COMPILATIONS OF MY EVIDENCES THAT PHILIPPINES IS THE OPHIR OF THE BIBLE

Isagani Datu-Aca tabilog

2Timothy 3:15 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in the Messiah. 2Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of , and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 2Timothy 3:17 That the man of may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

Luke 24:44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. Luke 24:45 Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
(Luke 24:46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved the Messiah to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:) THIS VERSE WAS ADDED BY UNIVERSAL RELIGION.

Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Luke 24:48 And ye are witnesses of these things. 2Peter 1:20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 2Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. John 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

WHAT IS HIS NAME?

Isagani Datu-Aca Tabilog

Panalangin
Ama kong , marami pong salamat sa mga pagpapala mo sa amin na nakikita at sa mga pagpapala mo sa amin na hindi nakikita. Maraming salamat Ama kong sa mga sandaling ito na niloob mo na makapanalangin ako sa iyo kasama ang mga hirang mong tinawag sa iyong Banal na Pangalan na mga kapatid ko na makakabasa nito at buksan mo Amang ang bawat isa na maunawaan ang Banal Mong Espiritu na iyong ipinadadala sa pamamagitan ng Pangalang YAHSHU’A , na siyang Banal na Espiritung iyan ang siyang magtuturo sa bawat isa nang mga katotohanan at magpapa-alala sa amin sa mga itinuro ni Yahshu’a Messiah na ninais na malaman at marinig ng mga naunang mga Propeta at mga Hari, ngunit niloob mo na kami sa huling panahong ito ang nauna mo pang binuksan upang maka-alam at maka-unawa ng mga tagubilin mo sa mga sinulat ni Propeta Moses at iba pang mga Propeta. Dahilan sa kapangyarihan ng iyong Banal na Pangalang ay binuksan mo kami na makaunawa at dahilan din sa iyong Banal na Pangalang ay makatupad at makasunod kami sa iyong ipinaunawa at mga tagubilin sa amin. Alang-alang sa pangalan ng aming Tagapagligtas at dakilang High Priest na si YAHSHU’A Messiah hinihiling namin ito sa iyo Ama kong Hallal-YAH.

ang pagkakasulat sa Dead Sea Scroll ng Pangalan ni YAHWEH

SAAN GALING ANG OLD TESTAMENT?
Jacob Tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear sa Gen.32:28
Ating Alamin ang mga Naganap sa Panahong ng Old Testament
Sina Yahshaak (Isaac) at Ismaale (Ismael) ay Anak at Lahi rin ni Abraham at si Ismaale ang naunang nanirahan sa Masry (Egypt) sa Genesis 21:21 at sumunod ang mga anak ni Yahshaak kay Yahkoob (Jacob) na tinawag ni Yahweh bilang Yahshear (Gen. 32:28).

THE NAME ‘ISRAEL’ ORIGINATED FROM THE NAME (YASHAR) ‘YAHSHEAR’ yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight ‘yesh-oo-roon' Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel yis-raw-ale' a symbolical name of Jacob
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel –₃₄₇₄ for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary ‘search’ for "Israel"–₃₄₇₄
3474 yashar yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight or even; figuratively, to be (causatively, to make) right, pleasant, prosperous:--direct, fit, seem good (meet), + please (will), be (esteem, go) right (on), bring (look, make, take the) straight (way), be upright(-ly). 3475 Yesher yay'-sher from 3474; the right; Jesher, an Israelite: -Jesher. 3476 yosher yo'-sher from 3474; the right:--equity, meet, right, upright(-ness). 3477 yashar yaw-shawr' from 3474; straight (literally or figuratively):--convenient, equity, Jasher, just, meet(-est), + pleased well right(-eous), straight, (most) upright(-ly, -ness). 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun. 3478 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' from 8280 and 410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity: --Israel. 3479 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3478:--Israel. 3481 Yisr'eliy yis-reh-ay-lee' patronymically from 3478; a Jisreelite or descendant of Jisrael:--of Israel, Israelite. 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun.

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Sino si Ophir ?

Ophir ay naisulat sa Lumang Tipan ng Biblia sa 1 Kings 22:48, 9:28 and 22:49, Psalms 45:9, Isaiah 13:12, Job 22:24, 28:16, 1Chron. 24:4, 1:23, Genesis 10:25-26. Sa Genesis 10:25-30 ―At si Heber ay nagka-anak ng dalawang lalaki: ang pangalan ng isa ay Peleg, dahil nang araw na ipinanganak sila ang wika ng mga tao sa mundo ay nagkaiba-iba, at ang kanyang kapatid ay si Yoktan. At si Yoktan ay naging anak sina Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Yerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, OPHIR, Havilah, Yobab; lahat ng ito ay mga anak ni Yoktan. At sila ay nanirahan mula sa Mesha at hanggang sa Sephar sa kabundukan sa Silangan.‖

CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS BASED ON HOLY BIBLE RECORDS

YEAR

REFERENCE

HEBREW NAME-MEANING-EVENTS

B.C.E. (Before Common Era) 3992 Dan.9:24-27 3862 Gen.5:3-6 Seth 3757 Gen.5:9 Enosh 3667 Gen.5:12 Cainan 3597 Gen.5:15 Mahalalel 3532 Gen.5:18 Yared 3370 Gen.5:21 Enoch 3305 Gen.5:25 Metuselah 3118 Gen.5:28-29 Lamech 3062 Gen.5:5 Death of Adam 3005 Gen.5:23 Enoch taken away 2950 Gen.5:8 Death of Seth 2936 Gen.5:28 (10)Noah 2852 Gen.5:11 Death of Enosh 2757 Gen.5:14 Death of Cainan 2702 Gen.5:17 Death of Mahalalel 2570 Gen.5:20 Death of Yared 2436 Gen.5:32 Shem 2341 Gen.5:31 Death of Lamech 2336 Gen.5:27 Death of Metuselah 2336 Gen.7:6 Ark of Noah Great flood Creation of (1)Adam-Awdam-to show blood in face Sheeth-appoint Awnash-to be frail Kane-a nest Halal-praise Yah Yared-to descend to lower region Kawnek-discipline Methuselah Lehmek-uncertain

Nooakh-to rest

Seem-call a name.Ham Yahpet born

Noah and 3 children, wives survived

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Archaeological Findings: Ancient Ebla

2334 Gen.11:10 Arphakshad 2299 Gen.11:12 Selah-Shawlakh 2269 Gen.11:14 Heber 2235 Gen.11:14 (15) Peleg 2235 Gen.10:25 Tower of Babel

In 1974 at site of ancient Ebla northern Syria, exemplify the plethora of pre-flood and post flood writings Rawpad-to refresh to send away Awba-crossover Pawleg-to divide ( Yoktam the father of Ophir ) Migdalah Bawlal - Confounded the language of Son of Man. Heber language was called Hebrew from name Heber. Ang Wika ni Ophir

Ang wika ni Heber ay kagaya ng wika ni Adam at nang magkaiba-iba ang wika ng mga tao sa mundo, tanging si Heber lamang ang nakapag-ingat ng orihinal na wika ni Adam na tinawag sa kanyang pangalan na Heber na naging Hebreo. Samakatwid ang naging wika ng dalawang anak ni Heber sina Peleg at Yoktan ay Hebreo din at ang naging wika ng kanilang mga anak ay Hebreo din. Samakatwid ang wika ni Ophir na anak ni Yoktam ay Hebreo din.

Ang Wika ni Abraham
Ang anak ni Peleg si Reu, ang anak ni Reu si Serug, ang anak ni Serug si Nachor, ang anak ni Nachor si Thare, ang anak ni Thare sina Abram na naging Abraham, Nahor at Haran ang ama ni Lot. Si Abraham ay tinawag na Hebreo sa Genesis 14:13, samakatwid ang wika ni Abraham ay Hebreo. 2205 Gen.11:18 Reu Rawaw-shepherd 2173 Gen.11:20 Serug Sawrag-to intwine 2143 Gen.11:22 Nachor Nakharaw-to snore 2114 Gen.11:24 Thare Tehrakh-trembling 2044 Gen.11:26 (20)Abram(Abraham) Father to be raise of people.Covenant Gen.17:9-10

Nang ang salita ni YAHWEH ay dumating kay Abraham sa Genesis 15:13-14 “At sinabi ni Yahweh kay Abraham, sinabi ko sa iyo na ang lahi ng iyong mga anak ay magsisilbi sa ibang lupain ng mga Hentil at sila ay pahihirapan sa loob ng 400 taon, at ang Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan ay aking hahatulan at pagkatapos ay ilalabas ko sila na may dalang malaking yaman”. Sa Genesis 21:12-13 ― kay Yahshaak (Isaac) ang iyong lahi ay tatawagin at ang anak mo sa katulong ay aking gagawin din na isang Nasyon, DAHIL SIYA AY ANAK AT LAHI MO RIN‖. Genesis 46:3 ―Ako si YAHWEH, ang makapangyarihan ng iyong mga magulang, huwag kang matakot pumaroon sa Masry; dahil gagawin ko kayong malaking Nasyon‖. PILIPINAS AY NASA BIBLIA Page 17

Samakatwid ang lahi ni Abraham sa kanyang dalawang anak sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ay naging tigapagsilbi sa lupain na hindi kanila sa lupain ng Masry kagaya sa sinabi ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14. Ang sinabi ay paglipas ng 400 na taon ay lalabas sila sa Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan at sa Exodus 12:52 ―si YAHWEH ay inilabas ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) (Tribo ng Yahshurun) Gen.32:28 mula sa lupain ng Masry‖. Sa lupain ng Masry ang Tribo ni Ismaale at Tribo ni Yahshurun (mula sa pangalang Yahshear) ay ang tanging ―Tribong Tuli‖, upang magkaroon ng pagkaka-kilanlan sa dalawang Tribong-Tuli ang Tribong Yahshurun ay tinawag ng mga nagsasalita ng Aramaic ng ―Yisraw-ale‖ (Yisrawale naging Israel) ibig sabihin ay ―Prinsipe ni Sarah‖ at ang Ismaale naman ay tinawag na ―Ishmael‖ na ibig sabihin ay ‗sa Pangalan ni Sarah‖. Ang ‗Ale‘ sa wikang Hebreo ay ‗Among-Babae‘, tinutukoy ang amo ni Hagar na si Sarah.

13 TIBO NG YAHSHURUN Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na tinawag na 12 Tribo ni Yahshurun ay orihinal na 12, ngunit ng akuin ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Efraim at Manase na kanyang anak na rin sa Genesis 48:5-6 ay naging 13 ang Tribo ng Yahshurun. Ang nakatalaga para kay Yohseph ay pinalitan ng kanyang dalawang anak, samakatwid ang Tribo ni Yahshurun ay naging 13 Tribo na lumabas sa lupain ng Masry sa panahon ni Moshe (Moses).

1. Ruben 2. Simeon 3. Levi (ang mga anak naging Sacerdote sina Gershon, Kohat at Merari) 4. Yahuwdah 5. Dan 6. Nepthali 7. Gad 8. Asher 9. Isachar 10. Zabulon Dinah (Leah) Yohseph (ang mga anak sina Manaseh at Efraim) 11. Manaseh 12.Efraim 13.BenYahmin

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Dath
Dath ‫תד‬

‫תד‬

1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage ,a) decree, edict, commission, b) law, rule

dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary Pronunciation: Definition: Dawth 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner. DaTH I used to think of DaTH (dawth) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH. Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. *Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14+ There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out.

Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life — CHoKMaH/Sophia and DaTH are

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treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6] A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature.

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha
Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ַר‬ ‫מצ‬ ַ massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫ַרגּוש‬ ‫" ג‬Gargush"

Yahshear-Dath o (Sacer-dote)
Ang anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na Tribo ni Levi ay itinalaga sa Pagpapari (Priesthood o Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) sa Exodus 29. Ang tatlong anak ni Levi si Yahshear-Dath Gershon, Yahshear-Dath Cohat at Yahshear-Dath Merari o mga Yahshear-Dath o mga Sacerdote ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale upang pamahalaan ang trabaho ng Pagpapari at sa pagsisilbi sa pagsamba kay YAHWEH na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Tatlong Anak ni Levi Itinalagang Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote o Pari ay Inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel)

1. Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Gershon 2. Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Kohat 3. Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Merari
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Ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) kay Leah, Rachel, Bilha, Zilpa:
1. Ruben ---------- 1. Ruben (Leah) - Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 2. Simeon ---------- 2. Simeon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari 3. Levi ---------Levi (Leah) mga anak sina Gershon, Kohat, Merari 4. Yahuwdah ---------- 3. Yahuwdah (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari 5. Dan ---------- 4. Dan (Bilha-Rachel ) – Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari 6. Nepthali ---------- 5. Nepthali (Bilha-Rachel) – Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari 7. Gad ---------- 6. Gad (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 8. Asher ---------- 7. Asher (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari 9. Isachar ---------- 8. Isachar (Leah) –Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari 10.Zabulon ---------- 9. Zabulon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari Dinah (Leah) 11.Yohseph ---------Yohseph (Rachel) mga anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 12.BenYahmin --------- 10. Manaseh-kalahating tribo - Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari Manaseh- kalahating tribo – Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari 11. Efraim – Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari 12. BenYahmin(Rachel) - Yahshear Dath Kohat ang Pari

Si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa mga Ismaalita at dinala sa Masry (Egypt) na pinagbili naman bilang alipin at dumating ang panahon na naging tagapamahala ng Pharaoh at naging Malaya at pinalitan ang pangalan na Zaphenath-paneah. Ang isang alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang magulang ngunit si Yohseph ay binili sa lahi ng Ismaalita kaya ibinalik siya sa Ismaalita at binigyan ng asawa na pangalan ay Asenath na anak na babae ng Pari ng Ismaalita na si Potiphera sa lahi ni Ismaale na nagkaroon ng 12 prinsesa na kagaya ni Yahshurun na nagkaroon ng 12 anak at ang isa ay si Levi na naatasan sa pamamahala ng Pagpapari sa Exodus 29, Genesis 17:7, 17:23, 16:12 ―siya ay kahalubilo ng kanyang mga kapatid‖. Nang si Abraham ay mamatay sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ang naglibing sa kanya sa kweba ng Machpelah katabi ng kanyang asawang si Sarah sa Genesis 25:9. Ang anak at lahi ni Ismaale ay nadala ng dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim, samantalang ang anak at lahi ni Yahshaak ay nadala ng 12 Tribo ng Yahshurun (Jacob tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear) sa lupain ng Masry at inilabas sila ni Yahweh sa Exodus 12:51, upang matupad ang sinalita ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14.

YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) KINGS
1Samuel 8:5 At sinabi sa kanya, Ngayon, ikaw ay matanda na, at ang iyong mga anak ay hindi sumunod sa mga yapak mo: ngayon ay bigyan mo kami ng Hari na maghuhusga sa amin kagaya ng mga ibang bansa. 1Samuel 8:6 Ngunit sa bagay na ito ay nagalit si Samuel, nang sinabi nila na Bigyan mo kami ng Hari na maghuhusga sa amin. At si Samuel ay nanalangin kay YAHWEH. 1Samuel 12:19 At lahat ng mga tao ay nagsalita kay Samuel, Ipanalangin mo kaming lahat na tagapaglingkod mo kay YAHWEH na iyong Makapangyarihan, upang hindi kami mamatay: dahil dinagdagan naming ang aming kasalanan sa kasamaang ito na naghangad kami ng isang Hari. Unang naging Hari si Saul na lahi ni BenYahmin. Sumunod si Haring David na lahi ni Yahuwdah at sumunod ang anak ni Haring David na si Haring Solomon (YahdidiYah).

King Saul (BenYahmin) Kohath ang Pari King David (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari King Solomon (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari
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Mga Barko Patungong Ophir
1Kings 9:26 Mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay pumupunta sa OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto. Tatlong (3) taon ang lumilipas bago makabalik ang mga barko.

DALAWANG KAHARIAN
Lumipas ang panahon pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati sila sa dalawang kaharian, sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Ang Katiwala ni Haring Solomon na mula sa Tribo ng Efraim (1Kings 11:26) si Yeroboam ang naging Hari ng Yisrawale na sumama ang 10 Tribo ay pinagsisilbihan naman ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Kohat, Yahshear Dath Gershon at Yahshear Dath Merari. Ang anak ni Haring Solomon si Rehoboam ang naging Hari ng 2 Tribo ng Yahuwdah na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Kohat.

King Jeroboam sa Tribong Efraim ---- King Rehoboam sa Tribong Yahuwdah
YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) King Jeroboam (Efraim) 10 tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) Samaria City Nakatalagang Sacerdote: YAHUWDAH (JEWS) ----------------------------- King Rehoboam (Yahuwdah) ----------------------------- 2 tribo ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin (Jews) -------------------------------------------------------Jerusalem City Nakatalagang Sacerdote:

Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Merari ----------------------- Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Ruben, Gad, Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Zabulon Yahuwdah at BenYahmin Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Simeon, Dan, ½Manaseh, Efraim Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari ng Tribo nila Nepthali, Asher, Isachar, , ½Manaseh

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KAHARIAN NG YAHUWDAH
Dalawang (2) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Rehoboam ng Yahuwdah (Yahuwdah at BenYahmin) at ang lungsod ay ang Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Kohat.

KAHARIAN NG YISRAWALE
Sampung (10) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale at ang lungsod ay ang Samaria na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Kohat, Yahshear Dath Gershon at Yahshear Dath Merari na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay TINANGGAL ang Pagsisilbi ng mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdote sina YahshearDath-Kohat, YahshearDath-Gershon at YahshearDath-Merari at PINALITAN sila ng mga pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.
Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga kapistahan sa 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34.

Tatlong (3) Taon Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdote mula kay YahshearDath Kohat, Gershon at Merari ay Tinanggal Bilang Tigapagsilbing YahshearDath o Sacerdote sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at sila ay Lumayas sa lupain ng Yisrawale na dala ang kanilang mga ari-arian ay tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem at nanatili sa loob ng tatlong (3) taon
2Chronicles 11:13-17 ‗at ang lahat ng mga Sacerdoteng Pari at Levita na nasa Yisrawale at sa lahat ng baybayin ay lumayas na dala ang kanilang ari-arian at tumungo sa Yahuwdah at sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem: dahil si Haring Yeroboam at kanyang mga anak ay Pinalayas sila bilang Tigapagsilbing Sacerdote para kay Yahweh at si Haring Yeroboam ay nagtalaga ng mga Sacerdoteng Paring Hindi Levita sa matataas na lugar at para sa Demonyo at sa Istatwang Guya na kanyang ginawa. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa tribo ng Yisrawale, ay itinalaga ang kanilang sarili at puso na hanapin si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa pagpunta nila sa Yahrusalem upang magsakripisyo para kay Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng kanilang mga magulang. Naging matatag ang Kaharian ng Yahuwdah at maging si Haring Rehoboam na anak ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay naging matatag, sa loob ng tatlong taon; dahil tatlong taon silang sumunod sa palatuntunan kagaya sa pagsunod ni Haring DowDow (David) at Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon)‖.

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Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari na lahi ni Yahshear Dath Kohat, Gershon at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH: 2 Chronicles 20:18-19
Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Kohat, Gershon at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa Yahrusalem ay nawala sa kapanahunan ni Haring Yahoshaphat. 776 B.C.E. 1Kings 22:51, 62 taon mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboam) sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 ―at ang mga Levita mula sa mga anak ni (Kohat) Kohathites at mga anak ni Korhites ay tumayo upang purihin si Yahweh ang nag-iisang Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa napaka-lakas na boses na mataas.‖

Mga Barko Patungong OPHIR Naglakbay ng Pabalik sa loob ng Tatlong Taon
Mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay pumupunta parin sa OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto 1Kings 9:26, at nagpagawa pa ng mga panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1 Kings 22:48 ngunit hindi na ito natuloy. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Gershon, YahshearDath Kohat at YahshearDath Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Walang tanging pupuntahan sila kundi ang sumama sa mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah na kanilang nadatnan sa Yahrusalem sa pagtigil nila ng tatlong (3) taon dahil tatlong (3) taon din ang paglalakbay ng mga barko patungong Tarshish at Ophir pabalik sa Yahrusalem na mababasa sa 2 Chro.9:21 at 2Chronicles 11:13-17. Bago pa magpagawa ng panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1Kings 22:48, naisulat sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 sa paghahari ni Haring Yahoshaphat na 62 taon na ang lumipas mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboan na katiwala ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) sila ay hindi na natagpuan sa Yahrusalem sa 2 Chronicles 20:18-19.

Ang Kulay Ng Kanilang Balat Ay KAYUMANGGI Awit ni Solomon 1:6 ‗huwag kang magtaka kung ang kulay ng aking balat ay KAYUMANGGI (do not stare at me because I am swarthy, New American Bible), (Tagalog Magandang Balita Biblia translated KAYUMANGGI).

Saan Napunta Sina Yahshear-Dath-Kohat, Yahshear-DathGershon, at Yahshear-Dath-Merari ? Sundan sa pahina 48.

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MGA NAGANAP SA MGA NAIWAN SA SAMARIA AT SA YAHRUSALEM KASALANAN NG SAMBAHAYAN NI HARING JEROBOAM NG YISRAWALE

1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34
Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga Kapistahan ni Yahweh. 1Kings 13:33 Si Jeroboam ay Hindi nagbago sa kanyang Masamang Ginagawa, patuloy parin siyang nagtatalaga ng mga Pari na Hindi Levita kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang na kanyang naisin. 1Kings 13:34 At ito ang naging kasalanan ng sambahayan ni Jeroboam, kaya‟t pinutol ito at winasak sa buong lupain.

LIMANG (5) NASYON ANG PINATIRA SA LUPAIN NG ISRAEL SA SAMARIA KAPALIT NG MGA ISRAELITA NA IPINATAPON SA MGA LUNGSOD NG ASSYRIA
Yisrawale (Israel) 2Kings 17:23 Hanggang inalis sila ni Yahweh sa Kanyang paningin kagaya ng ipinasabi Niya sa mga Propeta. Ang mga Israelita ay Dinalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria. 2Kings 17:24 At ang Hari ng Assyria ay nagdala ng mga tao mula sa Babylon, at mula sa Cuthah, at mula sa Ava, at mula sa Hamath, at mula sa Sepharvaim, at pinatira sa lungsod ng Samaria kapalit ng mga Anak ni Israel: at kanilang inangkin ang Samaria at tuluyang nanirahan doon. 2Kings 17:27 Ang Hari ng Assyria ay nag-utos na dalhin pabalik sa Samaria ang isang Pari na dinalang bihag sa Assyria at manirahan na sa Samaria upang siyang magturo ng pamamaraan sa Sinasamba sa lupaing iyon. 2Kings 17:28 At isa nga sa mga Pari na dinalangbihag sa Assyria ay dumating at tumira sa Beth-el ay nagturo kung paano sila magkakaroon ng takot sa Sinasamba ng lupaing iyon. Isang Paring Israelita ngunit HINDI LEVITA ang pinabalik sa Samaria, samakatwid ay nagordina ito ng mga makakasama niyang Pari na HINDI-ISRAELITA kundi nanggaling sa lahi ng mga Babylonia, Cutha, Ava, Hamath at Sepharvaim. Mapapansin sa 2Kings 17:41 na nirerespeto nila ang Makapangyarihan ng Israel ngunit sila ay nagsisilbi parin sa kani-kanilang mga iniidolong mga Istatwa.

Encyclopedia Judaica YHWH vol.7 p.680

BLASPHEMY =

The Sacred Name pronounced “Yah-oo-ay” was avoided to pronounced during Assyrian Captivity but only High Priest from Levite - Aaron son can utter that Name eight (8) times on the Day of Atonement, a Page 25

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day of fasting on the 10th day of the 7th month. Sanhedrin (Highest Court) ruled a decree of offense of BLASPHEMY to whoever pronounced and uttered that name in public or in solemn assemblies and instead they substituted the word ADONAI the name of diety of Canaan where they were living.

Ang Pari na dinalang pabalik sa Beth-el na lupain ng Israel ay ang Pari na itinalaga ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) na pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.
2Kings 17:24 Ang limang nasyon na pinatira sa Israel, ang bawat nasyon ay gumawa ng kanikanilang istatwang sinasamba na kanilang inilagay sa mataas na sambahan sa kani-kanilang lungsod. Ang taga Babylonia ay gumawa ng istawa ni Succoth-benoth, ang taga Cuthah gumawa ng istatwa ni Nergal, ang taga Hamath ginawa ang istatwa ni Ashima, ang taga Ava ginawa ang istatwa ni Nibhaz at Tartak, ang taga Separvaim ay nagsusunog naman ng kanilang anak para sa kanilang istatwang si Adrammelech at Anammelec.

NAGSIMULA ANG TAWAG NA ELOHIM 2Kings 17:24 Sila ay may takot sa Makapangyarihan ngunit pinagsisilbihan nila ang kanikanilang istatwa. (Dito nagsimula na hindi na tawagin ang pangalan ni Yahweh kundi pinalitan ng El na naging Elohim). Ang mga Tunay na Levitang Yahshear-dath (Sacerdote) ang may hawak ng mga aklat ni Moses kaya ang HINDI-LEVITANG PARI ay kumatha rin ng kanilang sariling kwento patungkol sa mga naganap noon. Dahil hindi nila alam ang kahalagahan ng Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh ay pinalitan nila ito ng ‗El‘ o ‗Elohim‘ upang main tindihan ng mga taga Babylonia, at taga Cuthah, at taga Ava, at taga Hamath, at taga Sepharvaim. Ang ‗El‘ o ‗Elohim‘ ay ang pangkaraniwang tawag sa mga istatwa ng mga bansang ito.

Ang mga Tunay Na Israelita na Ipinadalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria ay nagpalit ng wika mula sa Hebreo ay napilitang magsalita ng Assyrian-Aramaic.
2Kings 18:26 ‗At nagsalita sina Eliakim na anak ni Hilkiah, at Shebna, at Joah kay Rabshakeh, magsalita ka sa wikang Assyrian-Aramaic dahil naiintidihan namin at huwag kang makipag-usap sa amin sa wika ng Hudyo na Hebreo na naririnig ng maraming tao sa tabi ng pader.

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ANG MGA LEVITANG PARI AY TINATAWAG NA SACERDOTE O YAHSHEARDATH SA WIKANG HEBREO, ANG MGA HINDI LEVITANG PARI AY TINAWAG NA „KAHEN‟-3549 SA WIKANG ARAMAIC

3547 kahan kaw-han' a primitive root, apparently meaning to mediate in religious services; but used only as denominative from 3548; to officiate as a priest; figuratively, to put on regalia:--deck, be (do the office of a, execute the, minister in the) priest('s office). 3548 kohen ko-hane' active participle of 3547; literally, one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman):--chief ruler, X own, priest, prince, principal officer. 3549 kahen kaw-hane' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3548:--priest. (KAHEN IS ARAMAIC)

Kaharian ng Yahuwdah (Jews) Ay Hindi Rin Sumunod sa mga Utos ni Yahweh kaya Ipinagapi sila sa Kaharian ng Babylonia
2Kings 17:19 Ganoon din ang Yahuwdah ay hindi rin sumunod sa mga kautusan ni Yahweh na kanilang Makapangyarihan, sila ay gumaya sa pamamaraan ng mga Israelita. Daniel 1:1 Sa ikatlong taon ng paghahari ni Jehoiakim Hari ng Yahuwdah ay dumating sa Yahrusalem si Nebuchadnezzar na Hari ng Babylonia at sinakop ito. Jeremiah 44:2 Sinabi ni Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, nakita ninyong lahat ang kasamaan na ipinadala ko sa Yahrusalem at sa lahat ng lungsod ng Yahuwdah at ngayon lahat ng lugar doon ay walang tao na tumitira. Jeremiah 44:7 ‗Nagsalita si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, dahil ginawa ninyo ang nakakamanghang kasalanan laban sa inyong kaluluwa samakatwid tatapusin na mula sa lalaki at babae at bata at pati sumususo pa ay aalisin sa lugar ng Yahuwdah upang wala ng matira KahitIsa‘. Jeremiah 44:11 ‗At sinabi pa ni Yahweh ang makapangyarihan ng Israel, aking ihaharap ang aking mukha laban sa inyo para sa Kasamaan at Puputulin lahat ang mga Yahuwdah‘. Jeremiah 44:12 ‗at aking kukunin ang mga NATIRANG TAO ng Yahuwdah na tumungo sa Egypto upang tumira at lahat sila ay lilipulin sa itak at kalamidad at mangamamatay mula sa mababa hanggang sa mataas at sila ay magiging sumpa at kamangha-mangha at isang kapulaan‘. Jeremiah 44:28 ‗Ngunit may Kakaunting-Nakatakas sa itak ang babalik mula sa lupain ng Egypto patungo sa lupain ng Yahuwdah, at lahat ng Natira ng Yahuwdah ay malalaman kung kaninong salita ang mananaig, ang salita nila o ang Aking Sinalita‘.

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Kaharian ng Babylonia ay Nagapi ng Kaharian ng Persia

Naka-ukit sa kabundukan ng Iran ang Behistun Rock kung paano ang Kaharian ng Persia ay nagapi ang Kaharian ng Babylonia kasama ang Egypt at kasama ang Yahuwdah ay naging parte ng Kaharian ng Persia. Ang namumuno sa Kaharian ng Persia ay si Cyrus ay nag utos sa isang Royal Decree na pinayagan ang mga Yahuwdah na Bumalik sa Yahrusalem upang itayong muli ang kanilang mga tahanan at ang Templong Sambahan.

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Pagbabalik sa Lupang Pangako
Ang mga nakabalik sa Yahrusalem ay pinamunuan ni Sheshbazzar at Zerubbabel na kapwa galing sa lahi ng Yahuwdah. Ang gumanap na Pari ay si Ezra na galing sa lahi ni Aaron na may dalang mga aklat ni Moses at Karapatan na ibinigay ni Artaxerxes na Emperador noon ng Persia. Si NehemiYah naman ang naatasan ng Emperador na maging Governador at ipinatupad ang pagganap ng mga Sabbath at Kapistahan ni Yahweh, ipinagbawal ang pag-aasawa ng mga Yahuwdah sa ibang lahi at pinahiwalay ang mga Yahuwdah na nakapag-asawa ng ibang lahi. Ang lupain ng Yahuwdah ay naging isang probinsya ng Persia. Ipinatawag ni Ezra ang lahat sa Kapistahan ng Tabernakulo sa ika-pitung buwan at binasa ang Torah ni Moses na napakinggan ng lahat at ang lahat ay sumumpang susundin muli ang kontrata at kasunduan ni Yahweh at ng mga Yahuwdah.

AKLAT NI MOSES
Ang Torah ni Moses o ang aklat ni Moses ay nadala ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron dahil tanging ang lahi lamang ni Aaron ang may karapatang humawak at mag-ingat noon. Paglipas ng panahon ay nakasama na ang mga teksto at komentaryo ng Israelitang-Pari na HINDI nagmula sa lahi ng Levitang si Aaron, 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34, at ang teksto at komentaryo ng mga Paring Hindi-Israelita, 2Kings 17:24 , 2Kings 17:27. Sila ay walang maipakitang katunayan na lahi silang Levita na mababasa sa Nehemiah 7:64. Ang Yahweh (J) Text at ang Elohim (E) Text at ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at ang Deuteronomy (D) Text ay magkakasama sa nabuong mga aklat na tinawag ngayon na Torah ni Moses. Mapapansin ang nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses ay inuulit-ulit ng J, E, P at D text. Ang J-Text o Yahweh Text ay mula sa pag-iingat ng mga Levitang lahi ni Aaron, na tanging mga Levitang lahi sa anak ni Aaron lamang ang inatasan ni Yahweh na hahawak at mag-iingat ng mga banal na kasulatan o mga aklat ni Moses (2Samuel 6:6-7, Deuteronomy 10:8, 31:26). Ang E-text o Elohim Text ay mula sa mga Israelitang HindiLevita na itinalagang Pari ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) (1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34), sila ay hindi naatasan na mag-ingat ng mga kasulatan na tanging Levita na lahi ni Aaron lamang ang may karapatang humawak. Ang P-Text at D-Text ay mula sa mga Pari na nagmula sa limang bansa ng Babylonia, Cuthah, Hamath, Ava, Separvaim (Neh 7:64) na walang talaan na lahi silang Levita at naturuan lamang ng isang ParingIsraelita na Hindi Naman Levita na pinabalik ng Hari ng Assyria sa lupain ng Israel (2Kings 17:27-28).

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Inulit-ulit ang Nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses
Genesis 1 ay Elohim (E) Text ay inulit sa Genesis 2 na Yahweh (J) Text, nadagdag ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at Deuteronomy (D) Text
Ang istorya nila Adam at Eve at Cain at Abel ay Yahweh (J) Text ay tinutukoy ang pagiging malapit sa anghel (tunay na anghel hindi istatwa), sa mga halaman at pakikipag usap sa ahas. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay walang kwento tungkol dito. At binangit ang henerasyon mula kay Adam hanggang kay Noah. Ang istorya sa naganap na malaking baha sa Yahweh (J) Text ay 40 araw na umulan. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay halos isang taong delubyo. Ang Yahweh (J) Text ay may 14 na malilinis na mga hayop at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay 2 malinis at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Yahweh (J) Text ay nagpadala si Noah ng 3 kalapati o tatlong beses na nagpalipad ng kalapati, ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay isang uwak ang pinalipad ni Noah. Ang J-Text at E-Text sa Kontrata ni Abraham sa Genesis 15 ay siningitan ng ibang istorya at sa Genesis 17 naman ang P-Text, lumalabas na dalawang beses nagkita sila Abraham at Yahweh. Mas dramatiko ang J-Text at E-Text sa Exodus 17 nang si Moses ay kumuha ng tubig sa bato, samantalang ang P-Text sa dalawang aklat sa Numbers 20 ay lumalabas na dalawang insidente sa dalawang magkaibang pankakataon o panahon samantalang naganap iyon sa isang lugar sa Meriba at sa isang pagkakataon. Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit muli ni Moses sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20. Sa Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it. Sa Deuteronomy 5:12-15 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ni Moses : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. Ang unang bersyon galing sa P-text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God rested on the seventh day‘. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D-Text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God freed you from slavery‘. Sa Natagpuang Dead Sea Scroll Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: ‗ Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag -uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath‘. (In all of this, no one method governs the process ). Itong naisulat at iniaral ng P at D Text ay itinuwid ng Messiah na mababasa sa Matthew 12:1-12.

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Alexander The Great Nasakop Ang Kaharian ng Persia Itinayo ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Nasakop ni Alexander the Great ang Kaharian ng Persia na pinaghaharian noon ni Darius III. Nasakop din ni Alexander the Great ang Syria, Egypt, Mesapotamia, Bactria at ang India. Itinatag niya ang Alexandria sa Egypt na sentro ng kanyang kaharian, at ang pumalit sa kanya bilang Pharaoh ay si Ptolemy II Soter ay itinayo naman ang Museum at Library ng Alexandria. Ang kanyang mga General si Ptolemy at Nearchus, Aristobulus at Onesicritus. Siya rin ang naging dahilan ng paglaganap ng mga Grego. Ang mga dokumento mula sa Assyria (kasama ang mga dokumento ng naipatapon noon na mga Israelita sa Assyria), Greece, Persia, Egypt, India at maraming nasyon ay nakalagak sa Alexandria Library at Museum. Maraming scholars ang tumira sa Museum upang mag-saliksik, magsulat, magsalin at maglimbag ng mga dokumento.

Greek Pentateuch
Si Ptolemy II ay nagpatawag ng 72 Hebrew scholars at nag utos na isalin sa wikang Grego ang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ang limang aklat ni Moses na tinawag sa Grego na ‗Pentateuch‘. Sinulatan ni Ptolemy II si Eleazar ang Punong Pari sa Yahrusalem upang maglagay ng anim (6) na Hudyong Tigapagsalin na nanggaling sa bawat Tribo ng Israel (12 x 6 = 72). Tinawag ang unang limang aklat ni Moses na ‗Pentateuch‘ na ibig sabihin ay Limang- aklat.

ROMAN TIME Nasira ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Tinalo ng mga Romano ang mga Grego at nasira ang Alexandria Library sa pag-kubkub ng mga Romano sa Alexandria na sentro ng mga Grego.

GREEK PENTATEUCH NAGING LATIN SEPTUAGINT
Ipinagpatuloy ni Ptolemy ang pagsasalin ng 72 Hebrew scholars ng limang aklat ni Moses sa Hebrew ay isinasalin sa wikang Grego at ang iba pang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ay idinagdag dito. Paglipas ng panahon nadagdag na ang iba-iba pang mga aklat sa Hebreo ay ipinasalin na rin sa wikang Grego at maraming beses itong neribisa sa pagkakasalin sa wikang Grego at ang ‗Pentateuch‘ na nakasama na ang iba-iba pang aklat na Hebreo naisalin sa Lumang-Wikang Grego ay isinalin muli sa Makabagong-Wikang Koine Greek. Ang Lumang-Wikang Gregong ‗Pentateuch‘ (ibig sabihin ay Limang-Aklat) (Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon) ay naisalin naman sa wikang Latin at tinawag na Septuagint sa Latin o LXX (dahil hindi na ito Limang Aklat kundi marami na) na siya namang pinagbasehan ng mga bersyon ng Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian at Coptic na

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bersyon. At ito rin ang mga pinagbasehan ng mga Apostolic Fathers at Christian New Testament. Samantala ang Makabagong -Wikang Koine Greek bersyon ay nirebisa at isinalin sa ‗Aquila‘ ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon. Ang Septuagint o LXX ay ang pinagbasehan na ―PINANIWALAAN‖ (canon) at ang iba pang aklat na idinagdag na mga sulat ng mga Propeta kagaya ng aklat na Maccabees, Wisdom of Ben Sira, Daniel at Esther ay mas mahaba pa sa Masoretic Text. Ang ilan na bagong dagdag, ang aklat na Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Macabees at iba pa ay galing sa orihinal na Gregong pagkakasulat. Hindi naisama sa Septuagint ang sikat na mga aklat na ‗Enosh o Jubilees‘ at iba pang mga kasulatan. Ang Septuagint ay galing sa salitang Latin na ibig sabihin ay ‗pitumpong tigapagsalin‘ o LXX. Sumunod na panahon ay masusing nirebisa at isinalin sa Makabagong Greek bersyon na tinawag na ‗Aquila, Symmachus at Theodotion. Ang tatlong ito ang Mas-makabagong Greek bersyon ng kasulatang Septuagint na hango sa Pentateuch na hango sa aklat ni Moses sa Hebreo at iba pang nadagdag na mga aklat sa Hebreo at Grego.

ANG MGA PINANINIWALAAN NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANO NA MGA ALAMAT BAGO REBISAHIN ANG PENTATEUCH GREEK O SEPTUAGINT LATIN OLD TESTAMENT NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANONG MANUNULAT

ALAMAT NI MYTHRA
(1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‗Nabuhay Na Muli‘ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI ATTIS
(1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‗Nabuhay Na Muli‘ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI KRISHNA
(900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‗Nabuhay Na Muli‘ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ
Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na „NABUHAY NA MULI‟. Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus.

ALAMAT NI HORUS
(300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

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NAKILALA NG MARAMING TAO SI YAHSHU‟A ANG MESSIAH NA TAGA NAZARETH NA MAY 12 DISIPOLO
Ang pangalan ni Yahshu‘a ang Messiah ng Nazareth ay pangalang Hebreo ay isinusulat sa Aramaic na Yeshu‘a na ang pagbigkas ay Yah-shu‘a. Ang Aramaic ang umiiral na pangkalahatang wika sa Yahrusalem noong panahong iyon. Mula sa Aramaic ay isinalin ito sa wikang Grego na IESOUS na binibigkas na ‗Yeh-soos‘ at nang maisalin ang Gregong pangalan sa Latin ay naging IESUS na binibigkas sa Latin na ‗Yay-soos‘. Nang maimbento ang letrang ‗J‘ ay naging JESUS na bigkas ay ‗Jey-zus‘.

MARAMING BESES SINIRA ANG ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY
Si Theophilus ay Patriarka ng Alexandria noong 385 hanggang 412 A.D. ang mga Hudyo, Christian at pagano ay sama-samang naninirahan sa Alexandria. Nagkaroon ng pagkaka-alitan sila-sila at nawasak na naman ang Alexandria. Ang huling sinisisi sa pagkakasunog sa Alexandria ay si Moslem Caliph Omar noong 640 A.D. pagkatapos na malaman niya na nasa Alexandria ang lahat ng kasulatan at talino sa mundo na kumokontra sa Koran ay lahat ng aklat sa Alexandria ay sinunog na tumagal ng halos anim na buwan.

