a pair of
45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a = 0.25, w/a = 0.02)
Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
where
o =
2¬
z
/
g
(27b)
and z
/
g
is the waveguide wavelength of the aperture,
2¬
z
/
g
2
=
2¬
z
c
2
÷
2¬
z
0
2
(27c)
The required result is
L
t
= 54.6A
1
z
0
z
c
(z
2
0
÷ z
2
c
)
1
2
t dB (28)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 185
Figure 12.10 Coupling of crossguide coupler between single ridge/double ridge
primary waveguide and double ridge/single ridge secondary waveguide using a pair of
45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a = 0.25, w/a = 0.02)
Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
The factor A is an arbitrary constant and accounts for the interaction of the
local ®elds on either side of the wall. L
a
accounts for the change in slot
attenuation when the resonant length of the slot becomes an appreciable
portion of the operating wavelength
L
a
= ÷20 log
10
¸
1 ÷
z
c
z
0
2
¸
dB (29)
186 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.11 Coupling in rectangular waveguide (WR 137 waveguide) crossguide
coupler using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a = 0.25, w/a = 0.02)
Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 187
Figure 12.12 Directivities in various ridge couplers (x/a = 0.25, w/a = 0.02,
¹/a = 0.25)
Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
188 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Table 12.2 Ellipticity of magnetic ®eld in single and double ridge waveguide
(x/a = 0.25)
Chapter 13
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using
immittance inverters
13.1 Introduction
The design of 2port microwave ®lters relies either on an exact synthesis pro
cedure in the tplane involving one kind of element separated by UEs or on
an approximate splane technique involving one kind of element separated
by immitance inverters. This sort of topology enters in the realisation of
directly coupled bandpass ®lters using halfwave long cavities connected
by metal or inductive posts. The circuit is not canonical since the impedance
inverters do not contribute to the overall amplitude response of the ®lter but
only provide a practical layout of the circuit elements. The design is
completed by physically realising the impedance inverters. The original
immittance inverter took the form of a simple quarterwave impedance
transformer. Such ®lters are known as quarterwave coupled. The modern
version, in which the inverter is realised by a step discontinuity, is known
as a directly coupled arrangement. Since the notion of the immittance
inverter is central to the design it is given special attention notwithstanding
that it is a classic topic in the literature.
13.2 Immittance inverters
The lowpass allpole ®lter prototype, which forms the basis for the highpass,
bandpass and bandstop ®lters, is a Cauer type ladder network, whose topol
ogy is not always the most practical circuit layout at very high frequencies.
A more desirable ®lter architecture would be one involving only shunt or
only series elements spaced by UEs of commensurate length. Immittance
inverters provide one means of replacing a Cauer type lowpass ladder
network utilising lumped Ls and Cs by one using only Ls and impedance
inverters or one using only Cs and admittance inverters.
The impedance inverter K
i j
is a frequency invariant 2port network which
transforms an impedance Z
j
at one plane into an impedance Z
i
at another
one:
Z
i
Z
j
= K
2
i j
(1)
The admittance inverter J
i j
similarly maps an admittance with one value (Y
j
)
into another with a value (Y
i
) according to
Y
i
Y
j
= J
2
i j
(2)
The transformations de®ned by equations (1) and (2) are indicated in
Figure 13.1a and b.
The realisation of some practical lumped element immittance inverters is
separately discussed in this chapter.
13.3 Lowpass ®lters using immittance inverters
Repeated introduction of either the ®rst or second immittance inverter to
the lowpass prototype in Figure 13.2a maps it to the topology in either
Figure 13.2b or c. The standard topology assumes that the ®rst element of
the lowpass prototype is a shunt one. The mapping between the lowpass
prototype in Figure 13.2a and that in Figure 13.2b will now be demonstrated
for a degree n = 3 network. The derivation starts by expanding the
impedance of the network in a ®rst Cauer form,
Z
1
(s) =
1
sC
1
÷
1
sL
2
÷
1
sC
3
÷1¡1
(3)
190 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 13.1 Impedance (a) and admittance (b) inverters
The realisation of this impedance function starts by extracting an impedance
inverter K
01
from Z
1
(s). This step produces a remainder impedance Z
/
1
(s)
given by
Z
/
1
(s) =
K
2
01
Z
1
(s)
(4)
Scrutiny of the two preceding equations indicates that the required
impedance Z
/
1
(s) at the output terminals of the immittance inverter is
Z
/
1
(s) = K
2
01
sC
1
÷
1
sL
2
÷
1
sC
3
÷
1
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(5)
This impedance has the nature of an inductance L
/
in series with an impe
dance Z
2
(s)
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 191
Figure 13.2 Cauer lowpass ladder network using (a) shunt and series elements,
(b) series elements and impedance inverters and (c) shunt elements and admittance
inverters
Z
/
1
(s) = sL
/
1
÷Z
2
(s) (6)
where
L
/
1
= K
2
01
C
1
(7)
and
Z
2
(s) =
K
2
01
sL
2
÷
1
sC
3
÷
1
1
(8)
This operation completes the ®rst cycle of the synthesis. It is of note that
either L
/
1
or K
01
in this arrangement is completely arbitrary. The topology
in Figure 13.2b is now obtained by repeating this cycle until the degree of
the problem is reduced to zero.
The network obtained in this way is scaled to a generator impedance g
0
and a cuto frequency of 1 rad/s. Making use of the fact that C
1
corresponds to the element g
1
in the lowpass prototype, and impedance
scaling,
g
1
g
0
Z
0
indicates that C
1
may be replaced by
C
1
÷g
1
g
0
Z
0
and that the ®rst inverter K
01
is ®xed according to
K
01
=
L
/
1
Z
0
g
0
g
1
(9)
Likewise, making use of the fact that L
2
and C
3
correspond to the elements
g
2
and g
3
in the lowpass prototype and impedance scaling these quantities
indicate that the former quantities may be replaced by
L
2
÷g
2
Z
0
g
0
C
3
÷g
3
g
0
Z
0
and that the impedance inverters K
12
and K
23
are set by
K
12
=
L
/
1
L
/
2
g
1
g
2
(10)
192 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
K
23
=
L
/
2
L
/
3
g
2
g
3
(11)
respectively.
The general nature for the inner inverters is therefore
K
j. j ÷1
=
L
/
j
L
/
j ÷1
g
j
g
j ÷1
(12)
Similarly, considerations suggest that the outer inverter is described by
K
n. n÷1
=
L
/
n
Z
n÷1
g
n
g
n÷1
(13)
It is of note that the inductors L
/
1
. L
/
2
. F F F . L
/
n
appearing in the description of
the impedance inverters are completely arbitrary. It is also of note that,
whereas the network has been impedance scaled, its cuto frequency is
still 1 rad/s. Scrutiny of the entries of the impedance inverters indicates
that frequency scaling the network to some other frequency leaves the
impedance inverters unchanged. The series inductors are, however, modi®ed
(L
/
j
÷L
/
j
¡o
0
). The possibility of making the impedance inverters the
independent variables and the series inductors the dependent ones is also
understood.
The derivation of the topology using admittance inverters is left as an
exercise for the reader. The result is
J
01
=
C
/
1
Y
0
g
0
g
1
(14)
J
j. j ÷1
=
C
/
j
C
/
j ÷1
g
j
g
j ÷1
(15)
J
n. n÷1
=
C
/
n
Y
n÷1
g
n
g
n÷1
(16)
13.4 Bandpass ®lters using immittance inverters
The realisation of the bandpass prototype begins by introducing the lowpass
frequency transformation in the input impedance of the circuit,
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 193
s ÷
o
0
BW
s
o
0
÷
o
0
s
(17)
The result is
Z
1
(s) =
1
o
0
BW
s
o
0
÷
o
0
s
g
1
÷
1
o
0
BW
s
o
0
÷
o
0
s
g
2
÷
1
o
0
BW
s
o
0
÷
o
0
s
g
3
÷
1
g
4
(18)
This impedance is now synthesised in terms of impedance inverters and
series lumped element resonators. If the synthesis starts with the extraction
of an impedance inverter K
01
then the ®rst series lumped element resonator
is de®ned by
sL
/
1
÷
1
sC
/
= K
2
01
¸
o
0
BW
s
o
0
÷
o
0
s
¸
g
1
which satis®es
L
/
1
=
K
2
01
g
1
(BW)
(19)
C
/
1
=
(BW)
K
2
01
g
1
o
2
0
(20)
and
o
2
0
L
/
1
C
/
1
= 1 (21)
The ®rst impedance inverter is therefore deduced from either equation (19)
or (20) as
K
2
01
=
L
/
1
(BW)
g
1
Impedance scaling this quantity by replacing g
1
,
g
1
÷g
1
g
0
Z
0
gives the required result,
K
01
=
x
1
wZ
0
g
0
g
1
(22)
194 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
w is a bandwidth parameter
w =
BW
o
0
(23)
and x
j
is the reactance slope parameter of the series resonator
x
j
=
o
0
2
oX
j
oo
o=o
0
= o
0
L
/
j
(24)
The de®nitions of the other inverters follow in a like manner:
K
j. j ÷1
= w
x
j
x
j ÷1
g
j
g
j ÷1
(25)
K
n. n÷1
=
x
n
wZ
n÷1
g
n
g
n÷1
(26)
Z
0
and Z
n÷1
are the input and output impedances, respectively. Once the
immittance inverters are set from a knowledge of L
/
j
, C
/
j
is calculated from
the resonance condition in equation (21).
The dual equations for the arrangement in Figure 13.3c employing admit
tance inverters are
J
01
=
b
1
wY
0
g
0
g
1
(27)
J
j. j ÷1
= w
b
j
b
j ÷1
g
j
g
j ÷1
(28)
J
n. n÷1
=
b
n
wY
n÷1
g
n
g
n÷1
(29)
and b
j
is the susceptance slope parameter of the shunt resonator,
b
j
=
o
0
2
oY
j
oo
o=o
0
= o
0
C
/
j
(30)
Y
0
and Y
n÷1
are the input and output conductances, respectively.
13.5 Immittance inverters
Four immittance inverters are illustrated in Figure 13.4. Although each
circuit requires negative elements for its realisation these can be absorbed
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 195
in adjacent positive elements. The equivalence between any of these circuits
and an ideal immittance inverter consisting of a UE of characteristic
impedance K will now be demonstrated. This may be done by establishing
a onetoone equivalence between the ABCD parameters of the two top
ologies. The derivation begins with the de®nition of the ABCD matrix of
a uniform transmission line of characteristic impedance Z
0
and electric
length ±:
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
cos ± jZ
0
sin±
j sin±
Z
0
cos ±
¸
¸
(31)
Evaluating this relationship at
± = 908
196 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 13.3 Cauer lowpass ladder network using (a) shunt and series elements and
(b) series elements and impedance inverters, and (c) shunt elements and admittance
inverters
gives
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
0 jK
j
K
0
¸
¸
(32)
where
K = Z
0
(33)
The derivation continues by forming a onetoone equivalence between such
a unit element and any of the possible circuits illustrated in Figure 13.4.
Taking the T network consisting of series impedances (Z) and a shunt
admittance (Y) by way of an example and recalling the nature of the overall
ABCD matrix of such a network gives:
A = 1 ÷ZY (34a)
B = Z(2 ÷ZY) (34b)
C = Y (34c)
D = 1 ÷ZY (34d)
In the situation considered here,
Z =
1
joC
(35a)
Y = joC (35b)
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 197
Figure 13.4 Schematic diagrams of immittance inverters
Evaluating the ABCD parameters under these conditions indicates that
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
0
j
oC
joC 0
¸
¸
(36)
A comparison between the entries of this matrix and that of the ideal
impedance inverter suggests that the two are equivalent, provided
K =
1
oC
(37)
The equivalences between the topologies of the other possible inverters and
a quarterwave long UE are understood easily.
13.6 Practical inverter
A much used practical immittance inverter is a T or ¬ circuit with positive
elements embedded between negative lengths of uniform transmission
lines. The negative lengths of line are then absorbed in any connecting
line. Such T and ¬ circuits are often met in the descriptions of metal
posts, irises or similar discontinuities in waveguides or other transmission
lines. In practice, the series elements in the T circuit and the shunt ones in
the ¬ circuit are often neglected. The required conditions for the T circuits
in Figure 13.5 will now be derived under this assumption. Forming the
ABCD matrix of this circuit disregarding the series elements gives
198 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 13.5 Schematic diagram of practical impedance inverter
K = Z
0
tan
c
2
÷tan
÷1
X
s
Z
0
c = ÷tan
÷1
2X
p
Z
0
÷
X
s
Z
0
÷tan
÷1
X
s
Z
0
A B
C D
¸ ¸
=
cos c ÷
sin c
2X
p
¡Z
0
÷j Z
0
sinc ÷
cos c ÷1
2X
p
¡Z
0
j
Z
0
sinc ÷
cos c ÷1
2X
p
¡Z
0
cos c ÷
sin c
2X
p
¡Z
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(38)
Comparing this matrix with that of the ideal impedance inverter indicates
that
j
Z
0
sinc ÷
cos c ÷1
2X
p
¡Z
0
=
j
K
(39a)
cos c ÷
sinc
2X
p
¡Z
0
= 0 (39b)
or
tanc =
2X
p
Z
0
(40)
K
Z
0
=
tan
c
2
(41)
Eliminating c between these two relationships also gives
Z
0
X
p
=
Z
0
K
÷
K
Z
0
(42)
The dual problem is illustrated in Figure 13.6.
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 199
Figure 13.6 Schematic diagram of practical admittance inverter
J = Y
0
tan
c
2
÷tan
÷1
B
p
Y
0
c = tan
÷1
2B
s
Y
0
÷
B
p
Y
0
÷tan
÷1
B
p
Y
0
13.7 Immittance inverters using evanescent mode waveguide
One means of realising an immittance inverter is to embody an evanescent
mode waveguide between its ®ctitious transmission lines. The purpose of
this section is to deduce the equivalent circuit of this sort of waveguide.
One possibility is the ¬arrangement comprising three inductors depicted
in Figure 13.7a; the other is the dual Tarrangement in Figure 13.7b. The
derivation of the ¬topology starts by using the standard identities for the
branch elements of the structure:
Y
1
= Y
2
= Y
0
coth
,¹
2
(43)
Y
3
= Y
0
sinh(,¹) (44)
Y
0
is the wave admittance of the waveguide, , is its propagation constant
and ¹ is the length of a typical section.
It proceeds by noting that the propagation constant (,) of a waveguide
below cuto is real for all frequencies from the origin to the cuto
frequency:
,
2
=
2¬
z
c
2
÷
2¬
z
0
2
(45)
It is also recognised that the waveguide admittance (Y
0
) is a pure imaginary
quantity under the same circumstances:
Y
0
=
,
÷joj
0
(46)
200 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 13.7 ¬equivalent circuit (a) and Tequivalent circuit (b) of cuto waveguide
Introducing these relationships into the branch immittances in equations
(43) and (44) of the ¬ prototype indicates that each element is a nearly
frequencyindependent inductance as asserted.
This result is obtained by ®rst expanding the hyperbolic function in series
form:
sinhA = A ÷
A
3
33
÷
A
5
53
cothA =
1
A ÷
A
3
3
÷
2A
5
15
The derivation of the element values of the Tequivalent circuit proceeds in a
dual manner.
13.8 Eplane ®lter
A classic directly coupled bandpass ®lter is a ridge or ®nline arrangement
based on a lowpass lumped element prototype consisting of a series of
halfwave long cavities connected by metal or inductive posts. Figure 13.8
indicates one practical construction. One possible equivalent circuit for
this type of structure is illustrated in Figure 13.9. It is obtained by represent
ing each discontinuity by an equivalent inductive Tcircuit and each cavity
by a uniform transmission line. The design of this type of ®lter proceeds
by absorbing the reactive Tcircuits into ideal impedance inverters prior to
forming a onetoone equivalence between it and a suitable bandpass proto
type consisting of series resonators and ideal impedance inverters. The series
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 201
Figure 13.8 Schematic diagram of waveguide bandpass ®lters using metal septa
resonators of the bandpass prototype are in this instance implemented by
halfwave long distributed cavity resonators. The impedance inverters of
the network are often realised by neglecting the series elements of the
metal posts and embedding the shunt ones between suitable negative lengths
of uniform transmission lines in the manner discussed in the preceding
section. These additional lengths of transmission lines are then absorbed
in the halfwave long cavities. The design is complete once the Ks are
speci®ed from the ®lter speci®cation.
Combining equations (22), (25) and (26) with equation (42) gives the
required design equations
Z
0
X
01
= Z
0
g
0
g
1
x
1
wZ
0
1
2
÷
1
Z
0
x
1
wZ
0
g
0
g
1
1
2
(47a)
Z
0
X
j. j ÷1
= Z
0
g
j
g
j ÷1
x
j
x
j ÷1
w
2
1
2
÷
1
Z
0
x
j
x
j ÷1
w
2
g
j
g
j ÷1
1
2
(47b)
Z
0
X
n. n÷1
= Z
0
g
n
g
n÷1
x
n
wZ
n÷1
1
2
÷
1
Z
0
x
n
wZ
0
g
n
g
n÷1
1
2
(47c)
The reactance slope parameter of a halfwave section of characteristic
impedance Z
j
is
X
j
=
¬Z
j
2
(48)
If the characteristic impedance of each halfwave section is made equal to
the characteristic impedance Z
0
, then
K
2
01
Z
2
0
=
¬
2
w
g
0
g
1
(49a)
K
2
j. j ÷1
Z
2
0
=
¬
2
2
w
2
g
j
g
j ÷1
(49b)
202 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
l
2
l
1
l
n
Z
0
X
p1
X
p2
X
pn + 1
X
s1
X
s1
X
s2
X
s2
X
sn + 1
X
sn + 1
Figure 13.9 Equivalent circuit of bandpass ®lter using metal septa
K
2
n. n÷1
Z
2
0
=
¬
2
w
g
n
g
n÷1
(49c)
and
Z
0
X
01
=
2g
0
g
1
¬w
1
2
÷
¬w
2g
0
g
1
1
2
(50a)
Z
0
X
j. j ÷1
=
2
¬
g
j
g
j ÷1
w
2
1
2
÷
¬
2
w
2
g
j
g
j ÷1
1
2
(50b)
Z
0
X
n. n÷1
=
Z
0
Z
n÷1
1
2
2g
n
g
n÷1
¬w
1
2
÷
Z
n÷1
Z
0
1
2
¬w
2g
n
g
n÷1
1
2
(50c)
The reactance of each step may therefore be evaluated once the immittance
inverters have been ®xed by the speci®cation of the ®lter. This ®xes the
dimensions of the steps.
Once the details of the steps have been evaluated it only remains to calcu
late the spacing between the discontinuities. This condition is met provided
2¬
z
g
¹
j
= ±
j
÷
1
2
(c
j
÷c
j ÷1
) (51a)
with
±
j
= ¬ (51b)
In calculating ±
j
and ±
j ÷1
the exact equivalent circuit of the discontinuity is
usually employed:
c
j
= ÷tan
÷1
2X
pj
Z
0
÷
X
sj
Z
0
÷tan
÷1
X
sj
Z
0
(51c)
The overall structure of this ®lter in terms of immittance inverters and half
wave long waveguide cavities is indicated in Figure 13.10.
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 203
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
K
01
K
12
K
n,n+1
θ
1
θ
2
θ
n
Figure 13.10 Equivalent circuit of bandpass ®lter using impedance inverters
13.9 Element values of lowpass prototypes
The element values for lowpass ®lter networks with Butterworth and
Cheb" yshev amplitude approximations are classic problems in the literature.
The order of the lowpass Cheb" yshev solution is ®xed by the attenuation o
1
at
o
1
in the stopband:
n =
cosh
÷1
(
A ÷1
¡c)
cosh
÷1
o
o
1
(52a)
where
A = log
÷1
10
o
1
10
(52b)
c is the ripple level in the passband.
The order of the bandpass ®lter is speci®ed by
n =
cosh
÷1
A ÷1
c
cosh
÷1
o
0
BW
o
3.4
o
0
÷
o
0
o
3.4
¸ ¸ (53)
The quantity is ®xed by the de®nition of its upper bandedge.
The recurrence formula for the element values of the Cheb" yshev solution
is
g
1
=
2 sin
¬
2n
sinh
1
n
sinh
÷1
1
c
(54a)
and
g
i
g
i ÷1
=
4 sin
2i ÷1
2n
¬
sin
2i ÷1
2n
¬
sinh
2
1
n
sinh
÷1
1
c
÷sin
2
i¬
n
i = 1. 2. F F F . n ÷1 (54b)
The ®lter is symmetrical for n odd.
g
1
= g
n
. g
2
= g
n÷1
. F F F . g
i
= g
n÷i ÷1
F F F (55)
If n is odd, the terminating resistance g
n÷1
is
g
n÷1
= 1 (56)
204 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
If n is even, the terminating resistance g
n÷1
is
g
n÷1
= (c ÷
1 ÷c
2
)
2
(57)
or
g
n÷1
=
1
(c ÷
1 ÷c
2
)
2
(58)
13.10 Frequency response of microwave ®lters
The ABCD notation is admirably suited for the analysis of microwave
®lters. The transmission (t) and re¯ection (a) parameters of a reactance
network are once more given by
tt
+
=
1
1 ÷
1
4
(A ÷D)
2
÷
1
4
(B ÷C)
2
(59)
aa
+
=
1
4
(A ÷D)
2
÷
1
4
(B ÷C)
2
1 ÷
1
4
(A ÷D)
2
÷
1
4
(B ÷C)
2
(60)
Scrutiny of these two relationships indicates that these satisfy the unitary
condition,
aa
+
÷tt
+
= 1 (61)
The nature of these parameters is compatible with the de®nition of the
characteristic function met in the description of the transfer function of
this class of networks:
K(o
2
) =
1
4
(A ÷D)
2
÷
1
4
(B ÷C)
2
(62)
It is also recalled that, for reactance networks, A and D are real numbers and
B and C are pure imaginary ones. For symmetric networks A = D.
As a simple illustration of the analysis of this type of circuit using the
ABCD notation it is used to construct the insertion loss function of a low
pass n = 3 doubly terminated prototype. Here
A = 1 ÷2o
2
B = j 2o
C = j (2o ÷2o
3
)
D = 1 ÷2o
2
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 205
Introducing these quantities into equation (59) gives the required result,
tt
+
=
1
1 ÷(o
2
)
3
in keeping with the Butterworth lowpass generating function and the
de®nition of the characteristic function.
206 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Chapter 14
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using
mode matching method
M. McKay and J. Helszajn
14.1 Introduction
The speci®cation of a conventional waveguide ®lter is usually incorporated
in a ladder lumped element network which is then realised in terms of immit
tance inverters and one kind of element. The synthesis of this type of topol
ogy is a standard problem in the literature. A typical inverter is realised by
introducing a suitable discontinuity into the waveguide and embedding it
into negative line lengths. This is usually achieved by foreshortening the
lengths of each cavity. To proceed with the design, it is necessary to have
some representation of the discontinuities involved. One means of character
ising discontinuities in waveguides is the MMM (mode matching method).
To overcome the eects of interaction between discrete discontinuities on
the overall ®lter performance a global transmission matrix is constructed
and its overall speci®cation is optimised by resorting to a suitable optimisa
tion subroutine. The chapter includes the layout of one lowpass ®lter which
relies on cuto waveguide sections for its inverters. It separately includes
the design of one bandpass ®lter using cuto waveguide sections for its
inverters and another employing inductive septa for the realisation of the
inverters.
14.2 Mode matching method
To proceed with the design, it is necessary to have some representation of the
discontinuities involved. One classic numerical procedure is the mode
matching method (MMM). It involves expanding the forward and re¯ected
®elds in each region in terms of local modes and thereafter satisfying the
boundary conditions at the junction between the two. One solution is to
retain the same number of modes on either side of the discontinuity. The
application of the orthogonality condition of each family of modes in
each region produces a matrix equation from which the unknown coe
cients may be evaluated. The modes in each waveguide may be established
by using the FEM or some other closed form formulation. The scattering
matrix of the discontinuity may be evaluated once the ®elds in both wave
guides are at hand.
While the topology of the Eplane metal ®lter is not strictly speaking a
ridge structure, it has some of its features. Since it represents a classic appli
cation of the mode matching method, its topology will be used to outline the
approach. It amounts to forming the ®elds in each region on either side of
the discontinuity. Figure 14.1 illustrates the problem region in question.
The transverse ®elds to the left of the discontinuity (z  0) are given by
E
y
=
¸
M
n=1
A
÷
n
c
an
(x) exp(÷,
an
z) ÷A
÷
n
c
an
(x) exp(,
an
z)] (1)
H
x
=
¸
M
n=1
Y
an
A
÷
n
c
an
(x) exp(÷,
an
z) ÷A
÷
n
c
an
(x) exp(,
an
z)] (2)
c
an
(x) represents a typical normal mode, A
±
n
represent the amplitudes of the
forward and backward waves and are the unknowns of the problem region,
and ,
an
is the propagation constant. The wave admittance is
Y
an
=
,
an
joj
0
(3)
The normal modes satisfy the orthogonality condition
A
m
c
am
(x)A
n
c
an
(x) dx = o
mn
(4)
o
mn
= 1 for m = n, and 0 for m ,= n.
208 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 14.1 Bifurcated waveguide
This condition implies that the amplitude squared of a typical mode
integrated over the problem region is unity and that the integral of the
product of two dierent modes over the same surface is zero.
If the geometry in question also supports a discontinuity along the
ydirection, then both E
x
and H
y
exist. This is the situation met in the case
of a ridge waveguide.
The ®elds to the right of the discontinuity (z > 0) are given by
E
y
=
¸
K
n=1
B
÷
n
c
bn
(x) exp(÷,
bn
z) ÷B
÷
n
c
bn
(x) exp(,
bn
z)] (5)
H
x
=
¸
K
n=1
Y
bn
B
÷
n
c
bn
(x) exp(÷,
bn
z) ÷B
÷
n
c
bn
(x) exp(,
bn
z)] (6)
and
E
y
=
¸
L
n=1
C
÷
n
c
cn
(x) exp(÷,
cn
z) ÷C
÷
n
c
cn
(x) exp(,
cn
z)] (7)
H
x
=
¸
L
n=1
Y
cn
C
÷
n
c
cn
(x) exp(÷,
cn
z) ÷C
÷
n
c
cn
(x) exp(,
cn
z)] (8)
for regions 0  x  b and b  x  a, respectively,
c
bn
and c
cn
are the normal modes in regions B and C, and B
±
and C
±
are
the amplitudes of the forward and backward modes in the two regions and
are the other unknowns of the problem region. The normal modes again
satisfy the orthogonality condition. The wave admittances are de®ned in a
like manner to that in region A.
The derivation of the required result now proceeds by satisfying the
continuity conditions at the plane of the discontinuity:
¸
M
n=1
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
)c
an
(x) =
¸
K
n=1
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
)c
bn
(x) 0  x  b (9)
¸
M
n=1
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
)Y
an
c
an
(x) =
¸
K
n=1
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
)Y
bn
c
bn
(x) 0  x  b (10)
¸
M
n=1
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
)c
an
(x) =
¸
L
n=1
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
)c
cn
(x) b  x  a (11)
¸
M
n=1
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
)Y
an
c
an
(x) =
¸
L
n=1
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
)Y
cn
c
cn
(x) b  x  a (12)
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 209
Each preceding equation constitutes a doubly in®nite set of linear equations
for the unknown modal coecients. The required linear equations for the
unknown coecients are now simpli®ed by making use of the orthogonality
condition between the modes in each region one at a time.
Multiplying both sides of each continuity condition in the interval
0  x  b by c
am
and integrating over the problem region gives
(A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
) =
¸
K
n=1
H
mn
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
) (13)
Y
an
(A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
) =
¸
K
n=1
Y
bn
H
mn
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
) (14)
where
H
mn
=
b
0
c
am
(x)c
bn
(x) dx (15)
The corresponding result in the interval b  x  a is
(A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
) =
¸
K
n=1
Y
cn
K
mn
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
) (16)
Y
an
(A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
) =
¸
K
n=1
Y
cn
K
mn
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
) (17)
where
K
mn
=
a
b
c
am
(x)c
cn
(x) dx (18)
The two preceding pairs of equations may be combined into a single con
dition over the complete interval 0  x  a of the problem region:
A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
=
¸
K
n=1
H
mn
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
) ÷
¸
L
n=1
K
mn
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
).
m = 1. 2. F F F . M (19)
Y
am
(A
÷
m
÷A
÷
m
) =
¸
K
n=1
Y
bn
H
mn
(B
÷
n
÷B
÷
n
) ÷
¸
L
n=1
Y
cn
K
mn
(C
÷
n
÷C
÷
n
).
m = 1. 2. F F F . M (20)
210 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Applying the orthogonality conditions of the modes in regions B and C
likewise gives
¸
M
n=1
H
mn
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
) = B
÷
m
÷B
÷
m
. m = 1. 2. F F F . K (21)
¸
M
n=1
H
mn
Y
an
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
) = Y
bn
(B
÷
m
÷B
÷
m
). m = 1. 2. F F F . K (22)
¸
M
n=1
K
mn
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
) = C
÷
m
÷C
÷
m
. m = 1. 2. F F F . L (23)
¸
M
n=1
K
mn
Y
an
(A
÷
n
÷A
÷
n
) = Y
cn
(C
÷
m
÷C
÷
m
). m = 1. 2. F F F . L (24)
The preceding six simultaneous equations may now be solved for the family
of unknown coecients A
÷
n
. A
÷
n
. B
÷
n
. B
÷
n
. C
÷
n
and C
÷
n
. Writing these
relationships in matrix form gives
A
÷
÷A
÷
= H(B
÷
÷B
÷
) ÷K(C
÷
÷C
÷
) (25)
A
÷
÷A
÷
= Z
a
HY
b
(B
÷
÷B
÷
) ÷Z
a
KY
c
(C
÷
÷C
÷
) (26)
H
T
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = B
÷
÷B
÷
(27)
Z
b
H
T
Y
z
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = B
÷
÷B
÷
(28)
K
T
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = C
÷
÷C
÷
(29)
Z
c
K
T
Y
z
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = C
÷
÷C
÷
(30)
The As and Bs are column vectors given by
A
÷
=
A
÷
1
A
÷
2
F
F
F
A
÷
M
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. B
÷
=
B
÷
1
B
÷
2
F
F
F
B
÷
K
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. C
÷
=
C
÷
1
C
÷
2
F
F
F
C
÷
L
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 211
A
÷
=
A
÷
1
A
÷
2
F
F
F
A
÷
M
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. B
÷
=
B
÷
1
B
÷
2
F
F
F
B
÷
K
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. C
÷
=
C
÷
1
C
÷
2
F
F
F
C
÷
L
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
H is a matrix of size MK with generic element H
mn
as de®ned before,
while K is a matrix of size ML with generic element K
mn
. The superscript
T denotes the transpose operation, and Y
i
and Z
i
(i = a. b. c) are diagonal
matrices with diagonal elements Y
in
and Z
in
(i = a. b. c).
A microwave passive network may be represented by an immittance
(impedance or admittance) matrix, a scattering matrix, an ABCD formu
lation or a transmission matrix. There is therefore more than one possible
formulation of the problem region under discussion. The reader is referred
to the original literature for more details. Methods which avoid repetitive
calculations for each sampled frequency in the frequency interval of the
speci®cation are of special interest. Immittance matrices are appropriate
for the synthesis of equivalent circuits, transmission or ABCD ones for
the construction of the overall representation of a number of discontinuities
in cascade, and the scattering formulation is suitable for the construction of
the overall frequency response.
A feature of the matrices and vectors not considered so far is that these are
of dierent size and that some are not even square. This diculty may be
alleviated by assuming that K ÷L = M and by partitioning the same. It
is, however, of note that there is more than one way to solve the ensuing
family of matrix relationships.
14.3 MMM characterisation of 1port networks
While the MMM permits all the network parameters of a passive circuit to
be deduced, the development outlined here is restricted to its parameters at a
typical port. This is done for both brevity and clarity. One port variables are
in fact all that is needed to characterise symmetrical 2port networks.
The detailed development of the 1port problem region begins by putting
down the relationships between the incident and re¯ected waves in regions B
and C in the problem region in question:
B
÷
n
= a
bn
B
÷
n
. n = 1. 2. F F F . K (31)
C
÷
n
= a
cn
C
÷
n
. n = 1. 2. F F F . L (32)
where
212 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
a
bn
= À
bn
exp(÷2,
bn
¹) (33)
a
cn
= À
cn
exp(÷2,
cn
¹) (34)
À
bn
equals ÷1 at an electric wall (even mode problem region) and ÷1 at a
magnetic wall (odd mode arrangement).
Introducing the relationships between the forward and re¯ected waves
into equation (25) gives
A
÷
÷A
÷
= HI ÷q
b
]B
÷
÷KI ÷q
c
]C
÷
(35)
or
The preceding equation may be put in compact form as
A
÷
÷A
÷
= GRd
÷
(37)
G. R and d
÷
are given easily by inspection, and R
b
and R
c
are diagonal
matrices de®ned by
R
b
=
1 ÷a
b1
0
0 1 ÷a
b2
÷ ÷ ÷
1 ÷a
bK÷1
0
0 1 ÷a
bK
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(38)
R
c
=
1 ÷a
c1
0
0 1 ÷a
c2
÷ ÷ ÷
1 ÷a
cL÷1
0
0 1 ÷a
cL
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(39)
Writing the re¯ected waves in regions B and C in equation (26) in terms of
the forward ones gives
A
÷
÷A
÷
= Z
a
HY
b
I ÷q
b
]B
÷
÷Z
a
KY
c
I ÷q
c
]C
÷
(40)
or
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 213
A
÷
÷A
÷
=  H K]
¸
R
b
0
0 R
c
¸¸
B
÷
C
÷
¸
(36)
A
÷
÷A
÷
= Z
a
 H K]
¸
Y
b
0
0 Y
c
¸¸
R
/
b
0
0 R
/
c
¸¸
B
÷
C
÷
¸
(41)
The preceding equation is given in compact form by
A
÷
÷A
÷
= Z
a
GY
d
R
/
d
÷
(42)
The meanings of Y
d
and R
/
are again obtained by inspection and R
b
and R
c
are diagonal matrices de®ned by
R
/
b
=
1 ÷a
b1
0
0 1 ÷a
b2
÷ ÷ ÷
1 ÷a
bK÷1
0
0 1 ÷a
bK
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(43)
R
/
c
=
1 ÷a
c1
0
0 1 ÷a
c2
÷ ÷ ÷
1 ÷a
cL÷1
0
0 1 ÷a
cL
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(44)
Similarly
G
T
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = Rd
÷
(45)
Z
d
G
T
Y
a
(A
÷
÷A
÷
) = R
/
d
÷
(46)
The ratio of the incoming (A
÷
) and outgoing (A
÷
) waves are now
readily obtained by eliminating d
÷
between the preceding relationships.
The result is
A
÷
= S
11
A
÷
(47)
where
S
11
=  I ÷Z
a
GY
d
R(R
/
)
÷1
G
T
]
÷1
I ÷Z
a
GY
d
R(R
/
)
÷1
G
T
] (48)
and
S
11
=
S
(1)
11
0 0 0 0
0 S
(2)
11
0 0 0
0 0 S
(3)
11
0 0
0 0 0 S
(M÷1)
11
0
0 0 0 0 S
(M)
11
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
214 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
14.4 Double septa and thick septum problem regions
The MMM formulation of the in®nitely thin septum may be readily
extended to that of a ®nite thickness one met in practical ®lter structures.
This may be done by considering the problem region between a single wave
guide and one divided into three regions by two in®nitely thin septa. The
arrangement in question is indicated in Figure 14.2. The MMM formulation
of this geometry proceeds in a like manner to that of the single septum
arrangement except that it produces one more set of boundary conditions
at the plane of the discontinuity. The topology of the required arrangement
is obtained easily by introducing an electric wall in region D at the plane
of the discontinuity. The ensuing structure is illustrated in Figure 14.3. It
coincides with that of a single thick septum as asserted. The approach out
lined here in the case of a single thick septum can readily be generalised to
that of a number of septa without any diculty.
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 215
Figure 14.2 Topology of triple septa problem region
Figure 14.3 Topology of thick septum problem region
14.5 MMM characterisation of symmetrical waveguide
discontinuities
A common discontinuity met in the design of many microwave ®lters is a
symmetrical structure such as a septum, bar or evanescent region. The pur
pose of this section is to specialise the MMM to this situation. This may be
best done by using the even and odd mode formulation of any symmetrical
network introduced elsewhere in this text. The even and odd mode eigen
networks of such a circuit are revealed by placing electric and magnetic
walls at the symmetry plane of the structure. The topology in question is
indicated in Figure 14.4 and the two eigennetworks in Figures 14.5a and b.
The even mode re¯ection eigenvalues are given with
a
b1
= 1 F F F n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . K (49a)
a
b1
= 1 F F F n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . L (49b)
This gives
S
11
= a
even
(50)
The odd mode re¯ection eigenvalues are given with
a
bn
= ÷1 F F F n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . K (51a)
a
bn
= ÷1 F F F n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . L (51b)
This gives
S
11
= a
odd
(52)
The scattering matrix of the original circuit is then recovered by using the
standard relationships below:
S
11
=
a
even
÷a
odd
2
(53a)
216 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 14.4 Topology of symmetrical septum
S
21
=
a
even
÷a
odd
2
(53b)
A typical reactance variable is given by using the bilinear relationships
between re¯ection and impedance at a port.
Figure 14.4 indicates the symmetrical septum under discussion and
Figure 14.5 shows its even and odd 1port eigennetworks.
The preceding result may be further simpli®ed by assuming that the
incident wave in waveguide A is restricted to the dominant mode. This
permits every term in the ®eld vector A
÷
except the ®rst to be set to zero.
A is therefore reduced to
A
÷
=
A
÷
0
F
F
F
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(54)
The terms in the vector A
÷
in the vicinity of the discontinuity are unaected
by this assumption.
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 217
Figure 14.5 Eigennetworks of symmetrical septum
The characterisation of the symmetrical thick septum illustrated in
Figure 14.4 proceeds in a like manner to that utilised to tackle the thin
geometry.
14.6 Eigensolutions of waveguide sections
To proceed with a calculation it is necessary to evaluate the coupling
integrals in equations (15) and (18). This may be done once the eigen
solutions of each problem region are established. The problem region
consisting of the junction between a regular and a bifurcated waveguide is
a classic result in the literature. The transverse ®elds in waveguide A are
given by
c
an
(x) = sin
p¬x
a
. 0  x  a
and
Y
an
=
c
0
j
0
1 ÷
pz
0
z
c
2
where
z
c
= 2a
Only symmetrical modes enter in the description of waveguide A. This
condition is satis®ed by ®xing p as
p = 2n ÷1. n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . M
The ®eld variable in waveguide B is
c
bn
(x) = sin
2¬qx
a ÷s
. 0  x 
a ÷s
2
and
Y
bn
= r
0
1 ÷
qz
0
z
c
2
where
z
c
= (a ÷s)
and
q = n. F F F . K
218 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The eigensolution in waveguide C is
c
cn
(x) = sin
2¬qx
a ÷s
. 0  x 
a ÷s
2
Y
cn
= r
0
1 ÷
qz
0
z
c
2
and
z
c
= (a ÷s)
where
q = n. F F F . L. n = 1. 2. 3. F F F . L
The notation employed here is speci®ed in Figure 14.6.
Once the model ®elds are formulated, the coupling integrals H
mn
and K
mn
may be evaluated. This gives
K
mn
= 0.50aY
ai
K
mn
= 0.50(a ÷s)Y
bj
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 219
Figure 14.6 Physical variables of thick septum
and
K
mn
= 0.50(a ÷s)
sin( f )
f
÷
sin(g)
g
Y
ai
where
f =
¸
0.50p
a ÷s
a
÷q
¸
¬
and
g =
¸
0.50p
a ÷s
a
÷q
¸
¬
220 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13
–5
–10
–15
–20
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Ref. 19
Mansour (1988)
Mansour (1988)
f, GHz

S
1
2

,
d
B
w w s
a
b
d
Figure 14.7 Measured and calculated transmission coecient of a cascaded Eplane
ridge guide discontinuity
a = 22.86. b = 10.16. d = 4.114. w = 1.524. l = 12.1192 mm
Ð Tao & Baudrand (1991) (   theory + + + experiment; Mansour et al. (1988))
Reprinted with permission, Tao & Baudrand (1991)
14.7 Immittance inverters
To be able to proceed with the design of ®lter structures it is necessary both
to select a suitable immittance arrangement and separately to characterise it.
Two structures that have been found useful for this purpose are the Eplane
septum and the evanescent waveguide section. The MMM provides one of a
number of means of establishing the equivalent circuits of these sorts of
obstacles. Figure 14.7 indicates one typical result.
14.8 Eplane bandpass ®lters using metal inverters
The ridge waveguide readily lends itself to the realisation of directly coupled
bandpass ®lters based on the use of inverters in cascade with halfwave long
ridge conventional waveguide resonators. The inverters are either realised
by metal strips across the ridges or by cuto waveguide sections. The
geometry of one arrangement based on the use of septa is indicated in
Figure 14.8. The adjustment of this ®lter is often undertaken by using the
MMM in conjunction with a suitable optimisation package. A comparison
of the experimental frequency responses of a degree5 ®lter in a WRD 750
waveguide before and after optimisation is depicted in Figure 14.9. The
topology of an arrangement using cuto sections of rectangular waveguide
of the immittance inverters and its frequency response is separately indicated
in Figures 14.10 and 14.11.
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 221
Resonators Eplane septa
b
b
a
d
1
d
2
d
3
d
n–1
d
n
d
n+1
l
1
l
2
l
n–1
l
n
t
Figure 14.8 Topology of Eplane bandpass ®lter using septa inverters
14.9 Lowpass ridge ®lters using immittance inverters
One practical lowpass ®lter topology consists of immittance inverters
separated by high or low impedance waveguides. One possible immittance
inverter met in the design of this sort of ®lter is a short cuto rectangular
waveguide section. Figure 14.12 depicts a degree12 layout which has been
optimised by using a variational formulation. Its re¯ection and transmission
parameters are reproduced in Figure 14.13.
222 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 14.9 Calculated return loss before (solid line) and after (dashed line)
optimisation (ridged waveguide ®lter)
Ridge waveguide gap = 5.00 mm; insert thickness = 0.10 mm;
Septum lengths (mm)
Resonator lengths (mm)
Before After Before After
optimisation optimisation
d
1
= d
6
0.5615 0.4805 d
11
= d
15
15.4961 15.3539
d
2
= d
4
4.9200 4.6439 d
12
= d
14
15.7558 15.6814
d
3
= d
5
6.2612 5.9867 d
13
15.7507 15.6829
Reprinted with permission, Budimir (1997)
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 223
empty waveguide
transformer
lter
Figure 14.10 Topology of Eplane bandpass ®lter using evanescent waveguide inverters
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.0 15.2
d
B
Frequency, GHz

S
12


S
11

Figure 14.11 Frequency response of Eplane bandpass ®lter using evanescent
waveguide inverters
224 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
a
b
h
P
t
1
a
0
b
0
t
2
w
2
w
1
w
3
w
4
w
5
11 12 13 14
S
l
5/2
Figure 14.12 Evanescentmode ridged waveguide lowpass ®lter
Input waveguide: a
0
= 19.05. b
0
= 9.52; ®rst transformer: a
1
= 14.3. b
1
= 7,
h
1
= 4. s
1
= 3.6; second transformer: a
2
= 10.7. b
2
= 5.2. h
2
= 1.7. s
2
= 3.6;
®lter section: a = 8. b = 3.8. h = 0.6. s = 3.6. t
1
= t
4
= 6.15. t
2
= t
3
= 3.97,
w
1
= w
0
= 5.21. w
2
= w
9
= 5.24. w
3
= w
8
= 2.47. w
4
= w
7
= 3.29. w
5
= w
6
= 4.44,
w
11
= w
19
= 0.71. w
12
= w
18
= 2.64. w
13
= w
17
= 2.96. w
14
= w
16
= 2.12.
w
15
= 1.79
Reprinted with permission, Tao & Baudrand (1991)
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 225
Figure 14.13 Frequency response of evanescentmode ridged waveguide lowpass ®lter
Reprinted with permission, Tao & Baudrand (1991)
Ð 5 accessible modes    1 accessible mode 
.
 measured data
Chapter 15
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and
phaseshifters
15.1 Introduction
One important class of ridge waveguide hardware is the nonreciprocal
2port one. Two classic devices are the nonreciprocal phase shifter and the
resonance isolator. Each device relies on the two dierent interactions
between a spinning electron with a clockwise or anticlockwise circularly
polarised alternating radio frequency magnetic ®eld in a suitably magnetised
ferrite medium. If the alternating magnetic ®eld rotates in the same direction
as that of the electron spin then the medium exhibits a scalar permeability
with one distinct value; if, however, it rotates in the oppposite direction it
again behaves as a scalar medium but with a dierent value. This property
of a magnetised ferrite medium is the basis of a number of important non
reciprocal devices. One means of realising such components in a ridge wave
guide is to recognise that such polarisation always exists at the interface
between any two dierent semiin®nite dielectric regions and everywhere
outside and that its hand is determined by the direction of propagation.
Another signi®cant property of this sort of arrangement is that the senses
of rotations are in opposite directions on either side of a dielectric rib.
Such dielectric inserts are therefore suitable for the construction of non
reciprocal ferrite devices such as phase shifters and isolators. It is assumed,
for simplicity, throughout, that the introduction of thin H or Eplane ferrite
or garnet tiles in the vicinity of the dielectric wall does not in the ®rst
instance disturb the polarisation in its neighbourhood. While the double
ridge waveguide does not have natural planes of circular polarisation in
its trough regions it does have such planes at its electric symmetry wall.
An Hplane bifurcation produces one possible carrier for the design of
nonreciprocal phase shifters and isolators.
15.2 Nonreciprocal ferrite devices in rectangular waveguide
One of the most useful of the nonreciprocal ferrite devices in the rectangular
or ridge waveguide is the ferrite phase shifter. Its operation relies on the
existence of natural or enforced circularly polarised counterrotating alter
nating magnetic ®elds on either side of the planes of symmetry of these
sorts of waveguides. E or Hplane ferrite sheets or plates, magnetised by
direct magnetic ®elds perpendicular to the planes of the alternating magnetic
®elds, exhibit dierent values of scalar permeabilities if placed at one or the
other of these sites. Figures 15.1a to d indicate typical arrangements in
dielectric loaded double ridge waveguides. If ferrite tiles are located on
both sides of the symmetry plane of the arrangement then the direct ®elds
must be oppositely orientated at each site for the waveguide to exhibit
one value of scalar permeability; the other value is then obtained by
reversing the direct ®elds. Moreover, the hands of the polarisation of the
alternate magnetic ®elds are interchanged if the direction of propagation
is reversed; the device is therefore nonreciprocal. The spin motion in a
magnetic insulator is indicated in Figure 15.2.
The scalar permeabilities exhibited by the interactions between a spinning
electron in a direct magnetic ®eld and the alternating radio frequency signals
on either side of the symmetry plane of a single ridge waveguide are sum
marised in Figures 15.3 and 15.4. The required result may be established
easily by using the appropriate tensor permeability,
j] =
j 0 ÷jk
0 1 0
jk 0 j
¸
¸
¸
¸
The nature of the tensor permeability is obtained by solving the equation of
motion with the direct magnetic ®eld along the ycoordinate and the alter
nating magnetic ®eld in the x±z plane. j is an even function of the direct
magnetic ®eld and k is an odd one so that the sign of k must be reversed
if the direction of the direct magnetic ®eld is reversed. j and k are in general
functions of the direct magnetisation and magnetic ®eld and the frequency
of the alternating radio magnetic ®eld.
Another important ferrite device in a rectangular waveguide is the
resonance isolator. The geometry of this device is identical to that of the
phase shifter con®guration except that the direct magnetic ®eld is in this
instance equal to that required to establish the ferromagnetic resonance at
the operating frequency of the device.
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 227
228 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.1 Schematic diagrams of ridge waveguide phase shifter using Eplane and
Hplane ferrite tiles
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 229
nucleus
electron
spin
Figure 15.2 Spin motion in magnetic insulator
Figure 15.3 Scalar permeabilities in forward direction of propagation in single ridge
waveguide loaded with magnetised ferrite tiles
15.3 Dierential phase shift, phase deviation and ®gure of
merit of ferrite phase shifter
The practical speci®cation of a ferrite phase shifter usually involves some
compromise between con¯icting parameters such as phase deviation over
some frequency interval, peak and average power rating, insertion loss,
etc. Some typical parameters that are of interest are summarised below
prior to investigating some practical devices. Two quantities that are of
obvious interest are the phase deviation (Á±) with respect to a 908 bit and
the dierential phase shift (Ác) per unit length,
Á±
¬¡2
and
Ác
L
rad¡m
respectively.
230 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.4 Scalar permeabilities in reverse direction of propagation in single ridge
waveguide loaded with magnetised ferrite tiles
The ®gure of merit (F) of the device is separately de®ned in terms of the
insertion loss (o) per unit length and the dierential phase shift per unit
length by
F =
Ác
o
rad¡dB
For completeness, it is also necessary to spell out the normalised bandwidth
(BW) of the device. This is speci®ed in terms of the bandwidth (Áf ) and mid
band frequency ( f
0
) by
Áf
f
0
The insertion phase at deviation may also be of some interest. It is de®ned
below:
Ác
c
0
Hysteresis eects, temperature, switching speed and voltage standing wave
ratio (VSWR) or return loss (RL) are often other parameters of concern.
15.4 90degree phase shifter in dielectric loaded WRD200 ridge
waveguide
The experimental frequency response of a 908 bit over the 2±4 GHz band in
a WRD200 waveguide is indicated in Figure 15.5. The geometry described
here consisted of a WRD200 ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller extend
ing over half the ridge width with ferrite tiles on the faces of the open
halfspace. The geometry in question is also indicated in Figure 15.5. The
experimental data are obtained by normalising the phase for one orientation
of the applied magnetic ®eld and recording the result for the reverse ®eld.
The performance of the 908 bit may be summarised by
Á±
¬¡2
 ±
3
90
Ác
L
=
¬¡2
0.120
rad¡m
F 
¬¡2
0.50
rad¡dB
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 231
Áf
f
0
=
2000
3000
Ác
c
0
=
90
860
The ®gure of merit c of this device re¯ects, in part, the use of a heavily doped
garnet material with a spinwave linewidth (ÁH
k
) equal to 0.68 kA/m.
The choice of linewidth, in the work, is dictated by the need to suppress
spinwave instability (or nonlinear loss) that can occur at high peak power
levels in ferrite devices. The other material details are described by
j
0
M
0
= 0.0800T, c
r
= 14.7, ÁH = 5.6 kA/m and tan o  0.002. The direct
magnetic ®eld employed at the 908 phase state is ·52 kA/m.
One feature of note already remarked on that may have some bearing on
this excellent result is that the counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds
are nearly circularly polarised over the same frequency interval. Forming
[¡k
0
in the 2±4 GHz band for a dielectric slab with c
r
= 9, using the data
in Chapter 8, gives
1.8 4
[
k
0
42.2
The corresponding ellipticity over the same frequency interval is
1.20 5
H
x
H
z
51.12
232 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.5 Dierential phase shift in WRD 200 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Hastings & Helszajn (1987)
Another property of this geometry is that its insertion phase (8608 at the
midband) is quite large compared with the phase deviation of the
magnetised bit (±458) so that perturbation conditions may be assumed to
prevail.
The possibility of latching ferrite phase shifters is, of course, always of
some interest. Suitable ridge structures are illustrated in Figure 15.6.
15.5 Isolation, insertion loss and ®gure of merit of resonance
isolator
The geometry of the resonance isolator is the same as that of the ferrite
phase shifter except for the magnitude of the direct magnetic ®eld. Its opera
tion relies on the two dierent interactions between the electron spin in a
gyromagnetic insulator and counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds at
the same frequency. If the electron spin and the alternating magnetic ®eld
rotate in the same direction, then there will be strong interaction between
the two and the alternating wave will suer a strong absorption line. If
the two rotate in opposite directions then the interaction will be weak or
nonexistent and there will be no absorption. This sort of arrangement pro
vides, therefore, one important means of realising a 2port nonreciprocal
network.
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 233
Figure 15.6 Schematic diagrams of nonreciprocal ridge waveguide using closed ferrite
magnetic circuits
A resonance isolator is characterised by its isolation (I ), its insertion loss
(L) and its return loss (RL). Its ®gure of merit is de®ned by
F =
I(db)
L(dB)
15.6 Resonance isolator in dielectric loaded WRD 750 ridge
waveguide
The existence of planes of circular polarisation at the open faces of the
dielectric insert in a ridge waveguide provides one means of constructing
ferrite isolators and phase shifters. The purpose of this section is to describe
one resonance isolator in the WRD750 waveguide. It consists of a mag
netised Eplane ferrite plate on one of the two open faces of a dielectric
insert extending over the full width of the ridges.
The Kittel or resonance frequency is in this sort of device ®xed by
o
r
=
o
x
o
y
where
o
x
= (o
0
÷N
z
o
m
÷N
x
o
m
)
o
y
= (o
0
÷N
z
o
m
÷N
y
o
m
)
The demagnetising factors associated with the ferrite topology utilised here
are given approximately by
N
x
 1
N
y
 0
N
z
 0
Hence
o
2
r
 (o
0
÷o
m
)o
0
where
o
0
= ,H
0
and
o
m
= ,M
0
, is the gyromagnetic ratio (2.21 10
5
rad/s per A/m), o
0
is the radian
frequency (rad/s), H
0
is the direct magnetic ®eld intensity (A/m), M
0
is the
234 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
saturation magnetisation (A/m) and j
0
is the free space permeability
(4¬ 10
÷7
H/m).
Figure 15.7 indicates the frequency responses in the forward and back
ward directions of propagation of an arrangement in a WRD750 wave
guide. The geometry consists of a double ridge waveguide with a dielectric
®ller between the ridges with a ferrite tile plastered on one of the dielectric
open faces. Since the main purpose of this assembly is to investigate the
nature of the polarisation of the radio frequency magnetic ®eld rather
than the development of a wideband isolator, a narrow linewidth CVG
material has been chosen in this work. Its magnetisation (j
0
M
0
) is equal
to 0.1600 T, its relative dielectric constant (c
r
) is equal to 15.3 and its 3 dB
and 15 dB linewidths are 0.96 kA/m and 5.18 kA/m, respectively. The rela
tive dielectric constant of the dielectric insert (c
r
) is equal to 9.0. The thick
ness of the ferrite tile is 0.25 mm and its length is 31.75 mm. The direct
magnetic ¯ux density employed in obtaining this result was equal to
0.2150 T. This compares with a calculated value of 0.2050 T. The internal
dimensions of the ridge waveguide utilised in this work correspond to
those of WRD750:
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 235
Figure 15.7 Frequency response of resonance isolator in WRD 750 dielectric loaded
waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
b
a
= 0.45
s
a
= 0.25
d
b
= 0.42
The inside dimensions of the isolator section were reduced to ·80% of
those of a standard WRD750 waveguide. The device was separately
matched at each end by a dielectric taper. The ®gure of merit (F) of the over
all assembly is 70.
15.7 Resonance isolator in bifurcated ridge waveguide
While the double ridge waveguide does not have natural planes of circular
polarisation in its trough regions it does have such planes at its electric
symmetry wall. One possible nonreciprocal 2port structure may be realised
with this sort of waveguide by introducing a metal septum there and placing
suitably magnetised ferrite tiles on one or both of its sides. Figure 15.8 indi
cates one arrangement. The direct magnetic ®eld intensity is again given by
Kittel's resonance equation except that the demagnetising factors are, in this
instance, speci®ed by
236 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.8 Schematic diagram of ferrite isolator using bifurcated WRD 750 ridge
waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998)
N
x
 0
N
y
 0
N
z
 1
The Kittel frequency is
o
r
 (o
0
÷o
m
)
The frequency response in the forward and backward directions of propaga
tion of an arrangement in a WRD750 waveguide is shown in Figure 15.9. It
consists of ferrite tiles mounted on either side of a metal septum of thickness
0.762 mm at the electric wall symmetry plane. The length of each ferrite tile
is 25 mm and its crosssection is 0.815 3.510 mm. The ferrite employed was
a CVG material with a magnetisation (j
0
M
0
) of 0.1600 T and a relative
dielectric constant (c
r
) of 15.0.
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 237
Figure 15.9 Frequency response of resonance isolator in bifurcated WRD 750 ridge
waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998)
The inside dimensions of the isolator section were reduced to ·80% of
those of a standard WRD750 waveguide. The ®gure of merit (F) of the
overall assembly is 11. The frequency range of the waveguide is 7.50±
18.00 GHz.
15.8 Dierential phase shift circulator
One important application of the dierential ferrite phase shifter is in the
construction of the dierential phaseshift circulator. It consists of a
folded magictee and a 3 dB sidewall hybrid between which is placed
a dual section of waveguide containing nonreciprocal 458 ferrite phase
shifters. The phase shifter in each waveguide is oppositely magnetised.
Hence, the total dierential phase shift is 908. The operation of this type
of circulator can be understood with the help of Figure 15.10. A wave
incident on port 1, at the H arm of the magictee, divides equally in phase
between the two waveguides. One of the waves is then phase shifted through
÷¬¡4 rad. This wave is then incident on the sidewall hybrid and produces
two component waves at ports 2 and 4. The wave at port 2 has now been
shifted through ¬¡4 and the one at port 4 by 3¬¡4. Similarly, the other
wave is phase shifted through ÷¬¡4 through the ferrite phase shifter, and
after passing through the sidewall hybrid, produces two more component
waves at ports 2 and 4. The one at port 2 is phase shifted through ÷¬¡4
and the one at port 4 by ÷¬¡4. The two waves at port 4 are now ¬ rad
out of phase and therefore cancel, while those at port 2 are in phase and
238 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.10 Schematic diagram of fourport dierential phase shift circulator using
Hplane folded magictee and 3 dB hybrid
therefore add. Transmission is therefore from port 1 to port 2. In a similar
way transmission occurs from port 2 to port 3, and so on, in a cyclic manner.
