Yarn Faults And Clearing

It is still not possible to produce a yarn without faults for various reasons. Stickiness of cotton can contribute to the formation of thick and thin places. Fly liberation in Ringframe department is one of the major reasons for short faults in the yarn because of the fly gets spun into the yarn. Hence it is not possible to have fault free yarn from ringspinning, it is necessary to have yarn monitoring system in the last production process of the spinning mill. As physical principle for electronic yarn clearing the capacitive and the optical principle have established. Both principles have their advantages in specific applications. Depending upon the rawmaterial, the machiery set up, production and process parameters, there are about 20 to 100 faults over a length of 100 km yarn which do not correspond to the deisred appearance of the yarn. This means that the yarn exhibits a yarn fault every 1 to 5 km. These faults are thick and thin faults, foregin fibres and diry places in the yarn. The yarn faults which go into the woven or knitted fabric can be removed at very high costs or can not be removed at all. Therefore the yarn processing industry demands a fault free yarn The difference between frequent yarn faults and seldom occuring yarn faults are mainly given by the mass or diameter deviation and size. These faults are monitored by classimat or clearer installation on winding Each yarn contains, here and there, places which deviate to quite a considerable extent from the normal yarn corss-section. These can be short thick places, long thin places , long thick places or even spinners doubles. Eventhough such events seldom occur, they represent a potential disturbance in the appearance of the fabric or can negatively influnece subsequent processing of the yarn. Short thick places are those faults which are not longer than approximately 8 cms, but have a cross-sectional size approx. twice that of the yarn. These faults are relatively frequent in all spun yarns. To an extent they are the result of the rawmaterial ( vegetable matter, non-seprated fibres, etc). To a much larger extent, these faults are produced in the spinning section of the mill and are the result of spun in fly. Short thick places are easily determinable in the yarn. In many cases, they cause disturbances in subsequent processing. Once they reach a certain size( cross-section and length) , and in each case accoridng to the type of yarn and its application, short thick place fults can considerably affect the appearance of the finished product. Long thick places are much more seldom-occuring than the short thick places and usually have a length longer than 40cms. In some cases, their length can even reach many meters. Their cross sectional size approx. + 40% to +100% and more with respect of the mean cross-section of the yarn. Long thick places will affect the fabric apperance. Faults like spinners doubles are difficult to determine in the yarn, with the naked eye. On the other hand, they can produce quite fatal results in the finished product. A spinners double in the warp or in yarn for circular knitting can downgrade hundreds of meters of woven , or knitted fabric.

and have a length approx. Each of the channels reacts to the signals for the corresponding type of yarn fault.. an electrical signal is produced which is proportional to the change in mass per unit length of the yarn. It is therefore necessary to evolve a method of yarn fault classification before clearing the faults in winding. 40cms and longer and a cross-sectional decrease with respect to the mean yarn cross-section of approx. the cutting device of the yarn clearer cuts the yarn. Besides the above basic difference in measuring principle. three times the mean staple length of the fibre. Since most of the other textile measurements like. Their frequency is dependent on the rawmaterial and the setting of the drafting element.Thin places occur in two length groups. the basis of functioning of both the types of clearers are similar if not exactly same. U% / CV%. to quite a large extent. Long thin places have lengths of approx. This signal is amplified and fed to the evaluation channels of the yarn clearing installation. Types of Electronic Yarn Clearers Electronic Yarn Clearers available in the market are principally of two types -capacitive and optical. then a classification system will result which is suitable primarily for satisfying the requirements of yarn clearing and yet allows. The quite extensive application of electronic yarn clearing has set new quality standards with respect to the number of faults in spun yarns. but much more frequently-occuring in long staple yarns. Clearers working on the capacitive principle have µ mass'as the reference for performing its functions while optical clearers function with µ diameter' as the reference. They are too frequent in the yarn to be extracted by means of the electronic yarn clearing. Yarn Clearer Settings .30 to 70%. Short thin places are known as imperfections. can be extremely serious. Functioning Principle The yarn is measured in a measuring field constituted by a set of parallely placed capacitor plates. Both have their merits and demerits and are equally popular in the textile industry. Their effect in the finished product however. the characteristic dimensions of the various fault types can be taken into consideration. Long thin faults are difficult to determine in the yarn by means of the naked eye. With such a cross-section and length classification and by means of the correct choice of the class limits. The most important aspect is certainly the determination of the fault dimensions of cross-sectional size and length. in various departments take into account mass as the reference parameter. The number and type of evaluation channels available are dependent on the sophistication and features of the model of the clearer in use. When the yarn passes through this measuring field (between the capacitor plates). the functioning of the capacitive clearer is explained in some detail in the following sections. When the mass per unit length of the yarn exceeds the threshold limit set for the channel. thick and thin places etc. They are relatively seldom-occuring in short staple yarns. for a selection of the various types of faults.