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SAAN GALING ANG NEW TESTAMENT?
Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang (Pentateuch) Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsamasamang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami beses at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ay ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong mga pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Ang New Testament o Tinatawag na Greek New Testament o Greek Scriptures

Ang orihinal na indibidwal na aklat ay naisulat noong 45 A.D. sa Koine Greek dahil iyan ang pangkalahatang wikang umiiral noong panahong iyon sa Emperyo ng Roman. Nagmula ang ilan sa Hebreo at Greek na sulatin. Ang Rylands Papyrus 52 ay pangkalahatang tinanggap na pinaka- unang naitalang New Testament na umiidad noong 117 A.D at 138 A.D.

NAKILALANG MGA CHURCH FATHERS:
Ang mga Church Fathers ay ang mga naunang maimpluwensyang manunulat sina Clement ng Rome, Ignatius ng Antioch at Polycarp ng Smyrna. Ang kasulatan na Didache at Shepherd of Hermas ay kasulatan ng mga Church Fathers ngunit hindi lang alam kung sino ang sumulat. Si Clement ng Roma ay sinulat ang 1 Clement noong 96 A.D., siya ay nanawagan sa mananampalataya ng Corinto. Si Ignatius ng Antioch ay istudyante ng Desipolong si John (YahYah) ay sumulat sa mga naunang Christians bago siya patayin sa Roma. Binanggit siya sa mga sulat ni Apostol Pablo.

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Polycarp ng Smyrna ay isang Bishop ng Smyrna (ngayon ay Izmir, Turkey). Siya ay Desipolo ni John (YahYah) na anak ni Zebedee na pinaniniwalaan na sumulat ng ika-apat na Gospel. Samantalang si Eusebius na ipinagpipilitan na si Polycarp ay kasama ni John the Evangelist. Si Polycarp ay pinakiusapan si Anicetus na Bishop ng Rome na ipagdiwang ang Easter sa 14 Nisan ay hindi siya pumayag, kahit sa paggamit sa kalendaryo ng mga taga Kanluran. Si Polycarp ay pinatay ng mga taga Smyrna noong 155 A.D. Hindi siya nasunog sa apoy na pinaglagyan sa kanya, kaya siya ay sinaksak hanggang mamatay at dahil sa dugo niya ay namatay ang apoy sa kanyang paligid.

GREEK FATHERS:
Clement ng Rome, Irenaeus ng Lyons, Clement ng Alexandria, Athanasius ng Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril ng Alexandria ang Cappadocian Fathers (Basil ng Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Peter ng Sebaste & Gregory ng Nyssa), at Maximus ang Confessor.

Irenaeus ng Lyons
Saint Irenaeus, (b. 2nd century; d. end of 2nd/beginning of 3rd century) ay Bishop ng Lugdunum sa Gaul, sa ngayon ay Lyons, France. Siya ay disipolo ni Polycarp. Siya ang unang tumanggap na ang apat na Gospel ay katanggap-tanggap na piliin, noon nagsimula ang pagkalikha ng New Testament noong 180 A.D.

Clement ng Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens) (c.150-211/216), ay kaanib ng iskwelahan at simbahan ng Alexandria. Sinulat niya ang Clement of Alexandria.

Origen of Alexandria
Origen, o Origen Adamantius (c 185 - c254) isa sa mga naunangChristian eskolar at isang Egyptian na nagtuturo sa Alexandria kung saan nagturo rin si Clement. Ang Patriarka ng Alexandria una ay sumusuporta sa kanya ngunit siya ay tinanggal dahil naordinahan ng walang permiso ng Patriarka. Sa kanyang kaalaman sa Hebreo itinuwid niya ang Septuagint at sumulat ng mga komentaryong napasama nang isalin sa mga aklat sa Biblia. Sa kanya si Yahweh ay hindi makapangyarihan kundi isa lamang Unang Prinsipyo at ang antas ng Messiah ay mas mababa, ang kanyang pagkaka- unawa sa Trinity ang pre-existence ng kaluluwa ay idineklara na isang paglait. Sumulat siya ng mahigit 6,000 aklat. Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay bin uo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika -apat ang Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika -lima ay ang LXX o

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Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Si Philo at Josephus ay nagtiwala at pinagbasehan ang Septuagint sa kanilang mga sinulat na patungkol sa mga kasulatan ng Hudyo.

The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version.

MGA AKLAT NG NEW TESTAMENT
Maraming aklat ang unti-unting nakolekta upang maging isang aklat ang Greek New Testament na binubuo ng 27 aklat. Ang pinagbasehan nito ay ang ―Hexaplar Recension‖ na Greek bersyon, Apat na aklat ay ang Gospel, isa dito ay salaysay ng sina-unang paniniwala ng mga Apostol na sinulat ni Luke na isa sa gumawa ng Gospel, 21 sulat at Apocalyptic prophecy.

Gospels
Bawat isa sa Gospel ay nagsasalaysay ng naging takbo ng buhay ni Iesous ( Jesus) ng Nazareth. Ang mga nagsulat ay inakala na sina:      Ang Gospel ni Matthew, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Matthew, anak ni Alphaeus ayon kay Papias, ( Gospel according to the Hebrews) Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus at Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Mark, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Mark the Evangelist, na sumulat sa mga koleksyon ni Apostle Simon Peter ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Luke, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Luke, isang Doktor at nakasama ni Apostle Paul ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori. Ang Gospel of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori, Codex Vaticanus Alexandrinus.

Book of Acts of the Apostles
Ang aklat ng Gawa ng mga Apostol (The book of Acts of the Apostles), ay kadugtong ng Gospel ni Lukas ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Eusebius, Canon Muratori.

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Mga Sulat ni Saulo (Paul)
Ang mga sulat ni Paul (or Corpus Paulinum) ay tradisyon na sinulat ni Paul.).               Epistle to the Romans First Epistle to the Corinthians Second Epistle to the Corinthians Epistle to the Galatians Epistle to the Ephesians Epistle to the Philippians Epistle to the Colossians First Epistle to the Thessalonians Second Epistle to the Thessalonians First Epistle to Timothy Second Epistle to Timothy Epistle to Titus Epistle to Philemon Epistle to the Hebrews – sinabi ni Origen (254 A.D.) "ang mga tao noon ay ibinigay kay Paul ang epistle na ito ngunit ang sumulat ay ang Lumikha lamang ang nakakaalam) ngunit maraming eskolars ang naniniwala na sinulat ito noon ni Paul.

General Epistles

Kasama ang mga sulat sa mga simbahan,(catholic ang ibig sabihin ay universal).        Epistle of James, sa tradisyon sinulat ni James, kapatid ni Iesous (Jesus ) at Jude Thomas. First Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. Second Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. First Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Second Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Third Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Epistle of Jude, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Jude Thomas, kapatid ni Iesous(Jesus) at James.

Revelation
Ang huling aklat ng Biblia sa New Testament ay ang Book of Revelation, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John of Patmos, ang aklat na ito ay hindi binabasa ng Eastern Orthodox church.

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PAGKAKAAYOS NG MGA AKLAT SA NEW TESTAMENT
Ang mga aklat ng New Testament ay iba ang pagkakaayos sa bawat religion. Sa Protestant Bibles ay gumaya sa Roman Catholic na pagkakaayos ngunit ang Lutheran ay iba ang pagkakaayos. Sa labas ng Western European Catholic/Protestant ay iba rin ang pagkakaayos sa Slavonic, Syriac at Ethiopian Bibles (Gospels, Acts, Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles, at Apocalypse).

Apocrypha
Ang mga Apocrypha na mga aklat ang Gospel of Thomas ang Epistle to the Laodiceans. Ang 4th century Codex Sinaiticus ay isinama ang Old at New Testaments ang Epistle of Barnabas at The Shepherd of Hermas. Ang Pinagtatalunang Sulatin, ang Epistle of James at kay Jude, at second epistle of Peter, at lahat ng second at third of John, nagdududa sila kung ito ay ginawa niya o ng ibang tao na parehas ang pangalan. Ang Acts of Paul, at ang Shepherd, at ang Apocalypse of Peter, at ang epistle of Barnabas, at ang Teachings of the Apostles. Ang Apocalypse of John, at ang Gospel according to the Hebrews... ay ang mga pinagtatalunang mga aklat. Ang mga aklat na Gospels of Peter, ni Thomas, ni Matthias, at ang ilan at ang Acts of Andrew at John at nang ibang Apostoles ay napatunayan na mga kathang isip lamang kaya hindi sila naisama sa New Testament. Noong 1611 A.D. King James Version sa English New Testament ay naisalin mula sa Textus Receptus, texto mula sa bagong edisyon ni Erasmus' na nailathala sa Greek New Testament na lumalabas na binasehan ay ang tipo ng Byzantine text. Karamihan sa modernong English bersyon ng New Testament ay binase sa kritikal na pagbuo ng Greek text, kagaya ng Nestle-Alands' Novum Testamentum Graece o Greek New Testament o United Bible Societies'.

Mga Bagong Idinagdag na Texto sa New Testament
      

Matt 16:2b-3 Mark 16:9-20 Luke 22:19b-20,43–44 John 5:4 John 7:53-8:11 1 John 5:7b–8a Romans 16:24

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Christian New Testament
Sa sumunod na panahon dalawang pangunahing pinag-ingatang rebisyon ang pinagbasehan ni Lucian at Hesychius, ito ay pinatunayan ni Jerome. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan at palaging binabanggit sa Christian New Testament. Masoretic Text ay Hebrew text na siyang Biblia (Tanakh) ng mga Hudyo na naisulat noong 700 A.D. hanggang 1000 A.D. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan ng mga Protestanteng Biblia at ganoon din ng mga Katolikong Biblia. Pope Theonas of Alexandria ay ang Punong Papa ng Alexandria na naging Coptic Church at ang Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 282 hanggang 300 A.D. Pope Achillas of Alexandria ang pang 18 Papa ng Coptic Orthodox Church at ng Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 312 hanggang 313 A.D. Si Achillas naman ay inordinahan na Pari ni Pierius, at naging lider ng Catechetical School of Alexandria sa pagkawala ni Pierius na naging martir ng Alexandria. Siya ay kasing galing sa Greek philosophy at theological science kapantay ni Athanasius ng Alexandria at tinawag siyang "Achillas the Great". Siya ang pumalit pagkamatay ni Peter ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng Pagpapahirap ni Diocletian . Minana niya ang mga problema ng simbahan kagaya ng Meletian heresy at ang patuloy na alitan sa Arianism. Sa pamumuno ni Achillas bilang Patriarka, siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng mga sumusuporta kay Arius upang tanggalin ang suspensyon kay Arius. Sa resulta nito ay ibinalik si Arius bilang Pari sa Bucalis na isang pinakamatanda at maimpluwensyang simbahan sa Alexandria.

EMPEROR CONSTANTINE
Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced /ˈ kɒnstɛntaɪn/), was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337A.D. Kilala bilang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian , at binigyang laya ang mga religion sa kanyang nasasakupang emperyo. Ginawa siya at ang kanyang ina si Reyna Helena bilang Santo ng Eastern Orthodox Church at Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine. Sa Latin Church kahit hindi siya ginawang santo ngunit siya ay tinawag nila na ―Constantine The great‖ sa kanyang kontribusyon sa Christianity. Si Constantine ay ginawa ang sina-unang Greek colony ng Byzantium bilang bagong imperial residence ang Constantinople na nanatiling kapital ng Byzantine Empire sa loob ng 1,000 taon.

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50 KOPYA NG BIBLIA NI CONSTANTINE
Noong 322 A.D. inutusan ni Emperor Constantine si Eusebius na gumawa ng 50 kopya ng Banal na Kasulatan na ginawa ng Kilalang-Manunulat at isulat na maliwanag na madaling maintindihan at sa tatlo o apat na kopya ay ihatid sa kanya upang siyasatin at gamitin ang dalawang karwahe ng kaharian sa paghahatid. Si Eusebius ay kumuha ng mga aklat sa kanyang lugar sa Caesarea ng mga bagong-salin na mga aklat mula sa Hexaplar Recension na nagmula sa sulat ni Origen na ―Hexapla”. Ang 27 aklat na pinagbasehan ay ang rebisyon ng ― HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

The Bibles of Constantine
There is another piece of evidence that bears on the subject of the canon - even though we may not know how to interpret it. About the year 322 CE, the emperor Constantine, wishing to promote and organize Christian worship in the growing number of churches in Constantinople, directed Eusebius to have 50 copies of the sacred Scriptures made by practiced scribes and written legibly on prepared parchment. At the same time the emperor informed him, in a letter still preserved to us, that everything necessary for doing this was placed at his command, among other things two public carriages for conveying the completed manuscripts to the emperor for his personal inspection. According to Eusebius: Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. (Vita Const. 4.36.37) The exact meaning of the concluding words has been taken in a half dozen different senses. Two of the most popular are, that the pages had 'three or four columns of script', or that as the copies were completed, they were sent off for the emperor's inspection 'three or four at a time'. The astonishing thing is that Eusebius, who took care to tell us at some length about the fluctuations of opinion in regard to certain books, has not one word to say regarding the choice he made on this important occasion. Of course, 50 magnificent copies, all uniform, could not but exercise a great influence on great influence on future copies, at least within the bounds of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and would help forward the process of arriving at a commonly accepted New Testament in the East. Some have suggested that the codex Sinaiticus is one of the 50 bibles commissioned by Constantine, but its Alexandrian type of text makes this unlikely.

Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr.

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στἰχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.

Alexander Bishop ng Alexandria
Alexander ng Alexandria ay pang 19 na Patriarka ng Alexandria mula 313 A.D. hanggang pagkamatay niya noong 326 A.D. siya ang nagtala ng Easter, siya ay ang lider na kontra sa Arianism sa First Council of Nicaea. Siya rin ang adviser ni Athanasius ng Alexandria na pumalit sa kanya bilang lider ng Church fathers.

Athanasius ng Alexandria
Athanasius ng Alexandria (c 293-2 May 373) isang theologian, pumalit kay Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria, Pope ng Alexandria, ay isang Egyptian. Siya ay kilala sa aral niyang Trinity.

Arius
Arius (AD ca. 250 or 256 - 336) isang Paring Christian mula sa Alexandria, Egypt ang nagpasimuno ng Arianism. Siya ay mula sa Libya na sakop pa ng Egypt, ang kanyang ama ay si Ammonius. Si Arius ay estudyante ni Saint Lucian ng Antioch. Siya ay na excommunikado ni Bishop Peter ng Alexandria sa kanyang pagsuporta sa paniniwala ni Meletius. Si Bishop Peter ay pinalitan ni Bishop Achillas ay muling tinanggap bilang Pari si Arius sa simbahan ng Baucalis sa distrito ng Alexandria.. Noong 318 A.D. nakipagtalo siya sa kanyang Bishop si Alexander ng Alexandria na pumalit kay Bishop Achillas. Ipinilit niya na si Iesous ( Jesus) "ang Son of God," ay hindi katulad o hindi parehas na mananatili magpakailanman (co-eternal) kagaya ng God the Father, at minsan binanggit niya na hindi tutuo ang Iesous (Jesus). Si Arius kasama ang kanyang tigasunod na mga Pari ay na excommunikado, ngunit ang debate ay nagpatuloy sa Eastern Roman Empire. Maraming bishops lalo na ang mga nakapag-aral kay Lucian ng Antioch ay naniwala kay Arius. Sa panahong iyon si Constantine I ay ang naging Emperador ng Silanganan noong 324 A.D. at ang mga debate ay matitindi sa panahong iyon. Maraming sinulat si Arius ngunit walang natira, inutos ni Emperor Constantine ang pagsunog sa lahat ng sulat ni Arius at ang mga natira sa sinulat ni Arius ay sinira ng mga nakalaban ni Arius. Ang tatlong natira sa sinulat ni Arius ang sulat niya kay Alexander ng Alexandria na naitago ng mga Athanasius, On the Councils of Arminum and Seleucia , 16; Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.7; and Hilary, On the Trinity, 4.12), Ang sulat niya kay Eusebius ng Nicomedia (as recorded by Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.6 and Theodoret, Church History, 1.5) .

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Ang kanyang kumpisal kay Constantine (as recorded in Socrates Scholasticus, Church History 1.26.2 and Sozomen, Church History 2.27.6-10).

COUNCIL OF NICAEA
Noong 325 A.D. si Emperor Constantine ay binuo ang Council of Nicaea . Sa 1,800 na Bishop na imbitado, 318 na Bishop lamang ang nakadalo. Natalo sa debate si Arius at si Athanasius na ipinadala ni Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria ang pinanigan ni Constantine na ang itinuturo ay ang Trinity. Ang pananatili ni Athanasius ay hindi tumagal nang namatay si Bishop Alexander sa Alexandria noong 327 A.D., pinalitan siya ni Athanasius bilang Bishop. Si Eustathius ng Antioch na sumusuporta kay Athanasius ay natanggal dahil sa pakikipagtalo ka Eusebius ng Caesaria. Si Marcellus ng Ancyra na isa pang kakampi ni Athanasius ay kinasuhan ng Sabellianism sa kanyang pag-depensa sa Nicene Christology ay tinanggal noong 336 A.D. Si Eusebius ng Nicomedia naman ay pinagbuntunan ng galit, si Athanasius ay sumulat kay Emperor Constantine at pinabalik ni Emperor Constantine si Arius na nagtatago sa Palestine. Inutusan din ni Constantine si Athanasius na tanggaping muli si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit hindi pumayag si Athanasius kaya si Athanasius ay na exile sa Trier. Ipinatawag si Arius ni Constantine upang husgahan at inutusan si Alexander ng Constantinople na muling tanggapin si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit sa huling araw na dapat magkomunyon si Arius ay bigla itong namatay. Ang sinabi ng mga kalaban ni Arius ay ‗himala o miracle‘, samantalang sinabi ni Constantine ay ‗pinaslang o murder‘ dahil si Arius ay nilason ng kanyang mga kalaban. Ang mga panig kay Arius sina Eusebius ng Nicomedia at Eusebius ng Caesarea ay maimpluwensya ay ipinaglaban ang mga doktrina ni Arius.

Doktrina ni Arius
Na ang makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi laging ang Ama (Father) kundi may panahon na hindi siya Ama, at ang mga salita ng Makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi Magpakailanman (Eternity) kundi galing lang sa wala. Dahil ang Nananatiling Makapangyarihan (Existing God) sa (‗the I AM‘—the eternal One) ay ginawa dahil hindi siya dati nang nag- e-exist. (made him who did not previously exist) na nagmula sa wala, at ang Anak ay Nilikha o isang ginawa. Hindi siya ang Ama kundi isa lang na Nilikha ng Kanyang gawa at mali na tawaging Salita at Talino dahil isa rin siyang Nilikha ng Salita ng Maykapal, na kung saan ay nilikha ng Ama ang lahat kasama siya. Kaya sa kanyang natural na pagkatao ay makadadanas ng pagbabago kagaya ng lahat ng nilikha. Ang Salita ay iba sa Ama at ang Ama ay hindi kayang ipaliwanag ng Anak at hindi niya nakikita at ang Salita ay hindi kilala ang Ama at di nakikita. Ang Anak ay hindi alam ang natural na pagkakakilanlan ng kanyang sarili dahil siya ay nilikha dahil sa atin upang likhain tayo sa pamamagitan niya, kagaya ng instrumento. Nilikha Siya ng Ama dahil ninais ng Ama na likhain tayo.

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Emperor Constantine Nagpabautismo sa Arian Priest
Ang asawa ni Constantine si Constantina ay naniniwala sa aral ni Arius. Si Emperor Constantine ang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian. Siya ay nabautismuhan ni Eusebius ng Nicomedia na isang Arian Priest.

Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine. He was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia, and finally of Constantinople from 338 up to his death.

Ang Mga Sumunod na Mga Bishop ng Alexandria
Cyril ng Alexandria Cyril ng Alexandria (ca. 378 - 444) ay Bishop ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng kasikatan ng Emperyo ng Romano ". John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (c 347– c 407), Pangunahing Bishop ng Constantinople, sinulat niya ang Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom . Cappadocian Fathers Ang mga eskolar sina Saint Macrina the Younger , Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa at Peter of Sebaste na naging Bishop ng Sebaste. Ang mga eskolar kasama ang kanilang kaibigan si Gregory Nazianzus ay ipinakita na ang mga Christian ay kayang makipag usap sa mga mataas ang aral na nagsasalita ng Grego kahit na ang kanilang paniniwala ay talihis kay Plato at Aristotle at iba pang Pilosopong Grego ay nakapag-dagdag ng malaki sa pagkaka-kilala sa Trinity na tinapos sa First Council of Constantinople noong 381 A.D at ang pinal na bersyon ng Nicene Creed. Mga Latin Fathers Ang mga sumulat sa wikang Latin ay ang tinawag na Latin Fathers sila Tertullian, si Cyprian ng Carthage, si Gregory the Great, si Augustine ng Hippo, si Ambrose ng Milan, at si Jerome.

Tertullian Promotor ng Tawag na Old Testament at New Testament
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c 160 - c 225), ay naging Christian noong 197 A.D. ay isang manunulat at theologian ay isang anak ng Romanong Centurion. Siya ay isang abogado sa Roma at binansagang ―Father of the Latin Church‖. Siya ang nag lunsad ng salitang ―Trinitas‖ ng Christian Devine Trinity sa wikang Latin kahit na nauna ng naisulat ni Theophilus of Antioch (c. 115 - c. 183) na nagmula sa Koine Greek at ang ―vetus testamentum (Old Testament) at "novu m testamentum" (New Testament). Siya rin ang nauna na tumawag ng "vera religio", na naging sistema ng Religion ng Roman Empire at iba pang tinanggap na Kulto na tinawag na "superstitions". Sa sumunod na panahon sumali siya sa sektang Montanists na kontra sa umiiral na paniniwala.

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Cyprian ng Carthage Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) ay bishop ng Carthage ay isang importanteng manunulat na ipinanganak sa Carthage na naging Bishop noong 249 A.D. Ambrose ng Milan Saint Ambrose (c. 338 – 4 April 397), ay bishop ng Milan na naging maimpluwensya at isa sa apat na orihinal na Doctors of the Church. Jerome of Stridonium Saint Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ay kilala na translator ng Biblia sa Latin mula sa Grego at Hebreo na gumawa ng Vulgate Bible na ginagamit ng Roman Catholic Church. Siya ay tinawag na Doctor of the Church. Augustine ng Hippo Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), ay ipinanganak sa Algeria ay naging Bishop ng Hippo, isang philosopher at theologian ay isang Latin Father at Doctor of the Church. Siya ay importante sa paglaganap ng Western Christianity. Siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng Platonism. Ang mga ginawa niya ay ipinagpatuloy ni Pope Gregory the Great. Gregory the Great Saint Gregory I the Great (c. 540 – March 12, 604) ay ang pope mula September 3, 590 A.D. hanggang mamatay. Kilala rin siya bilang Gregorius Dialogus (Gregory the Dialogist) sa Eastern Orthodoxy ay Doctor of the Church at pang apat sa great Latin Fathers of the Church (ang ibang Latin Fathers sina Ambrose, Augustine, at Jerome). Apologetic Fathers Sina St. Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athenagoras of Athens, Hermias at Tertullian.

Ang Pangalawang Council of Nicea noong 787 A.D. Ang ika-pitong Economical Council ng Roman Catholic sa Nicaea (Iznik sa Turkey) ay ibinalik ang pagpuri sa mga imahen na pinatigil noong panahon ng Byzantine Empire sa panahon ni Leo III. Modern positions Sa Roman Catholic Church, si St. John ng Damascus, na nabuhay noong ika-walong siglo ay ang pinaka-huling Church Fathers at ang una sa susunod na Church writers, scholasticism. Si St. Bernard ay isa pa rin sa huling Church Fathers.

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PINAGMULAN NG ENGLISH BIBLE
Mula sa Hexaplar Recension ay isinalin ito sa English Hexapla na New Testament ng Wiclif's Bible noong 1380 A.D., William Tyndale's Bible noong 1534A.D., Cranmer's the Great Bible noong 1539 A.D., ang Geneva Bible noong 1557 A.D., Rheims Bible noong 1582 A.D., at ang Authorised, o King James Bible noong 1611 A.D., at naisalin na sa kasalukuyang New King James Bible, NIV Bible, Holy Bible, Catholic Bible.

Hexapla (Ἑξαπλά: Gr. for "sixfold") is the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions. Especially it applies to the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria, which placed side by side in six (6) columns:
1. Hebrew Culturally, it is considered a Jewish language 2. Hebrew transliterated into Greek characters 3. Aquila of Sinope native of Pontus in Anatolia known for producing an exceedingly literal translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek around 130 CE 4. Symmachus the Ebionite (fl. late 2nd century) was the author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament 5. Septuagint 72 Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the third century BC 6. Theodotion (d. ca. 200 A.D.) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar

The English Hexapla is an edition of the New Testament in Greek, along with what were considered the six most important English language translations in parallel columns underneath, preceded by a detailed history of English translations and translators by S. P. Tregelles. The six English language translations provided are Wiclif's (1380), William Tyndale's (1534), Cranmer's (the Great Bible 1539), the Geneva Bible (1557), Rheims (1582), and the Authorised, or King James Bible, (1611). The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version. The English Hexapla was published by Samuel Bagster and Sons, of Paternoster Row, London, who are described on the title page as being a "warehouse for Bibles, New Testaments, Prayerbooks, Lexicons, Grammars, Concordances, and Psalters, in ancient and modern languages." It was published in 1841

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Protestant
Ang Protestant religioun kahit na nagbase sa Sola Scriptura (the principle that the Bible itself is the ultimate authority in doctrinal matters), ang unang Protestant reformers, kagaya ng Catholic at Orthodox churches, ay nagbase sa theological interpretations ng scripture na itinatag ng mga naunang Church Fathers. Ang orihinal na Lutheran Augsburg Confession ng 1531 A.D. at ang Formula of Concord ng 1576-1584 ay kagaya ng doktrina ng First Council of Nicea. Ang John Calvin's French Confession of Faith of 1559 A.D. ay naglahad ng mga naitatag na ng sina-unang council. Binigyan nila ng importansya ang Tradisyon at ang Interpretasyon ng mga sina-unang Fathers kagaya ng Paleo-Orthodoxy. Ang American Protestant ay ang United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church USA, Episcopal Church, at ang Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, ay iba ang doktrina at nag ordina ng babaeng pastora at pati homosexual. Sila ay di naniniwala sa mga naunang simbahan at naniniwala na ang lahat ay pwedeng dumerekta sa Maykapal kaya hindi na kailangan ng guidance o doktrina ng simbahan.

Latter-day Saints
Ang mga kaanib ng The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (o Mormons) ay tinatanggap ang Biblia kasama ang New Testament bilang salita ng Maykapal kung ito ay naisalin ng tama.

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Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism ay kagaya ng pagkilala ng maraming evangelical Protestants sa atoridad ng New Testament.

Dead Sea Scroll
Ang natagpuan noong 1947 A.D. na maraming kasulatan sa Dead Sea Scroll lalo na ang mga nakasulat sa Aramaic ay mas malapit at mas pumapabor sa Septuagint kaysa Masoretic text. Sa simula noong 200 A.D. ang mga Hudyo ay maraming dahilan kaya hindi ginamit ang Septuagint, dahil ang mga naunang mga Hentil (hindi tuli Epeso 2:11) na Christian ay pinaniniwalaan at ginagamit ang Septuagint dahil hindi sila nakaka- intindi ng wikang Hebreo kundi ng wikang Grego lamang. Si Jerome ay isinalin ang Septuagint na wikang Latin (Vulgate Bible) ay napatunayan niya na ang Hebrew text ay mas maraming nagpapatunay tungkol sa Messiah kaysa sa Septuagint kaya siya ay Lumabas sa Tradisyon ng Simbahang Katoliko at isinalin niya ang Old Testament mula sa Hebreo sa tinawag na Vulgate Bible. Ang kanyang pagpuna sa Septuagint ay pinulaan ng mga Augustine at pinalabas na si Jerome ay isang (Forger) mandaraya ng kasulatan ngunit sa paglipas ng panahon ay ang kanyang Old Testament na Vulgate Latin Bible ay sinapawan ang Septuagint. Sa aklat ng Septuagint ay maraming aklat na hindi makikita sa Hebrew Bible. Marami sa mga biblia ng Protestante ay sumunod sa Jewish canon at hindi isinama ang ibang aklat. Ang Simbahang Katoliko naman ay isinama ang mga aklat na iyon, samantalang ang Simbahan ng Eastern Orthodox ay ginagamit lahat ang mga aklat sa Septuagint, ganoon din ang Anglical maliban lang sa Psalm 151. Ang King James Version naman ay isinama lahat ng nadagdag na aklat at inilagay sa isang seksyon na tinawag na ‗Apocrypha‘.

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Name of Almighty Father in Four Letters found written in Dead Sea Scrolls pronounced “YAHWEH

is the Name of Messiah pronounced “Yahshu‟a”

John 14:26 “But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.”
The HOLY SPIRIT is the Comforter is to be send by the FATHER ( ) in the NAME “YAHSHU’A” and that HOLY SPIRIT shall TEACH us ALL THINGS, and that HOLY SPIRIT will bring to us ALL THINGS to our REMEMBRANCE to trace the history of the Lost Sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:5 These twelve sent
forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

That HOLY SPIRIT will be send in the name YAHSHU‟A, not in any other names. Acts 4:12 “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.”

How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus
By:JOSEPH STALLINGS

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Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6

Published in Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 page 17 The Mystery of the Magi
We usually don‟t think about it, but our Lord‟s name was not always Jesus. It was in fact originally the popular Aramaic name Yeshu‟a. In first century Judea and Galilee, the name Yeshu‟a was very common and shared fifth place with Eleazar (Lazarus) in popularity as a name for Jewish men. The most popular male names at that time were Shime‟on (Simon), Yosef (Joseph), Yehuda (Judah or Judas) and Yochanan (John). In the Holy Land at the time of Christ, Aramaic had replaced Hebrew in everyday conversation, but Hebrew remained the holy language and was used in worship and daily prayers. The rabbis also used Hebrew when instructing their disciples. The two languages were closely related, however, as close as Italian is to Spanish, and both used the same alphabet. Yeshu‟a was the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name Yehoshu‟a (Joshua), and means “Yahweh saves”. Throughout Christ‟s lifetime in Galilee, Samaria and Judea of course the name Yeshu‟a presented no problem for those who spoke Aramaic and read the Bible and prayed in Hebrew. But outside the Holy Land it become a different story as Good News spread. The Gentiles of the Roman Empire spoke Greek and Latin and simply could not pronounce Yeshu‟a. It contained sounds that did not exist in their language. When the Gospels were written in Greek, therefore, the Evangelists had a real problem regarding how they might render our Lord‟s name into acceptable Greek. The initially „Y‟ (Hebrew and Aramaic letter „yod‟) was easy. The Evangelists could use the Greek letter „iota‟, written „I,‟ since it was pronounced like the „y‟ in yet. The next sound was a vowel, and that was a little more difficult. Unlike Greek, all the letters of the AramaicHebrew alphabet are consonants. The marks for the vowels were not invented until some centuries after Christ and were simple dots and dashes, placed above or beneath the letters. At the time of Christ apparently, the first vowel in our Lord‟s name was pronounced like the „a‟ in gate. And the Evangelists believed they could approximate that sound by using the Greek letter „eta‟. (The capital Greek letter looks just like our English letter H). Then followed the first of two almost insurmountable problems with Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation. There was no letter for the „sh‟ sound in the Greek alphabet. Such a familiar name as Solomon was actually Sh‟lomo in Hebrew, Samson was Shimson and Samuel was Sh‟mu-El. Like the Greek translators of these Old Testament Hebrew names, the Evangelists used the Greek sigma (s) for the Hebrew shin (sh) when rendering Christ‟s name. The first three Greek letters „iota‟, „eta‟, and „sigma‟, moreover came to be used in early Byzantine religious art as an abbreviation of Jesus name. As they look very much like the Latin letters IHS, the letters were adapted in Western European religious paintings and church architecture as a symbol for Christ‟s name. The next letter in the Aramaic name Yeshu‟a was the Hebrew letter „waw‟, which here represents the sound „oo‟, as in too. It was easy for the Evangelists to duplicate this sound in Greek. It takes two letters, however, the omicron (o) and upsilon (u). But that easy substitution was followed by the biggest problem of all: th e final „a‟ sound. In Greek, there was no substitute for the Hebrew letter „aiyin‟. Though the „aiyin‟ has no sound of its own, it causes the vowel that it controls to be pronounced deep in the throat. The Greek couldn‟t do that, and neither could the Roma ns

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when speaking in Latin. Usually, a Greek or Roman would pronounce an „aiyin‟ -controlled „a’ like the „a‟ in father. A final „a‟ on a name however was most commonly feminine in both Greek and Latin. Thus it was decided to drop the Hebrew „aiyin‟ completely and replace it with the final Greek sigma (s) which most often indicates the masculine gender in nouns. Throughout the Roman Empire then our Lord‟s Aramaic name Yeshu‟a, had become the Greek name Iesous, pronounced yeh-SOOS. And this remained Christ‟s name throughout the Roman Empire as long as Greek remained the dominant language. But after some centuries Greek lost its favored position and Latin took its place. In the last quarter of the fourth century, the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin by *St. Jerome who had no trouble rendering the Greek Iesous into Latin, it became Iesus. The accent, however, was moved to the first syllable and the name pronounced YAY-soos, since the Romans liked to accent the second from the last syllable. In about 14th century, in the scriptoria of the monasteries where Bibles were copied by hand, Monks began to elongate the initial „I‟ of the words into a „J‟. (The pronounciation remained the same -like the „y‟ in yet but the Monks thought a „J‟ looked better). Probably the first Monks to do this were Germans because the letter „j‟ in that language sounds the same as the „y‟ in English. The name Iesus, consequently, evolved into the familiar written form of Jesus by the 17th century. Everyone still pronounced it YAY-soos, however, as it was in the official liturgical Latin. Way back in the fifth and sixth centuries, some pagan Germanic tribes called the Angles and Saxons invaded England. St Augustine of Canterbury came to convert them to Christianity in A.D.396. Of course St. Augustine established Jerome‟s Latin translation as England‟s official Bible. The Anglo -Saxon learned that our Lord‟s official Latin name was Iesus. Naturally the Germanic Anglo-Saxon converted the initial Latin „I‟ into the German „J‟. They pronounced the name, however, as YAY-zoos, since a single „s‟ between two vowels is sounded like our „z‟ in Germanic languages. When the Normans invaded England in A.D.1066 they brought with them the French language. Since neither the Anglo-Saxons nor the Normans would surrender their language to the other, the two become wedded and eventually evolved into Modern English. The Normans did influence the pronunciation of the first letter of Our Lord‟s name, though, they brought the French pronunciation of „j‟ (jh), which evolved into our English sound of „j‟. When King James commissioned the first official translation of the Bibles into English in the early 17 th century, the Latin Iesus was carried over unchanged into the new English Bible. The average English citizen of the day probably pronounced the name JAY-zus which ultimately evolved into our modern English JEEzus. The long process was now complete. A name that began as the Aramaic **Yeshu‟a would remain written in English as it was in Medieval Latin, but now would be pronounced in English speaking countries as the familiar and loving name of the One who is our Savior, JESUS.

*St. Jerome name is Eusebius Hieronymus A.D.347 – A.D.419 **Aramaic Name “Yeshu‟a” is pronounced “Yahshu‟a” in Aramaic and “Yahshu‟a” in Hebrew

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Kilala mo ba si YAHSHU‟A ang pangalan ng Messiah na nagturo sa Israel 2,000 taon na ang nakakalipas ? Ang pangalang itinawag sa kanya ng kaniyang Hebreong magulang ay pangalang Hebreo na Yahshu‟a na isinusulat sa wikang Aramaic na YESHU‟A. Ang Aramaic na pangalang Yeshu‟a ay isinalin sa pangalang Greek na Iesous na binibigkas na Yeh-sous, at isinalin sa Latin na Iesus na binibigkas na Yay-sus at ng maimbento ang letrang „J‟ noong 1633 A.D. ay naisalin sa English na Jesus, mababasa sa „How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus‟ sa pahina “o”.

Mas Mahalaga ba ang pangalang Yahshu‟a kaysa Jesus ? Sa YahYah (Juan) 14:26 “ang Mang-aaliw na siyang Banal Na Ispiritu ay ipadadala ng Ama sa pamamagitan ng Aking Pangalan, at iyang Banal Na Ispiritung iyan ang siyang Magtuturo sa iyo ng lahat ng bagay at Magpapa-alala ng lahat ng sinabi ko sa iyo”. Ang pangalan niya nang binangit sa YahYah (Juan) 14:26 ay Yahshu‟a, hindi pa na -iisalin ang pangalan niya sa Iesous o Jesus, samakatwid ipadadala ng Amang Yahweh ang Banal Na Ispiritu sa pamamagitan ng Pangalang YAHSHU‟A. Bago tayo magpatuloy alam natin na bagong imbento lamang ang Letrang „J‟ kaya imposibleng Jesus ang pangalan ng Messiah, ganoon din ang pangalan ni Juan o „John‟ ay ang dapat ay „YahYah‟. Sa Israel ngayon ang tawag kay John ay „Yochanan‟ na isang kontradiksyon sa nakasulat sa YeremiYah (Jeremiah) 43:4 at sa Luke 1:61. Tangi ang Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh na „Yah‟ sa Awit 68:4 ang may kapangyarihan na pagsalitaing-muli si ZechariYah sa Luke 1:22, Luke 1:59-64. Ang Semetic na kapatid na wika ng Hebreo at sa Arabic ang pangalan ni John ay „Yahya‟.

Si Yahshu‟a ang Messiah ay ANAK NI YAHWEH o ANAK NG TAO ? Noong kapanahunan pa ni Emperor Constantine na nagtatag ng Romano Katoliko ay pinagtatalunan na kung ang Messiah (na naisalin na sa pangalang Latin na „Iesus‟) ay „Anak ng Kataas-taasan‟ o „Anak ng Tao‟. Nang ipatawag ni Emperor Constantine noong 325 A.D. ang 1.800 na Bishop na ang dumalo ay 318 Bishop lamang sa Council of Nicea, ang pinagkatiwalaan ni Bishop Alexander na si Athanasius ay ipinipilit na si Iesus ay „Anak ng Kataas-taasan‟ at ang Banal na Ispiriti at ang Ama ay iisa o ang „Paniniwala sa Trinity‟. Si Arius naman ay ipinagpilitan na si Iesus ay „Anak ng Tao‟.

Si Yahshu‟a ay Anak Ni Yahweh: Sa geneology sa Luke 3:23-38 “Si Yahshu‟a ay magtatatlumpong taon na ay anak ni Yohseph na anak ni……. si Seth na anak ni Adam na Anak ni Yahweh”. Si Yahshu‟a raw ay anak ni Yohseph na ang ninuno ay si Adam na Anak ni Yahweh. Sa Genesis 6:2-4 sa kapanahunan ni Adam “At nakita ng mga „Anak ni Yahweh‟ na magaganda ang mga babaeng „Anak ng Tao‟ at pumili sila ng kani-kanilang mapapangasawa”. May mga higante sa mundo ng kapanahunang iyon, at ang naging supling ng Anak ni Yahweh sa mga babaeng Anak ng Tao ay naging Magigiting (Mighty men) o tinawag na Elohim.

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Nalito ang mga Translators kung Sino ang Anak ni Yahweh at Sino ang Anak ng Tao: YahYah (Juan) 12:32-34 “at Ako, kung Ako at maitaas na, ilalapit ang lahat ng tao sa akin (and I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me)”. YahYah (Juan) 12:33 ay komentaryo ng Translators. YahYah (Juan) 12:34 “Ang mga tao ay sumagot, „narinig namin sa batas na ang Messiah ay lalagi magpakailanman, bakit sinasabi mo na ang Anak ng Tao ay kailang maitaas, sino ba itong Anak ng Tao ? (“The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Messiah abideth forever, and how sayest thou, The Son of Man must be lifted up ? who is this Son of Man ?). Wala naman binanggit sa YahYah 12:32 ang Translators na Anak ng Tao ay kailang maitaas, bakit sa isinagot ng mga tao at nagtatanong sino ba itong Anak ng Tao ? Samakatwid sa YahYah 12:32 ay ang binanggit ni Yahshu‟a ay HINDI „Ako‟ KUNDI „Anak ng Tao‟ ay maitaas na. Bakit nalito ang mga Translators ?

Si Yahshu‟a Messiah ay Anak Ni Yahweh na Buhay: Mateo 16:13-17 “Nang dumating si Yahshu‟a sa lupain ng Caesaria ng Filipos, tinanong niya ang kanyang mga Alagad. Sino raw ang Anak ng Tao ayon sa mga tao? At sumagot sila na sabi po ng ilan ay si YahYah (Juan Bautista), sabi naman ng iba ay si EliYah, at may nagsabi pang si YeremiYah o isa sa mga Propeta”. Kayo naman ano ang sabi ninyo ? sino ako ? tanong niya sa kanila. Sumagot si Simon Pedro, “Kayo po ang Messiah, ang Anak Ni Yahweh na Buhay”. Sinabi sa kanya ni Yahshu‟a “mapalad ka Simon na Anak ni Yonas sapagkat ang KATOTOHANANG ITO‟Y HINDI INIHAYAG sa iyo ng laman at ng dugo (ng sinumang tao) kundi nang aking Ama (Amang Yahweh) na nasa langit”.

