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Summer 2003 Volume 9, Nos. 1 &2 XP SUE V2. International Journal of Turkish Studies ‘This material may be protected by copyright law (Title 17 U.S. Code) ah io | _ceoncegenenatenernsscosesnnoate sae oRURIRER TEE E overnment ermine i the 1930s thee pollen activites in ord to satin fen cations wah the fcrer Soviet Union. Celia dea with age of te main ‘ttonalist Coveasian groupe in Etrope hich hoped to establish ae independent “ite The group represented the nor-panTaraie clement of Rusi's Turkic end Msi populations By conta he panTuranic faction was eelatvely smal in Fah Rosia and Torkey Tn, theatles nti collection offer 8 much-needed lok tte Ottoman Ferlande and thei role inthe survival and in the demise ofthe Otoman sine The wveral pure fle the complex interaction between a enaliing state ad ‘itoring entries inated by economical, etcaly and religiously diver epelatent University of Wisconsin, Madison Gabor Agoston ‘A FLEXIBLE EMPIRE: AUTHORITY AND ITS LIMITS ON THE OTTOMAN FRONTIERS Introduction Ever since Fedeick Jckson Tomer intoduced his “fone thesis” of “Ameican history in 1893, the fone has been an inspiring deme for’ many ‘Mtane, lx Ovo history, Paul Wie’ ghaca” thesis has become one ofthe Ma" cnduring concep, and be gone tough many reincamatons since its fist Fanicaton e998, Despite rics ofthe exiginalghace ths, the naion ofthe Peetsding Oman Ronter sill exerts a powerul influence on the general Seeks of Ota istry Te period fom 1300 wo 1700 is generally viewed Fes Rlnnuous expansion ofthe frome, a frocess. many historian age, which Mdane te empire's soci and esonomiesrctres and te pedominance of sntary class" ‘ainsea historiography mansins that afer the conquest of Constantinople in 1480 the Ottoman stays embarked op thir ceaalizing pojet, which — ‘Baan the sentry that followed ~ rested inthe establishment of the lsc” ‘nortan sate, with “peculiar” pebendal Land tenure and h-denirme systems, Greta cenalzedadmanistaion, The Otoman government in Istanbul is sai © ‘ov ataiad its prfxtion dun this perio: foeme ones were interated ito the mera item, and the eet government inreased is cool over the oe reittee teri In dncssng th "sass ape” students often become wctins Uf thle sources Ife looks atthe sulanie decrees sent fom Itabal t0 the ovinces during the mi-sineeth cenuy, the impeesson pained i one of an ‘rina central goverment whove oil prevailed even sn the most remote font Sear Foner, peovincl ar registers abrir defierier) also suggest that the wnat add taxation stein ws extremely uniform and efficent. However, Tee could not forget that te sptesatc sty of his sich material (andere we ae (Ghknp abot Lento! thousands of sultanic derexs and several hundred provnea ee cer) have only started in cent years, ess yeptomati that although athe See the sintcmth century the ernpre wat divided ino at eas thy 00 ‘feviner we possess es than tll 8 doen monographs tat ae devoted fo the Gan eyo “Te Front in Ora Hsry- O14 Meas ant New Myth” in Fries aaa Brn Bordarads, 700.1700, wl Daniel Power a8 Rach Sanden Been pp. 28250 rp. Coin Heywood. Writing Goman History (AS 2000) a» 16. Gabor Agron comprehensive sway of certain province. Famer historical ronson of ‘toma admins proces snd capabiicr ne tse an andor evidence ten fa the cre prone ofthe Balkans and Ase Minor, ht avery il ‘ay soot epionalviratons etd Be care zoe The mines of loc ode fours. complains of provincial ahr, sad the communication fetween the doa ures present flrs pte ad Sonor ei 0 to. In ese sores nel nd seat goverment open ohare 2 clanthip dat was far more sample than te oe sd command and exon "ah ptacward by ran he ast Tn general tex prt fom the vail cece tes that in th sncenth eouury ee ot nerd ino the emp, irene ten he pone et ‘nly crsryatenton, soni the cote ofthe mart nd slant province in the socalled rior peninces asc revenses inthe em a fei the Smallest and most crmon of which ws led him angel To even (ipah), the backtone ofthe Otoman peovncl army, and o th miary omnander the incak hey The later aso fined ss gover of the bse ‘dminisratveiltry units of the emp called sont Seve sone Comprised a province, general alls eyereyit afr he governor ger the Beyer who was he “bey fhe eye ommend fe provi {ees and he highest rns ofc of Ota province dnseaton, ‘Ottoman eovines in Eoepe and Asia Minor as ell sone Ava tere ve ‘sido have belonged tothe fst xtegny. The Anh ees inthe Mag nd {he Mie Eas however, were rather iat or ala ly well ood ‘main diction f the Otoman abvance. Thus se en polit, nary and {oom cts tended to fear deen tp of adnan. According) tx Tenenue ofthese eevee werent tbs fe at were cal i te help of x farmers im). Seeger, the epee Saud the own anal income fom fis revenue a8 well the slat the soca ys and “ther oa fnchonaes who were brit them dao ved thi sum fo pay the sles nthe ovine an ener the co of dete an adnan If 4 peovince way selficent andthe war 3 sp