) and environmental conditions like relative humidity.This determines the activating limit for the fault cross sectional size.This defines the length of the yarn over which the fault cross . Material Number Besides the yarn count there are certain other factors which influence the capacitance signal from the measuring field like type of fibre (Polyester / Cotton / Viscose etc. The following are some of them A. In most of the modern day clearers. It is recommended that. beyond which the cutter is activated to remove the yarn fault. Yarn Count The setting of the yarn count provides a clearer with the basic information on the mean value of the material being processed to which the clearer compares the instantaneous yarn signals for identifying the seriousness of a fault. Fault Channels The various fault channels available in a latest generation yarn clearer are as follows: 1. C. For a yarn fault to be cut. material number and speeds are monitored and automatically corrected during actual running of the yarn. Similarly a lower speed setting relative to the actual causes less cuts with some faults escaping without being cut. the mean value of the yarn fault cross-section has to overstep the set sensitivity for the set reference length. the count. instead of the machine speed. B. it is worth mentioning that the µ reference length' may be lower or higher than the actual µ fault length'. i. ii. The clearing limit consists of two setting parameters Sensitivity and Reference Length.section is to be measured. Long Thick Places . Winding Speed The setting of the winding speed is also very critical for accurate removal of faults.The yarn clearer has to be provided with certain basic information in order to obtain the expected results in terms of clearing objectionable faults. Both the above parameters can be set within a wide range of limits depending on specific yarn clearing requirements. Sensitivity . Setting a higher speed than the actual is likely to result in higher number of cuts. Short Thick places 2. Reference Length . Clearing Limit The clearing limit defines the threshold level for the yarn faults. the delivery speed be set by actual calculation after running the yarn for 2-3 minutes and checking the length of yarn delivered. Here. These factors are taken into consideration in the µ Material Number' D.

with latest clearers. Long Thin Places 4. some of the optical yarn clearers have an additional channel to detect the contamination in yarn. Winding Ring spinning produces yarn in a package form called cops. spinners doubles. Splice The availability of one or more of the above channels is dependent on the type of the yarn clearer.off properties and with as long a length of yarn as possible Paraffin waxing of the yarn during the winding process Introduction into the yarn of a minimum number of knots Achievement of a high machine efficiency i. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of cutting out . Besides detection of the various types of faults. etc Manufacture of cones having good drawing . This is mostly used while clearing cotton yarn. Contamination Clearing Detection of contamination in normal yarn has become a requirement in recent times due to the demands by yarn buyers abroad. long thick .e high produciton level y y y y The winding process therefore has the basic function of obtaining a larger package from several small ring bobbins. Since cops from ringframes are not suitable for further processing.long thin. Following are the Tasks of Winding Process y Extraction of all disturbing yarn faults such as the short. Most of the modern clearers have the above channels. it is also possible to detect concentration of faults in a specific length of yarn by means of alarms(cluster faults).3. Neps 5. The various facilities available in the yarn clearers nowadays enable precise setting and removal of all objectionable faults while at the same time ensure a reasonably high level of productivity. Count 6. Therefore. the winding process serves to achieve additional objectives made necessary by the requirements of the subsequent processing stages.