Tanging si Simon Pedro na anak ni Yonas ang pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh ng KATOTOHANAN na si Yahshu‟a ay ANAK NI YAHWEH NA BUHAY. Ang mga Translators ay nalito dahil hindi sila pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh ng katotohanang ito kaya inakala nila na si Yahshu‟a ay Anak ng Tao kagaya ng ayon sa mga Tao.

Ano ang Inihayag ni Amang Yahweh kay Simon Pedro na Anak ni Yonas na Hindi inihayag sa sinumang tao ? Marcos 4:11 ‘sa inyo’y ipinagkaloob na malaman ang lihim tungkol sa paghahari ni Yahweh, ngunit sa iba ay ang lahat ng bagay ay itinuturo sa pamamagitan ng talinghaga’. Kung inihayag din sa inyo ito ay matatanggap ninyo ang mga SUSI sa Kaharian ni Amang Yahweh na nasa Mateo 16:19 at maiintindihan ninyo ang nangyaring sabwatan sa Golgotha.

SABWATAN SA GOLGOTHA ANG BULAANG PROPETA NA SI CAIPAS: YahYah 11:51 ‘sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang, bilang punong Seserdote ng panahong iyon, hinulaan niyang mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bayan’. YeremiYah 23:31-32 ‘ako’y laban sa mga propetang kumakatha ng sariling pangitain saka sasabihing iyon ay ang sabi ni Yahweh. Ako’y laban sa propetang nagsasalaysay ng kasinungalingan upang dayain ang aking bayan, hindi ko sila sinugo at wala silang kabuluhang idudulot sa bayang ito’.

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Deuteronomo 18:21-22 ‘upang matiyak ninyo kung ano ang sinasabi ng propeta ay kung galing kay Yahweh o hindi, ito ang palatandaan: kapag hindi nagyari o hindi nagkatutoo ang sinabi niya, yaon ay hindi mula kay Yahweh, sariling katha niya iyon, huwag ninyo siyang paniwalaan’. Si Caipas ay isang bulaang Propeta at hindi karapat-dapat na maging punong Seserdote dahil hindi siya nanggaling sa lahi ni Aaron na Levita. Samakatwid hindi mula kay Yahweh ang kanyang inihula. Bakit ang mga tigapagturo ng Jesús ay naniniwala sa hula ng bulaang propetang si Caipas, at pati na ang mga naniniwala sa tunay na pangalan ni Amang Yahweh at Yahshu’a Messiah ay pinaniwalaan din ang hula ng bulaang propetang si Caipas at naniniwala sa Hindi Seserdote ni Amang Yahweh.

PINANGGALINGAN NG BULAANG SESERDOTE NA KAGAYA NI CAIPAS 1 Hari 12:31 ‘nagtayo pa sila ng mga sambahan sa burol at naglagay ng mga Seserdote na hindi mula sa lipi ng Levita, kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang (NehemiYah 7:63-65)’. 1 Hari 13:33 ‘sa ginawang kasamaang ito ni Yeroboam, hindi siya tumigil sa paggawa ng kasamaan, patuloy parin siyang nagtatalaga ng mga Seserdote na hindi lahing Levita kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang’. Si Caipas ay hindi nanggaling sa lahi ni Aaron na Levita, samakatwid si Caipas ay hindi tamang Seserdote.

ANG TAMANG SESERDOTE Lukas 1:5 ‘Nang si Herodes ang hari ng Judea, may isang Seserdote na ang pangalan ay ZechariYah sa pangkat ni Abias, at mula rin sa lipi ni Aaron ang kanyang asawa na si Elizabeth’. NehemiYah 12:4 ‘mga Seserdote’ na Levita, ‘Iddo, Ginetoi, Abias’. Exodus 29:1 ‘Ganito ang gagawin mo sa pagtatalaga kay Aaron at sa kanyang mga anak na lalaki bilang Seserdote’.

SINO ANG NAGPLANO NA IPAPATAY ANG MESSIAH? YahYah 11:45-54 ‘marami sa mga Hudyong dumalaw kay Maria ang nakakita sa ginawa ni Yahshu’a at nanalig sa kanya. Ngunit ang ilan sa kanila’y pumunta sa mga Pariseo at ibinalita ang ginawa ni Yahshu’a, kaya’t tin ipon ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Pariseo ang mga Kagawad ng Sanhedrin. ‘Ano ang gagawin natin’? Wika nila, gumagawa ng maraming kababalaghan ang taong iyon, kung siya’y pababayaan natin mananampalataya sa kanya ang lahat, paparito ang mga Romano at wawasakin ang Templo at ang ating bansa. Ngunit ang isa sa kanila si Caipas ang pinaka-punong Seserdote noon ay nagsabi ng ganito, ‘Ano ba kayo, hindi ba ninyo naiisip na mas mabuti para sa atin na isang tao lamang ang mamatay alang-alang sa bayan, sa halip na mapahamak ang buong bansa. (sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang bilang punongSeserdote sa panahong iyon – hinulaan niya na mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bansa – at hindi lamang sa bansang iyon lamang kundi upang tipunin ang nagkawatak-watak na mga Anak ng Maykapal). Mula noon ay binalangkas na nila kung paano ipapapatay si Yahshu’a. Kaya’t siya’y hindi na hayagang naglakad sa Hudea. Sa halip, siya’y nagpunta sa Efraim, isang bayang malapit sa ilang at doon siya nanirahan kasama ng kanyang mga alagad’.

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BINALAK NA IPAPATAY NA RIN SI LAZARO YahYah 12:10-11 ‘Binalak ng mga punong Seserdote na ipapatay din si Lazaro, sapagkat dahilan sa kanya’y maraming Hudyong humihiwalay na sa kanila at nananalig na kay Yahshu’a’. IBIG IPAPATAY NI HERODES SI YAHSHU’A Lukas 13:31 ‘Dumating noon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a, ‘umalis ka rito, sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. Lukas 3:6 ‘umalis ang mga Pariseo at nakipagsabwatan sa mga kampon ni Herodes upang ipapatay si Yahshu’a’.

ANAK NI YAHWEH AY IBA SA ANAK NG TAO Genesis 6:2 ‘ang mga Anak ni Yahweh ay nakita ang mga babaeng ‘Anak ng Tao’ na magaganda, kaya pumili sila ng kani-kanilang mapapangasawa’

ANAK NG TAO Genesis 11:5 ‘bumaba si Yahweh upang tingnan ang lungsod at ang toreng itinatayo ng mga Anak ng Tao’.

SI YAHSHU’A HANGGANG SA NINUNO NIYANG SI ADAN AY MGA ANAK NI YAHWEH Lukas 3: 23 – 38 ‘ si Yahshu’a ay mag-tatatlumpung taon na ng magsimulang magturo, na anak ni Yahseph, na anak ni Heli,………38..na anak ni Enos, na anak ni Seth, na anak ni Adan na Anak ni Yahweh’.

SINO ANG ANAK NG TAO, SINO AKO? SI YAHSHU’A AY ANAK NI YAHWEH NA BUHAY Mateo 16:13-17 ‘Nang dumating si Yahshu’a sa lupain ng Caesaria ng Filipos, tinanong niya ang kanyang mga alagad, ‘sino raw ang ‘Anak ng Tao’, ayon sa mga tao? At sumagot sila, ang sabi po ng ilan ay si YahYah Bautista, sabi naman ng iba ay si EliYah, at may nagsabi pang si YeremiYah o isa sa mga propeta. Kayo naman, ano ang sabi ninyo sino ako? Tanong niya sa kanila. Sumagot si Simon Pedro, ‘kayo po ang Messiah ang Anak ni Yahweh na buhay’, sinabi sa kanya ni Yahshu’a, mapalad ka Simon na anak ni Yonas, sapagkat ang katotohanang ito’y hindi inihayag sa iyo ng sinumang tao kundi ng aking Ama na nasa langit’.

ANO ANG KATOTOHANAN NA HINDI INIHAYAG NG SINUMANG TAO KUNDI ANG AMANG YAHWEH LAMANG? Na makilala na BUHAY si Yahshu’a ang Messiah na ANAK NI YAHWEH

SINO BA ANG ANAK NG TAO? YahYah 12:32-34 ‘at kung ako’y maitaas na, ilalapit ko sa akin ang lahat ng tao’, sumagot ang mga tao, ‘sinasabi sa Kasulatan na ang Messiah ay mananatili Magpakailanman, sino ba itong Anak ng Tao?’

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Samakatwid, ang binanggit ni Yahshu’a ‘at kung ako’y maitaas na’ ay ang tamang pagkakasulat ay ‘at kung ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay maitaas na’. Ito’y mapapansin sa kasagutan ng mga tao sa pagtatanong ng ‘sino ba itong Anak ng Tao?’ Ang Translators ay hindi “Mapalad’ na kagaya ni Simon na anak ni Yonas na pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh na si Yahshu’a ang Messiah ay BUHAY na ANAK NI YAHWEH

NAGPAKILALA SI YAHSHU’A NA ANAK NI YAHWEH YahYah 10:36 ‘ako’y hinirang at sinugo ng Ama, Yahweh sa sinabi ko na Ako ay Anak ni Yahweh’. paano ninyong masasabi ngayon na nilalapastangan ko si

KINILALA SI YAHSHU’A Mateo 3:17 ‘ito ang minamahal kong Anak na lubos kong kinalulugdan’.

SINO BA ANG BINANGGIT NI YAHSHU’A NA KAILANGANG MAMATAY? Markos 8:31 ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap, siya ay itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba at ipapapatay. Ngunit sa ikatlong araw muli siyang mabubuhay’. Lukas 9:21-22 ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap at itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba, ipapapatay nila siya, ngunit sa ikatlong araw siya ay muling mabubuhay’ .

MULING IPINAHAYAG NI YAHSHU’A ANG KAMATAYAN NG ANAK NG TAO Lukas 9:44-45 ‘ipagkakanulo ang Anak ng Tao’, ngunit ito’y hindi nila maunawaan sapagkat inilihim ito sa kanila’. Markos 9:31 ‘Ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo at papatayin, ngunit muling mabubuhay sa ikatlong araw’. Mateo 17:22-23 ‘sinabi sa kanila ni Yahshu’a na ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo at papatayin, ngunit muling mabubuhay sa ikatlong araw’.

IKATLONG BESES NA INIHAYAG NI YAHSHU’A ANG KAMATAYAN NG ANAK NG TAO Markos 10:33-34 ‘ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo sa mga punong Seserdote at sa mga Eskriba, siya’y kanilang hahatulan ng kamatayan at ibibigay sa mga Gentil, siya’y tutuyain nila, luluraan, hahagupitin at papatayin, ngunit muli siyang mabubuhay pagkaraan ng tatlong araw’. Mateo 20:18 ‘aakyat tayo sa Yahrusalem. Doo’y ipagkakanulo sa mga punong Seserdote at sa mga Eskriba ang Anak ng Tao, hahatulan siya ng kamatayan at ibibigay sa mga Gentil. Siya’y tutuyain, hahagupitin at ipapako sa krus, ngunit muli siyang bubuhayin sa ikatlong araw’. Lukas 18:31-34 ‘tandaan ninyo ito pupunta tayo sa Yahrusalem at doo’y matutupad ang lahat ng sinulat ng mga propeta tungkol sa ‘Anak ng Tao’. Ipagkakanulo siya sa mga Gentil, tutuyain, dudustain at luluraan siya ng

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mga ito. Siya’y hahagupitin at papatayin nila, ngunit sa ikatlong araw ay muling mabubuhay. Subalit wala silang maunawaan sa kanilang narinig, hindi nila nakuha ang kahulugan niyon, at hindi man lamang nalaman kung ano ang sinabi ni Yahshu’a’. Samakatwid ay tinutukoy ni Yahshu’a ay ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap, siya ay itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba at ipapapatay. Ngunit sa ikatlong araw muling mabubuhay’. Si Yahshu’a ay ‘Anak ni Yahweh’ na inihayag kay Simon Pedro na anak ni Yonas, ito ay hindi inihayag ng tao kundi tanging si Amang Yahweh lamang ang naghayag nito.

UNANG ITINURO NI APOSTOL SAUL (PABLO) NA SI YAHSHU’A AY ANAK NI YAHWEH Gawa 9:20 ‘Una niyang itinuro sa mga sinagoga na si Messiah Yahshu’a ay siya’ng Anak ni Yahweh

BAGO MAGBAUTISMO SI FELIPE NA DISIPOLO NI YAHSHU’A Gawa 8:37 ‘at si Felipe ay nagsabi ‘kung ikaw ay naniniwala ng buong puso, maniwala ka’, at siya’y sumagot, ‘naniniwala ako na si Yahshu’a ay Anak ni Yahweh’.

PINANGGALINGAN NG ALAMAT NA ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ ALAMAT NI MYTHRA BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI ATTIS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI KRISHNA BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’.Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus.

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ALAMAT NI HORUS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI DIONYSUS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (200 B.C.E.) Si Dionysus ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw. Mapapansin na ang mga unang nagsalin (translators) ng Biblia ay nanggaling sa bansang naimpluwensyahan ng mga Alamat na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’. Mapapanood sa Google video clipping ‘Part 1 The Greatest Story Ever Told’.

NADALANG PANINIWALA NI HERODES Markos 6:14-16, Mateo 14:1-22 ‘nakarating kay Haring Herodes ang balita tungkol kay Yahshu’a, sapagkat bantog na ang pangalan nito. May nagsabi, siya’y si YahYah Bautista na muling nabuhay, kaya nakakagawa siya ng mga himala. May nagsabi naman na siya’y si EliYah, siya’y propeta, katulad ng mga propeta noong una anang iba. Sinabi naman ni Herodes nang mabalitaan niya ito, ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ si YahYah Bautista na pinapugutan ko’. Mapapansin na dati nang pinaniniwalaan ang alamat na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ ay sikat na sikat na paniniwala ng halos lahat ng Paganong Bansa bago pa magturo si Yahshu’a Messiah.

ANO BA ANG TALINGHAGA SA NABUHAY NA MULI? Lukas 15:32 ‘ngunit dapat tayong magsaya at magalak, sapagkat ‘NAMATAY NA’ ang kap atid mo, ngunit – ‘MULING NABUHAY’, ‘NAWALA’ ngunit muling nasumpungan’ Epeso 2:5 ‘tayo’y ‘BINUHAY’ niya kay Messiah kahit noong tayo’y mga patay pa dahil sa ating mga pagsuway’.

Lukas 9:60 ‘ipaubaya mo sa mga patay ang paglilibing ng kanilang mga patay’. Marcos 4:11 ‘sa inyo’y ipinagkaloob na malaman ang lihim tungkol sa paghahari ni Yahweh, ngunit sa iba ay ang lahat ng bagay ay itinuturo sa pamamagitan ng talinghaga’.

PANALANGIN NI YAHSHU’A Lukas 22:42 ‘Ama’, wika niya, ‘kung maaari’y ilayo mo sa akin ang sarong ito, gayunma’y huwag ang kalooban ko ang masunod kundi ang KALOOBAN MO’.

DININIG ANG PANALANGIN NI YAHSHU’A

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Hebreo 5:7-8 ‘Noong si Yahshu’a ay namumuhay rito sa lupa, siya’y nanalangin at lumuluhang sumamo kay Amang Yahweh na makapagliligtas sa kanya sa kamatayan, at DININIG SIYA dahil sa lubusan siyang nagpakumbaba’.

KALOOBAN NG NAGMAMAY-ARI NA MAKAKUHA NG PRUTAS HINDI ANG MAPATAY ANG KANYANG ANAK Mateo 21:33-41 Pakinggan ninyo ang isang Talinghaga: May isang nagmamay-ari ng pataniman ng ubasan at tinayuan niya ng gawaan ng alak at tore at iniwan niya sa kanyang mga Magsasaka at siya ay pumunta sa ibang bansa. Nang dumating ang panahon na malapit ng magbunga ang mga pananim ay ipinadala niya ang ang kanyang mga Tagasunod sa Magsasaka upang makatanggap ng mga prutas. Ang Tagasunod ay binugbog at pinatay at ang iba ay pinagbabato. Muling nagpadala ng iba pang Tagasunod at ganoon din ang ginawa ng Magsasaka. Ngunit sa huli ay ipinadala ang kanyang anak sa paniwalang kanilang igagalang ang kanyang anak. Ngunit ng makita ng mga Magsasaka ang anak ay nagkaisa sila na sinabing “ito ang Tigapagmana, atin siyang Patayin at ating angkinin ang kanyang pagmamanahan” At ang Anak ay kanilang kinuha sa Pataniman ng ubas at kanilang Pinatay. Ng ayon kung dumating na ang Nagmamay-ari ng pataniman ng ubas, ano ang kanyang gagawin sa mga Magsasaka? At sumagot sila na matinding sisirain ang mga masasamang tao at ibibigay ang kanyang pataniman ng ubas sa ibang Magsasaka na magsusukli sa kanya ng mga Prutas sa Tamang Panahon”. KALOOBAN ba ng Nagmamay-ari ng ubasan na mapatay ang kanyang Anak o ang KALOOBAN niya ay Makakuha ng Prutas?

INILAGAY SA KANILANG ISIP NA AKO’Y PATAY Awit 31:12 ‘ako ay kinalimutan nila at inilagay sa kanilang isip na ako ay patay’

Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’ Ito ay naisalin sa Gawa 4:11-12 ‘ang batong inayawan ay naging pinaka-saligang bato, walang kaligtasan sa kaninuman, dahil walang tanging pangalan sa silong ng langit na ipinagkaloob sa mga tao kundi sa pangalan ni Yahshu’a Messiah’. Lukas 24:44 ‘ito ang tinutukoy ko ng sabihin ko sa inyo noong kasama -sama pa ninyo ako, ‘dapat matupad ang lahat ng nakasulat tungkol sa akin sa Kasulatan ni Moses, sa Aklat ng mga Propeta, at sa mga Aklat ng Awit ni David’.

ANG MGA NAKASULAT SA MGA KASULATAN NI MOSES, AKLAT NG MGA PROPETA AT SA AKLAT NG AWIT NI DAVID Deuteronomo 18:15 ‘si Yahweh ay magtatalaga ng Propeta sa kalagitnaan ninyo, na kalahi ninyo, na kagaya ko (si Moses ay Levita rin), sa kanya kayo dapat makinig’.

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Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’ Daniel 9:26 ‘at paglipas ng animnapu at dalawang linggo ang Messiah ay mapuputol, ngunit hindi para sa kanyang sarili’: Mapuputol ngunit hindi sinabing mamamatay. Isaiah 53:8 ‘siya ay inilabas sa kulungan at sa paghatol: at sino ang makakapagsabi sa kasama niya sa kanyang henerasyon na siya ay pinutol sa lupain ng mga buhay? Dahil sa kasalanan ng kanyang bayan siya ay nagdalamhati’. Si Propeta Isaiah ay sumulat ng pangsubok na katanungan na sino sa kanyang kapanahunang ka-henerasyon na makakapagsabi na siya ay naputol sa lupain ng mga buhay. Dahil sa kasalanan ng kanyang bayan siya ay nagdalamhati (stricken).

WALANG NAKASULAT SA MGA KASULATAN NG MGA HUDYO NA ANG MESSIAH AY MAGBABATA NG HIRAP. ITO AY DAGDAG NG NAGSALIN NG SULAT NI MATEO NA ANG MESSIAH AY MAGBABATA NG HIRAP

Mateo 26:27-28 ‘NAGPASALAMAT’. Tingnan ang Mateo 15:36 ‘ibinigay niya sa kanila – LAHAT KAYO, kagaya sa Markos 14:23-24, sa sunud-sunod na ulat ni Markos ang mga Disipolo ay UMINOM at pagkatapos ay sinabi ni Yahshu’a ang salitang ito. Sa Mateo ay PINALITAN ITO at ginawang pautos na INUMIN NINYO sinundan ng salitang ‘AKING DUGO’, tingnan ang Leviticus 17:11 dahil ang dumanak na dugo ang dahilan ng buhay at kung ilalagay ito sa altar ay MAKAKAPAGPATAWAD ng mga KASALANAN na may relasyon sa Huling Hapunan. Sa mga salita na nasalin sa Griyego, tingnan ang Markos 14:24 ‘MARAMI’, tingnan ang Mateo 20:28, dahil sa ‘KAPATAWARAN NG KASALANAN’ AY IDINUGTUNG SA AKLAT NI MATEO. Parehas na salita ang nasa Markos 1:4 sa pagbabautismo ni YahYah Bautista ngunit sa Mateo ay INIWASAN ITO (Mateo 3:11). Ginawa ito maari dahil ‘NAIS NIYANG IPALAGAY NA ANG PAGSASAKRIPISYO NG MESSIAH SA KAMATAYAN AY ANG MAGBIBIGAY NG KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN’.

Maliwanan na IDINAGDAG lamang sa Mateo na ang ‘KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN AY ANG KAMATAYAN NG MESSIAH’. Ano ba ang KAPATAWARAN ng mga kasalanan?

JUBILEE YEAR Ang Kapatawaran sa Mga Kasalanan Leviticus 25:8-55, ang Jubilee Year ay ang KAPATAWARAN sa mga materyal na mga pagkakautang, ngunit ang espiritual na utang ay mga kasalanan na katulad sa Jubilee Year na PINATATAWAD ang materyal na utang ay ganoon din PINATATAWAD ang espiritual na utang na mga kasalanan. Lukas 4:19 ‘upang ituro ang Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh’. Ang tinutukoy na Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh ay ang Jubilee Year. Lahat ng mga Escolar ay naniniwala na ang Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh ay ang Jubilee Year. Lukas 7:36-50 ‘si Yahshu’a ay inimbitahan ni Simon na isang P ariseo upang kumain sa kanyang tahanan, at ang isang masamang babae ay hinugasan sa luha at pinunasan ng kanyang buhok, nilagyan ng pabango at hinalikan ang mga paa ni Yahshu’a. Ang mga nanduroong Pariseo ay nagsabi na kung tala gang Propeta si Yahshu’a ay makikilala niya agad ito na isang masamang babae. Ngunit tinanong ni Yahshu’a si Simon (na

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Pariseo) tungkol sa dalawang tao na may pagkakautang na 500 Dinaryo at 50 Dinaryo, Nang hindi parehong makapagbayad ay agad na pinatawad sa pagkakautang ang dalawa. Ngayon sino sa kanila ang higit na magmamahal sa nagpatawad sa utang? Sumagot si Simon na ang mas Malaki ang pagkakautang ang mas higit na magmamahal. Sa ganitong sagot ni Simon ay itinuro ni Yahshu’a ang makasalanang babae (Lukas 7:47) at sinabi na kahit Marami o Malaki ang kasalanan ng babae ay PINATAWAD NA dahil Malaki rin ang isinukli niyang pagmamahal. At sinabi ni Yahshu’a sa babae ‘Ang iyong mga kasalanan ay PINATAWAD NA’ (Lukas 7:48). At ang mga kasalo sa pagkain ay nagsimulang magtanong sa sarili, ‘sino ba ito na pati pagpapatawad ng kasalanan ay pinanga-ngahasan? Ngunit sinabi ni Yahshu’a sa babae ‘INILIGTAS KA NG I YONG PANANALIG, YUMAON KA NA AT IPANATAG MO ANG IYONG KALOOBAN’. Samakatwid ang may malaking pagkakautang na pinatawad ay kagaya noong babae na may malaking kasalanan, ito ay ang ibig sabihin ng Jubilee Year, na mas-Malaki ang halaga na maisasanla ang ari-arian kung Malaki pa ang panahon bago dumating ang Jubilee Year, at mas-Maliit naman ang halaga kung maliit na ang panahon bago dumating ang Jubilee Year. Ang Jubilee Year ay nagpapatawad sa mga utang na materyal, samantala ang utang na espiritual ay ang mga kasalanan ay ganoon din ay PINATATAWAD sa Taon na Katanggap-tanggap kay Yahweh . Ang pananampalataya ng babae ang nagligtas sa kanya, ito ang pananampalataya sa itinuro ni Yahshu’a sa Lukas 4:19 na Jubilee Year. Kung ang pananampalataya sa Taon na Katanggap-tanggap kay Yahweh (Jubilee Year) ay isang daan sa IKAPAPATAWAD sa mga utang na kasalanan, Bakit kailangan pang mamatay ang Messiah sa ikapapatawad ng ating mga kasalanan?

IMBISTIGASYON SA MGA NAGANAP: SINO ANG NAGPLANO NA IPAPATAY ANG MESSIAH? YahYah 11:45-54 ‘marami sa mga Hudyong dumalaw kay Maria ang nakakita sa ginawa ni Yahshu’a at nanalig sa kanya. Ngunit ang ilan sa kanila’y pumunta sa mga Pariseo at ibinalita ang ginawa ni Yahshu’a, kaya’t tinipon ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Pariseo ang mga Kagawad ng Sanhedrin. ‘Ano ang gagawin natin? Wika nila, ‘gumagawa ng maraming kababalaghan ang taong iyon, kung siya’y pababayaan natin mananampalataya sa kanya ang lahat, paparito ang mga Romano at wawasakin ang Templo at ang ating bansa. Ngunit ang isa sa kanila si Caipas ang pinaka-punong Seserdote noon ay nagsabi ng ganito, ‘Ano ba kayo, hindi ba ninyo naiisip na mas mabuti para sa atin na isang tao lamang ang mamatay alang-alang sa bayan, sa halip na mapahamak ang buong bansa. ( sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang bilang punong-Seserdote sa panahong iyon – hinulaan niya na mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bansa – at hindi lamang sa bansang iyon lamang kundi upang tipunin ang nagkawatak-watak na mga Anak ng Maykapal). Mula noon ay binalangkas na nila kung paano ipapapatay si Yahshu’a. Kaya’t siya’y hindi na hayagang naglakad sa Hudea. Sa halip, siya’y nagpunta sa Efraim, isang bayang malapit sa ilang at doon siya nanirahan kasama ng kanyang mga alagad’.

IBIG IPAPATAY NI HERODES SI YAHSHU’A Lukas 13:31 ‘Dumating noon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a, ‘umalis ka rito, sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. Lukas 3:6 ‘umalis ang mga Pariseo at nakipagsabwatan sa mga kampon ni Herodes upang ipapatay si Yahshu’a’.

BLASPHEMY

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Noong kapanahunan nang ang Israel ay masasakop na ng Bansang Assyria ay naglabas ng Batas ang Sanhedrin, sa sinumang bumanggit ng Banal na pangalang Yahweh ay magkakasala ng ‘Pamumusong’ (Blasphemy). Ito ay mababasa sa Encyclopedia Judaica sa Titulong ‘YHWH”. Kahit na ang pinaikling tawag kay Yahweh na ‘Yah’ ay binibigkas na ng ‘Ye’ (Ezra 2:2) sa pag-iwas sa pagbanggit ng pangalang Yahweh. Sa kapanahunan ni Yahshu’a Messiah ay pinatawan siya ng pagkakasala ng Blasphemy. Mateo 26: 64-65 ‘sinasabi ko sa inyo na ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay uupo sa kanan ng ‘Makapangyarihan’ at darating sa mga alapaap ng kalangitan’ sa ganoon ay pinunit ng punong Seserdote ang sariling kasuutan at pinatawan ng kasalanang ‘Kapusungan’ (Blasphemy) si Yahshu’a. Ang ‘Blasphemy’ ay pagkakasala sa pagbigkas ng Banal na pangalang Yahweh, kaya hindi ‘Makapangyarihan’ ang binanggit ni Yahshu’a kundi ang pangalang Yahweh kaya siya ay pinatawan ng pagkakasala ng “Pamumusong’ (Blasphemy). Si Yahshu’a ay dinala ng mga tauhan ng punong seserdote kay Gobernador Pilato at ipinadala naman ni Pilato si Yahshu’a kay Tetraikang Herodes, ngunit hindi hinatulan ng Kamatayan ni Herodes si Yahshu’a, at si Yahshu’a ay ibinalik kay Gobernador Pilato. Naging magkaibigan tuloy sila na dati’y magkagalit. Sa ganiton pananaw ay hindi sasalungatin ni Pilato ang naging desisyon ni Herodes na kabago-bago palang niyang kaibigan, (Lukas 23:13-15). Si Gobernador Pilato naman ay pinagsabihan ng kanyang asawa na huwag pakialaman si Yahshu’a dahil pinahirapan siya sa panaginip sa nakaraang gabi. Sa ganito ay hindi nanaisin ni Pilato na hindi pagbigyan ang kahilingan ng kanyang asawa, (Mateo 27:19). Dahil lamang sa pangangailangang pagbigyan ang mga tao na alam ni Pilato na sinuhulan ng mga punong Seserdote ay kinailangang baguhin ang una niyang desisyon na ‘walang kasalanan si Yahshu’a at kanyang palalayain, (YahYah 18:38, Luke 23:4, Luke 23:13-16, Luke 23:20).

ANO ANG UGALI NI GOBERNADOR PILATO? Paanong maging sunod-sunuran si Pilato sa kagustuhan ng mga tao lamang, kung ang ugali niya ay ganito, ‘ ang naisulat na niya’y hindi na pwedeng baguhin? Samakatwid, ang unang desisyon ni Pilato na si Yahshu’a ay walang kasalanan at palalayain ay hindi pwedeng magbago. Ngunit dahil sa pagnanais ng mga punong Seserdote (na mas mababa ang kapangyarihan kaysa kay Gobernador Pilato) na maipapatay si Yahshu’a, kinakailangan pulungin ni Pilato ang lahat ng kanyang batalyon. Pinapasok niya ang mga ito sa kanyang palasyo at doon ay sila-sila lamang ang nag-usap na paanong ipatupad ang kagustuhan ng mga tao na sinuhulan ng mga punong Seserdote at ang pagsunod sa unang desisyon ni Pilato na palayain si Yahshu’a. (Hindi nakapasok sa Palasyo ang mga Hudyo dahil maituturing silang marumi at hindi karapat-dapat sa Hapunang pang-Paskua, (YahYah 18:28, YahYah 19:19-22). Lumabas ang Batalyon na kasama si Yahshu’a na may buhat na kahoy (krus). Nang makita nila si Simon na tagaCyrene (Libya sa ngayon), kanilang ipina-buhat kay Simon ang kahoy na buhat ni Yahshu’a at si Yahshu’a ay inilagay sa likuran. Ang kanilang dinaanan ay pasilyong makitid na daanan lamang, kaya sa susunod na pagliko ay ang nakita na ng mga tao na may buhat ng kahoy ay si Simon na. Mapapansin na sa ika-labingdala ng tanghali hanggang sa ikatlo ng hapon ay nagdilim sa kapaligiran. Mapapansin din na walang nakasulat sa Bagong Tipan na ‘isinauli ni Simon kay Yahshu’a ang kahoy kaya ng siya ay sumigay ng ‘Ama, patawarin mo sila dahil hindi nila alam ang kanilang ginagawa’. Si Simon na taga Cyrene ay nagsasalita ng Griyegong wika. Sa Cyrene hanggang sa ngayon ay marami pang lahi ng mga Griyego sa Susa, sa Shihat, sa Beda at sa iba pang lugar sa Libya. YahYah 8:29 ‘at kasama ko ang nagsugo sa akin, hindi niya ako iniiwan sapagkat lagi kong ginagawa ang nakalulugod sa kanya’. Paanong si Yahshu’a ay magsasalita ng ‘Ama, Ama bakit mo ako pinabayaan? o ang ‘Eli, Eli lama Sabacthani’ kung hindi naman siya iniiwan ng nagsugo sa kanya?

Ayon sa Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Hebrew Bible Chaldean Hebrew at Greek Dictionary:

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Greek Dictionary: 2241 (Greek) ELI = my God – in Hebrew (EL) ‘Ale’ = mighty, Almighty 1682 (Greek) ELOI = my God 2982 (Greek) LAMA = why – in Hebrew 4100 MAH = why In Hebrew 3027 YAD = Thou 4518 (Greek) SABACTHANI = thou has left me – in Hebrew 7662 In Hebrew 7662 SHEBAQ = allow to remain ‘Ama, Ama, Bakit Mo Ako Pinabayaan’ ay salitang sumisisi sa Ama. Yob (Job) 1:22 ‘sa kabila ng mga pangyayaring ito ay hindi nagkasala si Yob, hindi niya sinisi si Yahweh’. Hindi maaring sisihin ni Yahshu’a ang Ama sa Langit dahil ito ay kasalanan. Si Yob ay hindi nagkasala dahil hindi niya sinisi ang Ama sa Langit.

MGA SAKSI May mga saksi na ang taong nakabayubay sa kahoy (krus) ay sumigaw ng Eli, Eli Lama Sabacthani na isang salitang Griego. Hinintay ng mga saksi na baka dumating si Propeta EliYah na tinawag ng nakabayubay sa kahoy. SI YAHSHU’A AY HINDI NAGSASALITA NG SALITANG GRIYEGO KUNDI SALITANG HEBREO LAMANG Gawa 10:28, Gawa 26:14 ‘alam ninyo na ang isang Hudyo ay pinagbabawalan ng kanyang pananampalataya na makisama o dumalaw sa isang hindi Hudyo’. ‘ Nakarinig ako na nagsasalita sa wikang Hebreo’

KASABWAT SI PILATO SA SABWATAN SA GOLGOTHA Markos 15:44 ‘hindi magugulat si Gobernador Pilato at magtatanong pa, ‘kung may napatay’ at kung tutuo na desisyon ni Pilato na ipapatay si Yahshu’a.

ANG DECOY YahYah 19:39 ‘sumama sa kanya si Nicodemus, may dalang pabango, mga 100 libra ng pinaghalong mira at aloe (si Nicodemus ang nagsadya kay Yahshu’a isang gabi). Mateo 27:62-65‘kinabukasan, pagkatapos ng Araw ng paghahanda, sama-samang nagpunta kay Pilato ang mga punong Seserdote at mga Pariseo. Sinabi nila ‘Naaalala po namin na sinabi ng mapagpanggap na iyon noong nabubuhay pa na siya’s muling mabubuhay pagkaraan ng tatlong araw. Baka pumaroon ang k anyang mga alagad at nakawin ang bangkay at sabihin nila sa mga tao na siya’y muling nabuhay. At ang pandarayang ito ay magiging ‘MASAHOL PA SA NAUNA’

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Mateo 28:65 ‘ dahil sa ang napatay ay nagsasalita ng wikang Griyego na Eli, Eli Lama Sabacthani ay pinuntahan kaagad ng mga punong seserdote si Gobernador Pilato upang matiyak nila kung sino ang talagang napatay. Nagdahilan pa sila na baka mabuhay muli ang napatay ayon sa sinabi nito ng nabubuhay pa at baka nakawin ng kanyang alagad at palabasing nabuhay na muli. Ito ay mababaw na dahilan dahil kakailanganing maipakita ang taong napatay na ito ay buhay. Kaya sinabi sa kanila ni Gobernador Pilato na mayroon silang sariling kawal (kawal ng punong Seserdote na dumakip kay Yahshu’a) kaya sinabihan sila ni Pilato na ‘bantayan nila ang libingan’ (Mateo 27:65) Mateo 28:14-15 ‘bukas na ang libingan ng datnan ng mga kawal at ipinakita sa mga punong Seserdote. Inakala naman nila na makakarating sa Gobernador na pinakialaman nila ang libingan na buksan upang masiguro kung sino ang nailibing doon, ngunit wala silang natagpuang bangkay, kaya nagkatha sila ng salita at sinuhulan ang mga kawal ng punong Seserdote na palabasin na kinuha ang bangkay ng mga alagad ni Yahshu’a.. ‘Sinabi ng mga Seserdote na ‘huwag kayong mag-alala, makarating man ito sa Gobernador ‘KAMI ANG BAHALA’.Tinanggap ng mga bantay ang salapi at ginawa ang bilin sa kanila – hanggang sa ngayon ito parin ang sabi ng mga Hudyo’.

MGA SAKSI NA SI YAHSHU’A AY BUHAY Si Gobernador Festo at Si Apostol Saul Gawa 25:19 ‘ ang pinagtatalunan lamang nila ay tungkol sa kanilang pananampalataya at sa isang tao na ang pangalan ay Yahshu’a, patay na ang taong ito ngunit ipinipilit naman ni Saul (Pablo) na siya’y SIGURA DONG BUHAY. Si Gobernador Festo ang pumalit kay Gobernador Felix at nang dumating si Haring Agrippa upang bumati kay Festo, inilahad ni Festo kay Haring Agrippa ang tungkol kay Pablo, at sa kanyang salita sa Hari ay nabanggit niya na ipinipilit ni Saul na SIGURADONG BUHAY si Yahshu’a. Sa pagsasalita sa kagalang galang na Hari, ang isang Gobernador ay magsasalita ng tamang salita, at si Gobernador Festo ay nakapag-aral na tao at alam niya ang salitang ‘RESURRECTION’ o nabuhay na muli, ngunit bakit hindi niya ginamit ang salitang ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ kundi ang kanyang tinuran ay ‘ipinipilit ni Saul na si Yahshu’a ay SIGURADONG BUHAY’.

Anghel ni Yahweh Lukas 24:5 ‘bakit ninyo hinahanap ang BUHAY sa gitna ng mga patay? Ito ang tinuran ng Anghel ni Yahweh na sinabing si Yahshu’a ay ‘BUHAY’ at hindi ang ‘Resurrection o Nabuhay na Muli’. Ang isang Anghel ni Yahweh ay hindi magsasalita ng mali, sa Lukas 24:23 ‘mga Angel na nagsabing ‘BUHAY SI YAHSHU’A’.

Si Yahshu’a na mismo ang Saksi Lukas 13:31-33 ‘dumating doon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a na ‘umalis ka dito sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. At sumagot si Yahshu’a, ‘sabihin mo sa kanya na nagpapalayas pa ako ngayon ng mga demonyo at nagpapagaling, bukas ay ganoon din, at sa ikatlong araw tatapusin ko ang aking gawain. Ngunit dapat akong magpatuloy sa lakad ngayon, bukas at sa makalawa sapagkat ‘IMPOSIBLENG MAMATAY ANG ISANG PROPETA SA LABAS NG YAHRUSALEM’. (Hosea 6:2). Si Yahshu’a narin ang nagsabi na imposibleng mamatay ang propeta na tinutukoy niya ang sarili niya (Deoteronomo 18:15).

Sa Awit ni Haring David

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Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’

Sa Isinulat ni Lukas Ito ay naisalin sa Gawa 4:11-12 ‘ang batong inayawan ay naging pinaka-saligang bato, walang kaligtasan sa kaninuman, dahil walang tanging pangalan sa silong ng langit na ipinagkaloob sa mga tao kundi sa pangalan ni Yahshu’a Messiah’. HINDI PWEDENG PATAYIN ANG ANOINTED NI YAHWEH 1 Samuel 24:4-7 “Ang mga tauhan ni David ay sinabihan siya, dumating na ang araw sa sinabi ni Yahweh na aking ipagkakaloob sa iyong kamay ang iyong kaaway upang gawaan mo siya ng iyong ikatutuwa. At si David ay pinutol ang laylayan ng damit ni Saul ng palihim”. Sa puso ni David ay pinatay na niya si Saul dahil pinutol niya ang laylayan ng damit ni Saul. At sinabi ni David sa kanyang mga tauhan “patawarin ako ni Yahweh sa ginawa kong ito sa aking amo na ‘Anointed ni Yahweh’ na lumaban ako sa kanya na alam nating siya ay Anointed ni Yahweh”. Sinabihan ni David ang kanyang mga tauhan na huwag silang gagawa ng masama kay Saul. At si Saul ay nagising at lumabas ng kweba”. 1 Samuel 24:10 “Ngayong araw na ito nakita ng mga mata mo sa loob ng kweba ay ipinagapi ka sa akin, ang iba ay sinabihan ako na patayin ka, ngunit sa aking mata ay iniligtas kita at sinabi ko na hindi ko gagamitin ang aking kamay laban sa aking amo DAHIL SIYA AY ANOINTED NI YAHWEH”. 2 Samuel 1:14-16 “sinabi ni David ‘Hindi kaba Natakot na ginamit mo ang iyong kamay upang wasakin ang Anointed ni Yahweh?, at tinawag ni David ang isang kabataang lalaki at ipinapatay ang Amalekita. At sinabi ni David ‘ang dugo mo ay sumaiyong ulo dahil sa iyong labi ay sumaksi ka laban sa iyong sarili nang sinabi mong ‘Pinatay Mo ang Anointed ni Yahweh’.

