SECURE COMMUNICATIONS (SEC150900-2010FA

)

Jamie L. Lawson

Chapter 3 Review Questions 3.1 List three approaches to message authentication. 1. Message authentication code (MAC) 2. One-way hash function 3. HMAC 3.2 What is a message authentication code? An authentication technique that involves the use of a secret key to generate a small block of data that is appended to the message. 3.3 Briefly describe the three schemes illustrated in Figure 3.2. The message digest is encrypted using conventional encryption, public-key encryption and a hash function to be authenticated. 3.4 What properties must a hash function have to be useful for message authentication? To be useful for messageauthentication, a hash function H must have the following properties: 1. H can be applied to a block of data of any size. 2. H produces a fixed-length output. 3. H(x) is relatively easy to compute for any given x, making both hardware andsoftware implementations practical. 4. For any given code h, it is computationally infeasible to find x such thatH(x) = h. A hash function with this property is referred to as one-way orpreimage resistant

3. The exact transformations performed by the encryption algorithm depend on the public or private key that is provided as input Ciphertext: This is the scrambled message produced as output.SECURE COMMUNICATIONS (SEC150900-2010FA) Jamie L. Public and private key: This is a pair of keys that have been selected so that if one is used for encryption. For any given block x. This is sometimes referred to as weak collision resistant. what is a compression function? A compression function takes a fixed-length input and returns a shorter. It is computationally infeasible to find any pair (x. Lawson 5.A hash function with this property is referred to as collision resistant. It depends on . 3. y) such that H(x) = H(y). Encryption algorithm: The encryption algorithm performs various transformations on the plaintext. A hash function with this property is referred to as second preimage resistant. it is computationally infeasible to find y != x withH(y) = H(x). the other is used for decryption.5 In the context of a hash function.6 What are the principal ingredients of a public-key cryptosystem? Plaintext: This is the readable message or data that is fed into the algorithminput. 6. fixedlength output. This issometimes referred to as strong collision resistant.

3. . two different keys will produce two different ciphertexts.9 What is digital signature? A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document. For a given message. Lawson the plaintext and the key. 3.SECURE COMMUNICATIONS (SEC150900-2010FA) Jamie L. and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged. Digital signature 3. Key exchange 3.8 What is the difference between a private key and a secret key? The difference is the private key remains private to be used by one person to encrypt and decrypt and the public key is for anyone to use to that has it. Encryption/decryption 2. 1.7 List and briefly define three uses of a public-key cryptosystem. Decryption algorithm: This algorithm accepts the ciphertext and the matching key and produces the original plaintext.

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