ny seaning income was Sent tthe stn’ easy in Istana This om, which was weed sly, ‘es elle the ‘ane or aie, wile the prownss were called slyne ‘Provinces after the beylerbeyi’s annual salary (salyane).? Tn 1554 hee ofthe en provinces were sajoe vices. According to ‘heist of Ayn All wtih was dew opi 1607 bt bated in many fsa on {st reper ofthe period between 1560 an 1580, ine of the tayo provinces ‘rere af this pe Meanie, mi-sevencent-ceniry sures mec ity four Province, nie of which Me placed Inthe eteguey Of saul eon Te * Wai ale The Onamon Enpite: The Clas Age 1300160 (endo, 1973, ee. Lon, 199) See ao tem, "Bale." Enlai of ian, CD-ROM Cin (Le, 1990) he tet sy of Ottoman potinal smn sr L Men Ka. The Sun Sern The uformation of Gnoman Province Goverment. 15501659 (Nem Yok, 1983), A Flexible Bnpite Seen ee ae Ta fay esa oso ce ema Ra Se ean ets Sip istered ot ren sag? aepeensn abt ange Spe ee nT gc SilESoc lace api ios robe osc tics carmen cone Seale eg Saher sateen Metre as Sata ea oe re Sra Set eae ae a soa wa a Py ee Sree aes ne eae ay ieee nas SMUG aaey eae eed i tera ol ae Fee Santo He et es cate "ol comme hg iti Brat acer ian ae re cle har Oa eS Se ol Drsctnycnoeea a Sn ect SEL hr ian teen reas See Bh cea aes Gore cae Si nn pe ee ee acai ea ea oes ae Care aticece ice ees ee Ab eet tear nies Oo Sag wer aaa at a ie i mt ee ceed ee ee es Se Be is aay aaa ne Cay” a Te Rese aaa aS nee a cee 139. 18 Gabor Agoston 58 erent ofthe poaltin f the province of Alp, and 62 pret in, he Fa ricor Baghdad’ When scolaip dels with he beer sancat iis Prgwested that te allan authority Was untained bee throug the Janissry ‘BENS stron in Se important cies and major fortes ofthese egons Ein, stds concerning frome provinces inthe Balkars, Hungary, andthe Rab ees tha showed the line of Otiomanainistatve capa ouside he rat a ae continuity of pe Ovtoman inaitans eon neglected y the ‘Rete ef ake int acount, are ested as deviations fom the clascal model ‘of Ortoman administration and eaxation” "Phe pectenteany examines the nite ofthe Oman dinistatve states and pencices in se empie's northwestern and easter frontiers, where i the an ca century the Ont feed te met Fenidable enemies, the Habsbures Seine Sotavide. The arile questions some of oar received views concerning Bramn Suminieatve capac inthe fener provines dig the sealed acne pera, Simay ares that many ofthe “deviations” ca be viewed weston of ere, pesntenth-centry flexible adinsaive strategies In “Things he peso stay de-empasizs the often atic dfleence berween the enise neabiy und pagmatis of te earl isa etary on he one hand, Tee Stteymanie“plden age” onthe oer drng which Ottoman enralizaton tice to nave eached is pefeton by sucessfully integrating the former frontics. Limits and Compromise in Establishing New Provinces ‘Ottoman eagmatism and feibiity ~ considered one ofthe senaths ofthe sovtqan mets of ensues” in the font centr? ~ i nt appear in the following Sentry. Recognising the Hints of ts edmiisatve capabilities in the cee fontes, he Ottoman government acceped the frmaton of numerous ‘Shunaive unis of special ste, the socalled yur ily property, fai SEED td cat ly estate) sancats. The sneak: bes of sch mista his tulyFrmer chiefains,adminisered hese lands as “amy propery” O35 5 giando Moapey, Some Fetes of Novia io ke Oxon Epi: A Sov Based sae Mer Soo Tui appeal Decent tom Aruwes in Inbal and Doma Jowmal of Tish Ses 8 (1988), 19: han Sei, Noma The ret aa areata, vl p61 em, “Dla lei” Tani Dane Vat Pope ence TDVIA) v9 anu 1980. $825) eich he Onoman Emp, 1. see ree ue Temare, se Sire Ruch, Amprockng oman Hor: An one Re Sources (Camb, 198) p83 wire Fog sported ws & rr Ses be red pen of een stents Bue ene ter pr o e Oxtoman 8" SHA set “Oteman Methods of Congues.” Stl amin 2 (1954): 10629, cae npr Conquest, Organon and Ezoniny (Lain 1978) f eT peyiea Sumas: Bat Anato sa Tk Osman Sucakann Fecleun Dur Ma," Belton 77 (196) 59 ‘APexible Enpice 19, amity province” Accrding 1 ofial Otoman documents, the sack ys Fare eae peri rom the slam i eta for he evice and chedence a Fees er tne Onoman conguest. The language ofthe sinenth and seventh sey utoman lepal ets concernig the yurtak and ocak sancas i ones, ebnete for it sgget ta the Oman suns di prat these ans fi canny Ta fac, these pur ad ocak sancabs, which usally oe adtions! psine Lands ofthe Tren and Kyi ebes vig serra ec sply ke by thi former owners, general former chiens, 8 Re sejcence of politcal deal that relied the Bolane of power and a seercevcndeoe Inthe fat zones. While the bys of the yur and ocalt aera poseed te waiiona symbols of power, tat the drum andthe is, care tthe document th they rosie om the sltan Genes), hey cou see ise nr appoimted wo aber pons. Nonetheless, ta cegiters we {fans i anal andthe Ottoman and tenure system was also todced Davin itary campaign the beys (ike other soncak bey) hid 10 go 10 war Pee ied by thi oops At soc mes they were paced under he command of the