Another geometry consists of two magictees between a dual waveguide
section. Its topology is illustrated in Figure 15.11. The middle wave guide
section is in this arrangement similar to that of the conventional structure
using one hybrid and one magictee except that one of the two dual wave
guides incorporates a 908 reciprocal dielectric phase shifter in order to
cater for the phase dierence between the two hybrids. The phase settings
in the primary and secondary waveguides are given in the forward direction
of propagation by
c
÷
1
=
¬
4
rad
c
÷
2
=
¬
2
÷
¬
4
rad
In the other direction of propagation
c
÷
1
= ÷
¬
4
rad
c
÷
2
=
¬
2
÷
¬
4
rad
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 239
Figure 15.11 Schematic diagram of fourport dierential phase circulator using
Hplane folded magictees
Reprinted with permission, Hogan (1952)
A wave incident on port 1, at the H arm of the magictee, divides equally in
phase between the two waveguides. These two waves are inphase at the
output magictee after traversing the dual waveguide section. Transmission
is therefore from port 1 to port 2. In a similar way transmission occurs from
port 2 to port 3, and so on, in a cyclic manner. Figure 15.12 depicts an
Xband commercial circulator.
240 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 15.12 Photograph of ridge waveguide dierential phase shift circulator
Courtesy: Raytheon Inc.
Chapter 16
Finline waveguide
16.1 Introduction
A waveguide arrangement whose topology has many of the features of the
ridge one is the ®nline structure. It consists of a dielectric sheet across the
waveguide metallised on either one or both sides in a number of dierent
ways. Four typical arrangements are the unilateral geometry, the bilateral
one, the insulated ®nline and the antipodal structures. The bilateral arrange
ment may be visualised as a quasiridge waveguide. One bene®t of this
family of waveguides is that quite complicated circuits can be fabricated
using planar techniques. A complete description of a typical ®nline wave
guide includes its cuto space, its impedance, its attenuation, its propa
gation constant and a description of its ®eld pattern. It also requires an
understanding of the location of the planes of circular polarisation in the
waveguide. The solution of this class of waveguide has been the object of
a host of numerical descriptions. The approach used here relies, in each
instance, on an approximate closed form formulation of the ®eld in each
region of the structure. The eects of ®nite metallisation on both the propa
gation constant and the impedance in these sorts of waveguides are outside
the remit of this paper. The chapter includes the description of one
resonance isolator.
16.2 Finline waveguide topologies
A number of dierent con®gurations of the ®nline waveguide have by now
been described. Figure 16.1 indicates some possibilities. Since a typical ®n
line waveguide is an inhomogeneous structure its ®eld is described in terms
of LSE and LSM modes instead of the TE and TM ones met in connection
with the conventional rectangular waveguide. The unilateral and bilateral
arrangements have, however, received the most attention. One construction
technique is indicated in Figure 16.2. The relative dielectric constant (c
d
)
employed in the construction of a ®nline waveguide is usually of the order
2.2. Some typical ®eld patterns in these sorts of waveguides are illustrated
in Figure 16.3.
16.3 Normalised wavelength and impedance in ®nline
A host of exact and approximate expressions for the wavelength and
impedance of bilateral and unilateral ®nlines have been described in the
literature. Since the ®nline waveguide is an inhomogeneous transmission
line its guide wavelength must be calculated at each and every frequency.
The purpose of this section is merely to give one typical result for each
structure. The physical nomenclature met in connection with the important
unilateral and bilateral lines are separately depicted in Figure 16.4. Some
results are indicated in Figures 16.5 and 16.6. Scrutiny of these illustrations
suggests that the main dierence between the two con®gurations in the
WR 28 waveguide is that the impedance of the bilateral arrangement is
twice that of the unilateral geometry.
242 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 16.1 Schematic diagrams of unilateral, bilateral, insulated and antipodal
®nline waveguides
a Unilateral; b bilateral; c insulated; d antipodal
Finline waveguide 243
Figure 16.2 Fabrication of ®nline waveguide
Figure 16.3 Electric ®elds in ®nline structures
a Unilateral ®nline; b bilateral ®nline; c insulated ®nline; d antipodal ®nline
Reprinted with permission, Bhat & Koul (1987)
244 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 16.4 Physical details of unilateral and bilateral structures
a Unilateral; b bilateral
Figure 16.5 Normalised waveguide wavelength and impedance in bilateral WR 28
waveguide
d = 0.127 mm, h = 3.429 mm, c
r
= 2.22
Reprinted with permission, Bhat & Koul (1987)
16.4 Empirical expressions for propagation in bilateral and
unilateral ®nline
The propagation constant in ®nline is sometimes characterised, for engineer
ing purposes, in terms of an equivalent ridge waveguide of identical dimen
sions with an eective frequency dependent dielectric constant. This notion
allows the usual relationships between z
0
, z
c
and z
g
to be retained:
2¬
z
g
2
=
2¬
z
0
2
c
eff
( f
0
) ÷
2¬
z
cr
2¬
z
cr
2
(1)
Finline waveguide 245
Figure 16.6 Normalised waveguide wavelength and impedance in unilateral WR 28
waveguide
d = 0.254 mm, h
1
= 3.302 mm, h
2
= 3.556 mm, c
r
= 2.22
Reprinted with permission, Bhat and Koul (1987)
where
c
eff
( f
0
) = F(d¡b. s¡a. z
0
. c
r
)c
eff
( f
c
) (2)
and
c
eff
( f
c
) =
z
cf
z
cr
2
(3)
z
cf
and z
cr
are the cuto wavelength in the ®nline and in the ridge wave
guides, respectively. The correction factor F entering into the description
of the frequency dependent eective dielectric constant is empirically
adjusted to cater for dispersion eects by using a rigorous calculation.
Since the ®nline waveguide is an inhomogeneous transmission line its
guide wavelength must be calculated at each and every frequency.
One empirical expression for the cuto number of either a bilateral or
unilateral ®nline is
b
z
cf
= A
d
b
p
s
a
q
(4)
provided
1
16
4
d
b
4
1
4
1
32
4
s
a
4
1
4
A, p and q are given for the unilateral ®nline with c
r
= 2.22 by
A = 0.1748
p =
0.16(s¡a)
÷0.07
1¡32 4s¡a 41¡20
0.16(s¡a)
÷0.07
÷ 0.001 ln(s¡a) ÷ 1.32] 1¡20 4s¡a 41¡4
@
q = ÷0.0836
The arbitrary constants for the bilateral ®nline with c
r
= 2.22 are
A = 0.15
p =
0.225(s¡a)
÷0.042
1¡32 4s¡a 41¡10
0.149(s¡a)
÷0.23
1¡10 4s¡a 41¡4
@
q = ÷0.14
246 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Calculations based on these expressions with b/a equal to 0.50 agree to
within ±1% with more rigorous ones.
Once z
cr
and z
cf
are evaluated c
eff
( f
c
) may be calculated and c
eff
( f
0
) is
obtained from a statement of the correction factor F.
The arbitrary constant F is for the unilateral ®nline with c
r
= 2.22 given
by
F =
1.0 ÷ 0.43(s¡a)](d¡b)
p
1
1¡32 4s¡a 41¡8
1.02 ÷ 0.264(s¡a)](d¡b)
p
1
1¡8 4s¡a 41¡4
@
where
p
1
= 0.096(s¡a) ÷ 0.007
The corresponding quantities for the bilateral ®nline with c
r
= 2.22 are
F =
0.78(s¡a)
÷0.098
](d¡b)
0.109
1¡32 4s¡a 41¡8
1.04 ÷ 0.2(s¡a)](d¡b)
p
1
1¡8 4s¡a 41¡4
@
where
p
1
= 0.152 ÷ 0.256(s¡a)
16.5 Fields in unilateral ®nline waveguide
While the ®nite element method and a host of other numerical techniques
may again be employed to calculate the parameters of ®nline waveguides
the solution summarised here relies on an approximate closed form formu
lation. The ®elds in these types of waveguides are denoted as either longi
tudinal sectional electric LSE or longitudinal sectional magnetic LSM
according to whether E
x
or H
x
is equal to zero. A knowledge of the ®elds
in the waveguide is sucient for the calculation of its power ¯ow and its
impedance. The components of the electric ®eld are summarised below for
the unilateral line and in the next section for a bilateral structure.
The electric and magnetic ®elds in each region for the longitudinal section
electric LSE modes unilateral line are:
E
h
x
= 0 (5a)
E
h
y
=
N
n=0
( jA
n
[)c
n
(x) cos
n¬y
b
(5b)
Finline waveguide 247
E
h
z
=
N
n=0
÷A
n
n¬
b
c
n
(x) sin
n¬y
b
(5c)
H
h
x
=
N
n=0
÷jA
n
k
2
cn
oj
0
c
n
(x) cos
n¬
b
(5d)
H
h
y
=
N
n=0
÷A
n
o
n
n¬
boj
0
[
n
(x) sin
n¬
b
(5e)
H
h
z
=
N
n=0
÷jA
n
o
n
[
oj
0
[
n
(x) cos
n¬
b
(5f)
The corresponding electric and magnetic ®elds in each region for the LSM
modes are:
E
e
x
=
N
n=0
jB
n
k
2
cn
o
n
[
n
(x) sin
n¬y
b
(6a)
E
e
y
=
N
n=0
B
n
n¬
b
c
n
(x) cos
n¬y
b
(6b)
E
e
z
=
N
n=0
(÷jB
n
[)c
n
(x) cos
n¬y
b
(6c)
H
e
x
= 0 (6d)
H
e
y
=
N
n=0
÷jB
n
[oc
0
c
r
o
n
[
n
(x) sin
n¬y
b
(6e)
H
e
z
=
N
n=0
÷B
n
oc
0
c
r
n¬
b
[
n
(x) cos
n¬y
b
(6f)
A
n
. B
n
. c
n
and [
n
take on speci®c values in regions I, II and III for both the
unilateral and bilateral structures.
In region I (unilateral ®nline),
c
n
(x) = j sin(o
1n
x) (7)
[
n
(x) = cos(o
1n
x) (8)
248 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
A
n
=
÷j 2[W
n
exp( jo
1n
¹
1
) ÷ exp(÷jo
1n
¹
1
)
(9)
B
n
=
2n¬
b
W
n
exp( jo
1n
¹
1
) ÷ exp(÷jo
1n
¹
1
)
(10)
W
n
=
,
n
n¬k
2
cn
sin
n¬
b
(h ÷ d)
÷ sin
n¬
b
h
!
(11)
In region II (unilateral ®nline),
c
n
(x) = S
n
exp( jo
2n
(x ÷ ¹
1
)) ÷ exp(÷jo
2n
(x ÷ ¹
1
)) (12)
[
n
(x) = S
n
exp( jo
2n
(x ÷ ¹
1
)) ÷ exp(÷jo
2n
(x ÷ ¹
1
)) (13)
A
n
=
÷j[W
n
(1 ÷ S
n
)
(14)
B
n
=
n¬W
n
b(1 ÷ S
n
)
(15)
S
n
=
(1 ÷ C
n
) ÷ (1 ÷ C
n
) exp(÷j 2o
3n
¹
3
)
(1 ÷ C
n
) ÷ (1 ÷ C
n
) exp(÷j 2o
3n
¹
3
)
exp(÷j 2o
3n
¹
3
) (16)
C
n
=
o
+
3n
o
+
2n
. for LSE modes (17)
C
n
=
o
+
2n
c
r
o
+
3n
. for LSM modes (18)
In region III (unilateral ®nline),
c
n
(x) = j sin o
3n
(x ÷ a) (19)
[
n
(x) = cos o
3n
(x ÷ a) (20)
A
n
= ÷j 2[W
n
Y
n
(21)
B
n
=
2n¬
b
W
n
Y
n
(22)
Finline waveguide 249
Y
n
=
exp(÷j(o
2n
¹
2
)) ÷ S
n
exp( j (o
2n
¹
2
))
(1 ÷ S
n
)(exp(÷jo
3n
¹
3
)) ÷ (exp( jo
3n
¹
3
))
(23)
o
in
in the preceding equations is given by
o
2
in
= k
2
0
c
ri
÷ k
2
cn
(24)
where
k
2
cn
=
n¬
b
2
÷ [
2
Furthermore, ,
n
= 1 for n = 0, ,
n
= 2 for n = 1. 2. 3. etc.
The electric ®elds supported by these structures are separately illustrated
in Figure 16.3.
16.6 Bilateral ®nline
Since the bilateral line is a symmetric con®guration, it is only necessary to
consider half its structure. The ®elds in region I of this waveguide are
identical to those of the unilateral arrangement and need therefore not be
repeated. In region II, however, A
n
, B
n
, c
n
and [
n
have to be modi®ed.
The new quantities are de®ned by
c
n
(x) = cos o
n
x ÷
a
2
(25)
[
n
(x) = j sin o
n
x
n
÷
a
2
(26)
A
n
= ÷j[W
n
Y
n
(27)
B
n
=
n¬
b
W
n
Y
n
(28)
Y
n
=
exp(÷jo
2n
¹
2
¡2)
1 ÷ exp(÷jo
2n
¹
2
)
(29)
250 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
16.7 Empirical formulation of impedance in bilateral ®nline
waveguide
A calculation of impedance based on an equivalent waveguide model has
also been described,
Z
0
(o) = Z
0
(o)
z
0
z
g
(30)
where (z
0
/z
g
) is speci®ed by equation (1) and Z
0
(o) is the impedance of
the equivalent ridge waveguide with identical dimensions to those of the
®nline one. Some results are superimposed in Figures 16.5 and 16.6.
16.8 Circular polarisation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline
waveguides
The ®eld patterns in ®nline waveguides also support planes of circular
polarisation. It corresponds to equal amplitude waves in time space quadra
ture. The existence of such planes may be established approximately by
using the closed form descriptions of H
x
and H
z
. Figures 16.8 and 16.9
indicate two typical solutions, at the plane of the electric symmetry wall,
for dierent gap dimensions in the case of a unilateral con®guration.
These sorts of waveguides may also therefore be utilised in the construction
of nonreciprocal ferrite phase shifters and resonance isolators.
16.9 Finline isolator using hexagonal ferrite substrate
One important nonreciprocal device is the ferrite resonance isolator. It relies
for its operation on the dierent values of dissipation associated with a
magnetised ferrite material under the in¯uence of clockwise and anti
clockwise polarised alternating magnetic ®elds. The schematic diagram of
one possible ®nline isolator is illustrated in Figure 16.10. It consists of a
unilateral ®nline on a carrier loaded on one side by alumina and hexagonal
ferrite substrates, with the circuit metallisation deposited on the ®nline sub
strate. The gap dimension of the input and output ®nline circuits is ¯ared on
both sides to that of the ®nline isolator which may, but need not, coincide
with the narrow dimensions of the waveguide; the alumina is also tapered
at the input and output terminals of the device for matching purposes.
Finline waveguide 251
Contact problems between the wide dimensions of the waveguide and the
®nline circuit are avoided by incorporating suitable chokes in the assembly.
A small external direct magnetic ®eld is provided to orientate the internal
®eld along the positive or negative Caxis of the uniaxial ferrite material
and for tuning purposes.
The ®gure of merit for this class of device is de®ned as the ratio of its
isolation and insertion loss at its midband frequency. It is in part determined
by the power density in each region of the structure, the quality of the two
hands of polarisation and the relative dielectric constants of the dierent
regions, and it is in part dependent on the dielectric loss tangents of the
ferrite and the other dielectric regions, and on the uniform linewidth of
the ferrite material. The bandwidth is mainly ®xed by the linewidth of the
pro®le of the direct magnetic ®eld. A full theoretical model, although
perhaps a standard problem, must still deal, even with the ®nline gap
252 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
s
e
d
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c
f
i
e
l
d
Location of
circular polarisation
X, mm
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
H
x
H
z
ε
r
I II III b
a
h
d
l
1
l
2
l
3
Figure 16.8 Approximate and hybrid mode descriptions of magnetic ®eld in unilateral
waveguide
d¡b = 0.20. a¡b = 2. a = 4.775 mm, l
2
= 0.127 mm, l
1
= 2.387 mm, c
r
= 2.2
Reprinted with permission, Mansour et al. (1988)
equal to that of the narrow dimension of the rectangular waveguide, with a
six or more region boundary value problem. Furthermore, some of the
regions exhibit tensor properties and magnetic and/or dielectric dissipation
parameters ± a situation in which the experimental approach is still second
to none, provided the material resources are available.
One obvious parameter at hand in the experimental adjustment of this
class of device is the ®nline gap. This was, in one instance, chosen to
correspond with that of the input and output ®nline circuits, and in another
case made equal to the narrow dimension of the rectangular waveguide. The
circuit in the latter situation is, of course, akin to that of the standard
Eplane isolator. The ®gure of merit of the ®rst arrangement varied between
15 and 18 and that of the second one ranged between 22 and 24. Figure 16.11
indicates the insertion loss and isolation of one typical device in a WR51
waveguide. This result was obtained with a residual direct magnetic ®eld
of about 1.8 kA/m. The dimensions of the layers W
1
±W
6
in Figure 16.10
were choseneasily onthe basis of experience; the lengthof the ferrite substrate
Finline waveguide 253
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
s
e
d
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c
f
i
e
l
d
Location of
circular polarisation
X, mm
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
H
x
H
z
Figure 16.9 Approximate and hybrid mode descriptions of magnetic ®eld in unilateral
waveguide
d¡b = 0.25. a¡b = 2. a = 4.775 mm, l
2
= 0.127 mm, l
1
= 2.387 mm, c
r
= 2.2
Reprinted with permission, Mansour et al. (1988)
254 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
view A–A
rotated 90°CW
nline
substrate
nline
metallisation
isolator
substrate
hexagonal
ferrite
A
A
nline
substrate
nline
metallisation
isolator
substrate
hexagonal
ferrite
Figure 16.10 Schematic diagram of unilateral resonance isolator
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & Thorpe (1985)
Figure 16.11 Frequency response of unilateral resonance isolator with ®nline gap equal
to narrow dimension of WR 42 waveguide
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & Thorpe (1985)
was 45.7 mm. The overall length of the device including the tapers was of the
order of six wavelengths. The return loss at each port (not shown) was better
than 18 dB. The data in this illustration are not considered optimum in any
sense of the word in that the dimensions W
1
±W
6
were not varied. The topol
ogy of a full bandwidth waveguide arrangement is shown in Figure 16.12.
Finline waveguide 255
A
A
nline
substrate
nline
metallisation
isolator
substrate stacked
hexagonal
ferrites
stacked
hexagonal
ferrites
view A–A
rotated 90°CW
nline
substrate
nline
metallisation
isolator
substrate
Figure 16.12 Topology of wideband unilateral resonance isolator
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & Thorpe (1985)
Chapter 17
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction
circulator
17.1 Introduction
The 3port circulator is a unique nonreciprocal symmetrical junction having
one typical input port, one output port and one decoupled port. The funda
mental de®nition of the junction circulator has its origin in energy con
servation. It states that the only matched symmetrical 3port junction
corresponds to the de®nition of the circulator. In such a junction a wave
incident at port 1 is emergent at port 2, one at port 2 at port 3, and so on
in a cyclical manner. One possible model of a circulator is a magnetised
ferrite or garnet gyromagnetic resonator having threefold symmetry
connected or coupled to three transmission lines or waveguides. The intro
duction of any such resonator at the junction of three E or Hplane wave
guides or ®nline circuits readily produces a degree1 circulation solution.
In practice the gyromagnetic resonator is embedded in a ®lter circuit to pro
duce a degree2 or 3 frequency response. Since a matched 3port junction is
a circulator by de®nition, matching such a magnetised resonator is both
necessary and sucient for design purposes. One possibility is to utilise
one or two quarterwave long resonators opencircuited at one end and
shortcircuited at the other. The operation of a 3port junction circulator
may be understood by using superposition, and this is the approach
employed in this text.
17.2 Turnstile junction circulator
The original waveguide junction circulator, known as the turnstile
circulator, was ®rst described by Tor SchaugPattersen. It consists of a
circular guide containing a longitudinally magnetised ferrite section at the
junction of three rectangular waveguides. This arrangement relies for its
operation on the wellknown Faraday rotation principle along a magnetised
ferrite loaded circular waveguide. Figure 17.1 depicts the original Hplane
topology.
The operation of any circulator may be understood by using super
position. It starts by decomposing a single input wave at port 1 (say) into
a linear combination of voltage settings at each port:
1
0
0
P
T
R
Q
U
S
=
1
3
1
1
1
P
T
R
Q
U
S
÷
1
3
1
o
o
2
P
T
R
Q
U
S
÷
1
3
1
o
2
o
P
T
R
Q
U
S
(1)
where
o = exp( j 120)
o
2
= exp( j 240)
A scrutiny of the ®rst, socalled inphase, generator setting, indicates that it
produces an electric ®eld along the axis of the circular waveguide which does
not couple into it. The re¯ected waves at the three ports of the junction
are therefore in this instance unaected by the details of the gyromagnetic
waveguide. A scrutiny of the second and third, socalled counterrotating,
generator settings, indicates, however, that these establish counterrotating
circularly polarised alternating magnetic ®elds at the open face of the circu
lar gyromagnetic waveguide which readily propagate. The ®elds produced at
the axis of the junction by each of these three possible generator settings are
illustrated in Figure 17.2. Since a characteristic of such a waveguide is that it
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 257
Figure 17.1 Schematic diagram of 3port Hplane turnstile circulator using single
turnstile resonator
Reprinted with permission, SchaugPatterson (1958)
has dierent scalar permeabilities under the two arrangements, it provides
one practical means of removing the degeneracy between the re¯ected
waves associated with these two generator settings.
A typical re¯ected wave at any port is constructed by adding the indi
vidual ones due to each possible generator setting. A typical term is realised
by taking the product of a typical incident wave and a typical re¯ection
coecient:
258 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
1
1
s
0
~
1
1
1
~
~
~
s
+1
s
+1
~
1
1
1
s
–1
~
1
1
1
U
0
excitation
U
+1
excitation
U
–1
excitation
2
2
s
0
s
0
3
3
~
3
3
2
2
1 exp( j2π/3)
1 exp( j2π/3)
~
s
–1
2
2
1 exp(–j2π/3)
1 exp(–j2π/3)
s
+1
~
3
3
s
–1
E
z
 eld
H
–
 eld
H
+
 eld
Figure 17.2 Eigenvalue adjustment of junction circulator
b
1
b
2
b
3
P
T
R
Q
U
S
=
a
0
3
1
1
1
P
T
R
Q
U
S
÷
a
÷
3
1
o
o
2
P
T
R
Q
U
S
÷
a
÷
3
1
o
2
o
P
T
R
Q
U
S
(2)
An ideal circulator is now de®ned as
a
0
÷a
÷
÷a
÷
3
= 0 (3a)
a
0
÷oa
÷
÷o
2
a
÷
3
= ÷1 (3b)
a
0
÷o
2
a
÷
÷oa
÷
3
= 0 (3c)
To adjust this, and other circulators, requires a 1208 phase dierence
between the re¯ection coecients of the three dierent ways it is possible
to excite the three rectangular waveguides. One solution is
a
÷
= exp
÷ j 2
±
1
÷±
÷
÷
¬
2
!
(4a)
a
÷
= exp
÷ j 2
±
1
÷±
÷
÷
¬
2
!
(4b)
a
0
= exp÷j (2±
0
)] (4c)
provided that
±
1
= ±
0
=
¬
2
(5a)
±
÷
= ÷±
÷
= ÷
¬
6
(5b)
The required phase angles of the three re¯ection coecients are established
by adjusting the length of the demagnetised ferrite section so that the angle
between the inphase and counterrotating re¯ection coecients is initially
1808. The degenerate phase angles of the counterrotating re¯ection coe
cient are then separated by 1208 by magnetising the ferrite region, thereby
producing the ideal phase angles of the circulator. These two steps represent
the necessary and sucient conditions for the adjustment of this class of
circulator.
Since the relationship between the incident and re¯ected waves at the
terminals of a network or junction is often described in terms of a scattering
matrix it is appropriate to reduce the result established here to that notation.
Figure 17.3 indicates the nomenclature entering into the de®nition of this
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 259
matrix in the case of a 3port network with threefold symmetry. Its entries
relate incident and re¯ected waves at suitable terminal planes of the circuit:
S
11
=
b
1
a
1
a
2
= a
3
= 0 (6a)
S
21
=
b
2
a
1
a
2
= a
3
= 0 (6b)
S
31
=
b
3
a
1
a
2
= a
3
= 0 (6c)
A scrutiny of these de®nitions indicates that the entries of the scattering
matrix may be readily evaluated once the re¯ected waves at all the ports
due to an incident wave at a typical port are established. Taking a
1
as
unity and making use of the results for b
1
, b
2
and b
3
gives the required para
meters easily:
S
11
=
a
0
÷a
÷
÷a
÷
3
(7a)
260 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
~
a
1
b
1
~
a
3
b
3
~
a
2
b
2
b
1
S
11
S
21
S
31
a
1
b
2
S
31
S
11
S
21
a
2
b
3
S
21
S
31
S
11
a
3
=
Figure 17.3 De®nition of scattering parameters of 3port junction circulator
S
21
=
a
0
÷oa
÷
÷o
2
a
÷
3
(7b)
S
31
=
a
0
÷o
2
a
÷
÷oa
÷
3
(7c)
The entries of the scattering matrix are therefore linear combinations of the
re¯ection variables at any port associated with each possible family of
generator settings. One de®nition of an ideal circulator which is in keeping
with the description of the turnstile junction circulator is therefore
S
11
= 0 (8a)
S
21
= ÷1 (8b)
S
31
= 0 (8c)
This solution may be separately established by using the unitary condition
and may therefore be taken as a universal de®nition of a 3port lossless
junction circulator.
17.3 Reentrant Hplane waveguide circulator
While the operation of the turnstile circulator may be readily visualised, it is
not the only arrangement. Another possibility is to use one or two quarter
wave long open triangular or circular resonators opencircuited at one end
and shortcircuited at the other at the junction of either three E or Hplane
ridge waveguides. In the Hplane arrangement (the usual rectangular wave
guide structure) one or two resonators are mounted on the ridges on the axis
of the waveguide. In this instance a quarterwave long magnetised ferrite
resonator shortcircuited at one end, and opencircuited or loaded by an
image wall at the other, is a suitable prototype for the construction of this
class of device. The operating frequency of this junction corresponds to
the odd solution of two coupled open dielectric resonators constructed
from sections of a dielectric waveguide propagating the hybrid HE
11
mode. The single turnstile geometry has its origin in the turnstile structure
indicated in Figure 17.1.
The reentrant Hplane junction circulator using a single resonator can be
visualised as a 5port network consisting of a 3port Hplane junction
symmetrically coupled along its axis to a cylindrical gyromagnetic wave
guide supporting two orthogonal ports. The network is reduced to a
3port one by closing the gyromagnetic waveguide by a shortcircuit piston.
The duality between the two arrangements may be achieved by replacing the
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 261
electric wall in the circular waveguides of the original turnstile junction by
open or magnetic surfaces. The ®rst circulation condition in this sort of
circulator coincides with that for which the inphase and degenerate
counterrotating re¯ection coecients are in antiphase. The second one is
established by splitting the degeneracy between the counterrotating ones
by a suitable direct magnetic ®eld. No Hplane ®nline junction circulator
has been realised to date.
17.4 Reentrant Eplane waveguide circulator
Another important waveguide circulator topology is the Eplane one. It is
realised by locating quarterwave long open resonators at each sidewall
of the junction of three Eplane waveguides. The operating frequency of
this type of junction corresponds to the even eigensolution of two coupled
open dielectric resonators. Some appreciation of the operation of the
symmetrical con®guration employing Hplane turnstile resonators may be
gained by recognising that it is essentially a 7port circuit comprising
three Eplane rectangular waveguide or ®nline ports and two orthogonal
ports for each round reentrant turnstile open waveguide. Since the
output terminals of the round waveguide are shortcircuited, its overall
matrix description reduces to the necessary symmetrical 3port network.
In the Eplane device, with the direction of propagation taken along the
zaxis, H
z
rather than H
x
is perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the
device. The magnetic ®elds corresponding to the counterrotating eigen
vectors are therefore circularly polarised at the side instead of the top and
bottom walls of the waveguide. The Eplane topology is readily realised in
a ®nline waveguide. Figure 17.4 depicts one arrangement using a single
gyromagnetic waveguide.
17.5 Closed gyromagnetic resonator
The split frequencies of gyromagnetic resonators are important quantities in
the description of weakly magnetised resonators. The simplest topology met
in connection with this sort of problem region is illustrated in Figure 17.5. It
consists of a quarterwave long demagnetised or magnetised ferrite wave
guide with an ideal or an open magnetic wall opencircuited at one end
and shortcircuited at the other. The characteristic equations associated
with the two situations are
cot([
0
L
0
) = 0 (9)
262 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
cot([
±
L
0
) = 0 (10)
respectively.
The ®rst of these two equations ®xes the length of the resonator from
a knowledge of k
0
R and frequency. The ®rst root of its characteristic
equation is
[
0
L
0
=
¬
2
(11)
where
[
2
0
= k
2
0
j
eff
c
eff
÷
1.84
R
2
(12)
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 263
Figure 17.4 Schematic diagram of 3port Eplane junction using singleturnstile
resonator
Figure 17.5 Schematic diagram of quarterwave long dielectric resonator
The second characteristic equation may be solved for the relationship
between the split frequencies of the resonator and the magnetic variables
in the neighbourhood of the demagnetised one once the characteristic
equation for [
±
is at hand,
[
±
L
0
=
¬
2
(13)
The simplest calculation met in this sort of circuit is the closed gyromagnetic
resonator with an ideal magnetic wall. The exact open problem may be
derived from that of the related problem region of a partially ®lled circular
waveguide with an electric sidewall by allowing the outside radius to
approach in®nity, but its solution is outside the remit of this text.
17.6 Perturbation theory of closed cylindrical gyromagnetic
resonator
If the only engineering interest is a calculation of the split frequencies of the
gyromagnetic resonator then it is sucient to use a description of the split
propagation constants based on perturbation theory. The required result
for the split phase constants of a gyromagnetic waveguide with an ideal
magnetic wall is
[
2
±
 k
2
0
c
f
(j =C
11
k) ÷
1.84
R
2
(14)
where
C
11
=
2
(1.84)
2
÷1
(15)
c
e
is an eective dielectric constant; j and k are the odiagonal elements of
the tensor permeability.
This solution correctly displays both the split phaseconstants and split
cuto numbers of this type of waveguide.
If a quarterwave long cavity opencircuited at one ¯at face and short
circuited at the other is formed from such a waveguide then
(k
÷
R)
2
=
¬
2
2
R
L
2
÷1.84
2
(j ÷C
11
k)c
f
(16a)
264 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
(k
÷
R)
2
=
¬
2
2
R
L
2
÷1.84
2
(j ÷C
11
k)c
f
(16b)
(k
0
R)
2
=
¬
2
2
R
L
2
÷1.84
2
j
eff
c
f
(16c)
where
j
eff
=
j
2
÷(C
11
k)
2
j
(17)
The split frequencies in such a gyromagnetic resonator are therefore
described by
o
÷
÷o
÷
o
0
= C
11
k (18)
The upper bound on k is, of course, ®xed by the cuto condition in equation
(14). C
11
is unity for an anisotropic waveguide.
Figure 17.6 depicts one result based on the perturbation formulation of
the gyromagnetic resonator.
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 265
Figure 17.6 Split frequencies of gyromagnetic resonator
17.7 Quality factor of closed gyromagnetic resonator
One of the most important quantities in the theory of quarterwave coupled
circulators is the loaded quality factor (Q
L
). This parameter is related to
the split frequencies of the magnetised resonator in a particularly simple
fashion by
Q
L
=
3
o
÷
÷o
÷
o
0
!
÷1
(19)
Although the calculations of the split frequencies are exact, that of the
quality factor neglects the in¯uence of higher order modes (in a strongly
magnetised resonator) on the description of the gyrator circuit. It separately
assumes that the frequency variation of the inphase eigennetwork can be
disregarded compared to those of the split counterrotating ones. It also
assumes that only the ®rst pair of counterrotating modes need to be catered
for in forming the complex gyrator circuit of the device. A knowledge of the
onset of the ®rst higher order split pair of modes is therefore desirable. Its
description therefore applies to a weakly magnetised resonator only. For
the purpose of this work, this condition is satis®ed provided the quality
factor has a lower bound equal to approximately two. Such a value of
loaded Qfactor is compatible with the performance of many commercial
devices.
17.8 Eplane ®nline circulator using coupled Hplane turnstile
resonators
One important practical arrangement which is akin to a ridge circulator
is the Eplane ®nline geometry. It consists of a junction of three ®nlines
symmetrically loaded in the Hplane by two open quarterwave long ferrite
resonators. The structure is therefore a sevenport circuit, comprising three
symmetrical ®nline Eplane ports and two orthogonal ports for each round
open waveguide port in the Hplane. Figures 17.7a and b depict arrange
ments using bilateral and unilateral circuits. Its geometry is ®xed by its over
all axial dimensions (2H), and the radius (R) and length (L) of each ferrite or
garnet resonator. Figure 17.8 illustrates one typical ®nline circuit.
The operating frequency of this sort of device corresponds to the even
solution of two coupled TM
11
resonators with quasimagnetic walls. Its
counterrotating eigennetworks may therefore be represented in terms of
quarterwave long open resonators, with one ¯at face opencircuited and
the other shortcircuited. The details of the junction are separately adjusted
so that it is cuto for the inphase eigennetwork. Its degenerate eigen
networks may therefore be approximately idealised by an electric wall at the
266 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
terminals of the junction. Symmetry would otherwise require that it exhibits
a magnetic wall there. This arrangement separately ensures that the overall
device acts as a bandpass circuit in its demagnetised state in keeping with
experiment. The frequency variation of the inphase eigenvalue in this
sort of arrangement is often neglected, compared to those of the split or
degenerate counterrotating ones. The coupling between the terminals of
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 267
Figure 17.7 Schematic diagrams of Eplane ®nline circulator using Hplane turnstile
resonators
Figure 17.8 Bilateral ®nline Eplane junction
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn et al. (1988)
the eigenresonators and those of the eigennetworks is less well understood.
It is usually described by an ideal transformer; the dielectric spacer provides
one independent means of varying this quantity.
17.9 Experimental adjustment of ®nline turnstile circulator
The relationship between the ®lling factor L/H and the radial wavenumber
k
0
R of one experimental device is depicted in Figure 17.9 for four dierent
values of the aspect ratio R/L of the resonator. The evenmode solutions of
two coupled TM
11
resonators, using open and closed walls, are separately
superimposed on this illustration. The open resonator model adopted in this
calculation consists of a pair of quarterwave long resonators, with an ideal
magnetic sidewall and an eective dielectric constant to cater for the open
wall condition, separated by a contiguous section of cuto waveguide with
a magnetic sidewall. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is, in
part, due to the fact that the operating frequency of circulators for which the
inphase eigennetwork has not been idealised coincides with the frequency
268 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 17.9 Relationship between ®lling factor and radial wavenumber for dierent
aspect ratios of the resonator
R¡L: + 1.96; ~1.85; 81.75; 1.54
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn, McDonald and Sutherland (1988)
at which the phase angles of the counterrotating and inphase eigen
networks are in antiphase, rather than at that for which these are
commensurate.
The radius (R) of the junction employed in obtaining the results under dis
cussion was ®xed at 2.15 mm and its overall axial dimension (2H) was kept
constant at 4.6 mm. This radius corresponds to that of the junction of the
three Eplane WR42 waveguides employed to form the device. The length
(L) of each resonator was separately varied between 1.10 and 1.40 mm;
each experimental point in this illustration is therefore associated with a
resonator with a dierent aspect ratio (R/L). The material used in this
work was a lithium ferrite with a magnetisation (j
0
M
0
) of 0.4100 T and a
relative permittivity (c
f
) of 14.8.
Figure 17.10 depicts the insertion and return losses of one directly coupled
circulator. The insertion loss of the device includes that of the ®nline circuits
at each port. It is of note that its susceptance slope parameter is typically of
the order encountered in the related Eplane problem region.
Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 269
Figure 17.10 Frequency response of directly coupled Eplane ®nline circulator using
Hplane turnstile resonators
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn et al. (1988)
Chapter 18
Semitracking ridge circulator
18.1 Introduction
Ridge or ®nline circulators may be realised by introducing a suitable gyro
magnetic resonator at the junction of three E or Hplane waveguides. The
arrangement met in connection with the ®nline waveguide is an Eplane
junction embodying one or two reentrant quarterwave long gyromagnetic
resonators opencircuited at one end and shortcircuited at the other. The
purpose of this chapter is to describe an Hplane ridge structure which
relies for its operation on a planar resonator. Its topology is completely
described by its radius, its gyrotropy and the angle that the ridge subtends
at a typical resonator terminal. This geometry supports a host of solutions,
which may be labelled according to whether the eective permeability is
positive or negative. In the former case the gyrotropy of the gyromagnetic
resonator may be catalogued according to whether it is very weakly,
weakly, moderately or strongly magnetised. A useful rule in choosing any
particular solution is to recognise that the gainbandwidth of this sort of
device is determined by the intensity of the gyrotropy. Since the ridge wave
guide is essentially a wideband transmission line the strongly magnetised
solution is in this instance appropriate for design. The gyromagnetic
resonator may also, in some cases, be very strongly magnetised. This situa
tion is associated with edge mode or ®eld displacement eects. It is outside
the remit of this work. While propagation in the ridge waveguide is not
exactly TEM it will be assumed to be so for the purpose of this work. In
practice the admittance level of the complex gyrator circuit of the circulator
does not usually coincide with that of the characteristic admittance of the
ridge waveguide, so some sort of matching circuit is necessary. The usual
topology consists of a cascade of quarterwave impedance transformers.
Its solution is a classic problem in the ®lter literature but is outside the
remit of this work. Its synthesis may therefore proceed in a similar way to
that met in connection with the design of stripline devices. A description
of the impedance and propagation constant of the dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide is also necessary.
18.2 Phenomenological adjustment
In its simplest form the ridge waveguide circulator consists of a gyro
magnetic resonator with top and bottom electric walls at the junction of
three ridge waveguides. Figure 18.1 illustrates its topology. The phenomeno
logical adjustment of this class of device involves, under some simplifying
conditions, the removal of the degeneracy of a pair of counterrotating
modes under the in¯uence of a direct magnetic ®eld and the rotation of a
figure of eight standing wave pattern. This is done in such a way as to
locate a null in its pattern at one of the three ports of the circulator. The
rotation of the standing wave pattern under the application of a direct mag
netic ®eld may be understood by decomposing the linearly polarised radio
frequency magnetic ®eld on the axis of the resonator into counterrotating
ones, which are then split by its gyrotropy. Figure 18.2 illustrates this situa
tion. In the tracking or semitracking solution, to be dealt with here, the split
eigennetworks are associated with the n = ÷1 and n = ÷2 split branches of
the n = ±1 and n = ±2 degenerate modes.
Semitracking ridge circulator 271
Figure 18.1 Schematic diagram of a ridge circulator
18.3 Impedance matrix
There are in general six dierent ways in which circulator boundary con
ditions can be applied. This may be done in terms of the scattering,
impedance and admittance matrices of an ideal circulator and also in
terms of the corresponding triplets of eigenvalues. The actual choice is
usually determined by the physical problem. It is recalled that although it
is always possible to form the scattering matrix of a junction it is not
always possible to construct an impedance or admittance one.
The description of a 3port junction circulator often starts by establishing
its impedance matrix,
272 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 18.2 Phenomenological operation of waveguide circulator
Z =
Z
11
Z
12
Z
13
Z
13
Z
11
Z
12
Z
12
Z
13
Z
11
¸
¸
¸
(1)
The opencircuit parameters of the junction are completely described once
its inphase (Z
0
) and counterrotating (Z
÷
and Z
÷
) impedance eigenvalues
are available. The required relationships have the nature met in connection
with its scattering variables in Chapter 17:
Z
11
=
Z
0
÷Z
÷
÷Z
÷
3
(2a)
Z
12
=
Z
0
÷Z
÷
exp( j 2¬¡3) ÷Z
÷
exp(÷j 2¬¡3)
3
(2b)
Z
13
=
Z
0
÷Z
÷
exp(÷j 2¬¡3) ÷Z
÷
exp( j 2¬¡3)
3
(2c)
Each of the three 1port reactances Z
0
. Z
÷
and Z
÷
appearing in the descrip
tions of the opencircuit parameters of a junction circulator may be
expanded in terms of its poles in a First Foster or partial fractions form
in the manner indicated in Figure 18.3. The symmetric poles and those
with the threefold symmetry of the junction are identi®ed with the in
phase eigennetwork and the other split poles with the two counterrotating
eigennetworks. Adopting this nomenclature allows the desired 1port
reactances to be de®ned by
Z
0
=
¸
Z
n
. n = 0. ±3. ±6. ±9. F F F (3a)
Z
÷
=
¸
Z
n
. n = ÷1. ÷2. ÷4. ÷5. F F F (3b)
Z
÷
=
¸
Z
n
. n = ÷1. ÷2. ÷4. ÷5. F F F (3c)
The exact nature of a typical pole in the de®nitions of the eigenvalues of the
junction requires a knowledge of the electromagnetic problem. The usual
boundary conditions adopted in the description of a planar circuit is that
the magnetic ®eld is a constant over the width of each ridge and zero
elsewhere:
÷[  c  [. H
c
= H
1
÷1208 ÷[  c  [ ÷1208. H
c
= H
2
1208 ÷[  c  [ ÷1208. H
c
= H
3
elsewhere. H
c
= 0
Semitracking ridge circulator 273
274 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Y
0
Y
+3
Y
–3
Y
0
Y
+1
Y
–2
Y
+
Y
–1
Y
+2
Y
–
a
Z
+
Z
+1
Z
–2
Z
–
Z
–1
Z
+2
Z
0
Z
0
Z
+3
Z
–3
b
Figure 18.3 First Foster Form expansion of inphase and counterrotating
eigennetworks
The coupling angle ([) is de®ned by
sin [ =
S
2R
(4)
S is the width of the ridge waveguide at the terminals of the junction. The
physical variables of the structure in question is illustrated in Figure 18.4.
A detailed solution of this problem indicates that a typical pole is
described by
Z
n
=
j 3Z
e
(o) sin
2
(n[)J
n
(k
e
R)
n
2
¬[
¸
J
/
n
(k
e
R) ÷
k
j
nJ
n
(k
e
R)
k
e
R
¸ (5)
Z
e
(o) is related to the characteristic impedance of the ridge waveguide Z
r
(o)
at the resonator terminals:
Z
e
(o) =
j
e
c
f
Z
r
(o) (6)
Z
r
(o) need not be equal to Z
0
(o).
k
e
is given by
k
e
= k
0
j
e
c
f
and
j
e
=
j
2
÷k
2
j
(7)
j. k. k
e
R. Z
0
(o) and Z
r
(o) are all in practice frequency dependent.
Semitracking ridge circulator 275
W
φ = 0° φ = 120°
φ = –120°
φ
r
R
ψ
Figure 18.4 Physical variables of ridge circulator
j and k are the diagonal and odiagonal entries of the tensor perme
ability. J
n
(x) is the Bessel function of order n and argument x; J
/
n
(x) is its
derivative.
The input impedance or complex gyrator circuit of a symmetric junction
circulator is de®ned in terms of its opencircuit parameters by setting
V
3
= I
3
= 0. The solution is a classic result in the literature
Z
in
= Z
11
÷
Z
2
12
Z
13
(8)
Since the 1port equivalent circuit of a junction circulator using a gyro
magnetic resonator with magnetic sidewalls is normally a shunt resonator
in parallel with the gyrator conductance of the device. It is therefore usual
to express its complex gyrator in terms of Y
in
instead of Z
in
:
Y
in
=
1
Z
in
(9)
The boundary conditions of a classic circulator are then given by
Im(Y
in
) = 0 (10a)
Re(Y
in
) = G (10b)
The ®rst of these equations determines the centre frequency of the junction,
whereas the second ®xes its gyrator conductance.
A knowledge of the series form for J
0
(x) and J
1
(x),
J
0
(x) = 1 ÷2.2499997
x
3
2
÷1.2656208
x
3
4
÷0.3163866
x
3
6
÷0.0444479
x
3
8
÷0.0039444
x
3
10
÷0.0002100
x
3
12
J
1
(x) = x
¸
0.50 ÷0.56249985
x
3
2
÷0.21093573
x
3
4
÷0.03954289
x
3
6
÷0.00443319
x
3
8
÷0.00031761
x
3
10
÷0.00001109
x
3
12
¸
276 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
and the recurrence formulae
J
n÷1
(x) = J
n÷1
(x) ÷
2n
x
J
n
(x)
J
÷n
(x) = (÷1)
n
J
n
(x)
is sucient for computation.
18.4 Complex gyrator circuit
The nature of the complex gyrator circuit of a junction circulator may be
constructed by taking the real and imaginary parts of Y
in
. This gives
G
in
=
R
in
R
2
in
÷X
2
in
(11a)
B
in
=
÷jX
in
R
2
in
÷X
2
in
(11b)
The two circulation conditions at a single frequency are now deduced by
satisfying equations (10a) and (10b). The ®rst condition de®nes the planar
circuit in terms of [, k¡j and k
e
R, and the second ®xes the absolute conduc
tance level in terms of the admittance (Y
r
) of the ridge waveguide at the reso
nator terminals. The quality of the frequency response and the gain
bandwidth of a circulator is usually expressed in terms of the susceptance
slope parameter (B
/
) or the quality factor (Q
L
) of its complex gyrator circuit.
The susceptance slope parameter is determined from a knowledge of the
imaginary part of Y
in
in the vicinity of the ®rst circulation condition,
B
/
=
k
0
R
2
¸
B
in
(o) ÷B
in
(÷o)
k
0
R(1 ÷o) ÷k
0
R(1 ÷o)
¸
=
B
in
(o) ÷B
in
(÷o)
4o
(12)
where
o =
o ÷o
0
o
0
(13)
The quality factor (Q
L
) of the circuit is calculated by forming
Q
L
=
B
/
G
0
(14)
The two most important parameters in the synthesis of any circulator are the
loaded Qfactor of the junction and the frequency interval over which the
complex gyrator circuit has a nearly frequency independent conductance
and a nearly constant susceptance slope. Once these quantities are ®xed
(by the coupling angle of the resonator and its gyrotropy), it is merely
Semitracking ridge circulator 277
necessary to ®x the absolute levels of the real and imaginary parts of the
junction by adjusting the gap between the ridges to meet the required speci
®cation. A description of the junction in terms of its complex gyrator admit
tance and loaded Qfactor is therefore necessary and sucient. Although no
closed form solution is in general available it may be derived graphically
from a knowledge of the frequency response of the device. A detailed
investigation of this problem indicates that a host of semitracking solutions
may be realised in the vicinity of the tracking one by properly adjusting the
details of the junction. One possibility is the design of a degree3 equal ripple
frequency response over one octave.
18.5 Semitracking complex gyrator circuit
The classic junction circulator using a planar disk resonator exhibits a host
of solutions, some of which are well behaved and others which are not.
A particularly attractive one is the socalled semitracking one for which
the gyrator circuit is a nearly frequency independent conductance over
approximately an octave frequency band. This circulator relies for its
operation on a standing wave solution established by split counterrotating
eigennetworks whose degenerate eigenvalues do not have common poles.
Figure 18.5 depicts the mode chart of a gyromagnetic resonator. The
semitracking solution is approximately de®ned with the gyrotropy between
0.50  k  1.0 and j = 1.0.
Table 18.1 depicts semitracking solutions with k¡j and [ in the neigh
bourhood of the tracking solution. Such solutions are particularly attractive
for the design of octave band devices.
Intermediate values of [ and Q
L
may be approximated in terms of the ®rst
two terms of the Taylor expansion or by some more elaborate interpolation
procedure,
[
i
= [
i ÷1
÷
[
i ÷1
÷[
i ÷1
Q
i ÷1
÷Q
i ÷1
(Q
i
÷Q
i ÷1
) (15)
i indicates the required quantities; i ÷1 and i ÷1 refer to the known
quantities.
The results in these tables marked by an asterisk are not suitable for the
design of such devices in that the solutions de®ned by these boundary
conditions exhibit a reversal in the direction of the circulation at the high
frequency end of the band.
While a knowledge of the quality factor is mandatory it is in itself not
sucient in that it is also necessary to ensure that the complex gyrator circuit
is well behaved over the frequency interval of interest. Figure 18.6 illustrates
the frequency response of one typical semitracking solution. It indicates
278 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
that the frequency characteristics of semitracking solutions using disk reso
nators are exceptionally well behaved and are indeed appropriate for the
design of octaveband devices. The complex gyrator of this solution is
®xed by
G = 0.059 S
B
/
= 0.030
Q
L
= 0.515
2o
0
= 0.65
Z
r
= 50
Semitracking ridge circulator 279
Figure 18.5 Split mode chart of gyromagnetic postresonator
While the synthesis of extended octaveband devices is outside the scope of
this work it may be worthwhile to observe that well behaved semitracking
gyrator circuits may also be realised. Figure 18.7 illustrates one such solu
tion. Its complex gyrator is characterised by
G = 0.0456 S
B
/
= 0.2605
Q
L
= 0.626
2o
0
= 0.70
Z
r
= 60
The immittance levels in these two examples apply to stripline calculators
with 50 Ohm terminations. The immittance levels in these solutions must
therefore be renormalised to the midband impedance of ridge waveguide
(Z
0
(o)) in order to cater for the ridge geometry
Z
0
(o) = Z
0
(o)
zg
z
0
A perusal of Table 18.1 indicates that the quality factor of the gyrator circuit
is not unique in that some tradeo is possible between the gyrotropy and
the coupling angle. In general, the use of wide coupling angles and large
280 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
G
i
o
r
B
i
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
–0.05
–0.10
–0.15
–0.20
–0.32 –0.27 –0.22 –0.17 –0.12 –0.07 –0.02 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.23 0.28
Figure 18.6 The real and imaginary parts of the complex gyrator circuit with
j = 1, k = 0.65, [ = 0.65 rad, Z
r
= 50 :, kR = 1.291
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (1995)
values of magnetisation moves the frequency at which the direction of
circulation reverses in this type of junction outside the required passband
of the speci®cation. It also produces, loosely speaking, the more optimum
frequency responses. The synthesis of devices with very low ripple levels
is, of course, quite demanding on the quality of the equivalent circuit.
It, by and large, appears to be good enough for the realisation of degree3
equiripple octaveband devices, with a typical value of VSWR 4 1.20 at
the bandedges.
18.6 Direct magnetic ®eld and magnetisation of semitracking
circulators
To proceed with the design of circulators and other nonreciprocal ferrite
devices, it is necessary to have some appreciation of the magnetic variables
entering into the description of the gyromagnetic resonator. The two quan
tities entering into its description are the gyrotropy (k¡j) and the eective
permeability (j
eff
). One essential material requirement for this type of
Semitracking ridge circulator 281
G
i
o
r
B
i
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
–0.05
–0.10
–0.15
–0.20
–0.35 –0.30 –0.25 –0.20 –0.15 –0.10 –0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Figure 18.7 The real and imaginary parts of the complex gyrator circuit with
j = 1, k = 0.60, [ = 0.70 rad, Z
r
= 60 :, kR = 1.350
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (1995)
282 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Table 18.1 Complex gyrator variables of semitracking circulators
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.543* 1.6610 0.8880Y
f
0.4333Y
f
0.4880
0.550* l.6453 0.8727Y
f
0.4480Y
f
0.5138
0.575* 1.6018 0.8238Y
f
0.4855Y
f
0.5894
0.600* 1.5685 0.784lY
f
0.5074Y
f
0.6472
0.625 1.5413 0.7506Y
f
0.5l97Y
f
0.6924
0.650 1.5183 0.7219Y
f
0.5253Y
f
0.7275
0.675 l.4985 0.6971Y
f
0.5267Y
f
0.7543
0.700 1.4810 0.6763Y
f
0.5233Y
f
0.7739
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.525, j = 1
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.538* 1.6062 0.9302Y
f
0.3486Y
f
0.3486
0.550 1.5727 0.9011Y
f
0.3628Y
f
0.4021
0.575 1.5241 0.8507Y
f
0.4118Y
f
0.4842
0.600 1.4879 0.8098Y
f
0.5446Y
f
0.5446
0.625 1.4589 0.7757Y
f
0.5905Y
f
0.5905
0.650 1.4347 0.7466Y
f
0.6254Y
f
0.6254
0.675 1.4139 0.7216Y
f
0.4670Y
f
0.6513
0.700 1.3956 0.7002Y
f
0.4689Y
f
0.6697
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.575, j = 1
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.535* 1.5740 0.947Y
f
0.2772Y
f
0.2927
0.550* 1.5290 0.9093Y
f
0.3305Y
f
0.3634
0.575* 1.4794 0.8598Y
f
0.3834Y
f
0.4453
0.600 1.4428 0.8192Y
f
0.4138Y
f
0.5051
0.625 1.4136 0.7852Y
f
0.4319Y
f
0.5500
0.650 1.3892 0.7561Y
f
0.4416Y
f
0.5839
0.675 1.3682 0.7313Y
f
0.4452Y
f
0.6089
0.700 1.3498 0.7098Y
f
0.4445Y
f
0.6263
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.600, j = 1
continued on next page
Semitracking ridge circulator 283
Table 18.1 continued
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.531* 1.5384 0.9537Y
f
0.2433Y
f
0.2552
0.550 1.4806 0.9151Y
f
0.3053Y
f
0.3336
0.575 1.4313 0.8666Y
f
0.3581Y
f
0.4133
0.600 1.3949 0.8267Y
f
0.3897Y
f
0.4714
0.625 1.3658 0.7930Y
f
0.4083Y
f
0.5150
0.650 1.3414 0.7642Y
f
0.4185Y
f
0.5475
0.675 1.3205 0.7396Y
f
0.4224Y
f
0.5712
0.700 1.3021 0.7183Y
f
0.4220Y
f
0.5876
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.625, j = 1
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.550 1.4281 0.9818Y
f
0.2853Y
f
0.3107
0.575 1.3799 0.8715Y
f
0.3372Y
f
0.3870
0.600 1.3442 0.8324Y
f
0.3685Y
f
0.4427
0.625 1.3155 0.7993Y
f
0 3872Y
f
0.4844
0.650 1.2915 0.7708Y
f
0.3972Y
f
0.5153
0.675 1.2708 0.7465Y
f
0.4013Y
f
0.5376
0.700 1.2525 0.7255Y
f
0.4009Y
f
0.5527
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.650, j = 1
[ kR G B
/
Q
L
0.522 1.4650 0.9830Y
f
0.1735Y
f
0.1765
0.550 1.3834 0.9200Y
f
0.2726Y
f
0.2963
0.575 1.3367 0.8744Y
f
0.3228Y
f
0.3692
0.600 1.3017 0.8359Y
f
0.3533Y
f
0.4227
0.625 1.2737 0.8034Y
f
0.3717Y
f
0.4626
0.650 1.2501 0.7755Y
f
0.3816Y
f
0.4921
0.675 1.2296 0.7513Y
f
0.3855Y
f
0.5131
0.700 1.2115 0.7303Y
f
0.3850Y
f
0.5272
* See comment below eqn (15)
k = 0.670, j = 1
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (1995)
circulator is that the ferrite should be saturated. The diagonal and o
diagonal elements of the tensor permeability are given in this situation by
[k[ =
o
m
o
j = 1
The eective permeability is
j
eff
= 1 ÷
o
m
o
2
where
o
m
= ,M
0
, is the gyromagnetic ratio (2.21 10
5
rad/s per A/m), M
0
is the magnetisa
tion (A/m), j
0
is the free space permeability (4¬ 10
÷7
H/m), and o is the
radian frequency (rad/s). j and k are the diagonal and odiagonal entries
of the tensor permeability.
The internal direct magnetic ®eld (H
i
) diers from that of the external ®eld
(H
0
). The two quantities are related by the direct magnetisation (M
0
) and the
shape demagnetising factor (N
z
) by
H
i
= H
0
÷N
z
M
0
where
N
z
 1 ÷
H
2R
¸
1 ÷
H
2R
2
¸
÷
1
2
H is the thickness of the ferrite disk (m), R is its radius (m), N
z
is the
demagnetising factor, and
H
0
= N
z
M
0
The second essential material requirement in the design of any circulator
is the value of the gyrotropy at the centre frequency. One value met in
connection with the design of the tracking circulator is
k
j
= 0.67
This choice of material ensures that the gyrotropy of the resonator varies in
the region
0.50 
k
j
 1
for
0.50 
o
m
o
 1
284 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
18.7 Physical variables of semitracking circulators
The physical and magnetic variables in the tables may be understood by
constructing an example. One possibility is de®ned by
k =
o
m
o
 0.67
j = 1
[  0.522
k
e
R  1.465
In the preceding equations kR and [ are de®ned in the standard way:
k
e
R =
2¬
j
e
c
f
z
0
R (16)
sin [ =
S
2R
(17)
j
e
and o
m
have the usual meanings and c
f
is the relative dielectric constant
of the ferrite material. S, R and [ are de®ned in Figure 18.2; H is the thick
ness of the resonator.
The absolute gyrator conductance realised by the above variables is given
by
G = 0.9822Y
f
(18)
where
Y
f
= Y
r
(o)
c
f
(19)
Y
r
(o) is the free space conductance at ®nite frequency of the ridge waveguide
at a typical port. It is ®xed by the coupling angle and the gap between the
ridges. The dielectric constant c
t
of the dielectric region adjacent to the
junction may then be employed to set the admittance Y
0n÷1
of the ®rst
quarterwave transformer adjacent to the junction:
Y
0n÷1
= Y
r
(o)
c
t
(20)
18.8 Network problem
A 1port GSTUB load for which the real part (conductance) is nearly
frequency independent and the imaginary part (susceptance) has a small
but nonzero value is compatible with the synthesis of a degree3 equal
ripple frequency speci®cation. The topology of this network and its
Semitracking ridge circulator 285
286 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 18.8 Topology of 3port circulator with 2port matching networks
Figure 18.9 Frequency response of n = 3 network with nonzero minima in the
re¯ection coecient
S(max) = (
1 ÷k
2
÷c
2
÷
k
2
÷c
2
)
2
S(min) = (
1 ÷k
2
÷k)
2
w =
2(±
2
÷±
1
)
±
2
÷±
1
=
±
2
÷±
1
±
m
frequency response are illustrated in Figures 18.8 and 18.9. The topology of
the 1port complex gyrator circuit is speci®ed in Figure 18.10. The
relationship between the frequency response of the network and the circuit
elements is a standard problem in the literature. Table 18.2 relates the
speci®cations (VSWR(max), VSWR(min)) and bandwidth to the elements
of the gyrator circuit (normalised susceptance slope parameter b
/
, normal
ised conductance g, loaded Qfactor Q
L
). It also de®nes the circuit admit
tances (y
1
and y
2
).