Natagpuang aklat ni Pedro sa isang Libingan sa Egypto Bible Dictionary of the Holy Bible Natagpuan sa isang libingan sa Egypto noong 1886 A.D. ang ‘THE GOSPEL OF PETER’ at nailathala noong 1892 A.D. ay maaaring DOCETIC GOSPEL at mahalagang katibayan sa istorya na CRUCIFIXION at RESURRECTION kahit na ito ay may halatang BINAGO sa pag-pabor sa mga HERESY na iyan.

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TAGALOG at BISAYA
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Boxer Codex
A Tagalog couple of the Maharlika nobility caste depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th Century

ni

Yahshua A. Tabilog

(KOLEKSYON NG MGA EBIDENSYA NA NAGPAPATUNAY SA PINAGMULAN NG MGA NINUNO NG MGA PILIPINO)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: MARAMING SALAMAT SA MGA NAGSULAT NG MGA IBEDENSYA NA INYONG MABABASA NA NAGDAGDAG AT NAGPAPATUNAY SA PINAGMULAN NG LAHING PILIPINO

Luzon Empire According to Chinese Historians
Luzon Empire (1279-1571 AD) was an ancient empire once located around Manila bay region of the Philippines. Its capital was Tondo, its territories covered most of what is now Central Luzon, extending from delta region that surrounds Manila Bay, all the way into the interior along head waters of the surrounding rivers in the province of Pampanga, Bulakan (covered part now Rizal). The history of Song Dynasty was compiled under Mongol Prime Minister Toktoghan in 1345 AD. In it the Mongols recount tha final and complete destruction of Nan song (southern song Empire) (1127-1279 AD), where in 1279 AD the Mongol Fleet crushed the Nan Song Navy at the Naval battle of Yamen. The loyal Minister of the Left Liu Xiufu committed suicide with last Na Song Emperor, the children Songdi Bing rather than be captured by the Mongols. The Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie escaped with his grand armada but were later annihilated by a typhoon while crossing the seas. Alternative source refute the accounts of the destruction of Zhang Shijie‟s grand armada as nothing more than Mongol propaganda since there were no eyewitness accounts of its destruction nor were there traces left of its remains. For most historians, the fate of Zhang shijie and his grand armada remains a mystery. Contemporary Chinese historians in Guangdong are now even questioning the Mongolian accounts regarding Emperor Bing‟s death. Even though Mongol sources claimed that the corpse of the last emperor has be en found washed ashore along the coast of Shenzen, his actual grave is yet to be found. Cantonese folklore expressed in the ttraditional Cantonese opera narrates an alternative account where the loyal Minister Liu Xiufu tricked the Mongols by committing suicide with his own son disguised as the young emperor. The real emperor was said to have been smuggled out of the scene of battle by Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie, who will eventually return to redeem the empire from the invaders. The Travel of Marco Polo also recounts the escape of the last song emperor across the ocean. Zhang Shijie‟s fleet and the last song emperor may have escaped to pre-colonial Philippines and established the Luzon Empire or the „Lesser Song Empire”. Despite the conjectures regarding its origins, the Ming Annals are clear on the actual existence of the Luzon Empire. It records that in 1373 AD, the Luzon Empire sent its first among the many succeeding diplomat mission to the Great Ming Empire (1368-1644 AD), accompanied by the embassies of India‟s Chola Empire. The Ming chroniclers added the character for “kingdom”of “empire” (pinyin: GuU) after Luzon (Lusong), indicating that it was once an independent and sovereign kingdom. Her rulers were acknowledged as king and not mere chieftains. The Ming empire treated the Luzon Empire more favorably than Japan by allowing it to trade with china once verey two years, while Japan was only allowed to trade once every 11 years. Luzon empire flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty when China closed its doors to foreign trade. Foreigners were forbidden to send trade missions to China. Chinese merchants were likewise forbidden to trade beyond the borders of the Ming Empire. Yet clandestinely, merchants from Guangzhou and Quanzhou regularly delivered trade goods to Tondo. Luzon merchants then traded them all across Southeast Asia and were considered “Chinese” by the people they encountered. The Portuguese who came to Asia much earlier than the Spaniards recorded their encounter with the inhabitants of the Luzon empire and called them „Lucoes‟. The Portuguese records that the Luzon Empire played an active role in the politics and economy of the 16th century Southeast Asia, especially in controlling the trade traffic at the Straits of Malacca. The Luzon Empire‟s powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th century East asia was felt strongly by Japan, whose merchants had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu and Kamiya Soutan established their branches here. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon, went as far as to change his name from Naya to Luzon.

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Tondo (Tungdu in Cantonese) or the „Eastern Capital‟ has always been the traditional capital of the Luzon Empire. Its traditional rulers were the lakandula (Kapampangan: „Lord of the Palace‟). During the reign of Paduka Sri Baginda Rajah dan yang di Pertuan Bulkiah (1485-1521) the Kingdom of Brunai decided to break the Luzon Empire‟s monolpoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the city state of Mainl‟l, as a Burneian satellite. Anew dynasty under tha Salalila was established in Manila to challenge the House of Lakand‟l, in Tondo. When the Spaniards arrived in 1571 AD, the unity of the Luzon Empire was already threatened by the uneasy alliance of the Three Kings of Luzon: the Rajah matanda of Sapa, the Lakandula of Tondo and Rajah Suliman III, the „rajah muda‟ or “crown prince” of Mainl‟l and „laxamana‟ or “grand admiral” of the Macabebe Armada. Powerful states like Lubao, Betis and Macabebe become bold enough to challenge the traditional leadership of Tondo and Mainl‟l. the Spaniards took advantage of the chaos, played favourites with one ruler and pitted them against the other. Rumor has it that the Spaniards had poisoned the Rajah Matanda of Mainl‟l, so as to win the support of Lakandula of Tondo. Disregarding the legitimacy of Rajah Suliman III as „rajah muda‟, the Spaniard s installed the child Rajah Bago as the new king of Mainl‟l. In 1571, Rajah Suliman III, the „rajah muda‟ of mainl‟l and laxamana of the Macabebe armada, challenged the Spaniards to a naval battle at the estuary of bangkusay. The Spaniards were able to crush Rajah Suliman III and his Macabebe armada due to the lack of support from the other rulers of the empire. The Luzon Empire was quickly overtaken by the Spaniards. Its territories were carved out and distributed as spoils among themselves. The province of Pampanga was the first Spanish colonial province carved out of the Luzon Empire and the people who spoke one language from Tondo to the rest of Pampanga are now called Kapampangan. After the collapse of the Luzon empire, the Spaniards were finally able to create their first colony in Asia, the Philippines, named in honor of Spanish King Philip II of Spain. The name Luzon was given to the entire northern Philippine island, in memory of the former Luzon empire. The Luzon Empire was said to have finally ended in 1571 AD according to Spanish records.Yet the fortified cities of Lubao and Betis continued to thrive as independent principalities of the Luzon Empire till 1572 AD. In 1575 AD,the Spaniards executed the child king Rajah Bago and his cousin Lumanlan. The Lakandula of Tondo also died in the same year. In 1586 AD, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of former nobles of the Luzon Empire, in the province of Pampanga. The revolt was based in Candaba under the leadership of Don Nicolas Mananquete and Don Juan de Manila. In 1588 AD, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of the nobles of the Luzon Empire in Tondo. It was led by the descendants of the Lakandula and their kinsmen with the assistance of Japanese merchants. Many of them executed or exiled and their properties confiscated. In 1590 AD, the King Sattha of Cambodia sent two elephants to the “King of Luzon” through his Portuguese ambassador and requested the Luzon Empire‟s assistance in their battle against Siam. In the same year the “lords” of the Luzon Empire were said to have been corresponding with theTaikou-sama of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, begging for assistance to help liberate the Luzon Empire from Spaniards. Hideyoshi responded by sending a letter to the Spanish Governor of Manila, demanding that the Spaniards leave Luzon quietly or else face a full scale invasion that would force them out. I‟ll prepared for a Japanese invasion, the Spanish Governor of Manila decided to appease Hideyoshi by sending gift from the Americas, including the two elephants sent by the King of Cambodia. The rulers of the old Luzon Empire who cooperated with the Spanish overlords became the principalia of the new Spanish colony. To this day, their descendants still play an influential role in Philippine society. The study of Philippine history has for many years been Eurocentric, most Philippine historians have gone as far back at the earliest Spanish records but have failed to look into the archives of neighboring countries, such as Brunei, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and China. Their dependence on the English language limits the majority of Philippine historians from accessing volumes of materials written in Chinese and other Asian languages. As a result, the history of the Luzon empire remains mythical in their scholastic psyche and still virtually non-existent in mainstream Philippine History.

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Ancient People of Ophir

People of Ophir Now

In the book entitled Collecion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas, the author has described how to locate Ophir. According to the book, particularly in Documento No. 98, Ophir can be found by travelling from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir. Ophir was said to be "[...] in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade..." This group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there. It could also not be Taiwan since it is not composed of "many islands." Only the present-day Philippines could fit the description. Spanish records also did mention of the presence of Lequious (big, bearded white men, probably descendants of the Phoenicians, whose ships were always laden with gold and silver) in the Islands to gather gold and silver. Other evidences have also pointed out that the Philippines was indeed the biblical Ophir.

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Nagsimula ang mga Anak ni Yahweh nang likhain ni Yahweh si Adan, si Enoch ang ika-pito, si Noah ang ika-sampu nang panahong tumaas ang tubig sa mundo. Si Heber ang ika-labinglima ay nagkaroon ng mga anak sina Peleg at Yoktam sa panahong iyon ay nagkaiba-iba ang mga wika ng mga tao. Tinawag ang wika ni Heber na Hebrew hango sa kanyang pangalang Heber. Ang apo ni Heber kay Yoktam si OPHIR ay tumungo sa Silangan sa Genesis 10:30. Ang apo ni Heber kay Peleg ang naging ninuno ni Abram. Si Abram ay tinawag ni Yahweh na Abraham. Si Abraham ay tinawag na “Hebrew” sa Genesis 14:13 ay nagkaroon ng anak si Ismael sa kanyang katulong na si Hagar at si Yahshaak sa kanyang asawang si Sarah. Si Yahshaak ay nagkaroon ng dalawang anak si Enoch at si Yahcoob. Si Yahcoob ay tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear sa Genesis 32:28. Si Yahshear ay nagkaroon ng 12 anak na lalaki at isang babae si Dinah sa kanyang apat na asawa. Ang isa sa anak ni Yahshear si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa dumaraang Ismaelita at dinala sa Misrayim (Egypt) at ipinagbili sa isang Egyptian. Si Yohseph ay nakulong hanggang sa makapanghula siya sa kulungan. Ipinatawag si Yohseph ng Paraon ng Egypt upang hulaan niya ang napanaginipan ng Paraon. Nahulaan ni Yohseph ang panaginip at ginawa si Yohseph na prinsipe ng Egypt. Si Yohseph ay binigyan ng asawa si Azenath na lahi ni Ismael dahil ang Alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang pinagkunang magulang kapag natapos na ang pagkaalipin, si Yohseph ay galing sa Ismaelita na nagbenta sa kanya sa Egyptian. Dumating sa Egypt ang kanyang mga kapatid at magulang na si Yahshear. Nang makita ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim ay ibinilang na sa mga anak ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph at kung magkaanak pang muli si Yohseph ay ibibilang nalang sa lahi nila Manase at Efraim sa Genesis 48:5-6. Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear ay naging 13 dahil nadagdag si Efraim at Manase at nabawas si Yohseph sa bilang. Nanirahan sila sa Egypt hanggang ipinanganak si Moses na apo ni Levi na naglabas sa kanila sa Egypto. Inihiwalay ni Yahweh ang lahi ng anak ni Yahshear na si Levi upang magsilbi bilang pari ni Yahweh Magpakailanman sa Exodus 29:1-9. Ang Tribo ni Yahshear ay tinawag na Yahshurun na binibigkas na Tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) o “prinsipe ni Sarah”. Sa pagkamatay ni Moses ay pinalitan siya ni Yahshua na anak ni Nun ay inihalo ang lahat ng mga Levita sa bawat Tribo ng Israel sa Joshua 21:1-8. Ang 13 Tribo ay naging 12 Tribong muli dahil ang Tribo ni Levi ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo. Sa bawat Tribo ay may Levita na mababasa sa Judges 17:7. Naghangad ng Hari ang mga Yisrawale na ikinagalit ni Yahweh at ang unang naging Hari si Saul mula sa Tribo ng BenYahmin. Sumunod si Haring David mula sa Tribo ng Yahuwdah at ang sumunod si Haring Solomon na anak ni Haring David. Si Haring Solomon ay nagpagawa ng maraming Barko upang lumayag at kumuha ng mga Ginto sa OPHIR at bawat ikatlong (3) taon ay dumarating na may dalang mga ginto galing sa OPHIR sa 1 Kings 9:26, 1 Kings 10:22, 2 Chronicles 9:21. Pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati ang kaharian, naging Dalawang (2) Kaharian ang Kaharian ng Tribo ni Yahuwdah at BenYahmin ay pinamunuan ni Haring Rehoboam na anak ni Haring Solomon at ang Sampung (10) Tribo ay pinamunuan ni Haring Yeroboam na nagmula sa tribo ng Efraim at dating katiwala ni Haring Solomon sa 1 Kings 11:26. Sa Bawat tribo ay may nagsisilbibing Levita at namamahalang Levitang Pari sa pagsamba kay Yahweh. Ang mga Levitang Pari ay tinatawag na Yahshear-Dath o “Sacerdote” o “Pari ni Yahshear”, ang “Dath” ay “Pari”, ang “Yahshear” ay naisalin na “Sacer” na naging “SacerDote”. Si Haring Yeroboam ng Sampung (10) Tribo ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) ay PINALITAN ang mga Levitang-Pari ng ORDINARYONG Israelita o “Pekeng-Pari” sa 1 Kings 12:31-33, 1 Kings 13:33-34 at ang Sampung (10) Yahshear Dath (Sacerdote) o mga Levitang-Pari ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) ay PINALAYAS ni Haring Yeroboam ay tumungo naman sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa Lungsod ng Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) at nanirahan sila ng tatlong (3) taon doon sa 2 Chronicles 11:13-17. Sa Bawat ika-tatlong (3) taon naman ay dumarating sa Yahrusalem ang dala ng mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring Solomon na nanggaling sa OPHIR sa 2 Chronicles 9:21. Ang mga Levitang-Pari ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) na tinatawag na Yahshear Dath o ‟Sacerdote‟ ay SUMAMA sa mga Barko ni Haring Solomon na Lumalayag patungong OPHIR. Ang tanging naiwan lamang sa Yahrusalem na mga nagsisilbi sa Kaharian ng Tribo ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin ay ang mga nakatalagang Sacerdote ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin na lahi ni Kohat.

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Ang Sampung Tribo naman ng Israel na pinagsisilbihan ng mga “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita sa Kaharian ng Israel ay ipinatapon sa bansang Assyria ay “PINALITAN” sila ng mga taga-Limang Bansa (1.Abba, 2.Cutha, 3.Hammath, 4.Separvaim at 5.Babylonians) sa kanilang lupain sa 2 Kings 17:23-28. Nakasama sa naipatapon ang mga “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita. Pinabalik ng hari ng Assyria sa Lungsod ng Samaria ang Isa sa “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita upang turuan ng pamamaraan ng pagsamba ang mamayan ng Limang (5) bansa na siyang ipinalit sa mga Israelita doon sa kanilang lupain. Sila ay pinilit na magsalita ng Aramaic at pinagbawalang magsalita ng Hebrew sa 2 Kings 18:26. Ang tawag sa mga Sacerdote ay pinalitan ng tawag na “Kohan” na salitang Aramaic na wika. Nang panahong iyon bago masakop ang mga Israelita at bago tumakas sa barko patungong Ophir ang mga Yahshear Dath o Lehitimong Sacerdote ng Israel, ang kulay ng kanilang balat ay “Kayumanggi” sa Songs of Solomon 1:5-6. Dala nila ang Susi (Luke 11:52) na tinatawag na “Yawe”. Ang salitang “wa” ang ibig sabihin ay „wala‟, kaya ang “Yawa” ay “wala si Ya” kapag wala si “Ya” ay „dimonyo‟ ang ibig sabihin sa wika ng taga-Ophir na lugar na pinuntahan ng mga Levitang Yahshear Dath o Lehitimong Sacerdote ng Israel. Ang “Yah” ay ang pinaikling pangalan ni Yahweh sa Psalms 68:4. Ayon naman sa Chinese at Islamic Historians ay ang Sampung (10) Datu na Pinamunuan ni Datu Puti ay nanirahan sa isla ng Panay, si Datu Puti kasama ang dalawa pang Datu ay tumungo sa Mindoro at Taal (Batangas). Ang Natirang pitong (7) Datu ay tumungo sa Sugbu (Cebu), Samar at Ybalon (Bicol). Ang mga Datu ang pinaniniwalaang pinagmulan ng wikang Tagalog at wikang Bisaya (Hiligaynon sa Hebreo ang “Higaynon” ang ibig sabihin ay “solemn sound”) at wikang Bicol na malaking porsyento ay magkakatulad. Nang dumating ang mga Kastila ay pinatunayan naman ni Padre Pedro Chirino isang Kastilang Jesuit Historian na ang wikang Tagalog ay may misteryo at pagkakahawig sa wikang Hebreo na wika ng mga Sacerdote (Yahshear dath) ng Israel na dumating sa tawag na Datu.

Ang Sampung Datu:
1. Datu 2. Datu 3. Datu 4. Datu 5. Datu 6. Datu 7. Datu 8. Datu 9. Datu 10. Datu Puti Sumakwel Bangkaya Paiborong Paduhinogan Dumangsol Libay Dumangsil Domalogdog Balensuela

Dath
Dath ‫תד‬ dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary Pronunciation: Definition: Dawth (dawthu) 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule

‫תד‬

1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage ,a) decree, edict, commission, b) law, rule

of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner.

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DaTH
I used to think of DaTH (dawth) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH.

Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. *Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the

irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out. Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life — CHoKMaH/Sophia and

DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6]. A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible

SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can

direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient

case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ַר‬ ‫צ‬ ַ‫מ‬ ַ massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫ַרגּוש‬ ‫" ג‬Gargush"

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Dumating sa isla ng Panay ang Sampung (10) Datu Sakay ng “Balangay” na Pinamunuan ni Datu Puti

Balangay boat dated 320 A.D. The wooden boats measured an average of 15 meters in length which said to carry the first settlers of Butuan. To date, 9 Balangays have already been discovered in Ambangan, Libertad sites. Aside from the remains of the Balangay boats also found the remains of the early settlers. The Balangay is a cultural heritage that establishes the maritime activities of Butuan long before the Chinese came to the shores of the Philippines.

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Ang mga pulu-pulong isla sa Malayu na tinatawag ng mga Nabigador na OPHIR ay tinawag na LUCOES o LEQUIOS ng mga Portuguese, tinawag naman na FELIPINAS ng mga Kastila.

"Where is Tarshish and Ophir"
The truth is that the search for “Tarsis and Ofir” was directly related to the "discovery" of these islands by Magellan!

During the early period of European colonization, the Biblical lands of Tarshish and Ophir, or Tarsis and Ofir, as they were called, held the imagination of European explorers. Not only was it believed that the "lost tribes" of Israel were to be found in these lands, but also untold wealth. To these kingdoms King Solomon and King Hiram of Tyre sent ships for trade that "brought from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones," (I Kings 10:11). Concerning Tarshish it is written: "Fro the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Hiram: every three years once came the shop sof Tarshish bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacock." (II Chronicles 9:21) In Samuel Purchas's well-known travel compendium Purchas His Pilgrim, he devotes the entire first chapter to a discussion of Tarshish and Ophir. In particular, he argues strenously that it is beloved Britain and not Spain that deserved the title as the modern Tarshish and Ophir. Curiously, in Careri's journal of his visit to the Philippines, he mentions that he would not go into the argument raging in Europe at that time over whether the Philippines was originally populated by the descendants of Biblical Tarshish. In modern times, scholars have attempted to relate Tarshish and Ophir with a number of areas, none of which include the Philippines. However, things were different in Europe prior to the discovery of the Philippines. There, they believed that Tarsis and Ofir were some lands far to the east of biblical Israel. Their reasoning was actually quite logical. King Solomon built the port from which ships departed for Tarsis and Ofir at Ezion-Geber on the coast of the Red Sea. The return journey took about three years, so obviously the location must be somewhere far to the East. In modern times, some scholars have tried to suggest that Solomon's navy circumnavigated Africa to reach the Mediterranean, but the seafaring Europeans of those times would not consider such nonsense. Tarsis and Ofir were unknown lands beyond the Golden Chersonese of Ptolemy. Their discovery would undoubtedly bring untold wealth and great fame in the minds of the people of those times. But what, one may ask, has this to do with the Philippines? The truth is that the search for Tarsis and Ofir was directly related to the "discovery" of these islands by Magellan!

Magellan and the Search for Ophir

Magellan's contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, wrote that the people of Malacca (in modern Malaysia) had described to him an island group known as the Lequios whose people were as "rich and more eminent than the Chins (Chinese)," and that traded "much gold, and sliver in bars, silk, rich cloth, and much very good wheat, beautiful porcelains and many other merchandises." However, Barbosa was not the only one to mention the Lequios during Magellan's time. About a decade after Magellan's voyage, Ferdinand Pinto had wrote in his journal of the experience of his crew and himself after being shipwrecked on the Lequios! Pinto was traveling through the Malay Archipelago at the time and he describes the Lequios islands (see Luzon Empire) as belonging to large group of islands many of which were rich in gold and silver. He mentions that at that time the Portugese were familiar with Japan and China, and also with the island of "Mindanaus" or Mindanao, so the Lequois islands must have been somewhere between these two areas. Furthermore, Pinto even goes as far as to give the exact latitude of the main Lequios island. He states that is was situated at 9N20 latitude and that the island was on a merdian similar to that of Japan.

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Now, in Magellan's time all exploration was done by latitude sailing and dead reckoning, as no navigational clocks were in use. Latitude sailing required fixing one's latitude precisely by means of an astrolabe. Longitude could only be approximated roughly by using a patent log to track the distance the ship has travelled in any particular direction. When Magellan began to suspect he was nearing the region of the Moluccas he deliberately steered on a north course and then turned westward at a latitude of 13 degrees North according to both Pigafetta and Albo. Pigafetta states that the reason was to get near the port of "Gaticara" which was the Cattigara mentioned by Ptolemy. In the book, Magellan's Voyage around the World, the author, Charles E. Nowell, offers another possible reason for Magellan steering so far to the north of the Moluccas. He notes that Magellan himself had rewrote part of Barbosa's book referring to the Lequios, and in his version Magellan substituted "Tarsis" and "Ofir" for the world "Lequios." Although these lands are not mentioned in Magellan's contract, less than six years after his voyage, Sebastian Cabot signed a contract with Spain which did have as one of its objectives the "lands of Tarshish and Ophir." Magellan had been to Malacca himself, and probably many have heard of the community of Filipino workers and merchants that lived there under the protection of the king of Malacca. Probably many of you already know of the theory that Black Henry, the slave Magellan purchased at Malacca, may have belonged to the Filipino community of Malacca as he was able to speak with the natives at Limasawa. Whatever the case, we know from his own pen that Magellan thought the Lequios islands might be the same as the Biblical Tarsis and Ofir, and it may be that his idea of the position of the Lequios was partly shaped by Barbosa's book, and partly by information he may have received from Filipinos in Malacca. Was the fact that Black Henry was able to converse with the people living at the latitude given by Pinto (but not with the people of Samar or Leyte) a coincidence, or something planned in advance from information gleaned in Malacca? Even after their discovery, many still regarded the Philippines, rich in gold and silver, to be the same as ancient Tarsis and Ofir. Father Colin, referred to them as such in the early 1600's and even at the turn of the century, the Philippine historian Pedro Paterno, still claimed that the Philippines were really Tarshish and Ophir! Whatever one thinks of these claims though, the search for the Biblical El Dorado appears to have played an important role in the European discovery of the Philippines.

Ferdinand Magellan

While in the service of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe. Ferdinand Magellan was born in Oporto of noble parentage. Having served as a page to the Queen, Magellan entered the Portuguese service in the East in 1505. He went to East Africa and later was at the battle of Diu, in which the Portuguese destroyed Egyptian naval hegemony in the Arabian Sea. He went twice to Malacca, the Malayan spice port, participating in its conquest by the Portuguese. He may also have gone on an exploratory mission to the Molucca Islands (Spice Islands), the original source of some of the most valuable spices. In 1513 Magellan was wounded in one of the many frustrating battles against the Moors in North Africa. But all of his services brought him little favor from the Crown, and in 1517, accompanied by his friend the cosmographer Ruy Faleiro, he went to Seville, where he offered his services to the Spanish court. The famous Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) had divided the overseas world of the "discoveries" between the two powers. Portugal acquired everything from Brazil eastward to the East Indies; the Spanish hemisphere of discovery and conquest ran westward from Brazil to 134°E meridian. This eastern area had not yet been explored by the Spaniards, and they assumed that some of the Spice Islands might lie within their half of the globe. They were wrong, but Magellan's scheme was to test that assumption. In addition it must be recalled that Columbus had made a terrible mistake, brought home by his "discovery" of America. Accepting the academic errors of learned geographers, ancient and modern, he had grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and the East (sailing westward from the former). Balboa's march across the Panamanian Isthmus had subsequently revealed the existence of a "South Sea" (the Pacific) on the other side of Columbus's "mainlands in the Ocean Sea." Thereafter, explorers eagerly sought northern and southern all-water passages across the stumbling block of the Americas; Magellan, too, sought such a passage.

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Major Voyage King Charles V of Spain (the emperor Charles V) endorsed the design of Magellan and Faleiro, and on Sept. 20, 1519, after a year's preparation, Magellan led a fleet of five ships out into the Atlantic. Unfortunately the ships - the San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago - were barely seaworthy, and the crews, including some officers, were of international composition and of dubious loyalty to their leader. With Magellan went his brother-in-law, Duarte Barbosa, and the loyal and able commander of the Santiago, João Serrão. Arriving at Brazil, the fleet sailed down the South American coast to the Patagonian bay of San Julián, where it wintered from March to August 1520. There an attempted mutiny was squelched, with only the top leaders being punished. Thereafter, however, the Santiago was wrecked, and its crew had to be taken aboard the other vessels. Leaving San Julián, the fleet sailed southward; on Oct. 21, 1520, it entered the Strait of Magellan. It proceeded cautiously, taking over a month to pass through the strait. During this time the master of the San Antonio deserted and sailed back to Spain, and so only three of the original five ships entered the Pacific on November 28. There followed a long, monotonous voyage northward through the Pacific, and it was only on March 6, 1521, that the fleet finally anchored at Guam. Magellan then passed eastward to Cebu in the Philippines, where, in an effort to gain the favor of a local ruler, he became embroiled in a local war and was slain in battle on April 27, 1521; Barbosa and Serrão were killed shortly thereafter. With the crew wasted from sickness, the survivors were forced to destroy the Concepción, and the great circumnavigation was completed by a courageous former mutineer, the Basque Juan Sebastián del Cano. Commanding the Victoria, he picked up a small cargo of spices in the Moluccas, crossed the Indian Ocean, and traveled around the Cape of Good Hope from the east. With a greatly reduced crew he finally reached Seville on Sept. 8, 1522. In the meantime the Trinidad, considered unfit to make the long voyage home, had tried to beat its way against contrary winds back across the Pacific to Panama. The voyage revealed the vast extent of the northern Pacific, but the attempt failed, and the Trinidad was forced back to the Moluccas. There its crew was jailed by the Portuguese, and only four men returned after 3 years to Spain. Magellan's project brought little in the way of material benefit to Spain. The Portuguese were well entrenched in the East, their trans-African route at that time proving to be the only feasible maritime connection to India and the Spice Islands. Charles V acknowledged the political and economic facts by selling his vague East Indian rights to Portugal, rights that were later in part resumed with the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Yet though nearly destroying itself in the process, the Magellan fleet for the first time revealed in a practical fashion the full extent of humanity's inheritance upon this globe. And in this, its scientific aspect, it proved to be the greatest of all the "conquests" undertaken by the gold-, slave-, and spice-seeking overseas adventurers of early modern Europe. Further Reading A primary source is the narrative of Antonio Pigafetta, principal chronicler of the expedition, Magellan's Voyage around the World by Antonio Pigafetta, translated by James A. Robertson (2 vols., 1906). The Pigafetta translation and other source narratives are included in Charles E. Nowell, ed., Magellan's Voyage around the World: Three Contemporary Accounts (1962). The best works on Magellan, by Jean Denuce and Jose Toribio Medina, are in Spanish. In English, Francis H. H. Guillemard, The Life of Ferdinand Magellan (1890), is still good. Another study is Charles M. Parr, So Noble a Captain: The Life and Times of Ferdinand Magellan (1953; 2d ed. entitled Ferdinand Magellan, Circumnavigator, 1964). George E. Nunn, in The Columbus and Magellan Concepts of South American Geography (1932), shows the Magellan voyage to have been a logical consequence of the final views of the Columbus brothers.

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Gold of Ancestors &Pre-Colonial Philippines It's time we know our Lost Core Identity
These might change most people's point of view that the Pre-colonial Philippines is like a No Man's Land in the middle of the ocean with no trade contacts with its neighbors and that we owe to our colonizers our culture and civilization: Map of Spice Routes or Maritime Silk route as verified by UNESCO:

He who controls the spice, controls the universe.” Such were the words uttered by the main character of the movie Dune based on the Frank Herbert science fiction epic of the same name. In the story, the spice was the lifeblood of a vast empire. For the leaders of this empire, it w as essential that at all times „the spice must flow.‟ The spice trade of the Dune movie was no doubt inspired by the historical trade in aromatics from ancient times to the present. At various periods in history, spices have been as valuable as gold and silver. According to a 15th century saying: “No man should die who can afford cinnamon.” The aromatic substances were even more mysterious as they were connected in many cultures with the idea of a faraway paradise -- Eden. The Muslim writer al-Bukhari wrote that Sumatran aloeswood known as `Ud in Arabic filled the censers of Paradise. Ginger was the other major aromatic of Paradise in Muslim tradition. In the Travels of Sir John Mandeville it is said that the aloeswood of the Great Khan came from Paradise.

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We will show that the famed spices which traveled from Africa to the Arabian traders and from thence to the markets of the classical Mediterranean world had their ultimate origin in Southeast Asia. The aromatic trail known as the “Cinnamon Route” began somewhere in the Malay Archipelago, romantically known as the “East Indies,” and crossed the Indian Ocean to the southeastern coast of Africa. The spices may have landed initially at Madagascar and they eventually were transported to the East African trading ports in and around the city known in Greco-Roman literature as Rhapta. Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast. In Roman times, they traveled to Adulis in Ethiopia and then to Muza in Yemen and finally to Berenike in Egypt. From Egypt they made their way to all the markets of Europe and West Asia.1 The beginning of the trade is hinted at in Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions during the New Kingdom period about 3,600 years ago. The Pharoahs of Egypt opened up special relationships with the kingdom of Punt to the south. Although the Egyptians knew of Punt long before this period, it was during the New Kingdom that we really start hearing of important trade missions to that country that included large cargoes of spices. Particularly noteworthy are the marvelous reliefs depicting the trade mission of Queen Hatshepsut of the 18th Dynasty The idea of an ancient trade route to the east for spices and also precious metals like gold and silver is not new. The Jewish historian Josephus, writing in the first century AD, offered his explanation of the Biblical story of Solomon and Hiram‟s joint trade mission to the distant land of Ophir. In his Antiquities of the Jews, he said the voyages which began from the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber were destined for the island of Chryse far to the east in the Indian Ocean. Ezion-geber was near the modern city of Eilat in Israel and the trade voyages took three years to complete according to the Old Testament account2. Where then was the island of Chryse mentioned by Josephus? Greek geographers usually placed it east of the Ganges river mouth. Medieval writings placed it near where the Indian Ocean met the Pacific Ocean. In modern times, Chryse has been equated by scholars with the land known in Indian literature as Suvarnadvipa. Both Chryse and Suvarnadvipa mean “Gold Island.” The latter was also located in Indian writings well to the east of India in the “Southern Ocean” and is identified by most scholars with the Malay Archipelago (“the East Indies”). Josephus‟ theory of voyages to Southeast Asia was supported indirectly about a half -century later by Philo of Byblos who translated the History of Phoenicia by Sanchuniathon. This translation was originally considered a fraud by modern scholars, but discoveries from Ras Shamra in the Levant indicate Philo‟s work was authentic. They are important because they come from a different historical source than the Old Testament account. Philo records the Phoenician version of Solomon and Hiram‟s trade mission to Ophir. What is interesting is how Philo‟s account allows us to interpret some arcane Hebrew passages. He outlines journeys into the Erythraean Sea (Indian Ocean) that took three years to complete. The items brought back from the journey were apes, peacocks and ivory all products of tropical Asia and all included along with other goods in the Biblical account. Philo‟s interpretation of Sanchuniathon‟s history uses words for the products of the voyages which clearly point to tropical Asia unlike the strange terms used a thousand years earlier in Solomon‟s time. The romantic idea of distant Ophir may have inspired the explorer Magellan on his circumnavigation voyage around the world in the 16th century. The explorer replaced geographical locations in his reference books with the names “Tarsis and Ofir,” the equivalent in his time of Biblical “Tarshish and Ophir.” 3 He actually set a course on the latitude of one of these locations before reaching the islands of the Visayas from the East. In the medieval and early colonial period, commentators on classical Greco-Roman literature first began hinting that the Cinnamon Route might trace eventually from Africa to the east in Asia. Many of the terms used for spices in early works are obscure and can be difficult to identify. The commentators interpreted these terms into the contemporary language at a time when the knowledge of the world had greatly increased. In most cases, we can confidently associate these latter spice names with species that we know today. Thus, when the ancient writer Pliny mentions tarum as a product of East Africa we understand it as aloeswood because later commentators translate tarum with a word that is no longer obscure: lignum aloe “aloeswood.” By the time of the commentators, the source of the aloeswood was already we ll-known. Pliny mentions tarum as coming from the land that produced cinnamon and cassia in Africa. But the commentators give it an identity which clearly indicates a tropical Asian origin in their time.

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So why were these Asian products turning up in African markets? Pliny is the only writer who attempts an explanation and the related passages have been the source of much scholarly controversy. The details will be discussed later in this book, but the historian James Innes Miller was possibly the first modern scholar to put on his glasses and use Pliny and other evidence to suggest that Austronesian traders had brought spices to African markets via a southern maritime route. Miller connected the spice route with the prehistoric settlement of Madagascar by Austronesian seafarers. spices from southern China and both mainland and insular Southeast Asia were brought by Austronesian merchants whom he associates with the people known to the Chinese by the names Kunlun and Po-sse. Miller‟s book was the defining work of his time and it still has a profound influence on historians of trade and seafaring. However, classical historians, philologists and other scholars had mixed views on Miller‟s thesis. A number of alternative theories sprung up and Miller was criticized, sometimes rightfully so, with using too many loosely-established ideas to support his argument. One of our main goals will be to use newer evidence along with some apparently missed by Miller to show that, for the most part, his idea of a southern transoceanic route was correct. In addition to Miller‟s Cinnamon Route, there also existed a “Clove Route” to China and India. The evidence for these early spice routes comes from every available field including history, archaeology, linguistics, genetics and anthropology. For example, we can show by a process of elimination that a southern route for tropical Asian spices into Africa is historical. The exact details of this route are not known to us from history but the route itself is the only reasonable conclusion given the historical sources at our disposal. We can then bolster the testimony of history by bringing in supporting evidence from other fields. One way we do this is to show that certain cultural items that came from Southeast Asia, or at least tropical Asia, were diffused first to the southeastern coast of Africa before moving northward at dates that are supportive of our thesis. One example is the diffusion of the domestic chicken (Galllus gallus) to Africa. The oldest archaeological remains of this species may date back to 2,800 BCE from Tanzania.4 The earliest similar evidence in Egypt is not earlier than the New Kingdom period about 1,000 years later. To support this finding, there is additional evidence provided by the presence of the double outrigger5, barkcloth, various types of musical instruments6 and other cultural items present on the southeastern African coast. Possibly also the distribution of the coconut crab7, the world‟s largest land-based invertebrate also provides evidence for this early southern contact. An important factor in ascertaining the old spice routes from Southeast Asia is the trail of cloves from Maluku and the southern Philippines north to South China and Indochina and then south again along the coast to the Strait of Malacca. From there the cloves went to India spice markets and points further west. This north-south direction of commerce through the Philippines has recently been recognized by UNESCO as part of the ancient maritime spice route. The Philippine-Maluku hub persisted into Muslim times and is chronicled in Arabic historical and geographic writings. While the clove route started in the south, cinnamon trade began in the north. The cinnamon route started in the cinnamon and cassia-producing regions of northern Indochina and southern China and then likely proceeded from South China spice ports southward during the winter monsoon down the Philippine corridor. The route likely turned southeast at that point to Sumatra and/or Java to pick up different varieties of cinnamon and cassia along with aloeswood and benzoin. From southwestern Indonesia the voyage then took the Austronesian merchants across the great expanse of the Indian Ocean to Africa. Linguistically the clove route is supported by the distribution of names for ginger in the Malay Archipelago. These appear to have followed the clove route from China through the Philippines to the rest of insular Southeast Asia. In the medieval Chinese and Muslim texts we first get specific details about these routes although they probably were unchanged from the ones used centuries or thousands of years earlier. The Chinese records in particular give detailed itineraries including directions and voyage length for each stop along the way to the southern spice markets. Of particular importance are the entrepots known to the Chinese as Sanfotsi and Toupo. The same marketplaces were likely known to the Muslim geographers likely by the names of Zabag and Waqwaq respectively. Like Chryse of the Greeks and Suvarnadvipa of the Indians, these entrepots were a source of wonder and literary romance. In the One Thousand and One Nights, Sinbad travels to Zabag on one of his voyages

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and the islands of Waqwaq are the setting for the adventure of Hassan of Basra. Indian literature also abounds in tales of voyages to the islands of gold by those in search of treasure, either material or spiritual. From the Arabic literature, we start to learn of first-hand accounts of trade and other voyages by mariners from Southeast Asia to Africa. Previously, we had only the vague accounts of Solomon‟s journey and Pliny‟s brief descriptions of long sea voyages from or to the cinnamon country. The Muslim works tell us of ships and people from Zabag and Waqwaq coming to African ports for trade and even on occasion to conduct military raids. The records give the impression of well-established trade relationships, but just how long did these long-distance ties exist before the Muslim writings? We believe is a strong case for this trade opening up by at least the New Kingdom period in Egypt. At that time, voyages to the divine land of Punt became more frequent with large fleets bringing back impressive hauls of tribute for the Pharaoh. While the hard evidence is still fragmentary, the quantity and quality of this evidence is still comparable to those of other established theories. We simply come to the most logical conclusions based on the historical records, and how these records should be interpreted based on the evidence. Rome‟s discovery of the monsoon trade winds did not have any significant impact as the Roman ships mainly plied the waters between the Ptolemaic port of Berenike and the ports along the coast of eastern Africa and western India. The Romans apparently did not interfere much at these ports and only established minor trading colonies if any in these areas. The wave of Islam into East Africa was probably the strongest factor in closing the southern spice route. Muslim traders managed to convert the local populations, and in the process, must have greatly complicated preexisting trade relationships. The Muslim merchants in their dhows moving eastward would have eventually discovered the sources of cinnamon and cassia. Then it was only a matter of time before the caliphate would be able to eliminate the African ports in favor of direct import to Arab entrepots. This was not an immediate process though. The Muslim geographers and historians still record trade activity between Africa and Southeast Asia in aloeswood, tortoise-shell, iron and other products centuries after the Arabs had established themselves on the Tanzanian coast. By the time the Portuguese reached this area though it appears this trade had disappeared. All that was left were traces of the Austronesian contact including the local boats with their outriggers and lateen sails made of coconut fiber. With the end of the cinnamon route and the advent of the European control of the spice trade, the Austronesian component of this commerce almost completely faded away. However, some three thousand years of spice trade from the New Kingdom to the late Muslim period left a lasting legacy that reshaped the world. The vision of an El Dorado of gold and spices tempted romantics and kings alike. For centuries, the Arabs had controlled the Mediterranean part of the spice trade by keeping secret the monsoon sources of the precious commodities. Eventually the Roman empire discovered the monsoon routes as opposed to earlier costly voyages that involved closely following the shoreline. However, it took some time before they could discover the real sources of the spices they treasured so much. When the Alexandrian merchant Cosmas Indicopleustes ventured to find these sources in the sixth century ACE, many of these secrets were just coming to light. However, it was a little too late. The meteoric rise of Islam closed off any further European exploration or exploitation of the spice routes. Conversely, a whole new world was opened up for the merchants of the Muslim world. Their newly found power allowed them to venture deep into Asia as never before. The Islamic texts give the first detailed descriptions of the emporiums of the East. By at least the ninth century, a massive trade ensued between the two regions greatly enriching the the Islamic caliphate. Magnificent cities and buildings were constructed throughout the Muslim lands at the same time that Europe sunk into the dark ages. The Arabic writers also tell of great kingdoms and empires of the East including the fabled cities of the Khmers and the island domains of the Mihraj (Maharaja) of Zabag. Europe would get another chance centuries later when a charismatic leader arose out of a hitherto unknown nomadic tribe of the steppe. Chingiss Khan, also known as Genghis Khan, rode out of the wastelands of Central Asia with his Mongol armies on epic conquests. Among the empires destroyed in the Great Khan‟s path was the Islamic Caliphate. The fall of Baghdad again opened the Silk Road and the maritime spice route to the merchants and adventurers of Europe. One of the first to take up the challenge of the East was Marco Polo. The records of his travels along with those of other Europeans who ventured east rekindled the urge to link with the long-lost spice Eden of the east. The Portuguese were the

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first to take up the gauntlet establishing bases at Goa in India and Malacca on the Malay Peninsula. Others followed including the powerful Dutch East Indian Company. The quest for spices and precious metals ushered in what is known as the Age of Exploration. Magellan‟s personal documents indicated his desire to find the golden islands of Tarshish and Ophir. The explorer Sebastian Cabot was appointed as commander of an expedition “to discover the Moluccas, Tarsis, Ophir, Cipango and Cathay.” The fight to control the flow of cloves, nutmeg, black pepper, gold, silver and other commodities led to the circumnavigation of Africa and the world, and the exploration of the Western hemisphere and the Pacific Ocean. The coming of the Europeans nearly completely excluded the native Austronesian merchants from the trade. The same people who in the Muslim annals were sailing to East Africa to engage in commerce now where often prevented even from participating in merchant activity from city to city or island to island in their own region. Only after Southeast Asia freed itself from Western colonialism has this ancient wonderland of entrepots regained direct control its own trade again. Today, the nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have formed a unique organization designed to enhance commerce in the region. Indeed, ASEAN is really the model for the entire Asian region. Even developed Asian nations like Japan and South Korea have looked to ASEAN as the model for regional trade cooperation. Today, manufactured goods from sneakers to computers are more important exports that spices or precious metals, although these latter items continue to hold their own. The region has also come to be a leader in a completely different type of trade – the human trade. Southeast Asia is the world‟s largest exporter of human labor. Seafarers , nurses, doctors, domestics, constructions workers, computer programmers and almost every other kind worker including those in illegal trades come from the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia or other nations in the area and can be found in almost every country of the world. Many analysts believe the geopolitics of the area will again bring Southeast Asia to the center of the world‟s stage. Most of the goods shipped around the globe still travel by sea, and Southeast Asia is the main hub for trade between Asia and the rest of the world. The volume of trade activity has been growing faster here than any other area of the world and most expect this trend to continue. The region‟s great natural diversity may again come into play as the ageing populations of the developed world look for new medicines and natural cures from Southeast Asia‟s biological resources. According to one theory, the great Austronesian migrations of prehistory began with the flooding of the Sundaland continent, which also created the islands of the Malay Archipelago. The region‟s natural treasures provided the wayfaring Austronesians with items of the trade that became valued in distant lands. Then, as now, a combination of natural forces thrust the people of Southeast Asia into a crucial role in the course of world history.