governor genera ofthe province 1 which ther sancok belonged. Conta 19 regal racine if hey were unable to Gl thei obligations, or hey di hie Fac esoed by ar bons or relatives an cold tbe given to “ose “The nly exeepion to this wae if he whole family died ot. Iv such cass he ‘hors goverment wa fest desi wheter to maintain the heroairy store ot the suncak or incorporate tnt the nroal group of sane” “Ofcourse, changing power elations could and dd ale the ules and pnp stashed fer the Otoman conquest, and 35 the foner moved estwatd the ‘Groman government ted an fen managed (0 exe: greater conto, Foe exinple fhe neeiary sanck (or ile) of Adana was headed by the Beye of the FRmeraogla dynasty for alma century, afte they accepted Oxon suze) Ii ISI6. However, by 1608 Adana had become a regular tom soacah" The rai samcats that were established i the western hall of the provide of ‘rear whi canbe consdeed a one of he wnost important enter provinces an rape fom sanding i 1535 ui the 13705, were consoled ily by Posey who had sided withthe Ostmans in 1515, and by his sos. Mey were fhe deacondans ofthe Sltakogio Tickmen dynasty, which had ued the Ereacun ‘ios before aval of the Ottomans. Whie Istanbul made occasion steps ‘Tne Sani,“ Sines Hata Bir Ril” 7h Derg 92 (1979; 99-210, 92% Ma Sp et Spe a Gamay Kanone Gaba 1992), 57-56 K seen Mi et oes when in cs ofthe uta snc i seein te frm of ak od en execs te igh aan xy ake Se ae er te abr han, tee oft fer aca fof the two tes oss PAu we ocd eas ate nica sa eresay sch ces te ie nck Se ae nm aw so, rt the saat bye is, hs tintin, tor aa thoi “Osman Desde akin ha Taksim,” Bellen S211 (1950) Pos.ass mee Kn, 572 Tail Ad Mtn Taie Deine Ge Alas Sng ‘xourak Tashi Ozrne Bir Argzma,”Beleen S209 (1990) 18 a 20. Gabor Agoston to abo the hereditary sancaks ofthe provine, the descendants of Pi His ‘sey le gh of ch carn by pang whe sn’ xp “The compromise i e¥en more obviods nthe cae ofthe hanes. These were nal tetres of Tren and Karahi, adminiserd by thei leaders a Inreditary Inde again i retin foe tele service and obedience atthe time of he Ortoman conquest In these areas hee wat no steductin ofthe tar system ard oneal eanauses were nt dea op. The ainsi between thei chitans| Sn the Ovloman government wat repulsed hy an offical document (ahdname) "Comprising the rleget and oiigations Under te terms ofthese documents here ‘wore t he no Ottoman officials or elder onthe tren ofthe hades. The bye ofthe hikers could be nether dissed nor appointed to eter poss, at Tike the eye of the purl a ocak sone they oo mere obliged gO ae accompanied by her oops" "Gtoman peapmatsm may be observed in the provinces of Diyarbekir, Van, ‘Setrinor, Aleppn, Baghdad and Mosul, where the hereditary sancaks were generally Tea bythe leaders of Tirkmen, Korish and Arab tees. OF these. Diyarbek wea exten important since et of the rebelling Kiclba ies ie nother and these Cental Anatolia from tei main suppters andthe Ouran atch tem, Safivid Persia, Ths ts hardly suring thatthe Oxomans mintained {clave Kish autonomy in the province in oder fo win spd maintain the suppor ‘oF the Kui tribes ving i the region This atonomy ie reflected in a oil Ts of the Ottoman peotinces fom 15212, which enumerates only nine regular Suncaks or le and twenty-eight smaller adminitative units, called cena! Kiron, tha is communes or assembly of the Kurds in the province of Diyarbcki tienotoworthy that he terior ia the hans of Kodsh bys was much larger than tat ofthe rogolr fvas under det Ottoman administration, The ft thatthe income ofthese units under Kurdish conel was never mentioned indicates thatthe mar system and cadastral surveys were no induced hee. Five years Tater, silr Ist of Oxtoman province mentions ten regular Sancaks under dies ‘Guoman contin the province of Diyarbekrfllowed by seventen eyes of Specials inthe province (nae) of Karin A document eating to these ‘rd leaders and her utonomous testers, compiled sound 1336, enumerates nest ofthe privileges enjoyed by the hemes. AS Tong asthe enirs of these Kurdish provinces remained loyal to the House of Osman, Istanbul could net interfere; there were no Ottoman ofcale and tax collactrs in thet provinces the province passed frm father to son orto other elatves; if there were no leitiate Fro the province could not be given 10 “ousiders™ or “Yoregnes” (eal Iavicden olanara ve eneblere virmeyib) but ely to semebody fom the region in agrocrent with the emis of Kurdistan, Again, actual practices cold have been sn were indeed ilferent and Itanbol id to contol hee tess. By 1608 the rovince of Diyarbekir consisted of eleven regu Ottoman sca, eight sans * ban An, rn Beebe ve ea Anka, 1987p. 23422 /Pexible Empire 21 under Kurdish beys and five skiers. However, it sca hat wie the Kush Tancats were sil hereditary. Itanbal managed 1 survey then and inoduced the timar sytem! ‘Mower, to conto he (ost Keds) tra leaders of the aes othe ess such at the provinces, of Misivan/Merivan