A scrutiny of the network problem suggests that a precise realisation
of the susceptance slope parameter may not be as critical as is historically
supposed provided that the minima in the re¯ection coecient of the
device are not forced to pass through zero. This result suggests that the net
work problem can accommodate some uncertainty in the de®nition of the
coupling angle.
18.9 Frequency response
The frequency response of a quarterwave coupled circulator may be traced
by forming the re¯ection coecient at the input terminals of the 1port com
plex gyrator network. The topology in question is illustrated in Figure 18.10.
This allows the frequency response of the quarterwave coupled junction to
be displayed without diculty:
[À
in
[
2
=
AR
in
÷Z
0
(D÷CX
in
)]
2
÷B ÷AX
in
÷Z
0
CR
in
]
2
AR
in
÷Z
0
(D÷CX
in
)]
2
÷B ÷AX
in
÷Z
0
CR
in
]
2
A, B, C and D are the parameters of the overall region. The ABCD para
meters of a typical transformer region are
Semitracking ridge circulator 287
Figure 18.10 Topology of quarterwave coupled complex gyrator circuit
288 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Table 18.2 Network variables for degree3 circulators
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 969.349 3486.515 3.597 4.732 147.312
0.250 399.553 1138.049 2.848 3.818 76.309
0.300 194.299 455.324 2.343 3.214 44.805
0.350 106.011 209.635 1.977 2.789 28.712
0.400 62.989 106.970 1.698 2.474 19.635
0.450 39.988 59.049 1.477 2.233 14.123
0.500 26.777 34.687 1.295 2.044 10.579
0.550 18.741 21.430 1.143 1.893 8.196
0.600 13.620 13.805 1.014 1.770 6.533
0.667 9.356 8.106 0.866 1.639 5.013
0.700 7.902 6.336 0.802 1.584 4.454
0.750 6.265 4.472 0.714 1.514 3.789
0.800 5.083 3.229 0.635 1.454 3.277
0.850 4.211 2.378 0.565 1.403 2.878
0.900 3.555 1.782 0.501 1.359 2.562
0.950 3.054 1.356 0.444 1.321 2.309
1.000 2.665 1.045 0.392 1.289 2.104
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.02
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 893.332 3313.304 3.709 4.559 137.630
0.250 368.379 1081.745 2.936 3.681 71.355
0.300 179.240 432.918 2.415 3.102 41.940
0.350 97.862 199.388 2.037 2.693 26.909
0.400 58.196 101.785 1.749 2.392 18.428
0.450 36.983 56.215 1.520 2.161 13.275
0.500 24.794 33.042 1.333 1.981 9.961
0.550 17.378 20.428 1.176 1.836 7.731
0.600 12.649 13.170 1.041 1.719 6.175
0.667 8.709 7.742 0.889 1.594 4.752
0.700 7.366 6.055 0.822 1.542 4.228
0.750 5.852 4.279 0.731 1.475 3.604
0.800 4.758 3.093 0.650 1.418 3.125
0.850 3.951 2.280 0.577 1.370 2.751
0.900 3.344 1.711 0.512 1.329 2.455
0.950 2.880 1.303 0.453 1.294 2.217
1.000 2.520 1.006 0.399 1.263 2.025
continued on next page
Semitracking ridge circulator 289
Table 18.2 continued
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.04
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 801.796 3043.685 3.796 4.363 125.987
0.250 330.850 994.045 3.005 3.525 65.394
0.300 161.116 397.989 2.470 2.974 38.491
0.350 88.060 183.398 2.083 2.585 24.738
0.400 52.436 93.683 1.787 2.298 16.973
0.450 33.374 51.781 1.552 2.080 12.253
0.500 22.416 30.463 1.359 1.909 9.216
0.550 15.744 18.854 1.198 1.772 7.171
0.600 11.488 12.170 1.059 1.662 5.743
0.667 7.939 7.168 0.903 1.544 4.437
0.700 6.728 5.612 0.834 1.495 3.956
0.750 5.362 3.972 0.741 1.432 3.383
0.800 4.375 2.876 0.657 1.379 2.942
0.850 3.646 2.124 0.583 1.334 2.598
0.900 3.098 1.597 0.515 1.296 2.326
0.950 2.678 1.219 0.455 1.263 2.108
1.000 2.353 0.943 0.401 1.235 1.932
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.06
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 697.205 2688.010 3.855 4.139 112.522
0.250 287.967 878.302 3.050 3.348 58.498
0.300 140.406 351.866 2.506 2.828 34.498
0.350 76.861 162.270 2.111 2.462 22.222
0.400 45.854 82.970 1.809 2.193 15.286
0.450 29.252 45.912 1.570 1.988 11.067
0.500 19.700 27.047 1.373 1.827 8.351
0.550 13.880 16.766 1.208 1.700 6.521
0.600 10.163 10.841 1.067 1.597 5.242
0.667 7.062 6.402 0.907 1.488 4.071
0.700 6.002 5.020 0.836 1.443 3.640
0.750 4.806 3.561 0.741 1.385 3.126
0.800 3.941 2.585 0.656 1.336 2.731
0.850 3.302 1.914 0.580 1.295 2.423
0.900 2.820 1.443 0.512 1.260 2.178
0.950 2.451 1.104 0.450 1.230 1.983
1.000 2.165 0.856 0.396 1.205 1.825
continued on next page
290 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Table 18.2 continued
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.08
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 580.786 2253.269 3.880 3.881 97.189
0.250 240.220 736.770 3.067 3.144 50.639
0.300 117.341 295.436 2.518 2.660 29.945
0.350 64.382 136.404 2.119 2.321 19.351
0.400 38.519 69.843 1.813 2.071 13.360
0.450 24.657 38.714 1.570 1.882 9.713
0.500 16.672 22.852 1.371 1.735 7.362
0.550 11.801 14.198 1.203 1.618 5.777
0.600 8.687 9.205 1.060 1.524 4.668
0.667 6.083 5.458 0.897 1.425 3.653
0.700 5.193 4.288 0.826 1.384 3.279
0.750 4.187 3.052 0.729 1.332 2.832
0.800 3.458 2.224 0.643 1.288 2.489
0.850 2.918 1.653 0.566 1.251 2.222
0.900 2.511 1.250 0.498 1.220 2.010
0.950 2.200 0.961 0.437 1.194 1.840
1.000 1.957 0.748 0.382 1.171 1.703
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.1
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 452.332 1742.610 3.853 3.572 79.668
0.250 187.508 570.432 3.042 2.900 41.652
0.300 91.859 229.069 2.494 2.460 24.733
0.350 50.587 105.957 2.095 2.153 16.060
0.400 30.402 54.376 1.789 1.928 11.150
0.450 19.567 30.223 1.545 1.758 8.157
0.500 13.315 17.897 1.344 1.627 6.225
0.550 9.494 11.160 1.175 1.523 4.921
0.600 7.047 7.266 1.031 1.440 4.008
0.667 4.996 4.334 0.868 1.353 3.171
0.700 4.293 3.417 0.796 1.317 2.862
0.750 3.497 2.445 0.699 1.272 2.494
0.800 2.920 1.791 0.613 1.234 2.212
0.850 2.492 1.338 0.537 1.203 1.991
0.900 2.168 1.018 0.470 1.176 1.816
0.950 1.920 0.787 0.410 1.154 1.677
1.000 1.727 0.616 0.356 1.135 1.564
continued on next page
Semitracking ridge circulator 291
Table 18.2 continued
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.12
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 309.011 1152.644 3.730 3.173 59.027
0.250 128.630 378.096 2.939 2.587 31.049
0.300 63.360 152.247 2.403 2.205 18.573
0.350 35.134 70.666 2.011 1.939 12.165
0.400 21.296 36.419 1.710 1.746 8.529
0.450 13.846 20.345 1.469 1.602 6.308
0.500 9.535 12.120 1.271 1.491 4.872
0.550 6.891 7.609 1.104 1.404 3.901
0.600 5.192 4.991 0.961 1.335 3.220
0.667 3.763 3.010 0.800 1.264 2.596
0.700 3.272 2.387 0.730 1.236 2.366
0.750 2.714 1.724 0.635 1.199 2.091
0.800 2.308 1.274 0.552 1.170 1.881
0.850 2.006 0.961 0.479 1.145 1.717
0.900 1.778 0.738 0.415 1.125 1.587
0.950 1.602 0.575 0.359 1.108 1.484
1.000 1.466 0.454 0.310 1.093 1.401
Degree N = 3 S(max) = 1.15 S(min) = 1.14
W G B
/
Q Y1 Y2
0.200 138.408 458.742 3.314 2.528 31.758
0.250 58.354 151.441 2.595 2.084 16.998
0.300 29.231 61.496 2.104 1.799 10.384
0.350 16.559 28.850 1.742 1.604 6.968
0.400 10.302 15.064 1.462 1.465 5.020
0.450 6.908 8.546 1.237 1.363 3.825
0.500 4.928 5.182 1.051 1.287 3.050
0.550 3.704 3.317 0.896 1.229 2.525
0.600 2.911 2.222 0.763 1.184 2.157
0.667 2.238 1.381 0.617 1.139 1.820
0.700 2.005 1.111 0.554 1.122 1.696
0.750 1.739 0.820 0.472 1.100 1.549
0.800 1.545 0.620 0.401 1.083 1.437
0.850 1.400 0.477 0.341 1.069 1.351
0.900 1.290 0.374 0.290 1.058 1.283
0.950 1.523 0.410 0.270 1.084 1.428
1.000 1.738 0.446 0.257 1.105 1.556
Degree3 network variables (reproduced with permission, Levy, R. & Helszajn, J. (1982) speci®c
equations for one and two section quarterwave matching networks for stubresistor loads, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Mech., MTT30, 55±62)
Reproduced with permission, Levy & Helszajn (1982)
A = cos ±
B = sin ±¡Z
t
C = Z
t
sin±
D = cos ±
± is the electrical length of the transformer:
± =
¬
2
(1 ÷o)
o is the normalised radian frequency variable:
o =
o ÷o
0
o
0
Z
r
is the ridge characteristic impedance of the generator circuit and Z
t
is that
of the quarterwavelong ridge transformer:
Z
t
=
Z
r
c
t
X
in
and R
in
are the imaginary and real parts of the complex gyrator
impedance and c
t
is the relative permittivity of the transformer region.
The admittances appearing in these relationships are, unlike the stripline
situation, frequency dependent.
The frequency response of the n = 3 network is obtained with
A = cos
2
± ÷
y
02
y
01
sin
2
±
B =
1
y
01
÷
1
y
02
sin± cos ±
C = (y
01
÷y
02
) sin ± cos ±
D =
÷y
01
y
02
sin
2
± ÷cos
2
±
Figures 18.11 and 18.12 depict two typical frequency responses.
292 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Semitracking ridge circulator 293
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
r
e
t
u
r
n
l
o
s
s
,
d
B
–0.33 –0.28 –0.23 –0.18 –0.13 –0.08 –0.03 0.02 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.27 0.32
Figure 18.11 Theoretical frequency response of two section quarterwave coupled
semitracking junction with j = 1, k = 0.60, [ = 0.65, G = 0.0780, B
/
= 0.0467,
Q
L
= 0.584, Z
r
= 36.25:, c
d
= 3.96
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (1995)
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
r
e
t
u
r
n
l
o
s
s
,
d
B
–0.32 –0.27 –0.22 –0.17 –0.12 –0.07 –0.02 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.23 0.28
Figure 18.12 Theoretical frequency response of two section quarterwave coupled
semitracking junction with j = 1, k = 0.67, [ = 0.70, G = 0.077, B
/
= 0.0404,
Q
L
= 0.527, Z
r
= 36.50:, c
d
= 3.50
Reprinted with permission, Helszajn (1995)
18.10 Design of octaveband semitracking circulators
Figures 18.13 and 18.14 illustrate the details of quarterwave coupled ridge
circulators using ferrite posts and dielectric transformer sections.
One feature of the ideal semitracking solution of circulators outlined here
is that the dielectric constant of the transformer region adjacent to the reso
nator has a value between 3 and 6. The use of such low values of dielectric
constant adjacent to the resonator readily reproduces the assumed magnetic
wall boundary condition between the ports of the junction. It therefore more
readily ensures correlation between practice and theory than would other
wise be the case. Failure to accurately reproduce the boundary conditions
between the ports of the junction leads to some uncertainty in the de®nition
of the eective coupling angle of the junction (de®ned by the transmission
lines and the resonator circuit) and of the radius of the resonator. There is
also some corresponding modi®cation in the susceptance slope parameter
and to a lesser extent in the conductance of the complex gyrator circuit.
Fortunately, the ®eld of solutions of the semitracking subspace outlined
here permits some laxity in the de®nition of the former parameters,
and the network problem can accommodate some uncertainty in the latter
quantities if the minima in the re¯ection coecient are not forced to pass
through zero.
294 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Semitracking ridge circulator 295
Figure 18.13 Schematic diagram of ridge circulator using dielectric transformers
Figure 18.14 Details of ridge circulator using postresonator and dielectric
transformers
Chapter 19
Variational calculus, functionals and
the RayleighRitz procedure
19.1 Introduction
A number of the calculations on the ridge waveguide described in this book
amount to obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the related planar
problem region by using the ®nite element method. It is therefore appro
priate to include a chapter on this technique. A property of a typical eigen
solution of any problem region is that it must satisfy both the wave equation
and the boundary conditions of the region. Solutions of the wave equation
based on a separation of variables technique, however, only exist for regular
geometries such as rectangular and circular structures. For irregular struc
tures, a variational approach based on the fact that the stationary values
of the energy functional of the problem region also satisfy the related
scalar homogeneous Helmholtz dierential equation must be employed.
The stored energy of the circuit when integrated over the problem region
is known as the functional of the problem region. If the region consists of
top and bottom electrical walls then this quantity automatically satis®es a
magnetic boundary condition on the sidewall of the problem region. If
the problem region has top and bottom magnetic walls then it automatically
satis®es an electric wall at its sidewalls. If the former structure contains an
electric wall or segments of such walls then these have to be separately
catered for. A dual statement applies to the latter problem region. The
process of obtaining a solution to a Helmholtz dierential equation by
extremising a functional is called a variational method. The use of the
word `functional' in this context serves as a reminder that it is not in itself
a function but rather a function of functions. The stationary values obtained
in this way satisfy, as will be demonstrated, the homogeneous Helmholtz
dierential equation. One means of extremising this sort of quantity is to
separately vary each function inside the functional. One means of extremis
ing a functional is the RayleighRitz one. It consists of introducing some
polynomial or other approximation for the true solution into the functional
prior to reducing it to a matrix eigenvalue problem. The problem may then
be solved using standard numerical techniques. In the ®nite element approx
imation the problem region is discretised into triangular elements inside of
which some suitable polynomial representation of the ®elds is introduced.
The eigenvalues of the problem represent the cuto frequencies of the
circuit and the eigenvectors represent the ®elds at the nodes. The stationary
values of this problem are then the required eigensolutions. The other ®eld
components are obtained by using Maxwell's equations in the usual way.
19.2 Stationary value of functional
One means of solving a homogeneous Helmholtz dierential equation with a
homogeneous boundary condition is to obtain the stationary values of the
functional of the problem region. The main purpose of this chapter is the
formulation of a suitable functional based on the stored energy in the circuit.
An important property of a problem region with top and bottom electric
walls is that its functional has a magnetic wall as a natural boundary con
dition of the problem. A dual remark is applicable to one with top and
bottom magnetic walls.
Before attempting to construct an energy functional it is desirable to
verify whether its extremisation satis®es the wave equation. The demonstra
tion starts by writing the wave equation in terms of an operator L:
LE
z
= 0 (1)
where
L = V
2
t
÷ k
2
e
(2)
A property of the operator (L) is that it is selfadjoint. Such a matrix satis®es
the following relationship
ALB = BLA
It continues by de®ning a functional by premultiplying the wave equation by
the complex conjugate of the ®eld variable prior to integrating the ensuing
equation over the problem region,
I =
S
E
+
z
LE
z
] dS (3)
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 297
The derivation of the required result now continues by assuming a trial func
tion (0) in the vicinity of the exact value (E
z
) of the form
0 = E
z
÷ (4)
Introducing this approximation into the de®nition of the functional readily
gives
I =
S
(E
+
z
÷
+
)L(E
z
÷ )] dS (5)
A typical stationary condition for the functional is now de®ned by
dI
d
=0
= 0 (6)
If this condition is evaluated for the assumed form for I, and if terms in
2
are neglected, it is then readily seen that
S
(E
+
z
L ÷
+
LE
z
) dS = 0 (7)
The derivation now proceeds by making use of the fact that L is selfadjoint.
This gives
2
+
LE
z
= 0 (8)
Since
+
is an arbitrary constant it cannot be equal to zero, so the only other
possibility therefore coincides with LE
z
= 0 as asserted.
19.3 Electric and magnetic energies in planar circuits
The eigenvalues or frequencies of any resonant circuit coincide with the
condition for which the electric and magnetic energies stored in the circuit
are equal:
W
m
= W
e
(9)
There are in a planar circuit an in®nite number of such solutions. To deter
mine these it is convenient to form the following quantity:
I = W
e
÷ W
m
(10)
The time average of the stored magnetic (W
m
) and electric (W
e
) energies in
the resonator are obtained by using the Poynting vector. This gives
W
m
=
3
4
Re
v
H ·  "] H
+
dv (11)
298 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
W
e
=
3
4
Re
v
E · 4] E
+
dv (12)
Making use of the matrix relationship below:
A · B = A
T
B
indicates that W
m
and W
e
may also be written as
W
m
=
3
4
Re
v
H
T
 "] H
+
dv (13)
W
e
=
3
4
Re
v
E
T
4] E
+
dv (14)
The matrix operations inside the integral sign in the preceding equations
have either the nature of a quadratic or Hermitian form. The expansion
of either form produces a real scalar quantity. It may be separately demon
strated that a property of an energy function is that it is either one or the
other of these two forms.
By constructing the integral I given in equation (10) in the case of a planar
circuit a variational formulation can be derived. The minimisation of this
functional satis®es both the eigenfunctions of the wave equation and the
natural boundary condition on the sidewalls of the circuit.
19.4 Electric and magnetic ®elds in planar circuits with top and
bottom electric walls
To proceed with the evaluation of the functional it is usual to express H
x
and
H
y
in terms of E
z
prior to seeking a stationary value for E
z
which satis®es the
wave equation. The boundary of the circuit considered here is designated by
a contour $ along which two unit vectors are de®ned: a normal vector " n and
a tangential vector t. The separation between the top and bottom walls of
the problem region is arranged to be small with respect to the wavelength
to ensure that higher order modes which vary in the zdirection are sup
pressed. These may either be electric or magnetic walls. This arrangement
is illustrated in Figure 19.1.
The top and bottom walls, for the TM family of modes, are electric ones
and
E
z
,= 0Y H
x
,= 0Y H
y
,= 0 (15a)
E
x
= 0Y E
y
= 0Y H
z
= 0 (15b)
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 299
In a scalar problem,
4] = 4
0
4
f
0 0
0 4
f
0
0 0 4
f
¸
¸
(16a)
 "] = "
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
¸
(16b)
Maxwell's equations then permits H
x
and H
y
to be written in terms of E
z
only. The required result is
H
x
=
j34
0
4
f
k
2
eff
dE
z
dy
(17a)
H
y
=
÷j34
0
4
f
k
2
eff
dE
z
dx
(17b)
k
eff
is the wave number de®ned by
k
eff
= k
0
4
f
H
x
and H
y
may be determined from the preceding equations once E
z
is
established.
The total magnetic ®eld at any point within the circuit is
H
t
=
j34
0
4
f
k
2
eff
¸
a
x
dE
z
dy
÷ a
y
÷
dE
z
dx
¸
(18)
300 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Substrate
H
x
z
y
Contour (ξ)
Metallisation
n
t
Figure 19.1 Schematic diagram of planar circuit with magnetic sidewall
On the periphery of the circuit, it can be expressed in terms of components
which are normal and tangential to its boundary:
H
t
=
j34
0
4
f
k
2
eff
¸
n
dE
z
dt
÷ t
÷
dE
z
dn
¸
(19)
If the boundary condition is taken as a magnetic wall one then the tangential
component of the magnetic ®eld must be zero there. The required boundary
condition is then determined by
dE
z
dn
= 0 on $ (20)
An electric wall is established on the contour $ of the circuit provided
E
z
= 0 (21)
The dual problem with top and bottom magnetic walls is easily understood.
Its solution corresponds to the TE family of modes.
19.5 Derivation of functional for planar isotropic circuits
The magnetic energy (W
m
) in the circuit de®ned by equation (13) may now
be evaluated in terms of E
z
only by using equations (17a) and (17b). The
required result is
W
m
=
34
0
4
f
4k
2
eff
Re
¸
v
V
t
E
z
2
dv
¸
(22)
where
V
t
= a
x
d
dx
÷ a
y
d
dy
and
[V
t
A[
2
= (V
t
A) · (V
t
A
+
)
Since the ®elds in a planar circuit with a ground plane spacing H are inde
pendent of z the volume integral can be replaced by a surface integral
over the area of the structure. Introducing this operation in the expression
for the stored magnetic energy gives
W
m
=
34
0
4
f
H
4k
2
eff
Re
¸
S
V
t
E
z
2
ds
¸
(23)
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 301
The corresponding result for the stored electric energy (W
e
) in equation (14)
is
W
e
=
34
0
4
f
H
4
Re
¸
S
E
z
2
ds
¸
(24)
The energy functional I is then given by forming the dierence between these
two quantities,
I = W
e
÷ W
m
=
34
0
4
f
H
4k
2
eff
Re
¸
S
¸
÷
V
t
E
z
2
÷ k
2
eff
E
z
2
¸
ds
¸
(25)
The minimisation of this quantity produces, in practice, an in®nite number
of modes which are described by
E
z
= 0
a
(26a)
k
eff
= k
a
(26b)
a = 0Y 1Y 2Y F F F (26c)
Introducing this notation and missing out the common factors which are not
signi®cant (since only minimisation of the integral is required) gives the
required variational formulation
I = Re
¸
S
¸
÷
V
t
0
a
2
÷ k
2
a
0
a
2
¸
ds
¸
(27)
The zeros of this quantity satisfy both the wave equation and a magnetic
wall boundary condition on the sidewalls of the circuit.
(V
2
t
÷ k
2
a
)0
a
= 0 (28)
d0
a
dn
= 0 on boundary $ (29)
respectively.
The energy functional of the dual problem with magnetic top and bottom
walls is
I = Re
¸
S
¸
÷
V
t
H
z
2
÷ k
2
eff
H
z
2
¸
ds
¸
(30)
It satis®es an electric wall boundary condition on the sidewalls of the
problem region.
302 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The processes of minimisation and maximisation in variational calculus
are often referred to as extremisation and the functional is said to be
extremised or made stationary.
19.6 RayleighRitz procedure
The procedure for obtaining a solution of a Helmholtz dierential equation
by extremising a functional is known as a variational technique. One way
this may be accomplished is by employing the RayleighRitz procedure.
It starts by replacing the true solution by a trial function 0
a
:
0
a
=
¸
n
i =1
i
(xY y)u
i
(31)
In the RayleighRitz approach the trial function is expanded in terms of a
suitable set of real basis or shape functions
i
(xY y) which contain the spatial
variation of the problem with complex coecients u
i
. In the ®nite element
problem the u
i
represent the values of the ®elds at the nodes of the elements.
This step reduces the problem to a set of simultaneous equations of the form
U
T
{A] ÷ k
2
a
B]}U = 0 (32)
This matrix equation retains the quadratic or Hermitian form of the original
problem.
[A] and [B] are square matrices given by
A
i j
=
S
(V
t
i
) · (V
t
j
) ds (33)
and
B
i j
=
S
(
i
j
) ds (34)
where V
t
has the meaning previously introduced and
(V
t
i
) · (V
t
j
) =
d
i
dx
d
j
dx
÷
d
i
dy
d
j
dy
(35)
(V
t
i
) · (V
t
i
) =
d
i
dx
2
÷
d
i
dy
2
(36)
U is a column vector containing the unknowns of the problem, and U
T
is its
transpose.
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 303
To develop some detailed familiarity with the origin of the two matrices in
equations (33) and (34) these will now be derived for a degree2 approxima
tion problem by way of an example. The assumed form for E
z
is in this
instance taken as
0
a
=
1
(xY y)u
1
÷
2
(xY y)u
2
(37)
Introducing this approximation into the functional I in equation (27) gives
I =
S
¸
÷
¸
d(u
1
1
÷ u
2
2
)
dx
¸
2
÷
¸
d(u
1
1
÷ u
2
2
)
dy
¸
2
÷ k
2
a
u
1
1
÷ u
2
2
]
2
¸
ds
(38)
Making use of the vector identities in equations (35) and (36) then gives
I =
S
{÷u
2
1
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
1
) ÷ u
2
2
(V
t
2
) · (V
t
2
)]
÷ 2u
1
u
2
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
) ÷ k
2
a
(u
1
1
÷ u
2
2
)
2
} ds (39)
The matrix notation in equation (32) is now recovered by extracting column
vectors U
T
and U from the preceding relationship:
u
1
u
2
]
¸¸
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
1
) (V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
)
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
) (V
t
2
) · (V
t
2
)
¸
÷ k
2
a
¸
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
¸¸¸
u
1
u
2
¸
(40)
The ®nal step proceeds by imposing the RayleighRitz condition. It amounts
to taking the derivative of the functional of the problem at each node of the
interpolation function
df(U)
du
k
= 0 (41)
This operation may be understood by recalling that F(U) has the nature of a
quadratic form so that each element in its expansion is a scalar quantity. The
required operation leaves the matrix of the formin equation (32) unchanged:
{A] ÷ k
2
a
B]}U = 0 (42)
Once the basis functions are selected the eigenvalue equation will yield an
eigenvalue k
2
a
and a column eigenvector U
a
for each basis function included
in the preceding equation. The derivation of this condition proceeds by
dierentiating the functional I with respect to u
1
and u
2
one at a time.
Taking the ®rst factor inside the integral sign in the original functional to
start with gives
I
1
= u
2
1
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
1
) ÷ u
2
2
(V
t
2
) · (V
t
2
) ÷ 2u
1
u
2
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
)
304 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Its derivatives with respect to u
1
and u
2
are
dI
1
du
1
= 2u
1
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
1
) ÷ 2u
2
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
)
dI
1
du
2
= 2u
1
(V
t
1
) · (V
t
2
) ÷ 2u
2
(V
t
2
) · (V
t
2
)
respectively. The second factor in the functional is
I
2
= k
2
a
u
2
1
2
1
÷ u
2
2
2
2
÷ 2u
1
u
2
1
2
]
and its derivatives are
dI
2
du
1
= 2k
2
a
u
1
2
1
÷ u
2
1
2
]
dI
2
du
2
= 2k
2
a
u
1
1
2
÷ u
2
2
2
]
The required result in equation (42) is now readily constructed by forming
dI
du
1
=
d
du
1
(÷I
1
÷ I
2
) = 0
dI
du
2
=
d
du
2
(÷I
1
÷ I
2
) = 0
and once more identifying column vectors (U)
T
and U in the ensuing
relationship.
19.7 Field patterns
Once the eigenvalues of the matrix problem have been established the eigen
vectors may be evaluated from a knowledge of the [A] and [B] matrices using
standard numerical techniques. The eigenvector U contains the discrete
nodal values of the ®eld perpendicular to the top and bottom walls of the
planar circuit. These values, which are in general complex, are distributed
over the whole surface area in accordance with the ®nite element mesh.
Each eigenvalue and eigenvector is associated with a unique eigensolution
of the problem region. The eigenvectors are orthogonal and are normalised
so that
U
T
a
U
a
= 1 (43)
The equipotential lines for each solution may be obtained by interpolating
between the nodal values. Interpolation methods such as `least squares' or
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 305
`weighted average' may be utilised here. The accuracy of the ®elds is depen
dent on the degree of the original approximation problem and the distribu
tion of the ®nite elements in the problem region. At regions of rapid ®eld
variations low concentrations of ®nite elements or elements of low order
will produce noticeable errors in both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
This may produce discontinuities in the ®eld plot which can only be removed
by resolving the problem with an improved mesh.
19.8 Derivation of energy functional based on a mathematical
technique
While it is usually possible to deduce an energy functional for any physical
system whose stationary points satisfy its wave equation it would be prefer
able instead of deducing the energy explicitly to be able to start with the
governing partial dierential equation. Such a solution would then be
considered a mathematical technique independent of the physics under con
sideration. Fortunately, such an approach has been developed. It is estab
lished by recognising that the functional whose stationary points satisfy
the wave equation may be obtained by premultiplying it by E
+
z
prior to
integrating the ensuing quantity over the surface of the circuit:
I =
S
E
+
z
(V
2
t
÷ k
2
c
)E
z
] ds (44)
The functional I is again recognised as having the nature of a quadratic form
which may be readily reduced to a scalar quantity.
The equivalence between this form of the functional and that previously
deduced may be established by using one identity in vector algebra based
on the divergence theorem
S
V
t
· A dS =
$
A · n dt
The required identity is
S
(A
+
V
2
t
A) dS = ÷
S
(V
t
A) · (V
t
A
+
) dS ÷
$
A
+
dA
dt
dt
S is the surface of the planar circuit, $ represents the periphery and t is the
boundary tangent de®ned in a counterclockwise direction. The Green
theorem in a plane is readily obtained from this identity by forming a new
one by replacing A by A
+
and adding the two relationships.
306 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
The derivation now proceeds by introducing Green's theorem in a plane
into the assumed form for I. This gives
I =
S
÷(V
t
E
+
z
) · (V
t
E
z
)] dS ÷
$
E
+
z
dE
z
dt
dt ÷
S
k
2
e
[E
z
[
2
] ds (45)
If the boundary condition on the edge of the circuit is a magnetic wall one
then
dE
z
dt
= 0
The assumed nature of the functional reduces, in this instance, to that
previously derived by explicitly formulating the stored energy in the circuit,
I =
S
÷[V
t
E
z
[
2
÷ k
2
e
[E
z
[
2
] ds (46)
This development also indicates that a magnetic wall is a natural boundary
condition of the functional. It need not therefore be separately catered for in
any problem which is bounded by such a wall.
Variational calculus, functional and RayleighRitz procedure 307
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ABCD notation 158, 205, 212, 287
immittance inverter 1969
2port step discontinuity 1547
admittance 34, 155, 1589, 165, 200, 2778
powercurrent 41
powervoltage 40
voltagecurrent 39
admittance inverter 1901, 193, 195, 199
amplitude modulator 148
antipodal finline waveguide 2423
aspect ratio 35, 160
attenuation 45, 7, 62, 82
bandpass filter 1112, 163, 189,
1935, 2014, 267
Eplane 2213
equivalent circuit 2023
evanescent waveguide inverters 223
frequency response 2223
metal septa 2012, 221
order 204
bandwidth 80
basis function 3045
Bessel function 276
Bethe s smallhole coupling theory 1735
circular apertures 174
slot apertures 174
bifurcated waveguide 208, 218, 226, 2368
bilateral finline waveguide 2424, 267
fields 2501
impedance 242, 244, 251
propagation 2457
boundary conditions 2978, 3023
electric 2978, 303
magnetic 2978, 303, 308
Butterworth approximation 2046
capacitance 28
Cauer type ladder network 18991, 196
Chebyshev solution 204
circular polarisation 99102, 1812
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
83, 105, 107, 109
double ridge waveguide 99, 116
finline waveguide 2513
parallel plate waveguide 102
rectangular waveguide 1922
single ridge waveguide 99, 1079, 11115
circular waveguide 11718, 122, 128, 135,
148
cutoff space 120, 1225
field patterns 121, 127
impedance 1323
circulator 14850
degree3 28891
differential phase shift 23840
Eplane 2623, 2667
finline 2669
Hplane 2612
ideal 150, 259, 261
phase angle 259
ridge 27096
turnstile 25663
closed form description 47, 6970, 77, 79
double ridge waveguide 378, 445, 548
single ridge waveguide 356, 423
complex gyrator circuit 27683
conical ridges 1214, 132
coupling angle 275, 280, 2823, 287, 296
coupling aperture 173
coupling factor 172, 180
crossguide directional coupler 1703
circular aperture 172
coupling 170, 1723, 178, 180,
1836
crossedslot aperture 17586
directivity 172, 180, 187
crossedslot aperture 17586
Index
attenuation 1846
0degree 1759
45degree 17986
rectangular waveguide 1778
single ridge waveguide 1789
cutoff number 28, 159, 246
cutoff space 13, 2630
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
8891
double ridge waveguide 4, 28, 30,
502, 123
gyromagnetic ridge waveguide 143
quadruple ridge waveguide 11921, 1245
single ridge waveguide 2930, 745, 122
triple ridge waveguide 1234
cutoff wavelength 49
double ridge waveguide 37, 44
rectangular waveguide 15
single ridge waveguide 35, 42
degree3 circulator
frequency response 287, 2923
network variables 28891
degree3 equal ripple frequency response
278, 280, 2856
demagnetising factor 284
diagonal ridges 118, 120, 127
dielectric constant 2956
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
8398, 231, 2346
boundary conditions 856
circular polarisation 105, 107, 109
cutoff space 8891, 12730
cutoff wavelength 90
ellipticity 110
impedance 923, 98
modes 834, 88, 903
open halfspace 100
partially dielectric loaded 96
propagation constant 901, 946
dielectric rods 128
dielectric tiles 12830
dielectric transformer 292, 294
differential phase shift 2302
differential phase shift circulator
23840
directional coupler 89, 138
coupling 1703, 178, 180, 1836
crossguide 1703
directivity 172, 180, 187
scattering matrix 9, 171
directivity 172, 180, 187
directly coupled filter circuits 189206
Dirichlet condition 48, 86
discontinuity 15369, 20712
double ridge 28
equivalent circuit 1545
measurement 1607
mode matching method 20712
single ridge 28, 15369
symmetrical 21618
discretisation
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
889, 111
double ridge waveguide 502, 678
quadruple ridge waveguide 1245, 130
single ridge waveguide 75
see also finite element method
double ridge waveguide 6, 27, 4762, 6372
admittance 34, 3941
attenuation constant 62
circular polarisation 99 116
cutoff space 4, 28, 30, 502, 88, 123
cutoff wavelength 37, 44
field patterns 3, 4761
impedance 5, 324, 368, 456,
6371, 923, 98
power flow 31
propagation constant 901
Eplane bandpass filter 2213
Eplane circulator 2623, 2667
Eplane filter 2013, 208, 2213
Eplane septum 2201
eigennetworks 2167, 271, 2734
finline circulator 266, 2689
ridge circulator 271, 2734
eigensolution 2978, 306
eigenvalue 2979, 305
eigenvector 2978, 3056
electric energy 299300, 303
electric wall 2978, 300, 3023
electron spin 226, 229, 233
elliptical polarisation 101, 1034, 110, 152,
182
ellipticity 188, 232
evanescent mode waveguide 2001, 221,
2235
equivalent circuit 200
Faraday rotation 13441, 14452
electric field 137
magnetic field 136
quadruple ridge waveguide 13450
scattering matrix 1389
triple ridge waveguide 1502
Faraday rotation circulator 14850
Faraday rotation isolator 145, 1489
Index 323
Faraday rotation phase shifter 14951
ferrite devices 22738
differential phase shift
circulator 238
phase shifter 22733
resonance isolator 2338
ferrite ring 137, 1434
ferrite rod 137, 145, 148
ferrite tiles 137
phase shifter 22631
quadruple ridge waveguide 1447
resonance isolator 2357
ferromagnetic resonance 227
field patterns see modes
filling factor 129, 268
filter circuits 11
filter design 207, 216, 221
finite element method 2978, 304,
307
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
839, 94
double ridge waveguide 4754, 56, 58,
6371
hybrid 838
quadruple ridge waveguide 121,
1245
single ridge waveguide 7382
finline circulator 2669
finline isolator 2525
figure of merit 2534
finline waveguide 24155
circular polarisation 2513
fields 24851
propagation 2457
topologies 2412
free space permeability 284
free space wavelength 49
functional 48, 50, 1245, 297, 300, 3056
gyromagnetic waveguide 1413
hybrid 848
mathematical technique 3078
planar isotropic circuit 3024
stationary value 2989
gap factor 35, 162, 1647
garnet tiles 226
Green s theorem 25, 3078
gyrator circuit 13941, 270
complex 27683, 285, 287
gyromagnetic ratio 284
gyromagnetic resonator 256, 2626, 2701,
281, 284
mode chart 279
perturbation theory 2645
quality factor 266
gyromagnetic waveguide 135, 1445, 148,
257, 261
functional 1413
perturbation theory 264
triple ridge 1502
gyrotropy 1502, 270, 281, 284
complex gyrator circuit 278, 280
Hplane circulator 2612
halfwave plate 153
halfwave ridge 1545, 15760
characterisation 1603
frequency response 157
Helmholtz equation 845, 2978
hybrid finite element calculation 838
ideal circulator 150, 259, 261
ideal transformer 162, 1646, 268
immittance 158, 1656
immittance inverter 1112, 163,
18998, 200, 221
bandpass filter 1935
evanescent 2001
lowpass filter 1903
immittance matrix 212
impedance 1, 3, 15, 17
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
923, 98
double ridge waveguide 324, 368, 456,
6372, 133
finite element method 6371
finline waveguide 242, 2445, 251
free space 15, 49
mathematical technique 224
powercurrent 17, 19, 23, 338, 68, 71,
79, 81
powervoltage 5, 15, 18, 23, 323,
357, 6770, 78, 80, 1323
quadruple ridge waveguide 1323
rectangular waveguide 1, 1819,
224, 712
single ridge waveguide 323, 357, 43,
7881
transverse 15
voltagecurrent 17, 19, 223, 315, 37, 64
9, 71, 789, 923, 98
impedance inverter 190, 1989
bandpass filter 1934
lowpass filter 1903
impedance matrix 2727
inductors 1913
insertion loss 79, 205, 234, 269
insertion phase at deviation 231
insulated finline waveguide 2423
324 Index
inverter
admittance 1901, 193, 195, 199
immittance 1112, 163, 18998, 200
impedance 1904, 1989
isolation 234
isolator 145, 1489, 2267, 2338
bifurcated ridge waveguide 2368
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 2346
figure of merit 234, 236, 238
finline 2525
frequency response 235, 237
insertion loss 234
isolation 234
junction circulator
complex gyrator circuit 2778
impedance matrix 2727
reentrant Eplane 2623
reentrant Hplane 2612
scattering matrix 25961
turnstile 25661
Kittel frequency 234, 237
ladder network 18991, 196, 207
lowpass filter 18992, 196, 2046,
222, 2245
frequency response 225
insertion loss function 2056
series elements 191, 196
shunt elements 191, 196
lumped element resonator 1945
lumped element susceptance 153, 167
magictee 910, 23840
scattering matrix 10
magnetic dipole moment 176, 180
magnetic energy 299300, 302
magnetic field integral equation method 59
62
quadruple ridge waveguide 11920, 1267
magnetic wall 2978, 300, 3023, 308
magnetisation 284
matched 3port junction 256
matching circuit 270
matching networks 153
Maxwell s equations 49, 66, 298, 301
microwave filter
design 216
frequency response 2056
mode matching method 1214, 160, 20715,
221
double septa 215
eigensolutions 21820
1port networks 21214
symmetrical discontinuity 21618
thick septum 215
modes 3067
degenerate 25
dielectric loaded ridge waveguide
834, 88, 903
double ridge waveguide 3, 27, 4761
finline waveguide 243, 24851
orthogonal properties 245
parallel plate waveguide 103
quadruple ridge waveguide 11927
rectangular waveguide 1416
ridge circulator 271
single ridge waveguide 27, 80
TE 4756, 5960
TM 50, 568
network problem 2857, 2956
Neumann boundary condition 48, 86
nonreciprocal components 11, 101, 134,
139, 256
phase shifter 14951, 22633
resonance isolator 226
nonreciprocal ferrite devices 19, 226
differential phase shift circulator 238
isolator 2338
phase shifter 22733
octave band devices 27880
parallel plate waveguide 1008
circular polarisation 102
dielectric loaded 1023
elliptical polarisation 1045
field pattern 1056, 108
permeability 2267, 22930
effective 281
free space 284
perturbation theory 2645
phase constant 1356
gyromagnetic waveguide 145
rectangular waveguide 15
square waveguide 132
phase deviation 230
phase shifter 14951, 22633
bandwidth 2312
90degree 2313
dielectric loaded ridge
waveguide 2313
differential phase shift 2302
figure of merit 2312
insertion phase at deviation 2312
phase deviation 2301
Index 325
picircuit 165, 169, 198201
planar circuit 299304
electric energy 299300, 303
electric field 300
magnetic energy 299300, 302
magnetic field 3002
polarisability 1734
4port Faraday rotation
circulator 14850
1port networks 21214
2port step discontinuity 1547
power flow see power transmission
power loss 4, 612
power transmission 4, 61
double ridge waveguide 31
rectangular waveguide 1718, 24
single ridge waveguide 31
Poynting theorem 17
Poynting vector 61, 179, 299
propagation constant 49, 200
dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide
90, 946
dielectric loaded square
waveguide 91, 97
quadruple ridge waveguide 11721, 12433,
135
cutoff space 11921, 1245, 12730, 143
dielectric loaded 12730
Faraday rotation 13450
fields 1267
gyromagnetic 1435
impedance 1323
quality factor 1601, 163, 27780,
2823
external 1579, 161
quarterwave coupled circulator
frequency response 287, 2923
quarterwave plate 117
quarterwave ridge transformer 389
RayleighRitz method 48, 50, 84, 87, 142,
297, 3046
trial function 304
rectangular waveguide 1325
boundary conditions 14
circular polarisation 1922
cutoff space 8891
cutoff wavelength 15
impedance 15, 1719, 224
modes 1416
phase constant 15
power transmission 1718, 24
propagation constant 901, 94
wave equation 1314
reflection coefficient 138, 157, 205
resonance frequency 234
resonator 2619
return loss 2223, 269, 293
ridge circulator 27096
degree3 28593
impedance matrix 2727
scattering matrix 212
semitracking ridge circulator 271,
27885
frequency response 293
octaveband 292, 2956
physical variables 2845
quality factor 278, 2823
single ridge waveguide 27, 7382
circular polarisation 99, 1079,
11115
cutoff space 2930, 745, 122
cutoff wavelength 35, 42
discontinuity effects 15369
equivalent circuit 29
fields 757
impedance 323, 357, 43, 7881
insertion loss 79
power flow 31
scalar permeability 22930
skin resistance 62
slot attenuation 1846
spinwave instability 232
square waveguide 91, 97, 11718,
132, 135
cutoff space 11920
fields 1267
phase constant 132
propagation constant 91, 97
standing wave solution
double ridge waveguide 524
gyromagnetic ridge waveguide 1467
quadruple ridge waveguide 131
single ridge waveguide 77
trapezoidal ridges 72
stationary value 2979
susceptance 30, 31, 157, 162, 167
susceptance slope parameter 277,
27980, 2823, 287
switch 149
symmetrical septum 21618
teecircuit 198201
inverter 198201
symmetrical short section 1634, 168
tensor permeability 227, 264, 276, 281, 284
transformer, ideal 162, 1646, 268
326 Index
transmission coefficient 138, 157, 174, 205
transmission matrix 212
transverse resonance method 267, 70, 74,
80, 94
trapezoidal ridges 712
triple ridge waveguide
cutoff space 1234
Faraday rotation 1502
turnstile circulator 1112, 25663,
2689
Eplane 2623
Hplane 257, 2612
turnstile junction 5, 8
scattering matrix 8
turnstile resonator 2669
twisted rectangular waveguide 13941
unilateral finline waveguide 2424, 267
circular polarisation 2523
fields 24850
impedance 242, 245
propagation 2457
unilateral resonance isolator 2545
variational method 50, 84, 297, 3034
wave equation 1314, 24, 141, 2978
wave number 301
waveguide geometry 12
waveguide transitions 1011
waveguide wavelength 49
WR 28 waveguide 242, 2445, 247
WR 42 waveguide 269
WR 51 waveguide 254
WR 62 waveguide 1601
WR 137 waveguide 186
WRD 200 waveguide 2312
WRD 580 waveguide 183, 187
WRD 750 waveguide 2212, 2348
WRS 580 waveguide 183, 187
Index 327
IET ElEcTromagnETIc WavEs sErIEs 49
Series Editors: Professor P.J.B. Clarricoats Professor E.V. Jull
Ridge Waveguides and Passive Microwave Components
Other volumes in this series:
Geometrical theory of diffraction for electromagnetic waves, 3rd edition G.L. James Volume 10 Aperture antennas and diffraction theory E.V. Jull Volume 11 Adaptive array principles J.E. Hudson Volume 12 Microstrip antenna theory and design J.R. James, P.S. Hall and C. Wood Volume 15 The handbook of antenna design, volume 1 A.W. Rudge, K. Milne, A.D. Oliver and P. Knight (Editors) Volume 16 The handbook of antenna design, volume 2 A.W. Rudge, K. Milne, A.D. Oliver and P. Knight (Editors) Volume 18 Corrugated horns for microwave antennas P.J.B. Clarricoats and A.D. Oliver Volume 19 Microwave antenna theory and design S. Silver (Editor) Volume 21 Waveguide handbook N. Marcuvitz Volume 23 Ferrites at microwave frequencies A.J. Baden Fuller Volume 24 Propagation of short radio waves D.E. Kerr (Editor) Volume 25 Principles of microwave circuits C.G. Montgomery, R.H. Dicke and E.M. Purcell (Editors) Volume 26 Spherical nearfield antenna measurements J.E. Hansen (Editor) Volume 28 Handbook of microstrip antennas, 2 volumes J.R. James and P.S. Hall (Editors) Volume 31 Ionospheric radio K. Davies Volume 32 Electromagnetic waveguides: theory and application S.F. Mahmoud Volume 33 Radio direction finding and superresolution, 2nd edition P.J.D. Gething Volume 34 Electrodynamic theory of superconductors S.A. Zhou Volume 35 VHF and UHF antennas R.A. Burberry Volume 36 Propagation, scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves A.S. Ilyinski, G. Ya.Slepyan and A. Ya.Slepyan Volume 37 Geometrical theory of diffraction V.A. Borovikov and B.Ye. Kinber Volume 38 Analysis of metallic antenna and scatterers B.D. Popovic and B.M. Kolundzija Volume 39 Microwave horns and feeds A.D. Olver, P.J.B. Clarricoats, A.A. Kishk and L. Shafai Volume 41 Approximate boundary conditions in electromagnetics T.B.A. Senior and J.L. Volakis Volume 42 Spectral theory and excitation of open structures V.P. Shestopalov and Y. Shestopalov Volume 43 Open electromagnetic waveguides T. Rozzi and M. Mongiardo Volume 44 Theory of nonuniform waveguides: the crosssection method B.Z. Katsenelenbaum, L. Mercader Del Rio, M. Pereyaslavets, M. Sorella Ayza and M.K.A. Thumm Volume 45 Parabolic equation methods for electromagnetic wave propagation M. Levy Volume 46 Advanced electromagnetic analysis of passive and active planar structures T. Rozzi and M. Farinai Volume 47 Electromagnetic mixing formulas and applications A. Sihvola Volume 48 Theory and design of microwave filters I.C. Hunter Volume 49 Handbook of ridge waveguides and passive components J. Helszajn Volume 50 Channels, propagation and antennas for mobile communications R. Vaughan and J. BachAnderson Volume 51 Asymptotic and hybrid methods in electromagnetics F. Molinet, I. Andronov and D. Bouche Volume 52 Thermal microwave radiation: applications for remote sensing C. Matzler (Editor) Volume 53 Principles of planar nearfield antenna measurements S. Gregson, J. McCormick and C. Parini Volume 502 Propagation of radiowaves, 2nd edition L.W. Barclay (Editor) Volume 1
Ridge Waveguides and Passive Microwave Components
J. Helszajn
The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom © 2000 The Institution of Electrical Engineers First published 2000 This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: The Institution of Engineering and Technology Michael Faraday House Six Hills Way, Stevenage Herts, SG1 2AY, United Kingdom www.theiet.org While the author and the publishers believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of them. Neither the author nor the publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed. The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of this work have been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN (10 digit) 0 85296 794 2 ISBN (13 digit) 9780852967942
First printed in the UK by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall
Toujours, Ille
.
8 Turnstile junction circulator 2 Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 2.6 Waveguide transitions 1.4 Impedance in waveguides 2.5 Ridge waveguide junctions 1.7 Circular polarisation in rectangular waveguides 2.4 Attenuation of ridge waveguide 1.8 Calculation of impedance based on a mathematical technique 2.6 Impedance in rectangular waveguides 2.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide 1.5 Power transmission through rectangular waveguides 2. Caplin 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The wave equation 2.3 Dominant mode in rectangular waveguides 2.1 Introduction 1.3 Impedance of ridge waveguide 1.1 Introduction 2.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide xiii 1 1 1 3 4 5 10 11 11 13 13 13 14 15 17 18 19 22 24 26 26 26 .Contents Preface 1 The ridge waveguide 1.7 Filter circuits 1. Helszajn and M.9 Orthogonal properties of waveguide modes 3 Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides using the transverse resonance method J.
9 Power ¯ow in ridge waveguide Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide Powercurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide Admittances of double ridge waveguide Closed form polynomials for single and double ridge waveguides Synthesis of quarterwave ridge transformers 31 31 32 33 34 35 38 47 47 47 50 50 52 54 56 59 61 61 63 63 64 66 67 71 73 73 74 75 78 79 80 4 Fields.5 Impedance of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ribs 6 Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method M.3 Finite element method (TM modes) 4.2 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 5.8 MFIE 4. Helszajn 6.4 Impedance of single ridge waveguide 6. Helszajn and M.6 3.10 Attenuation in waveguides 5 Impedance of double ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method J.3 3.4 Powercurrent and powervoltage de®nitions of impedance 5. McKay and J.1 Introduction 6. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 4.5 3. McKay 5.8 3.3 Calculation of voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 5.9 The Poynting vector 4.viii Contents 3.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide 6.1 Introduction 5.5 Insertion loss in single ridge waveguide 6.5 Standing wave solution in double ridge waveguide 4.7 3.4 3.6 Higher order modes .7 TM ®elds in double ridge waveguide 4.3 Fields in single ridge waveguide 6.2 Finite element calculation (TE modes) 4.1 Introduction 4.4 Cuto space (TE mode) 4.6 TE ®elds in double ridge waveguide 4.
3 Open halfspace of asymmetrically dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 8.6 Circular polarisation in homogeneous ridge waveguide 9 Quadruple ridge waveguide 9.2 Quadruple ridge waveguide 9.6 Ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic ring 10.5 Circular polarisation in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 8.2 Hybrid functional 7.4 Cuto space of ridge waveguide using MMM 9.7 Cuto space of dielectric loaded quadruple ridge waveguide 9.5 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded square waveguide 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Circular polarisation 8.4 Gyrator network 10.1 Introduction 8. Helszajn 7. McKay and J.3 Cuto space in quadruple ridge waveguide using MFIE method 9.5 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using FEM 9.7 Quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles 83 83 84 88 90 91 92 99 99 100 100 102 105 107 117 117 117 119 121 121 126 127 132 134 134 135 138 139 141 144 144 .1 Introduction 10.6 Fields in quadruple ridge waveguide 9.3 Scattering matrix of Faraday rotation section 10.4 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded rectangular ridge waveguide 7.6 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance 8 Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded ridge waveguides 8.3 Cuto space of dielectric loaded rectangular ridge waveguide 7.1 Introduction 9.5 Gyromagnetic waveguide functional 10.2 Faraday rotation section 10.Contents ix 7 Propagation constant and impedance of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide using a hybrid ®nite element solver M.8 Impedance in quadruple ridge circular waveguide using conical ridges 10 Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 10.4 Circular polarisation in dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguides with open sidewalls 8.
9 Element values of lowpass prototypes 13.1 Introduction 14.7 The 45degree crossedslot aperture 12.4 The 0degree crossedslot aperture 12.2 Operation of crossguide directional coupler 12.4 Bandpass ®lters using immittance inverters 13.5 Experimental characterisation 11.7 Immittance inverters using evanescent mode waveguide 13.6 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in single ridge waveguide 12.2 Immittance inverters 13.1 Introduction 12.1 Introduction 13.10 10. Helszajn 12. Helszajn 14.9 Rectangular and ridge waveguide crossguide couplers using 45degree crossedslot apertures 12.11 Faraday rotation isolator Fourport Faraday rotation circulator Nonreciprocal Faraday rotationtype phase shifter Faraday rotation in dualmode triple ridge waveguide 145 148 148 149 153 153 154 157 157 160 163 170 170 170 173 175 177 178 179 181 182 184 189 189 189 190 193 195 198 200 201 204 205 207 207 207 11 Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single ridge waveguide 11.3 Lowpass ®lters using immittance inverters 13.10 Frequency response of microwave ®lters 14 Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method M.8 Circular polarisation in rectangular and ridge waveguides 12.3 Bethe's smallhole coupling theory 12.6 Symmetrical short section 12 Ridge crossguide directional coupler M. McKay and J.8 10.4 Characterisation of halfwave long ridge waveguide testset 11.2 ABCD parameters of 2port step discontinuity 11.5 Immittance inverters 13.10 Coupling via waveguide walls of ®nite thickness 13 Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 13.8 Eplane ®lter 13.1 Introduction 11.2 Mode matching method .3 Frequency response 11. McKay and J.5 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in rectangular waveguide 12.9 10.x Contents 10.6 Practical inverter 13.
9 Lowpass ridge ®lters using immittance inverters 15 Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 15.4 Double septa and thick septum problem regions 14.3 MMM characterisation of 1port networks 14.6 Bilateral ®nline 16.5 Fields in unilateral ®nline waveguide 16.3 Normalised wavelength and impedance in ®nline 16.6 Eigensolutions of waveguide sections 14.5 MMM characterisation of symmetrical waveguide discontinuities 14. insertion loss and ®gure of merit of resonance isolator 15.5 Closed gyromagnetic resonator 212 215 216 218 221 221 222 226 226 227 230 231 233 234 236 238 241 241 241 242 245 247 250 251 251 251 256 256 256 261 262 262 .7 Empirical formulation of impedance in bilateral ®nline waveguide 16.2 Turnstile junction circulator 17.7 Resonance isolator in bifurcated ridge waveguide 15.7 Immittance inverters 14.6 Resonance isolator in dielectric loaded WRD 750 ridge waveguide 15.8 Dierential phase shift circulator 16 Finline waveguide 16.1 Introduction 16.4 Reentrant Eplane waveguide circulator 17.1 Introduction 17.5 Isolation.3 Dierential phase shift.3 Reentrant Hplane waveguide circulator 17.8 Eplane bandpass ®lters using metal inverters 14.9 Finline isolator using hexagonal ferrite substrate 17 Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 17.4 Empirical expressions for propagation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline 16.1 Introduction 15.Contents xi 14.2 Nonreciprocal ferrite devices in rectangular waveguide 15.4 90degree phase shifter in dielectric loaded WRD 200 ridge waveguide 15.8 Circular polarisation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline waveguides 16.2 Finline waveguide topologies 16. phase deviation and ®gure of merit of ferrite phase shifter 15.
8 Derivation of energy functional based on a mathematical technique Bibliography Index .8 Network problem 18.7 Field patterns 19.9 Experimental adjustment of ®nline turnstile circulator 264 266 266 268 270 270 271 272 277 278 281 285 285 287 294 296 296 297 298 299 301 303 305 306 308 322 18 Semitracking ridge circulator 18.8 Eplane ®nline circulator using coupled Hplane turnstile resonators 17.3 Impedance matrix 18. functionals and the RayleighRitz procedure 19.7 Quality factor of closed gyromagnetic resonator 17.9 Frequency response 18.4 Electric and magnetic ®elds in planar circuits with top and bottom electric walls 19.7 Physical variables of semitracking circulators 18.1 Introduction 19.6 Direct magnetic ®eld and magnetisation of semitracking circulators 18.5 Derivation of functional for planar isotropic circuits 19.10 Design of octaveband semitracking circulators 19 Variational calculus.3 Electrical and magnetic energies in planar circuits 19.2 Stationary value of functional 19.2 Phenomenological adjustment 18.1 Introduction 18.4 Complex gyrator circuit 18.5 Semitracking complex gyrator circuit 18.6 RayleighRitz procedure 19.xii Contents 17.6 Perturbation theory of closed cylindrical gyromagnetic resonator 17.
The important problem of a step discontinuity between a regular and single ridge waveguide is separately addressed. Another quantity of some importance in the design of nonreciprocal devices is the existence of circular polarisation of the alternating magnetic ®eld. It consists of a regular rectangular waveguide with one or more metal inserts or ridges. Such ®llers support planes of counterrotating circular polarisation on either side of the interfaces between the dielectric and free space regions and everywhere outside. The main advantage of this type of waveguide over a conventional one is the wider separation between the dominant mode and the ®rst order one. Important quantities that enter into the description of any waveguide are the de®nitions of its propagation constant.Preface An important transmission line met in microwave engineering is the ridge waveguide. Propagation in the ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between the ridges is separately investigated using the ®nite element method. The text includes closed form descriptions and ®nite element calculations on each of these quantities. be realised in ridge topology. powercurrent and voltagecurrent de®nitions of its impedance are other salient properties. Nonreciprocal ferrite devices such as isolators. phase shifters. which plays an important role in the design of a number of nonreciprocal ferrite devices. An introduction to the design of lowpass and bandpass ®lters based on the mode matching method is also included. dierential . attenuation and mode spectrum. One typical device dealt with is the crossguide directional coupler. The powervoltage. in practice. Its study is given special attention. Propagation in the quadruple ridge waveguide with and without a gyromagnetic ®ller is separately attended to. It is also given special attention. Another ridge structure is the circular or square waveguide with more than one ridge. Most standard passive components met in microwave engineering can. The latter arrangement supports socalled Faraday rotation. One canonical representation of this sort of step is a shunt susceptance in cascade with an ideal transformer.