An important factor in ascertaining the old spice routes from Southeast Asia is the trail of cloves from Maluku and the southern Philippines north to South China and Indochina and then south again along the coast to the Strait of Malacca. From there the cloves went to India spice markets and points further west. This north-south direction of commerce through the Philippines has recently been recognized by UNESCO as part of the ancient maritime spice route. The PhilippineMaluku hub persisted into Muslim times and is chronicled in Arabic historical and geographic writings.

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Laguna Copperplate Inscription

Document written in year 900 A.D.

This was found on 1989 at the shore of Laguna de Ba'y in Laguna, Philippines is a written document before the arrival of Spaniards in the Philippine. The size is 8 x 12 inches and now at the National Museum of the Philippines.

Line 1: swasti shaka warshatita 822 waisakha masa ding jyotisha. chaturthi krishnapaksha soLine 2: mawara sana tatkala dayang angkatan lawan dengannya sanak barngaran si bukah Line 3: anakda dang hwan namwaran di bari waradana wi shuddhapat(t)ra ulih sang pamegat senapati di tunduLine 4: n barja(di) dang hwan nayaka tuhan pailah jayadewa. di krama dang hwan namwaran dengan dang kayaLine 5: stha shuddha nu di parlappas hutangda wale(da)nda kati 1 suwarna 8 di hadapan dang hwan nayaka tuhan puLine 6: liran ka sumuran. dang hwan nayaka tuhan pailah barjadi ganashakti. dang hwan nayaka tuLine 7: han binwangan barjadi bishruta tathapi sadanda sanak kaparawis ulih sang pamegat deLine 8: wata [ba]rjadi sang pamegat medang dari bhaktinda di parhulun sang pamegat. ya makanya sadanya anak Line 9: chuchu dang hwan namwaran shuddha ya kaparawis di hutangda dang hwan namwaran di sang pamegat dewata. ini gerang Line 10: syat syapanta ha pashchat ding ari kamudyan ada gerang urang barujara welung lappas hutangda dang hwa ...

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Translation by Antoon Postma an expert from Indonesia Line 1: Hail! In the Saka-year 822; the month of March-April; according to the astronomer: the 4th day of the dark half of the moon; on Line 2: Monday. At that time, Lady Angkatan together with her relative, Bukah by name, Line 3: the child of His Honor Namwran, was given, as a special favor, a document of full acquittal, by the Chief and Commander of Tundun, Line 4: the former Leader of Pailah, Jayadewah. To the effect that His Honor Namwran, through the Honorable Scribe Line 5: was totally cleared of a debt to the amount of 1 kati and 8 suwarna (weight of gold), in the presence of His Honor the Leader of Puliran, Line 6: Kasumuran; His Honor the Leader of Pailah, namely: Ganasakti; (and) His Honor the Leader Line 7: of Binwangan, namely: Bisruta. And (His Honor Namwran) with his whole family, on orders by the Chief of Dewata, Line 8: representing the Chief of Mdang, because of his loyalty as a subject (slave?) of the Chief, therefore all the descendants Line 9: of His Honor Namwran have been cleared of the whole debt that His Honor owed the Chief of Dewata. This (document) is (issued) in case Line 10: there is someone, whosoever, some time in the future, who will state that the debt is not yet acquitted of His Honor...

Translation by Hector Santos of the Philippines Since I first started studying this document in 1994, I have developed some ideas that are different from those first reported by Antoon Postma. Of course, my conclusions were only made possible by his pioneering work, the initial breakthrough in our understanding of the LCI. Unlike traditional scholars, I divided the text into phrases, not lines, as indicated by the stop marks, large dots used by the ancients like our comma and period of today. (See LCI graphic.) I tried to make each phrase a logical division of the structure, able to stand apart from the others. The three major differences from Postma's translation derive from my following conclusions: 1. I believe that anakda dang hwan namwaran refers to both Angkatan and Bukah, i.e. they are children of Namwaran. The phrase lawan denganña sanak barngaran si bukah can be literally translated as "together with her counterpart relative named Bukah." If Angkatan were Namwaran's wife, the important relationship would certainly have been made clear in the document as is customary. In the absence of such a mention, anak should be taken as a plural (same form as singular) and therefore applies to both Angkatan and Bukah. I am convinced that ganashakti and bishruta are not proper names as Postma believes. If they were, they would either be directly preceded by personal markers such as si or pu, or by titles. Instead, they are preceded by a verb which indicates that their literal meanings should be used in the translation. I think barjadi simply represents the verb "to be." Postma struggled with this word in his early translations, switching from "representing" to "represented by" and back again. There are problems with "representing" that has something to do with correct hierarchies of the officials. Since we are not showing his early translations here, we will not discuss it further. In his latest December 1992 translation, he gives inconsistent meanings to barjadi.

2.

3.

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Literal Translation We begin with a literal translation which attempts to maintain the same word order while trying to make the English text still readable. Phrase 1: Blessings, Shaka-related year 822, Waisakha month, by astronomy. Phrase 2: Fourth day of dark half of the moon, Monday, there at that time Lady Angkatan together with her relative named Bukah, children of the honorable Namwaran are given a wish, a gift of full clearance document by the chief, commander-in-chief at Tundun, who is the honorable minister lord Pailah, Jayadewa. Phrase 3: By order, the honorable Namwaran through the scribe is cleared and forgiven of his debt and his arrears of 1 kati and 8 suwarnas in front of the honorable minister lord Puliran, Ka Sumuran. Phrase 4: The honorable minister lord Pailah is source of authority. Phrase 5: The honorable minister lord Binwangan, who is famous, looked attentively at all his (Namwaran's) living relatives all gotten by chief Dewata, who is chief Medang, on account of his devotion as subject of the chief. Phrase 6: Yes, therefore all living descendants of the honorable Namwaran are cleared, yes, of all debts of the honorable Namwaran to the chief Dewata. Phrase 7: This, in case who will say in future day, sometime, there will perhaps be a man who says not yet cleared is debt of the honorable ... Free Translation This is easier to understand because it freely translates the original text, making it more readable in English. Phrase 1: Greetings! Shaka year 822, month of Waisakha, according to the stars. Phrase 2: On the fourth day of the waning moon, Monday, Lady Angkatan and her brother Bukah, children of the Honorable Namwaran, were given a gift of their wish, this document of full forgiveness by the Commander-in-Chief of Tundun, represented by the Honorable Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa. Phrase 3: By this order through the scribe, the Honorable Namwaran is cleared and forgiven of his debt and his arrears of 1 kati and 8 suwarnas as witnessed by the Honorable Lord Minister of Puliran, Ka Sumuran. Phrase 4: The Honorable Lord Minister of Pailah was the source of authority. Phrase 5: On account of Namwaran's devotion as a subject of the chief, the Honorable Lord Minister of Binwangan, who is known in many places, identified all of Namwaran's living relatives who were taken by the Chief of Dewata, represented by the Chief of Medang. Phrase 6: As a consequence, all living descendants of the Honorable Namwaran are also cleared of all debts that the Honorable Namwaran owed the Chief of Dewata. Phrase 7: This document is issued in case there is someone in the future who will allege that the debt has not been cleared yet by the Honorable .

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Translation in Tagalog Mabuhay! Taóng Siyaka 822, buwán ng Waisaka, ayon sa aghámtalà. Ang ikaapat na araw ng pagliít ng buwán, Lunes. Sa pagkakátaóng itó, si Dayang Angkatán sampû ng kaniyáng kapatíd na nagngangalang Buka, na mga anák ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán, ay ginawaran ng isáng kasulatan ng lubós na kapatawarán mulâ sa Punong Pangkalahatan sa Tundún sa pagkatawán ng Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh na si Jayadewa. Sa atas na itó, sa pamamagitan ng Tagasulat, ang Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad na sa lahát at inalpasán sa kaniyáng utang at kaniyáng mga náhulíng kabayarán na 1 katî at 8 suwarna sa harapán ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Puliran na si Ka Sumurán, sa kapangyarihan ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh. Dahil sa matapát na paglilingkód ni Namwarán bilang isáng sakop ng Punò, kinilala ng Kagalang-galang at batikáng Punong Kagawad ng Binwangan ang lahát ng nabubuhay pang kamag-anak ni Namwarán na inangkín ng Punò ng Dewatà, na kinatawán ng Punò ng Medáng. Samakatwíd, ang mga nabubuhay na inapó ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad sa anumán at lahát ng utang ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán sa Punò ng Dewatà. Itó, kung sakalì, ay magpapahayag kaninumán na mulâ ngayón kung may taong magsasabing hindî pa alpás sa utang ang Kagalang-galang...

Significance Just how significant is this incomplete document that ends in midsentence and contains only ten lines?

It means, as we have discussed earlier, that the edge of history has been pushed back 621 years, giving the Philippines a documented existence among the ancient kingdoms of Southeast Asia like Shri-Vijaya (Sumatra), Angkor (Kampuchea), Champa (Vietnam), Madjapahit (Java), and others that existed before the 10th Century.

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    

Ancient Chinese records with placenames like P'u-li-lu, which was thought to have been Polilio (but didn't make sense), will have to be reevaluated. Placenames mentioned in the LCI will have to be given more importance when evaluating ancient records that contain similar sounding names. From porcelain finds, Manila was thought to have been settled as late as 1200. It now appears that an earlier date was more likely. Certainly, a search for other means of dating Manila's first settlements is needed. A search for artifacts in the places mentioned in the LCI might also prove fruitful. Earlier historians thought that the Philippines was part of Shri-Vijaya or even Madjapahit. Their theories have been largely discredited in recent times. It is now time to reexamine the possible connection. Historians believe that the Muslims who ruled Manila were the first to establish more sophisticated forms of government in the area. They also believe that the Muslims started the trade with Borneo and other points south. It is possible that the Hindus were in Manila before the Muslims. The Tagalog script is so rudimentary that it cannot even completely record the sounds of its own language. Three centuries before the Tagalog script's emergence, the Manila area used a script so rich and sophisticated that great empires were ruled through its use. How did this happen? How could a less sophisticated script have supplanted a better one?

Many interesting scenarios can be created to explain some of the above puzzles. During the era of the LCI it was not uncommon for settlements to disappear. They flourished for some time, even for centuries, but things like natural catastrophes, epidemics, emigration, pirate raids, war, etc. made them disappear. It is also known that Muslim culture pushed Hindu influence in Indonesia out of most areas, leaving Bali as the only place where Hindu culture has survived. Any one of these things could have caused the early settlements around Manila to disappear.

The disappearance of the earlier people who settled around Manila may explain why the Kavi script was lost and a lesser one introduced later. But how did the placenames remain? If a few people remained to maintain a continuity of their settlements and placenames, how did they lose their knowledge of the Malay language and the Kavi script? At this time, everything is conjecture. Many more questions will be asked, answered, and refuted; other questions will be asked again. Little by little, we will know more about the Philippines as it was before the Spaniards came, thanks to a little piece of metal dredged from the sand.

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Forgotten Philippines: Gold Of Ancestors : THE SACRED THREAD AND THE KINARI

An interesting ramification presented by above video link if one will reflect the status of the owner of the Sacred Thread...

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The Boxer Codex is a manuscript written circa 1595 which contains illustrations of Filipinos at the time of their initial contact with the Spanish. Aside from a description of and historical allusions to the Philippines and various other Far Eastern countries, it also contains seventy-five colored drawings of the inhabitants of these regions and their distinctive costumes. Fifteen illustrations deal with Filipinos. It is believed that the original owner of the manuscript was Luis Pérez das Mariñas, son of Governor General Gómez Pérez das Mariñas, who was killed in 1593 by Sangleys (Chinese living in the Philippines). Luis succeeded his father in office as Governor General of the Philippines. Since Spanish colonial governors were required to supply written reports on the territories they governed, it is likely that the manuscript was written under the orders of the governor. The manuscript's earliest known owner was Lord Ilchester. The codex was among what remained in his collection when his estate, Holland House in London, suffered a direct hit during an air raid 1942. The manuscript was auctioned in 1947 and came into the possession of Prof. Charles Ralph Boxer, an authority on the Far East. It is now owned by the Lilly Library at Indiana University. The Boxer Codex depicts the Tagalogs, Visayans, Zambals, Cagayanons and Negritos of the Philippines in vivid colors. The technique of the paintings suggests that artist may have been Chinese, as does the use of Chinese paper, ink and paints.
Considered by many anthropological experts as one of the earliest illustrations depicting the lives and rich culture of the early Filipinos is the manuscript known today as the Boxer Codex. This 16th century manuscript was named after Charles Ralph (C.R.) Boxer, a noted British Army officer and historian famous for his research of the Far East, particularly the Southeast Asian region. Professor Boxer got hold of this precious manuscript when it was auctioned off in 1947. Its previous owner was Giles Fox-Strangeways, the 6th Earl of Ilchester. Although it was not known how the Boxer Codex came into Lord Ilchester’s possession, the old manuscript miraculously survived a massive fire that broke out in his estate, the Holland House, during a German Military air raid in 1942. Professor Boxer later worked at Indiana University serving as an advisor at the university’s Lilly Library. The library now owns the manuscripts and research es of Professor Boxer related in the Far East including the renowned Boxer Codex. It is believed that that the Boxer Codex was created on the order of Luis Pérez Dasmariñas, the 9th Governor-General of the Philippines (1593-1596). Under his leadership, it was required for Spanish colonial governors serving on different colonized region of the Philippines to submit written reports on the conditions, the culture, and the way of life of the territories and the constituents they governed. It was most likely that the Boxer Codex was created to supplement this order. Drawn on the pages of the Boxer Codex are beautiful illustrations of the early Filipinos divided into different regions (Cagayanons, Negritos, Tagalogs, Visayas, Zambals). And based on the artistic style and painting materials used to create these drawings, it is believed that a Chinese artist, commissioned by one of the Spanish colonial governors, rendered these illustrative creations. The Boxer Codex also has other chapters dedicated to other regions in Southeast Asia, including parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Southern China.

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Boxer Codex
A Tagalog couple of the Maharlika nobility caste depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th Century Similar to the Boxer Codex ... is the owner a Sovereign of such a High Status, which will intimidate various rulers of other kingdoms in Southeast Asia if they would be standing side by side by each other. A ruler wearing a golden Sash or UPAVITA would intimidate or humiliate any Majapahit and Srivijayan royalties from neighboring kingdoms. Imagine a Golden Rajah with his Gold warriours would surely outclass any royals and warriors. Is the owner of that Golden Sacred thread a Srivijayan? Remember the other Golden rule: He who has the gold makes the rules. The maritime thalossocracy or alliance of rajanates called by the early Chinese as Sanfotsi and by the early Arabs as Zabag which Coedes collectively called Srivijayas stemming from a Kedukan bukit inscription found near Palembang was said to have a powerful competitor in the south called Wakwak by the early Arabs or Toupo by the early chinese. Is the Butuan-Toubok(Cotobato)area fits the bill for the powerful competitior of Sanfotsi-Zabag? The Tausugs of the Sulu Sultanate were said to be originally Bisayan migrants from Butuan. The Surigao Treasures billed as Gold of Ancestors is in the area of GOLD RICH BUTUAN.

A sword hilt from the Surigao Treasure

Philippine gold artifacts in general tend to be more elaborate and better crafted than most from West Borneo. Harrisson looked at the Dr Arturo de Santos collection (part of which was acquired by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas) as well, and observed that “…the range of Philippine gold jewelry…includes many pieces of a complexity and finesse that is beyond anything attempted in Borneo” in so far as what had been found at that time (Harrisson 1968: 56).

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Throughout Indonesia there was a relationship between gold artifacts and the ruling aristocracy, in the class-power centers which developed on the coastal plains around the middle of the 1st millenium AD (Harrisson 1968:44). Precious metals were worked „exclusively in those areas where the influence of Hinduism was strongest‟: he includes Java, Bali, southern Celebes and the coastal districts of Borneo. These areas developed as centers with established hierarchies, which necessitated the conspicuous display of wealth (Harrisson 1968: 47). There was a demand for gold, which the Philippines could have supplied. It would be reasonable to suggest that one of the main sources of Javanese and Bornean gold was the Philippines. That trade would have been important enough to have been direct, by-passing minor pass-on players say, in Sarawak or Sulawesi. Moreover, the early interest in gold from the Philippines would have been in the raw material rather than wrought artifacts. In turn, local interest would have been on goods not made of gold, which they had plenty of.

quotes Alcina, a Jesuit writing about a hundred years after Legaspi, the conquistadores of the Philippines in the 16th century: “I do remember that once when I was solemnizing a marriage of a Bisayan principala, she was so weighed down with jewelry that it caused her to stoop — to me it was close to an arroba or so (1 arroba = 25 lbs.), which was a lot of weight for a girl of twelve. Then again, I also heard it said that her grandfather had a jar full of gold which alone weighed five or six arrobas. Even this much is little in comparison to what they actually had in ancient times.”

pupuplatter, United States says: I doubt that the makers of what has been called the “Surigao Treasure” were Muslim. Islam came to the Philippine rather late, less than 200 years before the Spanish conquest. We should also avoid idealizing, even as we begin to appreciate, the precolonial past: some of the pre-colonial jewelry recovered in Mindanao and elsewhere may have been hastily buried to hide them from Cebuano, Tagalog, or Samal slave raiders and looters. And it is difficult to determine who the “original” inhabitants of Mindanao really are. For much of the Spanish colonial period, agents of the maritime state of Sulu conducted slave raids throughout much of the Philippines. (Bisayans in particular resented this since before Christian conversion they claimed that they were so mighty that they would have been the ones looting, pillaging, and slave raiding their way across the Philippine waters.) These slaves gathered pearls, bird‟s nest, wax and other products that were then sold to the agents of the British East India Company who, in turn, sold those products to China. It‟s a complicated, global history.

The crafters of Surigao treasures were most probably Hindu Bisayans, if not, their allies. The Rajanate of Butuan had alliance with the Rajanate of Cebu. Intermarriages of the royals between the two rajanates were common. And so the comment of pupuplatter that the Hindu-Animists Cebuanos would probably raid their allies, their Hindu-Animists brethren in Butuan, is most probably incorrect. While, the Tausug Muslims of Sulu were originally Hindu-animists Bisayans from Butuan having been proselytized by the Bruneians. And the Tausugs indeed raided their pacified Bisayan brothers only during the time of the Spanish colonial perod as they became Muslim while the latter became Christians. King Humabon of Cebu, King Siaiu of Mazaua, and King Colambu of Butuan were blood kins accdg to the history books.
If King Humabon of Cebu, King Siaiu of Mazaua, and King Colambu of Butuan were blood kins, we do not know if they‟re first cousins, who was their common ancestry. Was their ancestor from Butuan? Or, conversely, from Cebu?

Controlling the Straits of Malacca As evidenced by history, the country that succeeded in controlling the narrow strait between the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra would gain complete control of China's maritime silk route and thus become a thalossocracy - a trading empire. The Srivijaya of South Sumatra did so in 670 AD, the Chola of Southeast India in 1026 AD, the Madjapahit of Java in 1343 AD, the Sultanate of Malacca in 1400 AD, and finally the Portuguese in 1512 AD.*17 When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in 1500 AD, they witnessed LUZON's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of this economically strategic highway. For instance, the former SULTAN OF MALACCA decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from LUZON in 1525 AD.*18 In 1529 AD, the Sultanate of Atjeh on the northern tip of Sumatra became powerful enough to consider controlling the Straits of Malacca. LUZON ships formed part of the Atjehnese fleet that attacked key settlements along the straits. At the same time, LUZON warriors formed part of the opposing BATAKMENANGKABAU army that besieged Atjeh or ACEH.*19 On the mainland, LUZON warriors aided the BURMESE KING in his invasion of SIAM in 1547 AD. At the same time, LUZON warriors fought alongside the KING OF THAILAND and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.*20

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The Portuguese were not only witnesses but also direct beneficiaries of LUZON's involvement. Many Lucoes, as the Portuguese called the people of LUZON, chose MALACCA as their base of operations because of its strategic importance. When the Portuguese finally took the MALACCA in 1512 AD, the resident Lucoes held important government posts in the former sultanate. They were also large-scale exporters and ship owners that regularly sent junks to China, Brunei, Sumatra, Siam and Sunda. One LUZON official by the name of SURYA DIRAJA annually sent 175 tons of pepper to China and had to pay the Portuguese 9000 cruzados in gold to retain his plantation. His ships became part of the first Portuguese fleet that paid an official visit to the Chinese empire in 1517 AD. In 1591 AD, the CAMBODIAN KING Phra Unkar Langara sent a gift of two royal elephants, gems and horses to the lords of LUZON to petition them to aid him in the war against SIAM.

Trade Missions to China:
The name Lusung(LUZON) first appeared in Chinese History in 1373 AD in the Ming Annals. In this document, Lusung was one of the first to answer the call for tribute missions to the new Ming Dynasty [1368 - 1644]. It was Brunei who first responded in 1371 AD, followed by Liuchiu in 1372, and then by Lusung in 1373 AD*11. Despite the fact that it made its first appearance on Chinese records as late as 1373 AD, evidences suggests that the Chinese had long known the existence of LUZON as far back as the Sung Dynasty[960 - 1278 AD]. The presence of thousands of recognisable pieces of Sung and Yuan Dynasty porcelains found in ancient burial sites in the Province of Pampanga and Manila suggests an active trade with China long before the Ming period. In the mid-1400s, the Ming Empire further limited the number of tribute missions from overseas when it did not compensate the cost of maintaining foreign embassies and entertaining foreign envoys. In 1550 AD, the Ming Empire finally put an end to overseas trade altogether. The Ming Empire's ban on overseas trade ironically became a blessing to LUZON. The port cities in Fujian and Canton that had been profiting from overseas trade since the Sung Dynasty cannot simply end its trade relations with Southeast Asia just because the central government in Beijing does not see profit from it. Chinese ships from Fujian and Canton continue to smuggle goods out of China. They chose the port cities of Tondo and Mainila in LUZON as a drop off point. Ships from other parts of Asia, mostly Brunei and Malacca would then sail to LUZON to pick up their percentage of the Chinese goods.

I looked into the BUTUAN archealogical site, recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage site. I was impressed to learn that they not only had advanced boat making and gold crafting skills, but also traded with countries as far away as Persia.
Satements of authenticity and/or integrity The finds were authenticated by the National Museum, and deeper studies by reputable archaeologists were subsequently done. The oldest Chinese ceramic ware found in Butuan were the Yueh and Yueh type ware which dated back to the Five Dynasties (A.D. 907- 960). In a quantitative survey of the ceramics discovered in Butuan, there were representative types from various Asian realms, ranked according to volume: Chinese (10th - 15th centuries A.D.); Khmer/ Cambodian (9th-10th centuries A.D.); Thai (14th - 15th centuries A.D.) pre-Thai Satingpra (900-1100 A.D.); Haripunjaya (800-900 A.D.); pre-trade Vietnamese (11th - 13th centuries A.D.), and PERSIAN (9th - 10th centuries A.D.)

I wouldn't be surprised if most of the evidence of an advanced civilized Philippine society was suppressed and destroyed while we were conquered by Spain. More about Prehispanic Philippines in this thread...

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About the Three Kings

The three kings were really kings from three kingdoms in the east of Jerusalem, namely, Persia, Arabia and Saba (maybe Sheba). Their names are Melchor, Gaspar at Balthazar.

Saba is a common place name in Southeast Asia. Saba or Sabang or Sapa means estuary is sometime synonymous to Java. The Ancient Indians would call people living in Saba as Savaka sometimes spelled as Javaka. Saba or Sheba or Java could mean a bigger polity encompassing the whole Southeast Asia not just the small island of today known by that name. In medieval period, Java Major would mean Borneo or Sabah while Java minor, the present Java island. In our prehispanic past, there was then a Kingdom called Sapa. The ancient Arabs during the medieval period called the empire located in Southeast Asia as Zabag similar sounding with Saba while the ancient Chinese called the same polity as Sanfotsi which a French historian termed as the Sri-Vijayan empire. Where King Solomon sourced his gold, spices, etc is the same place called Sheba which is none other than Zabag or Saba which is in Southeast Asia, which could be the true place of Tarshish and Ophir. So the King of Seba or Saba must probably be the one who offer gold to the baby Philosopher-PriestKing. Tarshish is most probably in the East, on the Erythrean sea or Indian ocean, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21).

Unlike Columbus, Magellan seemed less concerned with his own place in prophecy, but evidence points to a spiritual goal also for his journeys. Notes from this writings indicate he was interested in finding the Biblical lands of Tarshish and Ophir, nations which also figured in apocalyptic thought... Samuel Purchas writing in the early 17th century stressed the need for Britain to involve itself in the "Ophirian navigation" to secure its own self-vision as the chosen messianic nation but with a more mercantile twist: And this also we hope shall one day be the true Ophirian navigation, when Ophir shall come unto Jerusalem as Jerusalem then went unto Ophir. Meanwhile we see a harmony in this sea-trade, and as it were the consent of other creatures to this consent of the reasonable, united by navigation howsoever by rites, languages, customs, and countries separated. Magellan appears to have placed Tarshish and Ophir near Ptolemy's Cattigara, the great ancient trading city of the farthest East. When nearing the end of the world circuit, he deliberately set his sights for Cattigara sailing at 12 or 13 degrees North latitude, which he believed to be the proper course for that fabled city. In its riches the scriptural land of Ophir prefigures the Indies of which Luis de Haro is chancellor, and Solomon, associated in late sixteenth-century Spain with Philip II, is a type both of Christ and of the Spanish king. Allegories of Kingship

"....the principle settler of these archipelagoes was TARSHIS, son of Japheth together with his brothers, as were OPHIR and Hevilath of India..." Philippines in Labor Evangelica, 1663. In an interesting coincidence when Philip II, the "Second Solomon," dispatched Legazpi to occupy the Philippines, the latter encountered and entered into alliance with one Rajah Soliman, king of Manila, during his invasion of Luzon.

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The Bible says: Psalm 72:10 The kings of Tarshish and of distant shores will bring tribute to him; the kings of Sheba and Seba will present him gifts. Isaiah 60:6 And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the LORD Isa 23:6 Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle Isa 66:19 And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, [to] Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, [to] Tubal, and Javan, [to] the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles Isa 23:1 The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them. Eze 27:25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. 2Ch 9:21 For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. Psa 48:7 Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind. Isa 2:16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures. Isa 60:9 Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them, unto the name of the LORD thy God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because he hath glorified thee. Eze 27:25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. Eze 27:12 Tarshish [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all [kind of] riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs Jer 10:9 Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder: blue and purple [is] their clothing: they [are] all the work of cunning [men]. Eze 27:12 Tarshish [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all [kind of] riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.

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BO-OL (BOHOL) WAS A LAND OF OPHIR:

What the Spaniards believed

After the death of King Solomon, Ophir was abandoned and soon forgotten. After the passage of hundreds of years nobody would know where or what is Ophir. The other word associated with Ophir is the word "Tarshish." Nobody also knew what it meant. In old translations of the Bible it was supposed also to be a place. However, in new translations of the Bible, it is used to refer to the fleet that went to Ophir. What happened to the Hebrew or Jewish settlements that were established to process the gold before they were shipped back to King Solomon? Nobody also knew. However, we knew that because of their religious beliefs the Hebrews tend to survive as a separate enclave wherever they settled. What the Spaniards Believed In Spain there is a book called Coleccion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas. It is found in the Archivos de Indias de Sevilla. It was reprinted in 1920 in Barcelona, Spain by the Compania General de Tabaccos de Filipinas. Its Tomo III (1519-1522), pages 112-138, contains Document No. 98 describing how to locate the land of Ophir. This same volume also contains the official documents regarding the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan. It also contains the logbook of Francisco Albo, the chief pilot of the ship Victoria. This logbook is also one of the main references regarding the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan. Since this book contains important documents, we can discern that the Spaniards did not really believe that Ophir was in India. In fact the Cabot expedition that left Spain on April 3, 1526 had a secret mission, "to search for a route to Tarsis, OPHIR, Oriental Cathay (China), and Japan." Document No. 98 describes how to locate the land of Ophir. The travel guide started from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir. Ophir was "…in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade…" This group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there. It could not be Taiwan because it is not "of many islands." Only the present day Philippines could satisfy the description. Jewish Settlements Along the route described by Document No. 98 are locations of old Jewish settlements. It would not be surprising for that was the procedure used by King Solomon's fleet. Settlements were established at selected places to trade and process the gold and silver. The ships will collect the gold and silver and bring it to King Solomon. To the credit of the Hebrew people, their settlement remained true to the Jewish faith even for thousands of years. Settlements were found in India, Burma, Sumatra, and Vietnam (Annam and Cochin China).

Who Were the Lequios?

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Spanish records mention of a mysterious people known as Lequios. Modern historians variously identified them as Okinawans, Koreans, or Vietnamese. They were favorite targets of Spanish ships during the time of General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi because the ships of the Lequios were always laden with gold and silver. According to Documents 98, the Lequios were big, bearded, and white men. They were only interested in gold and silver when trading at Ophir. Okinawans, Koreans, and Vietnamese people are not big nor are they white. Their beards are just small goatees and could not satisfy the word "bearded". Therefore they were not the Lequios. So who could the Lequios be but the remnants of Hebrews and Phoenicians who have made some enclaves along the Southeast Asian shores? The Hebrew word "LEQOT" or "LIQQET" means to gather, to glean. It resembles closely the word Lequios. It will fit the men of King Solomon's fleet who gathered gold and silver. (Note: The Hebrew alphabet has no small letters.) Where Was Ophir? There is no doubt that the group of islands in front of China towards the sea is the present day Philippines. The question is where was Ophir located in the Philippines? Ancient Chinese records say that the ancient trading places in the Philippines were Ma-yi and Pulilu. Dr. Otley Beyer identified Ma-yi as Mindoro. Dr. Jose Rizal, Blumentrit, Robertson, and Stangl say that it was Luzon in part or in whole. Dr. Jose Rizal identified "Pulilu" as . Nobody disputed Dr. Jose Rizal. So there are onlythree possible places in the Philippines that could be identified as Ophir, they are Luzon, Mindoro, and Bohol.

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Modern scholars of the 20th century re-discovered the Sri-Visjaya Kingdom and revealed traces of the ancient origins of the Filipinos especially the Visaya and Tagalog.

Colliers Encyclopedia 1991 Edition, vol.3, p.50 Srivijaya Kingdom. In the seventh century China was reunited under T’ang Dynasty, thus providing an enormous market. Several port-states tried to tap the China trade, but the kingdom of Srivijaya, located near the present city of Palembang on Sumatra, succeeded in crushing its rivals and imposing its authority on both Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, straddling the Straits of Malacca. Through a combination of bribery, political manipulation, and punitative expeditions the other ports were forced to submit or were destroyed, and Srivijaya became known to the Chinese as the sole state with which they could trade. Several extant inscriptions from the late seventh century-royal edicts carved on stones – attest to the absolute loyalty demanded by the king of Sri-Visjaya of his servants, subjects, and vassals. Passing traders were forced to stop at Srivijaya, where they have to pay tolls demanded by the king for passage through the straits. From these tolls derived the royal revenues, but the tolls were kept moderate so that traders would not consider using the more difficult land route across the Malay Peninsula. The key to Srivijaya’s power was its navy, which was needed to destroy its rivals, Srivijayan naval expedition may even have th th reached as far as Cambodia in the 8 century, and in the 11 century Srivijaya itself was raided from Ceylon. In dominating the Straits of Malacca, Srivijaya controlled one of the key points in the whole Asian trade system. Through its empire passed all the wondrous goods desired by Asian kings and aristocrats-gems, precious metals, scented woods, and even African lions to amuse the emperor of China-as well as the bulk trade in such goods as rice. In the practice, of course, the dominance of Srivijaya and its successors was often less than complete. Especially during periods when trade declined, vassals were likely to fall away as the money and prestige offered by the king to entice their loyalty also declined. But the tradition of central port on the straits dominating the trade routes and of a single supreme king survived for many centuries. By about the sixth century the economic role of Indonesia in the China trade was beginning to change. Indonesia traders began to sell the natural products of Indonesia, sometimes substituting them for the luxury goods the Chinese customarily imported from western Asia. In particular, Indonesia benzoin began to be substituted for the aromatic gum resins. Srivijaya and its successors continued to function as entrepot ports, where goods were transshipped, but the importance of Indonesia’s own products also increased. Srivijaya was a Buddhist kingdom. Indeed its religious scholarship was internationally so highly valued that Chinese Buddhist pilgrims making the long journey to India wouldspend several years in Srivijaya. There they studied the scriptures and rules for monks before going to India.

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Srivijaya’s wealth and power, waxed and waned with changing trade condition and with the rise and fall th of its rivals. It was finally destroyed by the Javanese in the 14 century and the royal family and the traders of Srivijaya moved across the straits to Malaya, where eventually they established the port of Malacca in about 1400. Srivijaya, one of the greatest trade empires of Asia, was then so completely forgotten that even its name was unknown until its history was rediscovered by modern scholars in the th 20 century. Mataram Kingdom. To the east of Sumatra lies Java, and there, too, a great kingdom emerged beginning in about the eighth century. The Kingdom of Mataram, near the present city of Yogyakarta (Jogjakarta) in central Java, reached its greatest power in the ninth century. The dynasty that founded Mataram took the Sanskrit name Sailendra – the king of the mountains – and the title Maharaja, they were Mahayana Buddhists. They left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries, the kings of Srivijaya seem not to have done. Among the most famous Mataram temples is Burabudur, which was built about 800. It is an enormous artificial temple-mountain, which miles of bas-reliefs depicting the life story of Buddha. At the nearby temple of Merdut are large stone statues of the Buddha and two Bodhisattvas, which are the most exquisite in all of Asia. Sailendra power in Mataram was challenged by a rival royal line who were not Buddhists but followers of the Hindu god Shiva. In 856 there was a battle between the two rivals, which the Sailendra lost. The last surviving Sailendra prince fled from Java to Sumatra, where, for reasons that are not known, he become the king of Srivijaya. His successors in Mataram built the very beautiful and graceful temple complex Prambanan, just east of Yogyakarta. There, temples to the Hindu gods Brahma and Vishnu flank a high central tower where Shiva was worshipped in four aspects. The bas reliefs depict the story of the Hindu Ramayana epic. Mataram was located on the plain of Kedu in central Java, one of the richest rice-growing areas of Indonesia.

Original Sri-Visjaya Religion is Not Buddhist This Sri-Visjaya Kingdom is one of the greatest trade empires of Asia. The Sri-Visjaya on the 7th century when China was reunited under the T’ang Dynasty, the Sri -Visjaya become known to the Chinese as the sole state with which they could trade. Passing traders were forced to stop at Sri-Visjaya, where they have to pay tolls demanded by the king of Sri-Visjaya for passage through the straits of Malacca. Sri-Visjaya controlled one of the key points in the whole Asian trade system.

Sri-Visjaya Religion Sri-Visjaya’s religious scholarship was internationally so highly valued that Chinese Buddhist pilgrims making the long journey to India would spend several years in Sri-Visjaya, there they studied the scriptures and rules for monks before going to India. This may think that Sri-Visjaya’s religion is a th Buddhist religion. That happened when the original 7 century Sri-Visjaya king and royal families and th traders moved across the straits to Malaya on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca in about 1400 and they have trade in Borneo and Sulu ISLES AFAR OFF. A great kingdom emerged

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beginning in about 8 century the Kingdom of Mataram in central Java. The dynasty that founded Mataram took the Sanskrit name Sailendra – the king of the mountains – and the title Maharaja, they were Mahayana Buddhists. They left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries, the kings of Sri-Visjaya seem not to have done. Among the most famous Mataram temples is Burabudur, which was built about 800. At the nearby temple of Merdut are large stone statues of the Buddha and two Bodhisattvas, which are the most exquisite in all of Asia. A rival royal line that was not Buddhists but followers of the Hindu god Shiva challenged Sailendra power in Mataram. In 856 there was a battle between the two rivals, which the Sailendra lost and the last surviving Sailendra prince fled from Java to Sumatra, where, for reasons that are not known, he become the king of Sri-Visjaya in Sumatra. Therefore become the new king of Sri-Visjaya in Sumatra is Sailendra. This are the reasons that Sri-Visjaya’s religion was thought to be Buddhist. The original 7 century Sri-Visjaya king and royal families and traders moved across the straits to Malaya th on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca made trade in Borneo and Sulu. The second th Sri-Visjaya of 8 century was ruled by Sailendra a Buddhist was finally destroyed by the Javanese in the th th 14 century and this people of Sri-Visjaya were different religion than the original first Sri-Visjaya of 7 century. In fact the kingdom of Sailendra who become king of Sri-Visjaya were Mahayana Buddhist that this Mahayana Buddhists left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries the king of th original 7 century Sri-Visjaya seem not to have done. Therefore the Sri-Visjaya that was defeated by the th th Javanese in the 14 century was the second Sri-Visjaya of 8 century who become Buddhists and ruled by king Sailendra a Mahayana Buddhists. The first Sri-Visjaya of 7th century did not make any temples of worship and were not Buddhists and they fled to Malacca and trade with Borneo and Sulu. The historian th claiming that Sri-Visjaya is a Buddhists kingdom is referring to the second Sri-Visjaya of 8 century that th was ruled by Sailendra a Mahayana Buddhists but not the original Sri-Visjaya of the 7 century that th moved across the straits to Malaya on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca made trade in Borneo and Sulu.
th

th

DATU from Yahshear-Dath (Sacerdote or Priest of Yahshear): Jacob named Yahshear Genesis 32:28 Bisaya and Tagalog At the same period the well-known Maragtas in Visaya’s history claimed that ten (10) Datu lead by Datu Puti arrived in Panay and bought the plain land of Panay island. This people were called “VISAYA” the th descendant of original Sri-Visjaya of 7 century from Borneo and Sulu. They carried the word “ya -we” in Visaya which means “key”, this was mentioned in Luke 11:52 “woe unto you, lawyers, for ye have taken away the “key of knowledge”, (the scribes took away the name Yahweh and replaced it with other name Adonai, the key is the name Yahweh). The other three (3) Datu, Datu Puti, Datu Dumangsil and Datu Balensusa reached Taal (Batangas) where the language of the three Datu believed to be the origin of Tagalog language. The remaining seven (7) Datu in Panay they reached Cebu, Samar and Bicol. Datu Puti last record is in Sulu before going to Borneo. The word Dawth in Hebrew language means royal edict or statute, commandment, decree, law, manner. The Dawth is pronounced Datuh is the one who ruled and make decree, law and a royal family in Filipino history. The title “DATU” from the word Yashear -Dath or Sacer-dote or Priests of Yahshurun (Israel).