and Pelngaw/Peleakan, proved & “felt task forthe Comans. "These Teader tended to suppor the Savi, tat ten they felt the romans to be stronger they swapped ses, receiving i retin ‘hee frmertertoces or even the lnds of val ual leader as oak. Genel they ony peetended to aceep Oran ele, ving out the centers ad 3 nits They io tached the lands of aacentsoncos other own ali, ‘ot even spring he Ottoman crow Lands ‘Sima the history ofthe Otean authors elaienship with Yea Ds “Twcoman a Arab powerolders a Greater Syria isa complicated one which involved cooptation,covpertion and seer miitary force, aswel a the paying ‘fF of the veel Soni Yamanis andthe (sty Dre) Qayss again each othe. ‘The mat remarkable story fea to Fake al-Din tl Man, the Daze leader of The Shut, From 1593094 ni his execution in 1632 Fak al-Din wild Considerable power nthe ep times a the all of Istanbul, et oer tes the Oomans main opponstt Besides the Mand eter Teal powe- groups al layed some role inthe egin's history. For example, te Teknen “Assaf family Entel seme thirysillages and thee mixed Msn and Christian popaation i the mortem naive of Kiseawan of te five of Damaseas. SAn'cren mae fscinaing ste of fairs developed inthe for northeast comer ofthe province of Erzrum. In th lat Hiteenth cenry., Georgia Woke ut favo varia kingdoms (ntercti, Kar and Kakheti). By the mide of the “teenth century, the two pest regional powers, the Ottoman Empire an. Safed Empire ad waltowed up these Kingdoms Although the respective spt tf infuence of the Ortomans and Safovids were indicated In the peace tealy 6 “Smunye of 1555. competion between the two powers oer the Georgi terior ‘Minch nas made even more complicated bY the rivalry between the Geonsist Fines who ra fit to ene power ad then tthe other ~ esol in. svi © Drman Safavid wars. The Oxioman- Safavid peace weay of Kast Siti of 1639 Wich concloed a renewed out of confi, cepeated the previous division 0 (Georgi, the eastern Georgi Kingdoms of Kari and Kakhetia fll under Posi ‘ewe the pinipliis of Gora, Tretia abd Mingrla, lingo the nore ‘tthe river Kure, were received bythe Otomans. Asin te Balkans in the ftexnt ‘pau Tena, “The Developmen of te Use of Kursu’ as 2 Gena! Desa nthe Logpraton af ti Rin Ht he nan Epi inthe 1 Cet.” ‘Gest Oona Furs Clon, al 3,9. 548 388, Ses rere ey wos Mi Bey. ec fe Moks Kurs, who need i Mert th sree ai un Bestia. Beir RGR Oana Sie Manabe (57 112) sta 199) 9.225285, ined Adan Bali. The Onoman Province of Damar (eit 192) 16618 22 Gabor Agoston eur, and in Hungary in the idsintenth cetuy, the Otomans occpied the emtgtaly important souhem teriorie of Georgi, and ist etblshed seve senna that ware ined to te province of Erzarum Istanbul lp lek members of theltormee Georgian cain fries tthe Bead of the Georgan sancals hat Wee Mache tothe province of Erzurum In some ess fais whore members were Snehrsans ceived thse teres ar vat. Only ater did they conver 10 [Mon baby dr fo ese that they could Kept lands and pas them oo tories sons and grandsons. Later in 1578, the Otomans etblised the new wovince of Ci (Ask Akhaltskbe) and appointed the eos frmer Georgian Prince, Minh ion he meant bad converted to lar an took the name of Kies nts Rest heyerbeys Together wit is bother, who had been given the anc or Ot, Minuchir was awarded has (bend) with an anna reveave of ‘iu.000 akg With see exceptions, the eo province was adminseed by the ‘Gaulan pines of Some a erry bey atl te miiphteeth ent 1h ihe erly sevens eetury, ov ofthe ileensancaks ofthe province four wee atid, while nthe mideevententh entry these numbers were fourteen and Tice, respetvely In the ountinons areas of Cua, mee, Mingle Svanet vial AbKozet tht were mre ffl fo congue, the Otomaps wisely permite ihe ae of veal Georgian pices, who eerie the atorty of e un by ying sine (but ten regula eb" ing the seveteeth contry the nual government 1st contol of many caster province, which felted ia the rowing nub of hereditary sancats in fhe area According to 2 dacument compiled in 1683, eigen of the twenty1vo cud inthe province of Diyrtee were ordincysancals contol by Otoman dy, while the ther four soncots were yrtu-ocai ones. Meanie, one of he Se tones inthe beylerbeylik-of Aleppo, the ofthe fourteen sancals in the frovinee of Gi nine ofthe fourteen sancals othe beer of Va, tite Ute nineeen scat in the province of Seizor vo of the five sce in the once of Most an seventeen of he twenty-five sencaks i the beylerboic of Bghdod were yortll-ocall sancabs” In the as third of the eveneeth cet, the eylerbeil of iyarbekir comprise sx hime, Five ocak, and js ine ‘ainary soneals, AU the ste time, nine of the seventeen sancaks in the Peplebeitit of Eezuram, fieen of the twenty-60 sancaks in the frovince of| Gd, leven ofthe twenty soneas inthe province of Van four ofthe saten Tancas in the of rovinge Baghdad, fie ofthe cghteen sonal inthe beyerbeyii ‘ot Seiriag were oak” Fann Kia, Oomnkr Klatt Ra (145-1380) (Asks 