The length should be around 3.unwanted and problematic objectionable faults.to.5 to 5 meters. the following tensile properties are not affected y y y Tenacity Elongation Work. Bobbin Taper The ratio of the length of the upper taper of the cop (bobbin with yarn) to the diameter of the bobbin must be 1:2 or greater. Winding Ratio It is the ratio of the length of yarn wound during the upward movement of the ring rail and the length wound during the downward movement of the ringrail. The process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn µ clearing' Practical experience has proven that winding alters the yarn structure. Characterestics Of Bobbin Formation Stretch Length It is the length of the yarn deposited on the bobbin tube during each chase (one up and down movement of ringrail ) of ring rail. .This phenomenon does not affect yarn evenness.break But excessive tension in winding will deteriarate the above said tensile properties. It should be shorter for coarser yarns and longer for fine yarns. but affect the following yarn properties y y y y y Thick Places Thin Places Neps Hairiness Standard Deviation of Hairiness Winding Tension If winding tension is selected properly.

Following are Some of the Winding Package Defects which will result in complaints y y y y y y y y Yarn Waste in the Cones . it depends on weak yarn. cluster setting which will result in red lights and others Bobbin rejections. This decides the number of bobbin changes The number of faults in the yarn and the clearer settings. lower the number of doffs The time taken for each doff either by the doffer or by an operator Down time due to red light. Higher the doff weight. because TPI will affect the bobbin length). It depends upon. double gaiting.(abrasion and breaks due to excessive tension) Winding Production It depends upon the following factors y y y Winding speed Time required by the machine to carry out one splicing operation Bobbin length per bobbin( both bobbin weight and tpi to be considered. bobbin characteritics etc. number of repeaters setting for red lights. this decides the clearer cuts Count The number of doffs. average strength and minimum strength) Type and Charactersitics of Bobbin Package Taper Final Use of Package The best winding speed is the speed which allows the highest level of production possible for a given type of yarn and type of package.Winding Speed It depends upon the following factors y y y y y Count Type of Yarn. wrong gaiting. and with no damage whatsoever to the yarn. clearer settings like off count channel. It depends upon the doff weight. (type of fibre. number of red lights.

But if a bobbin is changed with yarn still left on it. or going back in the cone Damaged Edges or Broken Ends on the Cone The yarn is broken on the edges or in the middle of the cone. around the tube. we call it µRejected Bobbin'. Web Yarn is visible on the small or on the big side of the cone either across the side . Drop Over. the yarn shows a wrinkle effect Soft and Hard Yarn Layer Some layer of yarn are pushed out on the small side of the cone Soft and Hard Cones Great difference in package density from one winder head to another A bobbin change occurs when yarn on the bobbin is fully exhausted during winding. because it is misguided Without Transfer Tail The desired transfer tail is missing or too short Ribbon Formation Pattern or ring formation are made by the drum when rpm are staying the same Displaced Yarn Layers yarn layers are disturbed and are sliding towards the small diameter of the cone Misguided Yarn The yarn is not equally guided over the hole package Cauliflower On the smaller side of the package.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y This is due to loose yarn ends that are wound on to the cone Stitch. The quantity of yarn on the bobbin may vary from full bobbin to only few layers of yarn. Bobbin Quality y y y y y y y Long Tail End Kirchi/Lapetta Deshaped Bobbin Overfilled Bobbin Bottom Spoiled Bobbin Ring Cut Bobbin Soft Bobbin . Ring Formation The yarn runs in belt formation on to the package. The Various Reasons of Bobbin Rejections are as follows: 1.

5 to 2. Blowing device does not come down to concentrate blow at the bobbin tip. Proper quality of cop ensures higher winding efficiency. Yarn Quality y y y High degree of objectionable fault Count variation High Hairiness Bobbin Bobbin Quality Checking for Best Winding Whenever there is a count change in ring frame. the cop quality should be checked.5 and the maximum length of back winding should not be more than 80cms . Bobbin Parameters 2.3mm. Diameter of the Cop : The µActual cop diameter' must be checked against µStandard cop diameter'. the cop content (in gms) should be checked 3. Bobbin Feeding in Magazine y Presence of under-winding and back-winding while feeding the bobbins in the magazine leads to rejection 3. The cop quality is checked as per the following parameters: 1. Standard Cop Diameter = Ring Diameter . Very few numbers of coils at the bobbin tip. Splicing Failure 5. Cop Content : Depending on the spindle lift and ring diameter.y Sick Bobbin 2. Top Bunch Transfer Failure y y y y Top bunch position is lower with respect to bobbin tip. Back Winding : The number of back winding coils should be around 1. Very few numbers of coils at the top bunch. Removal of top bunch due to fault in cutter at the bobbin preparatory or any other reason. 4. 4. Fault in Winding Unit. The standard cop diameter depends on the ring diameter.