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Chronology of the "Chinese Ming Dynasty and Islamic Influences" ni Guo Zhongli
Ang Sri-Visjaya ay makapangyarihan sa karagatan (mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah kay Haring Huram ng Tyre upang kumuha ng ginto sa Ophir, 1Kings 9:26, na pinamumunuan ng Sultan (Sholtan sa Hebreo ay Namumuno). Ang pamilya (Royal Family) ng namumuno at tigasunod ng Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) ay lumisan mula sa Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo sa Malaya na kabila ng “Straits of Malacca” at nagtatag sila ng daungan ng Malacca. Nanirahan sila sa Bornay (Borneo) at Sulu na mga isla ng Ophir. Sa pangunguna ni Datu Putih (sa wikang Hebreo Poothe=scatter into corner) ay ang sampung (10) Datu mula sa Bornay ay dumating sa Aninipay ng Panay na binili nila ng ginto kay Marikudo ang kapatagan ng Panay na tinawag nilang Madya-as o paraiso. Ang pitong Datu ay naiwan sa Panay na pinaniniwalaang pinanggalingan ng lahi ng Ilongo, Cebuano, Samareno at Bicolano at si Datu Putih naman kasama ang dalawa pang Datu ay pumunta sa Mindoro sa Luzon at Taal Batangas na pinaniniwalaan na pinagmulan ng wikang Tagalog. Ang wika ng mga Datu ng Sri-Visjaya ay pinaniniwalaang pinanggalingan ng wikang Binisaya o tinawag na Hiligaynon (sa wikang Hebreo ng Higaynon=solemn sound). Ang wikang Binisaya (hango sa Sri-Visjaya) ay ang wikang Ilonggo at nagkaroon ng Sugbuano (Cebuano) at Waray. Ang wikang Tagalog ay kahawig sa wikang Ilonggo at ang wikang Bicolano ay kahawig sa wikang Waray. Ayon sa talaan ng “Chronology of the Chinese Ming Dynasty” na ang sampung (10) Datu sa pangunguna ni Datu Putih ay dumating sa isla ng Panay at naiwan ang pitong (7) Datu sa Panay nang si Datu Putih at dalawa pang Datu ay tumungo sa Luzon (Khomer o mortar) sa Mindoro at Taal Batangas. Ang huling talaan kay Datu Putih ay nang bumalik siya sa Bornay na napadaan sa Sulu. Nang dumating ang mga Kastila sa pamumuno ni Ferdinand Magellan (Fernado Magallanes) noong 1521 A.D., ang mga isla ng Ophir ay tinawag sa pangalang FELIPE na hango sa pangalan ng prinsipe ng Espanya na naging Hari si Haring Felipe II ng Espanya. Ang Felipe ay naging Felipinas na naging Pilipinas. Naitala din ng mga Kastila ang napakaraming minahan ng ginto sa mga isla ng Pilipinas. Ang mga naninirahan doon ay „pinawalang-halaga na‟ ang maraming minahan ng ginto dahil ayon sa Kastilang si De Morga na 1,000 B.C na ang idad ng minahan na kanilang natagpuan sa mga isla na tinawag nilang Pilipinas (ka-idad sa kapanahunan ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) na nagpagawa ng mga barko upang kumuha ng ginto sa Ophir). Sinulat ng Kastilang si Pigafetta na ang mga naninirahan daw ay kuntento na sa kanilang mga pag-aaring ginto na nagmula pa sa kanilang mga ninuno. Madaling makakuha ng ginto na kasing laki ng itlog at mani kapag inihiwalay mo sa lupa ("On the island [Butuan] where the king came to the ship, pieces of gold as large as walnuts or eggs are to be found, by sifting the earth”). Bago dumating ang mga Kastila ay walang tanging talaan o “archaeological findings” tungkol sa kasulatan ng sina-unang Asian Malay kundi ang naitala sa dokumento ng mga Chinese. Ang Sri-Visjaya Kingdom na naitala ng “Chronology of the Chinese Ming Dynasty and Islamic Influences” sinulat ni Guo Zhongli na nagpapatunay na ang Datu at Sultan ay may ginagampanang mahalang PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 33

katungkulan sa Sri-Visjaya Kingdom. Ang “Sholtan” sa Lumang-Hebreo ay ang „namumuno‟, samantalang ang “Datu” ay ang Yahshear-Dath o Seser-Dote o DATU ng Kaharian ng Sri-Visjaya‟. Ayon sa Historian si O.W.Wolters noong 430-475 A.D. kilala sa Chinese ang Kan-t‟o-li na Estadong natatag sa malapit sa Palembang ng Sumatra noong ikalawang siglo (2nd century A.D.). Noong 500 A.D. sa Sumatra, isla ng Bangka, Java at Malay Peninsula ay may walong (8) Estado ang nangalakal sa China noong 608 A.D. hanggang 670 A.D at tanging ang Shihlifoshih ang nanatili. Ang mga natagpuang labi na nagkaka-idad na 775 A.D. mula sa Ligor isthmus sa Malay Peninsula ay sinaliksik ng Asian History Pioneer George Coedus na naniwala na ang Estado na kilala sa China na Shihlifoshih ay siyang Sri-Vishaya (Sri-Visjaya). Ang Sri ay titulong pang-galang mula sa India kaya ang pangalan ng Sri-Visjaya ay Visjaya na kilala ngayon bilang Bisaya. ( Si Yahshu‟a Messiah ay inutusan niya ang kanyang 12 desipolo na hanapin ang mga nawawalang Sambahayan ng Yisrawale (Israel) na mababasa sa Mateo 10:5-6 at sa Gawa 13:47. Naitala na ang desipolo ni Yahshu‟a na si Tomas ay sinibat hanggang sa mamatay ni Haring Misdeus ng India. Ang huling Kahariang sumakop sa kanila ay ang mga Griego at naitala sa Ester 1:1 na ang India ay nasasakupan ng Kaharian ng Persia na sinakop ng Emperyo ng Griego kaya sa India huling natagpuan ang desipolo ni Yahshu‟a sa paghahanap sa mga Nawawalang Tribo ng Yisrawale). Ang Sri-Visjaya ay makapangyarihan sa karagatan mula Ceylon (Sri-Lanka), Sumatra, Java (Old Javan Kingdom of Mataram) hanggang sa Champa na pinamumunuan ng Sultan (Sholtan sa wikang Hebreo ay ang Namumuno). Ang pamilya ng Sholtan at mga tigasunod ng Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) na may titulong Datu at Sultan ay lumisan mula sa Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo sa Malaya na kabila ng “straits of Malacca” at nagtatag sila ng daungan ng Malacca. Ang naiwan namang Sri-Visjaya sa Palembang sa hindi alam na dahilan ay pinamunuan ni Sailendra na isang Mahayana Buddhist. Si Sailendra ay nagmula sa kanyang pagtakas sa Java na siyang nagtayo ng mga templo at istatwa ni Buddha ang Burabudur noong 800 A.D., ang templo ni Merdut at dalawang Bodhisattvas na Hindi Ginawa ng orihinal (7th Century) Sri-Visjaya Kingdom ng ikapitong siglo. Ang Buddhist (8th century) Sri-Visjaya na may titulo ng Raja ay ang nagapi ng mga Javanese noong ika-labing-apat na siglo (14th Century). Ang Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) na may titulong Datu at Sultan ay Hindi Buddhist dahil hindi sila nagtayo ng mga istatwa ni Buddha.

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Ang Mga Nakatira sa mga Isla ng Ophir ay Nagsasalita ng Sina-Unang Wikang Hebreo (Ancient-Hebrew) nang Dumating ang mga Kastila

Ophir ang Dating Pangalan ng mga Isla ng Pilipinas
Sa aklat ni Gregorio F. Zaide “History of the Filipino People”sa pahina 2, ang mga manunulat na mga taga Kanluran ay tinawag ang ating lupain sa pangalang Maniolas, Ophir, Islas del Oriente, Islas del Poniente, Archipelago de San Lazaro, Islas de Luzones (Isla ng Mortars), Archipelago de Magallanes at Archipelago de Legaspi. Ang mga tawag na Maniolas, Islas del Oriente, Islas del Poniente, Archipelago de San Lazaro, Islas de Luzones, Archipelago de Magallanes at Archipelago de Legaspi ay ang itinawag ng mga Kastila (mapapansin na mga salita at wikang Kastila hanggang maging Pilipinas) sa mga isla ng Ophir. Tinatawag ng mga Nabigador ang mga isla na Ophir na nakasulat sa Biblia 1 Hari 22:48, 9:28 at 22:49, Awit 45:9, Isaiah 13:12, Job 22:24, 28:16, 1Chron. 24:4, 1:23, Genesis 10:25-26. Ang mga inapo ni Ophir ay ang mga Pilipino, at ang sinasalita ay ang Wikang Lumang-Hebreo hindi ang Makabagong-Hebreo dahil nakatakas sila bago pa masakop ng Assyria ang Yisrawale (Israel) na siyang nagbago sa wika at naging Modern-Hebreo 2 Kings 18:26. Ito ay pinatunayan ni Padre Chirino na naisulat ni Gregorio F. Zaide „History Of The Filipino People‟ pahina 24 “ Of all our languages, the Tagalog has been adjudged the best by scholars. “I found in this language,” said Padre Chirino, eminent Jesuit-historian, “four qualities of the four greatest languages of the world – Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Spanish. It has “MYSTERY and OBSCURITIES of the HEBREW”, ang wikang Tagalog ay may misteryo at pagkakahawig sa wikang Hebreo. Si Ophir ay Apo ni Heber na pinanggalingan ng Wikang Lumang-Hebreo. Bago pa dumating sa Ophir ang mga Sri-Visjaya sa pamumuno ni Datu Putih, ang mga naninirahan sa mga isla ng Ophir ay nagsasalita na ng wika ni Adam dahil nang nawasak ang wika ng mga tao sa panahon ng Tore ni Babel tanging si Heber lamang ang nakapag-ingat ng wika ni Adam na tinawag sa pangalan ni Heber na Hebreo at si Ophir ay Apo ni Heber na nanirahan sa Silanganan. Karaniwan noon na tinatawag ang bawat lugar sa kanilang pangalan.

Wikang Tagalog ay Sina-Unang Wikang Hebreo
TAGALOG HEBREW WORD MEANING IN HEBREW

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ABA AGAM AGAP AHA ALILA ALE ALAM

Abah Agam Aggaph Ahahh Alilah Ale Alam

be dense a marsh a cover exclamatory to overdo female master concealed Page 35

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8. ALIS 9. ANAK 10.ANTIK 11. ANIYA 12. ASA 13. ASAYA 14. ASAL 15. AYAW

Alees Anak Anthiyq Aniyah Awsaw Asayah Azal Ahyaw

jump for joy to be narrow antique sorrow to do or make Yah has made depart screamer

1. BAKA 2. BAKYA 3. BALAM 4. BALAK 5. BAROK 6. BASURA 7. BATA 8. BATAK 9. BATAK 10. BAWAT 11. BAWAL 12. BAWAT 13. BAWAS 14. BUKID 15. BWISIT

Bawkah Bekee-ah Balam Balaq Baruwk Besowrah Bata Bathaq Batach Baw-at Baw-al Bawat Baw-ash Bukki Bosheth

be ready to burst break forth in pieces to be held in to annihilate blessed reward for good news to babble in speech thrust through be bold to trample down to be master kick to smell bad to depopulate shame, confusion

1. CUBAO

Chobawb

to hide, hiding place

1. KAANAK 2. KABA 3. KABA 4. KABARET 5. KABAYAN 6. KABOD 7. KABILA 8. KAGAYA 9. KALAM 10. KALAS 11. KALUKAW 12. KAMAO 13. KAMOT 14. KANAN 15. KANAN 16. KANILA 17. KANYA 18. KAPA

Chanaq Chaba Kabah Chabareth Chabayah Kabod Khav-ee-law Khag-ghee-yaw Chalam Khaw-lash Khal-ook-kaw Khaw-mawn Khamoth Chanan Khanaw Khan-nee-ale (el) Khan-nee-ale (el) Kapa

to narrow to cherish, love to expire in heart female consort Yah has hidden weight circular festival of Yah to bind to overthrown division image wisdom to favor to in dine favor of Yah become favor of Yah become to cover Page 36

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19. KAPAS 20. KAPIT 21. KARIT 22. KARAS 23. KARAYOM 24. KASA 25. KATAS 26. KATAL 27. KILYA 28. KISAY 29. KUPE

Chaphas Chaphets Charits Charash Charayown Kasah Kathash Chathal Chelyah Kissay Khofe (kupe)

disguise self, hide to incline to incisure, sharf to scratch doves dung to grow fat to butt to swathe jewel overwhelm a cove

1. DAGAN 2. DALAG 3. DAMA 4. DAMA 5. DARAK 6. DATU 7. DAYA 8. DIBA 9. DODONG 10. DUWAG

Dagan Dalag Dama Damah Darak Dath Dayah Dib-bah Dowdow Du-weg

increase grain leap to weep to compare draw a royal edict or commandment fly rapidly evil report King David - love be afraid

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

GABAY GALA GERA GIBA GINAW GULAT

Gabbay Galah Gerah Gibah Ghinnaw Giylath

curve, rounded to exile, depart continuing, destroy house, cup, pot a garden joy, rejoicing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

HAH HALA HALAK HALAL HALIKA HAPAK HILIGAYNON

Hahh Hala Halak Halal Haliykah Haphak Higaynon

express grief to remove to walk, be conversant celebrate, renowned company, going to change solemn sound

1. 2. 3. 4.

IBSAN ILAW INDAY ITAY

Ibtsan Illaw Dowdah Ittay

inflammatory to ascend female of Dowdow -love unadvisedly

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1. LABA 2. LABAN 3. LABAS 4. LAHAT 5. LAKAD 6. LAKAS 7. LAOAG 8. LAPAT 9. LAYAW 10. LEKAT 11. LUKOT 12. LUWA

Lavah Laban Labash Lahat Lakad Lachash Lawag Laphath La-yaw Leh-kakh Luchowth Luwa

to unite white wrap around tower to catch amulet to deride, speak take hold weary to take to glisten swallow down

1. MAGALAW 2. MAGALAW 3. MAGARA 4. MAGINAW 5. MAGDALO 6. MAHABA 7. MAHAL 8. MAHALAL 9. MAHALAY 10. MAKALAT 11. MAKIRI 12. MALAKI 13. MALAKI 14. MALAT 15. MALAYAW 16. MALAYU 17. MALE 18. MATA 19. MATSAKAW 20. MAYKAYA 21. MINDANAO 22. MOOG 23. MULA 24. MUOK 25. MURA

Mah-gaw-law Mah-gaw-law Maguwwrah Maginnaw Migdalah Mahavahee Mahal Mahalal Mahalay Machalat Makiyriy Mahlake Malakiy Malat Meleah(mel-ay-aw) Mala Male Mattah Mutsa-kaw Mayka-Yah Mig-daw-naw Moog Muhlah Mook Morah

a track to revolve permanent residence shield tower desire to adulterate fame steep sickness salesman walking mininstrative be smooth female of Mala, abundance to fulfilled filling rod something pound out who is like Yah be eminent, preciousness flow down circumcision to become thin fear

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

PALAG PALAYAW PANAW PARA PARAM PARA

Palag Pel-aw-yaw Pa-naw Parah Param Para

divide Yah has favored go away, cast out increase to tear to bear fruit Page 38

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7. PASA 8. PASAK 9. PASAY 10. PATAK 11. PATAW 12. PETSA 13. PILI 14. PILILLA 15. PILEGES 16. PINILI 17. PINYA 18. PISIL 19. PISTE 20. PITAK 21. PO (Po) 22. POOK 23. PUKAW 24. PUTA 25. PUTI

Pasa Pasaq Paw-say-akh Pathach Paw-thaw Petsa Pilee Peliyla Piylegesh Peneeale Peneeale Pehsel Pishteh Pethach Po or Hoo (1931) Pook Pookaw Pothah Poothe

to stride to disport exemption, skip over to open persuade wound secret judge,Yah has judge concubine face of Yah(el), Piniyah-face of Yah Piniyah-face of Yah carve images stupidity opening derive from Hoo,third person obtain stumbling block hinge or the female pudenda scatter into corner

1. SABA 2. SABAK 3. SABAD 4. SABAW 5. SAKA 6. SAKAB 7. SAKANYA 8. SAKAL 9. SAKA 10. SAKAY 11. SAKIT 12. SAGAD 13. SALAG 14. SALAMAT 15. SALAT 16. SALO 17. SAMA 18. SAMAR 19. SAMAT 20. SANAYIN 21. SAPAT 22. SAPAW 23. SARAT 24. SARA 25. SARAP 26. SAWA 27. SELOSA

Saba Sabak Zabad Saybaw Shakah Shakab Shekanyah Shaqal Shaqa Zakkay Sheqets Saw-gad Salga Shalom Shalat Sal-loo Shamma Shamar Shamat Shenayin Shaphat Shawfaw Sarat Sara Saraph Shawah Shelowshah

abundance to intwine to confer old age to roam to lie down Yah has dwell to suspend to subside pure abominable fall down be white peace to dominate weighed desolation save yourself fling down to transmute to judge to abrade cut in pieces to prolong thought please, amuse third wife Page 39

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28. SIBOL 29. SIBOL 30. SIKIP 31. SILAY 32. SILO 33. SITAHIN 34. SUMAKWEL 35. SUMAYAW 36. SULTAN

Zebool Shibbol Sheqeph Selay Shiyloh Shettayim Shemuwel Shemayaw Sholtan

dwelling, residence ear of grain loophole be in safety tranquil two fold hear intelligently, cast out Yah has heard ruler, dominion

1. TABAK 2. TAKA 3. TAKAS 4. TAKIP 5. TAGA 6. TALA 7. TANAW 8. TANIM 9. TAPAK 10.TAPAL 11.TAPAT 12.TATUWA 13.TAWA 14.TEKLA 15.TENA 16. TENGA 17. TERA 18. TIKOM 19. TIMPLA 20. TIRA 21. TORE 22. TUMIRA 23. TUNAW

Tabach Takah Tachash Taqqiyph Tagah Tala Tannaw Tsanim Taphach Taphal Taphath Tatua Tawah Tiklah Tenah Teqa Tera Tiykom Tiphlah Tiyrah Tore Tiymarah Toanaw

to slaughter sit down, to strew bottom strong slap hang, suspended female jackal thorn flatten down stick on as a patch a dropping error to cheat perfection, completeness fig tre sound adoor middle, central unsavoury a wall, fortress ring dove be erect purpose

1. URI

Uwriy

east the region of the light

1. YAKAL 2. YAMAN 3. YARE

Yachal Yaman Yare

be patient right hand side afraid, frighten

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JULIUS WEELHAUSEN
Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 – January 7, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and orientalist, noted particularly for his contribution to scholarly understanding of the origin of the Pentateuch/Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Born at Hamelin in the Kingdom of Hanover, the son of a Protestant pastor,[1] he studied theology at the University of Göttingen under Georg Heinrich August Ewald and became Privatdozent for Old Testament history there in 1870. In 1872 he was appointed professor ordinarius of theology at the University of Greifswald. He resigned from the faculty in 1882 for reasons of conscience, stating in his letter of resignation:[2] I became a theologian because the scientific treatment of the Bible interested me; only gradually did I come to understand that a professor of theology also has the practical task of preparing the students for service in the Protestant Church, and that I am not adequate to this practical task, but that instead despite all caution on my own part I make my hearers unfit for their office. Since then my theological professorship has been weighing heavily on my conscience. He became professor extraordinarius of oriental languages in the faculty of philology at Halle, was elected professor ordinarius at Marburg in 1885, and was transferred to Göttingen in 1892 where he stayed until his death. He is best known for his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (Prologue to the History of Israel), a detailed synthesis of existing views on the origins of the first five books of the Old Testament: Wellhausen's contribution was to place the development of these books into a historical and social context. The resulting argument, called the documentary hypothesis, remained the dominant model among biblical scholars until later in the 20th century.

Israel and Judah
The similarity of the two kings' names, Rehoboam and Jeroboam; is no coincidence. Both names in Hebrew can mean that the people should become numerous or widespread. Each king apparently chose a throne name that suggested his interest in the expansion of his portion of the once-united nation. Rehoboam ruled from Jerusalem, the City of E)avid. Jeroboam made Shechem the capital of the new northern kingdom. The political division of the country into two had enormous implications for the religion. Religion was not separate from state. Jerusalem had been both the political capital and the religious center of the country. Jeroboam, king of Israel, therefore was in an extremely difficult position. Israel and Judah might have become two separate countries, but they still shared a common religion. Both worshiped the God Yahweh. Both held beliefs and traditions about the patriarchs, the slavery and exodus from Egypt, and experiences at a mountain in the Sinai wilderness. The Temple, the ark, and the chief priest of that religion were all located in Jerusalem. This meant that at least on holidays, and on various other occasions as well, masses of Jeroboam's population would cross the border into Judah, taking a sizable portion of the country's livestock and produce with them for sacrifices. They would go to the City of David, pray and sacrifice at the Temple of Solomon, and see King Rehoboam in the center of the activities. This scenario could hardly have filled Jeroboam's heart with feelings of stability. Jeroboam could not just make up a new religion to keep the people from going to Jerusalem. He could, however, establish for his new kingdom its own national version of the common religion.' And so the kingdom of Israel, like the kingdom of Judah, continued to worship Yahweh, but Jeroboam established new religious centers, new holidays, new priests, and new symbols of the religion. The new religious centers that were to substitute for Jerusalem were the cities of Dan and Beth-El. Dan was the northernmost city in Israel, and BethEl was one of the farthest south. Beth-El was in fact only a short distance north of Jerusalem on the IsraelJudah border, and so any Israelites who might have thought of worshiping in Jerusalem would be inclined to stop at Beth-El rather than make the additional travel—uphill—to Jerusalem. Jeroboam's new national religious holiday was celebrated in the fall, one month after the major fall holiday of Judah. His new symbols

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of the religion, instead of the two golden cherubs in Jerusalem, were two molten golden calves. The word "calves," which appears in most translations, is, by the way, misleading. The word in the Hebrew text means a young bull, which is a symbol of strength, rather than the weaker images that the word "calf" usually connotes. The calf, or young bull, was often associated with the god El, the chief god of the Canaanites, who was in fact referred to as "Bull El." We therefore have some reason to believe that Jeroboam's version of the religion somehow identified Yahweh with El. The idea that Yahweh and El were one would have the added value of further uniting the Israelite population with the still large Canaanite population in Jeroboam's kingdom. Jeroboam set up one of the golden calves in Beth-El and one in Dan. This was impressive because the calves, like the cherub^ were not statues of gods, but only the pedestal of the invisible God Yahweh. Thus God may have been pictured in Israel as enthroned over the entire kingdom, from the northern border to the southern, rather than as enthroned only in the Temple as in Judah.

King Jeroboam's Priests
Jeroboam's choice of priests for the new kingdom was crucial. The northern Levites had suffered badly under Solomon. Many had been residents of the twenty cities that Solomon gave to Hiram, the Phoenician king. Those who came from Shiloh suffered the most. In the days of the judges, Shiloh had been the location of the Tabernacle and ark, the people's central shrine. The priest-prophet-judge of Shiloh, Samuel, had designated and anointed the first two kings, Saul and David. Abiathar, from the priests of Shiloh, had been one of the two chief priests under David. Then Solomon expelled Abiathar for supporting the losing brother in the fight for the succession, and the priests of Shiloh were out of power in Jerusalem. These members of the old priestly establishment of Israel had as much reason as anyone, or more, to feel betrayed and excluded by the royal house in Jerusalem. It is therefore interesting and hardly surprising that the prophet who instigated the secession and designated Jeroboam as king was a man called Ahijah of Shiloh. The priests from Shiloh soon felt betrayed and excluded 'again. Jeroboam did not appoint them either at Dan or Beth-El. At Dan there was an old, established priesthood, founded by Moses' grandson according to the book of Judges. It probably continued to function there. At Beth-El, Jeroboam was appointing new faces, including individuals who were not Levites, to function at the altar of the golden calf. According to one biblical text, the new criterion for appointment to the priesthood under Jeroboam was not whether one was a Levite, but whether one would "fill his hand" with a young bull and seven rams. The priests from Shiloh had no place in Jeroboam's new religious structure. They condemned the golden calves, which were the symbols of the religion, as heresy. Ahijah of Shiloh, the same prophet who is credited with having designated Jeroboam as king, is said later to have prophesied the fall of Jeroboam's family on account of the heresy. Since the tribe of Levi had no territory of its own as the other tribes had, the Levites of Shiloh and elsewhere in Israel had only two choices: they could move to Judah and try to find a place in the priestly hierarchy there, or they could remain in Israel and make whatever living they could, perhaps performing various religious services outside of the two major religious centers, perhaps depending on others' generosity. If the priests of Shiloh were indeed descendants of Moses, their present status, or lack of status, in both kingdoms must have been bitter for them. They had fallen from leadership of the nation to poor, landless dependency.

The Fall of Israel
The nation itself was now two nations, related but divided. They had a common language, a shared treasury of traditions, and similar but not identical forms of religious expression. The total area that the two kingdoms occupied was still quite small. The other areas that they controlled diminished considerably. Syria and Phoenicia had already broken free of the empire in Solomon's time. After the division of the kingdom, Judah controlled Edom, on its eastern border, for about a century, and then Edom rebelled and broke free. Israel controlled Moab for about the same length of time, and then Moab, too, rebelled and became independent. Israel and Judah were left as two small kingdoms, vulnerable to powerful nations like Egypt and Assyria. (See the map, p. 302.) In Israel the monarchy was unstable. No family of kings ever held on to the throne for more than a few generations. The kingdom lasted two hundred years. Then the Assyrian empire conquered it in 722 B.C. and ended its existence as a nation. The population was dispersed. The Assyrians deported many Israelites into exile in various sections of the Assyrian empire. The exiled Israelites have come to be known as the ten lost tribes of Israel. Presumably there were also great numbers of refugees who fled from Israel south to Judah to escape the approaching Assyrian forces.

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In Judah the monarchy was extremely stable, one of the longestreigning dynasties in history. Judah survived for over a hundred years past the destruction of Israel. During the two hundred years that these two kingdoms existed side by side, there lived two of the writers we are seeking. Each composed a version of the people's story. Both versions became part of the Bible. With this picture of the early years of the biblical world, we are now ready to identify these two of the writers of the Bible.

J and E
Two Clues Converge
Two and a half thousand years after the events that I described in the last chapter took place, three investigators of who wrote the Bible each independently made the same discovery. One was a minister, one was a physician, and one was a professor. The discovery that they all made ultimately came down to the combination of two pieces of evidence: doublets and the names of God. They saw that there were apparently two versions each of a large number of biblical stories: two accounts of the creation, two accounts of each of several stories about the patriarchs Abraham and Jacob, and so on. Then they noticed that, quite often, one of the two versions of a story would refer to God by one name and the other version would refer to God by a different name. In the case of the creation, for example, the first chapter of the Bible tells one version of how the world came to be created, and the second chapter of the Bible starts over with a different version of what happened. In many ways they duplicate each other, and on several points they contradict each other. For example, they de- scribe the same events in different order. In the first version, God creates plants first, then animals, then man and woman. In the second version, God creates man first. Then he creates plants. Then, so that the man should not be alone, God creates animals. And last, after the man does not find a satisfactory mate among the animals, God creates woman. And so we have:
1

Genesis 1 Plants animals man & woman

Genesis 2 man plants animals woman

The two stories have two different pictures of what happened. Now, the three investigators noticed that the first version of the creation story always refers to the creator as God—thirty-five times. The second version always refers to h im by his name, Yahweh God— eleven times. The first version never calls him Yahweh; the second version never calls him God. Later comes the story of the great flood and Noah's ark, and i t , too, can be separated into two complete versions that sometimes duplicate each other and sometimes contradict each other. And, again, one version always calls the deity God, and the other version always calls him Yahweh. There are two versions of the story of the convenant between the deity and Abraham. And, once again, in one the deity introduces himself as Yahweh, and in one he introduces himself as God. And so on. The investigators saw that they were not simply dealing with a book that repeated itself a great deal, and they were not dealing with a loose collection of somewhat similar stories. They had discovered two separate works that someone had cut up and combined into one.
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The group of biblical stories that referred to the deity as God "E," because the Hebrew word for God is El or Elohim. He called the group of stories that referred to the deity as Yahweh "J" (which in German is pronounced like English Y). The idea that the Bible's early history was a combination of two originally separate works by two different people lasted only eighteen years. Practically before anyone had a chance to consider the implications of this idea for the Bible and religion, investigators discovered that the first five books of the Bible were not, in fact, even by two writers—they were by four. They discovered that E was not one but two sources. The two had looked like only one because they both called the deity Elohim, not Yahweh. But the investigators now noticed that within the group of stories that called the deity Elohim there were still doublets. There were also differences of style, differences of language, and differences of interests. In short, the same kinds of evidence that had led to the discovery of J and E now led to the discovery of a third source that had been hidden within E. The differences of interests were intriguing. This third set of stories seemed to be particularly intersted in priests. It contained stories about priests, laws about priests, matters of ritual,

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sacrifice, incense-burning, and purity, and concern with dates, numbers, and measurements. This source therefore came to be known as the Priestly source—for short, P. The sources J, E, and P were found to flow through the first four of the five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. However, there was hardly a trace of them in the fifth book, Deuteronomy, except for a few lines in the last chapters. Deuteronomy is written in an entirely different style from those of the other four books. The differences are obvious even in translation. The vocabulary is different. There are different recurring expressions and favorite phrases. There are doublets of whole sections of the first four books. There are blatant contradictions of detail between it and the others. Even part of the wording of the Ten Commandments is different. Deuteronomy appeared to be independent, a fourth source. It was called D. The discovery that the Torah of Moses was really four works that had once been separate was not necessarily a crisis in itself. After all, the New Testament also began with four Gospels—Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John—each of which told the story in its own way. Why then was there such a hostile reaction, among Christians and Jews, to the idea that the Old Testament (or Hebrew Bible) might begin with four "gospels" as well? The difference was that the Hebrew Bible's four sources had been combined so intricately and accepted as Moses' own writing for so long, about two thousand years; the new discoveries were flying in the face of an old, accepted, sacred tradition. The biblical investigators were unraveling a finely woven garment, and no one knew where these new investigations would lead.

The Story of Noah—Twice
These first books of the Bible had as extraordinary a manner of composition as any book on earth. Imagine assigning four different people to write a book on the same subject, then taking their four different versions and cutting them up and combining them into one long, continuous account, then claiming that the account was all by one person. Then imagine giving the book to detectives and leaving them to figure out (1) that the book was not by one person, (2) that it was by four, (3) who the four were, and (4) who combined them. For those readers who want to get a better sense of how this tooks, I have translated the biblical story of Noah's ark, as it appears in Genesis, with its two sources printed in two different kinds of type. The flood story is a combination of the J source and the P source. J is printed here in regular type, and P is printed in boldface capitals. If you read either source from beginning to end, and then go back and read the other one, you will be able to see for yourself two complete, continuous accounts, each with its own vocabulary and concerns:

The Flood—Genesis 6:5-8:22
(Priestly text in boldface capitals, J text in regular type)
GENESIS 6:

5 And Yahweh saw that the evil of humans was great in the earth, and all the inclination of the thoughts of their heart was only evil all the day. 6 And Yahweh regretted that he had made humans in the earth, and he was grieved to his heart. 7 And Yahweh said, " I shall wipe out the humans which I have created from the face of the earth, from human to beast to creeping thing to bird of the heavens, for I regret that I have made them." 8 But Noah found favor in Yahweh's eyes.
9 THESE ARE T H E GENERATIONS OF N O A H : N O A H WAS A RIGHTEOUS MAN, PERFECT I N HIS GENERATIONS. N O A H WALKED W I TH GOD. 10 AND N O A H SIRED THREE SONS: SHEM, H A M , A N D JAFHETH.

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11 AND THE EARTH WAS CORRUPTED BEFORE GOD, A N D THE EARTH WAS FILLED W I T H VIOLENCE. 12 AND G O D SAW T H E EARTH, A N D HERE I T WAS CORRUPTED, FOR ALL FLESH H A D CORRUPTED ITS WAY O N T H E EARTH. 13 AND G O D SAID T O N O A H , " T H E END OF ALL FLESH HAS COME BEFORE ME, FOR THE EARTH IS FILLED W I T H VIOLENCE BECAUSE OF THEM, A N D HERE I A M GOING T O DESTROY T H EM W I T H THE EARTH. 14 MAKE YOURSELF A N ARK OF GOPHER WOOD, MAKE ROOMS W I TH THE ARK, A N D PITCH I T OUTSIDE A N D INSIDE W I T H PITCH. 15 AND THIS IS HOW YOU SHALL MAKE I T : THREE HUNDRED CUBITS THE LENGTH OF THE ARK, FIFTY CUBITS ITS WIDTH, A ND THIRTY CUBITS ITS HEIGHT. 16 YOU SHALL MAKE A WINDOW FOR THE ARK, A N D YOU SHALL FINISH I T TO A CUBIT FROM T H E TOP, A N D YOU SHALL MAKE A N ENTRANCE TO THE ARK I N ITS SIDE. Y O U SHALL MAKE LOWER, SECOND, A N D THIRD STORIES FOR I T 17 AND HERE I A M BRINGING THE FLOOD, WATER OVER THE EARTH, T O DESTROY ALL FLESH I N WHICH IS THE BREATH OF LIFE FROM UNDER THE HEAVENS. EVERYTHING WHICH IS O N THE L A ND WILL DIE. 18 AND I SHALL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT W I T H YOU. A N D YOU SHALL COME TO THE ARK, YOU A N D YOUR SONS A N D YOUR WIFE A N D YOUR SONS' WIVES W I T H YOU. 19 A N D OF A L L THE LIVING, OF ALL FLESH, YOU SHALL BRING TWO TO THE ARK T O KEEP ALIVE W I T H YOU, THEY SHALL BE MALE AND FEMALE. 20 OF THE BIRDS ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND, A N D OF THE BEASTS ACCORDING T O THEIR KIND, A N D OF ALL THE CREEPING THINGS OF THE EARTH ACCORDING T O THEIR KIND, TWO OF EACH WILL COME TO YOU T O KEEP ALIVE. 21 AND YOU, TAKE FOR YOURSELF OF ALL FOOD WHICH WILL BE EATEN A N D GATHER I T TO YOU, A N D I T WILL BE FOR YOU A N D FOR THEM FOR FOOD." 22 AND N O A H D I D ACCORDING TO ALL T H A T G O D COMMANDED HIM—SO H E D I D .

GENESIS 7:

1 And Yahweh said to Noah, "Come, you and all your household, to the ark, for 1 have seen you as righteous before me in this generation. 2 Of all the clean beasts, take yourself seven pairs, man and his woman; and of the beasts which are not clean, two, man and his woman. 3 Also of the birds of the heavens seven pairs, male and female, to keep alive seed on the face of the earth. 4 For in seven more days I shall rain on the earth forty days and forty nights, and I shall wipe out all the substance that I have made from upon the face of the earth." 5 And Noah did according to all that Yahweh had commanded him.
6 A N D N O A H WAS SIX HUNDRED YEARS OLD, A N D T H E FLOOD WAS ON THE EARTH.

7 And Noah and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him came to the ark from before the waters of the flood.
8 OF THE CLEAN BEASTS A N D OF THE BEASTS WHICH WERE NOT CLEAN, A N D OF THE BIRDS A N D OF ALL THOSE WHICH CREEP UPON THE EARTH, 9 TWO OF EACH CAME TO N O A H T O THE ARK, MALE A N D FEMALE, AS G O D HAD COMMANDED N O A H .

10 And seven days later the waters of the flood were on the earth.
11 IN T H E sue HUNDREDTH YEAR OF NOAH'S LIFE, I N T H E SECOND MONTH, I N THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF THE MONTH, O N THIS DAY ALL T H E FOUNTAINS OF T H E GREAT DEEP WERE BROKEN UP, A N D T HE

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WINDOWS OF T H E HEAVENS WERE OPENED.

12 And there was rain on the earth, forty days and forty nights.
13 I N THIS VERY DAY, N O A H A N D SHEM, H A M , A N D JAPHETH, THE SONS OF N O A H , A N D NOAH'S WIFE A N D H I S SONS* THREE WIVES W I T H THEM CAME TO T H E ARK, 14 THEY AND ALL THE LIVING THINGS ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND, A N D ALL THE BEASTS ACCORDING T O THEIR KIND, A N D ALL THE CREEPING THINGS THAT CREEP O N THE EARTH ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND, A N D ALL THE BIRDS ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND, A N D EVERY WINGED BIRD. 15 AND THEY CAME TO N O A H TO THE ARK, TWO OF EACH, OF ALL FLESH I N W H I C H IS T H E BREATH OF LIFE. 16 AND THOSE WHICH CAME WERE MALE A N D FEMALE, SOME OF ALL FLESH CAME, AS GOD HAD COMMANDED H I M . And Yahweh closed it for him.

17 And the flood was on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and the waters multiplied and raised the ark, and it was lifted from the earth. 18 And the waters grew strong and multiplied greatly on the earth, and the ark went on the surface of the waters. 19 And the waters grew very very strong on the earth, and they covered all the high mountains that are under all the heavens. 20 Fifteen cubits above, the waters grew stronger, and they covered the mountains.
21 AND ALL FLESH, THOSE THAT CREEP ON THE EARTH, THE BIRDS, THE BEASTS, A N D THE WILD ANIMALS, A N D A L L THE SWARM' I N G THINGS THAT SWARM O N THE EARTH, A N D ALL THE HUMANS EXPIRED.

22 Everything that had the breathing spirit of life in its nostrils, everything that was on the dry ground, died. 23 And he wiped out all the substance that was on the face of the earth, from human to beast, to creeping thing, and to bird of the heavens, and they were wiped out from the earth, and only Noah and those who were with him in the ark were left.
24 A N D T H E WATERS GREW STRONG O N THE EARTH A HUNDRED FIFTY DAYS.

GENESIS 8:
1 AND G O D REMEMBERED N O A H A N D ALL T H E LIVING, A N D ALL THE BEASTS T H A T WERE W I T H H I M I N T H E ARK, A N D G O D PASSED A WIND OVER THE EARTH, A N D T H E WATERS WERE DECREASED. 2 A N D T H E FOUNTAINS OF THE DEEP A N D T H E WINDOWS OF THE HEAVENS WERE SHUT, and the rain was

restrained from the heavens.

3 And the waters receded from the earth continually, A N D T HE WATERS WERE ABATED A T THE END OF A
HUNDRED FIFTY DAYS. 4 A N D THE ARK RESTED, I N T H E SEVENTH MONTH, I N THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF T H E MONTH, O N T H E MOUNTAINS OF ARARAT. 5 A N D THE WATERS CONTINUED RECEDING UNTIL THE TENTH MONTH; I N T H E TENTH MONTH, O N THE FIRST OF THE MONTH, THE TOPS OF T H E MOUNTAINS APPEARED.

6 And it was at the end of forty days, and Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made.
7 AND HE SENT OUT A RAVEN, A N D I T WENT BACK A N D FORTH UNTIL THE WATERS DRIED U P FROM THE EARTH.