1970) uti unt Sa Minas, Frou Ene, “C4” TDVIA, va. 8 Te Sony pp 3, Ander Bien Die Proven des Ormanchen Reicher {Semen 1900, p34 Sun "ir Sas Hatin Bi Risk. 915.20 1a, og "KVIN Yorn I Yanna Osos Deni Eyl ve. Sonat eset ia anent, wl 6p. A110. The mer of sats ces vai even Teeter eof agin. the Beery f Baghdad athe nd fhe aay the wntrs inst or exp, wenn sacs a he epg of AtesibleBmpice 29 , Siar dypamies wee at work fe the conquest of Hungary in 1581." While the mont sstepealy important ceial parts of the country were tached 10 the CSupr'sregulr vince and were pul wd the contol of te newly appointed beslerbeyt of Bade, inte easter paso the cont two sancas were rete and ven o Fost Georgus and Peet Petrovis, leaders of the po-Octoman Szapoly fut in Hungary. although the ats of these sancas was somewhat ambiguous at {he Beginning te fat tat both sar Goorias and eter Paroncs were appoint bya era, tht the ust type of eetieste used daring appoinments of rela Rca bes eater han by hdname oe emessuk, which were sully given othe ‘oye of the herediary sans in Easter Anatolia), pcbubly elects the intentions of itnbul Given the sate Igeatlon of Péter Peirovis’s sancak, i 18 Hary Shei tha ison fl under det Ottoman ule. 155, his sana was sed to eb te second Oxtoran province in Hungary with 4 center a Temestr Thus, inthis ease the ste route ak takeas In the rovinces of Dulko ad ‘Alana ri syeral sancals ofthe beylerbeiit of zur. However, the uancak Gr rie Georgi which ly fart the ens of the piscipal routes of Oxtoran xpanson, evolved into the Pincay of Transylvania, an Qroman vassal ste tht enjoyed considerable eed garding domestic policies.” Condominium ‘A common fete ofthe frontier trtres was the condom, tha is he joint rue ofthe former power ele and te Oxtoman auhooties, While exibiing Significant ferences over time and acceding to place, his sharing of uthority Kx 2 Shorter ce Inger prod extended to areas sich 3 nation public administration, tnd Josie. As already nt in he hukmes and inthe provinces of the Kurdish fins thee wes no introduction ofthe mar stem and sano censuses wee aoe “awn up. The revenue of the teary went eo the local power holders sp stb {ecrived no income from these areas. This Was diferem from the terviry ofthe vats, here part ofthe revenue might have been remited tthe sultans {Ceasury, Arab tial lenders were ls ble 1 Kep therfore tetris ia reur> fee coopeation with the Otoman autheries, Tei income olen read 200,00 $0.00 alg per annum, which roughly corresponded o the Income eceved by [fetch lve mre acl whe sone Bey a es ee Rowing the Overman” wit fom Hungary ere bate of Mohs 1526 comeing fons of he Hang bili else ong, nn Sepa (1526-0 er itvanyvni and Fern of Habaorg (152668). Witt Otto mits ‘sane, Spl cote he earn yrs ft county, wile ea led ‘Sern td wer prt of Hay. Win the ea of Seapla (1540) ust he iy libsom betwen be Hstrs a Odean Suey anexed ena Hang) wit ‘Spe (10, Theaghoat he seeth and sevestcnh cme, he Habsburgs a 0 {Guten tenatvs wi ors sl western Hungry, Known a Roya ang. Seer bar, Vai oi (Buspe, 1948p. 00, Pal Pe, agro ror hod (Bape, 191), pp 107.113, 24 Gshor Agoston Junior sancat hey. Ta some eases the sum cailé be several times mee. An tramp of this nthe erly seventeenth centry was the Bey of Kara io the province of Baghdad, whose income from his hakamet was mote than 800,000 oa per snngen, This sum ses on 4 pr with the income of «provincial governe- ener" Tn many places, local legal costs with gud to land ownership and taxation were preserve oo."The first provincial tax ceulatons ofthe sancke in aster [Armoia were often exat copes ofthe AkKoyuely, Dulkad or Marauk regulations ‘or kanuns. The Oxtomans adopted the Konan of Alaidese of Dalla, which for Insiance serv ar t model forthe legal cade of the soncat of Bozok. The Eenunname of the sancokof Diyareki ma sen a wor for word copy’ ofthe lel cade of Unun Hasan ( 1453-78), the ruler of the AbRojunty Turkmen fnfderation. The fist Larumames of many oer easier sancats and nahives 8 "Ergon, Urls, Mardin, Cirle, Sivek, Erinan, Kemah and Bayt were based in parton the laws of Hasan Paishah hat, Uzun Hasan. Alf these legal ales, oll asthe special regulations that applied the nomadic Turkmen ties (eg ‘he Boz-Ulus, preserved the re-Otoman tribal eastors ofthe Trkmens, which fen comradicted the Ottoman tanurs, and retained the former rules regarding ropes relations. The abrogation of some of the pe-Orlman regulations snd he ‘nerucion of Olloman provincial tx regulations Took place only decades later. ‘One reason for this wns to rece the taxtoren on sibets. Sil in many places ‘tbl taxation survived fr many generations The sivation was somewhat dfleent in the Hungaian provinces, yet also ‘efets shared possession and compromise. Although these provinces were part of ‘he regular Ottoman. admiiseave system with dinars and regular cadastal ‘reeys actual administrative and fran practices wee ferent fom that ofthe fc tne. The