November 2000 .xiv Preface phase shift and junction circulators are also readily constructed in this waveguide. The text includes typical realisations of some of these components. One typical component is the 3port ®nline circulator. Only a brief introduction to it is included here for completeness' sake. A closely related waveguide to the ridge one is the ®nline geometry about which much has already been written. Since much of the material presented in this text relies in its formulation on the ®nite element method an introductory chapter on the origin of this method is included for completeness.
Square or round waveguides with one or more ridges have also been described. Typical geometries are illustrated in Figure 1.3 illustrates the ®eld patterns for the ®rst quasiTE mode for two dierent geometries in this sort of waveguide. Figure 1. Another is the fact that its impedance is bracketed between that of the regular rectangular waveguide (377 ) and those of coaxial and stripline structures (50 ).2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide An important fundamental quantity entering into the description of any waveguide is its cuto number. 1. An important feature of this sort of waveguide compared to the conventional rectangular waveguide is the wider separation between the cuto numbers of its dominant and ®rst higher order mode. The original ridge waveguide consisted of a regular rectangular waveguide with one or two ridge inserts. Most passive components that may be realised in conventional rectangular waveguides are also available in ridge geometry.2 depicts some such structures.1 Introduction A waveguide used in many broadband microwave equipments is the ridge geometry.1. The in¯uence of the ridge inserts on the cuto space of the dominant mode in the double ridge arrangement is illustrated in Figure 1. One property of this sort of waveguide is that its cuto number can be varied by adjusting the details of the ridge without altering its outside dimensions. This chapter includes some typical arrangements by way of introduction.Chapter 1 The ridge waveguide 1. Some more recent con®gurations have various arrangements of two or more ridges.4 by way of example. The guide wavelength . Figure 1.
1 Schematic diagrams of rectangular ridge waveguides (!g) is related to the cuto (!c) and free space (!0) wavelengths in the usual way by 2 2 2 2% 2% 2% À !g !0 !c Figure 1.2 Schematic diagrams of square and round ridge waveguides .2 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 1.
5 depicts the relationship between the powervoltage de®nition of impedance and the details of the double ridge waveguide. 1. d/b 0. Another property of the ridge waveguide. Still another property of this waveguide is that its impedance at ®nite frequency is related to that at in®nite frequency by !g Z 3 Z I !0 This identity holds equally for each of the de®nitions of impedance in common usage. . in keeping with the conventional one. Figure 1. IEE Proc. the ®nite element method (FEM) or other numerical techniques. The cuto space of the ridge waveguide may be deduced by making use of the mode matching method (MMM). Helszajn & McKay (1998. powervoltage (Zpv) and powercurrent (Zpi) de®nitions.5) Reprinted with permission.1.) A table of standard commercial double ridge waveguides for various frequency bands is reproduced in Table 1. The three usual choices are based on voltagecurrent (Zvi).5.3 Standing wave solutions of dominant TE mode of double ridge waveguide for two dierent values of s/a (b/a 0.The ridge waveguide 3 Figure 1. is that it has no unique de®nition of impedance.3 Impedance of ridge waveguide A feature of the ridge waveguide is that the value of its characteristic impedance can be readily adjusted between that of a regular rectangular waveguide and of a coaxial cable.
the time averaged power transmitted through the waveguide may be approximately written as Pt 3 Pt exp À2z The power loss per unit length is separately de®ned by P À dPt 2Pt dz The attenuation per unit length () is therefore described by .4 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 1.4 Attenuation of ridge waveguide An important quantity in the speci®cation of any transmission line is its attenuation per unit length ().4 Cuto space of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.50) After Cohn (1947) 1. If the dissipation per unit length is small.
5 Powervoltage impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.The ridge waveguide 5 Figure 1. One practical component that embodies both rectangular and circular ridge waveguides is the turnstile junction. 1. It is a 6port network with four .5 Ridge waveguide junctions Most commercial passive microwave components which are available in regular rectangular waveguides can also be fabricated in ridge geometry.50) After Hopfer (1955) P dBam 2Pt Figure 1.6 summarises the relationships between frequency and attenuation per unit length of various waveguides and lines.
00 0.002 1.019 0.003 9.030 0.606 Æ 0.67 Æ 0.080 750 7.003 20.69 Æ 0.004 34.08 0.829 Æ 0.791 Æ 0.608 Æ 0.46 Æ 0.39 Æ 0.003 11.022 0.85 Æ 0.238 2.030 0.08 0.08 1.05 0.292 Æ 0.421 Æ 0.08 0.002 13.59 Æ 0.08 0.08 0.80±16.020 0.015 0.45 Æ 0.82 Æ 0.20 0.003 3.73 Æ 0.80 0.002 2.002 4.08 0.053 1.780 Æ 0.365 Æ 0.003 8.003 19.75±11.173 Æ 0.00 0.08 0.85 Æ 0.6 Table 1.750 Æ 0.015 0.590 Æ 0.1 Standard commercial double ridge waveguides MILW23351/4B A B C D E F max Dimensions in inches.002 3.05 0.506 Æ 0.480 Æ 0.08 0.003 11.40 Æ 0.08 0.003 7.73fc dB/FT 200 2.003 30.05 0.08 0.08 Æ 0. mm on second line G Æ10% H WRD Frequency range GHz Theoretical attenuation for copper at 1.118 Æ 0.05 0.08 0.370 Æ 0.512 Æ 0.59 Æ 0.09 Æ 0.46 Æ 0.004 40.299 Æ 0.003 5.05 0.691 Æ 0.003 27.002 5.69 Æ 0.057 Æ 0.40 Æ 0.190 Æ 0.56 Æ 0.35 Æ 0.76 0.08 0.321 Æ 0.10 1.08 0.020 0.136 Æ 0.50±18.003 37.002 9.173 Æ 0.00 0.997 Æ 0.59 0.043 1.10 0.102 2.05 0.003 18.91 Æ 0.51 0.004 65.08 1.050 1.003 14.09 0.688 Æ 0.05 Æ 0.370 Æ 0.002 6.002 5.23 Æ 0.42 Æ 0.648 Æ 0.043 1.820 Æ 0.51 0.00 Æ 0.003 17.00 0.368 Æ 0.004 20.003 10.720 Æ 0.08 2.205 Æ 0.471 Æ 0.29 Æ 0.05 0.003 10.69 Æ 0.003 7.48 Æ 0.00 Æ 0.39 Æ 0.114 180 18.10 1.421 Æ 0.10 1.50±18.08 0.321 Æ 0.09 0.003 5.15 Æ 0.08 1.002 16.50±8.57 Æ 0.08 0.05 0.003 15.38 0.00 0.816 Æ 0.072 Æ 0.35 Æ 0.00±40.003 12.96 Æ 0.10 0.002 4.003 9.002 3.362 Æ 0.020 0.002 2.08 0.51 0.38 0.27 0.28 0.134 Æ 0.011 0.05 0.214 Æ 0.40 Æ 0.08 0.47 0.551 Æ 0.288 Æ 0.003 17.05 .003 22.32 Æ 0.065 650 6.120 Æ 0.05 0.39 Æ 0.05 0.56 0.05 0.44 Æ 0.50 0.61 Æ 0.002 2.79 Æ 0.55 Æ 0.00±26.08 0.0324 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 580 5.08 0.69 0.004 69.200 Æ 0.0089 350 3.219 Æ 0.0204 475 4.00±4.83 Æ 0.08 0.448 Æ 0.272 Æ 0.093 Æ 0.880 Æ 0.10 0.0641 110 11.08 0.76 0.94 Æ 0.027 0.09 Æ 0.004 30.215 Æ 0.84 Æ 0.05 0.003 20.003 8.05 0.002 1.002 7.48 0.08 0.470 Æ 0.05 0.15 Æ 0.101 Æ 0.
.The ridge waveguide 7 Figure 1.6 Attenuation in ridge and various other waveguides Courtesy of Litton Inc.
. . . . . . . . . . then 0 0 0 1 jj p 2 1 j4j p 2 Another classic component is the crossguide directional coupler. .7 Ridge waveguide turnstile ± a symmetrical 6port junction . The scattering matrix of this junction is described by I F F 4 F 0 g f f g F f 4 g F 0 F f g f g F f g f F À4 0 g F f g S f g F f F F 0 À4 g f g f. Single and double ridge geometries are illustrated in H Figure 1. Figure 1. . . g F f g f 4 0 À4 0 F F 0 g d e F 0 4 0 À4 F 0 F If the junction is matched.8 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components ports in the rectangular waveguide and two in the circular one. It is de®ned as a matched 4port network with one adjacent port decoupled from any input port. .7 depicts its geometry. . . . . . . .
The waveguide section containing ports 1 and 3 is sometimes referred to as the primary waveguide.and Eplane tee junctions.The ridge waveguide 9 Figure 1.9.8 Schematic diagrams of single and double ridge crossguide directional coupler Figure 1.and Eplane ports. It may be visualised as a combination of H. A wave incident at the Hplane port of the junction divides equally between the symmetric ports. The scattering matrix of the circuit is . Inphase or outofphase waves at the symmetric ports recombine at the H. while that containing ports 2 and 4 is denoted the secondary waveguide.8. A commercial version is reproduced in Figure 1. a wave at the Eplane port produces outofphase equal amplitude waves at the two symmetric ports. symmetric and lossless network with port 2 decoupled from port 1 is given in the usual way by P Q 0 0 S31 S41 T 0 0 S41 S31 U T U S T U R S31 S41 0 0 S S41 S31 0 0 The relationship between the transmitted S31 and coupled S41 coecients is given by the unitary condition Ã Ã S31 S31 S41 S41 1 Ã Ã S31 S41 S31 S41 0 One solution is S31 S41 j Another much used ridge component is the magictee. The scattering matrix of the ideal.
in any piece of equipment.10b. Transitions between various types of transmission lines are therefore necessary in practice. The waveguide transition consists of one or more quarterwave long impedance transformers with intermediate crosssections to those being joined. One common transition is that between the standard and the ridge waveguide. 0 T0 T S T R where P 0 0 Q U U U 0 0S 0 0 À 1 p 2 1. another is between a coaxial cable and a ridge. .6 Waveguide transitions It is not unusual.10 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 1. A single section arrangement is indicated in Figure 1. to have some of its components in one sort of waveguide and some in another.9 Commercial ridge magictee Courtesy of Israel Microwave Components Ltd.10a and a coaxial to ridge waveguide transition in Figure 1.
The ridge waveguide 11
Figure 1.10 Schematic diagrams of ridge transitions a Single ridge section; b coaxial to ridge
1.7 Filter circuits
No passive piece of microwave equipment is complete without one or more ®lter circuits. The ridge waveguide is again appropriate in this instance. One possible topology is a bandpass ®lter made up of halfwave long UEs separated by suitable immittance inverters. One realisation of a typical inverter is a short section of cuto rectangular waveguide. Figure 1.11 depicts the overall structure in question.
1.8 Turnstile junction circulator
Another important class of ridge waveguide components is the nonreciprocal one. One possible assembly is the 4port turnstile circulator. It is realised from the 6port turnstile junction by a 45 degree Faraday rotation bit in the round waveguide. This arrangement is shown in Figure 1.12. The operation of the circulator in question may be understood by considering a typical input wave at port 1. Such a wave produces no re¯ection at port 1, decouples ports 3 and 6, establishes equal inphase waves at ports 2 and 4
12 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 1.11 Schematic diagram of ridge bandpass ®lter using immittance inverters
Figure 1.12 Turnstile circulator: polarisation 5 is rotated 45 degrees, re¯ected, then rotated 45 degrees further to polarisation 6 After Allen (1956)
and produces a component at port 5. The wave at port 5, upon traversing up and down the 45 degree rotator section, is now aligned with port 6 at the plane of the rectangular waveguide. Such a wave decouples ports 1, 3 and 5 and produces outofphase waves at ports 2 and 4 which have equal amplitudes to those established by the original incident wave. The net eect is to produce a single output at port 2. Similar considerations indicate that a wave at port 2 is emergent at port 3 and so on in a cyclic manner. The port notation of the circulator is that introduced in connection with the description of the turnstile junction in Figure 1.7.
Chapter 2
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides
2.1 Introduction
The description of any waveguide includes its cuto number, its propagation constant, one or more de®nitions of impedance, power ¯ow and attenuation and a description of its ®eld pattern. Since the rectangular waveguide embodies all the salient properties of the ridge waveguide it is apt to review some of its more important features before tackling the ridge structure. The ®elds in this sort of waveguide are usually deduced by obtaining a solution for Ez or Hz or both which satisfy the wave equation. The other ®eld components are then obtained by using Maxwell's equations. A feature of particular importance in this sort of waveguide is the lack of uniqueness in the de®nition of its characteristic impedance. Another is the existence of planes of circular polarisation between the top and bottom walls of the waveguide on either side of its symmetry plane. Counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds are also displayed with dierent hands in a ridge waveguide. The chapter is restricted to a description of the dominant mode in the geometry but the existence of higher order modes is understood. The orthogonal property of any two modes of the waveguide is separately established.
2.2 The wave equation
The property of an inhomogeneous waveguide is that the transverse components of the electric and magnetic ®elds may be written in terms of the longitudinal ones. This property is a classic result in the literature. The required result in Cartesian coordinates is
14 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Hx À k2 c dHz dx dHz dy j340 k2 c dEz dy dEz dx 1a 1b 1c
À Hy 2 kc
j34 À 20 kc
Àj3"0 Ex k2 c Ey j3"0 k2 c
dHz dy
À 2 kc k2 c
dEz dx
dHz dx
À
dEz dy
1d
Ez and Hz satisfy both the wave equation and the boundary conditions of the problem region:
2
rt k2 Hz 0 c 2
rt k2 Ez 0 c
2a 2b
The solution to this sort of problem therefore amounts to ®nding Ez or Hz (or both) which satis®es both the wave equation and the boundary conditions and thereafter deducing the other components of the ®eld by using equation (1). The modes in this and other waveguides are labelled TE, TM or EH according to whether Hz, Ez or Ez and Hz exist. The work is, however, restricted to the dominant TE10 mode.
2.3 Dominant mode in rectangular waveguides
The dominant mode in the rectangular waveguide is designated TE10. It is described by %x Hz A10 cos
3a a Hy 0 Hx jA10 !c !g sin %x a
3c
3d
3b
Ez 0
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 15 Ey ÀjA10 !c !0 r "0 %x sin 40 a 3e 3f
Ex 0 The guide wavelength (!g) is separately de®ned in the usual way by 2 2 2 2% 2% 2% À !g !0 !c
4
The cuto wavelength (!c) is related to the wide dimension of the waveguide (a) and the separation constant (kc) by kc For the TE10 mode with m 1, n 0, !c 2a The phase constant of the waveguide () is related to !g by 2% !g 6 5b 2% !c 5a
The transverse wave impedance of the waveguide is denoted by ZTE , r Ey !g "0 ZTE Hx !0 40 The free space wave impedance 0 is given by r "0 0 120% 40
7
8
The rectangular waveguide considered here is indicated in Figure 2.1 and a typical ®eld pattern is shown in Figure 2.2.
2.4 Impedance in waveguides
The characteristic impedance of a uniform transmission line supporting TEM propagation may be de®ned in one of three possible ways: ZPV VV Ã 2Pt
9a
16 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 2.1 Schematic diagram of rectangular waveguide
Figure 2.2 Field pattern of dominant TE10 mode in rectangular waveguide
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 17 ZPI 2Pt II Ã V I 9b 9c ZVI and ZPV ZPI ZVI 9d However. the de®nitions of voltage and current are not unique. 1 " " " Re ExH Ã dS 12 Pt 2 s " where S is the total surface perpendicular to the direction of propagation. in rectangular or circular waveguides.5 Power transmission through rectangular waveguides An important quantity in the description of any waveguide is the average power (Pt ) transmitted through it. For the dominant TE10 mode in a rectangular waveguide P Q " " " ax ay az 1 " "Ã 1T U 13a ExH R 0 Ey 0 S 2 2 Ã Hx 0 HzÃ and 1 " "Ã 2 ExH Ã " " " 1 ax Ey HzÃ ay 0 az ÀEy Hx 2 13b Ã Noting that Ey Hz is a pure imaginary quantity gives 1 1 " " Re ExH Ã 2 2 !c !g !c !0 r "0 2 %x sin 40 a 14 . It may be evaluated by making use of the complex Poynting theorem. so that ZPV T ZPI T ZVI 10 It is readily observed that one relationship between the various de®nitions of impedance is p 11 ZVI ZPV ZPI 2.
10 2. The derivation of the powervoltage de®nition of impedance ZPV starts by forming V at the symmetry plane of the waveguide: b V 0 Ey dy 17 Evaluating this quantity at x aa2 gives r 2ab "0 V Àj !0 40 18 Combining this result with the description of the power ¯ow in the waveguide produces the required result: 2b ZTE ZPV 19 a The powercurrent de®nition for the impedance (ZPI) is established by evaluating the total longitudinal current ¯owing in the wide dimension of the waveguide: .18 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The derivation now proceeds by integrating this quantity over the waveguide crosssection: 1 Pt 2 !c !g !c !0 r a b "0 %x dx dy sin2 40 a 0 0 15 The required result is r ab !c !c "0 Pt !0 40 4 !g 16 The amplitude term A2 in the description of Pt is understood. The power ¯ow Pt is given by equation (16). The voltage V across the waveguide is de®ned as the line integral of the electric ®eld at the midpoint of the waveguide and the current I as the total longitudinal current ¯owing in the wide surface of one of the waveguide walls.6 Impedance in rectangular waveguides The derivations of each of the three de®nitions of impedance met in the case of a rectangular waveguide propagating the TE10 mode will now be illustrated by way of an example.
if propagation is in the negative z direction the two hands of polarisation are interchanged. The positions at which the magnetic ®eld is circularly polarised can be derived without any diculty by ®rst putting down the three ®eld components for the waveguide: .Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 19 a I 0 Jz dx 20 This may be done by noting the relationship between the current density and the magnetic ®eld: jJz j jHx j The total longitudinal current is therefore Ij !2 c %!g 22 21 The corresponding powercurrent de®nition of impedance is 2 %b ZTE ZPI 8a 23 The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a rectangular waveguide is now deduced by making use of the relationship between it and the powervoltage and powercurrent de®nitions in equation (11).7 Circular polarisation in rectangular waveguides An important property of a rectangular waveguide propagating the dominant TE10 mode is that it displays regions on either side of the symmetry plane at which the alternating magnetic ®eld is circularly polarised with opposite senses of rotation. The ensuing result is %b ZVI ZTE 24 2a A scrutiny of the three descriptions of impedance in the waveguide suggests that ZPV is of the order of ZTE in a standard rectangular waveguide. Such polarisation is de®ned by two equal amplitude waves in the timespace quadrature. Furthermore. These features of a rectangular waveguide are of particular signi®cance in that the operation of a number of nonreciprocal ferrite devices relies on such polarisations. 2.
If a region can now be located where the amplitudes are also equal. This condition is in fact satis®ed on either side of the centre line of the waveguide provided that !g %x tan 26 !c a The two possible solutions to the preceding equation are satis®ed in the vicinity of a x% 27a 4 x% 3a 4 27b The nature of the circular polarisation in either direction of propagation in a rectangular waveguide may now be examined by taking the real parts of Hx and Hz along each direction.20 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Hz cos Hx j !c !g sin %x exp j 3t À z a %x exp j 3t À z a 25a 25b ! Ey Àj c !0 r "0 %x sin exp j 3t À z 40 a 25c where propagation is assumed along the positive z direction. x x a 4 a 4 28c 28d x a 4 28b . Scrutiny of the preceding equations indicates that Hx and Hz are in timespace quadrature. then it would exhibit circular polarisation there. Taking the solution at x aa4 by way of example gives a Hz 0X707 cos 3t À zY x 28a 4 Hx À0X707 sin 3t À zY and Hz 0X707 cos 3t zY Hx 0X707 sin 3t zY respectively.
Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 21 Taking the solution at x 3aa4 gives Hz À0X707 cos 3t À zY Hx À0X707 sin 3t À zY and Hz À0X707 cos 3t zY Hx 0X707 sin 3t zY x x 3a 4 3a 4 29c 29d x x 3a 4 3a 4 29a 29b respectively. À% and À3%a2. À%a2.3 Planes of circular polarisation in rectangular waveguide for forward direction of propagation . Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2.4 indicates the corresponding result with z 0. %a2Y % and 3%a2.3 shows the required results at 3t 0 and z 0.
4 Planes of circular polarisation in rectangular waveguide for reverse direction of propagation 2. It relies for its implementation on the fact that the amplitude distributions of the electric and magnetic ®elds are identical at both cuto and in®nite frequency and on the fact that the ®elds are related by the wave impedance at in®nite frequency. It amounts to writing the impedance ZVI 3 at ®nite frequency as !g ZVI I 30 ZVI 3 !0 .8 Calculation of impedance based on a mathematical technique One mathematical technique that may be used to calculate the impedance of any homogeneous waveguide will now be outlined. This means that a knowledge of the amplitude distribution of either the electric or magnetic ®eld at cuto is sucient to evaluate the impedance of this class of waveguide.22 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 2. The required procedure may be understood by construction of the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a rectangular waveguide by way of an example.
For a standard rectangular waveguide propagating the dominant TE10 mode the distribution of the electric ®eld is described by %x 34 Ey A sin a Introducing this relationship in the preceding equations readily gives V I Ab 2a 0 I I A % The impedances at in®nite and ®nite frequencies are %b ZVI I 0 2a and ZVI 3 0 !g !0 %b 2a 38 35 36 37 in agreement with the original result. The other de®nitions of impedance encountered in the description of this sort of waveguide may also be expressed in a like manner: !g ZPV 3 ZPV I 39 !0 ZPI 3 !g ZPI I !0 40 . While !0 and !g tend to zero at in®nite frequency the ratio of the two quantities is ®nite there.Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 23 where ZVI I V I I I 31 Forming V I and I I in terms of the electric ®eld E I gives b V I 0 Ey I dy a 32 0 I I 0 Ey I dx 33 The calculation is completed once the electric ®eld distribution in the waveguide is at hand.
This gives .9 Orthogonal properties of waveguide modes An important feature of any two modes of a waveguide that enters into a number of calculations is its orthogonal properties.24 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The original choice of ®elds in the waveguide does not readily permit the power at ®nite frequency to be expressed in terms of that at in®nite frequency. The desired derivation in the case of either Hz or Ez starts by noting the wave equations for two typical solutions 0i and 0j : rt2 0i ki2 0i 0 rt2 0j ki2 0j 0 46 47 It proceeds by multiplying the ®rst equation by 0j and the second one by 0i . 2. To do so it is necessary to assume that Ey rather than Hz is frequency independent: %x Ey A10 sin 41 a Hx ÀA10 Hz jA10 !0 !g r 40 %x sin "0 a 42 43 !0 !c r 40 %x cos "0 a The power ¯ow at ®nite frequency is then given in terms of that at in®nite frequency by ! 44 Pt 3 Pt I 0 !g where Pt I A2 10 ab 4 r 40 "0 45 A10 is again an arbitrary constant that may be used to set the power ¯ow along the waveguide to unity or some other suitable value. The required relationships are readily demonstrated in the cases of the longitudinal components Ez or Hz and with a little more diculty in the case of the transverse components. forming the dierence between the two. and integrating each quantity over the crosssection of the waveguide.
as asserted.Propagation and impedance in rectangular waveguides 25 ki2 À kj2 0i 0j ds s s 0i rt2 0j À 0j rt2 0i ds 48 The derivation now proceeds by recalling Green's second identity s dB dc A Art2 B ds dn s c s denotes the crosssectional surface of the waveguide and c the guide boundary. Introducing this identity in the preceding relationship gives s d0j d0i 2 2 ki À kj À 0j dc 49 0i 0j ds 0i dn dn s c Since 0i and 0j are zero for TE type modes and d0i a dn and d0j a dn for TM modes then. 0i 0j ds 0Y i T j 50 s It may be separately demonstrated that this condition is equally valid in the case of degenerate modes. .
It is convenient in this sort of waveguide to write the impedance at ®nite frequency in terms of that at in®nite frequency in that it avoids the need to make separate calculations at each and every frequency. Caplin 3.1 Introduction Important quantities in the description of any waveguide are the de®nition of its propagation constant and the voltagecurrent.1. taken about which de®nition of impedance is appropriate in any single application nor any attempt made to derive any result from ®rst principles. The approach adopted here is in keeping with this convention. Still another is to summarise graphically its voltagecurrent. The cuto space of the waveguide is established by using the transverse resonance condition. power ¯ow and impedance in the ridge waveguide based on the transverse resonance method (TRM). One purpose of this chapter is to summarise some closed form descriptions of propagation. powervoltage and powercurrent de®nitions of its characteristic impedance. Helszajn and M. another purpose of this chapter is to reproduce the existing literature in a single nomenclature.2 Cuto space of ridge waveguide One quantity that enters into the description of any waveguide is its cuto number. however. Since the dierent notations introduced in its characterisation are on occasion dicult to follow readily.Chapter 3 Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides using the transverse resonance method J. Its knowledge is sucient for the description of the propagation . The topologies of the single and double ridge versions of the ridge waveguide are illustrated in Figure 3. No view is. 3. powervoltage and powercurrent de®nitions of impedance in a uni®ed way.
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 27 Figure 3.1 Schematic diagrams of single and double ridge waveguides constant of the waveguide. It is determined by Y02 B tan 2 À cot 1 0 1 Y01 Y01 where Y01 k c 3"0 kc 3"0 1 b 1 d 2a 2b Y02 and % a À s s a % 1À 1 !c a !c 2 %s s a % !c a !c 3a 3b Figure 3. Figure 3.2 indicates the nature of the electric ®elds of the dominant modes in these sorts of waveguides. One early calculation of the cuto condition for either the single or the double ridge waveguide for the even TEno family of modes is based on the transverse resonance method. Figure 3.1 illustrates the two possible ridge arrangements considered here. The physical variables entering into the descriptions of these waveguides are separately indicated on these diagrams.2 Electric ®elds in single and double ridge waveguides .
One approximation in the case of the single ridge is (Marcuvitz. The natural log term entering in these relationships is also sometimes written as ! % 1 1 2 1 4 ln cosec ln % À 2 ln 7 2 2 1À 1 À 2 where d b Figure 3.3. The normalised capacitance of the single ridge with the nomenclature used to label the details of the waveguide is therefore twice that of the double one as asserted. A scrutiny of this arrangement indicates that the two capacitors formed in this way are in series due to the fact that the top and bottom ridges are at dierent potentials in order to support the electric ®eld.4 illustrates the cuto space of the single ridge structure and Figure 3. One closed form approximation for the cuto space of the dominant mode in the double ridge waveguide is (Hoefer and Burton. The equivalent circuit met in this problem region is indicated in Figure 3. The cuto condition at s/a equal to zero corresponds to that of an in®nitely thin ®nline. 1982) r a a 4 b b %d 1 1 0X2 ln cosec !c 2 a À s % aÀs aÀs 2b ! À 1 2 s sb 8 2X45 0X2 a d a À s .5 that of the double ridge arrangement. at s/a equal to unity it reduces to that of a standard rectangular waveguide.28 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The cuto wavenumber kc is related to the corresponding wavelength !c by kc 2% !c 4 B/Y01 represents the step discontinuity on either side of the ridge. 1964) B b a %d ln cosec %4 5 Y01 a !c 2b The corresponding result for a double ridge is B b a %d ln cosec %2 Y01 a !c 2b 6 The relationship between the fringing capacitances of the single and double ridge waveguides may be understood by introducing an electric wall at the plane of symmetry of the latter arrangement.
3 Equivalent circuit of ridge waveguide Figure 3.4 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 29 Figure 3.45) After Cohn (1947) .
5 Cuto space of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0. which may be taken to represent the susceptance one. One possible computation procedure is to initialise the root ®nding subroutine for aa!c in the exact transverse resonance condition of the problem region by the closed form solution for aa!c.50) After Cohn (1947) This representation agrees with numerical methods within 1% provided that 0X01 4 04 04 d 41 b b 41 a s 4 0X45 a The corresponding approximate single ridge solution is obtained from that of the double one by replacing b by 2b in the coecient multiplying the log term. .30 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.
as is readily veri®ed. sucient for the solution of this sort of problem. 3. 1 0 and 2 %a2 and P 3 reduces to the result for the ordinary waveguide in Chapter 2.3 Power ¯ow in ridge waveguide The power ¯ow (Pt ) in the waveguide at ®nite frequency is also usually expressed in terms of that at in®nite frequency. E0 V d 11 When s a and d b.Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 31 3. and E0 is the peak electric ®eld intensity (V/m) at the centre of the waveguide. The impedance in a ridge waveguide is again not unique. 1955) 2 2 @ E0d d b 2ma %d cos2 2 2 Pt I ln cosec b a !c 2b 2%0 2 A ! sin 22 d cos 2 2 1 sin 21 a b !c 9 À 4 sin 1 2 4 a b b d The power ¯ow at ®nite frequency is then given by ! Pt 3 Pt I 0 !g 10 To cater for the lumped element susceptances of single and double ridge waveguides m takes the value 1 for double ridge and 2 for single ridge waveguides. . Knowledge of the distribution of Ey either at cuto or at in®nite frequency is.4 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide The approach used to calculate the impedance of the ridge waveguide consists of initially forming this quantity at in®nite frequency prior to recovering it at ®nite frequency by introducing the dispersion factor !g a!0 . One description of the power ¯ow at in®nite frequency applicable to both single and double ridge waveguides is (Hopfer. therefore. Taking the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance by way of example gives !g 12 ZVI 3 ZVI I !0 The calculation of impedance at in®nite frequency relies on the fact that the ®eld distributions at the cuto frequency and at in®nite frequency are identical and that Ey and Hx are related there by the wave impedance of free space.
3.6 and that for a double ridge in Figure 3.32 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components One approximate voltagecurrent de®nition for this problem region based on this observation but which omits the step discontinuities on either side of the ridge has been historically described by (Cohn. The result for a single ridge is depicted in Figure 3.1. is (Hoefer and Burton.5 Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency is given by using its de®nition. 1982) %0 b d a ! ZVI I 14 d B 1 a b !c cos 2 sin 2 tan 2 b Y01 The value of the normalised susceptance given in equation (5) is used in evaluating the impedance for a single ridge and that given in equation (6) is utilised in calculating that of a double ridge. One solution which supersedes that in equation (13).7. 1947) %0 b d a ZVI I 13 d 1 a b !c sin 2 tan cos 2 2 b In obtaining this result the voltage has been taken as the line integral over the electric ®eld between the ridges and the current has been de®ned as the total longitudinal surface current in the three regions of the structure. The normalised cuto frequency aa!c is given by either equation (1) or (8). 1 and 2 are described in terms of !c in equations (3a) and (3b) and the physical variables are speci®ed in Figure 3. in that it caters for the fringing eect at the steps. ZPV I V IV Ã I 2Pt I 15 The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency is extracted from this relationship as b d a %0 a b !c ZPV I & d b 2ma %d cos2 2 2 ln cosec b a !c 2b 2 !' sin 22 d cos 2 2 1 sin 21 À 4 sin 1 2 4 b (16) .
6 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance in ridge waveguide The powercurrent de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency in a ridge waveguide may also be deduced once those of the voltagecurrent and powervoltage are at hand.6 Voltagecurrent impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.45) After Hoefer & Burton (1982) m 2 for a single ridge and m 1 for a double ridge. Figure 3. 3.9 that of the double structure. . It is given by using the relationship between the three possible descriptions.Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 33 Figure 3.8 indicates the result in the case of a single ridge structure and Figure 3. ZPV(3) is connected to ZPV(I) by a similar relationship to that between ZVI(3) and ZVI(I) in equation (12).
The purpose of this section is to reproduce some data on each admittance de®nition met in this sort of waveguide.50) After Hoefer & Burton (1982) ZPI I Z2 I VI ZPV I 17 The nature of this impedance is indicated in Figure 3. Figures 3.7 Admittances of double ridge waveguide It is sometimes advantageous to work with admittance instead of impedance. 3. .7 Voltagecurrent impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.12±3. Since the double ridge wave is the more common commercial geometry the data are restricted to that situation.14 illustrate the required results.34 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.11 in that of a double ridge waveguide.10 in the case of a single ridge con®guration and in Figure 3.
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 35 Figure 3.8 Closed form polynomials for single and double ridge waveguides Some closed form polynomials for the cuto wavelength and impedance of single ridge waveguides in terms of the gapfactor (d/b) with the aspect ratio (s/a) equal to 0.45) After Hopfer (1955) 3.8 Powervoltage impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.50 are summarised below: 2 3 a d d d À 0X596 0X109 0X735 0X273 !c b b b 4 3 2 d d d ZVI I À226X57 414 À 201X51 b b b d 279X86 0X6237 b 18 19 .
9 Powervoltage impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.50) After Hopfer (1955) 4 3 2 d d d ZPV I À274X75 495X25 À 168X5 b b b d 286X73 0X5054 b 4 3 2 d d d 368X41 À 241X38 ZPI I À192X67 b b b d 0X717 274X11 b The graphical solutions are indicated in Figures 3.15 and 3.16. 20 21 .36 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 37 Figure 3.10 Powercurrent impedance of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.45) The corresponding quantities for a double ridge are: 2 3 a d d d À 1X090 0X103 0X924 0X667 !c b b b ZVI I À23X958 3 2 d d d 25X422 293X6 1X9553 b b b 22 23 ZPV I À45X635 3 2 d d d 2X1205 130X27 291X37 b b b 24 3 2 d d d ZPI I 3X8777 À 65X419 293X02 1X8943 b b b 25 .
38 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3. It starts by using the usual relationship between the immittances met in connection with an ideal quarterwave long impedance transformer.50) Figures 3.19 separately compares the various de®nitions of impedance for baa 0X5 and saa 0X45 for dierent values of dab.9 Synthesis of quarterwave ridge transformers Provided s/a is ®xed. 3. The background to this calculation will now be demonstrated by way of an example.17 and 3.11 Powercurrent impedance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0. Figure 3. Yr2 3 rY0 3G 3 .18 summarise the graphical solutions. the design procedure for a ridge impedance transformer involves the solution of a transcendental equation in d/b.
50) After Hoefer & Burton (1982) G(3) is the load conductance and !0 Yr 3 Yr I !gr !0 Y0 3 Y0 I !g0 r is the VSWR at the input terminals of the transformer.Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 39 Figure 3. powervoltage or powercurrent de®nition of impedance of the ridge transformer.12 Voltagecurrent admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0. Yr I represents either the voltagecurrent. The characteristic equation for d/b is therefore speci®ed by p !0 !0 p Yr I À rY0 I G 3 0 !gr !g0 .
50) After Hopfer (1955) .13 Powervoltage admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.40 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.
Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 41 Figure 3.14 Powercurrent admittance of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.50) .
45.15 a/!c against d/b for single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.50) . s/a 0.42 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.
s/a 0.45.50) .Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 43 Figure 3.16 Polynomial descriptions of impedance in single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.
50.44 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.17 a/!c against d/b for double ridge waveguide (b/a 0. s/a 0.50) .
50.50) . s/a 0.18 Polynomial descriptions of impedance in double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.Impedance and propagation in ridge waveguides 45 Figure 3.
50. s/a 0.45) .46 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 3.19 Comparison between dierent de®nitions of characteristic impedance in double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.
propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 4. Some results on the standing wave solutions of the dominant and higher order modes of this sort of waveguide based on a magnetic ®eld integral equation (MFIE) are also included. Ey. The power ¯ow and attenuation are separately summarised. Ey. The calculation of impedance undertaken elsewhere in this text only involves a knowledge of the transverse electric ®elds at either frequency.Chapter 4 Fields. The TE family of solutions is obtained by calculating Hz of the related planar problem region with top and bottom magnetic walls and forming the other components of the ®eld by using Maxwell's equations. The description of . its attenuation and its impedance. Hz) and at in®nite frequency those associated with TEM propagation (Ex.1 Introduction A knowledge of the ®elds in any waveguide is necessary in order to calculate its power ¯ow. Comparison between the closed form and FEM procedures suggests that the closed form representation is adequate for engineering purposes. Hx. Hy).2 Finite element calculation (TE modes) The only components that can exist at cuto in a double ridge waveguide in the case of the dominant quasiTE10 mode are those associated with the appropriate planar circuit (Ex. The TM family of solutions is obtained by solving the dual planar circuit with top and bottom electric walls. The purpose of this chapter is to summarise some approximate closed form relationships for the ®elds in this type of waveguide and present some calculations based on the ®nite element method (FEM) procedure. 4.
48 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components the ®elds in this sort of waveguide starts with a calculation of Hz at cuto by recognising that it is a solution of the related planar problem region with top and bottom magnetic walls. One way of obtaining Hz is by using an FEM solver. In the ®nite element problem the complex coecients represent the ®elds at the nodes of the elements. It continues with the evaluation of the electric ®elds by employing Maxwell's equations. This step reduces the problem to a set of simultaneous equations which when extremised produces the required eigenvalue problem: " fA À k 2 BgU 0 a A and B are square matrices given by rt i Á rt j ds Aij S 5 6 and Bij i j ds S 7 " U is a column vector containing the unknowns of the problem. . The functional to be minimised in conjunction with this planar problem region is F Hz Àjrt Hz j2 k 2 4 f jHz j2 ds 1 0 s where k 2 3 2 4 0 "0 0 0 2 and 4 f is the relative permittivity of the region. The preceding functional automatically satis®es the wave equation and the Neumann boundary condition dHz 0 dn on the electric sidewalls. In the RayleighRitz approach the true solution is replaced by a trial function which is expanded in terms of a suitable set of real basis or shape functions i xY y which contains the spatial variation of the problem with complex coecients ui . At a magnetic wall the Dirichlet condition Hz 0 4 3 must be separately enforced. "0 and 40 are the usual constitutive parameters of free space.
Fields. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 49 The transverse components of the electric ®eld of the TE10 mode can now be calculated from a knowledge of Hz at cuto by using Maxwell's equations: À dHz Hx 8a dx k2 c Hy Ex Ey À k2 c dHz dy 8b j3"0 Hy 8c Àj3"0 Hx 8d 8e Ez 0 0 is the free space wave impedance r "0 0 40 9 The propagation constant is determined by the free space and cuto wavenumbers in the usual way: 2 k2 À k2 0 c 10 The waveguide wavelength !g is separately given in terms of the free space wavelength !0 and the cuto one !c by 2% !g 2 2% !0 2 À 2% !c 2 11 where j k0 kc 2% !g 2% !0 2% !c .
4 Cuto space (TE mode) To calculate the ®elds at the nodes of the problem region of a typical eigenvector it is ®rst necessary to deduce its eigenvalue. The purpose of this section is to outline this solution in the case of the dominant TE mode in a double ridge waveguide. The topology in question is indicated in Figure 4. The details of the two discretisations utilised here are illustrated in Figure 4. These are ®xed by .1. The complete solution is given in terms of Ez by Hx À k2 c dEz dx 13a 13b dEz dy 13c Hz 0 Hy Ex Ey À k2 c j3"0 Hy 13d Àj3"0 Hx 13e 4. This functional satis®es the dual boundary conditions met in connection with the problem region with top and bottom magnetic walls.50 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 4.2.3 Finite element method (TM modes) In the variational calculation of the TM family of modes the functional to be minimised is Àjrt Ez j2 k 2 4 f jEz j2 ds 12 F Ez 0 s with top and bottom electric walls. Extremising this functional by using the RayleighRitz procedure produces a similar eigenvalue equation to that met in the dual problem already dealt with. The use of the FEM in solving this kind of eigenvalue problem is a standard result in the literature.
2 Typical discretisations of double ridge waveguide .1 Schematic diagram of double ridge waveguide p2 m6 n 149 n Â m 894 q 338 and p2 m6 n 168 Figure 4. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 51 Figure 4.Fields.
) .3 indicates one typical result using each mesh arrangement. Figure 4. It also gives a comparison between the FEM employed here and the TRM (transverse resonance method).52 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components n Â m 1008 q 385 respectively. n Â m is the total number of nodes before assembly of the ®nite element mesh and q is the number of nodes after assembly of the mesh. m is the number of nodes inside each ®nite element triangle. Helszajn & McKay (1998. n is the number of triangles. (Á.50) Reprinted with permission. q 385. . b/a 0. be separately imposed. however. p is the degree of the interpolation polynomial within each ®nite element triangle. IEE Proc. q 338. The one at the magnetic wall must. The FEM is Figure 4. The boundary condition at the electric walls are natural boundaries of the functional and are satis®ed by de®nition.3 Comparison between cuto spaces of double ridge waveguide using FEM and TRM methods. 4.5 Standing wave solution in double ridge waveguide The electric ®eld and current density of any mode in this sort of waveguide is readily established once the related eigenvalue is deduced.
Fields. The governing equation is equation (4). IEE Proc.5 separately depicts the current distribution in the waveguide. Figure 4. Figure 4. The bunching of the current on either side of the symmetry plane of the ridge is of note. d/b 0.) also admirably suited for this purpose. Helszajn & McKay (1998. This suggests that the calculation described here respects the singularity in the electric ®eld mentioned elsewhere. The density of the lines indicates the relative strength of the ®eld. The details of the discretisations utilised to evaluate these solutions are the same as those employed in the construction of the corresponding cuto space.5. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 53 Figure 4.4 Standing wave solutions of dominant TE mode of double ridge waveguide for three dierent values of s/a (b/a 0.4 illustrates the distribution of the electric ®eld of the dominant mode in a double ridge waveguide for three typical ridge geometries. .5) Reprinted with permission.
6 TE ®elds in double ridge waveguide While the ®nite element method provides one means of evaluating the ®elds in any waveguide a closed form description is often convenient. s/a 0. d/b 0. The ®elds obtained in this way on matching the two regions are summarised below.5 Magnetic ®eld at symmetry plane of double ridge waveguide (b/a 0.5.54 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 4. It is based on retaining a single mode in the gap region whilst expanding that in a typical trough region in an in®nite series. One such formulation has been given by Getsinger. IEE Proc.25) Reprinted with permission. Helszajn & McKay (1998. In the gap region (Gestinger. 1962): Ey cos kc Hx À 3"0 cos kc a À x exp Àjz 2 a À x exp Àjz 2 14a 14b .5. This solution is characterised by Ez 0.) 4.
The ®elds in the double ridge waveguide summarised here fail at the boundary between the two regions but are adequate everywhere else and provide both a reasonable description of power ¯ow and impedance. The failure at the boundary has its origin in the use of a single mode in the . .Fields. . propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 55 Ez 0 Hz In the trough region: Ex N n0 N 14c 14d jkc sin kc a À x exp Àjz 2 An n% b n%y cos n x sin exp Àjz b 15a n%y exp Àjz Ey An Àn sin n x cos b n0 Ez 0 Hx N n0 N n0 N n0 15b 15c 15d An n 3"0 n%y exp Àjz sin n x cos b n%y exp Àjz cos n x sin b n%y exp Àjz cos n x cos b Hy An An n% b3"0 Àjk 2 c 3"0 15e Hz where 15f 2 k2 À k2 0 c 2 n and k2 c À n% b 2 ks ! !' & ÀÀn cos c bd n% bÀd n% 2 h a À s i sin À sin An 2 b 2 b n%n sin n 2 Àn 1 for n 0 and Àn 2 for n 1Y 2Y 3Y . .
This solution is characterised by Hz equal to zero. 1988): ! a % Àb d Ex sin À x sin y exp Àjz 16a 2 d 2 ! % a % Àb d cos y exp Àjz Ey À x cos d 2 d 2 k2 Ez j c ! a % Àb d cos À x sin y exp Àjz 2 d 2 16b 16c . Tong. The agreement between the ®nite element method and the closed form solution is indicated in Figure 4.6 Comparison between EY and EZ for TE mode at symmetry plane of double ridge waveguide based on closed form and FEM Reprinted with permission. The ®elds in the gap region are (Mansour. MacPhie.56 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 4. IEE Proc. Helszajn & McKay (1998.7 TM ®elds in double ridge waveguide An approximate closed form description of the TM family of solutions in a ridge waveguide has also been described in the literature. 4.6.) ridge gap.
propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 57 and Hx À340 ! % a % Àb d cos y exp Àjz À x cos d 2 d 2 16d sin ! a % Àb d y exp Àjz À x cos 2 d 2 Hz 0 where 2 k2 À c In the trough region: Ex N n1 Hy 340 16e 16f 2 % d Bn n cos n x sin n%y b exp Àjz exp Àjz exp Àjz exp Àjz 17d 17c 17b 17a Ey N Bn n% n1 sin n x cos b n%y b Ez N jBn k 2 c n1 n%y sin n x sin b n%y sin n x cos b Hx N ÀBn 340 n% n1 b Hy N Bn 340 n n1 n%y cos n x sin exp Àjz b Hz 0 17e 17f where .Fields.
) . Ey 0 k0 Hx 18 Figure 4.58 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components % s 2 cos d 2 Bn ! 2 % n% 2 À b sin n d b Â sin n% b bd 2 sin n% b bÀd 2 ! The agreement between this result and the FEM method is indicated in Figure 4. IEE Proc. It is related to Hx by the wave impedance in the usual way.7 for one typical geometry. The calculation of Ey is omitted from Figures 4.6 and 4. Helszajn & McKay (1998.7.7 Comparison between HX and HZ for TM mode at symmetry plane of double ridge waveguide based on closed form and FEM Reprinted with permission.
3 and ridge gap d/a 0. b TE20. This section summarises some calculations on the electric ®eld distribution of this sort of waveguide.Fields. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 59 4.8 Electrical ®eld contour plots of a double ridge waveguide (ridge thickness x/a 0.9 Figure 4.15) a TE10. Figures 4.8 and 4. c TE30. d TE11 mode Reprinted with permission.8 MFIE Another numerical technique that has been employed to investigate the properties of the ridge waveguide is the magnetic ®eld integral equation (MFIE) method. Sun & Balanis (1993) .
9 Electrical ®eld contour plots of TE10 mode in double ridge waveguides with various s/a and d/b ratios Reprinted with permission.60 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 4. Sun & Balanis (1993) .
4. 4.10 Attenuation in waveguides An important quantity in the description of any waveguide is its dissipation per unit length. The relationship between this quantity at ®nite and at in®nite frequency is given by ! P 3 P I 0 19 !g where P I is 1 P I 2 s " "t Et I Â H Ã I ds 20 " " Et and Ht denote the transverse electric and magnetic ®elds. respectively. When this quantity is small. For the purpose of calculation this relationship may be written as 1 " "t Et I Â H Ã I ds 2 s A 0 0 0 2 d 1 Ã Ã Ex 3c Ex 3c Ey 3c Ey 3c dx dy A2 0 b 5 Ã Ã Ex 3c Ex 3c Ey 3c Ey 3c dx dy 21 0 4 The factor A may be deduced by equating the Poynting vector to 1 W. propagation and attenuation in double ridge waveguide 61 indicate the ®rst three modes in the waveguide for a number of dierent aspect ratios of the structure.Fields.9 The Poynting vector The power rating and the powervoltage de®nition of impedance both require statements of the Poynting vector of the waveguide. the time average power Pt transmitted through the waveguide may be written approximately as Pt 3 Pt exp À2z The power loss per unit length P is then given by P À dPt 2Pt dz 23 22 .
2 TE10 b/a = 0.4 0.5 f/fc s/a = 0.25 4 Figure 4. This may be done by forming the following quantity: 1 25 P Zs jJj2 dA 2 A Zs is the skin resistance of the metal enclosure: r 3"0 Zs 2' 26 J is the current density and ' is the resistivity of the waveguide wall.75 2.4 s/a = 0. This may be done by determining the dissipation in each wall of the waveguide.6 1 1.6 0. 16 14 12 αηa/Rs 10 8 d/b = 0.6 s/a = 0.5 d/b = 0.2 3.10 Normalised attenuation constant of double ridge waveguide (fc cuto frequency of TE10 mode) Reprinted with permission. Sun & Balanis (1993) .62 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The attenuation per unit length is therefore described by P 2Pt 24 Since Pt has been evaluated in the preceding section.2 d/b = 0.4 6 4 2 s/a = 0.6 0.10 indicates the attenuation in a double ridge waveguide based on the MFIE method.2 s/a = 0. it only remains to deduce P .4 0. Figure 4.
1 Introduction One means of calculating the cuto space and impedance of a ridge waveguide which avoids the need to describe the fringing ®elds at the edges of the ridges is the ®nite element method (FEM). The resulting number of nodes can be reduced by supplementing the basis functions with singular trial functions or by implementing scalar singular elements to emulate the behaviour of the ®eld distributions at metal discontinuities. Helszajn and M. One simple means of solving this problem at the cuto frequency is to recognise that these quantities correspond to the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the related planar circuit with electric sidewalls and top and bottom magnetic ones. One way of obtaining any of the de®nitions of impedance at any frequency in such a waveguide is to make use of the relationship between that at ®nite and in®nite frequencies. McKay 5. .Chapter 5 Impedance of double ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method J. Since this eigenvalue problem is readily solved by using the FEM it provides one classic solution to this sort of problem region. Each of these two calculations may also be reduced to the ratio of two suitable integrals in the electric ®eld at cuto. The FEM employed here is based on standard nodal triangular elements and thus mesh re®nement is necessary in the neighbourhood of any singularities to ensure convergence. While the main endeavour of this chapter is the evaluation of the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a ridge waveguide the powervoltage and powercurrent ones are also calculated for completeness' sake. The impedance at in®nite frequency is readily deduced by recognising that the electric ®eld distribution is invariant at cuto and at in®nite frequency and that the magnetic ®eld at in®nite frequency is simply related to the electric ®eld there by the impedance of free space. This suggests that a knowledge of the electric ®eld at in®nite frequency or at the cuto space is in practice sucient for calculation.
Some calculations on the impedance of waveguides with trapezoidal ridges are included for completeness. The topology under consideration is indicated in Figure 5.1. !g is the usual waveguide wavelength. and that its wave impedance at in®nite frequency is that of free space.64 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components One advantage of numerical methods is that it is not necessary to introduce the notion of fringing eects at the sidewalls of the ridge structure as is the case with some early calculations based on the transverse resonance method (TRM). Figure 5. including cuto and in®nite frequency.2 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance One means of calculating the impedance of a homogeneous waveguide is to form this quantity at in®nite frequency prior to recovering it at ®nite frequency by introducing the dispersive factor !g a!0 . The calculation of the impedance in a ridge waveguide at in®nite frequency relies on the fact that the distribution of the electric ®eld in a homogeneous waveguide is the same at all frequencies. Since the electric ®eld at cuto is readily evaluated using the FEM it provides one attractive means of tackling this problem. One possible de®nition of impedance in a homogeneous waveguide at ®nite frequency is the voltagecurrent one. 5.1 Schematic diagram of double ridge waveguide . It is given by !g ZVI 3 ZVI I 1 !0 where ZVI I V I I I 2 V I and I I) are the voltage at the centre of the waveguide and the total longitudinal current in either the top or bottom half of the waveguide at in®nite frequency. respectively.
0 is the free space wave admittance. d V I 0 1 4 E0 3c d 5 I I 20 0 E 3c wall d 3 20 2 5 E 3c wall d 20 4 7 E 3c wall d 20 6 E 3c wall d 6 provided that H I 0 E Iwall 7 E 3c wall is the electric ®eld at the wall of the waveguide at cuto.Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 65 2% !g 2 2% !0 2 À 2% !c 2 3 Making use of the observation that the distributions of the electric ®elds are identical at both cuto and in®nite frequency gives V I V 3c I I I 3c In terms of the original variables. The latter quantities are speci®ed by 1 2 s 2 b À d 2 3 0 . and 1 Y 2 Y F F F 7 are the integration paths.
insofar as the dominant TE10 mode is concerned.3 Calculation of voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance The main task of this chapter is the calculation of the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency in a ridge waveguide by using the FEM. The solution is complete once the electric ®elds on the interior metal boundaries are established. it is sucient to solve onequarter of the original topology. À0 dHz 8a Ex kc dy H0 Ey kc dHz dx 8b . This is done by calculating V I and I I in equations (5) and (6) for each of the two dierent ®nite element meshes illustrated in Figure 5.3. The electrical paths met in connection with this problem region are indicated in Figure 5.66 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 5. The required transverse components of the electric ®eld can now be calculated from a knowledge of Hz at cuto by using Maxwell's equations. 5.2 Path of current integral 4 5 s 2 a 2 6 0 7 b 2 A scrutiny of the symmetry attached to the problem region of the double ridge waveguide suggests that.2.
The required de®nitions are . A comparison between the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance based on the ®nite element method and the closedform expression developed in Chapter 3 is separately indicated in Figure 5. The powervoltage de®nition of impedance based on the FEM has also been dealt with in the literature but has so far been restricted to one value of the s/a ratio.4 compares the solutions obtained in this way for one range of ridge geometry.5.3 Discretisations of double ridge waveguide The other components of the TEM wave are related at in®nite frequency by Ex 0 Hy Ey À0 Hx 0 is the freespace wave impedance 0 r "0 40 9a 9b 10 Figure 5.4 Powercurrent and powervoltage de®nitions of impedance The two other de®nitions of impedance met in this sort of waveguide besides that of the voltagecurrent are the powercurrent and powervoltage ones.Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 67 Figure 5. 5.
b/a 0. .68 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 5. a knowledge of any two is sucient to describe the third. The approach utilised here is to calculate the powercurrent one in terms of the voltagecurrent and .4 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide using two possible discretisations (Á. IEE Proc.50) Reprinted with permission.) !g ZPV 3 ZPV I !0 and !g ZPI 3 ZPI I !0 V IV Ã I 2Pt I 2Pt I I II Ã I 11 12 where ZPV I and ZPI I 14 13 Since the three classic de®nitions of impedance are related. Helszajn & McKay (1998. q 385. q 338.
It can therefore be readily evaluated using the FEM without having to be concerned with the absolute value of the ®elds met in any calculation.Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 69 Figure 5. For computational purposes equation (16) may be expressed as .) powervoltage de®nitions rather than directly. IEE Proc. Helszajn & McKay (1998. of the fact that the ®eld distributions at cuto and in®nite frequency are identical gives V IV Ã I V 3c V Ã 3c 2Pt I 2Pt 3c 16 This quantity is again independent of the absolute value of the electric ®eld. This is done by noting the classic relationship between the three quantities. again. Z2 I ZPV IZPI I VI 15 Making use.50) Reprinted with permission.5 Comparison between voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide using Sharma & Hoefer (1983) de®nition and FEM (b/a 0.
7 summarises the powercurrent de®nition of impedance in this sort of waveguide.70 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 5. . b/a 0. q 385. .50) Reprinted with permission. IEE Proc. Helszajn & McKay (1998.6 Comparison between powervoltage de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide using Hopfer (1955) and FEM de®nitions (! Garb & Kastner (1995).6 compares the results obtained with the FEM in Garb and Kastner (1995) and the closed form expression based on the TRM described in Chapter 3.) d ZPV I 20 & 0 d 1 0 0 Ã Ey 3c Ey 3c dx Ã Ã Ex 3c Ex 3c Ey 3c Ey 3c dx dy b 5 0 4 ' Ã Ã Ex 3c Ex 3c Ey 3c Ey 3c dx dy (17) Figure 5. Figure 5.
s1 as 0X80. Helszajn & McKay (1998.Impedance of double ridge waveguide using FEM 71 Figure 5. ZVI I 151X91.0. These calculations suggest. The purpose of this section is to brie¯y summarise some calculations on its voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance at in®nite frequency.) 5. This is done for s1/s equal to 1. 0. saa 0X50 and dab 0X50.5 Impedance of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges The impedance of rectangular waveguides with trapezoidal ridges is also of some interest. b/a 0. !c aa 2X70. !c aa 2X71 and ZVI 149X51. IEE Proc.50) Reprinted with permission. ZVI 150X75 and s1 as 0X60.9. .8 depicts the geometry under consideration. The relative magnitude of the electric ®eld is indicated graphically in Figure 5. at ®rst sight.7 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance of double ridge waveguide (. It is ®xed by the ratio s1/s.80 and 0. Figure 5. that varying these quantities has no notable eect on the impedance of this sort of waveguide. The results obtained here are summarised by s1 as 1X0. !c aa 2X69. q 385.60 with baa 0X50.
72 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 5.8 Schematic diagram of ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges Figure 5.9 Standing wave solution in ridge waveguide using trapezoidal ridges .
1 Introduction The various de®nitions of impedance in a single ridge waveguide are also of some interest. a variational method and a surface integral approach. The powercurrent de®nition is simply obtained by using the relationship between the three classic de®nitions of impedance. This diculty does not arise in the powervoltage de®nition of impedance. This observation may be understood by recognising that the ®eld is concentrated between the ridge and upper wall of the waveguide. The calculation undertaken here suggests that the error resulting in approximating the discontinuity at a typical ridge edge by a shunt capacitance and retaining the contributions from the top and sidewalls of the ridge and bottom waveguide wall is negligible. It corresponds. A careful scrutiny of this problem suggests that the interior contour of the waveguide breaks up in every instance into one interval consisting of the top and sidewalls of the structure and a second interval comprising the remaining walls. with the position at which the polarity of the electric ®eld on the boundary contour on either side of the symmetric plane reverses. The analysis of the ®eld distribution and powervoltage de®nition of impedance in various nonsymmetrical ridge structures has included mode matching techniques. Helszajn 6. The description of this problem region follows closely that introduced in connection with the double ridge arrangement except that the limits of the integral used to de®ne the current in the waveguide walls are in this instance dierent.Chapter 6 Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method M. The purpose of this chapter is to summarise some calculations. This condition ensures that the magnitude of the total currents ¯owing in the equivalent top and bottom walls of the waveguide are equal. The work outlined here is based on the nodal FEM. McKay and J. instead. .