So to attain the expected quality for any applications such as weaving or knitting. Yarn Length per Chase : The length of yarn per chase should be around 3. Splicing is the ultimate method to eliminate yarn faults and problems of knots and piecing. more time is wasted to open them up before feeding in the magazine and also hard waste is increased. kirchi & lapetta. overfilled and bottom spoiled bobbin to ensure high production efficiency in winding. so many factors influence the performance of the yarn in the subsequent process such as process parameters in ring spinning & cone winding. it may cause bottom spoiled bobbin 8. work procedures in ring spinning & cone winding and ambient conditions. as the knot itself is objectionable due to its physical dimension. no great mass variation. Best winding capabilities can be achieved through best bobbin quality. Besides the above mentioned points. Under Winding : The number of under winding coils should be around 2 to 3 and the maximum length of back winding should not be more than 20cm. ring cut. the cops should be also checked for long tail end. The knots are responsible for 30 to 60% of stoppages in weaving. no mechanical obstruction. unevenness and imperfections are not adequate to completely define today's quality. Besides the above mentioned traditional parameters. Bottom Clearance : The clearance from bobbin bottom to yarn body of should be approx. 10mm. almost equal elasticity in the joint and basic yarn. The effectiveness of splicing is primarily dependent on the tensile strength and physical appearance. Soft bobbins results slough off. Splicing is a technique of joining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres so that the joint is not significantly different in appearance and mechanical properties with respect to the parent yarn. It is universally acceptable and functionally reliable. This is in spite of the fact that the tensile strength of the yarn with knot is superior to that of yarn with splice. deshaped bobbin. As the under winding and back winding increases.5 to 5. If the top clearance is too less. A high degree of yarn quality is impossible through knot. 6. the normal parameters of yarn tenacity. appearance and problems during downstream processes. Due to the ever-increasing emphasis on better quality of yarn for the competitive market and process performance. 9. one should focus mainly on the fault free feed material preparation because it contributes more than any other factor. Splicing satisfies the demand for knot free yarn joining: no thickening of the thread or only slight increase in its normal diameter. it may lead to slough of during high speed unwinding. high breaking strength close to that of the basic yarn under both static and dynamic loading. Bobbin Hardness : The bobbin hardness should be around 50° to 55°. visibly unobjectionable. it may cause slough off at the start of the bobbin unwinding 7. If the bottom clearance is too less.5 m. Top Clearance : The clearance from bobbin tip to yarn body of a full cop should be approx 10 mm.5. If the length is too long. No extraneous material .

Many techniques for splicing have been developed such as Electrostatic splicing. i. to achieve a near parallel arrangement of fibres.. each yarn strand twists on the body of the yarn on either side of the middle of the splice. twisting and tucking / intermingling. Principle of Pneumatic Splicing The splicing consists of untwisting and later re-twisting two yarn ends using air blast. The fibres of the twisting yarn embrace the body of the yarn and thus acts as a belt. Short fibres. highly twisted and fine yarns could not be joined satisfactorily with such method. The cross-section of this region distinctly shows the fibres of the two yarn strands separately without any intermingling of the fibres. The yarn ends were fed into the splicing chamber and pieced together in one operation. Yarn Wrapping The tail end of each yarn strand is tapered and terminates with few fibres. Pneumatic Splicing The first generation of splicing systems operated with just one stage without proceeding to trimming. The first air blast untwists and causes opening of the free ends. the fibres intermingled and later twisted in the same direction as that of the parent yarn. In a second operation the prepared ends are laid and twisted together. This in turn gives appearance to the splice. the ends are untwisted. Among them. During the first stage. maintenance and operations. splicing enables a higher degree of yarn clearing to be obtained on the electronic yarn clearer. Yarn Twisting The two yarn ends comprising the splice are twisted around the body of the yarn. first the yarn is opened.is used and hence the dye affinity is unchanged at the joint. . high cost of manufacturing. pneumatic splicing is the most popular.e. The tail end makes a good wrapping of several turns and thus prevents fraying of the splice. The untwisted fibres are then intermingled and twisted in the same direction as that of parent yarn by another air blast Structure of Splice Analysis of the longitudinal and transverse studies revealed that the structure of the splice comprises of three distinct regions/elements brought by wrapping. Splicing technology has grown so rapidly in the recent past that automatic knotters on modern high speed winding machine are a thing of the past. Splicing proceeds in two stages with two different air blasts of different intensity. In addition. improper structure and properties of yarn produced. Other methods have inherent drawbacks like limited fields of application. Mechanical splicing and Pneumatic splicing. Latest methods of splicing process consist of two operations.