military balance of power and he srd suengh ofthe Hungarian lund fotese soldier ed to areal condominiom and a ito double Hungarian Ontoman tration. In der words, he very same village ad otha Turkish pak ‘nd 1 Hungarian landlord and paid taxes to both. While his situation may be hard for ue to undertand, it seemed matical fo comterporares, sen in eter writen bythe Ortoman ada ofthe castle of Koppan to his Hangin counterpart. Am Banyan, the commander ofthe Hangaran forces in suthem Transdanabia: "Your silage, Nagyegrt, en my posession n Turks, T ean, isin your possession in Hungary" At consequence ofthis condominiom, apart fom the Serbian popoatd Syrmium in souhern Hungary, thee was hardly an) tar eon in the county tht ‘was not paying some kind of tax tothe Hungarian side. Taxes to landlords were Clete ore regularly, while ate taxes nd taxes fr the Church coud be Collected only fom twosirds of the OMoma-held teres in the sixteenth ‘entry and only rom half oft inthe seventeenth cent.” 2 stopp. 128 2 Se Li Bukan, XV ve XV axvarde Oomats Inpartranda, Zr ‘onomtin Pave ol Elon, Karr (ste 199) pp 11917 Bienen stay Arce ni rit hbdtedran (Badass, (80). Axle pire 25 Apart frm taxation, the Hungno-Otloman condominivm also extended 10 Jiction and edniraton, The weakest ofall the former Hungarian insti that continued to exert some infloence in oman fled teitores wee the noble Counties. Most of them ll oat shorty after the conguest and the work of thee eran "efgeenoiliay counties” of the Otorar-eld testers was confined ‘ologal tansacirs between the members of the Hungarian nobility. Although hese ‘ntis pated repuary dcres ot sales (Sng. stcrrun) in any alae no [governed (or nsficienty governed) by the laws and decrees ofthe kino, he ‘ork shold no be overued for they did ot epace Otorman autres. Even Inthe fen ocx, Turkish jraditon sr nt sqoeezed ut but just squeezed eck, fe the Turks debated he same airs nash a6 they haan inees in ee “The work ofthe magiseril autores of the Hungarian market towns i he ‘nested ands we more sucoersfl than the nodiiar counties. Wheres nthe andl of Otornan gareon towns in Hangry it was the hadi wo adminsere Jt, the more numerous Hungarian marke owns ng. opin) that hd 0 ‘Ortman gation, the take of maintaining law and are, eine prevention, inity ‘nd judgment retained the prerogatives ofthe local Hiangaran aunties. The ‘muna ecrds ha have sivived down thr the yeas show that many owns ‘n Ovtoman Hangary had already obtained the ght to pass justice and issue death nlencee inthe dadee folowing the Ottoman ‘cones. The municipal ‘magnates sdmiistered the disputes of guilds apd arson os wel as mars of Drobst, They alo imposed and colleced fines. Towns ia the heat of Ottoman Hingary acquired these eights mare slowly and with prea dificly than towns loser to Royal Hungary, but sill under Otloman role In thi nea iti ore Scere to speak oleate pvr “vision o labor between the Oana ongaian atheies What this meant Was thatthe task of maintaining law ane twoer, etme preveation, guy and in tany eases jodgment remained the prerogitves ofthe loa! Hungarian auhoies. rom the midsikteeh centr. 1 rcome common for such towne under Oxoman rile purcase the right ‘sociated with josie, ipeluding the right to pas and indeed ainister the death penal, while the Ononan aubries ado fein contr with he llton a Fine ‘Althaigh the Otiomans italy rejected the idea that the Hungarian esate night calla taxes and administer juice in Ooman-eld areas, over time he lary tance of power an, above al te armed srengih ofthe Hungarian bord Foxes soldiers led fo thei itoducion and day-to-day pace. Such phenomen ‘ould suo be obese for longer or shor pared nother areas of the empire tha ‘rere never fully conquered or absorbed by the Ouomans and where the formes eit Could presetve is poiions and strength in arms, Many sich aeas existed in th Balkans, in ester Anatolia, and inthe Arb etre. aco Suakly, Magyar bannato (Bape. 1987), pp. 315.329, Klin Hee, Tb berendcedes Mapyrorsegoe Buiapes 195), pp. [14 26 Gabor Agoston Nowever, during times of confit either the Hengaian ner the Oxomin sutocticn were able maintain fw apd. der and prevent plundering by Hnpin and Onan border fess soliers and robbery by the fee hajdus ad lier seegulrelement A general deteiration in sana of public safety ed tthe formaton of eganizaions of selfelense oog te peasant farmers. These ‘roping or gabetings (ang, concuruy) of psu, called para wémeaye, at Secpenoant cousiy" i Hengaran or apis in tviuies inhaled by Slavic Pople, were aed insrecons of peasants ed by thei cptains™ The operation of "lage mins serving sinarfneios to those of the Hungaran "peasant counties” may be documented in ether fnter zones of the np The sources refer to ues village militias a Tero ester tha is, "he Tmchetes ofthe province” Members of such groups Were young te frm the Witage who elected ther own leaders elle ygubags. Tht tak was 1 ensre ube oer ad security