The cuto space of this structure is the same as that of the double ridge structure with twice the height and twice the gap opening.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide The calculation of impedance at ®nite frequency involves a knowledge of the cuto space. The geometry in question is depicted in Figure 6. A comparison of the results obtained in this work and that based on the transverse resonance condition is shown in Figure 6.1 Schematic diagram of single ridge waveguide Figure 6. The discretisation used to obtain these data is de®ned by Figure 6. The single ridge structure diers from the double ridge geometry in that it only supports one plane of symmetry about its wide dimension. The evaluation of the cuto space of various ridge topologies by the FEM is a standard result in the literature.1.2.2 Cuto space of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0.74 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 6.45) .
n is the number of elements.4: Figure 6. The mesh arrangement is indicated in Figure 6. insofar as the dominant TE10 mode is concerned.4 Path of current integral . n Â m is the number of nodes prior to assembly of the mesh and q is the number of nodes after assembly of the mesh. it is again sucient to solve onehalf of the original topology.3. 6.3 Fields in single ridge waveguide A scrutiny of the symmetry attached to the problem region of the single ridge waveguide suggests that.3 Discretisation of single ridge waveguide p2 m6 n 168 n Â m 1008 q 385 p is the degree of the polynomial approximation inside each element. The electrical paths of the problem region are indicated in Figure 6.Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 75 Figure 6. m is the number of nodes.
It indicates that a unique voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance is obtained by taking either the current in the top Figure 6.5 Electric ®eld distribution on interior waveguide wall (b/a 0.76 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 1 s 2 2 b À d 4 s 2 3 0 5 a 2 6 0 8 a 2 7 b 9 0 Figure 6.45.5 shows a typical electric ®eld distribution around the interior contour of the single ridge waveguide for two typical geometries. d/b 0.35) . The distribution of a typical electric ®eld indicated in this illustration is compatible with the magnetic ®eld of the partitioned double ridge waveguide at the same walls dealt with in Chapter 3.
The dimensions s and a are unaltered by this operation. Figure 6. The ®elds in a single ridge waveguide are given from those in the double ridge by replacing d by 2d and b by 2b in the latter arrangement prior to introducing an electric wall at the symmetry plane of the problem region. These may be constructed from those in the double ridge waveguide summarised in Chapter 4 without diculty. Approximate closed form expressions for the ®elds in a single ridge waveguide are also of interest. as is readily understood.Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 77 and side walls or that in the ridge and bottom walls for the purpose of calculation. Figure 6.45.6 separately depicts the distribution of the electric ®elds of the dominant mode in a single ridge waveguide for three dierent geometries.6 Standing wave solutions of single ridge waveguide (b/a 0. It is also observed that the electric ®eld is zero at all 90 degree corners of the structure.50) (a) saa 0X25. (b) saa 0X50. (c) saa 0X75 . d/b 0.
The powervoltage de®nition of impedance at ®nite frequency is given in terms of that at in®nite frequency by !g ZPV 3 ZPV I !0 4 The absence of any current integral in this de®nition avoids the diculty encountered in the calculation of ZVI.4 Impedance of single ridge waveguide The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in a homogeneous waveguide at ®nite frequency is again given in terms of the calculated one at in®nite frequency by !g 1 ZVI 3 ZVI I !0 where ZVI I and !g is the usual guide wavelength 2% !g 2 2% !0 2 À 2% !c 2 3 V I I I 2 The calculation of the voltage between the ridge and upper waveguide wall proceeds as in the case of the double ridge geometry but the absence of a symmetry plane means that the integration limits associated with the two possible current paths in the top and bottom walls of the single ridge structure must be given separate consideration.). Figure 6. The calculation proceeds as for the double ridge waveguide (Helszajn & McKay. The limits on the integrals met in connection with the calculation of the total current may therefore be taken to coincide with the two locations where the electric ®eld passes through zero on either side of the symmetry plane. . One way to overcome this diculty is to recognise that the polarisation of the electric ®eld reverses around the boundary contour of the waveguide.7 compares the voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance obtained here with a closed form expression. 1998.78 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 6. Figure 6. IEE Proc.8 indicates the agreement between the FEM result and some previous calculations.
It is de®ned in a like manner to that given in connection with the double ridge arrangement.10 indicates some normalised results for the dominant TE10 mode based on some MFIE calculations.5 Insertion loss in single ridge waveguide The insertion loss in a single ridge waveguide is also. 5 6. q 385) and Sharma Hoefer (1983) de®nition (b/a 0.7 Comparison between voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance of single ridge waveguide using FEM (. They are carried out on three typical values of gap ratios (d/b) for parametric values of s/a.9. of course.45) The powercurrent de®nition of impedance is obtained easily from the classic relationship Z2 I ZPV IZPI I VI It is depicted in Figure 6. . of some interest.Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 79 Figure 6. The aspect ratio of the waveguide is baa 0X45. P dB 2Pt Figure 6.
.80 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 6. The transverse resonance condition from which its cuto number may be obtained is Y02 B À cot 1 À cot 2 0 Y01 Y01 The original variables entering into this equation are available in Chapter 3. This problem has already been tackled in connection with the double ridge waveguide and is brie¯y dealt with here in the case of the single ridge arrangement. The ®rst higher order mode in this waveguide has odd symmetry about the problem region. 1955 and Utsumi.45) 6. It is de®ned as the ratio of the cuto wavelengths of the fundamental and the ®rst higher order mode.8 Comparison between powervoltage de®nition of impedance of single ridge waveguide using FEM and Hopfer. 1985 Á. (b/a=0.6 Higher order modes The bandwidth of any waveguide is ®xed by the onset of the ®rst higher order mode of the structure.
q 385).Characterisation of single ridge waveguide using the ®nite element method 81 Figure 6. (b/a=0.9 Powercurrent de®nition of impedance of single ridge waveguide using FEM (.45) .
10 Normalised attenuation constant of single ridge waveguide (fc cuto frequency of TE10 mode) .6 s/a = 0.6 0.4 0.45 d/a = 0.3 s/a = 0.5 4 Figure 6.2 2 1 1.1 s/a = 0.5 2 2.2 10 αηa/Rs 8 d/a = 0.5 f/fc 3 3.4 s/a = 0.4 0.6 0.2 6 s/a = 0.82 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 12 TE10 b/a = 0.2 4 d/a = 0.
1 Introduction The ®nite element method (FEM) has been widely utilised in the analysis of the cuto space and propagation constant of dielectric loaded waveguides containing isotropic and anisotropic media. Helszajn 7. It includes variational expressions based on the twocomponent Ez/Hz hybrid notation and the three" " component (magnetic H or electric E ) vector formulation. LSE11 or LSM01. One feature of this type of waveguide is that the separation between the cuto frequencies of the dominant and ®rst order quasiLSEmo modes is increased. The ®rst three modes may be denoted as quasiLSE10. The purpose of this chapter is to give some calculations on the cuto space.Chapter 7 Propagation constant and impedance of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide using a hybrid ®nite element solver M. McKay and J. Some existing experimental data obtained on the propagation constant of a square waveguide are in engineering agreement with the theory. Modes in this sort of waveguide may in general be described as quasiLSEmn or quasiLSMmn . A feature of any dielectric loaded waveguide is the existence of planes of quasicircular polarisation at the boundary between the two dielectrics. depending on whether Ex or Hx is equal to zero as the dielectric loaded ridge waveguide is reduced to a rectangular one. the propagation constant and the impedance of the ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its ridges based on a hybrid Ez/Hz ®nite element calculation. LSE20. A calculation of the ellipticity in this sort of waveguide is dealt with in a separate chapter. The exact details of the cuto space are dependent on the dielectric constant (4r) of the insert and the geometry of the ridge waveguide. It has been utilised historically in the design of a number of nonreciprocal 2port devices. The spurious modes encountered in the numerical solutions of this sort of waveguide may be suppressed by either enforcing the divergence free constraint in association with tangential and normal .
In an inhomogeneous geometry the latter two quantities have to be calculated at each and every frequency.2 Hybrid functional The problem region tackled in this chapter consists of a ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its two ridges. 7. Figure 7. The former choice is adopted here.1 indicates the topology considered here. except in the case of the pure TEmo ones which can exist when the dielectric extends across the full waveguide. This involves constructing an energy functional which when extremised by using the RalyeighRitz method produces a solution which satis®es the original wave equation.1 Schematic diagram of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide . The required construction starts by noting the vector form of the Helmholtz equation L0 0 0 " where L is the matrix of the form L Lee Lhe Leh Lhh ! 2 1 Figure 7. The solution to this type of problem involves the cuto space. the propagation constant and one or more de®nitions of impedance. The functional formulation for this sort of problem region may be developed in terms of the longitudinal ®eld components (Ez/Hz) or the three component magnetic (H) or electric (E) ®eld vectors. The voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance for various ridge topologies is separately investigated. In general this structure supports hybrid modes.84 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components boundary conditions or by employing vector elements to ensure only tangential continuity of the ®eld components across element boundaries. One solution to this sort of problem is to use a variational technique.
integrating the ensuing quadratic equation over the cross Figure 7.Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 85 and the hybrid vector 0 represents the ®eld variables. respectively. 4r and represent the cuto wavenumber. the relative permittivity and the propagation constant of a typical region. ! Ez 0 Hz 3 For an isotropic dielectric region the wave equations associated with Ez and Hz are uncoupled and the entries of the matrix of the form reduce to the standard scalar Helmholtz equations. The entries of the form are separately given by Lee 40 4r rt2 k 2 cr Lhh "0 rt2 k 2 cr Leh 0 Lhe 0 where k 2 k 2 4r À 2 cr 0 and p k0 3 4 0 " 0 5 6 4a 4b 4c 4d kcr. The construction of the associated functional proceeds by premultiplying the vector form of the Helmholtz equation in a typical region by the transpose of the conjugate vector ®eld.2 Homogeneous problem region with inhomogeneous boundary condition .
The two contour integral terms also produce real parts and ensure conservation of energy across dielectric boundaries. À rt Ez Á rt EzÃ k 2 jEz j2 d Fr Ez Y Hz 4r cr 2 0 Â Ã À rt Hz Á rt HzÃ k 2 jHz j2 d cr dEz dt À dHz dt ! dt 0 k0 k 1 $k Ã Hz EzÃ j0 k2 cr k0 k 1 $k Ã EzÃ Ht À Hz Et dt 7 t is an anticlockwise directed unit vector tangential to the boundary $. and k denotes the number of media interfaces met on the boundary. be separately enforced at any electric sidewalls. Application of the appropriate boundary conditions on the contour $ of a homogeneous region of crosssectional area produces the functional of a typical region. The second surface integral corresponds to the energy of the dual problem with top and bottom magnetic walls for which the natural boundary condition is the Neumann one at electric sidewalls and the Dirichlet condition must be enforced at magnetic sidewalls. 9 .2 summarises this situation.86 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components section of the region in question and utilising Green's theorem in a plane to map a surface integral into a contour one. 0 is the freespace wave impedance r "0 0 8 40 Figure 7. however. The ®rst surface integral term is the energy functional associated with the planar problem region with top and bottom electric walls. The Dirichlet boundary condition Ez 0 10 must. It automatically satis®es the Neumann boundary condition dHz 0 dn at any magnetic sidewall.
Ez and Hz in a typical region may be expanded in terms of the free components in its interior and the free and prescribed components on its boundaries: Ez % and Hz % fh 1 fe 1 erf f xY y pe 1 erp p xY y 12a hrf f xY y ph 1 hrp p xY y 12b The following work is only concerned with electric and magnetic walls and the prescribed nodes are hereafter set to zero. A similar de®nition applies to the [T ] .Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 87 The energy functional for the total inhomogeneous problem region can therefore be expanded in terms of a typical region F Ez Y Hz r 1 Fr Ez Y Hz 11 It is of note that has the same value in each region and that the second contour integral in equation (7) makes no contribution to the overall functional in equation (11) since each common contour $k is traversed along opposite directions in the connected media and may be discarded. Noting that a priori ®elds exist at electric. The RayleighRitz procedure approximates the ®eld solutions (Ez. P Q 4r 1 5 U U4 r T 2 S 1 20 k0 1 0 T U erf U 2 T S hrf R 1 1 T 4r À S 2 U k0 20 k0 r 1 4r T 1 2T 2 k R 0 0 P 0 T 2 Q U erf S hrf ! 13 0 The order of the symmetric matrices [S](1) and [S](2) corresponds to the degrees of freedom (r) of the free nodal electric ( fe) and magnetic ( fm) ®elds of the region. Hz) in terms of a set of linearly independent shape functions xY y prior to extremising the functional to produce a matrix eigenvalue problem. magnetic and resistive walls. Introducing the preceding approximations into equation (11) and extremising with respect to the unconstrained variables erf Y hrf produces the eigenvalue problem for the inhomogeneous region. respectively.
The segmentation employed in this work is depicted in Figure 7. At cuto.88 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components matrices. The aspect ratio of the waveguide (b/a) is 0.50 and the ridges are described by parametric values of d/b and s/a. is zero and the functional in equation (7) reduces to the sum of the two independent functionals associated with the planar problem region with top and bottom electric and magnetic walls.3 Cuto space of dielectric loaded rectangular ridge waveguide The ®rst task of this chapter is the evaluation of the cuto space of the dielectric loaded double ridge waveguide. 7. The entries of this matrix are given by k dj di dt 14c i À j Ui j dt dt 1 $k At cuto. The discretisations in the dielectric and air regions are de®ned by p2 m6 n 43 n Â m 258 . The purpose of this section is to summarise some results. Imposing appropriate symmetry planes and extremising the functional in conjunction with the FEM yields the quasiLSE and LSM modes of the problem region. The entries of the S and T matrices are the classic ones met in connection with a planar circuit with either top and bottom magnetic or electric walls Si j rt i Á rt j d 14a i j d Ti j 14b [U ] is a matrix of order fe Â fm and represents the physical coupling between the electric and magnetic ®elds at the dielectric boundaries of the region. respectively. respectively.3. erf and hrf are decoupled. [U ](T) is the transpose of [U ].
m is the number of nodes inside each ®nite element triangle. p is the degree of the interpolation polynomial within each ®nite element triangle.3 Discretisation of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide and p2 m6 n 49 n Â m 294 respectively. n is the number of triangles and n Â m is the total number of nodes before assembly of the ®nite element mesh.Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 89 Figure 7. The corresponding free (f) and prescribed (p) electric and magnetic nodes in the individual regions are fh 97 fe 88 ph 9 pe 18 and fh 120 fe 91 ph 0 pe 29 .
Figure 7.4 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded rectangular ridge waveguide The purpose of this section is to summarise some calculations on the propagation constant of the dominant quasiLSE10 mode in a double ridge . McKay & Helszajn (2000) Figure 7.4 Cuto space of quasiLSE10 mode in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide for 4r 1 and 4r 9.90 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 7.4 indicates the variation of the normalised cuto wavelength of the dominant quasiLSE10 mode when a dielectric (4r 9) is inserted between the ridges. 7. in general. Figure 7.0 Reprinted with permission.5 indicates the separation between the quasiLSE10 and LSE20 modes. Although the emphasis of this section has been on the calculation of the quasiLSE10 and LSE20 modes. the cuto space of ridge and dielectric loaded waveguides is more complicated.7 depicts the electric and magnetic ®eld patterns of the quasiLSE10 and LSE11 modes for one typical geometry.6 indicates one typical range of topologies for which the quasiLSE11 or quasiLSM01 mode is actually the ®rst higher order one. Figure 7.
Some calculations on a ridge waveguide with an inhomogeneous dielectric ®ller have also been carried out for completeness' sake. Figure 7.10 and some typical data are given in Figure 7.0 Reprinted with permission.5 Propagation constant in dielectric loaded square waveguide Figure 7.5 Ratio of cuto numbers of quasiLSE10 and LSE20 modes for 4r 1 and 4r 9.Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 91 Figure 7.12 indicates some calculations on the normalised propagation constant of a square ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its ridges.8 indicates the agreement between some calculations on a standard rectangular waveguide with a dielectric insert and some calculations using the transverse resonance method dab 1X0. McKay & Helszajn (2000) waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between the ridges. Figure 7. This is done for one waveguide topology and two dierent materials. 7. The topology considered here is illustrated in Figure 7.9 shows the main result obtained here. Some measurements in the open literature are separately superimposed on this result. The measurements are obtained by using a 1port re¯ection .11.
50.6 Higher order modes in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 4r 9. The purpose of this section is to give some calculations on its voltagecurrent de®nition. The segmentation utilised here is the same as that employed in the rectangular geometry. 7.0 (b/a 0. d/b 0. McKay & Helszajn (2000) cavity.92 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 7. jk0 0 dHz j dEz Ey 2 À dy k0 4r À 2 dx k2 4r À 2 0 15 . The voltage is obtained in the usual way by evaluating the electric ®eld along the magnetic symmetry plane extending between the two ridges.6 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance The impedance of a dielectric loaded double ridge waveguide is also of some interest in microwave engineering.50) Reprinted with permission.
McKay & Helszajn (2000) The current is separately obtained by integrating the magnetic ®eld along the contour de®ned by the electric symmetry plane. Unlike the homogeneous problem region. .0. d/b=0. This calculation may be undertaken by using Hx and Hy as follows: Hx Àj dHz jk0 4r dEz k2 4r À 2 dx 0 k2 4r À 2 dy 0 0 16 Àj dHz jk0 4r dEz À Hy 2 0 k2 4r À 2 dx k0 4r À 2 dy 0 Figure 7.50) Reprinted with permission.7 Electric and magnetic ®eld distribution of quasiLSE10 and LSE11 modes at cuto (4r 9.50.0.50. it is necessary in this instance to make the calculation at each individual frequency. Each curve is truncated at the cuto frequency of the quasiLSE20 mode in the respective topologies.Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 93 Figure 7. for which it is sucient to calculate the impedance at in®nite frequency and use the dispersion relationship to obtain that at the actual frequency.13 indicates the result in the case of a dielectric constant of 9. b/a 0. s/a 0.
8 Comparison between propagation constants of dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide using TRM and FEM techniques (b/a 0.50) .94 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 7.
0. b/a 0.47 and 9. McKay & Helszajn (2000) .Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 95 Figure 7.9 Propagation constant of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide (4r 3.50) Reprinted with permission.
10 Schematic diagram of partially dielectric loaded ridge waveguide Figure 7.11 Propagation constant of partially dielectric loaded ridge waveguide (4r 3.50) Reprinted with permission.50. b/a 0. McKay & Helszajn (2000) . s/a 0.47 and 9.96 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 7.0.
47. experiment: &.~.55 mm) Reprinted with permission. McKay & Helszajn (2000) .25. !.Propagation and impedance of dielectric loaded RW 97 Figure 7.* (4r 3. s/a 0. a 8.12 Comparison of theoretical and experimental propagation constants in square ridge waveguide FEM.
98 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 7.0 (b/a 0.50) Reprinted with permission.50. 4r 9. McKay & Helszajn (2000) . d/b 0.13 Voltagecurrent de®nition of impedance in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide.
The two possibilities correspond to two equal vectors in space quadrature with one or the other advanced or retarded in time quadrature. of course. The single ridge waveguide.Chapter 8 Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded ridge waveguides 8. One interesting aspect of the single or double ridge waveguides is that neither display planes of circular polarisation in its trough regions. however. the hand of rotation is interchanged if the direction of propagation is reversed.1 Introduction An important concept in microwave engineering is that of circular polarisation. Since either halfspace of the more simple problem of a dielectric rib between two parallel plates has many of the properties of the halfspace revealed by a dielectric brick in a ridge waveguide it is investigated prior to tackling the exact problem. supports such planes on its ¯at wall and the double ridge one on the symmetry plane de®ned by its electric wall. Counterrotating magnetic ®elds occur naturally on either side of the symmetry plane of an ordinary rectangular waveguide propagating the dominant TE mode. Situations in which the rotation of these waves are dierent in the two directions of propagation are. of special interest. Furthermore. The exact nature of the polarisation in a ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between its ridges based on the FEM method is separately summarised. and at the interface and everywhere outside two dierent dielectric regions. . One feature of the parallel plate waveguide is the fact that the alternating magnetic ®eld is quasicircularly polarised with counterrotating hands at each interface between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside it. in each instance.
The topology of the .2 indicates the corresponding solution for the electric ®eld. z 0. 3%. Since circular polarisation plays such an important role in the operation of ferrite and other devices it is helpful to recall its de®nition in some detail. Figures 8.3 Open halfspace of asymmetrically dielectric loaded ridge waveguide The open halfspace between the ridges of an asymmetrically dielectric loaded ridge waveguide has at ®rst sight some similarity to the open regions of a single dielectric rib between two parallel plates. 2 2 or at z 0. 3t 0. etc. etc.2 Circular polarisation An alternating radio frequency wave is either vertically. %. horizontally or clockwise and anticlockwise elliptically or circularly polarised.1a and b show pictorial displays of the two magnetic ®eld patterns at 3t 0 in free space entering into the description of this problem region. %. 3%.100 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 8. 8. %. The two possibilities correspond to counterrotating waves and are de®ned in Cartesian coordinates by E À 3tY z ax E0 jay E0 exp j 3t À z E 3tY z ax E0 À jay E0 exp j 3t À z Whether E or E À represents a clockwise or anticlockwise circularly polarised wave may be readily established by constructing the real parts of these quantities and evaluating the same at 3t 0. Figure 8. This gives 2 2 E À 3tY z ax E0 cos 3t À z ay E0 sin 3t À z E 3tY z ax E0 cos 3t À z À ay E0 sin 3t À z Taking 3t 0 by way of an example gives E À 0Y z% ax E0 cos z À ay E0 sin z E 0Y z ax E0 cos z ay E0 sin z A scrutiny of the preceding equations also indicates that E 3tY z E À 3tY z ax E0 cos 3t À z This result suggests that a linearly polarised wave can always be decomposed into a linear combination of counterrotating circularly polarised waves.
The solution to this problem is a classic one in the literature.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 101 Figure 8.1 Linear polarisation. Such a waveguide may therefore be employed. clockwise. The topology considered here is illustrated in Figure 8.3. in conjunction with suitably magnetised ferrite plates. It may also be used to provide some insight into the operation of nonreciprocal ridge components. in the construction of nonreciprocal isolators and phase shifters. . One property of the parallel plate waveguide is that it displays counterrotating elliptically polarised magnetic ®elds at each boundary between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside. Another property is that the hands of polarisations are interchanged when the direction of propagation is reversed. counterclockwise circular polarisation (magnetic ®eld) parallel plate waveguide may therefore be utilised to establish the nature of the halfspace revealed by a ridge waveguide with the other halfspace ®lled by a suitable dielectric medium.
4 Circular polarisation in dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguides with open sidewalls Dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguides with open sidewalls or with electric or magnetic sidewalls all support. under appropriate boundary conditions.2 Linear polarisation. The con®guration treated in this section is the open sidewall arrangement in Figure 8. planes of circular polarisation at the boundaries between dielectric and air regions. counterclockwise circular polarisation (electric ®eld) 8.3. clockwise.102 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components y z ~+ E = (ax – jay)Eo x + y z ~– E = (ax – jay)Eo x = y z ~ ~+ ~ – E=E +E x Figure 8. A solution of this problem region indicates that the ®elds decay exponentially outside the dielectric region and that the ratio of the transverse to longitudinal components of the RF magnetic ®eld .
The dominant mode in such a waveguide is the socalled even one with no low frequency cuto condition.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 103 Figure 8. One solution in the dielectric region is Hz A sin k1 x exp Àjz It satis®es the wave equation with Àk2 À 2 32 "0 40 41 0 1 4 3 and the magnetic wall boundary condition at the symmetry plane of the dielectric region. To maintain the ellipticity below 1.3 Schematic diagram of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide with open sidewalls at the interface between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside it is given by Hx Àj p Hz 1 À k0 a2 1 where k0 is the free space propagation constant and is the phase constant along the structure.05 (say) it is necessary to have 53 k0 2 The derivation of this important result starts by establishing the ®eld components of the TE family of modes in the threeregion dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide with open sidewalls. The other ®eld components in region 1 are now readily constructed in terms of Hz as Hx Àj A cos k1 x exp Àjz k1 5 . The solutions are labelled even or odd according to whether an electric or magnetic wall can be introduced along the plane of symmetry at x 0.
The magnetic ®eld is therefore elliptically polarised with one hand of rotation everywhere in region 2: Hx j H z k2 16 .104 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Ey j"0 3 A cos k1 x exp Àjz k1 6 A suitable decaying solution in region 2 in keeping with the open wall boundary condition adopted for this region at x ÀI is Hz B expk2 a x À jz It satis®es the wave equation with k2 À 2 32 "0 40 0 2 8 7 The constant B is determined by noting that Hz must be continuous at the boundary between the two regions B ÀA sin k1 a 9 The complete solution in region 2 is therefore described by the dispersion relationship in equation (8) and by Hz ÀA sin k1 a expk2 a x À jz Hx Ey Àj A sin k1 a expk2 a x À jz k2 j"0 3 A sin k1 a expk2 a x À jz k2 10 11 12 The solution in region 3 has the same form as that in 2 but with the sign of Hz reversed: Hz A sin k1 a expk2 a À x À jz Hx Ey Àj A sin k1 a expk2 a À x À jz k2 j"0 3 A sin k1 a expk2 a À x À jz k2 13 14 15 and satis®es the same wave equation as that in region 2.
and either separation constant may be employed with the appropriate wave equation to determine .4 depicts one result. A knowledge of these three parameters is sucient to construct the ®eld patterns of the waveguide. Figure 8. It is actually the next higher order mode of this class of waveguide. 8. This may be done by ®rst noting that the propagation constant must be the same in each region: k2 32 "0 40 Àk2 32 "0 40 41 2 1 18 and furthermore noting that the electric ®eld Ey must be continuous across the two regions. Applying this boundary condition gives k2 k1 tan k1 a 19 The preceding two relationships may now be employed to evaluate k1a and k2a for parametric values of 41 and 32 "0 40 . it is now necessary to evaluate and the ®eld patterns of the structure. This result is obtained by calculating Hx from a knowledge of Ez and Hz: Àj dHz jk0 4r dEz Hx 0 À 2 k2 4r dy À 2 k2 4r dx 0 0 . The relationship p between ak2 and ka 41 is separately illustrated in Figure 8.5 Circular polarisation in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide A scrutiny of the ®eld pattern of a dielectric loaded ridge waveguide indicates that it also supports planes of elliptical or circular polarisation at the boundary between the two dielectric regions and everywhere outside. One solution which displays a quasicircularly polarised solution at the symmetry plane of the problem region is the dominant quasiLSE10 mode of the structure.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 105 That in region 3 is elliptically polarised with the other hand of rotation as asserted: Hx Àj Hz k2 17 For completion. The derivation of the second family of TE solutions for which the introduction of an electric wall at the plane of symmetry leaves the solution unperturbed is outside the remit of this text. One feature of this result is that the alternating magnetic ®eld is not only circularly polarised at the boundary between the two dielectrics but also everywhere outside. One way to solve this problem region is to use the twocomponent Ez/Hz hybrid FEM outlined in Chapter 7.6 for completeness.5. It is indicated in Figure 8.
4 Electric and magnetic ®elds of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide with open sidewalls (dominant even mode solution) Source: Cohn (1959) .106 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8.
display such polarisations at the plane of the electric wall de®ned by the symmetry of the waveguide. It does. 8.9.7.6 Circular polarisation in homogeneous ridge waveguide A property of a ridge is that is does not have planes of circular polarisation on the ¯oors of the trough regions. The ®nite element mesh employed in obtaining these results is indicated in Figure 8. however.5 Relationship between ak2 and (k1 a) 41 Source: Anderson & Hines (1960) A typical result at the symmetry plane of the waveguide is indicated in Figure 8.8. It applies for a normalised phase constant of 2X5 k0 The relationship between the normalised frequency and the ellipticity at the dielectric interface is separately illustrated in Figure 8.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 107 p Figure 8. The failure of a single ridge waveguide to exhibit this sort of . The truncation of each curve corresponds to the onset of the quasiLSE20 mode in the waveguide.
Since the closed form descriptions of the ®elds in a ridge waveguide are in good agreement with those produced by using the ®nite element method these may be used for the purpose of calculation.6 Electric and magnetic ®elds of dielectricloaded parallel plate waveguide with open sidewalls (dominant odd mode solution) Source: Cohn (1959) polarisation in the trough regions may be understood by mapping a rectangular waveguide into a ridge arrangement with equivalent path length around its periphery. This operation is illustrated in Figure 8.10. which do not support planes of circular polarisation. Figure 8. are translated into the bottom walls of the ridge channels.11 shows one typical result at six dierent planes along the thickness of the waveguide .108 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8. It highlights how the sidewalls of the rectangular waveguide.
It is obtained by retaining the ®rst 15 modes in the trough and ridge regions. d/b 0.25.50) Reprinted with permission. Figures 8.13 and 8. The closed form relationships for the ®elds in this sort of waveguide may also be readily employed to calculate the positions of circular polarisation at the plane of the electric wall for dierent values of the gap spacing d/b. Figure 8. Helszajn & McKay (2000) inside the halfspace formed by placing an electric wall at its symmetry wall.50. .12 illustrates a similar result for another geometry.7 Circular polarisation at symmetry plane in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide (s/a 0. This result is indicated in Figure 8. b/a 0.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 109 Figure 8.14 compare some closed form and ®nite element calculations in the same two geometries.15.
50) .110 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8.8 Relationship between ellipticity at electric symmetry plane and normalised frequency in dielectric loaded ridge waveguide for parametric values of s/a (d/b 0.
9 Finite element discretisation of dielectric loaded ridge waveguide Figure 8.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 111 Figure 8.10 Mapping between rectangular and single ridge waveguides .
d/b 0.11 FEM calculations of Hx and Hz in layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a 0.35.50. b/a 0. k0/kc 2. Helszajn & McKay (2000) .0) Reprinted with permission.112 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8.25.
Helszajn & McKay (2000) . d/b 0.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 113 Figure 8. k0/kc 2.50.12 FEM calculations of Hx and Hz in layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a 0.50.25.0) Reprinted with permission. b/a 0.
0) Reprinted with permission.13 Comparison between FEM and closed form calculations of Hx and Hz in layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a 0. k0/kc 2.50.35. Helszajn & McKay (2000) . d/b 0. b/a 0.114 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8.25.
25.0) Reprinted with permission. d/b 0. k0/kc 2.50.Circular polarisation in ridge and dielectric loaded RWs 115 Figure 8.50. Helszajn & McKay (2000) .14 Comparison between FEM and closed form calculations of Hx and Hz in layered planes parallel to the electric symmetry wall of the waveguide (s/a 0. b/a 0.
25.116 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 8. Helszajn & McKay (2000) .15 Position of circular polarisation at plane of electric symmetry wall in double ridge waveguide (s/a 0. b/a 0.50) Reprinted with permission.
1a. A quarterwave plate can be readily realised in this sort of waveguide by employing unequal orthogonal pairs of ridges. square and triangular waveguides. insofar as it is concerned.1 Introduction The ridge waveguide is not in practice restricted to the rectangular waveguide with one or two ridges. to investigate the problem regions revealed by introducing suitable orthogonal magnetic and electric walls in all combinations. The eect of depositing dielectric tiles on the ridges is also given some attention. Hz functional.Chapter 9 Quadruple ridge waveguide 9. Its details are again completely described by a normalised gap (d/a) and a normalised ridge width (s/a). Since the dominant mode solution of this structure has twofold symmetry it is sucient. A property of the round or square waveguide symmetrically loaded by four ridges is that its dominant mode can be decomposed into counterrotating circular polarised waves on its axis. Its mode nomenclature coincides with that of the round or square waveguide obtained by removing the ridges. Hy . 9.2 Quadruple ridge waveguide One quadruple ridge waveguide consists of a square waveguide symmetrically loaded by four ridges in the manner indicated in Figure 9. The normalised cuto number (!c aa) completes its de®nition. The nodal ®nite element method (FEM) again provides one means of investigating this sort of isotropic waveguide. This sort of ridge waveguide supports Faraday rotation provided it is perturbed by a gyromagnetic material along its axis. One or more ridges have by now been introduced into circular. Its description necessitates the use of a hybrid Ez aHz or vector Hx . The ®eld patterns and cuto of this type of waveguide space may be .
the diameter of the waveguide. in this instance.1b. The cuto spaces of these sorts of waveguides have been calculated using the FEM. The cuto spaces of .1 Schematic diagrams of square and round ridge waveguides evaluated without ado by once more using the FEM or other numerical techniques.118 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9. A square quadruple ridge waveguide with diagonal ridges is depicted in Figure 9. the mode matching method (MMM).1c. Its topology is ®xed by the same variables as those employed to specify the square arrangement except that the side dimension represents. the magnetic ®eld integral equation (MFIE) and other numerical procedures. The geometry of the related circular waveguide is separately illustrated in Figure 9.
1 modes are indicated in Figure 9. The ®eld patterns of either problem region are obtained from the eigenvectors of the problem region in question in conjunction with Maxwell's equations.1 modes by the introduction of the ridges. The cuto spaces obtained in this way are separately depicted in Figures 9. 9. The TE 21U and TE21L solutions are obtained by introducing orthogonal electric and magnetic walls at the symmetric planes of the problem region.2 Cuto space of square ridge waveguide using MFIE Reprinted with permission.5.Quadruple ridge waveguide 119 the TE family of modes of these waveguides correspond to those of planar circuits with top and bottom magnetic walls and an electric sidewall. Sun & Balanis (1994) . This feature may be understood by recalling that an inward deformation of an electric wall of a cavity resonator in the vicinity of a pure electric ®eld produces an increase in the resonant frequency whereas the same deformation in the vicinity of a pure magnetic ®eld has the opposite eect. respectively.2± 9. The ®eld patterns of the split TE2. Figure 9.3 Cuto space in quadruple ridge waveguide using MFIE method A comprehensive investigation of the cuto spaces of various quadruple ridge waveguides has been undertaken based on the MFIE method. A property of these mode charts is the splitting of the degenerate TE2. Its TM mode spectrum corresponds to that of planar circuits with top and bottom electric walls and a magnetic sidewall.4.
Sun & Balanis (1994) . Sun & Balanis (1994) Figure 9.4 Cuto space of square waveguide using diagonal ridges using MFIE Reprinted with permission.120 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9.3 Cuto space of round ridge waveguide using MFIE Reprinted with permission.
as are a number of related ®lter structures. 9. It coincides with the eigenvalues of the related planar geometry with top and bottom magnetic walls. The use of conical instead of rectangular ridges permits closed form radial variables to be used throughout. b TE21L.5 Field patterns of quadruple ridge circular waveguide using FEM a TE11. Figures 9.Quadruple ridge waveguide 121 Figure 9.4 Cuto space of ridge waveguide using MMM A mode matching procedure has also been utilised to establish the cuto space of a ridge waveguide in the special case of one or more conical ridges.6 depicts the details of a typical ridge. and an electric sidewall. The details of the radial MMM encountered in this problem region are described in the original literature. The functional met with this . c TE21U. d TE01 9.10 illustrate the cuto spaces of these sorts of structures. Figure 9.7±9.5 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using FEM The cuto space of the TE family of solutions in a quadruple ridge waveguide may also be again readily established by using the FEM.
6 Geometry of a single ridge circular waveguide a Ridge depth < radius.7 Cuto space of circular waveguide with single conical ridges using the MMM (t/D 0.122 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9.04) Reprinted with permission. b ridge depth > radius Figure 9. Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) .
Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) Figure 9.Quadruple ridge waveguide 123 Figure 9.9 Cuto space of circular waveguide with three conical ridges using the MMM (2 108) Reprinted with permission. Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) .8 Cuto space of circular waveguide with two conical ridges using the MMM (2 108) Reprinted with permission.
124 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9. ka and Hz represent a typical eigenvalue and a typical eigenvector. Since this structure has four fold symmetry it is sucient to solve the problem region obtained by partitioning it into four equal regions by introducing orthogonal electrical and magnetic walls in all combinations.10 Cuto space of circular waveguide with four conical ridges using the MMM (b 20mm. Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) topology is that encountered in connection with the single or double ridge geometry. One possible discretisation in the case of the circular con®guration is speci®ed by p2 m6 n 71 n Â m 426 q 172 . The matrix equation produced by extremising this functional is fA À k2 BgHz 0 a 1 The square matrices [A] and [B] have the meaning met in connection with the single and double ridge problem regions. 2 208) Reprinted with permission.
The cuto space of the TM eigensolution is obtained by replacing the top and bottom magnetic walls by electric walls and again introducing orthogonal electric and magnetic walls in all combinations.11. n Â m is the number of nodes prior to assembly of the mesh and q is the number of nodes after assembly of the mesh. .11 Cuto space of quadruple ridge circular waveguide using FEM p is the degree of the polynomial approximation inside each element.11 summarises the required cuto space. The ®rst symmetric TM01 mode. m is the number of nodes. The functional in this instance involves Ez instead of Hz : fA À k2 BgEz 0 a 2 The cuto space of the TM eigensolution is separately superimposed on Figure 9.Quadruple ridge waveguide 125 Figure 9. Figure 9. n is the number of elements.
Sun & Balanis (1994) 9.14 reproduce. . b TE11 mode. The other components of the ®eld are then deduced by using Maxwell's equations. some results on the dominant and higher order TE modes in a round waveguide based on an MFIE calculation. The nature of the ®elds in the square waveguide can be inferred from those of the round geometry without diculty.6 Fields in quadruple ridge waveguide The ®elds in the round ridge waveguide can be established easily by recalling that the eigenvectors of the problem region coincide with the magnetic ®eld Hz or Ez at the nodes of the two possible planar problem regions. Those of the TM eigensolutions are obtained by replacing the top and bottom magnetic walls with electric walls. The ®eld patterns of the TE family of solutions correspond to the planar problem region with top and bottom magnetic walls and an electric sidewall.126 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9. Figures 9. however. c TE20L mode. d TE20U mode Reprinted with permission.12 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a square quadrupleridge waveguide using MFIE a TE10 mode.12±9. The mode nomenclature met in the description of the round waveguide is that obtained by withdrawing the ridges.
It reduces to the set of simultaneous equations reproduced below: . d TE21U mode using MFIE Reprinted with permission. c TE21L mode. b TE01 mode. b TE20L mode using MFIE Reprinted with permission.15 illustrates some possibilities. Since such a typical structure supports hybrid modes. Sun & Balanis (1994) 9. Sun & Balanis (1994) Figure 9.Quadruple ridge waveguide 127 Figure 9. Figure 9.13 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a circular quadrupleridge waveguide using MFIE a TE11 mode.14 Modal electrical ®eld distributions in a diagonal quadrupleridge waveguide using MFIE a TE10 mode. The hybrid Ez aHz formulation is adopted here. an Ez aHz or a threecomponent vector formulation is necessary for its description.7 Cuto space of dielectric loaded quadruple ridge waveguide The quadruple ridge waveguide can also be dielectric loaded in various ways.
15 Schematic diagrams of round and square ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles and rods Reprinted from Helszajn & Shrimpton (1996) 4r S 1 r T 2 1 0 T 2 T R 1 1 4r À U 1 k0 20 k0 r 1 r 2 k2 R 0 0 P Q 1 5 U U4 20 k0 U erf U S hrf S 2 P4 T 1 0 0 T 2 Q S erf hrf ! 3 The notation entering in this result is in keeping with that met in Chapter 8.128 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9. Adopting this convention gives s 0X25 d . Since there is at ®rst sight no standard size tabulated for the quadruple ridge waveguide the dimensions chosen here are based on the corresponding opening of a double ridge rectangular waveguide.
0±15 GHz band for dierent values of daa with saa 0X25. to prevent the orthogonal pairs of ridges touching. The ®eld patterns in this sort of waveguide can be deduced without diculty once the cuto space and propagation constant at any frequency are available.55 mm. Figure 9. This quantity is bracketed in this work by 24 s 44 h The de®nition of the geometry is complete once the gap between the ridges is selected.17.14 mm.Quadruple ridge waveguide 129 The gap between the ridges is again described by d D Once the waveguide size is settled it is necessary to ®x the aspect ratio (S/H) of the ferrite tile. The segmentation employed in obtaining this result is indicated in Figure 9. Since the problem region under consideration is inhomogeneous the propagation constant cannot be deduced from a knowledge of the cuto space but must be calculated at each and every frequency. Figure 9. The thickness of the tiles was 11 mm and the width was 2. The side of the waveguide is 8.0. This parameter is de®ned in terms of a ®lling factor k 2h d kmax 1 À Its maximum value. .19 summarises some experimental work on the propagation constant of one square ridge waveguide using a single pair of ridges in the 7. The cuto space for one gyromagnetic arrangement is depicted in Figure 9.18 illustrates some results on a square ridge waveguide with four dielectric tiles. The relative dielectric constant of the dielectric tiles was 15.16. is ks 2h The range of ®lling factors investigated here is bracketed by kmax 3k 4 k 4 max 2 4 The value of the relative dielectric constant (4r) completes the physical description of the waveguide structure in question.
McKay & Helszajn (2000) Figure 9.17 Discretisation of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles Reprinted with permission.130 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9.16 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles Reprinted with permission. McKay & Helszajn (2000) .
McKay & Helszajn (2000) .18 Standing wave solutions of quadruple ridge waveguide loaded by dielectric tiles Reprinted with permission.Quadruple ridge waveguide 131 Figure 9.
and U is the voltage across a typical gap.19 Experimental phase constant of square waveguide (s/a 0. The relationship between the impedances at ®nite and in®nite frequencies is ZPV 3 . This is a general result.15. s/a 0. The purpose of this section is to summarise some calculations on its powervoltage de®nition in the case of a circular waveguide with four conical ridges. Helszajn & Shrimpton (1996) 9.8 Impedance in quadruple ridge circular waveguide using conical ridges A speci®cation of the impedance of the quadruple ridge circular waveguide is also essential for its complete characterisation.20 indicates the relationship between the impedance at in®nite frequency against the gap factor d/b for two values of s/a based on some FEM calculations. This quantity is given in the usual way by U2 4 2P P is the power carried along the waveguide.132 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 9.25) using single pair of dielectric loaded ridges Reprinted with permission. Figure 9. A scrutiny of these data suggests that the impedance of this sort of waveguide is proportional to the gap factor d/b.
21 Characteristic impedance of quadruple and double ridge circular waveguide against ridge depth. Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) Figure 9. b 2 cm. ridge thickness (2) 108 Reprinted with permission.20 Powervoltage de®nition of impedance in round waveguide Reprinted with permission. Balaji & Vahldieck (1996) .21 compares the impedances of double and quadruple circular ridge waveguides for one typical situation. Figure 9.Quadruple ridge waveguide 133 !g ZPV 3 ZPV I !0 5 Figure 9.
Chapter 10 Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 10. It is therefore a suitable structure for the construction of nonreciprocal Faraday rotation devices such as circulators. One model of a Faraday rotation bit is a nonreciprocal 4port directional coupler. The descriptions of some typical nonreciprocal components are also given. This means that a wave propagating in one direction which is rotated by an angle does not rotate back to its original position when it is returned to its starting point. phase shifters and isolators. Propagation in a dual mode triple ridge gyromagnetic waveguide is handled separately. thereby producing socalled Faraday rotation of the polarisation of the ®eld pattern along the direction of propagation. It is employed in the calculations of propagation of a number of the gyromagnetic waveguides addressed in this chapter. One unique property of Faraday rotation is that it is nonreciprocal. . It is also an appropriate prototype for a host of reciprocal power dividers and other components. This situation may be understood by recalling that such a medium will display one value of scalar permeability if the alternating radio frequency magnetic ®eld rotates in the same direction as the electron spin and another value if it rotates in the opposite direction. Such a degeneracy can be split by a suitably magnetised gyromagnetic insulator. The chapter includes the scattering matrix of the arrangement. A threecomponent magnetic ®eld formulation of the sort of functional met in the RayleighRitz calculation of propagation in this type of waveguide is included separately.1 Introduction A feature of either the round or square quadruple ridge waveguide is the existence of counterrotating degenerate magnetic ®elds on its axis.
2 in the case of the magnetic ®eld and in Figure 10.3 in the case of the electric one. Figure 10.Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 135 10.1 Schematic diagrams of round and square ridge waveguides loaded with ferrite regions .1 indicates four structures which have the symmetry in question. A physical appreciation of Faraday rotation may be obtained by decomposing a linearly polarised wave into a pair of degenerate counterrotating ones which are then split by the gyrotropy. If the linearly polarised wave is now reconstituted in terms of the split counterrotating ones then its polarisation is rotated as it propagates along the waveguide. This situation is illustrated in Figure 10. À À 2 1 Figure 10.2 Faraday rotation section A circular quadruple waveguide symmetrically loaded along its axis by a suitably magnetised gyromagnetic material supports Faraday rotation along the direction of propagation. The angle of rotation is de®ned by the dierence between the split phase constants Æ .
À 0 2 2 This result is obtained easily by decomposing a linearly polarised wave at the origin into a linear combination of two counterrotating waves with dierent propagation constants.136 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 10. ! ! ! Ex 1 1 E E exp j 0 exp jÀ 0 3 2 Àj 2 j Ey .2 Faraday rotation (magnetic ®eld) The phase constant of the rotated wave is related to the sum of the propagation constants.
3 Faraday rotation (electric ®eld) This equation is satis®ed at the origin by ! ! ! 1 E0 1 E0 1 E0 2 Àj 2 j 0 4 One possible con®guration is obtained by introducing a ferrite rod along the axis of the waveguide.Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 137 Figure 10. While the rotation per unit length of such an arrangement is less than that met with an axial ferrite rod con®guration it has the merit of being more amenable in the development of high peak and average power devices. Another is to introduce a ferrite or garnet ring insert along the waveguide. To proceed with the design of this class of component it is necessary to have a description of the degenerate or demagnetised propagation constant of the . Still another is to place ferrite tiles on each ¯at face of the ridges.
then the re¯ection coecients &Æ are given in terms of the normal mode phase constants by &Æ % À0 Æ 0 Æ 6 The transmission coecients (Æ are related in the usual way to the re¯ection coecients Æ by (Æ 1 À &Æ &Ã 2 exp ÀjÆ Æ Ã Ã Ã Ã S11 S11 S21 S21 S31 S31 S41 S41 1 1 7 It is readily veri®ed that equations (5a)±(5d) satisfy the unitary condition 8 For symmetric splitting the scattering parameters in equations (5a)±(5d) become S11 % 0 S21 % j À À 20 9a 9b . 10.138 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components waveguide and also its split or magnetised propagation constants.3 Scattering matrix of Faraday rotation section One way to model the Faraday eect is to treat the rotator section as a 4port nonreciprocal directional coupler. The entries of its scattering matrix with an input at port 1 may then be expressed in terms of the properties of the counterrotating re¯ection &Æ and transmission variables (Æ of the system by & & 5a S11 À 2 & À & S21 À 5b Àj 2 S31 S41 (À ( 2 ( À ( À j2 5c 5d If the magnetised line is matched to the demagnetised one by a stepped impedance transformer. The ®nite element method is again one means of making such calculations.
Figure 10. The . furthermore. i. It is characterised by the following scattering matrix: ! 0 À1 11 S 1 0 One realisation of this network consists of a rectangular waveguide with a 90 degree twist followed by a 90 degree Faraday rotation section.4 illustrates the situation for a 908 section. When it is re¯ected to its starting point it is again rotated by . The total rotation of the re¯ected wave is therefore 2 with respect to the outgoing wave.4 Gyrator network The simplest component that illustrates the nonreciprocal property of a Faraday rotator is the gyrator circuit. 10. The nature of this phenomenon may be understood by recognising that the signs of and À are interchanged for propagation in the Àz direction and. Thus Faraday rotation is nonreciprocal and leads to a number of nonreciprocal devices. To do so by at least 20 dB it is necessary to have À À 4 0X10 20 10 The above condition imposes an upper bound on the normalised splitting and a lower bound on the overall length of the device. it is not rotated back to its original orientation.e. This element is a 4terminal 2port device that has zero relative phase shift in one direction of propagation and 180 degree in the other.Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 139 S31 % 1 À S41 % 1 À À À 20 À À 20 2 ! 1 2 À À cos exp Àj0 2 À À exp Àj0 sin 2 9c 2 ! 1 2 9d which also satis®es the unitary condition. that the phase constants of Æ are separately exchanged. A scrutiny of the preceding scattering parameters indicates that a wave propagating a certain distance in one direction is rotated through an angle with respect to its original polarisation. One consequence of this result is that matching port 1 in a 4port nonreciprocal network is not sucient to decouple port 2.
5 Nonreciprocal gyrator circuit Reprinted with permission.5. it therefore emerges at the output port having been rotated 180 degrees with respect Figure 10. A vertically polarised wave propagating from left to right has its polarisation rotated 90 degrees by the twisted rectangular waveguide and a further 90 degrees by the Faraday rotator.140 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 10. Hogan (1952) .4 Faraday rotation in positive and negative directions of propagation output port is orientated in the same plane as the input one in the manner indicated in Figure 10.
To reveal this property it is rewritten in a slightly dierent form by using some standard matrix identities. A vertically polarised wave propagating in the opposite direction is rotated by the 90 degree Faraday rotator in the same sense as before. the wave therefore displays no rotation in this direction of propagation. In this case. The eective length of this gyrator is an odd integral number of halfwavelengths for transmission in one direction of propagation and an even number in the other.Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 141 to the input port. The use of such a functional avoids spurious solutions that sometimes exist with other formulations. however. The required result is F s f r Â H Ã Á 4fÀ 1 r Â H À k2 H Ã "Hg ds r 0 s À c fH Ã Â 4fÀ 1 r Â Hg Á n dc 14 . the waveguide twist will cancel the Faraday rotation instead of adding to it. This gives F fH Ã Á r Â 4fÀ 1 r Â H À H Ã k2 "Hg ds 13 0 s The functional obtained in this way embodies a natural boundary condition at any electric or magnetic wall of the problem region. 10.5 Gyromagnetic waveguide functional It is convenient in the variational solution of the gyromagnetic waveguide to use a threecomponent magnetic ®eld vector formulation of the functional. One mathematical means of constructing a functional is to premultiply the wave equation by the complex conjugate of the ®eld variable prior to integrating the ensuing quantity over the surface of the problem region. The wave equation is in this instance given easily by 1 rÂ r Â H À k2 "H 0 12 0 4f One solution to this sort of equation is obtained by constructing the functional of the problem region and recognising that the ®eld which extremises the functional is also a solution of the wave equation.
142 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components c is the contour of the problem region s and n is the outward unit vector normal to c. The necessary matrix relationships employed in establishing this result are r Á
A Â B B Á
r Â A À A Á
r Â B r r A Á
B Â C C Á
A Â B B Á
C Â A r Á A ds
s c
s A Á n dc
It may be demonstrated that the contour integral term appearing in the functional is zero at both electric and magnetic walls. It is hereafter not given any further consideration. The functional to be extremised is therefore speci®ed by f
r Â H Ã Á
4fÀ 1 r Â H À k0 H Ã "Hg ds r
15 F
s
This equation may now be reduced to a matrix equation by using the RayleighRitz procedure. The ®rst step in this development amounts to replacing the unknown components of the vector ®eld in the functional by a suitable polynomial approximation with arbitrary coecients. The second step adjusts the unknown coecients by extremising the functional. The detailed procedure is dealt with in Chapter 19. The ®nite element method produces in practice spurious solutions for which
r Á H T 0. One means of alleviating this problem, to a large r extent, is to introduce a penalty term into the functional. One possibility is to add the quantity
r Á H Ã
r Á H to the functional. Introducing this r r penalty term into the preceding functional gives the modi®ed version for calculation purposes, F f
r Â H Ã Á
4fÀ 1 r Â H À k2 H Ã "H
r Á H Ã
r Á Hg ds
16 r r r 0
s
It is usual in this type of problem to split the ®eld and vector operations into longitudinal and transverse components: H Ht az Hz r rt À jaz " "t "z 17 18 19
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 143 where P "xx 0 0 0 T "zz R 0 0 0 0 P "xy "yy 0 0 Q 20
T "t R "yx
U 0S 0
Q 0 U 0 S "zz
21
Introducing these relationships into the functional in equation (14) gives Ã f4fÀ 1 jrt Â H t j2 À k2 H tÃ " t H t Hz "zz Hz F 0
s
4fÀ 1 jrt Hz jH t j2 g ds
22
Figure 10.6 Cuto space of quadruple ridge waveguide using ferrite ring insert Reprinted with permission, Dillion & Gibson (1993, IEEE MTTS Digest)
144 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.7 Faraday rotation of quadruple ridge waveguide using ferrite ring insert Reprinted with permission, Dillion & Gibson (1993, IEEE MTTS Digest)
10.6 Ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic ring
The purpose of this section is to summarise some calculations on the cuto space and propagation of a ridge structure containing a gyromagnetic ring in contact with the four ridges. The calculations are based on a magnetic vector FEM formulation of the problem region. Figure 10.6 depicts, ®rst of all, the cuto space for its ®rst three HEmYn modes. It indicates, in keeping with theory, that the cuto space displays no splitting for this family of modes. Figure 10.7 separately indicates the rotation per unit length of two arrangements for one typical value of gyrotropy.
10.7 Quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles
A more practical ridge waveguide geometry is a quadruple one with ferrite tiles cemented on each ridge. It is suitable for the construction of devices
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 145
Figure 10.8 Split phase constants in quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
with large CW power ratings. The relationship between the split phase constants and the gyrotropy is indicated in Figure 10.8 for one geometry. The standing wave patterns for the ®rst pair of split modes and the ®rst symmetric mode are indicated in Figure 10.9 for two typical values of gyrotropy.
10.8 Faraday rotation isolator
The operation of this type of isolator can be understood with the help of Figure 10.10. The rotator prototype is matched to a rectangular waveguide at each end by a taper or a quarterwave transformer in a round waveguide. Resistance vanes are inserted in the round waveguide sections in a plane perpendicular to the electric ®elds of the input and output rectangular waveguides. A signal incident at the input port will be perpendicular to the ®rst resistance card, and after a clockwise rotation through 45 degrees will also be perpendicularly polarised with respect to the card at the output port.
146 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 10.9a Standing wave solutions in quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles p p (a) a" 0X50, k0 a 4f 8X0; (b) a" 1X0, k0 a 4f 8X0 Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 147
Figure 10.9b Standing wave solutions in quadruple ridge waveguide using gyromagnetic tiles p p (a) a" 0X50, k0 a 4f 8X0; (b) a" 1X0, k0 a 4f 8X0 Reprinted with permission, McKay & Helszajn (2000)
it therefore emerges at port 3. One arrangement is illustrated in Figure 10. In this device. but phase shifted through either z or À z. no Faraday rotation will occur. This arrangement may also be used as a switch by reversing the direction of the direct magnetic ®eld. so that its electric ®eld is now horizontally polarised at the input of the ®rst twomode transducer.10 Nonreciprocal Faraday rotationtype phase shifter A feature of a gyromagnetic medium is that if the excitation to a typical rotation section corresponds to one of its normal modes. A re¯ected signal at the output port is likewise perpendicular to the card there.9 Fourport Faraday rotation circulator Another important application of the Faraday section is in the realisation of the 4port Faraday rotation circulator. A wave entering port 2 is also rotated clockwise. the wave travels in the same normal mode through the rotator section. The wavelength of the transformer section is approximately the geometric mean of the wavelength of the rectangular waveguide and that of the isotropic round waveguide containing the ferrite rod. but after rotation through 45 degrees in a clockwise sense will now be in the plane of the input vane where it is attenuated. Similarly. It uses two reciprocal quarterwave plates at either end of the Faraday rotation section. transmission occurs from port 3 to port 4. therefore. port 4 to port 1. The Faraday rotator is again a 45degree section.12.148 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components It will. A schematic diagram of this component is indicated in Figure 10. be transmitted without attenuation through the isolator. Instead. The physical arrangement is similar to the Faraday rotation isolator except that the sections containing the resistance vanes are replaced by twomode transducers.11. power entering port 1 emerges at port 2. This device may also be used as an amplitude modulator by suitably varying the direct magnetic ®eld in an appropriate manner. and so on in a cyclic manner. 10. 10. and so on. The ®rst quarter plate converts a linearly polarised input wave into a positive circularly polarised wave at . A wave entering port 1 with its electric ®eld vertically polarised is rotated clockwise by 45 degrees by the ferrite rotator and emerges at port 2. Such transducers allow orthogonal linearly polarised waves to be applied to the round waveguide section. This principle can be utilised to design a nonreciprocal phase shifter.
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 149 Figure 10. One prerequisite for this situation is that the waveguide supports propagation of a pair of counterrotating degenerate modes and one symmetric mode along its axis. of course. This wave is then phase shifted through z radians in the rotator section.10 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation isolator the input of the rotator section. The overall assembly therefore behaves as a nonreciprocal phase shifter. The phaseshifted circularly polarised wave is reconverted to a linearly polarised wave at the output by the second quarterwave plate.11 Faraday rotation in dualmode triple ridge waveguide While the triple ridge gyromagnetic waveguide can support planes of pure Faraday rotation on its axis it cannot decouple one pair of ridges from another. In the reverse direction of propagation the circularly polarised wave is in the opposite sense and the wave is therefore phase shifted through À z. The concept of Faraday rotation in a triple ridge waveguide is therefore only of value in this restricted class of circuit and is otherwise inappropriate. The other is that the degeneracy of the counterrotating modes should be removed by the gyrotropy of the waveguide. The only arrangement for which a wave between one pair of ridges will produce a corresponding wave at periodic planes between either of the other two pairs corresponds to the notion of an ideal circulator. A forward wave can. . also be switched from z to À z by reversing the direct magnetic ®eld on the rotator section. 10.
