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Published by: Mustafa Cuneyt Gezen on Feb 11, 2011
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Data Source

Body Part

Males (%)

Females (%)

Body part percentages from Table 6-5
of the Exposure Factors Handbook






Not available; male
value of 5.9 assumed

Lower Legs






Since it is likely that only a small portion of the skin might become exposed to paint from

splatters, drips, or unintentional contact, an estimate of how much paint contacts the exposed skin

is needed. A conservative assumption that ten percent of the skin surface area has paint on it is

used in this example (U.S. EPA, 1986a). Using the total SA/BW of 284 cm2

/kg times the ratio of

exposed skin versus total body surface area (e.g., 0.239) times a ratio of paint on exposed skin

(e.g., 0.10), a total SA/BW of 6.79 cm2

/kg/event is estimated for exposed skin of the hands,

forearms and lower legs.

Th -The film thickness of paint on skin is estimated at 9.81E-03 cm (U.S. EPA, 1986a).
Data on film thickness of paint on skin are not available ; however, EPA assumed that the initial

film thickness value resulting from immersion of hands in an oil/water mixture most closely

approximates the film thickness of paint splattered onto skin. This liquid was selected because

paint is closely analogous to the oil and water mixture (U.S. EPA, 1986a).

WF - For this example, it is assumed that the weight fraction of the preservative (i.e.,
chemical “x”) measured in the paint is 0.0025 (U.S. EPA, 1986a). This means that chemical “x”

comprises approximately 2.5% of the overall weight of the paint.

DIL - The paint product is not diluted; thus, a ratio of 1 is assumed (U.S. EPA, 1986a).

EF -The event/frequency is expressed as the number of events per year. Table 16-18 of
the Exposure Factors Handbook (U.S. EPA, 1997a) provides information on the frequency of


occasions spent painting the interior of a home per year. The overall mean for painting with latex

paints is 4 events/year (i.e., 4 days/year) (U.S. EPA, 1997a).

ED- Exposure duration is the length of time over which exposure occurs. For consumer
products, exposure duration could be set equal to the length of time a product or chemical is

expected to remain in the marketplace or some other measure of the length of time that a

consumer will be exposed. The assumption in this example is that the exposed population may

use paint containing the chemical being evaluated for 20 years, which is the time the product is

assumed to be on the market.

ABS - This value is chemical specific. Information on absorption fractions can be
obtained from EPA’s Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications (U.S. EPA,

1992b). EPA has also developed the draft Part E Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk

Assessment of the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume I: Human Health

Evaluation Manual (U.S. EPA, 1999). This document is a source of data on dermal absorption.

Although this document is not final, it is generally more representative of current thinking in this

area and assessors are encouraged to use it instead of U.S. EPA (1992b). For the purposes of the

calculations provided below for this example, it is assumed that the absorption fraction for the

chemical of interest (i.e., chemical “x”) is 0.1.

AT - Because the lifetime average daily dose is being calculated for a member of the
general population, the averaging time is equivalent to the lifetime of the individual being

evaluated. For the purposes of this example, the average lifetime for men and women is used

because the exposures are assumed to reflect the general population and are not gender- or age-

specific. The averaging time of 70 years is used in the calculations; this value is converted to

25,550 days (i.e., 70 years * 365 days/year).

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