The coarse yarn cross section contains more fibres and provides better fibre intermingling during pre-opening. even at higher pneumatic pressure.Yarn Tucking / Yarn Intermingling The middle portion of the splice is a region (2-5 mm) with no distinct order. The breaking strength percentage of ring spliced yarns to a parent yarn is 70% to 85% for cotton yarn. Splicing of twisted ply yarn is more complicated than single yarn due to the yarn structure having opposing twists in the single and doubled yarns. Twisted yarns also require a relatively longer time for complete opening of the yarn ends. Effect of Variables on the Properties of the Spliced yarn Several studies have been conducted on the effect of various variables on the properties of the spliced yarn. The absence of fibre migration gives lower breaking elongation to splice. usually the addition of polyester to other fibre blend like P/W. This could be due to better opening of the strands at higher pneumatic pressure. the . Wrapping and twisting provides mainly transverse forces. polyester and wool report that coarser yarns have higher breaking strength but a moderate extension. The studies on quantitative contribution of splice elements showed that intermingling/tucking contributes the most to the strength of splice (52%). The lower torsional rigidity and higher breaking twist angle permit better fibre intermingling. Higher coefficient of friction of fibres generates more interfibre friction to give a more cohesive yarn. Effect of Different Spinning Methods Yarn produced with different spinning methods exhibit different structure and properties. Effect of Yarn Fineness Several studies on cotton. Therefore. Spliced yarn has a lower breaking elongation than normal yarn. In blended yarn. The fibres from each yarn end intermingle in this splice zone just by tucking. followed by twisting (33%) and wrapping (about 15%). The ring spun yarn lent best splicing but the potential of splicing is affected by the spinning conditions. P/C both for ring and rotor spun yarn increases splice strength. these properties of fibre contribute to better retention of splice strength. Thus. Effect of Fibre Properties and Blend Fibre properties such as torsional rigidity. breaking twist angle and coefficient of friction affect splice strength and appearance. Breaking elongation is mainly affected by intermingling. However. The lower strength of the splice is attributed to the lower packing coefficient of the splice zone. Effect of Yarn Twist An increase in the twist significantly increases the breaking load and elongation. hence the splice is stronger than that of finer yarns. these yarns show significant differences in splice quality.