in the illges andthe rounding seas. Asin the case {he Hungarian pesom comnts, the aabores, who were seapable of rsinaiing fublc ter, were fen in net ofthe asitance ofthe vlae mis. When he ‘gular prone forces led bythe sarcak Beis and beerbeys proved incapable preventing te devastating aks of rebels andthe acts of brigands and Sanus the sathertes ted t the shen Huson sil have Co eaborte onthe history of this oganantion and we do not know how far back its routs may be tena, What is clear, however, is tha Istanbul wold bave Ik to ave Rep the {ganization under its own control, apd for this reason insisied ha, after being ‘Sete by village chiefs, Teader should be proposed by the Kass and then onirmed in tanbl, white a cerifate of appointment would be issued. Fate {essarch mus determine whether this st of confirmation wa spy a Teemality tnd wheter the loa organs ofthe center were capable of conglling the operation tof these organizations of self-defense Tn he middle of the sists centr, Uerlert operated bth inthe core eovinces on in the frontier anes. Te peas iis were employed in many of {he umeats ofthe province of Analy and inthe neighboring layers of Karan Sl iv; swell at in Rulon the villages of he Aegean ond Black Sea cuss Stat wee vlerble to enemy aac. In general, the aueries used the mii Sess the ers, rigands,febels, insurgents and evend who were ravaging the “renting fhe villages snd markers, devastating the ardent and vineyards and Tuy wast tothe stable and locks Tn such cases, the seldefense nisin the [ FrneSekly,Purarmmegy da XVI é XVI ston Budget 196), 2 Mleate Abda THN ton Di Daze Kavos Cll Iyer sana, 1995) pp. 21021, re ett sce bul, Babak Osman Ari Maine Deis OD) 3p. 76 no 19. Aga he ins rig des an vines nh icy of Mars TESS; uD Sp. Thon 18 Apsina 3S athe oat Hadi; MD 3. TS: oI 1: Agi oor the vty of Alcan 155; MD 3, p. 383. na, 104 rept of eked pnt 2040 sobberss MD 3. p 166, 452 the cy of ‘ation Arye piste bids od ves: MDS 7, 0, 24: Casing the Slnanrthers ta fae escaped om he pon ef Burs: MD 5.322, no, 84: he ‘ABPexible Empice 27 vilages ined frees with the provincial cavalry Forces ofthe sane Led by he Sancek By aud las tey stacked the rebels and evildoers. During. such ston, Inembers ofthe village ali might even Kill the rebels. The sun's deees Speriealyinstcted the ad offer dhe miliamen tht nobody would okt tem reps sch dn remand Bla sony 0 he more wigan "The above examples prove that peasant in various parts of the enite ected in sine mae to the deterioration in public security, and hey established heir own tiltias of elfdeense, The very extence of these peasant ceganiations of sl thease and the Otiomahsutbres™ tite towards them india the hints of ‘Ottoman administration, I also shows an inevitable sense of Oxioman prgatsn ‘hat not only oleae sich eganzaions af self-defense bt also wsed them in ot ‘onan aw and order Conclusion ‘The Ottomin adninisraion tht was etblished in the fone caps uf Hongny snd eastern Anatolia in the sintenth and seventeenth centres Soccesflly failed is main take etenton of the conquered terrors and tility support foe renewed conquests In exch policy area, the pags of the ‘Ontamans permite just enough Hexiityt entre the rule ofthe sult, a elas the indapensable conditions of his rl, tha the peace of bis subjects and dhe tema working ofthe economy. If his was posible withthe assistance of os Insitutions and in accordance with local Tegal cusoms, thea. the Oxon {government ually cetaloed Het elements and made no aempts to fox the onguored terres nis own image. Tis lexibleadmuniseative pace, bore a Secessity tht wos politic, military and economic, may be observe to the all the fonlar zones of the empire, which te Oxtoman government always treed ‘iterenty rom he cre teres. ‘Otioman pragmatism sso can be viewed as the continuation of presse cowry Ottoman aminsrative srtegies wed nthe Balkans and Asti before the “poden age” of Onoman cenalism. Tis ary flexibility ie demonstrated, tmong othe things, by the Tat that the new Otoman sancat, naive and ose ‘ere ually gigh the nes ofthe ld adniisrative units and often covered he Shine teritvies™ Ia Anatolia, after the anexation ofthe Tucksh peiniales of ‘Soran, Kare, Meta, Aydin and Garmin, the saneas tha were estaished ‘on th eitory ofthese principles andthe esters that were established Seca of Mei: gina he ign: MDS, 154 no. 365, rp. 189, 463: Agi ‘Be wsand pds wo planer he hres, cnas od Soe fhe Mss fe Ieeadows (1863) Thee volumes wee ecely published ifsc and in La ‘aleron ye Aries, SND 4p. 19,40 p16, 0.42 2 fate, “Duman Medote” and Sain, “XV. ve XVL Arild Os “Telitnn Orel” p. 128 28 Gébor Agosion the etre ofthe principalities of Karama and Dlkad followed the borders of the ld peiniplies, Apart from one instance (Gerjan). the new sancaks and Ihylevbeiis preserved in their names the memory of the old principalities. In won, the fist Otten tax ropes Gemonsrte hat many terra) and ministers wee slo