150 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 10. This gives .11 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation circulator A physical understanding of propagation on this waveguide starts by decomposing a single generator setting or incident wave between one pair of ridges into a linear combination of three normal modes comprising triplets of generator settings between each possible pair of ridges: P Q P Q P Q P Q 1 1 1 1 T U 1T U 1T U 1T 2U R0S R1S R S R S 3 3 3 0 1 2 where exp j120 2 exp j240 It proceeds by splitting the degenerate pair of counterrotating modes by the gyrotropy of the waveguide.
Faraday rotation in gyromagnetic quadruple ridge waveguide 151 Figure 10.12 Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation phase shifter a1 a2 a3 1 expÀj0 1 expÀj 1 1 expÀj 1 À 3 1 expÀj0 expÀj 1 2 expÀj 1 À 3 1 expÀj0 2 expÀj 1 expÀj 1 À 3 To couple one pair of ridges to a second one it is necessary to have a1 0 a2 1 a3 0 One solution to this problem region is 1 0 % ÀÀ % 3 .
If the gyrotropy is removed.152 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components In the absence of the third normal mode the wave will be in general elliptically polarised along the waveguide. 3 3 3 . then À 0 and a1 1 Y a2 2 and a3 2.
retains it in that of the midband frequency. It diers. This sort of problem is of interest in the design of halfwave plates. the eect of the lumped element susceptance of the discontinuity on the description of the external quality factor but. the normalised lumped element susceptance is independent of its de®nition. One canonical representation of such a discontinuity is a lumped element susceptance in cascade with an ideal transformer. The value of the turns ratio involves the choice of impedance employed in the calculation. . The work outlined here omits. in keeping with some prior art. The network variables of the overall arrangement are separately established by using the ABCD notation. The purpose of this chapter is to summarise some experimental data on a transition between an ordinary waveguide and a single ridge one.Chapter 11 Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single ridge waveguide 11. ®lters and matching networks. The chapter includes a careful characterisation of this problem region for each possible de®nition of impedance in the waveguide.1 Introduction The transition between any two dierent waveguides is of some interest in the design of ®lters and other waveguide components. It is often dealt with by resorting to a mode matching technique. however. While this and other techniques are able to model such discontinuities without diculty these are usually part of a general computer package and are not dedicated to extracting speci®c data. This sort of data may be experimentally extracted by making separate measurements on the external quality factor and resonant frequency of a halfwave long prototype. in that it does not restrict the turns ratio of the ideal transformer to unity. in keeping with some previous work.
2 ABCD parameters of 2port step discontinuity The nature of the step discontinuity between any two waveguides is of interest in the design of microwave components.1 Halfwave ridge prototype Figure 11.2. The notation employed in this work is ABCD. The values entering into the description of its elements may be established either through measurement or calculation. The problem region under consideration is that between a regular and ridge waveguide. One arrangement which may be used to extract the discontinuity eects at the junction between a ridge and a standard rectangular waveguide is a halfwave long section of waveguide between standard rectangular waveguides. One canonical 2port topology which has its origin in a variational approach is indicated in Figure 11. In the experimental approach the characteristic admittance and the electrical length of the halfwave prototype are the given variables and the susceptance and turnsratio are the unknown ones. Figure 11. It is depicted in Figure 11. It consists of a shunt susceptance (B) across the primary winding of an ideal transformer with a turns ratio n.2 Canonical equivalent circuit of step discontinuity .3 shows the overall equivalent circuit of the halfwave ®lter section utilised here. Figure 11.154 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 11.1. the experimental quantities are the quality factor and the frequency.
is de®ned by cos R jYr sin 1c ! 1 r r % 1 À 2 r 2 The derivation of this quantity starts with the de®nition of the radian angle .3 Canonical equivalent circuit of halfwave long ridge prototype The individual ABCD matrices associated with a simple shunt element (B).Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 155 Figure 11. an ideal transformer (n) and a uniform ridge waveguide with a characteristic admittance (Yr) are ! ! 1 0 A B 1a jB 1 C D A B ! 4 n 0 1 0 n 5 1b Q j sin Yr S cos C D A B ! P C D respectively. 3 It is continued by writing the phase constant at ®nite frequency in terms of that at the midband 4 r r Expanding this quantity about the midband phase constant r gives .
to construct that of the three inner sections: QP Q P QP ! j sin n 0 1 A B 0 SR cos 7 Rn Yr SR 1S C D 0 0 n jYr sin cos n or A cos B j sin n2 Yr 8a 8b 8c 8d C j n2 Yr sin D cos A scrutiny of this result suggests that the eect of the ideal transformers amounts to scaling the characteristic admittance of the transmission line by a factor n2 .156 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components r 1 À r r ! 5 This relationship is also sometimes written as ! 1 r % r 1 À 2 r 6 It is instructive. before proceeding with the construction of the overall ABCD matrix of the topology in question. The ABCD matrix of the overall arrangement is now speci®ed by A cos À B B sin n2 Yr 9a 9b ! 9c 9d j sin n2 Yr 2 B 2 sin C j 2B cos n Yr sin À 2 n Yr D cos À B sin n2 Yr The above entries satisfy the reciprocity condition below. as is readily veri®ed: AD À BC 1 10 .
3 Frequency response The validity of the entries of the equivalent circuit of the halfwave ®lter section may be veri®ed by constructing its frequency response. The external quality factor (Qex ) or normalised susceptance slope parameter (bH ) of such a degree1 section is described in the absence of fringing eects .Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW In the vicinity of r p% 157 r sin % À À r p% 2 11a 11b cos % À1 11. The amplitude squared transmission coecient ( Ã ) of a symmetrical network for which A D is given in terms of its ABCD parameters by Ã 1 1À 1 4 B À C2 12 The amplitude squared re¯ection coecient (&&Ã ) is deduced in terms of the amplitude squared transmission coecient by using the unitary condition Ã &&Ã 1 13 Scrutiny of equation (12) indicates that the condition for perfect transmission coincides with BY 2 C 0 14 The normalisation factor Y 2 ensures that the units of equation (14) are 0 consistent. The problem region in question is sometimes solved by setting the turns ratio of the ideal transformer in its equivalent circuit to unity and by neglecting the shunt susceptance in constructing the external quality factor. 11.4 Characterisation of halfwave long ridge waveguide testset One testset which may be employed to extract some remarks about the discontinuity eect of the ridge waveguide is the halfwave long ridge structure. In the approximation adopted here the eect of the ideal transformer is retained but that of the shunt susceptance on the quality factor is again disregarded.
YPV I and YPI I. The input admittance in the vicinity of r p% in the absence of the fringing susceptances at either the input or output terminals of the network is therefore ! 2 n Yr 3 Y 3 r p% À 20 À Yin 3 % Y0 3 1 j 21 Y0 3 r 2 n Yr 3 . Y0 3 is that of the input and output rectangular waveguides.158 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components at the input and output planes of the section by 2 !gr 2 % n Yr 3 Y 3 Qex % À 20 !0 2 Y0 3 n Yr 3 15 Yr 3 is the admittance of the ridge waveguide at ®nite frequency. This gives Yin 3 2A2 À 1Y0 A C À BY 2 0 A2 B 2 Y 2 0 20 The ®rst term in the numerator polynomial of Yin 3 represents its real part and the second one its imaginary part. The admittance of such a network terminated in a load Y0 is a standard result in the literature: Yin 3 C DY0 A BY0 19 The real and imaginary part of Yin 3 may be deduced by using the symmetry and reciprocity properties of the ABCD parameters and by noting that A and D are pure real numbers and that C and B are pure imaginary ones. The external Qfactor of the circuit is de®ned in the usual way by 3 dBin Qex 18 2Y0 d3 3 30 One convenient way to evaluate the input immittance of a cascade arrangement of a number of sections is to use the ABCD notation. respectively. and !gr and !g0 are the wavelengths in the ridge and rectangular waveguides. !0 16 Yr 3 Yr I !gr !0 Y0 3 Y0 I !g0 17 Yr I and Y0 I take on the values YVI I.
The parameters of the ridge waveguide may be calculated by referring to Chapter 3.Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW where 2 k2 À k2 r 0 cr 2 k2 À k2 cr 159 kcr is the cuto number of the ridge waveguide. The midband frequency condition may be established exactly and straightforwardly by making use of the fact that it coincides with the condition in equation (14). It is therefore strictly speaking necessary. This readily gives the required result in equation (15). Since the cuto numbers entering into the descriptions of Y0 3 and Yr 3 in standard and ridge waveguides are ®nite both quantities are dispersive. Solving the relationship in equation (15) for n2 Yr 3aY0 3 gives 2 s 2 n Yr 3 Qex !0 Qex 2 !0 4 1 22 % !gr % !gr Y0 3 The turns ratio n for each de®nition of impedance may therefore be readily evaluated once Qex and the other quantities are at hand. in order to evaluate Qex. The required result is n2 Yr 3 Y 3 À 20 Y0 3 n Yr 3 p% 2 r À r . is merely that at the output terminals. to write Bin in the form Bin u) where u Y0 3 ) and to form dBin d) du u ) d3 d3 d3 A scrutiny of duad3 for both dab and r a in the vicinity of unity suggests that the product of these two quantities is small. The real part of the complex admittance at the input terminals in the vicinity of r p%. It is neglected here. in keeping with simple transmission line theory.
therefore.4 indicates the relationship between the frequency of this sort of arrangement for four dierent inserts and the gap factor with saa 0X50. The results obtained here apply. ! b2 tan 1 2 À 2b À n yr tan 0 25 n2 yr n2 yr The two unknowns of the problem region may now be evaluated once ar and Qex are at hand.160 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components tan 2b b 1 2 À n2 yr 2y n yr n r 2 23 It reduces to the classic condition associated with two susceptances separated by a transmission line when yr 1 and n 1: tan 2 b 24 The characteristic equation in equation (23) is recognised. to a single ridge structure with an aspect ratio of 0.50 rather than 0. as a quadratic in the required unknown b. Figure 11. Some numerical calculations based on the mode matching method (MMM) are separately superimposed on these data. The meaning of the normalised variable utilised here is understood: b yr B Y0 3 Yr 3 Y0 3 26 27 The angle is de®ned in equation (11).5 Experimental characterisation The experimental characterisation of a typical step using a halfwave long test piece involves a measurement of its frequency and its quality factor. 11. These calculations represent an upper bound on the measured data. The aspect ratios baa of both the mating and ridge waveguides used in this work coincide with that of the WR 62 waveguide.45 usually associated with this kind of waveguide. for calculation purposes. Figure 11.5 gives the relationship between the wavelength and the gap factor. The quality factor is obtained from a knowledge of the 20dB return loss points by treating the network as a degree1 oneport LCR circuit: .
6 depicts the experimental relationship between the quality factor of this type of element and its aspect ratio. When the gap factor d/b equals unity the frequency is equal to that of a standard WR 62 waveguide. * MMM QL where VSWR À 1 p 20 VSWR 32 À 31 30 28 20 Figure 11. In obtaining these data no attention has been given to the quality of the . One feature of these data is that the external quality factor is essentially independent of the overall length of the test piece. This database was obtained in a WR 62 waveguide. Helszajn (2000) ^ L 8X5 mm.4 Relationship between frequency and aspect ratio of halfwave long ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission. Since each test piece resonates at a dierent frequency the elements entering into the description of a typical discontinuity are a ¯at function of frequency over the variables investigated here. ~ L 7X75 mm. & L 8X0 mm. Â L 7X5 mm.Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 161 Figure 11.
The normalised susceptance of such a discontinuity is indicated in Figure 11. Each result is deduced by curve ®tting the theoretical and experimental results established here.9 show the relationships between the gap factor and the turns ratio of the ideal transformer for each de®nition of waveguide impedance.7±11. & L 8X0 mm. . Figures 11. Since the turns ratio can be absorbed into the de®nition of the impedance of the ridge section its size may be used to determine the de®nition of impedance that is most appropriate between any two particular waveguides.162 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 11.10. ~ L 7X75 mm. Â L 7X5 mm coaxial to waveguide transitions employed in the test set. It is essentially independent of the choice of the waveguide impedance. The possibility of some interaction between a typical transition and a typical discontinuity cannot be ruled out.5 Relationship between wavelength and aspect ratio of halfwave long ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission. The turns ratio of the ideal transformer may be calculated once the frequency and the quality factor of the experimental prototype are available. Helszajn (2000) ^ L 8X5 mm.
The element values of its series and shunt reactances may be readily expressed in terms of the canonical representation of a typical single step. It is of some importance in the design of immittance inverters which enter into the description of directly coupled bandpass ®lters.6 Symmetrical short section One equivalent circuit of a short symmetrical obstacle between regular waveguides which neglects any interaction between the discontinuities at each side is a teecircuit. The derivation of the required equivalence starts by constructing the even and odd impedances of the teecircuit: Zeven j Xs 2Xp Zodd jXs 29a 29b . One means of doing so may be achieved by comparing the odd and even impedances of the two arrangements.Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 163 Figure 11. ~ L 7X5 mm 11.6 Relationship between loaded Qfactor and aspect ratio of halfwave long ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission.11. Helszajn (2000) ^ L 8X5 mm. & L 8X0 mm. The equivalent circuit in question is indicated in Figure 11.
5 mm. Helszajn (2000) L ^ 8.5 mm or jXs Zodd jXp Zeven À Zodd 2 30a 30b The required result is now established once the even and odd impedances of the original 2port circuit are deduced in terms of the original variables: ! 1 2 31a j 3C n Yr 3 cot Zeven 2 1 j 3C À n2 Yr 3 tan Zodd 2 ! 31b .164 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 11.0 mm. & 8.7 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of ideal transformer for ZPV Reprinted with permission. ~ 7.
& 8. in terms of the even and odd admittances of the circuit.0 mm.Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 165 Figure 11.8 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of ideal transformer for ZPI Reprinted with permission. The required relationships are in this instance given simply.12. Helszajn (2000) L ^ 8.5 mm Another equivalent circuit that is often encountered in this sort of problem is the %circuit in Figure 11. by jBp Yeven jBs 2 Yodd À Yeven The even and odd immittance parameters are connected by Yeven Yodd 1 Zeven 1 Zodd 33a 33b 32a 32b .5 mm. ~ 7.
The even and odd mode immittances may be separately shown to coincide with the eigenvalues of the related immittance matrices.5 mm The even mode parameters of any 2port symmetric circuit are 1port variables which may be obtained by placing equal amplitude inphase voltage generators at each port. ~ 7.0 mm. . The odd mode variables are obtained by placing equal amplitude outofphase generators there.166 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 11.5 mm. & 8.9 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and turns ratio (n) of ideal transformer for ZVI Reprinted with permission. Helszajn (2000) L ^ 8.
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 167 Figure 11. Helszajn (2000) . ZVI and ZPI Reprinted with permission.10 Experimental relationship between gap factor (d/b) and normalised lumped element susceptance for ZPV.
11 Symmetrical teecircuit .168 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 11.
Characterisation of discontinuity eects in single RW 169 Figure 11.12 Symmetrical picircuit .
The coupling geometry usually consists of either a circular or crossslot aperture.1 Introduction An important microwave component is the 4port directional coupler. Figure 12. a similar arrangement with primary and secondary waveguides in a single ridge.Chapter 12 Ridge crossguide directional coupler M. and con®gurations with the primary and secondary waveguides in either single and double ridge or double and single ridge. Helszajn 12. The four possibilities consist of one arrangement with both the primary and secondary waveguides in a double ridge.2 Operation of crossguide directional coupler The 4port crossguide directional coupler is a classic component in microwave engineering. The object of this chapter is to present some calculations on the coupling and directivity of a number of crossguide couplers in a ridge waveguide. Apart from discrepancies in the vicinity of the ridge discontinuities these agree well with some Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations in the same chapter. The closedform formulations may therefore be utilised for engineering purposes.1 illustrates the four topologies. respectively. The various topologies in a . The two classic arrangements consist of a crossguide structure and a distributed version. McKay and J. The calculations are based on Bethe's smallhole aperture theory in conjunction with the approximate closedform expressions for the ®elds in the waveguides introduced in Chapter 4. Such a network has the properties that it is a matched device with one adjacent port decoupled from any incident port. It is de®ned as a matched 4port network with one adjacent port decoupled from any input port. 12. The relationships between the scattering variables in this sort of network are ®xed by the unitary condition.
1 Schematic diagrams of four possible topologies of crossguide ridge directional coupler ridge waveguide are illustrated in Figure 12. Ã Ã S31 S31 S41 S41 1 Ã Ã S31 S41 S31 S41 0 2a 2b . while that containing ports 2 and 4 is denoted the secondary waveguide. symmetric and lossless network with port 2 decoupled from port 1 is given in the usual way by P Q 0 0 S31 S41 T 0 0 S41 S31 U T U S T 1 U R S31 S41 0 0 S 0 S41 S31 0 The relationship between the transmitted S31 and coupled S41 coecients is given by the unitary condition.1. A scrutiny of the symmetry of this sort of network suggests the possibility of reducing the entries of the scattering matrix to linear combinations of odd and even modes. The waveguide section containing ports 1 and 3 is sometimes referred to as the primary waveguide. The scattering matrix of the ideal. This may be done by taking ports 1 and 2 as a typical pair of input ports and ports 3 and 4 as typical output ports.Ridge crossguide directional coupler 171 Figure 12.
172 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components One solution is S31 S41 j 3a 3b The performance of any nonideal directional coupler is de®ned in terms of coupling and directivity factors: coupling factor 20 log10 S41 dB directivity 20 log10 S41 S21 dB 4b 4a The operation of the crossguide directional coupler using a pair of circular apertures may be understood by examining the path lengths connecting the two waveguides in Figure 12.2. with perfect directivity being obtained only when the spacing between the apertures is exactly !g a4. In a similar fashion the path lengths a1 3 a2 and b1 3 c1 3 c2 3 d2 dier by !g a2 so that a wave incident at port 1 is decoupled from port 2. The operation of this crossguide coupler is frequency dependent. The coupling between Figure 12. Since the path lengths connecting a1 3 a2 3 b2 and b1 3 c1 3 c2 are equal. then a wave incident on port 1 will be emergent at port 4.2 Operation of crossguide coupler using circular apertures .
d seriesshunt any two waveguides can be associated with one of four standard topologies.3 Bethe's smallhole coupling theory Coupling between two waveguides by means of an aperture is a classic problem in the literature. 12. b shuntshunt.Ridge crossguide directional coupler 173 Figure 12. In the arrangement under consideration.3. the electric pe and magnetic mt Y m dipoles are de®ned in terms of electric and magnetic polarisabilities and the unperturbed ®elds in the primary waveguide: pe an 40 Pe E0n mt at Mt H0t m a M H0 5a 5b 5c . The seriesseries topology is that of interest here. The coupling in the case of an in®nitesimal common wall is determined by the ®elds in the primary and secondary waveguides and the equivalent electric and magnetic dipoles of the aperture. c shuntseries.3 Coupling apertures in rectangular waveguide a Seriesseries. The name associated with each kind is summarised in Figure 12.
1 summarises these for three typical geometries. respectively. P denotes the power ¯ow and the calculation proceeds by normalising the ®elds at every frequency in the primary and secondary waveguides such that Table 12.174 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components at and a represent unit vectors along the principal axes tY of the aperture and an denotes a unit normal to the aperture.1 Electric and magnetic polarisabilities of circular and slot apertures . E0n represents the unperturbed electric ®eld normal to the centre of the aperture in the same waveguide. Mt and M are scalar quantities corresponding to the electric and axial magnetic polarisabilities of the aperture. Table 12. The plus and minus signs indicate propagation along the positive and negative z directions. The forward and backward transmission coecients of any mode in the secondary waveguide are given by Am and Bm Àj3 fp E "0 mt Hmt "0 m Hm g 4P e mn 6b Àj3 À À fp E À "0 mt Hmt "0 m Hm g 4P e mn 6a Hmt . Pe . H0t and H0 denote the components of the unperturbed tangential magnetic ®eld (H0 ) along the principal axes of the aperture in the primary waveguide. Hm and Emn correspond to the tangential magnetic ®elds and normal electric ®eld of the propagating mode in the secondary waveguide. respectively.
4 Crossguide coupler using a single 0degree crossedslot aperture .Ridge crossguide directional coupler 175 1 P Re 2 E Â H Ã Á n ds 1 7 The eect of ®nite wall thickness is treated elsewhere in this chapter.4 depicts the four possible arrangements in a rectangular waveguide. 12. In keeping with convention it is assumed that port 2 is the decoupled port so that the topologies Figure 12.4 The 0degree crossedslot aperture Commercial crossguide couplers often employ single or pairs of orthogonal slots which are located on the main diagonal and aligned with the direction of propagation (0 degree) or at 45 degrees to it. Figure 12. It is determined by visualising the aperture as a cuto section of waveguide with a length equivalent to the thickness of the wall. The ®rst con®guration is treated here and the second in the next section.
to increase the coupling between the primary and secondary waveguides the two arrangements are often combined in the manner shown in Figure 12. For a slot orientated along the direction of propagation of the primary waveguide.5.176 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 12. The case in which the primary and secondary waveguides are at an arbitrary orientation is understood but outside the remit of this work. the magnetic dipole moments along the axes of the secondary waveguide are given by mxs M Hzp mzs ÀMt Hxp The corresponding results in the case of a perpendicular slot are mxs Mt Hzp mzs ÀM Hxp 9a 9b 8a 8b Introducing these quantities into the governing equations for Am and Bm and assuming narrow slots Mt % 0 gives Am and Bm Àjk0 Pe Eyp Eys jk0 0 M fHxp Hzs À Hzp Hxs g 40 P 4P 10b Àjk0 Pe Eyp Eys jk0 0 M fHxp Hzs Hzp Hxs g 40 P 4P 10a .5 Crossguide coupler using a pair of 0degree crossedslot apertures in Figures 12.4a and b are the geometries of interest here. The calculation of Am and Bm in the secondary waveguide starts by evaluating the electric and magnetic dipoles along the axes of the primary waveguide. In practice.
the standard problem of two rectangular waveguides propagating the dominant TE10 mode will be tackled ®rst prior to dealing with the ridge structure. jPe k2 0 2 %x sin A1 ab a M kc 2%x jPe k2 0 2 %x B1 sin sin ab ab a a 14a 14b 13b .4a gives ÀM kc 2%x jPe k2 0 2 %x sin sin A1 13a ab ab a a jPe k2 0 2 %x B1 sin ab a When the aperture is located on the other diagonal (Figure 12. This permits the power ¯ow in the waveguide to be written in the form below P 3 P I 12a k0 where P I A2 10 ab 40 12b Introducing these quantities into Am and Bm for the arrangement in Figure 12. The ®eld variables are given in this instance by kc %x 11a Hz A10 cos a 0 k0 Hx jA10 0 k0 %x sin a 11b 11c k0 0 Hx Ey À The time and spatial variation exp j 3t À z is understood.Ridge crossguide directional coupler 177 12.5 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in rectangular waveguide To familiarise the reader with the calculations met in connection with this sort of device.4c). The above ®eld description assumes that the amplitude of Ey rather than Hz is independent of frequency.
By noting that the magnetic dipoles of the two apertures in the direction of propagation of the primary waveguide are in antiphase. The transmission coecients are in this instance dependent on the phase dierence. exp Àj2d . To increase the degree of coupling between the primary and secondary waveguides. Approximate closed form ®eld expressions for the TE modes in the trough region have been given in Chapter 4 by Hx N n 0Y1Y2 FFF N n 0Y1Y2 FFF ÀjAn ÀAn n 0 k0 n%y sin n x cos b 17a Hz k2 c 0 k0 n%y cos n x cos b 17b Ey À k0 0 Hx 17c . 2M kc ab 16 12. between the apertures. two rather than one apertures are often used.6 The 0degree crossedslot aperture in single ridge waveguide The derivation of Am and Bm in a ridge waveguide proceeds in a like manner to that utilised in the case of the rectangular waveguide.178 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The transmitted and coupled waves are dependent on the position of the aperture due to the fact that Hz reverses across the symmetry plane of the waveguide. the transmitted and coupled coecients in the case of narrow slots Pe % 0 are given by 2M kc %d sin d 15a sin jS41 j ab a jS21 j 0 15b Optimum coupling with minimum variation over the waveband occurs when d aa2 and kc : jS41 jmax The maximum slot length is L aa2. A knowledge of the magnetic ®eld in the plane of the aperture and the electric ®eld perpendicular to it is sucient for the purpose of calculation.
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 179 where
kc s & ! !' ÀÀn cos n% n% 2 ! sin b d À sin b À d An a À s 2b 2b n n% sin n 2 17d n% b 2
and 2 k2 À n c
17e
Àn 1 n 0, Àn 2 n b 0. An amplitude term A10 premultiplying each ®eld variable is understood. An approximate expression for the power ¯ow of the dominant mode is given by equation (12a). The Poynting vector at in®nite frequency is A2 P I 10 0 & b d a %d 2 2m 2 cos 2 ln cosec 2 a b !c 2b !' 2 sin 22 d cos 2 1 sin 21 d !c À 4 sin 1 2 4 a b b ab 2% s a 1 % 1 À a !c s a 2 % a !c
18
where
m 1 for double ridge waveguide and m 2 for single ridge waveguide. Figure 12.6 indicates the variation of the coupling and directivity between two single ridge waveguides using a single 0degree crossedslot aperture.
12.7 The 45degree crossedslot aperture
One practical method for increasing the coupling between any two waveguides is to orientate the apertures at 45 degrees with respect to the primary waveguide. This con®guration is indicated in Figure 12.7. The advantage of this topology is that longer slot lengths and higher coupling values may be obtained. The magnetic ®eld in the primary waveguide is elliptically polarised with dierent senses at apertures 1 and 2. Resolving the magnetic
180 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.6 Coupling and directivity between two single ridge waveguides using a single 0degree crossed slot aperture
dipoles of apertures 1 and 2 along the axes of the secondary waveguide gives p 19a mxs 2M H max cos p mzs Àj 2M H max sin and p mxs À 2M H max cos p mzs Àj 2M H max sin where 1 H max Ht max p 2 q 2 2 Hzp À Hxp 19b 19c 19d
20a
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 181
Figure 12.7 Crossguide coupler using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures
and tan
À1
ÀjHxp Hzp
20b
In the case of aperture 1, substituting the above into the governing equations gives A1 B1 jk0 Pe Eyp Eys jk0 0 M H max p fHxs cos jHzs sin g À 40 P 2 2P 21a 21b
jk0 Pe Eyp Eys jk0 0 M H max p fÀHxs cos jHzs sin g À 40 P 2 2P
The above hold for aperture 2, but with a 180 degree phase change in the coupling due to the magnetic ®eld. This may be understood by recognising that Hz reverses across the symmetry plane of the waveguide and the xdirected magnetic dipoles of the apertures are in antiphase.
12.8 Circular polarisation in rectangular and ridge waveguides
A scrutiny of the forward and backward waves in the secondary waveguide of the directional coupler indicates that these are closely related to the polarisation of the magnetic ®eld in both waveguides and to the intensities of the ®elds. One simple solution is to place the aperture where the alternating magnetic ®eld is circularly polarised. This solution is realisable in a regular rectangular waveguide and in a single ridge waveguide. It is not, however, possible in a double ridge waveguide. In the former cases H max Ht max jHxp j jHzp j
22a
182 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components and % 4 22b
In the case of narrow slots it is usual to ignore the contribution due to the electric dipoles. This then gives, for apertures 1 and 2, A1 jk0 0 M jHxp jHxs 2P B1 0 and A1 Àjk0 0 M jHxp jHxs 2P B1 0 24a 24b 23a 23b
respectively. In a rectangular waveguide, the magnitudes of the transmitted waves when two apertures are located at the positions of circular polarisation on either side of the symmetry plane are given by 4M 2 %d jS41 j sin d 25a cos ab 2a jS21 j 0 25b
In general, the polarisation will only be unity at a single frequency. Elsewhere, it is elliptically polarised and the general formulation in equation (21) must be employed.
12.9 Rectangular and ridge waveguide crossguide couplers using 45degree crossedslot apertures
This section presents some calculations on a number of crossguide directional couplers using 45degree crossedslot apertures in both rectangular and ridge waveguides. To proceed with a calculation it is necessary to ®x the location of the apertures. The position of the apertures and the geometry have not, however, been optimised at this time. These are arbitrarily ®xed at xaa 0X25 and waa 0X02. Figures 12.8±12.10 indicate the relationships between the coupling/ directivity and slot length for various combinations of primary and secondary waveguides at three typical frequencies. The internal dimensions of
Ridge crossguide directional coupler 183
Figure 12.8 Coupling of crossguide coupler in double ridge waveguide using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a 0.25, w/a 0.02) Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
the double ridge waveguide (WRD 580) are de®ned by a 19X82mm, baa 0X474, saa 0X256 and dab 0X324. The single ridge waveguide (WRS 580) is de®ned by baa 0X469, saa 0X256 and dab 0X396. A comparison between the data in Figures 12.8 and 12.9 indicates that for a given slot length the degree of coupling is largest between two single ridge waveguides. This may be understood by recognising that this arrangement produces the largest values of magnetic ®elds at the apertures. Figure 12.10 indicates the result in the case of the geometry consisting of either a single and double, or double and single ridge arrangement. Figure 12.11 indicates one typical result in the regular rectangular geometry. Figure 12.12 indicates the directivities of the various arrangements for aa 0X25. The nature of the ®elds involved in the calculations is indicated in Table 12.2.
184 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components
Figure 12.9 Coupling of crossguide coupler in single ridge waveguide using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a 0.25, w/a 0.02) Reprinted with permission, McKay et al. (1999)
12.10 Coupling via waveguide walls of ®nite thickness
In practice the thickness of the common wall cannot be neglected. One historic approximation to this problem is to represent the aperture by a short section of evanescent waveguide with the appropriate crosssection (Cohn, 1952). The total attenuation of the aperture is then given by t
dB Lt La
26
The nature of Lt has its origin in the relationship between Ein and Eout on a section of transmission line, Eout Ein exp Àt 27a
25. 2 2 2 2% 2% 2% À H !g !c !0 The required result is 1 1 Lt 54X6A !2 À !2 2 t dB 0 c !0 !c 27c 28 .10 Coupling of crossguide coupler between single ridge/double ridge primary waveguide and double ridge/single ridge secondary waveguide using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a 0.Ridge crossguide directional coupler 185 Figure 12. w/a 0. McKay et al. (1999) where 2% !Hg 27b and !Hg is the waveguide wavelength of the aperture.02) Reprinted with permission.
McKay et al.11 Coupling in rectangular waveguide (WR 137 waveguide) crossguide coupler using a pair of 45degree crossedslot apertures (x/a 0. (1999) The factor A is an arbitrary constant and accounts for the interaction of the local ®elds on either side of the wall. La accounts for the change in slot attenuation when the resonant length of the slot becomes an appreciable portion of the operating wavelength 2 ! !c La À20 log10 1 À dB 29 !0 .186 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 12. w/a 0.25.02) Reprinted with permission.
12 Directivities in various ridge couplers (x/a 0. /a 0. w/a 0.Ridge crossguide directional coupler 187 Figure 12.02. (1999) .25) Reprinted with permission.25. McKay et al.
188 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Table 12.25) .2 Ellipticity of magnetic ®eld in single and double ridge waveguide (x/a 0.
is known as a directly coupled arrangement. is a Cauer type ladder network. The original immittance inverter took the form of a simple quarterwave impedance transformer. Since the notion of the immittance inverter is central to the design it is given special attention notwithstanding that it is a classic topic in the literature. whose topology is not always the most practical circuit layout at very high frequencies. . in which the inverter is realised by a step discontinuity. The circuit is not canonical since the impedance inverters do not contribute to the overall amplitude response of the ®lter but only provide a practical layout of the circuit elements. 13.Chapter 13 Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 13. This sort of topology enters in the realisation of directly coupled bandpass ®lters using halfwave long cavities connected by metal or inductive posts. The design is completed by physically realising the impedance inverters. which forms the basis for the highpass. Immittance inverters provide one means of replacing a Cauer type lowpass ladder network utilising lumped Ls and Cs by one using only Ls and impedance inverters or one using only Cs and admittance inverters.2 Immittance inverters The lowpass allpole ®lter prototype. The modern version. A more desirable ®lter architecture would be one involving only shunt or only series elements spaced by UEs of commensurate length.1 Introduction The design of 2port microwave ®lters relies either on an exact synthesis procedure in the tplane involving one kind of element separated by UEs or on an approximate splane technique involving one kind of element separated by immitance inverters. bandpass and bandstop ®lters. Such ®lters are known as quarterwave coupled.
3 Lowpass ®lters using immittance inverters Repeated introduction of either the ®rst or second immittance inverter to the lowpass prototype in Figure 13.2b or c.2a and that in Figure 13. The standard topology assumes that the ®rst element of the lowpass prototype is a shunt one. 13. The realisation of some practical lumped element immittance inverters is separately discussed in this chapter.2b will now be demonstrated for a degree n 3 network. The derivation starts by expanding the impedance of the network in a ®rst Cauer form. Z1 s 1 sC1 sL2 1 3 1 sC3 1a1 .190 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 13. The mapping between the lowpass prototype in Figure 13.2a maps it to the topology in either Figure 13.1 Impedance (a) and admittance (b) inverters The impedance inverter Ki j is a frequency invariant 2port network which transforms an impedance Zj at one plane into an impedance Zi at another one: Zi Zj Ki2j 1 The admittance inverter Ji j similarly maps an admittance with one value (Yj) into another with a value (Yi) according to Yi Yj Ji2j 2 The transformations de®ned by equations (1) and (2) are indicated in Figure 13.1a and b.
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 191 Figure 13. This step produces a remainder impedance Z 1 s given by H Z 1 s 2 K01 Z1 s 4 Scrutiny of the two preceding equations indicates that the required H impedance Z 1 s at the output terminals of the immittance inverter is P Q H Z 1 s 2 T K01 TsC1 T T T R U U U 1 U U sL2 S 1 sC3 1 1 5 This impedance has the nature of an inductance LH in series with an impedance Z2 s) .2 Cauer lowpass ladder network using (a) shunt and series elements. (b) series elements and impedance inverters and (c) shunt elements and admittance inverters The realisation of this impedance function starts by extracting an impedance H inverter K01 from Z1 s.
making use of the fact that L2 and C3 correspond to the elements g2 and g3 in the lowpass prototype and impedance scaling these quantities indicate that the former quantities may be replaced by Z0 L2 3 g2 g0 g C3 3 g3 0 Z0 and that the impedance inverters K12 and K23 are set by s LH1 LH2 K12 g1 g2 10 .2b is now obtained by repeating this cycle until the degree of the problem is reduced to zero. The topology in Figure 13. It is of note that either LH1 or K01 in this arrangement is completely arbitrary. and impedance scaling. Making use of the fact that C1 corresponds to the element g1 in the lowpass prototype. g g1 0 Z0 indicates that C1 may be replaced by C1 3 g1 g0 Z0 and that the ®rst inverter K01 is ®xed according to s LH1 Z0 K01 g0 g1 9 Likewise.192 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components H Z 1 s sLH1 Z2 s 6 7 where 2 LH1 K01 C1 and Z2 s 2 K01 sL2 1 8 1 1 sC3 This operation completes the ®rst cycle of the synthesis. The network obtained in this way is scaled to a generator impedance g0 and a cuto frequency of 1 rad/s.
considerations suggest that the outer inverter is described by s LHn Zn 1 KnY n 1 13 gn gn 1 It is of note that the inductors LH1 Y LH2 Y F F F Y LHn appearing in the description of the impedance inverters are completely arbitrary. however. The derivation of the topology using admittance inverters is left as an exercise for the reader. It is also of note that. The result is s H C 1 Y0 J01 14 g0 g1 JjY j 1 s C jH C jH 1 gj gj 1 s H C n Yn 1 gn gn 1 15 JnY n 1 16 13. The series inductors are. modi®ed LHj 3 LHj a30 . The possibility of making the impedance inverters the independent variables and the series inductors the dependent ones is also understood.Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 193 s LH2 LH3 g2 g3 K23 respectively. whereas the network has been impedance scaled. . Scrutiny of the entries of the impedance inverters indicates that frequency scaling the network to some other frequency leaves the impedance inverters unchanged. its cuto frequency is still 1 rad/s.4 Bandpass ®lters using immittance inverters The realisation of the bandpass prototype begins by introducing the lowpass frequency transformation in the input impedance of the circuit. 11 The general nature for the inner inverters is therefore s LHj LHj 1 KjY j 1 gj gj 1 12 Similarly.
If the synthesis starts with the extraction of an impedance inverter K01 then the ®rst series lumped element resonator is de®ned by ! 1 30 s 30 H 2 g1 sL1 H K01 BW 30 s sC which satis®es LH1 H C1 2 K01 g1 BW 30 BW s 3 0 s 30 17 19 20 BW 2 K01 g1 32 0 and H 32 LH1 C 1 1 0 21 The ®rst impedance inverter is therefore deduced from either equation (19) or (20) as 2 K01 LH1 BW g1 Impedance scaling this quantity by replacing g1 . K01 s x1 wZ0 g0 g1 22 . g g1 3 g1 0 Z0 gives the required result.194 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components s3 The result is Z1 s 1 30 s 30 1 g1 s 30 3 1 BW 30 s 0 g2 30 s 3 1 BW 30 s 0 g3 BW 30 s g4 (18) This impedance is now synthesised in terms of impedance inverters and series lumped element resonators.
5 Immittance inverters Four immittance inverters are illustrated in Figure 13. respectively. The dual equations for the arrangement in Figure 13.Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 195 w is a bandwidth parameter w BW 30 23 and xj is the reactance slope parameter of the series resonator 30 dXj 30 LHj xj 2 d3 3 30 The de®nitions of the other inverters follow in a like manner: r xj xj 1 KjY j 1 w gj gj 1 KnY n 1 s xn wZn 1 gn gn 1 24 25 26 Z0 and Zn 1 are the input and output impedances.4.3c employing admittance inverters are s b1 wY0 27 J01 g0 g1 JjY j 1 s bj bj 1 w gj gj 1 s bn wYn 1 gn gn 1 28 JnY n 1 29 and bj is the susceptance slope parameter of the shunt resonator. respectively. 30 13. Although each circuit requires negative elements for its realisation these can be absorbed . C jH is calculated from the resonance condition in equation (21). 30 dYj bj 30 C jH 2 d3 3 30 Y0 and Yn 1 are the input and output conductances. Once the immittance inverters are set from a knowledge of LHj .
196 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 13. The derivation begins with the de®nition of the ABCD matrix of a uniform transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 and electric length : P Q ! cos jZ0 sin A B S 31 R j sin cos C D Z0 Evaluating this relationship at 908 . This may be done by establishing a onetoone equivalence between the ABCD parameters of the two topologies. and (c) shunt elements and admittance inverters in adjacent positive elements. The equivalence between any of these circuits and an ideal immittance inverter consisting of a UE of characteristic impedance K will now be demonstrated.3 Cauer lowpass ladder network using (a) shunt and series elements and (b) series elements and impedance inverters.
4 Schematic diagrams of immittance inverters gives A where B ! 0 R j C D K K Z0 P jK 0 Q S 32 33 The derivation continues by forming a onetoone equivalence between such a unit element and any of the possible circuits illustrated in Figure 13.4. Taking the T network consisting of series impedances (Z ) and a shunt admittance (Y ) by way of an example and recalling the nature of the overall ABCD matrix of such a network gives: A 1 ZY B Z 2 ZY CY D 1 ZY In the situation considered here. Z 1 j3C 35a 35b 34a 34b 34c 34d Y j3C .Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 197 Figure 13.
198 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Evaluating the ABCD parameters under these conditions indicates that Q j 0 R 3C S C D j3C 0 A B ! P 36 A comparison between the entries of this matrix and that of the ideal impedance inverter suggests that the two are equivalent.6 Practical inverter A much used practical immittance inverter is a T or % circuit with positive elements embedded between negative lengths of uniform transmission lines.5 Schematic diagram of practical impedance inverter 0 Xs K Z0 tan tan À 1 Z0 2 Xs Xs À 1 2Xp À1 0 À tan À tan Z0 Z0 Z0 . Such T and % circuits are often met in the descriptions of metal posts. 13. The negative lengths of line are then absorbed in any connecting line. irises or similar discontinuities in waveguides or other transmission lines. In practice. Forming the ABCD matrix of this circuit disregarding the series elements gives Figure 13. the series elements in the T circuit and the shunt ones in the % circuit are often neglected.5 will now be derived under this assumption. provided K 1 3C 37 The equivalences between the topologies of the other possible inverters and a quarterwave long UE are understood easily. The required conditions for the T circuits in Figure 13.
6.6 Schematic diagram of practical admittance inverter Bp 0 J Y0 tan tan À 1 Y0 2 Bp Bp À 1 2Bs À1 0 tan À tan Y0 Y0 Y0 . 42 40 41 sin 0 0 2Xp aZ0 39b Figure 13.Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 199 Q sin 0 cos 0 À 1 cos 0 À ÀjZ0 sin 0 ! T 2Xp aZ0 2Xp aZ0 U B T U T U R j S cos 0 1 sin 0 D sin 0 cos 0 À Z0 2Xp aZ0 2Xp aZ0 P A C 38 Comparing this matrix with that of the ideal impedance inverter indicates that j cos 0 1 j 39a sin 0 Z0 2Xp aZ0 K cos 0 À or 2Xp Z0 K 0 tan Z0 2 tan 0 Eliminating 0 between these two relationships also gives Z0 Z0 K À Xp K Z0 The dual problem is illustrated in Figure 13.
The derivation of the %topology starts by using the standard identities for the branch elements of the structure: Y1 Y2 Y0 coth 43 2 Y3 Y0 sinh 44 Y0 is the wave admittance of the waveguide. The purpose of this section is to deduce the equivalent circuit of this sort of waveguide. the other is the dual Tarrangement in Figure 13.200 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 13.7 %equivalent circuit (a) and Tequivalent circuit (b) of cuto waveguide . One possibility is the %arrangement comprising three inductors depicted in Figure 13. It proceeds by noting that the propagation constant () of a waveguide below cuto is real for all frequencies from the origin to the cuto frequency: 2 2 2% 2% 2 À 45 !c !0 It is also recognised that the waveguide admittance (Y0) is a pure imaginary quantity under the same circumstances: Y0 46 Àj3"0 Figure 13. is its propagation constant and is the length of a typical section.7 Immittance inverters using evanescent mode waveguide One means of realising an immittance inverter is to embody an evanescent mode waveguide between its ®ctitious transmission lines.7b.7a.
Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 201 Introducing these relationships into the branch immittances in equations (43) and (44) of the % prototype indicates that each element is a nearly frequencyindependent inductance as asserted.9.8 Schematic diagram of waveguide bandpass ®lters using metal septa . 13. This result is obtained by ®rst expanding the hyperbolic function in series form: sinh A A coth A AÀ A3 A5 33 53 1 A 2A5 3 15 3 The derivation of the element values of the Tequivalent circuit proceeds in a dual manner. The design of this type of ®lter proceeds by absorbing the reactive Tcircuits into ideal impedance inverters prior to forming a onetoone equivalence between it and a suitable bandpass prototype consisting of series resonators and ideal impedance inverters. Figure 13. The series Figure 13.8 Eplane ®lter A classic directly coupled bandpass ®lter is a ridge or ®nline arrangement based on a lowpass lumped element prototype consisting of a series of halfwave long cavities connected by metal or inductive posts. One possible equivalent circuit for this type of structure is illustrated in Figure 13.8 indicates one practical construction. It is obtained by representing each discontinuity by an equivalent inductive Tcircuit and each cavity by a uniform transmission line.
These additional lengths of transmission lines are then absorbed in the halfwave long cavities. Combining equations (22). The impedance inverters of the network are often realised by neglecting the series elements of the metal posts and embedding the shunt ones between suitable negative lengths of uniform transmission lines in the manner discussed in the preceding section.9 Equivalent circuit of bandpass ®lter using metal septa resonators of the bandpass prototype are in this instance implemented by halfwave long distributed cavity resonators. The design is complete once the Ks are speci®ed from the ®lter speci®cation. then K2 % w 01 49a 2 g0 g1 Z2 0 K2 j1 jY Z2 0 2 % w2 gj gj 1 2 49b . (25) and (26) with equation (42) gives the required design equations 1 1 Z0 g0 g1 2 1 x1 wZ0 2 Z0 À 47a X01 x1 wZ0 Z0 g0 g1 Z0 Z0 gj gj 1 xj xj 1 w2 1 2 XjY j 1 Z0 1 À Z0 2 xj xj 1 w2 gj gj 1 xn wZ0 gn gn 1 1 2 47b Z0 XnY n 1 gn gn 1 xn wZn 1 1 À 1 Z0 1 2 47c The reactance slope parameter of a halfwave section of characteristic impedance Zj is Xj %Zj 2 48 If the characteristic impedance of each halfwave section is made equal to the characteristic impedance Z0 .202 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Xs1 Xs1 l1 Xs2 Xs2 l2 ln Xsn + 1 Xsn + 1 Z0 Xp1 Z0 Xp2 Z0 Z0 Xpn + 1 Z0 Figure 13.
n+1 Z0 Figure 13.10 Equivalent circuit of bandpass ®lter using impedance inverters . This condition is met provided 2% 1 51a j j 0j 0j 1 !g 2 with j % 51b In calculating j and j 1 the exact equivalent circuit of the discontinuity is usually employed: Xsj À 1 2Xpj À 1 Xsj 0j À tan À tan 51c Z0 Z0 Z0 The overall structure of this ®lter in terms of immittance inverters and halfwave long waveguide cavities is indicated in Figure 13. This ®xes the dimensions of the steps. Once the details of the steps have been evaluated it only remains to calculate the spacing between the discontinuities. θ1 Z0 K01 Z0 K12 θ2 Z0 θn Z0 Kn.10.Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 203 K2 n1 nY Z2 0 and Z0 X01 % w 2 gn gn 1 1 2 49c 2g0 g1 %w À 2 %w 2g0 g1 1 2 50a 1 2 Z0 2 XjY j 1 % Z0 Z0 Zn 1 1 2 gj gj 1 w2 1 % À 2 w2 gj gj 1 1 2 50b 1 2 XnY n 1 2gn gn 1 %w 1 2 À Zn 1 Z0 %w 2gn gn 1 50c The reactance of each step may therefore be evaluated once the immittance inverters have been ®xed by the speci®cation of the ®lter.
The recurrence formula for the element values of the Cheb" shev solution y is % 2 sin 2n g1 54a 1 À1 1 sinh sinh n 4 and gi gi 1 2i À 1 2i 1 4 sin % sin % 2n 2n 1 1 i% sinh À 1 sin2 sinh2 n 4 n i 1Y 2Y F F F Y n À 1 54b The ®lter is symmetrical for n odd. g1 gn Y g2 gn À 1 Y F F F Y gi gn À i 1 F F F If n is odd. The order of the bandpass ®lter is speci®ed by p AÀ1 À1 cosh 4 ! n 30 33Y4 3 À 0 cosh À 1 BW 30 33Y4 53 The quantity is ®xed by the de®nition of its upper bandedge. the terminating resistance gn 1 is gn 1 1 56 55 . y The order of the lowpass Cheb" shev solution is ®xed by the attenuation 1 at y 31 in the stopband: p cosh À 1 A À 1a4 52a n À1 3 cosh 31 where À A log10 1 1 10 52b 4 is the ripple level in the passband.9 Element values of lowpass prototypes The element values for lowpass ®lter networks with Butterworth and Cheb" shev amplitude approximations are classic problems in the literature.204 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 13.
As a simple illustration of the analysis of this type of circuit using the ABCD notation it is used to construct the insertion loss function of a lowpass n 3 doubly terminated prototype. Here A 1 À 232 B j23 C j 23 À 233 D 1 À 232 . for reactance networks. A and D are real numbers and B and C are pure imaginary ones. &&Ã (( Ã 1 61 The nature of these parameters is compatible with the de®nition of the characteristic function met in the description of the transfer function of this class of networks: K 32 1 A À D2 À 1 B À C2 4 4 62 It is also recalled that. For symmetric networks A D. The transmission ( and re¯ection & parameters of a reactance network are once more given by (( Ã 1 1 4 A 1 À D2 À 1 B À C2 4 59 &&Ã 1 2 2 1 1 4 A À D À 4 B À C 1 A À D2 À 1 B À C2 4 4 60 Scrutiny of these two relationships indicates that these satisfy the unitary condition.Directly coupled ®lter circuits using immittance inverters 205 If n is even. the terminating resistance gn 1 is p gn 1 4 1 42 2 or gn 1 1 p 4 1 42 2 58 57 13.10 Frequency response of microwave ®lters The ABCD notation is admirably suited for the analysis of microwave ®lters.
(( Ã 1 1 32 3 in keeping with the Butterworth lowpass generating function and the de®nition of the characteristic function.206 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Introducing these quantities into equation (59) gives the required result. .
To overcome the eects of interaction between discrete discontinuities on the overall ®lter performance a global transmission matrix is constructed and its overall speci®cation is optimised by resorting to a suitable optimisation subroutine.1 Introduction The speci®cation of a conventional waveguide ®lter is usually incorporated in a ladder lumped element network which is then realised in terms of immittance inverters and one kind of element. A typical inverter is realised by introducing a suitable discontinuity into the waveguide and embedding it into negative line lengths.2 Mode matching method To proceed with the design. Helszajn 14. This is usually achieved by foreshortening the lengths of each cavity. It involves expanding the forward and re¯ected ®elds in each region in terms of local modes and thereafter satisfying the boundary conditions at the junction between the two. 14. One solution is to . it is necessary to have some representation of the discontinuities involved. One classic numerical procedure is the mode matching method (MMM). McKay and J. it is necessary to have some representation of the discontinuities involved.Chapter 14 Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method M. One means of characterising discontinuities in waveguides is the MMM (mode matching method). The chapter includes the layout of one lowpass ®lter which relies on cuto waveguide sections for its inverters. It separately includes the design of one bandpass ®lter using cuto waveguide sections for its inverters and another employing inductive septa for the realisation of the inverters. To proceed with the design. The synthesis of this type of topology is a standard problem in the literature.
and an is the propagation constant. The wave admittance is Yan an 3 j3"0 The normal modes satisfy the orthogonality condition Am 0am xAn 0an x dx mn mn 1 for m n. While the topology of the Eplane metal ®lter is not strictly speaking a ridge structure. Since it represents a classic application of the mode matching method. 4 Figure 14. it has some of its features. It amounts to forming the ®elds in each region on either side of the discontinuity.208 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components retain the same number of modes on either side of the discontinuity. The scattering matrix of the discontinuity may be evaluated once the ®elds in both waveguides are at hand. its topology will be used to outline the approach. The transverse ®elds to the left of the discontinuity (z ` 0) are given by Ey M n1 A 0an x exp Àan z AÀ 0an x exp an z n n 1 Hx M n1 Yan A 0an x exp Àan z À AÀ 0an x exp an z n n 2 0an x represents a typical normal mode. and 0 for m T n. The modes in each waveguide may be established by using the FEM or some other closed form formulation.1 Bifurcated waveguide . AÆ represent the amplitudes of the n forward and backward waves and are the unknowns of the problem region. The application of the orthogonality condition of each family of modes in each region produces a matrix equation from which the unknown coecients may be evaluated. Figure 14.1 illustrates the problem region in question.
0bn and 0cn are the normal modes in regions B and C. The ®elds to the right of the discontinuity (z b 0) are given by Ey K n1 À Bn 0bn x exp Àbn z Bn 0bn x exp bn z 5 Hx and K n1 À Ybn Bn 0bn x exp Àbn z À Bn 0bn x exp bn z 6 Ey L n1 C 0cn x exp Àcn z C À 0cn x exp cn z n n 7 Hx L n1 Ycn C 0cn x exp Àcn z À C À 0cn x exp cn z n n 8 for regions 0 ` x ` b and b ` x ` a. The wave admittances are de®ned in a like manner to that in region A. If the geometry in question also supports a discontinuity along the ydirection. The normal modes again satisfy the orthogonality condition.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 209 This condition implies that the amplitude squared of a typical mode integrated over the problem region is unity and that the integral of the product of two dierent modes over the same surface is zero. The derivation of the required result now proceeds by satisfying the continuity conditions at the plane of the discontinuity: M n1 M n1 A AÀ 0an x n n K n1 À Bn Bn 0bn x 0`x`b 9 A À AÀ Yan 0an x n n M n1 K n1 À Bn À Bn Ybn 0bn x 0`x`b 10 A AÀ 0an x n n L n1 À Cn Cn 0cn x b`x`a 11 M n1 A À AÀ Yan 0an x n n L n1 À Cn À Cn Ycn 0cn x b`x`a 12 . then both Ex and Hy exist. and BÆ and C Æ are the amplitudes of the forward and backward modes in the two regions and are the other unknowns of the problem region. respectively. This is the situation met in the case of a ridge waveguide.
Multiplying both sides of each continuity condition in the interval 0 ` x ` b by 0am and integrating over the problem region gives A AÀ m m K n1 K n1 À Hmn Bn Bn 13 Yan A À AÀ m m where b Hmn 0 À Ybn Hmn Bn À Bn 14 0am x0bn x dx 15 The corresponding result in the interval b ` x ` a is A AÀ m m K n1 À Ycn Kmn Cn Cn 16 Yan A À AÀ m m where a Kmn b K n1 À Ycn Kmn Cn À Cn 17 0am x0cn x dx 18 The two preceding pairs of equations may be combined into a single condition over the complete interval 0 ` x ` a of the problem region: A AÀ m m K n1 À Hmn Bn Bn L n1 À Kmn Cn Cn Y m 1Y 2Y F F F Y M Yam A À AÀ m m K n1 À Ybn Hmn Bn À Bn L n1 À Ycn Kmn Cn À Cn Y 19 m 1Y 2Y F F F Y M (20) . The required linear equations for the unknown coecients are now simpli®ed by making use of the orthogonality condition between the modes in each region one at a time.210 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Each preceding equation constitutes a doubly in®nite set of linear equations for the unknown modal coecients.
Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 211 Applying the orthogonality conditions of the modes in regions B and C likewise gives M n1 M n1 À Hmn A AÀ Bm Bm Y n n m 1Y 2Y F F F Y K 21 À Hmn Yan A À AÀ Ybn Bm À Bm Y n n m 1Y 2Y F F F Y K 22 M n1 M n1 À Kmn A AÀ Cm Cm Y n n m 1Y 2Y F F F Y L 23 À Kmn Yan A À AÀ Ycn Cm À Cm Y n n m 1Y 2Y F F F Y L 24 The preceding six simultaneous equations may now be solved for the family À À of unknown coecients A Y AÀ Y Bn Y Bn Y Cn and Cn . Writing these n n relationships in matrix form gives A AÀ H B B À K C C À A À AÀ Za HYb B À B À Za KYc C À C À H T A AÀ B B À Zb H T Yz A À AÀ B À B À KT A AÀ C C À Zc KT Yz A À AÀ C À C À The As and Bs are column vectors given by P 25 26 27 28 29 30 T A U T U T U T 2 U T B2 U T C2 U A T F UY B T F UY C T F U T F U T F U T F U R F S R F S R F S A M BK CL A 1 Q P B1 Q P C1 Q .
It is. of note that there is more than one way to solve the ensuing family of matrix relationships. This diculty may be alleviated by assuming that K L M and by partitioning the same. however.3 MMM characterisation of 1port networks While the MMM permits all the network parameters of a passive circuit to be deduced. transmission or ABCD ones for the construction of the overall representation of a number of discontinuities in cascade. P 14. a scattering matrix. while K is a matrix of size M Â L with generic element Kmn . A feature of the matrices and vectors not considered so far is that these are of dierent size and that some are not even square. The superscript T denotes the transpose operation. A microwave passive network may be represented by an immittance (impedance or admittance) matrix. and Yi and Zi i aY bY c are diagonal matrices with diagonal elements Yin and Zin i aY bY c. Methods which avoid repetitive calculations for each sampled frequency in the frequency interval of the speci®cation are of special interest. This is done for both brevity and clarity. The detailed development of the 1port problem region begins by putting down the relationships between the incident and re¯ected waves in regions B and C in the problem region in question: À Bn &bn Bn Y À Cn &cn Cn Y n 1Y 2Y F F F Y K n 1Y 2Y F F F Y L 31 32 where . There is therefore more than one possible formulation of the problem region under discussion. an ABCD formulation or a transmission matrix. the development outlined here is restricted to its parameters at a typical port.212 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Q P ÀQ P ÀQ AÀ B1 C1 1 T AÀ U T BÀ U T CÀ U T 2 U T 2 U T 2 U AÀ T F UY B À T F UY C À T F U T F U T F U T F U R F S R F S R F S À À À AM BK CL H is a matrix of size M Â K with generic element Hmn as de®ned before. and the scattering formulation is suitable for the construction of the overall frequency response. Immittance matrices are appropriate for the synthesis of equivalent circuits. One port variables are in fact all that is needed to characterise symmetrical 2port networks. The reader is referred to the original literature for more details.
Introducing the relationships between the forward and re¯ected waves into equation (25) gives A AÀ HI qb B KI qc C or A A H K À 35 Rb 0 0 Rc ! B C ! 36 The preceding equation may be put in compact form as A AÀ GRd 37 GY R and d are given easily by inspection.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 213 &bn Àbn exp À2bn &cn Àcn exp À2cn 33 34 Àbn equals 1 at an electric wall (even mode problem region) and À1 at a magnetic wall (odd mode arrangement). and Rb and Rc are diagonal matrices de®ned by P T T Rb T R 1 &b1 0 0 1 &b2 ÀÀÀ 1 &bK À 1 0 P T T Rc T R 1 &c1 0 0 1 &c2 ÀÀÀ 1 &cL À 1 0 0 1 &cL 0 1 &bK Q U U U S 39 Q U U U S 38 Writing the re¯ected waves in regions B and C in equation (26) in terms of the forward ones gives A À AÀ Za HYb I À qb B Za KYc I À qc C or A À AÀ Za H K Yb 0 0 Yc ! RHb 0 0 RHc ! B C ! 41 40 .