25 tex ring spun yarn shows a rise in tensile strength up to a certain opening pressure. Elongation at break and retention of elongation of both flyer and wrap spun spliced yarns increase with the splice length. Compared to the splicing duration. different materials require different durations of blast. the breaking strength of the spliced yarn and also their strength retention over the normal value of the basic yarn increases because of increased cohesive force resulting from an increased number of wrapping coils in a given length.breaking strength and extension of splice vary with fibre and yarn properties. However. Rotor spun yarns. that splicing duration be as short as possible. but a number of splicing failures occurs due to unfavourable yarn structure. but beyond this pressure.5 to 1. It is desirable however. The breaking strength retention varies from 54% to 71% and is much lower compared to the splice of ring spun yarns. The effects are more pronounced at higher splicing lengths. It can be therefore be stated that the splices made on longer lengths and for longer period of time have more uniform strength. Only very low tensile strengths and elongation values can be attained due to the inadequate opening of the yarn ends during preparation of the splicing. due to the presence of wrapper fibres. It was observed that irregular air pressure has advantages over constant pressure for better intermingling in the splicing chamber. drafting and twisting in the opposite direction may also occur. The coefficient of variation of these properties is also generally high. . The air-jet-spun (MJS) yarn and the cover spun yarn are virtually impossible to splice. In case of friction spun yarns. which varies with different staple fibres. long opening time deteriorates the strength. for maximum splice strength. when the splicing is extended for a long period of time. the breaking strength and strength retention of both yarn types increase with the splicing length because of the increased binding length of the two yarn ends. Effect of Splicing Duration With a given splicing length. the highest relative tensile strength obtained at the spliced joints can be above 80%. the splicing length has more pronounced effect on the load-elongation properties of the spliced yarn. Effect of Splicing Chamber The factors like method and mode of air supply and pressure along with type of prism affect the splicing quality.8 seconds. It has also been observed that. An increase in pressure up to 5 bar caused release of fibre tufts and fibre loss from the yarn ends in P/C blend which is due to intensive opening. Effect of Opening Pressure A study on 50/50 polyester cotton. The splicing duration alone has no conclusive effect on elongation properties of splice yarn. showed that regardless of the splicing material. make it difficult to untwist and the disordered structure is less ideal for splicing. These are between 0. Effect of Splicing Length Studies on splicing of flyer and wrap spun yarns spun with different materials.

the appearance can be assessed either by simple visual assessment or by comparing with photograph of standard splice. in the opposite direction than that in which they were spun. If in spinning the single the wheel was spinning clockwise (which is called a "Z" twist. This is because otherwise you are not balancing the . Comparison of Dry and Wet Splicing The comparative studies on dry and wet splicing with water showed that the breaking load retention for wet spliced yarns are significantly greater than dry spliced yarns. In fact. as on any given side the fibres appear to cross diagonally in the same direction as the diagonal of a "Z"). a six-ply yarn is one from six strands. It is done by taking two or more strands of yarn that each have a twist to them and putting them together. Embroidery floss is generally a six ply yarn. plied yarns. The most important thing to remember though is that the twist must go the opposite direction. A two-ply yarn is thus a yarn plied from two strands. this creates a balanced yarn. it is necessary to ply (to double or fold) the yarns to give them a smoother and less hairy character. Doubling improves the evenness and plying balances torque if carried out correctly and binds some of the hairs on the component yarns. Most commercial yarns are more than a two ply.filament yarns. Assessment of Yarn Splice Quality The two important characteristics of a splice are appearance and strength. balanced yarn. It is not possible to make a general comment regarding potential of the splicing chamber due to the multiplicity of factors influencing splicing. Plying Plying is a process used to create a strong. the opposite way. The strands are twisted together. % increase in diameter and evaluation of its performance in down stream process etc. Although quality of splice can be assessed by methods like load-elongation. Plying Yarn Regular plying consists of taking two or more singles and twisting them together. and yarns with S and Z twists. This may be due to higher packing coefficient resulting from wet splicing. What is Ply Yarn / What is Plying / Plying Definition For sewing threads as well as for some speciality industrial yarns . work of rupture. When just the right amount of twist is added. and so on.. wet splicing is more effective for yarn made from long staple fibres and for coarse yarn. in order to ply it the wheel must spin counter-clockwise (an "S" twist). This can be done on either a spinning wheel or a spindle. Almost all store bought yarns are balanced. which is a yarn with no tendency to twist upon itself.

Another example is bouclé. when a soft. and it twists up on itself.twist. which is a yarn where one strand is held loosely and allowed to make loops on the other yarn while plying. thick strand is plied against a tightly twisted thin strand. . just twisting it more. or many other factors different effects can be achieved. the resulting yarn spirals. and then plied with an "S" twist. It is most common for singles to be spun with a "Z" twist. For example. Novelty Yarns Many novelty yarns make use of special plying techniques to gain their special effects. The concept is similar to when a heavily twisted piece of yarn is folded. By varying the tension in the strands. or the relative sizes of the strands.

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