borrowed frm the ea ofthe pencils. Ii town ta the eling families of the principalities were able to keep pats oftheir Tans afer the Ottoman eonqies under Otoman rules” This en be explained only ‘tly the fact hat the anneed peincialies belonged othe same etre a the ‘romans for a sinilar ability fo accommodate may also be observed inthe Balkans, where the Ottoman adminisraive units ofen followed the boundaries oF the Serbian and Bosnian upas or Byzantine themes. Hee to, many of the Oxtoman "Mministative units peered the names ofthe eeiou ules ofthe etre. The time of Konstantin Dejnovié was preserved, for instance, in the name of the anc of Keen, andthe name of the Albanian Asin family in the native of ‘Anti in the pgs oncok "Az we have sen, Sultan SUleyman, the champion of stoma cetralism, was also foreod to flow a simular policy in the eastern Fronts with egard a certain Tike, Kad nd Aza chia, as well asthe ‘Genegian pices, Tes azo known thatthe Otoman government in te Fieenth centry was welt take cecum of os balanoss of power and atepted 0 win oer lca Seva and elgious leader, Otoman san ied To integrate cooperative groups {a individuals belonging to the previous soil elites ito the peep Ottoman Tuling class (asker), This i bore cut by the presence of Cris tmar-holders luiah and privileged ania aie (oyna, martes ec) bat in the Balkans tnd on he eitoryof the former Ete of Trebizond. In many places the ok Foxins of property ounership were adopel nd eained he epi accommodates the previo systema of agriclore and mining, and it adopted certain forms of| {anation and coinage. Sint, the contination of pe-Oxoman Joa eommnal Ctzaizatons andthe acsivity of Enaes and pris and ober leaders of local Snnistation i well documented from Sera Bulgari and Greece.” Again, nthe Sixteenth entry the Oxtoman goverament, te model of absolutism for many ‘perio Fen, Beye Sans” 891 idm XV Ard Mania Ker (Anan, {9f5)p 2; Si oY we XVL As Osta Ta Telnet" 125 Ate Ayulon Tar Hands Bi Arar (oka 198) pp 563. 2 Sy Xv. XY Anvlars Osmant ToT Onli. 125 Sf" Saomevi, “Uporne pala Joie sen od trom vada do Kalovabhg wire 1 pe” God orsog dus HV (1952): 71-20 Hat Tonlahs Fat der eine eer ne nero en Cabal, 98.68; be, The aman Empire, p18 Der iaseks “Sean” Dunn Osman, Imgntrigun” io, Kem, Osman Inputs Topo ve lanai Oseride Arr Galan Ineender (gb, 15), pp 7-10 Howh Lowry, Toba Shri sania ve Tales 2 els {usunbd 1998: Een Crowne, Bogoshata ka Bn prez XVI vk (Sf (bio Gets Davi, Adnistson i onan Eee ey Stade Dogan APrexile Fp 29 contemporary observers, fom Opier Ghselin de Bushecg (the famous Flemish “plomt of Ferdinand Tf abstr) to Niccolo Machiavelli, was fore 10 follow Pasty, Neale adminisative peacice in the oni: provinces. AS “emonstratg shove, in Hungary and Georgia, Istanbul temple 1 win over Oe ‘ember ofthe reOntoman Citan elise Eastern Anatolia an in Hangar the {atten aceped the eofdominim and the dubl taxation an jarition, Ano Tic locat representatives of the cetral goverment, Ottoman ads ad spas Were fresent sos everywhere inthe "eglar provinces," that isin teritries where the Tinar sytem was insite, when conddcting daly business uring the “lassicl te he Prt edt rely on village eden, “ees or “otal ofthe pono” (eon idge) who mere wealthier peasants generaly chosen by thei ellow Wiles rr within th commariy- In Hungary they were calle bird (iw) in ‘he Ara lands vis a,elain (head ofthe peasants) or shay. al-qarya (eer of {he llago In satentveentry SyrtPalesine the ras allan ad the leaders ff the Jewish commnnty in Jersalem (Shaykh cl-yahac, yresunably all ee ‘Ouoman Mania intone, were essntal in aranging the daytoday fits of the lecal communities” Tr scons that apart fom geographic! constants and tits arising fom vecettenson the eastence ofthe Habsburg and Safavid Empites consid th tain ole to Orta ental administration ots fens zones. I cer words the ction radius of Oneran cenrliss was grea reduced by is cvs. The fc tha the condominium was msnained in Hanguy throghout Otloman ele was de to the rural of the former Hungarian elite and estiotons in Royal Hungary der Habeborg ole. The Hungarian estates sought refuge onthe far ideo the inary bardee From is basen Habsbure Hungary, with the assistance of th Hunguin bore grins tod te sppert of Habsburg diplomacy, te Hangar ‘tease to defend many of ke iterests ib the lds of taxation, jasice am “Ghnntaraton, tts endeave the Hungrian bls were moe success! that th bee ofthe heredirysancobs in easter Anatelia, While in the fist half of th ‘Sneenh cet the ater could eoont on the Safavid, afer Sbleyman’s conquest {n Azerbaijan and ag thee sport wae weakened conser. Georgetown University sex, fr intane, Amy Sines, Palestina Peasant and Oman Oficial fw ‘Adnan round Scene Cony Tennesse 1988), pp 329, a Tier ed by be AxibleBayice 31+ 30 Gsbee Agoston ‘Types and number of administrative units in the province of Diyarbekir 40 - 35, 30 4 25, D cemaat 20 kine ocak 1521 1526 1608 16351670