214 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The preceding equation is given in compact form by A À AÀ Za GYd RH d 42 The meanings of Yd and RH are again obtained by inspection and Rb and Rc are diagonal matrices de®ned by P T T RHb T R 1 À &b1 0 0 1 À &b2 ÀÀÀ 1 À &bK À 1 0 P T T RHc T R Similarly GT A AÀ Rd Zd GT Ya A À AÀ RH d 45 46 1 À &c1 0 0 1 À &c2 ÀÀÀ 1 À &cL À 1 0 0 1 À &cL 0 1 À &bK Q U U U S 44 Q U U U S 43 The ratio of the incoming A and outgoing AÀ waves are now readily obtained by eliminating d between the preceding relationships. The result is AÀ S11 A where S11 I Za GYd R RH À 1 GT À 1 I À Za GYd R RH À 1 GT and P 1 S11 47 48 S11 T T 0 T T T 0 T T R 0 0 0 2 S11 0 0 3 S11 0 0 0 M S11 À 1 0 Q 0 0 0 0 0 U 0 U U U 0 U U U 0 S 0 M S11 .
It coincides with that of a single thick septum as asserted.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 215 14.4 Double septa and thick septum problem regions The MMM formulation of the in®nitely thin septum may be readily extended to that of a ®nite thickness one met in practical ®lter structures. Figure 14. The approach outlined here in the case of a single thick septum can readily be generalised to that of a number of septa without any diculty. This may be done by considering the problem region between a single waveguide and one divided into three regions by two in®nitely thin septa. The MMM formulation of this geometry proceeds in a like manner to that of the single septum arrangement except that it produces one more set of boundary conditions at the plane of the discontinuity. The topology of the required arrangement is obtained easily by introducing an electric wall in region D at the plane of the discontinuity.2.3.2 Topology of triple septa problem region Figure 14.3 Topology of thick septum problem region . The ensuing structure is illustrated in Figure 14. The arrangement in question is indicated in Figure 14.
The even and odd mode eigennetworks of such a circuit are revealed by placing electric and magnetic walls at the symmetry plane of the structure. The even mode re¯ection eigenvalues are given with &b1 1 F F F n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y K &b1 1 F F F n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y L This gives S11 &even The odd mode re¯ection eigenvalues are given with &bn À1 F F F n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y K &bn À1 F F F n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y L This gives S11 &odd 52 The scattering matrix of the original circuit is then recovered by using the standard relationships below: & &odd 53a S11 even 2 51a 51b 50 49a 49b Figure 14.5 MMM characterisation of symmetrical waveguide discontinuities A common discontinuity met in the design of many microwave ®lters is a symmetrical structure such as a septum.5a and b. The purpose of this section is to specialise the MMM to this situation. This may be best done by using the even and odd mode formulation of any symmetrical network introduced elsewhere in this text.216 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 14. bar or evanescent region.4 and the two eigennetworks in Figures 14. The topology in question is indicated in Figure 14.4 Topology of symmetrical septum .
5 shows its even and odd 1port eigennetworks. This permits every term in the ®eld vector A except the ®rst to be set to zero.4 indicates the symmetrical septum under discussion and Figure 14.5 Eigennetworks of symmetrical septum S21 &even À &odd 2 53b A typical reactance variable is given by using the bilinear relationships between re¯ection and impedance at a port. A is therefore reduced to Q A T 0 U T U A T F U T F U R F S 0 P 54 The terms in the vector AÀ in the vicinity of the discontinuity are unaected by this assumption. The preceding result may be further simpli®ed by assuming that the incident wave in waveguide A is restricted to the dominant mode.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 217 Figure 14. . Figure 14.
218 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The characterisation of the symmetrical thick septum illustrated in Figure 14. The problem region consisting of the junction between a regular and a bifurcated waveguide is a classic result in the literature. 14.6 Eigensolutions of waveguide sections To proceed with a calculation it is necessary to evaluate the coupling integrals in equations (15) and (18). This may be done once the eigensolutions of each problem region are established.4 proceeds in a like manner to that utilised to tackle the thin geometry. This condition is satis®ed by ®xing p as p 2n À 1Y n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y M 0`x` r 40 "0 s p!0 2 1À !c The ®eld variable in waveguide B is 2%qx Y 0bn x sin aÀs and Ybn where aÀs 2 s q!0 2 0 1 À !c !c a À s and q nY F F F Y K . The transverse ®elds in waveguide A are given by p%x 0an x sin Y 0`x`a a and Yan where !c 2a Only symmetrical modes enter in the description of waveguide A.
Once the model ®elds are formulated.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 219 The eigensolution in waveguide C is 2%qx Y 0cn x sin aÀs 0`x` aÀs 2 s q!0 2 Ycn 0 1 À !c and !c a À s where q nY F F F Y LY n 1Y 2Y 3Y F F F Y L The notation employed here is speci®ed in Figure 14. This gives Kmn 0X50aYai Kmn 0X50 a À sYb j Figure 14.6 Physical variables of thick septum . the coupling integrals Hmn and Kmn may be evaluated.6.
GHz Mansour (1988) + + + Mansour (1988) + w w s d b + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 12. dB –25 Ref. (1988)) Reprinted with permission.. Tao & Baudrand (1991) .. 19 –30 –35 –40 –45 10 10.theory + + + experiment.7 Measured and calculated transmission coecient of a cascaded Eplane ridge guide discontinuity a 22X86Y b 10X16Y d 4X114Y w 1X524Y l 12X1192 mm Ð Tao & Baudrand (1991) (.220 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components and Kmn where ! aÀs Àq % f 0X50p a and ! aÀs g 0X50p q % a sin f sin g Yai 0X50 a À s À f g –5 a –10 –15 –20 S12.5 f.5 11 11.5 + 12 13 Figure 14. Mansour et al.
7 indicates one typical result. 14. The geometry of one arrangement based on the use of septa is indicated in Figure 14.10 and 14. Resonators Eplane septa b d1 l1 d2 l2 d3 dn–1 ln–1 dn ln dn+1 b t a Figure 14.8.7 Immittance inverters To be able to proceed with the design of ®lter structures it is necessary both to select a suitable immittance arrangement and separately to characterise it. The inverters are either realised by metal strips across the ridges or by cuto waveguide sections.8 Eplane bandpass ®lters using metal inverters The ridge waveguide readily lends itself to the realisation of directly coupled bandpass ®lters based on the use of inverters in cascade with halfwave long ridge conventional waveguide resonators. Two structures that have been found useful for this purpose are the Eplane septum and the evanescent waveguide section.8 Topology of Eplane bandpass ®lter using septa inverters . The MMM provides one of a number of means of establishing the equivalent circuits of these sorts of obstacles. Figure 14. The topology of an arrangement using cuto sections of rectangular waveguide of the immittance inverters and its frequency response is separately indicated in Figures 14. The adjustment of this ®lter is often undertaken by using the MMM in conjunction with a suitable optimisation package.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 221 14.11. A comparison of the experimental frequency responses of a degree5 ®lter in a WRD 750 waveguide before and after optimisation is depicted in Figure 14.9.
Budimir (1997) 14. Its re¯ection and transmission parameters are reproduced in Figure 14.3539 d12 d14 15.4961 15.10 mm.9 Lowpass ridge ®lters using immittance inverters One practical lowpass ®lter topology consists of immittance inverters separated by high or low impedance waveguides.6814 d13 15. Septum lengths (mm) Before After optimisation 0.4805 d1 d6 4.6439 d2 d4 d3 d5 6.9200 4. .7558 15. insert thickness 0.7507 15.5615 0. Figure 14. One possible immittance inverter met in the design of this sort of ®lter is a short cuto rectangular waveguide section.13.9867 Resonator lengths (mm) Before After optimisation d11 d15 15.6829 Reprinted with permission.12 depicts a degree12 layout which has been optimised by using a variational formulation.9 Calculated return loss before (solid line) and after (dashed line) optimisation (ridged waveguide ®lter) Ridge waveguide gap 5.222 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 14.00 mm.2612 5.
8 14.4 13.11 Frequency response of Eplane bandpass ®lter using evanescent waveguide inverters .2 14.0 14.6 14.0 15.2 Frequency.Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 223 lter transformer empty waveguide Figure 14.8 15.6 13.4 14.2 13.10 Topology of Eplane bandpass ®lter using evanescent waveguide inverters 0 –10 –20 dB –30 –40 –50 –60 –70 S11 S12 13. GHz Figure 14.
w11 w19 0X71Y w12 w18 2X64Y w13 w17 2X96Y w14 w16 2X12Y w15 1X79 Reprinted with permission. second transformer: a2 10X7Y b2 5X2Y h2 1X7Y s2 3X6. w1 w0 5X21Y w2 w9 5X24Y w3 w8 2X47Y w4 w7 3X29Y w5 w6 4X44.224 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components t1 t2 w1 11 w2 12 w3 13 w4 14 w5 l5/2 a0 S a b0 h b P Figure 14. h1 4Y s1 3X6. ®lter section: a 8Y b 3X8Y h 0X6Y s 3X6Y t1 t4 6X15Y t2 t3 3X97. ®rst transformer: a1 14X3Y b1 7.12 Evanescentmode ridged waveguide lowpass ®lter Input waveguide: a0 19X05Y b0 9X52. Tao & Baudrand (1991) .
.13 Frequency response of evanescentmode ridged waveguide lowpass ®lter Reprinted with permission.measured data . Tao & Baudrand (1991) Ð 5 accessible modes ...Ridge waveguide ®lter design using mode matching method 225 Figure 14.1 accessible mode ..
. While the double ridge waveguide does not have natural planes of circular polarisation in its trough regions it does have such planes at its electric symmetry wall. This property of a magnetised ferrite medium is the basis of a number of important nonreciprocal devices.or Eplane ferrite or garnet tiles in the vicinity of the dielectric wall does not in the ®rst instance disturb the polarisation in its neighbourhood. An Hplane bifurcation produces one possible carrier for the design of nonreciprocal phase shifters and isolators. throughout. It is assumed. Two classic devices are the nonreciprocal phase shifter and the resonance isolator. that the introduction of thin H.1 Introduction One important class of ridge waveguide hardware is the nonreciprocal 2port one. it rotates in the oppposite direction it again behaves as a scalar medium but with a dierent value. for simplicity. If the alternating magnetic ®eld rotates in the same direction as that of the electron spin then the medium exhibits a scalar permeability with one distinct value. One means of realising such components in a ridge waveguide is to recognise that such polarisation always exists at the interface between any two dierent semiin®nite dielectric regions and everywhere outside and that its hand is determined by the direction of propagation. Such dielectric inserts are therefore suitable for the construction of nonreciprocal ferrite devices such as phase shifters and isolators. if. however.Chapter 15 Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 15. Another signi®cant property of this sort of arrangement is that the senses of rotations are in opposite directions on either side of a dielectric rib. Each device relies on the two dierent interactions between a spinning electron with a clockwise or anticlockwise circularly polarised alternating radio frequency magnetic ®eld in a suitably magnetised ferrite medium.
2. The geometry of this device is identical to that of the phase shifter con®guration except that the direct magnetic ®eld is in this instance equal to that required to establish the ferromagnetic resonance at the operating frequency of the device.2 Nonreciprocal ferrite devices in rectangular waveguide One of the most useful of the nonreciprocal ferrite devices in the rectangular or ridge waveguide is the ferrite phase shifter. Another important ferrite device in a rectangular waveguide is the resonance isolator. the device is therefore nonreciprocal. " and are in general functions of the direct magnetisation and magnetic ®eld and the frequency of the alternating radio magnetic ®eld.Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 227 15. If ferrite tiles are located on both sides of the symmetry plane of the arrangement then the direct ®elds must be oppositely orientated at each site for the waveguide to exhibit one value of scalar permeability. E. The spin motion in a magnetic insulator is indicated in Figure 15. magnetised by direct magnetic ®elds perpendicular to the planes of the alternating magnetic ®elds. the other value is then obtained by reversing the direct ®elds. the hands of the polarisation of the alternate magnetic ®elds are interchanged if the direction of propagation is reversed. P T " T 0 R j " 0 1 0 Àj Q U 0 U S " The nature of the tensor permeability is obtained by solving the equation of motion with the direct magnetic ®eld along the ycoordinate and the alternating magnetic ®eld in the x±z plane.3 and 15.4. . Figures 15. The scalar permeabilities exhibited by the interactions between a spinning electron in a direct magnetic ®eld and the alternating radio frequency signals on either side of the symmetry plane of a single ridge waveguide are summarised in Figures 15.or Hplane ferrite sheets or plates. Moreover. The required result may be established easily by using the appropriate tensor permeability. exhibit dierent values of scalar permeabilities if placed at one or the other of these sites. Its operation relies on the existence of natural or enforced circularly polarised counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds on either side of the planes of symmetry of these sorts of waveguides.1a to d indicate typical arrangements in dielectric loaded double ridge waveguides. " is an even function of the direct magnetic ®eld and is an odd one so that the sign of must be reversed if the direction of the direct magnetic ®eld is reversed.
1 Schematic diagrams of ridge waveguide phase shifter using Eplane and Hplane ferrite tiles .228 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 15.
3 Scalar permeabilities in forward direction of propagation in single ridge waveguide loaded with magnetised ferrite tiles .Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 229 spin electron nucleus Figure 15.2 Spin motion in magnetic insulator Figure 15.
.4 Scalar permeabilities in reverse direction of propagation in single ridge waveguide loaded with magnetised ferrite tiles 15. phase deviation and ®gure of merit of ferrite phase shifter The practical speci®cation of a ferrite phase shifter usually involves some compromise between con¯icting parameters such as phase deviation over some frequency interval. Two quantities that are of obvious interest are the phase deviation (Á) with respect to a 908 bit and the dierential phase shift (Á0) per unit length.3 Dierential phase shift. insertion loss. Some typical parameters that are of interest are summarised below prior to investigating some practical devices. peak and average power rating.230 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 15. etc. Á %a2 and Á0 radam L respectively.
15. temperature.4 90degree phase shifter in dielectric loaded WRD 200 ridge waveguide The experimental frequency response of a 908 bit over the 2±4 GHz band in a WRD 200 waveguide is indicated in Figure 15. This is speci®ed in terms of the bandwidth (Áf ) and midband frequency ( f0 ) by Áf f0 The insertion phase at deviation may also be of some interest. The geometry in question is also indicated in Figure 15.Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 231 The ®gure of merit (F ) of the device is separately de®ned in terms of the insertion loss () per unit length and the dierential phase shift per unit length by F Á0 radadB For completeness. The geometry described here consisted of a WRD 200 ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller extending over half the ridge width with ferrite tiles on the faces of the open halfspace. The experimental data are obtained by normalising the phase for one orientation of the applied magnetic ®eld and recording the result for the reverse ®eld. switching speed and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) or return loss (RL) are often other parameters of concern.5. it is also necessary to spell out the normalised bandwidth (BW) of the device. It is de®ned below: Á0 00 Hysteresis eects. The performance of the 908 bit may be summarised by Á 3 %Æ %a2 90 Á0 %a2 radam L 0X120 F% %a2 radadB 0X50 .5.
4r 14X7. the use of a heavily doped garnet material with a spinwave linewidth ÁHk equal to 0. The other material details are described by "0 M0 0X0800T. ÁH 5X6 kA/m and tan % 0X002. in part.232 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 15. One feature of note already remarked on that may have some bearing on this excellent result is that the counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds are nearly circularly polarised over the same frequency interval. The direct magnetic ®eld employed at the 908 phase state is $ 52 kA/m. in the work. Forming ak0 in the 2±4 GHz band for a dielectric slab with 4r 9.68 kA/m.5 Dierential phase shift in WRD 200 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission. gives 1X8 4 4 2X2 k0 The corresponding ellipticity over the same frequency interval is Hx 5 1X12 1X20 5 Hz . using the data in Chapter 8. Hastings & Helszajn (1987) Áf 2000 f0 3000 Á0 90 00 860 The ®gure of merit 0 of this device re¯ects. The choice of linewidth. is dictated by the need to suppress spinwave instability (or nonlinear loss) that can occur at high peak power levels in ferrite devices.
5 Isolation. If the two rotate in opposite directions then the interaction will be weak or nonexistent and there will be no absorption. . This sort of arrangement provides. one important means of realising a 2port nonreciprocal network.Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 233 Figure 15.6. The possibility of latching ferrite phase shifters is. of course. Suitable ridge structures are illustrated in Figure 15. If the electron spin and the alternating magnetic ®eld rotate in the same direction. Its operation relies on the two dierent interactions between the electron spin in a gyromagnetic insulator and counterrotating alternating magnetic ®elds at the same frequency. insertion loss and ®gure of merit of resonance isolator The geometry of the resonance isolator is the same as that of the ferrite phase shifter except for the magnitude of the direct magnetic ®eld.6 Schematic diagrams of nonreciprocal ridge waveguide using closed ferrite magnetic circuits Another property of this geometry is that its insertion phase (8608 at the midband) is quite large compared with the phase deviation of the magnetised bit (Æ458) so that perturbation conditions may be assumed to prevail. therefore. always of some interest. 15. then there will be strong interaction between the two and the alternating wave will suer a strong absorption line.
234 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components A resonance isolator is characterised by its isolation (I ), its insertion loss (L) and its return loss (RL). Its ®gure of merit is de®ned by F I db L dB
15.6 Resonance isolator in dielectric loaded WRD 750 ridge waveguide
The existence of planes of circular polarisation at the open faces of the dielectric insert in a ridge waveguide provides one means of constructing ferrite isolators and phase shifters. The purpose of this section is to describe one resonance isolator in the WRD 750 waveguide. It consists of a magnetised Eplane ferrite plate on one of the two open faces of a dielectric insert extending over the full width of the ridges. The Kittel or resonance frequency is in this sort of device ®xed by 3r where 3x
30 À Nz 3m Nx 3m 3y
30 À Nz 3m Ny 3m The demagnetising factors associated with the ferrite topology utilised here are given approximately by Nx % 1 Ny % 0 Nz % 0 Hence 32 %
30 3m 30 r where 30 H0 and 3m M0 is the gyromagnetic ratio (2X21 Â 105 rad/s per A/m), 30 is the radian frequency (rad/s), H0 is the direct magnetic ®eld intensity (A/m), M0 is the p 3x 3y
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 235 saturation magnetisation (A/m) and "0 is the free space permeability 4% Â 10 À 7 H/m). Figure 15.7 indicates the frequency responses in the forward and backward directions of propagation of an arrangement in a WRD 750 waveguide. The geometry consists of a double ridge waveguide with a dielectric ®ller between the ridges with a ferrite tile plastered on one of the dielectric open faces. Since the main purpose of this assembly is to investigate the nature of the polarisation of the radio frequency magnetic ®eld rather than the development of a wideband isolator, a narrow linewidth CVG material has been chosen in this work. Its magnetisation "0 M0 is equal to 0.1600 T, its relative dielectric constant (4r ) is equal to 15.3 and its 3 dB and 15 dB linewidths are 0.96 kA/m and 5.18 kA/m, respectively. The relative dielectric constant of the dielectric insert 4r is equal to 9.0. The thickness of the ferrite tile is 0.25 mm and its length is 31.75 mm. The direct magnetic ¯ux density employed in obtaining this result was equal to 0.2150 T. This compares with a calculated value of 0.2050 T. The internal dimensions of the ridge waveguide utilised in this work correspond to those of WRD 750:
Figure 15.7 Frequency response of resonance isolator in WRD 750 dielectric loaded waveguide Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (2000)
236 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components b 0X45 a s 0X25 a d 0X42 b The inside dimensions of the isolator section were reduced to $ 80% of those of a standard WRD 750 waveguide. The device was separately matched at each end by a dielectric taper. The ®gure of merit (F ) of the overall assembly is 70.
15.7 Resonance isolator in bifurcated ridge waveguide
While the double ridge waveguide does not have natural planes of circular polarisation in its trough regions it does have such planes at its electric symmetry wall. One possible nonreciprocal 2port structure may be realised with this sort of waveguide by introducing a metal septum there and placing suitably magnetised ferrite tiles on one or both of its sides. Figure 15.8 indicates one arrangement. The direct magnetic ®eld intensity is again given by Kittel's resonance equation except that the demagnetising factors are, in this instance, speci®ed by
Figure 15.8 Schematic diagram of ferrite isolator using bifurcated WRD 750 ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998)
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 237 Nx % 0 Ny % 0 Nz % 1 The Kittel frequency is 3r % 30 À 3m The frequency response in the forward and backward directions of propagation of an arrangement in a WRD 750 waveguide is shown in Figure 15.9. It consists of ferrite tiles mounted on either side of a metal septum of thickness 0.762 mm at the electric wall symmetry plane. The length of each ferrite tile is 25 mm and its crosssection is 0X815 Â 3X510 mm. The ferrite employed was a CVG material with a magnetisation ("0 M0 ) of 0.1600 T and a relative dielectric constant (4r) of 15.0.
Figure 15.9 Frequency response of resonance isolator in bifurcated WRD 750 ridge waveguide Reprinted with permission, Helszajn & McKay (1998)
238 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The inside dimensions of the isolator section were reduced to $ 80% of those of a standard WRD 750 waveguide. The ®gure of merit (F ) of the overall assembly is 11. The frequency range of the waveguide is 7.50± 18.00 GHz.
15.8 Dierential phase shift circulator
One important application of the dierential ferrite phase shifter is in the construction of the dierential phaseshift circulator. It consists of a folded magictee and a 3 dB sidewall hybrid between which is placed a dual section of waveguide containing nonreciprocal 458 ferrite phase shifters. The phase shifter in each waveguide is oppositely magnetised. Hence, the total dierential phase shift is 908. The operation of this type of circulator can be understood with the help of Figure 15.10. A wave incident on port 1, at the H arm of the magictee, divides equally in phase between the two waveguides. One of the waves is then phase shifted through %a4 rad. This wave is then incident on the sidewall hybrid and produces two component waves at ports 2 and 4. The wave at port 2 has now been shifted through %a4 and the one at port 4 by 3%a4. Similarly, the other wave is phase shifted through À%a4 through the ferrite phase shifter, and after passing through the sidewall hybrid, produces two more component waves at ports 2 and 4. The one at port 2 is phase shifted through %a4 and the one at port 4 by À%a4. The two waves at port 4 are now % rad out of phase and therefore cancel, while those at port 2 are in phase and
Figure 15.10 Schematic diagram of fourport dierential phase shift circulator using Hplane folded magictee and 3 dB hybrid
Nonreciprocal ridge isolators and phaseshifters 239
Figure 15.11 Schematic diagram of fourport dierential phase circulator using Hplane folded magictees Reprinted with permission, Hogan (1952)
therefore add. Transmission is therefore from port 1 to port 2. In a similar way transmission occurs from port 2 to port 3, and so on, in a cyclic manner. Another geometry consists of two magictees between a dual waveguide section. Its topology is illustrated in Figure 15.11. The middle wave guide section is in this arrangement similar to that of the conventional structure using one hybrid and one magictee except that one of the two dual waveguides incorporates a 908 reciprocal dielectric phase shifter in order to cater for the phase dierence between the two hybrids. The phase settings in the primary and secondary waveguides are given in the forward direction of propagation by % 01 rad 4 0 2 % % À rad 2 4
In the other direction of propagation % À rad 01 À 4 0À 2 % % rad 2 4
12 depicts an Xband commercial circulator.12 Photograph of ridge waveguide dierential phase shift circulator Courtesy: Raytheon Inc. Figure 15. at the H arm of the magictee. in a cyclic manner. . In a similar way transmission occurs from port 2 to port 3. and so on. Transmission is therefore from port 1 to port 2.240 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 15. A wave incident on port 1. These two waves are inphase at the output magictee after traversing the dual waveguide section. divides equally in phase between the two waveguides.
1 indicates some possibilities. The unilateral and bilateral . 16. The chapter includes the description of one resonance isolator. The approach used here relies. One bene®t of this family of waveguides is that quite complicated circuits can be fabricated using planar techniques. It consists of a dielectric sheet across the waveguide metallised on either one or both sides in a number of dierent ways. its attenuation. The eects of ®nite metallisation on both the propagation constant and the impedance in these sorts of waveguides are outside the remit of this paper. its propagation constant and a description of its ®eld pattern. It also requires an understanding of the location of the planes of circular polarisation in the waveguide. Since a typical ®nline waveguide is an inhomogeneous structure its ®eld is described in terms of LSE and LSM modes instead of the TE and TM ones met in connection with the conventional rectangular waveguide. The bilateral arrangement may be visualised as a quasiridge waveguide. Four typical arrangements are the unilateral geometry. the insulated ®nline and the antipodal structures. on an approximate closed form formulation of the ®eld in each region of the structure. The solution of this class of waveguide has been the object of a host of numerical descriptions. A complete description of a typical ®nline waveguide includes its cuto space.1 Introduction A waveguide arrangement whose topology has many of the features of the ridge one is the ®nline structure. its impedance. in each instance.2 Finline waveguide topologies A number of dierent con®gurations of the ®nline waveguide have by now been described. Figure 16. the bilateral one.Chapter 16 Finline waveguide 16.
2. Some typical ®eld patterns in these sorts of waveguides are illustrated in Figure 16. . The purpose of this section is merely to give one typical result for each structure.2.1 Schematic diagrams of unilateral. Since the ®nline waveguide is an inhomogeneous transmission line its guide wavelength must be calculated at each and every frequency.3 Normalised wavelength and impedance in ®nline A host of exact and approximate expressions for the wavelength and impedance of bilateral and unilateral ®nlines have been described in the literature. received the most attention. however. One construction technique is indicated in Figure 16. b bilateral. The physical nomenclature met in connection with the important unilateral and bilateral lines are separately depicted in Figure 16.5 and 16. Some results are indicated in Figures 16. The relative dielectric constant (4d) employed in the construction of a ®nline waveguide is usually of the order 2.6. insulated and antipodal ®nline waveguides a Unilateral. bilateral. c insulated. 16.4. Scrutiny of these illustrations suggests that the main dierence between the two con®gurations in the WR 28 waveguide is that the impedance of the bilateral arrangement is twice that of the unilateral geometry.242 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 16. d antipodal arrangements have.3.
c insulated ®nline.2 Fabrication of ®nline waveguide Figure 16.Finline waveguide 243 Figure 16. d antipodal ®nline Reprinted with permission.3 Electric ®elds in ®nline structures a Unilateral ®nline. b bilateral ®nline. Bhat & Koul (1987) .
4r 2X22 Reprinted with permission.5 Normalised waveguide wavelength and impedance in bilateral WR 28 waveguide d 0X127 mm. Bhat & Koul (1987) . b bilateral Figure 16. h 3X429 mm.4 Physical details of unilateral and bilateral structures a Unilateral.244 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 16.
4r 2X22 Reprinted with permission. This notion allows the usual relationships between !0.4 Empirical expressions for propagation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline The propagation constant in ®nline is sometimes characterised. Bhat and Koul (1987) 16.6 Normalised waveguide wavelength and impedance in unilateral WR 28 waveguide d 0X254 mm. h1 3X302 mm. !c and !g to be retained: 2% !g 2 2% !0 2 4eff f0 À 2% !cr 2% !cr 2 1 . h2 3X556 mm.Finline waveguide 245 Figure 16. for engineering purposes. in terms of an equivalent ridge waveguide of identical dimensions with an eective frequency dependent dielectric constant.
246 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components where 4eff f0 F dabY saaY !0 Y 4r 4eff fc and 4eff fc !cf !cr 2 2 3 !cf and !cr are the cuto wavelength in the ®nline and in the ridge waveguides. p and q are given for the unilateral ®nline with 4r 2X22 by A 0X1748 @ p 0X16 saa À 0X07 0X16 saa À 0X07 1a32 4 saa 4 1a20 À 0X001 ln saa À 1X32 1a20 4 saa 4 1a4 q À0X0836 The arbitrary constants for the bilateral ®nline with 4r 2X22 are A 0X15 @ p 0X225 saa À 0X042 0X149 saa À 0X23 1a32 4 saa 4 1a10 1a10 4 saa 4 1a4 q À0X14 . Since the ®nline waveguide is an inhomogeneous transmission line its guide wavelength must be calculated at each and every frequency. respectively. One empirical expression for the cuto number of either a bilateral or unilateral ®nline is p q b d s A 4 !cf b a provided 1 d 1 4 4 16 b 4 1 s 1 4 4 32 a 4 A. The correction factor F entering into the description of the frequency dependent eective dielectric constant is empirically adjusted to cater for dispersion eects by using a rigorous calculation.
The components of the electric ®eld are summarised below for the unilateral line and in the next section for a bilateral structure. A knowledge of the ®elds in the waveguide is sucient for the calculation of its power ¯ow and its impedance. The arbitrary constant F is for the unilateral ®nline with 4r 2X22 given by @ 1X0 0X43 saa dab p1 1a32 4 saa 4 1a8 F p1 1X02 0X264 saa dab 1a8 4 saa 4 1a4 where p1 0X096 saa À 0X007 The corresponding quantities for the bilateral ®nline with 4r 2X22 are @ 0X78 saa À 0X098 dab0X109 1a32 4 saa 4 1a8 F 1a8 4 saa 4 1a4 1X04 À 0X2 saa dab p1 where p1 0X152 À 0X256 saa 16.Finline waveguide 247 Calculations based on these expressions with b/a equal to 0. The ®elds in these types of waveguides are denoted as either longitudinal sectional electric LSE or longitudinal sectional magnetic LSM according to whether Ex or Hx is equal to zero. Once !cr and !cf are evaluated 4eff fc ) may be calculated and 4eff f0 ) is obtained from a statement of the correction factor F.50 agree to within Æ1% with more rigorous ones.5 Fields in unilateral ®nline waveguide While the ®nite element method and a host of other numerical techniques may again be employed to calculate the parameters of ®nline waveguides the solution summarised here relies on an approximate closed form formulation. The electric and magnetic ®elds in each region for the longitudinal section electric LSE modes unilateral line are: h Ex 0 5a 5b h Ey n%y jAn 0n x cos b n0 N .
0n x j sin 1n x 2n x cos 1n x 7 8 . In region I (unilateral ®nline).248 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Ezh N ÀAn n% n0 b n%y 0n x sin b n% 0n x cos b n% 2n x sin b 5c h Hx N ÀjAn k2 cn n0 3"0 5d h Hy N ÀAn n n% n0 b3"0 5e Hzh N ÀjAn n n0 3"0 n% 2n x cos b 5f The corresponding electric and magnetic ®elds in each region for the LSM modes are: e Ex N jBn k2 cn n0 n n%y 2n x sin b 6a Eye N Bn n% n0 N b n%y 0n x cos b 6b Eze n%y ÀjBn 0n x cos b n0 e Hx 0 6c 6d e Hy N ÀjBn 340 4r n0 n n%y 2n x sin b n%y 2n x cos b 6e Hze N ÀBn 340 4r n% n0 b 6f An Y Bn Y 0n and 2n take on speci®c values in regions I. II and III for both the unilateral and bilateral structures.
0n x Sn exp j2n x À 1 exp Àj2n x À 1 2n x Sn exp j2n x À 1 À exp Àj2n x À 1 An Bn Sn ÀjWn 1 Sn 12 13 14 15 n%Wn b 1 Sn 1 À Cn À 1 Cn exp Àj 23n 3 exp Àj 23n 3 1 Cn À 1 À Cn exp Àj 23n 3 Cn Cn Ã 3n Y Ã 2n for LSE modes for LSM modes 16 17 18 Ã 2n Y 4r Ã 3n In region III (unilateral ®nline). 0n x j sin 3n x À a 2n x cos 3n x À a An Àj 2Wn Yn Bn 2n% Wn Yn b 19 20 21 22 .Finline waveguide 249 An Àj 2Wn exp j1n 1 À exp Àj1n 1 9 2n% Wn b Bn exp j1n 1 À exp Àj1n 1 Wn ! n n% n% h d À sin h sin b b n%k2 cn 10 11 In region II (unilateral ®nline).
3. An .6 Bilateral ®nline Since the bilateral line is a symmetric con®guration. 0n and 2n have to be modi®ed. n 2 for n 1Y 2Y 3Y etc.250 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Yn exp Àj 2n 2 Sn exp j 2n 2 1 Sn exp Àj3n 3 À exp j3n 3 23 in in the preceding equations is given by 2 k2 4ri À k2 in 0 cn where k2 cn n% b 2 2 24 Furthermore. however. The new quantities are de®ned by a 25 0n x cos n x À 2 2n x j sin n a xn À 2 26 27 28 An ÀjWn Yn Bn n% Wn Yn b Yn exp Àj2n 2 a2 1 exp Àj2n 2 29 . n 1 for n 0. In region II. The ®elds in region I of this waveguide are identical to those of the unilateral arrangement and need therefore not be repeated. it is only necessary to consider half its structure. The electric ®elds supported by these structures are separately illustrated in Figure 16. 16. Bn .
It consists of a unilateral ®nline on a carrier loaded on one side by alumina and hexagonal ferrite substrates. These sorts of waveguides may also therefore be utilised in the construction of nonreciprocal ferrite phase shifters and resonance isolators. for dierent gap dimensions in the case of a unilateral con®guration. but need not. .8 Circular polarisation in bilateral and unilateral ®nline waveguides The ®eld patterns in ®nline waveguides also support planes of circular polarisation.5 and 16. The gap dimension of the input and output ®nline circuits is ¯ared on both sides to that of the ®nline isolator which may.10. 16. coincide with the narrow dimensions of the waveguide. the alumina is also tapered at the input and output terminals of the device for matching purposes. It relies for its operation on the dierent values of dissipation associated with a magnetised ferrite material under the in¯uence of clockwise and anticlockwise polarised alternating magnetic ®elds. It corresponds to equal amplitude waves in time space quadrature.8 and 16.Finline waveguide 251 16. at the plane of the electric symmetry wall.7 Empirical formulation of impedance in bilateral ®nline waveguide A calculation of impedance based on an equivalent waveguide model has also been described. 16. with the circuit metallisation deposited on the ®nline substrate. Figures 16. ! 30 Z0 3 Z0 I 0 !g where (!0/!g) is speci®ed by equation (1) and Z0(I) is the impedance of the equivalent ridge waveguide with identical dimensions to those of the ®nline one.9 Finline isolator using hexagonal ferrite substrate One important nonreciprocal device is the ferrite resonance isolator. The existence of such planes may be established approximately by using the closed form descriptions of Hx and Hz. The schematic diagram of one possible ®nline isolator is illustrated in Figure 16.6.9 indicate two typical solutions. Some results are superimposed in Figures 16.
4 0. It is in part determined by the power density in each region of the structure. l1 2X387 mm.0 Hz Location of circular polarisation b I h a d II III l3 Figure 16. A full theoretical model. and on the uniform linewidth of the ferrite material.2 0. The ®gure of merit for this class of device is de®ned as the ratio of its isolation and insertion loss at its midband frequency.8 Approximate and hybrid mode descriptions of magnetic ®eld in unilateral waveguide dab 0X20Y aab 2Y a 4X775 mm. l2 0X127 mm.5 3.0 X. and it is in part dependent on the dielectric loss tangents of the ferrite and the other dielectric regions.0 2.0 3. A small external direct magnetic ®eld is provided to orientate the internal ®eld along the positive or negative Caxis of the uniaxial ferrite material and for tuning purposes. mm 4. 4r 2X2 Reprinted with permission. the quality of the two hands of polarisation and the relative dielectric constants of the dierent regions.252 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components l1 l2 εr 1.6 Hx 0.5 5.5 4. even with the ®nline gap . The bandwidth is mainly ®xed by the linewidth of the pro®le of the direct magnetic ®eld.2 1. must still deal. Mansour et al. although perhaps a standard problem.0 Normalised magnetic field 0. (1988) Contact problems between the wide dimensions of the waveguide and the ®nline circuit are avoided by incorporating suitable chokes in the assembly.8 0.
8 0. chosen to correspond with that of the input and output ®nline circuits.6 0.Finline waveguide 253 1. The ®gure of merit of the ®rst arrangement varied between 15 and 18 and that of the second one ranged between 22 and 24.5 3.8 kA/m. of course. One obvious parameter at hand in the experimental adjustment of this class of device is the ®nline gap. Mansour et al. and in another case made equal to the narrow dimension of the rectangular waveguide.5 5. 4r 2X2 Reprinted with permission. Figure 16. akin to that of the standard Eplane isolator. some of the regions exhibit tensor properties and magnetic and/or dielectric dissipation parameters ± a situation in which the experimental approach is still second to none.11 indicates the insertion loss and isolation of one typical device in a WR 51 waveguide.0 2. in one instance.10 were chosen easily on the basis of experience.0 Hz Hx Location of circular polarisation Figure 16. (1988) equal to that of the narrow dimension of the rectangular waveguide.0 0.5 4.2 0. l1 2X387 mm.0 X. with a six or more region boundary value problem. the length of the ferrite substrate Normalised magnetic field .4 0. l2 0X127 mm. This was.2 1.0 3. The circuit in the latter situation is. This result was obtained with a residual direct magnetic ®eld of about 1. provided the material resources are available. Furthermore. mm 4.9 Approximate and hybrid mode descriptions of magnetic ®eld in unilateral waveguide dab 0X25Y aab 2Y a 4X775 mm. The dimensions of the layers W1±W6 in Figure 16.
Helszajn & Thorpe (1985) Figure 16.254 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components isolator substrate nline metallisation hexagonal ferrite A nline substrate A isolator substrate hexagonal ferrite nline metallisation nline substrate view A–A rotated 90°CW Figure 16. Helszajn & Thorpe (1985) .11 Frequency response of unilateral resonance isolator with ®nline gap equal to narrow dimension of WR 42 waveguide Reprinted with permission.10 Schematic diagram of unilateral resonance isolator Reprinted with permission.
Finline waveguide 255 isolator substrate nline metallisation stacked hexagonal ferrites A nline substrate A stacked hexagonal ferrites isolator substrate nline metallisation nline substrate view A–A rotated 90°CW Figure 16. The topology of a full bandwidth waveguide arrangement is shown in Figure 16.7 mm.12. The overall length of the device including the tapers was of the order of six wavelengths.12 Topology of wideband unilateral resonance isolator Reprinted with permission. . Helszajn & Thorpe (1985) was 45. The data in this illustration are not considered optimum in any sense of the word in that the dimensions W1±W6 were not varied. The return loss at each port (not shown) was better than 18 dB.
It states that the only matched symmetrical 3port junction corresponds to the de®nition of the circulator. 17. In practice the gyromagnetic resonator is embedded in a ®lter circuit to produce a degree2 or 3 frequency response. It consists of a circular guide containing a longitudinally magnetised ferrite section at the junction of three rectangular waveguides. and this is the approach employed in this text.Chapter 17 Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 17. One possibility is to utilise one or two quarterwave long resonators opencircuited at one end and shortcircuited at the other. This arrangement relies for its .1 Introduction The 3port circulator is a unique nonreciprocal symmetrical junction having one typical input port. The operation of a 3port junction circulator may be understood by using superposition. Since a matched 3port junction is a circulator by de®nition.or Hplane waveguides or ®nline circuits readily produces a degree1 circulation solution.2 Turnstile junction circulator The original waveguide junction circulator. The introduction of any such resonator at the junction of three E. One possible model of a circulator is a magnetised ferrite or garnet gyromagnetic resonator having threefold symmetry connected or coupled to three transmission lines or waveguides. and so on in a cyclical manner. known as the turnstile circulator. matching such a magnetised resonator is both necessary and sucient for design purposes. one output port and one decoupled port. The fundamental de®nition of the junction circulator has its origin in energy conservation. In such a junction a wave incident at port 1 is emergent at port 2. was ®rst described by Tor SchaugPattersen. one at port 2 at port 3.
A scrutiny of the second and third. indicates. indicates that it produces an electric ®eld along the axis of the circular waveguide which does not couple into it. The operation of any circulator may be understood by using superposition. generator setting.2.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 257 Figure 17. Since a characteristic of such a waveguide is that it .1 depicts the original Hplane topology. SchaugPatterson (1958) operation on the wellknown Faraday rotation principle along a magnetised ferrite loaded circular waveguide. Figure 17. The ®elds produced at the axis of the junction by each of these three possible generator settings are illustrated in Figure 17.1 Schematic diagram of 3port Hplane turnstile circulator using singleturnstile resonator Reprinted with permission. however. that these establish counterrotating circularly polarised alternating magnetic ®elds at the open face of the circular gyromagnetic waveguide which readily propagate. socalled inphase. generator settings. The re¯ected waves at the three ports of the junction are therefore in this instance unaected by the details of the gyromagnetic waveguide. socalled counterrotating. It starts by decomposing a single input wave at port 1 (say) into a linear combination of voltage settings at each port: P Q P Q P Q P Q 1 1 1 1 T U 1T U 1T U 1T 2U 1 R0S R1S R S R S 3 3 3 2 0 1 where exp j120 2 exp j 240 A scrutiny of the ®rst.
2 Eigenvalue adjustment of junction circulator has dierent scalar permeabilities under the two arrangements.258 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 1 2 ~ s0 2 Ez.eld 1 1 s0 1 U0 excitation s0 3 1 2 ~ 3 ~ s+1 1 1 s+1 1 U+1 excitation s+1 3 3 1 exp(–j2π/3) 1 exp(–j2π/3) 2 H+. A typical re¯ected wave at any port is constructed by adding the individual ones due to each possible generator setting. it provides one practical means of removing the degeneracy between the re¯ected waves associated with these two generator settings.eld ~ Figure 17. A typical term is realised by taking the product of a typical incident wave and a typical re¯ection coecient: ~ 1 exp( j2π/3) 2 ~ ~ .eld ~ 2 ~ s–1 1 1 s–1 1 U–1 excitation s–1 3 3 1 exp( j2π/3) H–.
The degenerate phase angles of the counterrotating re¯ection coecient are then separated by 1208 by magnetising the ferrite region. One solution is ! % 4a & exp À j 2 1 2 ! % &À exp À j 2 1 À 2 &0 expÀj 20 provided that 1 0 % 2 % 6 5a 5b 4b 4c ÀÀ À The required phase angles of the three re¯ection coecients are established by adjusting the length of the demagnetised ferrite section so that the angle between the inphase and counterrotating re¯ection coecients is initially 1808.3 indicates the nomenclature entering into the de®nition of this . thereby producing the ideal phase angles of the circulator. Since the relationship between the incident and re¯ected waves at the terminals of a network or junction is often described in terms of a scattering matrix it is appropriate to reduce the result established here to that notation. These two steps represent the necessary and sucient conditions for the adjustment of this class of circulator.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator P Q P Q Q P Q b1 1 1 1 T U &0 T U &À T U & T 2 U R S R b2 S R 1 S R S 3 3 3 2 b3 1 P An ideal circulator is now de®ned as & 0 &À & 0 3 &0 &À 2 & À1 3 &0 2 &À & 0 3 259 2 3a 3b 3c To adjust this. and other circulators. requires a 1208 phase dierence between the re¯ection coecients of the three dierent ways it is possible to excite the three rectangular waveguides. Figure 17.
Taking a1 as unity and making use of the results for b1.3 De®nition of scattering parameters of 3port junction circulator matrix in the case of a 3port network with threefold symmetry. b2 and b3 gives the required parameters easily: S11 & 0 &À & 3 7a ~ b1 a3 b3 ~ b1 b2 b3 = S11 S31 S21 S21 S11 S31 S31 S21 S11 a1 a2 a3 .260 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components ~ b2 a2 a1 Figure 17. Its entries relate incident and re¯ected waves at suitable terminal planes of the circuit: S11 S21 S31 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 a1 a2 a3 0 a2 a3 0 a2 a3 0 6a 6b 6c A scrutiny of these de®nitions indicates that the entries of the scattering matrix may be readily evaluated once the re¯ected waves at all the ports due to an incident wave at a typical port are established.
it is not the only arrangement. In the Hplane arrangement (the usual rectangular waveguide structure) one or two resonators are mounted on the ridges on the axis of the waveguide. The operating frequency of this junction corresponds to the odd solution of two coupled open dielectric resonators constructed from sections of a dielectric waveguide propagating the hybrid HE11 mode. One de®nition of an ideal circulator which is in keeping with the description of the turnstile junction circulator is therefore S11 0 S21 À1 S31 0 8a 8b 8c This solution may be separately established by using the unitary condition and may therefore be taken as a universal de®nition of a 3port lossless junction circulator. Another possibility is to use one or two quarterwave long open triangular or circular resonators opencircuited at one end and shortcircuited at the other at the junction of either three E.3 Reentrant Hplane waveguide circulator While the operation of the turnstile circulator may be readily visualised. The duality between the two arrangements may be achieved by replacing the . The single turnstile geometry has its origin in the turnstile structure indicated in Figure 17.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator &0 &À 2 & 3 &0 2 &À & 3 261 S21 S31 7b 7c The entries of the scattering matrix are therefore linear combinations of the re¯ection variables at any port associated with each possible family of generator settings.or Hplane ridge waveguides. and opencircuited or loaded by an image wall at the other.1. In this instance a quarterwave long magnetised ferrite resonator shortcircuited at one end. The reentrant Hplane junction circulator using a single resonator can be visualised as a 5port network consisting of a 3port Hplane junction symmetrically coupled along its axis to a cylindrical gyromagnetic waveguide supporting two orthogonal ports. The network is reduced to a 3port one by closing the gyromagnetic waveguide by a shortcircuit piston. is a suitable prototype for the construction of this class of device. 17.
Hz rather than Hx is perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the device. The ®rst circulation condition in this sort of circulator coincides with that for which the inphase and degenerate counterrotating re¯ection coecients are in antiphase. Figure 17. 17. It is realised by locating quarterwave long open resonators at each sidewall of the junction of three Eplane waveguides.262 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components electric wall in the circular waveguides of the original turnstile junction by open or magnetic surfaces. The Eplane topology is readily realised in a ®nline waveguide. The simplest topology met in connection with this sort of problem region is illustrated in Figure 17. The second one is established by splitting the degeneracy between the counterrotating ones by a suitable direct magnetic ®eld. No Hplane ®nline junction circulator has been realised to date. The operating frequency of this type of junction corresponds to the even eigensolution of two coupled open dielectric resonators.5.4 Reentrant Eplane waveguide circulator Another important waveguide circulator topology is the Eplane one. It consists of a quarterwave long demagnetised or magnetised ferrite waveguide with an ideal or an open magnetic wall opencircuited at one end and shortcircuited at the other. The characteristic equations associated with the two situations are cot 0 L0 0 9 . Some appreciation of the operation of the symmetrical con®guration employing Hplane turnstile resonators may be gained by recognising that it is essentially a 7port circuit comprising three Eplane rectangular waveguide or ®nline ports and two orthogonal ports for each round reentrant turnstile open waveguide. with the direction of propagation taken along the zaxis.4 depicts one arrangement using a single gyromagnetic waveguide. The magnetic ®elds corresponding to the counterrotating eigenvectors are therefore circularly polarised at the side instead of the top and bottom walls of the waveguide. 17. Since the output terminals of the round waveguide are shortcircuited. In the Eplane device.5 Closed gyromagnetic resonator The split frequencies of gyromagnetic resonators are important quantities in the description of weakly magnetised resonators. its overall matrix description reduces to the necessary symmetrical 3port network.
The ®rst of these two equations ®xes the length of the resonator from a knowledge of k0 R and frequency.4 Schematic diagram of 3port Eplane junction using singleturnstile resonator Figure 17.5 Schematic diagram of quarterwave long dielectric resonator cot Æ L0 0 10 respectively.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 263 Figure 17. The ®rst root of its characteristic equation is 0 L0 where 2 k2 "eff 4eff À 0 0 % 2 1X84 R 2 11 12 .
6 Perturbation theory of closed cylindrical gyromagnetic resonator If the only engineering interest is a calculation of the split frequencies of the gyromagnetic resonator then it is sucient to use a description of the split propagation constants based on perturbation theory. The exact open problem may be derived from that of the related problem region of a partially ®lled circular waveguide with an electric sidewall by allowing the outside radius to approach in®nity. Æ L0 % 2 13 The simplest calculation met in this sort of circuit is the closed gyromagnetic resonator with an ideal magnetic wall. 17. The required result for the split phase constants of a gyromagnetic waveguide with an ideal magnetic wall is 1X84 2 2 2 Æ % k0 4f " Ç C11 À 14 R where C11 2 1X842 À 1 15 4e is an eective dielectric constant. " and are the odiagonal elements of the tensor permeability. but its solution is outside the remit of this text. This solution correctly displays both the split phaseconstants and split cuto numbers of this type of waveguide. If a quarterwave long cavity opencircuited at one ¯at face and shortcircuited at the other is formed from such a waveguide then 2 2 % R 1X842 2 L 2 k R " À C11 4f 16a .264 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The second characteristic equation may be solved for the relationship between the split frequencies of the resonator and the magnetic variables in the neighbourhood of the demagnetised one once the characteristic equation for Æ is at hand.
6 Split frequencies of gyromagnetic resonator .6 depicts one result based on the perturbation formulation of the gyromagnetic resonator. ®xed by the cuto condition in equation (14). Figure 17. C11 is unity for an anisotropic waveguide. Figure 17. of course.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 2 2 % R 1X842 2 L 2 kÀ R " C11 4f 2 2 % R 1X842 2 L 2 k0 R "eff 4f where "eff "2 À C11 2 " 265 16b 16c 17 The split frequencies in such a gyromagnetic resonator are therefore described by 3 À 3À C11 18 30 The upper bound on is.
Its geometry is ®xed by its overall axial dimensions (2H ). Its degenerate eigennetworks may therefore be approximately idealised by an electric wall at the .8 Eplane ®nline circulator using coupled Hplane turnstile resonators One important practical arrangement which is akin to a ridge circulator is the Eplane ®nline geometry. A knowledge of the onset of the ®rst higher order split pair of modes is therefore desirable. It also assumes that only the ®rst pair of counterrotating modes need to be catered for in forming the complex gyrator circuit of the device. Its counterrotating eigennetworks may therefore be represented in terms of quarterwave long open resonators. It separately assumes that the frequency variation of the inphase eigennetwork can be disregarded compared to those of the split counterrotating ones. with one ¯at face opencircuited and the other shortcircuited. For the purpose of this work.8 illustrates one typical ®nline circuit. comprising three symmetrical ®nline Eplane ports and two orthogonal ports for each round open waveguide port in the Hplane. that of the quality factor neglects the in¯uence of higher order modes (in a strongly magnetised resonator) on the description of the gyrator circuit. This parameter is related to the split frequencies of the magnetised resonator in a particularly simple fashion by ! À 1 p 3 À 3À QL 3 19 30 Although the calculations of the split frequencies are exact. and the radius (R) and length (L) of each ferrite or garnet resonator. Its description therefore applies to a weakly magnetised resonator only. Such a value of loaded Qfactor is compatible with the performance of many commercial devices. It consists of a junction of three ®nlines symmetrically loaded in the Hplane by two open quarterwave long ferrite resonators. The details of the junction are separately adjusted so that it is cuto for the inphase eigennetwork. Figure 17.7 Quality factor of closed gyromagnetic resonator One of the most important quantities in the theory of quarterwave coupled circulators is the loaded quality factor (QL).7a and b depict arrangements using bilateral and unilateral circuits. 17.266 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 17. Figures 17. The structure is therefore a sevenport circuit. The operating frequency of this sort of device corresponds to the even solution of two coupled TM11 resonators with quasimagnetic walls. this condition is satis®ed provided the quality factor has a lower bound equal to approximately two.
The frequency variation of the inphase eigenvalue in this sort of arrangement is often neglected. (1988) .8 Bilateral ®nline Eplane junction Reprinted with permission.7 Schematic diagrams of Eplane ®nline circulator using Hplane turnstile resonators terminals of the junction. compared to those of the split or degenerate counterrotating ones. The coupling between the terminals of Figure 17. Symmetry would otherwise require that it exhibits a magnetic wall there. This arrangement separately ensures that the overall device acts as a bandpass circuit in its demagnetised state in keeping with experiment. Helszajn et al.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 267 Figure 17.
It is usually described by an ideal transformer. 8 1.85.96.9 Relationship between ®lling factor and radial wavenumber for dierent aspect ratios of the resonator RaL: + 1. with an ideal magnetic sidewall and an eective dielectric constant to cater for the open wall condition. 17. The open resonator model adopted in this calculation consists of a pair of quarterwave long resonators. in part.54 Reprinted with permission. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is.268 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components the eigenresonators and those of the eigennetworks is less well understood. ~ 1. the dielectric spacer provides one independent means of varying this quantity. The evenmode solutions of two coupled TM11 resonators. are separately superimposed on this illustration. using open and closed walls. Helszajn. McDonald and Sutherland (1988) .9 for four dierent values of the aspect ratio R/L of the resonator. Â 1.9 Experimental adjustment of ®nline turnstile circulator The relationship between the ®lling factor L/H and the radial wavenumber k0 R of one experimental device is depicted in Figure 17.75. due to the fact that the operating frequency of circulators for which the inphase eigennetwork has not been idealised coincides with the frequency Figure 17. separated by a contiguous section of cuto waveguide with a magnetic sidewall.
each experimental point in this illustration is therefore associated with a resonator with a dierent aspect ratio (R/L).8. Helszajn et al. . The material used in this work was a lithium ferrite with a magnetisation ("0 M0 ) of 0.Inverted turnstile ®nline junction circulator 269 Figure 17.40 mm. It is of note that its susceptance slope parameter is typically of the order encountered in the related Eplane problem region. (1988) at which the phase angles of the counterrotating and inphase eigennetworks are in antiphase. This radius corresponds to that of the junction of the three Eplane WR 42 waveguides employed to form the device.4100 T and a relative permittivity (4f) of 14.10 depicts the insertion and return losses of one directly coupled circulator. rather than at that for which these are commensurate. Figure 17.10 Frequency response of directly coupled Eplane ®nline circulator using Hplane turnstile resonators Reprinted with permission. The radius (R) of the junction employed in obtaining the results under discussion was ®xed at 2.10 and 1.15 mm and its overall axial dimension (2H ) was kept constant at 4.6 mm. The length (L) of each resonator was separately varied between 1. The insertion loss of the device includes that of the ®nline circuits at each port.
The usual topology consists of a cascade of quarterwave impedance transformers. This situation is associated with edge mode or ®eld displacement eects. moderately or strongly magnetised. in some cases. weakly. A useful rule in choosing any particular solution is to recognise that the gainbandwidth of this sort of device is determined by the intensity of the gyrotropy. The gyromagnetic resonator may also. Its topology is completely described by its radius. which may be labelled according to whether the eective permeability is positive or negative. its gyrotropy and the angle that the ridge subtends at a typical resonator terminal. so some sort of matching circuit is necessary.Chapter 18 Semitracking ridge circulator 18. Its solution is a classic problem in the ®lter literature but is outside the . This geometry supports a host of solutions.or Hplane waveguides. It is outside the remit of this work.1 Introduction Ridge or ®nline circulators may be realised by introducing a suitable gyromagnetic resonator at the junction of three E. The arrangement met in connection with the ®nline waveguide is an Eplane junction embodying one or two reentrant quarterwave long gyromagnetic resonators opencircuited at one end and shortcircuited at the other. In the former case the gyrotropy of the gyromagnetic resonator may be catalogued according to whether it is very weakly. be very strongly magnetised. While propagation in the ridge waveguide is not exactly TEM it will be assumed to be so for the purpose of this work. The purpose of this chapter is to describe an Hplane ridge structure which relies for its operation on a planar resonator. Since the ridge waveguide is essentially a wideband transmission line the strongly magnetised solution is in this instance appropriate for design. In practice the admittance level of the complex gyrator circuit of the circulator does not usually coincide with that of the characteristic admittance of the ridge waveguide.
Its synthesis may therefore proceed in a similar way to that met in connection with the design of stripline devices.Semitracking ridge circulator 271 remit of this work. to be dealt with here. This is done in such a way as to locate a null in its pattern at one of the three ports of the circulator. The phenomenological adjustment of this class of device involves. which are then split by its gyrotropy. The rotation of the standing wave pattern under the application of a direct magnetic ®eld may be understood by decomposing the linearly polarised radio frequency magnetic ®eld on the axis of the resonator into counterrotating ones. Figure 18. under some simplifying conditions. the removal of the degeneracy of a pair of counterrotating modes under the in¯uence of a direct magnetic ®eld and the rotation of a figure of eight standing wave pattern. the split eigennetworks are associated with the n 1 and n À2 split branches of the n Æ1 and n Æ2 degenerate modes.1 illustrates its topology. Figure 18.1 Schematic diagram of a ridge circulator . Figure 18.2 Phenomenological adjustment In its simplest form the ridge waveguide circulator consists of a gyromagnetic resonator with top and bottom electric walls at the junction of three ridge waveguides.2 illustrates this situation. In the tracking or semitracking solution. 18. A description of the impedance and propagation constant of the dielectric loaded ridge waveguide is also necessary.
272 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 18. It is recalled that although it is always possible to form the scattering matrix of a junction it is not always possible to construct an impedance or admittance one. The description of a 3port junction circulator often starts by establishing its impedance matrix.3 Impedance matrix There are in general six dierent ways in which circulator boundary conditions can be applied. The actual choice is usually determined by the physical problem. impedance and admittance matrices of an ideal circulator and also in terms of the corresponding triplets of eigenvalues.2 Phenomenological operation of waveguide circulator 18. This may be done in terms of the scattering. .
The symmetric poles and those with the threefold symmetry of the junction are identi®ed with the inphase eigennetwork and the other split poles with the two counterrotating eigennetworks. The required relationships have the nature met in connection with its scattering variables in Chapter 17: Z11 Z12 Z13 Z0 Z ZÀ 3 2a 2b 2c Z 0 Z exp j 2%a3 Z À exp Àj 2%a3 3 Z 0 Z exp Àj 2%a3 Z À exp j 2%a3 3 Each of the three 1port reactances Z 0 Y Z and Z À appearing in the descriptions of the opencircuit parameters of a junction circulator may be expanded in terms of its poles in a First Foster or partial fractions form in the manner indicated in Figure 18. Adopting this nomenclature allows the desired 1port reactances to be de®ned by Z0 Zn Y n 0Y Æ3Y Æ6Y Æ9Y F F F 3a Z Zn Y n 1Y À2Y 4Y À5Y F F F 3b Zn Y n À1Y 2Y À4Y 5Y F F F 3c ZÀ The exact nature of a typical pole in the de®nitions of the eigenvalues of the junction requires a knowledge of the electromagnetic problem.Semitracking ridge circulator Z11 T Z R Z13 Z12 P Z12 Z11 Z13 Q Z13 U Z12 S Z11 273 1 The opencircuit parameters of the junction are completely described once its inphase (Z 0 ) and counterrotating (Z and Z À ) impedance eigenvalues are available. The usual boundary conditions adopted in the description of a planar circuit is that the magnetic ®eld is a constant over the width of each ridge and zero elsewhere: À2 ` 0 ` 2Y À1208 À 2 ` 0 ` 2 À 1208Y 1208 À 2 ` 0 ` 2 1208Y elsewhereY H0 H1 H0 H2 H0 H3 H0 0 .3.