8 And he sent out a dove from him to see whether the waters had eased from the face of the earth.

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9 And the dove did not find a resting place for its foot, and it returned to him to the ark, for waters were on the face of the earth, and he put out his hand and took it and brought it to him to the ark. 10 And he waited seven more days, and he again sent out a dove from the ark. 11 And the dove came to him at evening time, and here was an olive leaf torn off in its mouth, and Noah knew that the waters had eased from the earth. 12 And he waited seven more days, and he sent out a dove, and it did not return to him ever again.
13 AND I T WAS I N THE SIX HUNDRED AND FIRST YEAR, I N THE FIRST MONTH, O N THE FIRST OF THE MONTH, THE WATERS DRIED FROM THE EARTH. And Noah turned back the covering of the ark and looked, and here the

face of the earth had dried.
14 AND I N THE SECOND MONTH, O N THE TWENTY-SEVENTH DAY OF T H E MONTH, T H E EARTH DRIED UP. 15 AND GOD SPOKE TO N O A H , SAYING, 16 "GO OUT FROM THE ARK, YOU A N D YOUR WIFE A N D YOUR SONS' WIVES W I T H YOU. 17 ALL THE L I V I N G THINGS THAT ARE W I T H YOU, OF ALL FLESH, OF THE BIRDS, A N D OF THE BEASTS, A N D OF ALL THE CREEPING THINGS THAT CREEP ON THE EARTH, THAT GO OUT W I T H YOU, SHALL SWARM I N THE EARTH A N D BE FRUITFUL A N D MULTIPLY I N THE EARTH." 18 AND N O A H A N D HIS SONS A N D HIS WIFE A N D HIS SONS' WIVES WENT OUT. 19 ALL THE L I V I N G THINGS, ALL THE CREEPING THINGS A N D ALL THE BIRDS, ALL T H A T CREEP O N THE EARTH, BY THEIR FAMILIES, THEY WENT O U T OF THE ARK.

20 And Noah built an altar to Yahweh, and he took some of each of the clean beasts and of each of the clean birds, and he offered sacrifices on the altar. 21 And Yahweh smelled the pleasant smell, and Yahweh said to his heart, " I shall not again curse the ground on man's account, for the inclination of the human heart is evil from their youth, and I shall not again strike all the living as I have done. 22 All the rest of the days of the earth, seed and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."

Each in Its Own Words
The very fact that it is possible to separate out two continuous stories like this is remarkable itself, and it is strong evidence for the hypothesis. One need only try to do the same thing with any other book to see how impressive this phenomenon is. But it is not only that it is possible to carve out two stories. What makes the case so powerful is that each story consistently uses its own language. The P story (the one in boldface) consistently refers to the deity as God. The J story always uses the name Yahweh. P refers to the sex of the animals with the words "male and female" (Gen 6:19; 7:9,16). J uses the terms "man and his woman" (7:2) as well as male and female. P says that everything "expired" (6:17; 7:21). J says that everything "died" (7:22).The two versions do not just differ on terminology. They differ on actual details of the story. P has one pair of each kind of animal. J has seven pairs of clean animals and one pair of unclean animals. ("Clean" means fit for sacrifice. Sheep are clean; lions are unclean.) P pictures the flood as lasting a year (370 days). J says it was forty days and forty nights. P has Noah send out a raven. J says a dove. P obviously has a concern for ages, dates, and measurements in cubits. J does not. Probably the most remarkable difference of all between the two is their different ways of picturing God. It is not just that they call the deity by different names. J pictures a deity who can regret things that he has done (6:6,7), which raises interesting theological questions, such as whether an all-powerful, all-knowing being would ever regret past actions. I t pictures a deity who can be "grieved to his heart" (6:6), who personally closes the ark (7:16) and smells Noah's sacrifice (8:21). This anthropomorphic quality of J is virtually entirely lacking in P. There God is regarded more as a transcendent controller of the universe. The two flood stories are separable and complete. Each has its own language, its own details, and

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even its own conception of God. And even that is not the whole picture. The J flood story's language, details, and conception of God are consistent with the language, details, and conception of God in other J stories. The P flood story is consistent with other P stories. And so on. The investigators found each of the sources to be a consistent collection of stories, poems, and laws.

The Doorstep
The discovery that there were four separate, internally consistent documents came to be known as the Documentary Hypothesis. The process was also called "Higher Criticism." What had begun as an idea by three men of the eighteenth century came to dominate investigations of the Bible by the end of the nineteenth century. It had taken centuries of collecting clues to arrive at this stage which one could regard as fairly advanced or really quite minimal, depending on one's point of view. On the one hand, for centuries no one could easily challenge the accepted tradition that Moses was the author of the Five Books, and now people of acknowledged piety could say and write openly that he was not. They were able to identify at least four hands writing in the first five books of the Bible. Also, there was the hand of an extremely skillful collector known as a redactor, someone who was capable of combining and organizing these separate documents into a single work that was united enough to be readable as a continuous narrative. On the other hand, what these detectives of biblical origins had arrived at was only the doorstep. They were able to see that a puzzle existed, and they were able to begin to get an idea of how complex the puzzle was going to be. True, they could identify four documents and a redactor, but who wrote those documents? When did they live? What was their purpose? Did they know each other's work? Did any of them know that they were writing a Bible, a work to be held as sacred and authoritative? And the mysterious redactor: was it one person, or were there several? Who were they? Why did they combine the documents in this complex way? The answers were buried in the pages of the Bible and in the soil of the Middle East. By digging into both, my predecessors and I found out how the stories in those pages were connected with that world.
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Two Countries, Two Writers
The first two sources, J and E, were written by two persons who lived during the period that I described in the last chapter. They were tied to the life of that period, its major events, its politics, its religion, and its catastrophes. In this chapter I intend to demonstrate this and to identify the persons who wrote them. First, the author of J came from Judah and the author of E came from Israel. A number of biblical scholars before me have suggested this, but what is new here is that I mean to present a stronger collection of evidence for this than has been made known before, I mean to be more specific about who the two writers were, and I mean to show more specifically how the biblical stories actually related to these two men and to the events of their world. The mere fact that different stories in the first books of the Bible call God by different names of course proves nothing in itself. Someone could write about the queen of England and sometimes call her the queen and sometimes call her Elizabeth I I . But, as I have said, there was something more suspicious about the way the different names of the deity lined up in the first few books of the Bible. The two different names, Yahweh and Elohim, seemed to line up consistently in each of the two versions of the same stories in the doublets. If we separate the Elohim (E) stories from the Yahweh (J) stories, we get a consistent series of clues that the E stories were written by someone concerned with Israel and the J stories by someone concerned with Judah.

J from Judah, E from Israel
First, there is the matter of the settings of the stories. In Genesis, in stories that call God Yahweh, the patriarch Abraham lives in Hebron. Hebron was the principal city of Judah, the capital of Judah under King David, the city from which David's Judean chief priest, Zadok, came. In the covenant that Yahweh makes with Abraham, he promises that Abraham's descendants will have the land "from the river of Egypt to t h e . . . river Euphrates." These were the nation's boundaries under King David, the founder of Judah's royal family. But in a story that calls God Elohim, Abraham's grandson Jacob has a face-to-face fight with someone who turns out to be God (or perhaps an angel), and Jacob names the place where it happens Peni-El (which means "Face-ofGod"). Peni-El was a city that King Jeroboam built in Israel. Both sources, J and E, tell stories about the city of Beth-El, and both kingdoms, Judah and Israel, made political claims on Beth-El, which was on the border between them. Both sources, J and E, tell stories about the city of Shechem, which Jeroboam built and made the capital of Israel. But the two stories are very different. According to the J story, a man named Shechem,
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who is the original prince of that city, loves Jacob's daughter Dinah and sleeps with her. He then asks for her hand in marriage. Jacob's sons reply that they could not contemplate this or any intermarriage with the people of Shechem because the Shechemites are not circumcised and the sons of Jacob are. The prince of Shechem and his father Hamor therefore persuade all the men of Shechem to undergo circumcision. While the men are immobile from the pain of the surgery, two of Jacob's sons, Simeon and Levi, enter the city, kill all of the men, and take back their sister Dinah. Their father Jacob criticizes them for doing this, but they answer, "Should he treat our sister like a whore?" And that is the end of the story. This J story of how Israel acquired its capital city is not a very pleasant one. The E story, meanwhile, tells it this way: And [Jacob] bought the portion of the field where he pitched his tent from the hand of the sons of Hamor, father of Shechem, for a hundred qesita. How did Israel acquire Shechem? The E author says they bought it. The J author says they massacred it .
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The Origins of the Tribes
In the stories of the birth of Jacob's sons and grandsons—each of whom becomes the ancestor of a tribe— there is usually a reference to the deity as they name the child. The group of stories that invoke Elohim are the stories of: Dan Naphtali Gad Asher Issachar Zebulon Ephraim Manasseh Benjamin

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In short, the Elohim group includes the names of all of the tribes of Israel. The group of stories that invoke the name of Yahweh are the stories of: Reuben Simeon Levi Judah The first three of the four names on this list are the names of tribes who lost their territory and merged into the other tribes. The only name of a tribe with existing territory in the Yahweh narrative is Judah. The J story goes even further to justify the ascendancy of Judah. According to the story, Reuben is the firstborn son, Simeon is the second, Levi the third, and Judah the fourth. In the ancient Near East, birth order was extremely important, because the firstborn son was entitled to the birthright, which meant the largest portion of the father's inheritance (generally double the other brothers' inheritances). We should therefore have expected Reuben, the oldest son, to have the birthright. But there is a story that reports that Reuben sleeps with one of his father's concubines, and his father finds out. The next two sons in line for the birthright would be Simeon and Levi. But in the J Shechem story they are the ones who massacre the city and are criticized by their father. And so, in J, the birthright comes to the fourth son: Judah! In Jacob's poetic deathbed blessing of his sons, here is what he says about Reuben: Reuben, you are my firstborn, My strength and the beginning of my power, Preeminent in dignity and preeminent of might. Unstable as water, you shall not be preeminent Because you went up to your father's bed. And here is what he says about Simeon and Levi: Simeon and Levi are brothers, Implements of destruction are their tools of trade. . . . In their anger the} killed a man, And by their will they houghed a bull. Cursed is therr anger, for it is fierce, And their wrath, for it is harsh. I shall divide them in Jacob, And I shall scatter them in Israel. But he says about Judah:

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Judah, you are the one your brothers will praise. ..Your father's sons will bow down to you.Judah gets the birthright in J. Who gets it in E? In the E version of Jacob's deathbed scene, Jacob bequeathes the double portion to Joseph, announcing that each of Joseph's two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, will receive a full portion, equivalent to the portions of Reuben, Simeon, and the others. Why did the author of E favor Joseph and his sons? The answer lies in one more detail of E's story. When Jacob is giving his deathbed blessing to Joseph and his sons, Joseph sets his sons in front of Jacob in such a way that Jacob will put his right hand on the head of Manasseh, the older son. The right hand is the sign of preeminence. But Jacob crosses his arms, so his right hand is on Ephraim's head. Joseph protests the reversal, but Jacob insists that Ephraim will become greater. What is it about Ephraim? Why does the author of E develop the hierarchy to culminate not in any of Jacob's sons, but in one of his grandsons who is not even a firstborn? Was there anything historically significant about the tribe of Ephraim in the writer's age? Answer: Ephraim was King Jeroboam's tribe. Jeroboam's capital city, Shechem, was located in the hills of Ephraim. Ephraim, in fact, was used as another name for the kingdom of Israel.
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Evidence from the Stories
The J stories fit the cities and territory of Judah. The E stories fit the cities and territory of Israel. I found that other details of the stories consistently fit this picture as well: Both J and E have versions of the story of Joseph. In both, Joseph's brothers are jealous of him and plan to kill him, but one of the brothers saves him. In E it is Reuben, the oldest, who saves him. But in J it is Judah who saves him. The E story of Jacob's deathbed testament has a pun in the Hebrew. In creating portions for Ephraim and Manasseh, Jacob tells Joseph, " I have given you one portion more than your brothers." The Hebrew word that is translated here as "portion" is sekem, or as we pronounce it in English, Shechem. Telling the father of Ephraim that he is getting an extra Shechem is like telling the governor of Michigan, " I have given the other states some trees, but I have given you an arbor."
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The J stories meanwhile seem to be punning on the name of the first king of Judah after the division: Rehoboam. The Hebrew root of the name Rehoboam (r-h-b) occurs six times in the J stories, usually suggesting, as does the king's name, the expanse of the country.
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The root never occurs in E. According to an E story, Joseph makes a deathbed request in Egypt that someday his bones should be carried back to his homeland for burial. A t the end of the E story of the Exodus from Egypt, the Israelites do carry his bones back with them. * This concern for the burial of Joseph only occurs in E. Where was the traditional location of the tomb of Joseph? In Shechem, capital of Israel. Both J and E have stories of the enslavement of the people in Egypt. The J source usually refers to the Egyptians who oversee the slaves as "taskmasters," but in a passage that appears to be E they are called "officers of misstm. " Recall that missim was the term for King Solomon's forced-labor policy, a policy that was one of the main reasons for the secession of the northern tribes of Israel. The E wording appears to be an insult to Judah and its royal family. The insult may be a double one, because the most prominent of Solomon's wives was the daughter of the pharaoh of that period.
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The book of 1 Kings lists her first among his wives. Such a marriage would have been a notable one, further, because the kings of Egypt disdained marrying their daughters to foreigners. There is no other case recorded in the ancient Near East of a marriage of an Egyptian princess to a foreign ruler.
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In E, Moses' faithful assistant is Joshua. Joshua leads the people in battle against the Amalekites; he serves as watchman inside the Tent of Meeting whenever Moses is not meeting with the deity there; he is the only Israelite who is not involved in the golden calf incident; and he seeks to prevent the misuse of prophecy. In J, on the other hand, Joshua plays no role. Why the special treatment of Joshua in E but not in J ? Joshua was a northern hero. He is identified as coming from the tribe of Ephraim, Jeroboam's tribe; Joshua's tomb is in the territory of Ephraim, and, according to the last chapter of the book of Joshua, Joshua's work culminates in a covenant ceremony at Shechem.
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According to a J story, Moses sends a group of spies from the wilderness into the promised land. A l l but one of the spies report that the land is impregnable because its inhabitants are so huge and fierce. The one spy who challenges this report and encourages the people to have faith is Caleb. In the story, the spies travel through the Negev (the southern desert of the land), the hill country, as far as Hebron, then to the Wadi Eshkol. A l l of these places are in Judah's territory. In J, the spies only see Judah." As for the hero of the story, Caleb, he is the eponymous ancestor of the Calebites. The Calebites held territory in the hill country of Judah. The Calebite territory in fact included Hebron, Judah's capital.The cumulative, consistent conclusion from all of this evidence, it seems to me, is: (1) the early investigators were right about the existence of the two sources, J and E; (2) the person who wrote J was particularly concerned with the kingdom of Judah, and the person who wrote E was particularly interested in the kingdom of Israel. Still, as I said in the introduction we are interested in more than the authors' real estate preferences. The question is, why did they write these stories? What was happening in their world that prompted them to write these things?

The Twins
Take, for example, the biblical stories about the twins Jacob and Esau. In these stories, Abraham's son, Isaac, marries Rebekah, and she gives birth to twin sons. The first to come out of his mother's womb is Esau. The secondbom is Jacob. While they are still in Rebekah's womb, Yahweh tells Rebekah: Two nations are in your womb, And two peoples will be separated from inside you; And one people will be stronger than the other people, And the greater will serve the younger. The boys grow. On one occasion, Esau comes back from the field famished. His brother, Jacob, is making red lentil stew. Jacob tells Esau that he will give him some of the food only if Esau swears to give him his birthright in return. Esau capitulates.
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More time passes. Their father, Isaac, intends to give his deathbed blessing to Esau. Rebekah, however, encourages Jacob to pose as his elder brother and thus deceive his weak-eyed father into giving him the blessing instead. Jacob does it. He wears his brother's clothing, and he puts goat skins on his arms because his brother is "an hairy man." Isaac gives Jacob the blessing, which includes dominion over his brother. When Esau arrives, Isaac tells him that the blessing has already gone to Jacob. Esau asks for a blessing as well. His father gives him the following: By your sword you will live And you will serve your brother. And it will be, when you are brought down, That you will break his yoke from your shoulders. Why did someone write these stories, with these details? The answers are tied to the life of the writer's world. Why red lentil stew? Because, the story says, Esau became known after that as "Red." The word for "red" in Hebrew is Edom. That is, Esau is traditionally regarded as the father of the Edomites.

Why twin brothers? Because the people of Israel-Judah regarded the Edomites as kin, as related to them ethnically and/or linguistically (as opposed to, say, Egyptians or Philistines, who were regarded as "outsiders"). Why the revelation to Rebekah that her younger son's descendants would dominate her older son's? Because the young kingdom of Israel-Judah, under King David, defeated the older kingdom of Edom and dominated it for two hundred years. Why does Jacob get the birthright (a double portion) and the blessing (prosperity and dominion)? Because Israel-Judah became larger and more prosperous than Edom and dominated i t . Why does Esau/Edom get a blessing that "you will break his yoke from your shoulders"? Because Edom finally broke free and achieved its independence during the reign of the Judean King Jehoram (848-842 B.C.).
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These stories all refer to the deity as Yahweh or show other signs of being part of J. Why do stories about relations with Esau/Edom occur in J and not in E? J is from Judah. Judah bordered Edom, Israel did not. On each point, the details of the stories correspond to the histori cal record. The J author composed the stories of his people's ancestors with an eye to explaining and justifying the world situation in which he lived. Sunday school versions of this story often try to vindicate Jacob. With slight changes or reinterpretations, they make Jacob the good son and Esau the bad one. But the J writer was more sophisticated then his later interpreters. He told a story in which Jacob was courageous and clever, but also dishonest. He did not make his heroes perfect (any more than the Court History of David made David perfect). His task was rather to compose a story that reflected and explained the political and social realities of the world that he knew. Anyone who reads the stories of Jacob and Esau can see how well he succeeded.

Two Kingdoms also Two Writers
THE Bible's stories have proved to be a chain of clues to the identity of their authors, and at the same time they have proved to be windows into that ancient world. The J stories reflect conditions in the time and place in which their author lived, and they show where some of this writer's interests lay. The E stories reveal more about their author's identity than the J stories do about theirs.

The Golden Calf
The most revealing of all is the E story of the golden calf, which I summarized briefly in the Introduction. While Moses is getting the Ten Commandments on the mountain of God, Aaron makes a golden calf for the people. They say, "These are your gods, Israel, that brought you up from the land of Egypt." Aaron says, "A holiday to Yahweh tomorrow!" The people sacrifice and celebrate wildly. Meanwhile, God tells Moses what is happening below, and God says that he will destroy the people and start a new people descended from Moses. Moses pleads with God to be merciful, and God relents. Moses comes down from the mountain with his assistant Joshua. When he sees the calf and the condition of the people, he smashes the tablets in anger. Then the tribe of Levi gather around Moses and carry out a bloody purge among the people. Moses makes a plea to God to forgive the people's offense and not destroy them. The story is all questions. Why did the person who wrote this story depict his people as rebellious at the very time of their liberation and their receiving the covenant? Why did he picture Aaron as leader of the heresy? Why does Aaron not suffer any punishment for it in the end? Why did the author picture a golden calf. Why do the people say "These are your gods, Israel...," when there is only one calf there? And why do they say " . . . that brought you up from the land of Egypt" when the calf obviously was not made until after they were out of Egypt? Why does Aaron say "A holiday to Yahweh tomorrow" when he is presenting the calf as a rival to Yahweh? Why is the calf treated as a god in this story, when the calf was not a god in the ancient Near East? Why did the writer picture Moses as smashing the tablets of the Ten Commandments? Why picture the Levites as acting in bloody zeal? Why include Joshua in the story? Why depict Joshua as dissociated from the golden calf event?
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We already have enough information from our acquaintances with the world that produced the Bible to answer all of these questions. We have already seen considerable evidence that the author of J was from Judah and the author of E from Israel. We have also seen evidence that suggests that the Israelite author of E had a particular interest in matters that related to King Jeroboam and his policies. E deals with cities that Jeroboam rebuilt: Shechem, Penuel, Beth-El. E justifies the ascendancy of his home tribe, Ephraim. E disdains the Judean policy of missfm. E gives special attention to the matter of the burial of Joseph, whose traditional gravesite was in Jeroboam's capital, Shechem. Further, E is a source which particularly emphasizes Moses as its hero, much more than J does. In this story, it is Moses' intercession with God that saves the people from destruction. E also especially develops Moses' personal role in the liberation from slavery, in a way that ] does not. In E there is less material on the patriarchs than on Moses; in J there is more on the patriarchs.

Let us consider the possibility that the person who wrote E was a Levitical priest, probably from Shiloh, and therefore possibly descended from Moses. Such a person would have an interest in developing these things: the oppressive Judean economic policies, the establishment of an independent kingdom under Jeroboam, and

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the superior status of Moses. If this is true, that the author of E was a Shiloh Levite possibly descended from Moses, then this answeis every one of the questions about the golden calf story. Recall that the priests of Shiloh suffered the loss of their place in the priestly hierarchy under King Solomon. Their chief, Abiathar, was expelled from Jerusalem. The other chief priest, Zadok, who was regarded as a descendant of Aaron, meanwhile remained in power. Northern Levites' lands were given to the Phoenicians. The Shiloh prophet Ahijah instigated the northern tribes' secession, and he designated Jeroboam as the northern king. The Shiloh priests' hopes for the new kingdom, however, were frustrated when Jeroboam established the golden calf religious centers at Dan and Beth-El, and he did not appoint them as priests there. For this old family of priests, what should have been a time of liberation had been turned into a time of religious betrayal. The symbol of their exclusion in Israel was the golden calves. The symbol of their exclusion in Judah was Aaron. Someone from that family, the author of E, wrote a story that said that soon after the Israelite's liberation from slavery, they committed heresy. What was the heresy? They worshiped a golden calf I Who made the golden calf! Aaron! The details of the story fall into place. Why does Aaron not suffer any punishment in the story? Because no matter how much antipathy the author may have felt toward Aaron's descendants, that author could not change the entire historical recollection of his people. They had a tradition that Aaron was an ancient high priest. The high priest cannot be pictured as suffering any hurt from God because in such a case he could not have continued to serve as high priest. Any sort of blemish on the high priest would have disqualified him from service. The author could not just make up a story that the high priest had become disqualified at this early stage. Why does Aaron say "A holiday to Yahweh tomorrow" when he is presenting the calf as a rival to Yahweh? Because the calf is not in fact a rival god. The calf, or young bull, is only the throne platform or symbol of the deity, not a deity itself. Why is the calf treated as a god in this story? Presumably because the story is polemical; the writer means to cast the golden calves of the kingdom of Israel in the worst light possible. In fact, we shall see other cases in which biblical writers use the word "gods" to include the golden calves and the golden cherubs; and in those cases, too, the text is polemical. Why do the people say "These are your gods, Israel..." when there is only one calf? Why do they say " . . . that brought you up from the land of Egypt" when the calf was not made until they were out of Egypt? The answer seems to lie in the account of King Jeroboam in the book of 1 Kings. It states there that when Jeroboam made his two golden calves he declared to his people, "Here are your gods, Israel, that brought you up from the land of Egypt." The people's words in Exodus are identical to Jeroboam's words in 1 Kings. It would be difficult for us to trace the textual history of these two passages now, but at minimum we can say that the writer of the golden calf account in Exodus seems to have taken the words that were traditionally ascribed to Jeroboam and placed them in the mouths of the people. This made the connection between his golden calf story and the golden calves of the kingdom of Israel crystal clear to his readers.
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Why did the writer of E picture the Levites as acting in bloody zeal? He was a Levite. He wrote that Aaron had acted rebelliously while the other Levites alone acted loyally. Moses tells the Levites there that they have earned blessing by their actions. The story thus denigrates the ancestory of the Jerusalem priests while praising the rest of the Levites. What is Joshua doing in this story, and why is he singled out as being dissociated from the heresy? Because, as we know, Joshua was a northern hero. His home tribe was the same as King Jeroboam's: Ephraim. His gravesite, like Joseph's, was in Ephraim. He is credited with having led a national covenant ceremony at Shechem, the place that was later to become Jeroboam's capital. The E writer therefore was adding to the golden calf story an element of praise for a northern hero who was associated in the tradition with the capital city and the preeminent tribe. The dissociation of Joshua from the golden calf heresy also explained why Joshua later becomes Moses' successor. Why did the writer picture Moses as smashing the tablets of the Ten Commandments? Possibly because this raised doubts about Judatis central religious shrine. The Temple in Judah housed the ark that was supposed to contain the two tablets of the Ten Commandments. According to the E story of the golden calf, Moses smashes the tablets. That means that according to the E source the ark down south in the Temple in Jerusalem either contains unauthentic tablets or no tablets at all. The author of E, in fashioning the golden calf story, attacked both the Israelite and the Judean religious establishments. Both had excluded his group. One might ask, why, then, was this writer so favorable to Jeroboam's kingdom in other stories? Why did he favor the cities of Shechem, Penuel, and especially Beth-El? Why did he favor the tribe of Ephraim? First, because Shiloh was in Ephraim, and its great priest Samuel was
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from Ephraim. Second, presumably because the kingdom of Israel remained his only hope politically. He could look forward to a day when the illegitimate, non-Levite priests of Beth-El would be rejected, and his Levite group would be reinstated. Judah and Jerusalem offered no such hope at that time. The priests of the family of Aaron had been firmly established there since King Solomon's time. They were Levites and therefore no less legitimate than the priests of Shiloh. They were closely tied by bonds of politics and marriage to the royal family. The only realistic hope for the Shiloh priests was in the northern kingdom. The E source therefore favored that kingdom's political structure while attacking its religious establishment.
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Symbols of Faith
The golden calf story is not the only instance in which the author of E may have been criticizing both the northern and southern religious establishments. In the J version of the commandments that God gives to Moses on Mount Sinai, there is a prohibition against making statues (idols). The wording of the J commandment is: You shall not make for yourself molten gods.
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The ] command here forbids only molten statues. The golden calves of Jeroboam in the north were molten. The golden cherubs of Solomon in the south were not molten. They were made of olive wood and then goldplated. The J text thus fits the iconography of Judah. It may imply that the golden calves of northern Israel are inappropriate, even though they are not actually statues of a god; but it does not leave itself open to the countercharge that Judah's golden cherubs are inappropriate as well. Meanwhile, the E source's formulation of this prohibition reads: You shall not make with me gods of silver and gods of gold. You shall not make them for yourselves.
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Perhaps this command refers only to actual statues of gods, but if it casts doubt on the throne-platform icons as well then it casts doubt on both the molten golden calves and the plated golden cherubs. The relationship between the J and E sources and the religious symbols of Judah and Israel respectively is evident elsewhere as well. In a J text at the beginning of the book of Numbers the people set out from Sinai/Horeb on their journey to the promised land. According to the description of their departure, the ark is carried in front of the people as they travel. Another J text also mentions the ark as important to the people's success in the wilderness. It in fact suggests that it is impossible to be militarily successful without i t . The ark, as we know, was regarded as the central object of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. It should come as no surprise, therefore, that it is treated with such importance in J, but it is never mentioned in E. E rather attributes much importance to the Tent of Meeting as the symbol of the presence of God among the people. The Tent of Meeting (or Tabernacle), according to the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, was a primary site of the nation's worship until Solomon replaced the tent shrine with the Temple. The Tabernacle, moreover, was associated originally with the city of Shiloh. Given the other evidence for connecting the author of E with the priesthood of Shiloh, it should come as no surprise, therefore, that the Tent of Meeting has such importance in E, but it is never mentioned in J. The ark does not appear in E. The Tabernacle does not appear in J. This is no coincidence. The stories in the sources treat the religious symbols of the respective communities from which they came. Now we can also turn back to the beginning of the book of Genesis and appreciate the fact that at the conclusion of the story of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, which is a J narrative, Yahweh sets cherubs as the guardians of the path to the tree of life. Since cherubs were in the Holy of Holies in the Jerusalem Temple, it is only natural that an advocate of Judah's religious traditions should picture cherubs as the guardians of something valuable and sacred. The golden calf story reveals more about its author than probably any other story in J or E. In addition to all that it tells us about its author's background and about its author's skill in fashioning a story, it conveys how deep his anger was toward those who had displaced his group in Judah and in Israel. He could picture Aaron, ancestor of the Jerusalem priesthood, as committing heresy and dishonesty. He could picture the national symbols of Israelite religion as objects of idolatry. He could picture the nation who accepted these symbols as deserving a bloody purge. What he pictured Moses doing to the golden calf was what he himself might have liked to do to the calvesof Dan and Beth-El: burn them with fire, grind them thin as dust.
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Snow-White Miriam
There is another story in E that reflects the depth of the antagonism between the priests who identified with Moses (either as theirfounder or as their ancestor) and those who identified with Aaron.In this story, Aaron and his sister Miriam speak against Moses with regard to Moses' wife, and God personally reprimands them. It

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is worth reading this short, unusual story as it appears in the book of Numbers. It is usually left out of the Sunday school curriculum:

Snow-White Miriam, Numbers 12 E text in italics
J And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses on account of the Cushite wife he had taken, for he had taken a Cushite wife. 2 And they said, "Has Yahweh indeed only spoken through Moses? Has he not also spoken through us?" And Yahweh heard. 3 And the man Moses was very humble, more than any human on the face of the earth. 4 And Yahweh" said suddenly to Moses and to Aaron and to Miriam, "Go out, the three of you, to the Tent of Meeting." And the three of them went out. 5 And Yahweh went down in a column of cloud and stood at the entrance of the tent, and he called Aaron and Miriam, and the tu>o of them went out. 6 And he said, "Hear my words. If there will be a prophet among you, I, Yahweh, shall make myself known to him in a vision; in a dream I shall speak through him. 7 Not so my servant Moses, most faithful in all my house. 8 Mouth to mouth I shall speak through him, and vision, and not in enigmas, and he will see the form of Yahweh. And why were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?" 9 And Yahweh's anger burnt against them, and he went. 10 And the cloud turned back from on the tent, and here Miriam was leprous as snow. And Aaron turned to Miriam, and here she was leprous. 11 And Aaron said to Moses, " In me, my Lord, do not lay upon us the sin that we have done foolishly and that we have sinned. 12 Let her not be like someone who is half dead, whose flesh is half eaten when he comes out of his mother's womb." 13 And Moses cried out to Yahweh, saying, "God [El], heal her." 14 And Yahweh said to Moses, "And if her father had spit in her face, would she not be shamed for seven days? Let her be shut away for seven days outside the camp, and afterwards she will be restored." 15 And Miriam was shut away outside the camp seven days, and the people did not travel until Miriam was gathered back. Aaron and Miriam speak because of Moses' wife. What is it about Moses' wife that bothers them? The text does not say. It only states that she is Cushite. Since Cush is understood to mean Ethiopia in the Bible, the issue may be that Moses' wife is black. The difficulty is that there is also a place called Cushan in the Bible, which is a region of Midian; and Moses' wife Zipporah has already been identified as Midianite. It is therefore uncertain whether the text here refers to Zipporah or to a second wife. In either case, the most likely reading of the text is that Miriam's and Aaron's opposition is based on Moses' wife being different, whether that difference be racial or ethnic. It is also psychologically interesting that their actual complaint never refers to the wife. That is, they do not complain out loud about the thing that is really bothering them. Rather, they direct their criticism at Moses himself. They question whether Moses has any status beyond their own with regard to revelation. ("Has Yahweh indeed only spoken through Moses? Has he not also spoken through us?") This proves to be an error. Yahweh informs them that Moses does indeed stand out from all other prophets in the degree of his intimacy with the divine. A l l other prophets only have visions, but Moses actually sees God. The deity is described as angry at Aaron and Miriam, and Miriam is stricken with a kind of leprosy in which all the pigmentation of the skin disappears, leaving her "snowwhite." If the issue here is that Moses' wife is black, then the punishment to suit the crime in this case is singularly suitable. As in the golden calf episode, Aaron does not suffer any punishment. Aaron had come to be known in the tradition as a priest, and a person who has had leprosy is disqualified for the priestly function thereafter. The writer therefore could not portray Aaron as sharing his sister's punishment. Still, it remains clear in the story that Aaron has offended, that God is angry at Aaron (verse 9), and that God states explicitly that Moses' experience of God is superior to Aaron's. This, too, fits the E interest in belittling the Aaronid priesthood in Judah. Also, both here and in the golden calf story Aaron respectfully addresses Moses as "my lord," acknowledging Moses as his superior. A story of a

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rebellion is a particularly useful means of making a point. The writer portrays a person or group as attacking the rightful authority or as being flagrantly disobedient—and then he portrays that person's or group's demise. The E stories of the golden calf and of snow-white Miriam accomplish this.

Reverence for Moses
We have covered a large amount of territory in this pursuit of two of the authors of the Bible. In story after story, we have been able to find clues connecting the story, the writer, and the writer's world. I have drawn on so many stories and pointed out all of these clues, first, simply to familiarize readers with the J and E sequence of stories. Second, it was important to demonstrate the strength of the cumulative argument. Any one of these examples might have been interesting and worth discussing, but not necessarily a compelling proof of anything in itself. The extent to which so many aspects of so many narratives converge and point in a common direction, however, is a compelling support of the multi-author hypothesis in general, and of this identification of the authors of J and E in particular. The more one reads these stories, the more one gets a sense of their authors, each in his world, and the more this explains. When we identify the author of E as a Shiloh priest who possibly thought of Moses as his own ancestor, we are not just saying something about his pedigree. We are pursuing an understanding of why he wrote what he wrote. It helps us to understand why the E stories offer more development of Moses' personality than those of J—and not just more development, but more sympathetic development. There is nothing in J to compare with Moses' speech to God in an E account in Numbers 11. There the people complain that there is no meat for them to eat in the wilderness, and they speak nostalgically of the good food they had in Egypt, temporarily disregarding the fact that they had to work as slaves for that food. A t this point, Moses apparently can no longer bear the burden that God has given him, to manage this entire community singlehanded. His plea to Yahweh is extraordinary for its anguish and for its intimacy with the deity. He says: Why have you injured your servant, and why have I not found favor in your eyes, to put the burden of this entire people on me? Did I conceive this entire people? Did I give birth to it, that you say to me, "Carry it in your bosom," the way a nurse carries a suckling, to the land that you swore to its fathers? From where do I have meat to give to this entire people, that they cry to me, saying, "Give us meat, and let us eat"? I am not able, myself, to carry all of this people, for it is too heavy for me. And if this is how you treat me, then kill me, if I have found favor in your eyes, and let me not see my suffering.
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E here is more than a source. It is a powerful composition reflecting a special interest, sympathy, and affection for Moses. The E writer emphasizes the Mosaic covenant at Horeb and never refers to the Abrahamic covenant. The E story of the exodus from Egypt places more emphasis on the extent to which Moses himself is acting to free the people, while the J version focuses more on God as bringing the liberation about. In J, Yahweh says: And I am coming down to save them from Egypt's hand and to bring them u p . . . . In E, he says: And now, go, and I shall send you to Pharaoh. Take my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.
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There is a difference of emphasis between these two. The E writer is focusing on Moses' crucial personal role. This is consistent with this writer's treatment of Moses throughout his work. For him, the arrival of Moses is the great moment of history, the time of the covenant, the time of the birth of the nation, the time of the Levites' first act of loyal service to God. And it is the time of the world's first acquaintance with God by name.

The Name of God
I have pointed out two places where the name Yahweh occurs in E stories. Until now, I have said that the name of God was a key distinction between J and E. Now let me be more specific. In J, the deity is called Yahweh from beginning to end. The J writer never refers to him as Elohim in narration. In E, the deity is called Elohim until the arrival of Moses. From the first time that Moses meets God, this changes. In the famous E story of the day that Moses meets God—the story of the burning bush—Moses does not know God's name, and so he asks.
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And Moses said to God [Elohim], "Here I am coming to the children of Israel, and I say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they will say to me, 'What is his name?' What shall I say to them?" The deity first gives the famous response " I am what I am." (The Hebrew root of these words is the same as the root of the name Yahweh.) And then he answers:
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Thus shall you say to the children of Israel, "Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you." This is my name forever: By this I shall be remembered from generation to generation.
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In E, Yahweh reveals his name for the first time to Moses. Prior to this scene in Exodus, he is called El or Elohim. Why did the writer of E do this? That is controversial. Some think that this story reflects the religious system in the northern kingdom of Israel. In choosing the golden calves (young bulls) as the throne platform, King Jeroboam was perhaps identifying Yahweh with the chief Canaanite god, El. El was associated with bulls and was known as Bull El. Jeroboam was thus saying that Yahweh and El were different names for the same God. The E story would then serve this merger of the deities. It would explain why the deity had the two different names: he was called El at first, and then he revealed his personal name Yahweh to Moses. This explanation of the name change in E is attractive in that it shows another logical tie between E and the kingdom of Israel. This fits with all the other clues we have seen that E was from Israel. However, there is a problem with this. In Judah, King Solomon used golden cherubs as the throne platform. And the god El was not only associated with bulls, but with cherubs as well. The statues that each kingdom used, therefore, do not make good evidence for explaining why E has the name revelation to Moses. Besides, all the other evidence we have seen indicates that the author of E was against the religious system that Jeroboam started in Israel. The E author depicted Moses destroying the golden calf. It is difficult, therefore, to argue that this author followed that religious system's theology on the identity of God. Some investigators doing research on early Israelite history have concluded that, historically, only a small portion of the ancient Israelites were actually slaves in Egypt. Perhaps it was only the Levites. It is among the Levites, after all, that we find people with Egyptian names. The Levite names Moses, Hophni, and Phinehas are all Egyptian, not Hebrew. And the Levites did not occupy any territory in the land like the other tribes. These investigators suggest that the group that was in Egypt and then in Sinai worshiped the God Yahweh. Then they arrived in Israel, where they met Israelite tribes who worshiped the God El. Instead of fighting over whose God was the true God, the two groups accepted the belief that Yahweh and El were the same God. The Levites became the official priests of the united religion, perhaps by force or perhaps by influence. Or perhaps that was their compensation for not having any territory. Instead of land, they received, as priests, 10 percent of the sacrificed animals and produce. This hypothesis, too, fits with the idea that the author of E was an Israelite Levite. His story of the revelation of the name Yahweh to Moses would reflect this history: the God that the tribes worshiped in the land was El. They had traditions about the God El and their ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Then the Levites arrived with their traditions about Moses, the exodus from Egypt, and the God Yahweh. The treatment of the divine names in E explains why the name Yahweh was not part of the nation's earliest tradition. This is in the realm of hypothesis, and we must be very cautious about i t . The important thing for our present purpose is that, for E, Moses has a significance far beyond what he has in J. In E, Moses is a turning point in history. E has much less than J about the world before Moses. E has no creation story, no flood story, and relatively less on the patriarchs. But E has more than J on Moses. This is perfectly understandable from a Levitical priest. Also consistent with the priestly origin of E is the fact that E contains three chapters of law.' J does not. Legal material elsewhere in the Bible is by priests—as we shall see.
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The overall picture of the E stories is that they are a consistent group, with a definite perspective and set of interests, and that they are profoundly tied to their author's world. Likewise with the author of J, the more we read his stories the more we can see their unity and their relationship to his world. We can understand, for example, why he did not develop the distinction between the names of God before and after Moses. For him, something extremely important had happened before Moses. This writer was concerned with the ruling family of Judah, David's family. He therefore emphasized the significance of God's covenant with the patriarchs. It was tied to the city of Hebron, David's first capital. It promised inheritance of the land from river to river. In other words, it promised what was realized under King David. For this purpose, the revelation to Abraham was itself a turning point in history. It was not to be regarded as inferior to the revelation to Moses or to the people at Sinai. To depict the Sinai revelation as the first covenant sealed with the name of God would be to diminish

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the importance of the covenant between God and the patriarchs. J therefore uses the name Yahweh throughout.