3 First Foster Form expansion of inphase and counterrotating eigennetworks .274 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Y0 Y+3 Y–3 Y0 Y+1 Y–2 Y+ Y–1 Y+2 Y– a Z0 Z+3 Z–3 Z0 Z+1 Z–2 Z+ Z–1 Z+2 Z– b Figure 18.
4. ke is given by and "e "2 À " 2 p ke k0 "e 4f 7 "Y Y ke RY Z0 3 and Zr 3 are all in practice frequency dependent.4 Physical variables of ridge circulator . A detailed solution of this problem indicates that a typical pole is described by Zn j 3Ze 3 sin2 n2Jn ke R ! nJn ke R n2 %2 JnH ke R À " ke R 5 Ze 3 is related to the characteristic impedance of the ridge waveguide Zr 3 at the resonator terminals: r "e Ze 3 Z 3 6 4f r Zr 3 need not be equal to Z0 3. φ = –120° R r ψ φ = 0° W φ φ = 120° Figure 18. The physical variables of the structure in question is illustrated in Figure 18.Semitracking ridge circulator The coupling angle (2) is de®ned by sin 2 S 2R 275 4 S is the width of the ridge waveguide at the terminals of the junction.
The solution is a classic result in the literature Zin Z11 2 Z12 Z13 8 Since the 1port equivalent circuit of a junction circulator using a gyromagnetic resonator with magnetic sidewalls is normally a shunt resonator in parallel with the gyrator conductance of the device. whereas the second ®xes its gyrator conductance. JnH x is its derivative. The input impedance or complex gyrator circuit of a symmetric junction circulator is de®ned in terms of its opencircuit parameters by setting V3 I3 0.276 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components " and are the diagonal and odiagonal entries of the tensor permeability. A knowledge of the series form for J0 x and J1 x. It is therefore usual to express its complex gyrator in terms of Yin instead of Zin : Yin 1 Zin 9 The boundary conditions of a classic circulator are then given by Im Yin 0 Re Yin G 10a 10b The ®rst of these equations determines the centre frequency of the junction. 2 4 x x 1X2656208 J0 x 1 À 2X2499997 3 3 6 8 x x À 0X3163866 0X0444479 3 3 10 12 x x À 0X0039444 0X0002100 3 3 2 4 x x J1 x x 0X50 À 0X56249985 0X21093573 3 3 6 8 x x À 0X03954289 0X00443319 3 3 10 12 ! x x À 0X00031761 0X00001109 3 3 . Jn x is the Bessel function of order n and argument x.
and the second ®xes the absolute conductance level in terms of the admittance (Yr) of the ridge waveguide at the resonator terminals.4 Complex gyrator circuit The nature of the complex gyrator circuit of a junction circulator may be constructed by taking the real and imaginary parts of Yin . The susceptance slope parameter is determined from a knowledge of the imaginary part of Yin in the vicinity of the ®rst circulation condition. a" and ke R. This gives Gin Bin R2 in Rin 2 Xin 11a 11b ÀjXin 2 R2 Xin in The two circulation conditions at a single frequency are now deduced by satisfying equations (10a) and (10b). ! k0 R Bin À Bin À B À Bin À H in B 12 2 k0 R 1 À k0 R 1 À 4 where 3 À 30 30 BH G0 13 The quality factor (QL) of the circuit is calculated by forming QL 14 The two most important parameters in the synthesis of any circulator are the loaded Qfactor of the junction and the frequency interval over which the complex gyrator circuit has a nearly frequency independent conductance and a nearly constant susceptance slope. it is merely . Once these quantities are ®xed (by the coupling angle of the resonator and its gyrotropy). 18. The ®rst condition de®nes the planar circuit in terms of 2.Semitracking ridge circulator and the recurrence formulae Jn 1 x Jn À 1 x 2n J x x n 277 JÀn x À1n Jn x is sucient for computation. The quality of the frequency response and the gainbandwidth of a circulator is usually expressed in terms of the susceptance slope parameter B H or the quality factor QL of its complex gyrator circuit.
Intermediate values of 2 and QL may be approximated in terms of the ®rst two terms of the Taylor expansion or by some more elaborate interpolation procedure. A detailed investigation of this problem indicates that a host of semitracking solutions may be realised in the vicinity of the tracking one by properly adjusting the details of the junction. The results in these tables marked by an asterisk are not suitable for the design of such devices in that the solutions de®ned by these boundary conditions exhibit a reversal in the direction of the circulation at the high frequency end of the band. The semitracking solution is approximately de®ned with the gyrotropy between 0X50 ` ` 1X0 and " 1X0.6 illustrates the frequency response of one typical semitracking solution.278 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components necessary to ®x the absolute levels of the real and imaginary parts of the junction by adjusting the gap between the ridges to meet the required speci®cation. 2i 2i À 1 2i À 1 À 2i 1 Q À Qi À 1 Qi À 1 À Qi 1 i 15 i indicates the required quantities. Figure 18.5 Semitracking complex gyrator circuit The classic junction circulator using a planar disk resonator exhibits a host of solutions.1 depicts semitracking solutions with a" and 2 in the neighbourhood of the tracking solution. It indicates . some of which are well behaved and others which are not.5 depicts the mode chart of a gyromagnetic resonator. This circulator relies for its operation on a standing wave solution established by split counterrotating eigennetworks whose degenerate eigenvalues do not have common poles. Although no closed form solution is in general available it may be derived graphically from a knowledge of the frequency response of the device. Such solutions are particularly attractive for the design of octave band devices. While a knowledge of the quality factor is mandatory it is in itself not sucient in that it is also necessary to ensure that the complex gyrator circuit is well behaved over the frequency interval of interest. One possibility is the design of a degree3 equal ripple frequency response over one octave. Figure 18. A description of the junction in terms of its complex gyrator admittance and loaded Qfactor is therefore necessary and sucient. A particularly attractive one is the socalled semitracking one for which the gyrator circuit is a nearly frequency independent conductance over approximately an octave frequency band. 18. Table 18. i À 1 and i 1 refer to the known quantities.
The complex gyrator of this solution is ®xed by G 0X059 S B H 0X030 QL 0X515 20 0X65 Zr 50 .5 Split mode chart of gyromagnetic postresonator that the frequency characteristics of semitracking solutions using disk resonators are exceptionally well behaved and are indeed appropriate for the design of octaveband devices.Semitracking ridge circulator 279 Figure 18.
kR 1.280 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 0. 2 0.10 –0.291 Reprinted with permission.10 0.22 –0.02 0.18 0.17 –0.1 indicates that the quality factor of the gyrator circuit is not unique in that some tradeo is possible between the gyrotropy and the coupling angle.27 –0. Helszajn (1995) While the synthesis of extended octaveband devices is outside the scope of this work it may be worthwhile to observe that well behaved semitracking gyrator circuits may also be realised.20 0.07 –0. Figure 18.03 0.05 0.32 –0. The immittance levels in these solutions must therefore be renormalised to the midband impedance of ridge waveguide Z0 3 in order to cater for the ridge geometry !g Z0 3 Z0 I !0 A perusal of Table 18.65. In general.6 The real and imaginary parts of the complex gyrator circuit with " 1. 0.08 0.13 0. Its complex gyrator is characterised by G 0X0456 S B H 0X2605 QL 0X626 20 0X70 Zr 60 The immittance levels in these two examples apply to stripline calculators with 50 Ohm terminations.28 Figure 18.7 illustrates one such solution.12 –0. the use of wide coupling angles and large Gi or Bi .00 –0.15 0.05 –0.20 –0. Zr 50 .65 rad.15 –0.23 0.
30 –0. The synthesis of devices with very low ripple levels is.10 0. One essential material requirement for this type of Gi or Bi . 18. appears to be good enough for the realisation of degree3 equiripple octaveband devices. loosely speaking.20 at the bandedges.20 –0.10 0.10 –0.7 The real and imaginary parts of the complex gyrator circuit with " 1. of course. 0.05 –0.30 0.60.05 0.10 –0.05 0.05 0. 2 0.00 –0.35 –0.35 281 Figure 18.350 Reprinted with permission.20 0.20 0. It also produces. quite demanding on the quality of the equivalent circuit. Zr 60 .15 0.25 0.15 –0. The two quantities entering into its description are the gyrotropy a" and the eective permeability "eff . the more optimum frequency responses. It.70 rad.20 –0. it is necessary to have some appreciation of the magnetic variables entering into the description of the gyromagnetic resonator. with a typical value of VSWR 4 1. Helszajn (1995) values of magnetisation moves the frequency at which the direction of circulation reverses in this type of junction outside the required passband of the speci®cation. kR 1.Semitracking ridge circulator 0.15 –0.6 Direct magnetic ®eld and magnetisation of semitracking circulators To proceed with the design of circulators and other nonreciprocal ferrite devices.15 0. by and large.00 0.25 –0.
4794 1.4985 1.543* 0.7002Yf BH 0.625 0.6924 0.650 0.3682 1.4118Yf 0.7739 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X525.600* 0.4880 0.3892 1.6513 0.575 0.1 Complex gyrator variables of semitracking circulators 2 0.8192Yf 0.4453 0.8507Yf 0.6254Yf 0.9302Yf 0.7506Yf 0.5905 0.5500 0.8880Yf 0.4333Yf 0.4139 1.5413 1.5267Yf 0.5446Yf 0.6263 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X600.7219Yf 0.6062 1.3956 G 0.4021 0.4842 0.3498 G 0. " 1 2 0.3305Yf 0.7543 0.5241 1.675 0.7216Yf 0.5685 1.282 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Table 18.4670Yf 0.575* 0.6472 0.4589 1.5233Yf QL 0.2772Yf 0.625 0.3628Yf 0.5253Yf 0.650 0.4136 1.538* 0.6254 0.5138 0.6610 l.600 0.4416Yf 0.700 kR 1.6763Yf BH 0.7466Yf 0.4855Yf 0.5290 1.7561Yf 0.4480Yf 0.8727Yf 0.5183 l.9093Yf 0.4810 G 0.575* 0.3834Yf 0. " 1 2 0.5l97Yf 0.3634 0.650 0.675 0.6697 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X575.675 0.5839 0.7275 0.6018 1.6971Yf 0.8098Yf 0.4138Yf 0.784lYf 0.5074Yf 0.700 kR 1.5446 0.5740 1.535* 0.8238Yf 0.600 0.4428 1.6089 0.625 0.700 kR 1.5905Yf 0.6453 1.7757Yf 0. " 1 continued on next page .7098Yf BH 0.7313Yf 0.2927 0.5894 0.4452Yf 0.4319Yf 0.3486 0.550* 0.4879 1.9011Yf 0.4689Yf QL 0.8598Yf 0.4445Yf QL 0.3486Yf 0.4347 1.7852Yf 0.550* 0.5051 0.947Yf 0.550 0.5727 1.
2915 1.7708Yf 0.7465Yf 0.3855Yf 0.575 0.4013Yf 0. " 1 2 0.650 0.3692 0.5153 0.4806 1.550 0.7642Yf 0.7513Yf 0.575 0.1735Yf 0.2853Yf 0.5475 0.4281 1.2737 1.4844 0.2708 1.3107 0.4220Yf QL 0. Helszajn (1995) .8744Yf 0.4009Yf QL 0.2963 0.4133 0.2433Yf 0.4083Yf 0.3816Yf 0.675 0.3685Yf 0 3872Yf 0.3228Yf 0.9818Yf 0.9200Yf 0.5527 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X650.522 0.2525 G 0.3442 1.5272 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X670.1765 0.3017 1.7993Yf 0.4714 0.7303Yf BH 0.7930Yf 0.650 0.5384 1.550 0.4313 1.8034Yf 0.7755Yf 0.8666Yf 0.3799 1.4427 0.5876 283 * See comment below eqn (15) 0X625.3414 1.600 0.700 kR 1.3972Yf 0.650 0.3949 1.5150 0.3336 0.3897Yf 0.7396Yf 0.4921 0.2501 1.600 0.2296 1.3372Yf 0.3834 1.9151Yf 0.2115 G 0.3870 0.3658 1.4227 0.8324Yf 0.625 0.8715Yf 0.7255Yf BH 0.675 0.3717Yf 0.625 0.700 kR 1. " 1 2 0.7183Yf BH 0.3021 G 0.5712 0.5131 0.700 kR 1.4224Yf 0.600 0.4650 1.3367 1.9537Yf 0.531* 0.9830Yf 0.2726Yf 0.625 0.Semitracking ridge circulator Table 18.3155 1.3205 1.8267Yf 0.2552 0.4626 0.3581Yf 0. " 1 Reprinted with permission.5376 0.8359Yf 0.4185Yf 0.3850Yf QL 0.3533Yf 0.550 0.3053Yf 0.1 continued 2 0.575 0.675 0.
The internal direct magnetic ®eld (Hi) diers from that of the external ®eld (H0). The diagonal and odiagonal elements of the tensor permeability are given in this situation by 3 j j m 3 "1 The eective permeability is "eff 1 À where 3m M0 is the gyromagnetic ratio 2X21 Â 105 rad/s per A/m).284 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components circulator is that the ferrite should be saturated. and 3 is the radian frequency (rad/s). Nz is the demagnetising factor. and H0 Nz M0 The second essential material requirement in the design of any circulator is the value of the gyrotropy at the centre frequency. R is its radius (m). M0 is the magnetisation (A/m). "0 is the free space permeability (4% Â 10 À 7 H/m). " and are the diagonal and odiagonal entries of the tensor permeability. One value met in connection with the design of the tracking circulator is 0X67 " This choice of material ensures that the gyrotropy of the resonator varies in the region 0X50 ` ` 1 " for 3 0X50 ` m ` 1 3 . The two quantities are related by the direct magnetisation (M0) and the shape demagnetising factor (Nz) by Hi H0 À Nz M0 where Nz % 1 À H 2R & ' 1 H 2 À2 1 2R 3m 3 2 H is the thickness of the ferrite disk (m).
2.Semitracking ridge circulator 285 18.8 Network problem A 1port GSTUB load for which the real part (conductance) is nearly frequency independent and the imaginary part (susceptance) has a small but nonzero value is compatible with the synthesis of a degree3 equal ripple frequency speci®cation. The absolute gyrator conductance realised by the above variables is given by G 0X9822Yf where p Yf Yr 3 4f 18 19 Yr 3 is the free space conductance at ®nite frequency of the ridge waveguide at a typical port. It is ®xed by the coupling angle and the gap between the ridges. The dielectric constant 4t of the dielectric region adjacent to the junction may then be employed to set the admittance Y0n À 1 of the ®rst quarterwave transformer adjacent to the junction: p Y0n À 1 Yr 3 4t 20 18. One possibility is de®ned by 3m % 0X67 3 "1 2 % 0X522 ke R % 1X465 In the preceding equations kR and 2 are de®ned in the standard way: p 2% "e 4f ke R R 16 !0 sin 2 S 2R 17 "e and 3m have the usual meanings and 4f is the relative dielectric constant of the ferrite material. R and 2 are de®ned in Figure 18. The topology of this network and its . H is the thickness of the resonator.7 Physical variables of semitracking circulators The physical and magnetic variables in the tables may be understood by constructing an example. S.
8 Topology of 3port circulator with 2port matching networks Figure 18.9 Frequency response of n = 3 network with nonzero minima in the re¯ection coecient p p S max 1 k2 42 k2 42 2 p S min 1 k2 k2 w 2 2 À 1 2 À 1 m 2 1 .286 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Figure 18.
This allows the frequency response of the quarterwave coupled junction to be displayed without diculty: jÀin j2 ARin À Z0 D À CXin 2 B AXin À Z0 CRin 2 ARin Z0 D À CXin 2 B AXin Z0 CRin 2 A.Semitracking ridge circulator 287 Figure 18.8 and 18. This result suggests that the network problem can accommodate some uncertainty in the de®nition of the coupling angle.10 Topology of quarterwave coupled complex gyrator circuit frequency response are illustrated in Figures 18. normalised conductance g. C and D are the parameters of the overall region. It also de®nes the circuit admittances (y1 and y2). The topology in question is illustrated in Figure 18.9. A scrutiny of the network problem suggests that a precise realisation of the susceptance slope parameter may not be as critical as is historically supposed provided that the minima in the re¯ection coecient of the device are not forced to pass through zero.9 Frequency response The frequency response of a quarterwave coupled circulator may be traced by forming the re¯ection coecient at the input terminals of the 1port complex gyrator network.2 relates the speci®cations (VSWR(max). The relationship between the frequency response of the network and the circuit elements is a standard problem in the literature. The ABCD parameters of a typical transformer region are . The topology of the 1port complex gyrator circuit is speci®ed in Figure 18. loaded Qfactor QL).10. B. Table 18. VSWR(min)) and bandwidth to the elements of the gyrator circuit (normalised susceptance slope parameter b H .10. 18.
336 4.343 1.215 33.453 0.802 0.785 56.344 2.866 0.742 6.789 2.818 3.850 0.303 1.349 399.093 2.123 10.693 2.392 Y1 4.752 4.359 1.900 0.472 3.474 2.893 1.196 36.741 13.15 W 0.500 0.304 1081.989 39.732 3.848 2.102 2.277 2.250 0.049 455.620 9.584 1.635 14.512 0.055 4.709 2.000 G 893.749 1.02 Q 3.350 0.550 0.211 3.379 179.667 0.228 3.805 8.520 1.553 194.15 W 0.332 368.265 5.106 6.988 26.083 4.751 2.125 2.700 0.649 8.758 3.750 0.324 209.630 71.981 1.045 Degree N 3 S(max) 1.714 0.025 3313.214 2.550 0.300 0.500 0.275 9.196 6.983 24.217 2.594 1.750 0.800 0.294 1.014 0.555 3.454 1.698 1.392 2.687 21.176 1.250 0.240 97.044 1.950 1.940 26.977 1.388 101.444 0.104 3486.288 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Table 18.852 4.712 19.731 0.000 G 969.399 Y1 4.667 0.200 0.579 8.415 2.794 17.501 0.355 41.918 199.600 0.054 2.711 1.309 44.295 1.559 3.520 BH S(min) 1.450 0.2 Network variables for degree3 circulators Degree N 3 S(max) 1.041 0.700 0.454 3.565 0.366 5.455 2.635 0.370 1.731 6.350 0.800 0.013 4.782 1.577 0.428 13.428 13.011 62.878 2.639 1.909 18.951 3.862 58.356 1.822 0.681 3.356 7.200 0.850 0.280 1.049 34.430 13.970 59.400 0.300 0.006 continued on next page .665 B H S(min) 1 Q 3.378 12.299 106.533 5.902 6.770 1.889 0.309 2.143 1.836 1.961 7.450 0.604 3.418 1.635 106.170 7.289 Y2 147.312 76.229 2.279 3.329 1.709 7.650 0.900 0.597 2.263 Y2 137.542 1.037 1.321 1.777 18.562 2.161 1.950 1.805 28.475 1.378 1.477 1.936 2.333 1.789 3.515 1138.600 0.745 432.403 1.175 4.719 1.233 2.400 0.042 20.514 1.880 2.
728 5.855 3.515 0.820 2.462 2.700 0.970 45.326 2.06 Q 3.561 2.544 1.362 4.941 3.385 1.163 7.205 287.741 0.071 3.678 2.876 2.500 0.083 1.005 2.950 1.525 2.667 0.401 Y1 4.359 1.552 1.973 12.286 11.597 1.242 4.050 2.416 15.550 0.374 22.080 1.350 0.967 140.111 1.104 0.396 Y1 4.126 2.741 0.787 1.662 1.912 27.856 continued on next page .098 2.974 2.850 0.907 0.270 82.04 Q 3.351 6.432 1.850 161.219 0.450 0.796 330.583 0.683 51.260 1.700 13.570 1.825 2688.950 1.600 0.943 Degree N 3 S(max) 1.298 2.866 162.348 2.827 1.836 0.200 0.406 76.809 1.597 1.375 3.437 3.235 Y2 125.Semitracking ridge circulator Table 18.850 0.600 0.165 BH S(min) 1.060 52.455 0.880 10.828 2.216 7.667 0.302 2.000 G 801.972 2.2 continued Degree N 3 S(max) 1.700 0.296 1.491 24.903 0.512 0.353 B H 289 S(min) 1.521 5.861 45.168 5.841 6.932 3043.900 0.656 0.002 4.402 5.193 1.800 0.700 1.796 3.522 58.750 0.956 3.116 88.198 1.983 1.640 3.834 0.498 34.178 1.250 0.398 93.062 6.450 0.987 65.208 1.252 19.657 0.800 0.302 351.067 8.488 7.914 1.443 1.743 4.350 0.139 3.598 2.685 994.506 2.488 1.373 1.495 1.463 18.585 1.124 1.334 1.744 11.750 0.363 3.336 1.171 5.900 0.300 0.067 0.498 22.15 W 0.580 0.738 16.909 1.989 183.295 1.170 7.772 1.230 1.612 3.108 1.436 33.942 2.766 10.400 0.470 2.010 878.854 12.15 W 0.047 16.731 2.450 0.806 3.222 15.000 G 697.585 2.423 2.300 0.781 30.200 0.646 3.045 397.020 3.059 0.250 0.205 Y2 112.854 29.550 0.379 1.443 1.383 2.263 1.988 1.253 9.939 6.500 0.394 38.400 0.451 2.
224 1.047 4.222 2.500 0.153 1.410 0.288 1.212 1.770 295.290 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components Table 18.008 3.750 0.918 2.859 50.652 24.083 5.376 30.095 1.176 1.338 1.350 0.069 105.000 G 580.08 Q 3.687 6.610 570.384 1.250 0.613 0.550 0.852 14.382 38.897 11.727 BH S(min) 1.279 2.897 0.353 1.200 1.900 0.991 1.334 3.175 1.494 7.816 1.205 5.511 2.341 64.791 1.060 0.843 38.251 1.402 19.470 0.868 0.494 2.067 2.250 0.220 117.733 16.787 0.288 3.537 0.223 17.920 1.703 2253.460 2.700 0.699 0.317 1.225 4.220 1.350 0.362 5.653 1.660 2.616 continued on next page .957 54.777 4.639 29.000 G 452.071 1.010 1.432 229.564 1742.200 0.524 1.882 1.928 1.570 1.250 0.382 Y1 3.920 2.627 1.523 1.404 69.880 3.840 1.518 2.371 1.813 1.1 Q 3.437 0.826 0.417 2.789 1.668 3.344 1.668 41.567 13.157 6.2 continued Degree N 3 S(max) 1.667 0.950 1.786 240.881 3.060 11.653 3.545 1.187 3.900 2.600 0.735 1.700 0.458 2.144 2.160 7.119 1.321 2.200 0.450 0.657 16.508 91.550 0.360 9.315 9.269 736.945 19.194 1.198 9.168 1.445 1.15 W 0.150 8.750 0.497 2.801 8.203 1.996 4.850 0.494 2.332 187.714 22.266 4.052 2.135 Y2 79.600 0.921 4.042 2.300 0.667 0.203 1.458 4.498 0.356 Y1 3.15 W 0.300 0.800 0.500 0.618 1.672 11.853 3.031 0.425 1.171 Y2 97.587 30.748 Degree N 3 S(max) 1.572 2.862 2.900 0.957 B H S(min) 1.400 0.189 50.272 1.713 7.332 1.961 0.171 2.643 0.566 0.800 0.492 2.018 0.193 4.796 0.950 1.489 2.234 1.832 2.293 3.677 1.400 0.440 1.758 1.154 1.519 24.436 136.850 0.729 0.450 0.351 13.
850 0.236 1.700 0.310 Y1 3.15 W 0.108 1.296 13.559 10.360 35. MTT30.083 1.205 1.550 0.049 18..105 Y2 31.469 1.2 continued Degree N 3 S(max) 1.145 1.020 3.238 2.104 0.961 0.363 1.850 0.545 1.220 2.247 70.739 1.264 1.896 0.604 1.450 0.069 1.308 2.011 128.742 151.710 1.064 8.200 0.354 29.602 1.472 0.419 20.199 1.596 2.496 28.630 63.351 1.667 0.500 0.644 378.027 31.317 2.15 W 0.846 9.602 1.635 0.546 5.525 2.300 0.274 0.730 0.825 3.010 2.401 1152.738 BH S(min) 1.746 1.911 2.575 0.717 1.122 1.750 0.096 152.872 3.359 0.552 0.157 1.742 1.437 1.381 1.173 2.554 0.231 16.350 0.901 3.000 G 309.479 0.523 1.556 458.091 1.428 1.403 2.374 0.738 0.104 1. (1982) speci®c equations for one and two section quarterwave matching networks for stubresistor loads.528 2.881 1.928 3.111 0.454 Degree N 3 S(max) 1.229 1.257 Y1 2.287 1.820 0.900 0.714 2.272 2.968 5.462 1.549 1.270 0. Microwave Theory Mech.620 0.302 6.271 1.120 7.345 12.006 1.400 0.700 0.587 1.484 1.366 2.535 6.200 0.410 0.466 B H 291 S(min) 1.290 1.465 1.763 0.100 1.950 1.Semitracking ridge circulator Table 18.800 0.14 Q 3.384 6.763 3.450 0.005 1. IEEE Trans.404 1.800 0.400 0.139 1.704 2.961 0.696 1.400 1.908 4.084 1.350 0.758 16.730 2.051 0.441 61.093 Y2 59.250 0.820 1.446 Degree3 network variables (reproduced with permission. & Helszajn.799 1. Levy.408 58.891 5.666 36.335 1.500 0.724 1.600 0.595 2.12 Q 3.250 0.750 0.165 8.308 4.991 3.587 2.491 1.778 1.667 0. Levy & Helszajn (1982) .998 10. 55±62) Reproduced with permission.477 0.415 0.314 2.800 0.222 1.939 1.900 0.850 15.341 0.939 2. R.573 12.550 0. J.387 1.609 4.600 0.058 1.300 0.000 G 138.182 3.283 1.084 1.011 1.617 0.125 1.950 1.184 1.170 1.237 1.401 0.134 21.290 0.192 3.529 6.050 2.
12 depict two typical frequency responses.11 and 18. The frequency response of the n 3 network is obtained with A cos2 À B y02 y01 sin cos sin2 1 1 y01 y02 C y01 y02 sin cos D Ày01 y02 sin2 cos2 Figures 18. . frequency dependent. The admittances appearing in these relationships are. unlike the stripline situation.292 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components A cos B sin aZt C Zt sin D cos is the electrical length of the transformer: % 1 2 3 À 30 30 is the normalised radian frequency variable: Zr is the ridge characteristic impedance of the generator circuit and Zt is that of the quarterwavelong ridge transformer: Zr Zt p 4t Xin and Rin are the imaginary and real parts of the complex gyrator impedance and 4t is the relative permittivity of the transformer region.
08 –0.11 Theoretical frequency response of two section quarterwave coupled semitracking junction with " 1.28 Figure 18.Semitracking ridge circulator 50 293 45 40 return loss.07 0.23 0.03 0.25.17 0.13 0.18 0. Helszajn (1995) 50 45 40 return loss.33 –0.02 0. Helszajn (1995) . B H 0.08 0.27 0.584.67.0467.50. 4d 3.22 0.23 –0.50 Reprinted with permission. 4d 3. QL 0.07 –0. Zr 36. QL 0.70. dB 35 30 25 20 15 –0. B H 0.03 0. Zr 36.02 0.96 Reprinted with permission.12 –0. G 0.12 Theoretical frequency response of two section quarterwave coupled semitracking junction with " 1. 0. G 0.65.13 –0. 2 0.32 –0.077.17 –0.527.12 0.28 –0. 2 0.0404.60.32 Figure 18.18 –0. 0.0780.27 –0.22 –0. dB 35 30 25 20 15 –0.
10 Design of octaveband semitracking circulators Figures 18. . Fortunately. and the network problem can accommodate some uncertainty in the latter quantities if the minima in the re¯ection coecient are not forced to pass through zero. One feature of the ideal semitracking solution of circulators outlined here is that the dielectric constant of the transformer region adjacent to the resonator has a value between 3 and 6. the ®eld of solutions of the semitracking subspace outlined here permits some laxity in the de®nition of the former parameters.14 illustrate the details of quarterwave coupled ridge circulators using ferrite posts and dielectric transformer sections.294 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components 18. The use of such low values of dielectric constant adjacent to the resonator readily reproduces the assumed magnetic wall boundary condition between the ports of the junction.13 and 18. It therefore more readily ensures correlation between practice and theory than would otherwise be the case. Failure to accurately reproduce the boundary conditions between the ports of the junction leads to some uncertainty in the de®nition of the eective coupling angle of the junction (de®ned by the transmission lines and the resonator circuit) and of the radius of the resonator. There is also some corresponding modi®cation in the susceptance slope parameter and to a lesser extent in the conductance of the complex gyrator circuit.
Semitracking ridge circulator 295 Figure 18.14 Details of ridge circulator using postresonator and dielectric transformers .13 Schematic diagram of ridge circulator using dielectric transformers Figure 18.
Solutions of the wave equation based on a separation of variables technique. functionals and the RayleighRitz procedure 19. If the region consists of top and bottom electrical walls then this quantity automatically satis®es a magnetic boundary condition on the sidewall of the problem region. The process of obtaining a solution to a Helmholtz dierential equation by extremising a functional is called a variational method. A dual statement applies to the latter problem region. as will be demonstrated. It is therefore appropriate to include a chapter on this technique. The use of the word `functional' in this context serves as a reminder that it is not in itself a function but rather a function of functions. a variational approach based on the fact that the stationary values of the energy functional of the problem region also satisfy the related scalar homogeneous Helmholtz dierential equation must be employed. One means of extremising this sort of quantity is to separately vary each function inside the functional. A property of a typical eigensolution of any problem region is that it must satisfy both the wave equation and the boundary conditions of the region.Chapter 19 Variational calculus. For irregular structures. If the former structure contains an electric wall or segments of such walls then these have to be separately catered for.1 Introduction A number of the calculations on the ridge waveguide described in this book amount to obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the related planar problem region by using the ®nite element method. however. The stored energy of the circuit when integrated over the problem region is known as the functional of the problem region. only exist for regular geometries such as rectangular and circular structures. One means of extremising a functional is the RayleighRitz one. If the problem region has top and bottom magnetic walls then it automatically satis®es an electric wall at its sidewalls. It consists of introducing some . the homogeneous Helmholtz dierential equation. The stationary values obtained in this way satisfy.
The other ®eld components are obtained by using Maxwell's equations in the usual way.Variational calculus. An important property of a problem region with top and bottom electric walls is that its functional has a magnetic wall as a natural boundary condition of the problem. In the ®nite element approximation the problem region is discretised into triangular elements inside of which some suitable polynomial representation of the ®elds is introduced. A dual remark is applicable to one with top and bottom magnetic walls. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 297 polynomial or other approximation for the true solution into the functional prior to reducing it to a matrix eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalues of the problem represent the cuto frequencies of the circuit and the eigenvectors represent the ®elds at the nodes. I S EzÃ LEz dS 3 .2 Stationary value of functional One means of solving a homogeneous Helmholtz dierential equation with a homogeneous boundary condition is to obtain the stationary values of the functional of the problem region. 19. The demonstration starts by writing the wave equation in terms of an operator L: LEz 0 where 2 L rt k2 e 1 2 A property of the operator (L) is that it is selfadjoint. The problem may then be solved using standard numerical techniques. Such a matrix satis®es the following relationship ALB BLA It continues by de®ning a functional by premultiplying the wave equation by the complex conjugate of the ®eld variable prior to integrating the ensuing equation over the problem region. Before attempting to construct an energy functional it is desirable to verify whether its extremisation satis®es the wave equation. The stationary values of this problem are then the required eigensolutions. The main purpose of this chapter is the formulation of a suitable functional based on the stored energy in the circuit.
19.3 Electric and magnetic energies in planar circuits The eigenvalues or frequencies of any resonant circuit coincide with the condition for which the electric and magnetic energies stored in the circuit are equal: Wm We 9 There are in a planar circuit an in®nite number of such solutions. so the only other possibility therefore coincides with LEz 0 as asserted. it is then readily seen that EzÃ L Ã LEz dS 0 7 S The derivation now proceeds by making use of the fact that L is selfadjoint. This gives 3 H Á "H Ã dv 11 Wm Re 4 v . and if terms in 2 are neglected.298 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The derivation of the required result now continues by assuming a trial function (0) in the vicinity of the exact value (Ez ) of the form 0 Ez 4 Introducing this approximation into the de®nition of the functional readily gives EzÃ Ã L Ez dS 5 I S A typical stationary condition for the functional is now de®ned by dI 0 d 0 6 If this condition is evaluated for the assumed form for I. To determine these it is convenient to form the following quantity: I We À Wm 10 The time average of the stored magnetic (Wm) and electric (We) energies in the resonator are obtained by using the Poynting vector. This gives 2Ã LEz 0 Ã 8 Since is an arbitrary constant it cannot be equal to zero.
are electric ones and Ez T 0Y Ex 0Y Hx T 0Y Ey 0Y Hy T 0 Hz 0 15a 15b . By constructing the integral I given in equation (10) in the case of a planar circuit a variational formulation can be derived.1.4 Electric and magnetic ®elds in planar circuits with top and bottom electric walls To proceed with the evaluation of the functional it is usual to express Hx and Hy in terms of Ez prior to seeking a stationary value for Ez which satis®es the wave equation. This arrangement is illustrated in Figure 19. The expansion of either form produces a real scalar quantity. The top and bottom walls. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 299 We 3 Re 4 v E Á 4E Ã dv 12 Making use of the matrix relationship below: A Á B AT B indicates that Wm and We may also be written as 3 HT "H Ã dv Wm Re 4 v 13 We 3 Re 4 v ET 4E Ã dv 14 The matrix operations inside the integral sign in the preceding equations have either the nature of a quadratic or Hermitian form. The minimisation of this functional satis®es both the eigenfunctions of the wave equation and the natural boundary condition on the sidewalls of the circuit. The boundary of the circuit considered here is designated by " a contour $ along which two unit vectors are de®ned: a normal vector n and a tangential vector t. These may either be electric or magnetic walls. The separation between the top and bottom walls of the problem region is arranged to be small with respect to the wavelength to ensure that higher order modes which vary in the zdirection are suppressed. 19. for the TM family of modes.Variational calculus. It may be separately demonstrated that a property of an energy function is that it is either one or the other of these two forms.
1 Schematic diagram of planar circuit with magnetic sidewall In a scalar problem. The total magnetic ®eld at any point within the circuit is ! j340 4f dEz dEz ay À 18 Ht 2 ax dy dx keff . H f 4 40 d 0 0 H 4f 0 4f 0 g 0e 4f 0 I g 0e 1 0 I 16a f " "0 d 0 0 1 0 1 0 16b Maxwell's equations then permits Hx and Hy to be written in terms of Ez only.300 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components z Contour (ξ) Metallisation t n H Substrate x y Figure 19. The required result is j34 4 dEz Hx 20 f 17a dy keff Àj340 4f Hy k2 eff keff is the wave number de®ned by dEz dx 17b p keff k0 4f Hx and Hy may be determined from the preceding equations once Ez is established.
Its solution corresponds to the TE family of modes. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 301 On the periphery of the circuit. The required boundary condition is then determined by dEz 0 on $ dn An electric wall is established on the contour $ of the circuit provided Ez 0 21 20 The dual problem with top and bottom magnetic walls is easily understood.Variational calculus. Introducing this operation in the expression for the stored magnetic energy gives & ' 340 4f H rt Ez 2 ds Wm Re 23 4k2 eff S d d ay dx dy . it can be expressed in terms of components which are normal and tangential to its boundary: ! j34 4 dEz dE t À z 19 H t 20 f n dt dn keff If the boundary condition is taken as a magnetic wall one then the tangential component of the magnetic ®eld must be zero there. 19.5 Derivation of functional for planar isotropic circuits The magnetic energy (Wm) in the circuit de®ned by equation (13) may now be evaluated in terms of Ez only by using equations (17a) and (17b). The required result is & ' 34 4 rt Ez 2 dv Wm 0 f Re 22 4k2 eff v where rt ax and jrt Aj2 rt A Á rt AÃ Since the ®elds in a planar circuit with a ground plane spacing H are independent of z the volume integral can be replaced by a surface integral over the area of the structure.
302 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components The corresponding result for the stored electric energy (We ) in equation (14) is ' & 2 340 4f H Ez ds We 24 Re 4 S The energy functional I is then given by forming the dierence between these two quantities. The energy functional of the dual problem with magnetic top and bottom walls is ' & Ã Â rt Hz 2 k2 Hz 2 ds À 30 I Re eff S It satis®es an electric wall boundary condition on the sidewalls of the problem region. ' & Ã Â 340 4f H rt Ez 2 k2 Ez 2 ds À 25 Re I We À Wm eff 4k2 eff S The minimisation of this quantity produces. 2 rt k2 0a 0 a 28 29 d0a 0 dn on boundary $ respectively. in practice. . an in®nite number of modes which are described by Ez 0a keff ka a 0Y 1Y 2Y F F F 26a 26b 26c Introducing this notation and missing out the common factors which are not signi®cant (since only minimisation of the integral is required) gives the required variational formulation ' & 2 2 Ã Â À rt 0a k2 0a ds 27 I Re a S The zeros of this quantity satisfy both the wave equation and a magnetic wall boundary condition on the sidewalls of the circuit.
[A] and [B] are square matrices given by Ai j rt i Á rt j ds 33 S and Bi j i j ds S 34 where rt has the meaning previously introduced and dj dj di di rt i Á rt j dx dx dy dy rt i Á rt i di dx 2 di dy 2 35 36 U is a column vector containing the unknowns of the problem. One way this may be accomplished is by employing the RayleighRitz procedure. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 303 The processes of minimisation and maximisation in variational calculus are often referred to as extremisation and the functional is said to be extremised or made stationary. and UT is its transpose. It starts by replacing the true solution by a trial function 0a : 0a n i1 i xY yui 31 In the RayleighRitz approach the trial function is expanded in terms of a suitable set of real basis or shape functions i xY y which contain the spatial variation of the problem with complex coecients ui .Variational calculus.6 RayleighRitz procedure The procedure for obtaining a solution of a Helmholtz dierential equation by extremising a functional is known as a variational technique. This step reduces the problem to a set of simultaneous equations of the form U T fA À k2 BgU 0 a 32 This matrix equation retains the quadratic or Hermitian form of the original problem. . 19. In the ®nite element problem the ui represent the values of the ®elds at the nodes of the elements.
The required operation leaves the matrix of the form in equation (32) unchanged: fA À k2 BgU 0 a 42 Once the basis functions are selected the eigenvalue equation will yield an eigenvalue k2 and a column eigenvector Ua for each basis function included a in the preceding equation. The derivation of this condition proceeds by dierentiating the functional I with respect to u1 and u2 one at a time.304 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components To develop some detailed familiarity with the origin of the two matrices in equations (33) and (34) these will now be derived for a degree2 approximation problem by way of an example. The assumed form for Ez is in this instance taken as 0a 1 xY yu1 2 xY yu2 37 Introducing this approximation into the functional I in equation (27) gives ! ! ' & d u1 1 u2 2 2 d u1 1 u2 2 2 2 2 À ka u1 1 u2 2 ds I À dx dy S 38 Making use of the vector identities in equations (35) and (36) then gives fÀu2 rt 1 Á rt 1 u2 rt 2 Á rt 2 I 1 2 S À 2u1 u2 rt 1 Á rt 2 k2 u1 1 u2 2 2 g ds a 39 The matrix notation in equation (32) is now recovered by extracting column vectors UT and U from the preceding relationship: !' ! ! & 1 1 1 2 u1 rt 1 Á rt 1 rt 1 Á rt 2 40 À k2 u1 u2 a 1 2 2 2 u2 rt 1 Á rt 2 rt 2 Á rt 2 The ®nal step proceeds by imposing the RayleighRitz condition. It amounts to taking the derivative of the functional of the problem at each node of the interpolation function df U 0 duk 41 This operation may be understood by recalling that F U has the nature of a quadratic form so that each element in its expansion is a scalar quantity. Taking the ®rst factor inside the integral sign in the original functional to start with gives I1 u2 rt 1 Á rt 1 u2 rt 2 Á rt 2 2u1 u2 rt 1 Á rt 2 1 2 .
Variational calculus. 19. The eigenvectors are orthogonal and are normalised so that T Ua Ua 1 43 The equipotential lines for each solution may be obtained by interpolating between the nodal values. The second factor in the functional is I2 k2 u2 2 u2 2 2u1 u2 1 2 a 1 1 2 2 and its derivatives are dI2 2k2 u1 2 u2 1 2 a 1 du1 dI2 2k2 u1 1 2 u2 2 a 2 du2 The required result in equation (42) is now readily constructed by forming dI d ÀI1 I2 0 du1 du1 dI d ÀI1 I2 0 du2 du2 and once more identifying column vectors (U)T and U in the ensuing relationship. Each eigenvalue and eigenvector is associated with a unique eigensolution of the problem region. are distributed over the whole surface area in accordance with the ®nite element mesh. Interpolation methods such as `least squares' or . These values.7 Field patterns Once the eigenvalues of the matrix problem have been established the eigenvectors may be evaluated from a knowledge of the [A] and [B] matrices using standard numerical techniques. which are in general complex. The eigenvector U contains the discrete nodal values of the ®eld perpendicular to the top and bottom walls of the planar circuit. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 305 Its derivatives with respect to u1 and u2 are dI1 2u1 rt 1 Á rt 1 2u2 rt 1 Á rt 2 du1 dI1 2u1 rt 1 Á rt 2 2u2 rt 2 Á rt 2 du2 respectively.
The accuracy of the ®elds is dependent on the degree of the original approximation problem and the distribution of the ®nite elements in the problem region. This may produce discontinuities in the ®eld plot which can only be removed by resolving the problem with an improved mesh. . It is established by recognising that the functional whose stationary points satisfy the wave equation may be obtained by premultiplying it by EzÃ prior to integrating the ensuing quantity over the surface of the circuit: EzÃ rt2 k2 Ez ds 44 I c S The functional I is again recognised as having the nature of a quadratic form which may be readily reduced to a scalar quantity. The Green theorem in a plane is readily obtained from this identity by forming a new one by replacing A by AÃ and adding the two relationships. such an approach has been developed.306 Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components `weighted average' may be utilised here. Fortunately.8 Derivation of energy functional based on a mathematical technique While it is usually possible to deduce an energy functional for any physical system whose stationary points satisfy its wave equation it would be preferable instead of deducing the energy explicitly to be able to start with the governing partial dierential equation. $ represents the periphery and t is the boundary tangent de®ned in a counterclockwise direction. 19. Such a solution would then be considered a mathematical technique independent of the physics under consideration. At regions of rapid ®eld variations low concentrations of ®nite elements or elements of low order will produce noticeable errors in both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The equivalence between this form of the functional and that previously deduced may be established by using one identity in vector algebra based on the divergence theorem rt Á A dS A Á n dt S $ The required identity is dA Ã 2 Ã A rt A dS À rt A Á rt A dS AÃ dt dt S S $ S is the surface of the planar circuit.
It need not therefore be separately catered for in any problem which is bounded by such a wall. . Àjrt Ez j2 k2 jEz j2 ds 46 I e S This development also indicates that a magnetic wall is a natural boundary condition of the functional. functional and RayleighRitz procedure 307 The derivation now proceeds by introducing Green's theorem in a plane into the assumed form for I. This gives dE I À rt EzÃ Á rt Ez dS EzÃ z dt k2 jEz j2 ds 45 e dt S $ S If the boundary condition on the edge of the circuit is a magnetic wall one then dEz 0 dt The assumed nature of the functional reduces. in this instance.Variational calculus. to that previously derived by explicitly formulating the stored energy in the circuit.
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548 single ridge waveguide 356. 135. 1225 field patterns 121. 127 impedance 1323 circulator 14850 degree3 28891 differential phase shift 23840 Eplane 2623. 180. 180 crossguide directional coupler 1703 circular aperture 172 coupling 170. 155. 287 immittance inverter 1969 2port step discontinuity 1547 admittance 34. 1935. 189. 160 attenuation 45.Index ABCD notation 158. 196 Chebyshev solution 204 circular polarisation 99102. 11115 circular waveguide 11718. 79 double ridge waveguide 378. 221 order 204 bandwidth 80 basis function 3045 Bessel function 276 Bethe s smallhole coupling theory 1735 circular apertures 174 slot apertures 174 bifurcated waveguide 208. 163. 3023 electric 2978. 148 cutoff space 120. 244. 82 bandpass filter 1112. 7. 303 magnetic 2978. 193. 116 finline waveguide 2513 parallel plate waveguide 102 rectangular waveguide 1922 single ridge waveguide 99. 6970. 77. 2368 bilateral finline waveguide 2424. 423 complex gyrator circuit 27683 conical ridges 1214. 128. 2778 powercurrent 41 powervoltage 40 voltagecurrent 39 admittance inverter 1901. 1723. 251 propagation 2457 boundary conditions 2978. 287. 1836 crossedslot aperture 17586 directivity 172. 280. 205. 132 coupling angle 275. 2823. 187 crossedslot aperture 17586 . 109 double ridge waveguide 99. 180. 212. 165. 1589. 226. 107. 1812 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 83. 178. 199 amplitude modulator 148 antipodal finline waveguide 2423 aspect ratio 35. 218. 267 fields 2501 impedance 242. 261 phase angle 259 ridge 27096 turnstile 25663 closed form description 47. 303. 2014. 62. 1079. 267 Eplane 2213 equivalent circuit 2023 evanescent waveguide inverters 223 frequency response 2223 metal septa 2012. 195. 308 Butterworth approximation 2046 capacitance 28 Cauer type ladder network 18991. 200. 259. 105. 122. 296 coupling aperture 173 coupling factor 172. 2667 finline 2669 Hplane 2612 ideal 150. 445.
88. 502. 2923 network variables 28891 degree3 equal ripple frequency response 278. 123 cutoff wavelength 37. 2667 Eplane filter 2013. 120. 20712 double ridge 28 equivalent circuit 1545 measurement 1607 mode matching method 20712 single ridge 28. 180. 88. 1245 single ridge waveguide 2930. 1836 crossguide 1703 directivity 172. 187 directly coupled filter circuits 189206 Dirichlet condition 48. 15369 symmetrical 21618 discretisation dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 889. 294 differential phase shift 2302 differential phase shift circulator 23840 directional coupler 89. 3941 attenuation constant 62 circular polarisation 99 116 cutoff space 4. 187 scattering matrix 9. 2213 Eplane septum 2201 eigennetworks 2167. 2734 eigensolution 2978. 456. 300. 30. 28. 2235 equivalent circuit 200 Faraday rotation 13441. 2734 finline circulator 266. 12730 cutoff wavelength 90 ellipticity 110 impedance 923. 2346 boundary conditions 856 circular polarisation 105. 110.Index attenuation 1846 0degree 1759 45degree 17986 rectangular waveguide 1778 single ridge waveguide 1789 cutoff number 28. 306 eigenvalue 2979. 28. 271. 127 dielectric constant 2956 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 8398. 111 double ridge waveguide 502. 6372 admittance 34. 305 eigenvector 2978. 4761 impedance 5. 122 triple ridge waveguide 1234 cutoff wavelength 49 double ridge waveguide 37. 182 ellipticity 188. 152. 4762. 231. 86 323 discontinuity 15369. 923. 1034. 303 electric wall 2978. 171 directivity 172. 180. 233 elliptical polarisation 101. 229. 903 open halfspace 100 partially dielectric loaded 96 propagation constant 901. 98 power flow 31 propagation constant 901 Eplane bandpass filter 2213 Eplane circulator 2623. 946 dielectric rods 128 dielectric tiles 12830 dielectric transformer 292. 502. 159. 98 modes 834. 3023 electron spin 226. 44 rectangular waveguide 15 single ridge waveguide 35. 123 gyromagnetic ridge waveguide 143 quadruple ridge waveguide 11921. 30. 180. 44 field patterns 3. 221. 3056 electric energy 299300. 14452 electric field 137 magnetic field 136 quadruple ridge waveguide 13450 scattering matrix 1389 triple ridge waveguide 1502 Faraday rotation circulator 14850 Faraday rotation isolator 145. 678 quadruple ridge waveguide 1245. 324. 2630 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 8891 double ridge waveguide 4. 107. 42 degree3 circulator frequency response 287. 27. 6371. 280. 1489 . 109 cutoff space 8891. 2856 demagnetising factor 284 diagonal ridges 118. 2689 ridge circulator 271. 208. 246 cutoff space 13. 745. 178. 368. 232 evanescent mode waveguide 2001. 130 single ridge waveguide 75 see also finite element method double ridge waveguide 6. 138 coupling 1703.
2445. 268 immittance 158. 323. 6770. 261 ideal transformer 162. 43. 15. 270 complex 27683. 2978 hybrid finite element calculation 838 ideal circulator 150. 649. 98 impedance inverter 190. 338. 133 finite element method 6371 finline waveguide 242. 456. 1434 ferrite rod 137. 71. 257. 269 insertion phase at deviation 231 insulated finline waveguide 2423 Faraday rotation phase shifter 14951 ferrite devices 22738 differential phase shift circulator 238 phase shifter 22733 resonance isolator 2338 ferrite ring 137. 285. 78. 287 gyromagnetic ratio 284 gyromagnetic resonator 256. 281. 297. 284 mode chart 279 perturbation theory 2645 quality factor 266 . 2626. 270. 49 mathematical technique 224 powercurrent 17. 221 bandpass filter 1935 evanescent 2001 lowpass filter 1903 immittance matrix 212 impedance 1. 224. 3078 gyrator circuit 13941. 23. 223. 1989 bandpass filter 1934 lowpass filter 1903 impedance matrix 2727 inductors 1913 insertion loss 79. 268 filter circuits 11 filter design 207. 1646. 304. 2701. 200.324 Index gyromagnetic waveguide 135. 148. 259. 15. 18998. 368. 15760 characterisation 1603 frequency response 157 Helmholtz equation 845. 300. 3. 1819. 216. 80. 19. 71. 6372. 7881 transverse 15 voltagecurrent 17. 3056 gyromagnetic waveguide 1413 hybrid 848 mathematical technique 3078 planar isotropic circuit 3024 stationary value 2989 gap factor 35. 251 free space 15. 148 ferrite tiles 137 phase shifter 22631 quadruple ridge waveguide 1447 resonance isolator 2357 ferromagnetic resonance 227 field patterns see modes filling factor 129. 1245 single ridge waveguide 7382 finline circulator 2669 finline isolator 2525 figure of merit 2534 finline waveguide 24155 circular polarisation 2513 fields 24851 propagation 2457 topologies 2412 free space permeability 284 free space wavelength 49 functional 48. 98 double ridge waveguide 324. 6371 hybrid 838 quadruple ridge waveguide 121. 1647 garnet tiles 226 Green s theorem 25. 357. 68. 58. 357. 79. 234. 81 powervoltage 5. 221 finite element method 2978. 37. 1245. 19. 1656 immittance inverter 1112. 923. 280 Hplane circulator 2612 halfwave plate 153 halfwave ridge 1545. 163. 281. 50. 284 complex gyrator circuit 278. 315. 1445. 56. 205. 307 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 839. 712 single ridge waveguide 323. 261 functional 1413 perturbation theory 264 triple ridge 1502 gyrotropy 1502. 18. 17 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 923. 162. 1323 quadruple ridge waveguide 1323 rectangular waveguide 1. 23. 145. 94 double ridge waveguide 4754. 789.
80 TE 4756. 134. 163. 196 lumped element resonator 1945 lumped element susceptance 153. 1489. 302 magnetic field integral equation method 5962 quadruple ridge waveguide 11920. 167 magictee 910. 256 phase shifter 14951. 236. 196 shunt elements 191. 199 immittance 1112. 301 microwave filter design 216 frequency response 2056 mode matching method 1214. 298. 300. 139. 101. 2046. 568 network problem 2857. 2956 Neumann boundary condition 48. 222. 221 double septa 215 eigensolutions 21820 1port networks 21214 symmetrical discontinuity 21618 thick septum 215 modes 3067 degenerate 25 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 834. 237 insertion loss 234 isolation 234 junction circulator complex gyrator circuit 2778 impedance matrix 2727 reentrant Eplane 2623 reentrant Hplane 2612 scattering matrix 25961 turnstile 25661 Kittel frequency 234. 22930 effective 281 free space 284 perturbation theory 2645 phase constant 1356 gyromagnetic waveguide 145 rectangular waveguide 15 square waveguide 132 phase deviation 230 phase shifter 14951. 18998. 2245 frequency response 225 insertion loss function 2056 series elements 191. 20715. 226 differential phase shift circulator 238 isolator 2338 phase shifter 22733 octave band devices 27880 parallel plate waveguide 1008 circular polarisation 102 dielectric loaded 1023 elliptical polarisation 1045 field pattern 1056. 180 magnetic energy 299300. 196.Index inverter admittance 1901. 238 finline 2525 frequency response 235. 4761 finline waveguide 243. 3023. 22633 resonance isolator 226 nonreciprocal ferrite devices 19. 903 double ridge waveguide 3. 23840 scattering matrix 10 magnetic dipole moment 176. 27. 1989 isolation 234 isolator 145. 22633 bandwidth 2312 90degree 2313 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 2313 differential phase shift 2302 figure of merit 2312 insertion phase at deviation 2312 phase deviation 2301 325 . 207 lowpass filter 18992. 24851 orthogonal properties 245 parallel plate waveguide 103 quadruple ridge waveguide 11927 rectangular waveguide 1416 ridge circulator 271 single ridge waveguide 27. 196. 2267. 66. 200 impedance 1904. 160. 5960 TM 50. 88. 2338 bifurcated ridge waveguide 2368 dielectric loaded ridge waveguide 2346 figure of merit 234. 1267 magnetic wall 2978. 193. 308 magnetisation 284 matched 3port junction 256 matching circuit 270 matching networks 153 Maxwell s equations 49. 86 nonreciprocal components 11. 108 permeability 2267. 237 ladder network 18991. 195.
157. ideal 162. 287 switch 149 symmetrical septum 21618 teecircuit 198201 inverter 198201 symmetrical short section 1634. 11115 cutoff space 2930. 198201 planar circuit 299304 electric energy 299300. 7382 circular polarisation 99. 167 susceptance slope parameter 277. 7881 insertion loss 79 power flow 31 scalar permeability 22930 skin resistance 62 slot attenuation 1846 spinwave instability 232 square waveguide 91. 94 wave equation 1314 . 135 cutoff space 11920 fields 1267 phase constant 132 propagation constant 91. 162. 2823. 297. 11718. 27980. 1079. 268 picircuit 165. 27885 frequency response 293 octaveband 292. 43. 97 standing wave solution double ridge waveguide 524 gyromagnetic ridge waveguide 1467 quadruple ridge waveguide 131 single ridge waveguide 77 trapezoidal ridges 72 stationary value 2979 susceptance 30. 3046 trial function 304 rectangular waveguide 1325 boundary conditions 14 circular polarisation 1922 cutoff space 8891 cutoff wavelength 15 impedance 15. 946 dielectric loaded square waveguide 91. 50. 303 electric field 300 magnetic energy 299300. 12730. 1245. 163. 24 propagation constant 901. 293 ridge circulator 27096 degree3 28593 impedance matrix 2727 scattering matrix 212 semitracking ridge circulator 271. 2823 external 1579. 2956 physical variables 2845 quality factor 278. 179. 264. 224 modes 1416 phase constant 15 power transmission 1718. 1646. 745. 357. 122 cutoff wavelength 35. 12433. 132. 2823 single ridge waveguide 27. 87. 31. 27780. 168 tensor permeability 227. 612 power transmission 4. 269. 142. 299 propagation constant 49. 97. 302 magnetic field 3002 polarisability 1734 4port Faraday rotation circulator 14850 1port networks 21214 2port step discontinuity 1547 power flow see power transmission power loss 4. 61 double ridge waveguide 31 rectangular waveguide 1718. 2923 quarterwave plate 117 quarterwave ridge transformer 389 RayleighRitz method 48. 205 resonance frequency 234 resonator 2619 return loss 2223. 281. 97 quadruple ridge waveguide 11721. 1719. 42 discontinuity effects 15369 equivalent circuit 29 fields 757 impedance 323. 200 dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide 90.326 Index reflection coefficient 138. 135 cutoff space 11921. 157. 284 transformer. 169. 84. 24 single ridge waveguide 31 Poynting theorem 17 Poynting vector 61. 161 quarterwave coupled circulator frequency response 287. 143 dielectric loaded 12730 Faraday rotation 13450 fields 1267 gyromagnetic 1435 impedance 1323 quality factor 1601. 276.
267 circular polarisation 2523 fields 24850 impedance 242. 2689 Eplane 2623 Hplane 257. 84. 174. 8 scattering matrix 8 turnstile resonator 2669 twisted rectangular waveguide 13941 unilateral finline waveguide 2424. 205 transmission matrix 212 transverse resonance method 267. 80. 2978 wave number 301 waveguide geometry 12 waveguide transitions 1011 waveguide wavelength 49 WR 28 waveguide 242. 2348 WRS 580 waveguide 183. 187 WRD 750 waveguide 2212. 3034 wave equation 1314. 141. 187 327 . 297. 24. 2612 turnstile junction 5. 94 trapezoidal ridges 712 triple ridge waveguide cutoff space 1234 Faraday rotation 1502 turnstile circulator 1112. 70. 157. 25663.Index transmission coefficient 138. 245 propagation 2457 unilateral resonance isolator 2545 variational method 50. 2445. 247 WR 42 waveguide 269 WR 51 waveguide 254 WR 62 waveguide 1601 WR 137 waveguide 186 WRD 200 waveguide 2312 WRD 580 waveguide 183. 74.
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