The Similarity of J and E
The question remains as to why so many similarities exist between J and E. They often tell similar stories. They deal largely with the same characters. They share much terminology. Their styles are sufficiently similar that it has never been possible to separate them on stylistic grounds alone. One possible explanation of this is that one of them is based on the other. Perhaps J, for example, was the Judean court account of the sacred national traditions, and so the northern Levites felt that it was necessary to produce their own national account because a legitimate kingdom should not be without such a document. Alternatively, the E document may have existed first, and the Judean court felt that it was necessary to produce its own version because the E treatment of Aaron, for example, was unsatisfactory. The point is that the E stories could hardly have been welcome in Judah on any one of a number of points; and the J stories, favoring Judah as they did, would hardly have been Israel's cup of tea either. The existence of either version in either kingdom would be likely to encourage the production of an alternative version in the other kingdom. The two versions, nonetheless, would be just that: versions, not completely unrelated works. They would still be drawing upon a common treasury of history and tradition because Israel and Judah had once been one united people, and in many ways they still were. They shared traditions of a divine promise to their ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They shared traditions of having been slaves in Egypt, of an exodus from Egypt led by a man named Moses, of an extraordinary revelation at a mountain in the wilderness, and of years of wandering before settling in the promised land. Neither, author was free to make up—or interested in making up—a completely new, fictional portrayal of history. In style as well, once one version was established as a document bearing sacred national traditions, the author of the second, alternate version might well have consciously (or perhaps even unconsciously) decided to imitate its style. If the style of the first had come to be accepted in people's minds as the proper, formal, familiar language of recounting sacred tradition in that period, it would be in the second version's interest to preserve that manner of expression. In the same way, the language and style of the United States Constitution are often imitated in the constitutions of the individual states because that language is understood to be the accepted, proper form in which to compose such a document. Another possible explanation for the stylistic similarity of J and E is that, rather than J's being based on E or E's being based on J, both may have been based on a common source that was prior to them. That is, there may have been an old, traditional cycle of stories about the patriarchs, exodus, etc. which both the authors of J and E used as a basis for their works. Such an original cycle would have been either written or an orally passed-down collection. In either case, once the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were established, the authors of E and J each adapted the collection to their respective concerns and purposes.

How Many Authors?
We can still be more specific about who these two persons were and when they lived. First there is the question of whether they really were only two persons. I have spoken of only one author of E and one author of J. Some scholars see J and E as each having been produced by groups, not individuals. They speak of J , J , J , etc., or they speak of a J school and an E school. I do not see how the evidence compels us to this analysis. On the contrary, J and E each appear to me to be unified and consistent in the texts as we have just reviewed them. Certainly an editor may have added a word or phrase or verse here or there, and the J or the E author may have inserted a received text occasionally. The author of J, for example, may not have written the deathbed Blessing of Jacob poem in Genesis 49. This author may simply have learned it, judged it to be suitable for the purpose, and inserted it into the J work. The overall J and E narratives, nonetheless, do not appear to me to require subdivision into even smaller units.
1 J 3

The Sex of the Authors
The author of E was almost certainly a male. We have seen how strong its connection is to the Levite priests of Shiloh. In ancient Israel the priesthood was strictly male. It is perhaps possible that a Levite wife or daughter

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could have shared these interests and written about them, but the dominantly male perspective and the concentration on male characters still suggests the likelihood of male authorship. Also, given that it was a patriarchal society and a male priesthood, it is doubtful that a document that was to have formal, sacred status would have been either commissioned or accepted at the hand of a woman. The case is much harder to judge with regard to J. Originating at—or at least reflecting the interests of—the Judean court, it came from a circle in which both men and women had a certain status. That is, even in a male-led society, women of the noble class may have more power, privileges, and education than males of a lower class. The possibility of J's being by a woman is thus much more likely than with E. More important, the J stories are, on the whole, much more concerned with women and much more sensitive to women than are the E stories. There really is nothing in E to compare with the J story of Tamar in Genesis 38. It is not just that the woman Tamar figures in an important way in the story. I t is that the story is sympathetic to a wrong done to this woman, it focuses on her plan to combat the injustice, and it concludes with the man in the story (Judah) acknowledging her rights and his own fault. This does not make the author a woman. But it does mean that we cannot by any means be quick to think of this writer as a man. The weight of the evidence is still that the scribal profession in ancient Israel was male, true, but that does not exclude the possibility that a woman might have composed a work that came to be loved and valued in that land.
21

When Did They Live?
When did these two people live and write? Since the J narrative refers to the dispersion of Simeon and Levi but not to the dispersion of the other tribes, its author almost certainly wrote it before the Assyrians destroyed and exiled Israel in 722 B.C. It might conceivably have been written as early as the reign of David or Solomon, but the emphasis on the importance of the ark and the command against molten gods sound like polemic against the kingdom of Israel. That means composition after the division of the kingdoms. Also, the J stories of Jacob and Esau reflect Edom's independence from Judah ("You shall break his yoke from your shoulders"). That occurred during the reign of the Judean king Jehoram, 848-842 B.C. This would put the author of J between 848 and 722. The author of E composed in Israel, which stood from 922 to 722 B.C. It is difficult to narrow it much further within this period."
22

The most important point is that both J and E were written before the Assyrians destroyed Israel. At that time, the Assyrians carried out a deportation of the Israelite population. Also, there would of course have been many Israelites who fled south to Judah as refugees. The City of David archeological excavations in Jerusalem confirm that the population of Jerusalem grew substantially in this period. The likely historical scenario is that the E text came to Judah in this flow of people and events. Levites fleeing the Assyrians would hardly leave their valuable documents behind. The assimilation of recently arrived Israelites into the Judean population after 722 B.C. need not have presented insurmountable difficulties in itself. The Israelites and the Judeans were kin. They spoke the same language: Hebrew. They worshiped the same God: Yahweh. They shared ancestral traditions of the patriarchs and historical traditions of exodus and wilderness. But what were they to do with two documents, each purporting to recount sacred national traditions, but emphasizing different persons and events—and occasionally contradicting each other? The solution, apparently, was to combine them.

The Combination of J and E
One might ask why the person or persons responsible for this did not simply exclude one or the other. Why not just make E, or more probably J, the accepted text and reject or ignore the other version? A common answer to this question is that the biblical community had too great a respect for the written word to ignore a received document that bore the stamp of antiquity. The problem with this view is that neither J nor E is complete in the text as we have it anyway. The editor(s) clearly were not averse to applying scissors and paste to their received texts. It is therefore difficult to argue that they retained texts that they did not want simply out of reverence for documents that had been passed down. A more probable reason why both J and E were retained is that both of them may have become sufficiently well known that one simply could not get away with excluding one or the other. One could not tell the story of the events at Sinai without referring to the golden calf incident, for example, because someone in the audience (especially a former northerner) would remember the story and protest. One could not tell the story of Abraham without telling the story of the

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events at Hebron, because someone else in the audience (especially someone from Hebron) would object. To whatever extent J and E narratives had become known by this time, to that extent it was necessary to preserve both. One may ask then: why combine them at all? Why not just preserve both ] and E separately? Why were they cut and combined in the manner that we observed in, for example, the flood story? Presumably, because preserving J and E separately would challenge the authenticity of both. If both were to be kept side by side on the same shelf, that would be a reminder of the dual history that produced two alternate versions. And that would diminish the authoritative quality of each of them. In short, the editing of the two works into one was as much tied to the political and social realities of its day as the writing of the two had been in their days. The uniting of the two works reflected the uniting (better: the reuniting) of the two communities after two hundred years of division. There is still much to be discovered about who wrote J and E. We do not know the precise dates when they lived, and we do not know their names. I think that what we do know is more important. We know something about their world and about how that world produced these stories that still delight and teach us. Still, we may be dissatisfied until we can be more specific about the writers. So let me turn to source D. We can know even more about the person who assembled it than about those who wrote J and E—perhaps even his name.

Change
WHEN the Assyrian empire destroyed the kingdom o f Israel in 722, the world that had produced ] and E ended forever. Judah, now left without its sister-companion-rival, changed. The political change also meant economic and social change and, as always, religious change. And that meant changes in the way the Bible would come out as well. The land and the people were different after 722. The land was smaller. The kings of Judah ruled a territory that was about half the size of the united Israelite kingdom that David and Solomon had ruled. There was a different sort of international politics. Judah now operated from a position of weakness. It was an age of great empires in Mesopotamia: first Assyria and then Babylonia. And these empires were capable of, and interested in, conquest in the west. Subjugating Judah meant income (spoils initially, tribute thereafter), control of a trade route between Africa and Asia, and strategic placement on Egypt's doorstep. (See the map, p. 303.) The new international politics had an impact on religion as well. When a small kingdom became a vassal to a large empire, the vassal state might place statues of the empire's gods in their temple. It was a symbol of the vassal's acceptance of the empire's hegemony. In modern times, the equivalent would be that a small subject nation would have to fly the flag of a nation that subjugated it. But an idol is not quite the same as a flag. Periods when Assyria dominated Judah often meant religious conflict in Jerusalem. The king of Judah would honor a pagan god in the Temple, and then Judean prophets would attack him for promoting idolatry. A modern historian would say that the Judean king was accepting Assyria's suzerainty. But the biblical historian, who told history from a religious point of view, would say that the king "did what was bad in the eyes of Yahweh." Another difference in life in Judah was that the fall of Israel was a fact, a specter to be reckoned with. Different Judeans (and refugee Israelites) may have interpreted it in different ways, but no one could ignore its implications, politically or religiously. To some, the fact that Israel fell and Judah stood showed that Judah was better, ethically or in terms of fidelity to Yahweh. To others, it showed that it was possible to fall, and this was a warning to Judah. Presumably, it would be harder to laugh off a prophet who predicted the fall of Judah after the catastrophe of 722. The king's power and stature were diminished. David's descendants on the throne in Jerusalem were, most of the time, vassals to the emperors of Assyria or Babylonia. They were at all times dependent on the flow of events among the great powers—Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt—rather than being major political forces in their own region, much less in the ancient Near East as a whole. Even during the days of the divided kingdoms, Judah and Israel had each seen periods of strength in the region, but very little of that remained now that Assyria's shadow extended to the Mediterranean Sea. Other roles changed. There was no more role at all after 722 for tribal leaders. For virtually all intents and purposes, there were no more tribes. As for the priests, it is difficult to say if there was rivalry among priestly groups in Judah (like the rivalry in Israel) prior to 722. After 722, though, any influx of northern Levites would have brought new issues, balances, and competitions among the priestly houses. There was one more new factor after 722: the presence of JE, the combined narrative of the nation's sacred recollections. This work itself was to play a part in the creation of other works. There was also one other book in Judah now that was going to play a part in this story.

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King Hezekiah
Political events and religious events continued to have an impact on one another. King Hezekiah ruled Judah from around 715 to 687. According to the biblical books of Isaiah, 2 Kings, and 2 Chronicles, he carried out a religious and political reform. We have archeological evidence that confirms and adds to this picture. Hezekiah's religious reform apparently included the elimination of various forms of religious practice other than the sanctioned worship at the Temple in Jerusalem. The political reform included rebellion against Assyria and an attempt to extend Judah's control over areas that had been part of the now defunct kingdom of Israel and over Philistine cities. Both the religious and the political actions had enormous consequences for the country's historical fate and for the Bible. The religious reform meant more than breaking idols and cleansing the Temple. It also meant destroying the places of worship of Yahweh outside of the Temple in Jerusalem. In addition to the Temple, there had been various local places where people could go to sacrifice to God. These places of worship in the local communities were called "high places." Hezekiah eliminated them. He promoted the centralization of the religion at the Temple in Jerusalem. In order to understand why this made such a big difference, one must know something about sacrifice in the biblical world. The function of sacrifice is one of the most misunderstood matters in the Bible. Modern readers often take it to mean the unnecessary taking of animal life, or they believe that the person who offered the sacrifice was giving up something of his or her own in order to compensate for some sin or perhaps to win God's favor. In the biblical world, however, the most common type of sacrifice was for meals. The apparent rationale was that if humans wanted to eat meat they had to recognize that they were taking life. They could not regard this as an ordinary act of daily secular life. It was a sacred act, to be performed in a prescribed manner, by an appointed person (a priest), at an altar. A portion of the sacrifice (a tithe) was given to the priest. This applied to all meat meals (but not fish or fowl). The centralization of religion meant that if you wanted to eat lamb you could not sacrifice your sheep at home or at a local sanctuary. You had to bring the sheep to the priest at the Temple altar in Jerusalem. This also would mean a sizable gathering of Levite priests at Jerusalem, which was now the only sanctioned location where they could conduct the sacrifices and receive their tithes. It also meant considerable distinction and power for the High Priest in Jerusalem and for the priestly family from which he came. This idea of centralizing religion around one temple and one altar was an important step in the development of Judah's religion, and over two thousand years later it became an important clue in unraveling who wrote the Bible. There was one more item in Hezekiah's religious reform worth special mention. According to the book of 2 Kings, there was a bronze snake in Judah that was reputed to have been made by Moses himself. This corresponds to a story that appears in the E source. In that story, the people speak against God and Moses in the wilderness. God sends poisonous snakes that bite and kill many of the people. The people repent. God tells Moses to make a bronze snake and set it on a pole. Then, whenever an Israelite is bitten by a snake, he or she is to look at the bronze snake and will be healed. The association of Moses and the snake in E is doubly interesting because recently a small bronze snake was uncovered archeologically in Midian. Midian is Moses' wife's home, and he is associated with the Midianite priesthood through his fatherin-law, Jethro, the M i - dianite priest. Now, according to 2 Kings, King Hezekiah smashed the bronze snake that Moses had made, because the children of Israel were burning incense to it until those days. How could Hezekiah dare to destroy a five-hundred-year-old relic that was regarded as having been made by Moses himself? If the people were acting improperly by burning incense to i t , why could he not forbid them to do so, or put it away in the Temple or palace? The answer to this will be tied to the search for two of the authors of the Bible.
1 2

Hezekiah's political action, rejecting Assyria's suzerainty, brought a massive military response. Assyria's emperor, Sennacherib, brought a huge force to bring Judah to its knees. He was largely successful, but not entirely. The Assyrians captured the Judean fortress of Lachish in a powerful military assault that was not unlike the famous Roman capture of Masada eight hundred years later. Lachish was situated on a high mound commanding the area (see the map, page 302), and the Assyrians constructed a ramp out of huge stones leading up the side of the mound to the very doorstep of Lachish. The excavations of Lachish which are now in progress tell part of the story. The other side of the story comes from the excavations of Nineveh, the capital city of the Assyrian empire. The Assyrian emperor decorated the walls of the palace there with depictions of the battle of Lachish. The wall depictions, which are impressive both in size and in artistic skill, are among the few known depictions of what Jews looked like in biblical times. They are now located in the British Museum, and there are casts of them in the Israel Museum. Together these two archeological sources, Nineveh and Lachish, tell of the Assyrians' extraordinary might and determination. Nevertheless, the Assyrians failed to bring down the kingdom of Judah as

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they had brought down Israel. The showdown between the Assyrians and Judeans (or Jews) at Jerusalem is of special interest because it is one of the very rare cases in which we have both biblical and archeological witness to the same event. The biblical account of what happened appears in three places in the Bible.' The Assyrian account appears in a document that was found in the excavations of Nineveh, the Prism Inscription of Sennacherib. It is called the Prism Inscription because it is an eightsided clay stele. On its eight sides, Sennacherib inscribed his account of his military campaigns. The inscription is in Akkadian, the dominant language of Mesopotamia in that era. It is written in cuneiform script. It is now located in the British Museum. We are thus in the very rare position of having each side's version of what happened: the Judean view from inside the besieged walls of Jerusalem, and the Assyrians' view from the other side of the walls. The biblical report concludes: And it was, that night, that an angel of Yahweh went out and struck one hundred eighty-five thousand in the Assyrian camp, and they rose in the morning and here they were all dead corpses. And Sennacherib traveled and went and returned, and he lived in Nineveh.
4

Thus the Bible reports that Jerusalem, under King Hezekiah, was saved from Assyrian capture and possible destruction. Now here is a translation of the relevant portion of the Sennacherib Prism Inscription:
5

And Hezekiah the Judean, who did not submit to my yoke: I besieged and captured forty-six of his strong walled cities, and the small cities of their environs which were without number, by the spanning of a ramp, the approach of siege machines, the battling of infantry, breaches, breaks and stormladders. 200,150 people, small and great, male and female, horses, asses, mules, camels, oxen, and sheep and goats without number I brought out from them and I counted as spoil. Himself, I locked him up like a caged bird in the midst of Jerusalem, his royal city. I connected siegeworks against him so that I turned those going out of his city gate into a taboo for him. I cut off" the cities that I despoiled from the midst of his land, and I gave them to Mitinti King of Ashdod, Padi King of Ekron, and Silli-Bel King of Gaza, so that I diminished his land. To the former tribute I added and fixed against him the giving of their annual tribute, greeting-gifts of my lordship. The fear of the splendor of my majesty overcame Hezekiah, and the Arabs and crack troops that he had brought in for the strengthening of Jerusalem his royal city ceased working. He sent a heavy tribute and his daughters and his harem and singers, together with thirty talents of gold, eight hundred talents of silver, choice antimony, blocks of stone, ivory couches, ivory armchairs, elephant hides, ivory, ebony, boxwood, and all sorts of things to the midst of Nineveh, my lordly city, and he sent his ambassadors for the giving of tribute and the performance of vassal service. On the face of i t , these two reports from the ancient Near East sound as contradictory as reports from the modern Near East. The Bible says that the Assyrians went home after an angel struck much of the army dead. The Prism Inscription says that the Assyrians were victorious and took home a handsome tribute. What can we do to get at the event behind these two versions? We are not in a position to determine the historicity of a report of the activity of an angel. Nor is the Assyrian spoil available for us to count. We can, though, examine what the two reports share. Sennacherib claims in the first two sentences that he captured many of the fortified cities of the Judean countryside. The biblical account acknowledges this in 2 Kings 18:13. It says: And in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib King of Assyria went up against all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them. There is no contradiction here between our sources regarding the initial military successes. The question is what happened in the siege of Jerusalem. The key line in Sennacherib's inscription is his claim that he kept King Hezekiah "locked up liked a caged bird in the midst of Jerusalem his royal city." This wording is suspicious. The function of a siege elsewhere (such as at Lachish) is not to keep one's enemy "locked up." The idea of a siege, rather, is to get in. The fact is that Sennacherib does not claim to have captured Jerusalem. He rather appears to be saving face by the "caged bird" image and by concentrating on the quantity of tribute paid. Perhaps the siege was a standoff in which the Assyrians were unable to take the city and the Judeans were unable to leave i t . The Judeans paid a sum that the Assyrians extracted as the price of their withdrawal. The book of 2 Kings in fact reports that Sennacherib had initially demanded a sum of thirty talents of gold and three hundred talents of silver, and the biblical text is not completely clear as to whether Hezekiah was in fact able to raise the full amount. This is close enough to Sennacherib's claim of receiving thirty talents of gold and eight hundred of silver that we can believe that some such transaction took place. Jerusalem's ability to withstand the siege owed partly to its excellent strategic position on a hill looking down over a valley from
6

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which the Assyrians would have to attack up. Another crucial factor for siege warfare was the water supply. Hezekiah constructed a tunnel under the city to provide water from the spring below. Hezekiah's tunnel, an important architectural achievement in its time, is now open to the public as part of the City of David excavations in Jerusalem The point of this is that the reign of King Hezekiah in Judah was a turning point in history. In the face of Assyria's power, Israel had fallen and Judah had survived—albeit as a tributary to Assyria. Though the Judean countryside had suffered, Jerusalem had withstood Assyria's siege. Jerusalem's population grew in this period. It became the only sanctioned religious center in the country. From all of Judah, people had to bring their sacrifices there, and so there would have been a great flow of livestock and produce to the city.
7

The End of the Reform
Hezekiah's son and grandson who ruled after him in Jerusalem did not follow in his footsteps. Perhaps they were not able to. Assyrian forces returned to Judah during the reign of Hezekiah's son Manasseh. According to biblical reports, the Assyrians even imprisoned King Manasseh for some period of time in Babylon. (The Assyrian emperor's brother ruled Babylon at that time.) Whether because of Assyrian insistence, domestic pressures, or religious conviction, Manasseh and his son Amon reintroduced pagan worship in Judah, including pagan statues in the Temple. They also rebuilt the high places, the sacrificial locations outside of Jerusalem, thus ending Hezekiah's religious centralization. King Amon's reign was cut short by assassination. He became king at the age of twenty-two and was murdered at twenty-four. His son Josiah became king of Judah. Josiah was eight years old.

King Josiah
We do not know who governed the country or who influenced the king until he came of age. Perhaps a member of the royal family or a priest acted as regent. According to the reports of the books of Kings and Chronicles, in an earlier case of an underage king (King Joash, who became king at the age of three), the High Priest served as regent. There may well have been priestly influences in Josiah's case as well, because when he became old enough to rule he did a turnabout from his father's and grandfather's religious policies. He behaved more like his great-grandfather Hezekiah. Like Hezekiah he instituted a religious reform. Like Hezekiah he smashed idols, cleansed the Temple, and extended his sphere of influence into the territory that had been the kingdom of Israel before 722. Like Hezekiah he centralized the religion at Jerusalem. Once again the local high places were destroyed. The people were required to bring all sacrifices to the one central altar at the Temple. The priests from all the high places were brought to Jerusalem to work at second-level jobs beside the Temple priests. In addition to the human influences on Josiah—including the court and priestly circle, the domestic and international political forces around him—there was one other thing that influenced his reform: a book. According to the biblical historians, in the eighteenth year of Josiah's reign, 622 B.C., Josiah received word from his scribe Shaphan that the priest Hilkiah had found a "scroll of the torah" in the Temple of Yahweh. When Shaphan read the text of this book that Hilkiah had found to the king, King Josiah tore his clothes, a sign of extreme anguish in the ancient Near East. He consulted a prophetess concerning its meaning, and then he held a giant national ceremony of renewal of the covenant between God and the people. According to one of the biblical sources, Josiah's destruction of the high places followed the reading of this book. Josiah also destroyed the altar at Beth-El where one of King Jeroboam's golden calves had once stood. This religious act was also a political act. It blatantly expressed the Judean monarch's interest in the land that had once been the kingdom of Israel. What was this book? Why did it inspire acts of religious reform? Who was the priest Hilkiah? Where had the book been before he found it? The identity of that book and its author is the subject of the next chapter. First, though, it is necessary to know more about the world of King Josiah and his successors on the throne of David. An important change was taking place in international politics. The Assyrian empire was weaker, and Babylon was threatening to replace it as the major power of the Near East. Perhaps it was As- Syria's weakness that made it possible for Josiah to behave so independently. Egypt, meanwhile, became an ally of its old rival Assyria against the rising power of Babylonia and others. When the Egyptian army passed through Judah on its way to support the Assyrians, Josiah went out to confront the Egyptians at Megiddo. A n Egyptian arrow killed him. He was only forty at the time.
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The Last Years of Judah
Josiah's early death meant an early end to his country's political independence and religious reform. The high places were rebuilt. Three of his sons and one grandson ruled in the next twenty-two years. A l l started young and did not reign for long. The first, Jehoahaz, ruled for three months. Then the Egyptian king overpowered him, dethroned him, carried him to Egypt, and placed his brother, Jehoiakim, on the throne in his place. Jehoiakim, an Egyptian vassal, ruled for eleven years. Then the Babylonians, who had meanwhile brought the Assyrian empire to an end, overpowered him. He died during the Babylonian campaign against Judah. His son, Jehoiachin, succeeded him and ruled for three months, long enough to be captured and dethroned by the Babylonians. The Babylonian emperor, Nebuchadnezzar, exiled Jehoiachin to Babylon along with thousands of other Judeans: the upper class, military leaders, artists; i.e., those who could be threatening in Judah or useful in Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar placed another of Josiah's sons, Zedekiah, on the throne. Zedekiah, a Babylonian vassal, ruled for eleven years. Around his ninth year, he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar. The Babylonian army returned and destroyed Jerusalem. They exiled thousands more of the population to Babylon. The last thing that Zedekiah saw was the death of his children. Nebuchadnezzar executed Zedekiah's sons in front of him and then blinded him. In this horrible manner, King David's family's rule in Jerusalem ended. Nebuchadnezzar placed no more members of this family on the throne. Instead he appointed a Jewish governor, Gedaliah son of Ahikam son of Shaphan. Note that he is the grandson of Shaphan, the man who had reported to King Josiah the finding of the "scroll of the torah" years earlier. Josiah was a king who had opposed the Assyrians and the Egyptians, which is to say that he would be perceived as pro-Babylonian. The Shaphan family, too, had a record over at least three generations of being part of a pro-Babylonian party in Judah. This party included the famous prophet Jeremiah as well. The biblical book of Jeremiah speaks well of King Josiah but not of his successors on the throne. Shaphan, Jeremiah, or Gedaliah might have described themselves simply as pro-Judah, but the fact remained that they favored an anti-Assyrian king and spoke against opposing the Babylonians. And so Nebuchadnezzar would have perceived them as pro-Babylonian. Nebuchadnezzar therefore made Gedaliah, a member of this party, his local governor. This was an overwhelming affront to the house of David. Two months later, a relative of that family assassinated Gedaliah. This left the remaining population of Judah in an impossible position. Nebuchadnezzar, the great emperor, had left his handpicked governor in charge. His governor had been assassinated. The people of Judah could only feel terrified at the emperor's possible response. There appeared to be only one place where they could go that was outside his grasp: Egypt. The books of 2 Kings and Jeremiah report that virtually the entire population that was left in Judah fled as refugees to Egypt. It was an extraordinary and ironic fate for a people who, according to their own traditions, had started as slaves there. The year in which Nebuchadnezzar captured and burned Jerusalem was 587 B.C. That year therefore stands as another turning point in the destiny of the people of Israel-Judah. The city was destroyed, the population was exiled as captives in Babylonia or as refugees in Egypt, their Temple was destroyed, the ark was lost, which is a mystery to this day, their four-hundred-year-old royal family was dethroned, and their religion was about to face perhaps the greatest challenges it had ever known. The biblical world's landmarks seem to be its disasters. The historical junctures that begin and end this chapter are the fall of Israel in 722 and the fall of Judah in 587. Perhaps this tells us more about the perceptions of modern historians than about the biblical world. Or perhaps it tells us that great historical crises played critical roles in the formation of the Bible. In any case, we should still note that the years between 722 and 587 were not unceasingly bleak. These were times of powerful persons and great events, of the rise and fall of great empires. This period included times of hope and vision, especially, it appears, during Hezekiah's and Josiah's reigns. These times produced an Isaiah, a Jeremiah, and an Ezekiel. Precisely in this age of empires in conflict, of rebellions, of violence, and of cruelty, a man conceived of an era when They witt beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning'hooks. A nation will not raise a sword against a nation, and they will not learn war anymore.
9

In this age, among these persons and events, a biblical writer would be expected to conceive of his kings, his people, and his God differently from the way writers saw these things in the days of David, Solomon, and Jeroboam. One writer who lived in this age assembled a history of his people form Moses to the writer's own day. As with the authors of J and E, the world in which this writer lived had an impact on the story that he told and on the way in which he told i t .

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D
WE have learned that someone fashioned Deuteronomy and the next six books of the Bible as one continuous work. And we have learned that the person who fashioned this work was someone who lived during the reign of King Josiah. The original edition of the work told the story from Moses to Josiah. In order to figure out who this author-editor of Deuteronomy and the next six books of the Bible was, it is necessary to look at what this person's work contained. It included, first of all, the code of laws at the core of the book of Deuteronomy.

The Contents of the Law Code
The law code takes up about half of the book, chapters 12-26. Its first law is the law of centralization of worship. It tells the worshiper that if he wants to eat meat he is not free simply to slaughter his sheep or cow himself. Rather, he must take the animal to the one approved place of worship, the "place where Yahweh sets his name," and there a consecrated priest will perform the slaughter at the altar. The only exception to this rule, according to Deuteronomy, is when someone lives too far from the official place to bring the animal there. Then he may slaughter the animal at home as long as he spills the blood onto the ground.
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The Deuteronomic law code also contains the "Law of the King." It requires that the king must be chosen by Yahweh (which presumably means designation by a prophet), that the king must not be a foreigner, that he must not acquire large numbers of horses, that he must not have many women (wives and concubines) nor great quantities of silver and gold, and he must write a copy of this law in front of the Levites and read it regularly.
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Deuteronomy's code of laws also contains prohibitions against practicing pagan religion. It contains instructions concerning prophets, especially false prophets. It deals with charity, justice, laws of family and community, holidays, dietary laws, laws concerning war, and a variety of laws on a wide range of matters from the treatment of slaves to agricultural matters to the practice of magic. Also, it regularly refers to the wellbeing of the Levites; it instructs the people to provide for the Levite. When it was Baruch Halpem's turn to present a paper to the Harvard Near East Department seminar in 1974, he presented research in which he attempted to find out from where this law code came. He asked first: did it come from someone in the royal court? Did Josiah or some other king have it written to serve his own political purposes? This seemed unlikely. After all it contains the Law of the King. This law says that the king "shall not multiply silver and gold for himself very much." Why would a king who is establishing a "pious fraud" law code for his own political advantage include a law saying that he cannot have a lot of money? The law also prohibits him from having many women or from acquiring many horses, and it requires him to write out a copy of the law in front of the Levite priests. Why would a king want to encumber himself with all these restrictions? The law code of Deuteronomy does not have the look of a book that was produced at the court. In fact, it contains material that relates to conditions that existed before there were any kings in Israel or Judah. An example of this is the group of laws of war that appears in Deuteronomy 20 and 21. These laws are concerned with the summoning of the people to battle. Before going into battle, judges are to make an announcement to the people: any man who has built a house but has not yet dedicated i t , or who has betrothed a woman but has not yet married her, should go home to his house or to his wife. He should not have to risk dying in war and leaving his new wife or his new home to be taken by someone else. It also exempts from conscription any man who is afraid. The man who is frightened should go home rather than weaken the spirit of others as well. The laws of war also state that after a military victory an Israelite is forbidden to rape a captured woman. The women of the group that has been defeated must be given time to mourn their lost family members, and then they may be taken as wives, or else they must be set free. Now, this group of laws of war assumes universal military conscription— i.e., a draft. It is referring to ordinary citizens who are being gathered into an army. There was in fact such a system of mustering the Israelite tribes' forces in the country's early years. In times of emergency, the Israelites were drafted for military service. With the rise of the monarchy, however, this sort of conscription was replaced by professional armies. The kings wanted to have standing professional forces who were responsible to the king, rather than to be obliged to turn to the tribes for support. The laws of war in the book of Deuteronomy, therefore, do not reflect the kings' interests. These laws rather suggest an early, nonmonarchic point of view. There are instructions regarding lawsuits in this law code that likewise appear to come from somewhere other than the palace. They give jurisdiction in legal matters to the Levites, not to the king or his appointees. The Levites, Israel's priestly tribe, seem to be a more likely group in which to look for

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the author of Deuteronomy than the royal courtiers. The book appears to be written in their interests at many points. It opens with the religious-centralization laws, which prohibit lay persons from doing their own sacrificing. It repeatedly requires the people to care for the Levite. It includes laws of religious tithes and offerings. It requires that the king write his copy of the law in front of the Levites. It declares the Levites to be the rightful priestly tribe. It regularly deals with this group's concerns. Most investigators, therefore, have related Deuteronomy's law code, in one way or another, to Levites.

Which Priests?
But which Levites? There had been several different priestly circles in Israel and Judah. In Jerusalem there was a priesthood that was identified as descendants of Aaron. At Beth-El there had been priests whom King Jeroboam had appointed. There were the Levites of the northern kingdom who had functioned at Shiloh. There were the rural Levites, local clergy who functioned at the various high places for most of Israel's and Judah's history. Halpern asked, to which priestly house and to which period could the search for the author of Deuteronomy's law code be narrowed down? It was not likely that the author would be found among the Jerusalem Temple priests. True, this group might have liked the idea of centralizing the religion at their Temple; but this group also was Aaronid. They traced their lineage to Aaron, and they distinguished between Aaronids and all other Levites. The law code in Deuteronomy, however, makes no such distinction between Levite families, and it never even mentions the name Aaron. It also never refers to the ark, the cherubs, or any other religious implements that were housed in the Jerusalem Temple. It also never refers to the office of High Priest, and the High Priest of Jerusalem had been Aaronid ever since the day when King Solomon expelled the priest Abiathar and made the Aaronid priest Zadok the sole High Priest. The law code of Deuteronomy thus does not represent the point of view of the Aaronid priests of any period. The laws do not reflect the views of the priests who functioned at Beth-El during the two hundred years between Jeroboam and the fall of Israel in 722 either. Those priests were not Levites. Deuteronomy's laws favor the Levites and regard only Levites as legitimate priests. The author of the Deuteronomic law code did not come from the rural Levites either. The first and perhaps foremost law of the code is the centralizatipri of the religion, the requirement that all sacrifices be brought^toone central altar. This was the law that put the rural Levites c>ut of business. It meant the destruction of the high places at which they functioned. The Deuteronomic law code shows concern/ for such Levites; it instructs the people to care for them. But it does not enfranchise them. That is, it does not allow them to be official priests, presiding over the sacrifices at the central place of worship. The person who wrote Deuteronomy's laws certainly did not represent this group's interests.

The Priests of Shiloh
The place to look for the author of Deuteronomy, therefore, was in a group (1) that wanted centralization of religion, but not tied to the ark or to the Jerusalem priesthood; (2) that cared about all Levites' livelihood, but would enfranchise only a group of central Levites; (3) that accepted having a king, but wanted limitations on his rule; (4) that had a premonarchy approach to matters of war. This sounds like the priests of Shiloh—the same group that produced E. The priests of Shiloh believed in centralization of worship, because Shiloh had once been the national religious center, in the days of Samuel. They did not relate centralization to the ark or to the Jerusalem priesthood, because their leader Abiathar had been expelled from Jerusalem by Solomon, and ever since then the Jerusalem priesthood had been Aaronid. They insisted that only Levites were legitimate priests, for they themselves were Levites, and they had been preempted by non- Levites at Beth-El. They had good reason to urge the people to care for needy Levites, because they were needy Levites, without land or employment. They accepted having a king, since their leader Samuel had designated and anointed the first two kings of Israel. They wanted limitations on royal rule, since Samuel's acceptance of the monarchy had been reluctant, and King Solomon and King Jeroboam had treated them badly. They took a premonarchy approach to war, preferring the tribal musters to a professional army, because it was with the rise of professional armies that the kings had become independently powerful and no longer had to depend on the people for support. At least the law code of Deuteronomy, then, was probably

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written by someone connected to the priests of Shiloh. It need not have been written as a pious fraud shortly before its discovery by Hilkiah. It reflected the interests of the Shiloh priests at just about any time after the division of Israel and Judah. Other investigators before Halpem had said that Deuteronomy might have been written in Israel before the Assyrian destruction of the kingdom, and then brought south to Judah in 722. But, Halpern asked, what did "brought south to Judah" mean? If the law code of Deuteronomy was really written by an out-of-power group of priests in a kingdom that was then destroyed, how did this document find its way into the Temple in Judah? How did it become the law of the land? It was necessary to trace the fate of this scroll and to see what was done with it. It turned out that the Shiloh connection was strengthened by investigation of how the law code came to be in the middle of Deuteronomy. This also led to discovering the identity of the Deuteronomist himself.

The Shiloh Connection
The Deuteronomistic historian took the law code and added an introduction. The introduction, Deuteronomy 1-11, says that this is the last speech of Moses. It then pictures Moses as reviewing the main events of his forty years with the people. Then the Deuteronomistic writer pictured Moses as giving them the law code, euteronomy 12-26, and added a list of blessings and curses, for fidelity or infidelity to the code respectively, in Deuteronomy 27-28. Then he added a conclusion, picturing Moses' last words and acts. Moses encourages the people. He writes "this toran" on a scroll. He gives it to the Levites. He tells them to put it next to the ark. And then he dies. The Deuteronomistic historian writer then set Deuteronomy at the beginning of the history that flows through the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. And then he wrote the climactic finish: the priest Hilkiah finds the scroll, and King Josiah fulfills it. How did this strengthen the Shiloh connection? Because the Deuteronomistic historian turned out to be connected with the priests of Shiloh himself. First, the Deuteronomistic historian seems to have had the same unadmiring attitude toward the Aaronid priesthood that the Shiloh priests had. In his introduction and conclusion to the book of Deuteronomy, he mentioned Aaron only twice: once to say that he died, and once to say that God was mad enough to destroy him in the matter of the golden calf. The Deuteronomist also added a gratuitous allusion to the case of snow-white Miriam, another story in which Aaron had acted badly and God had been angry at h i m .
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Second, the Deuteronomist—and his hero King Josiah—shared the Shilonite priests' antipathy toward Solomon and Jeroboam, the two kings who had removed the Shilonites from authority. In the case of Solomon, the historian said that Solomon went wrong in his old age, that he turned to pagan religion, that he followed the Sidonian goddess Ashtoreth, the Moabite god Chemosh, and the Ammonite god Milcom, and that he built high places to these deities on a hill opposite Jerusalem. Then the historian reported at the end of the history that part of Josiah's reform was to eliminate these very high places. His language made it clear that he meant to picture Solomon's acts in the worst light possible. He wrote that Josiah defiled the high places that were opposite Jerusalem... that Solomon King of Israel had built to Ashtoreth, the Sidonians' disgusting thing, and to Chemosh, the disgusting thing of Moab, and to Milcom, the Ammonites' abomination.
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So much for Solomon. The Deuteronomist also wrote critically about Jeroboam's religious building activities, namely the golden calf high places of Dan and Beth-El, and he reported that Josiah destroyed at least the BethEl high place as well.
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The priests of Shiloh could not have asked for more from Josiah. He was righting the wrongs that had been done to them three centuries earlier. And the Deuteronomistic historian was picturing this king as the culmination of three centuries of history.

Jeremiah
There was one other person who was connected with King Josiah and with the Deuteronomistic history. This person's association with them further confirmed the Shiloh connection, and it brought us a step closer to knowing the Deuteronomist's identity. The person was the prophet Jeremiah. According to the book of Jeremiah, this prophet admired King Josiah and began his ministry as a prophet during Josiah's reign.
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According to the book of Chronicles, Jeremiah composed a lamentation for Josiah when he was killed. Jeremiah was connected with Josiah's counselors who were involved with "the book of the torah." Recall that Hilkiah the priest had discovered the book, and Shaphan the scribe had carried it to King Josiah and read it to him. When Jeremiah sent a letter to the exiles in Babylon, it was delivered for him by Gemariah, son of Hilkiah, and by Elasah, son of Shaphan." When Jeremiah wrote a scroll of prophecies against Josiah's son Jehoiakim, it was read at the chamber of Gemariah, son of Shaphan. Gemariah, son of Shaphan, stood by Jeremiah at critical moments in his life, as did Ahikam, son of Shaphan, who saved Jeremiah from being stoned." And Gedaliah, son W Ahikam, son of Shaphan, when he was appointed governor of \ludah by Nebuchadnezzar, took Jeremiah under his protection, y Jeremiah was somehow tied to Josiah and to the book of the torah. What does this have to do with the Shiloh connection?
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First of all, Jeremiah is the one prophet in the Bible to refer to Shiloh (four times).

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Second, he calls Shiloh "the place where I [God] caused my name to dwell," which is the Deuteronomic term for the central place of worship.
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Third, the last thing that we heard about the Shiloh priesthood was that their leader, Abiathar, who had been one of David's two chief priests, was expelled from Jerusalem by Solomon. Solomon banished Abiathar to his family estate in the town of Anathoth, which to this day is a small village outside of Jerusalem. In Anathoth, Abiathar presumably could be observed and kept out of trouble, because it was a town of Aaronid priests.
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What is jhe connection between the last Shiloh leader's ending up in Anathoth, on the one hand, and Jeremiah and the book that Hilkiah found, on the other? The first verse of the book of Jeremiah is: The words of Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah, of the priests who were in Anathoth. Jeremiah, the prophet who favored Josiah, and who was close to the people who discovered the torah, and who referred to Shiloh as the great central place of old, was a priest from Anathoth. And his father was a priest named Hilkiah. (Not to overstate the case, we do not know if Jeremiah's father was the same priest Hilkiah who found the book.) And the residents of Anathoth, an Aaronid city, were hostile toward Jeremiah.
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Jeremiah is a priest, but he never sacrifices—which is also consistent with the position of the priests of Shiloh. Also, he is the only prophet to allude to the story of Moses' bronze snake. The story of that snake comes from E, the Shiloh source. King Hezekiah had smashed that snake. His destruction of an old relic that was associated with Moses himself was probably a blow to the priests of Shiloh. They were the ones who told its story, they held Moses in particularly great esteem, and they may have been Moses' descendants. King Josiah, on the other hand, who was the darling of the Shiloh priests, had a different record on the bronze snake. The term in Hebrew for the bronze snake was "Nehushtan." Josiah married his son to a woman who may have been connected with the Shiloh circle, because she was named Nehushta. I would add to Halpern's observations that not only is Jeremiah the only prophet to refer to Shiloh and to allude to Moses' bronze snake; he is also the only prophet to refer to Samuel, the priestprophet- judge who was the greatest figure in Shiloh's history. Jeremiah speaks of Samuel alongside Moses as the two great men of the people's history.
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There is one more thing connecting the prophet Jeremiah to Deuteronomy and the events surrounding it, and it is probably the strongest evidence of all. As many readers, both traditional and critical, have observed, the book of Jeremiah seems to be written, at several points, in the same language and outlook as Deuteronomy. Parts of Jeremiah are so similar to Deuteronomy that it is hard to believe that they are not by the same person. Just to give a few examples: Deuteronomy And it will be, if you really listen to Yahweh's voice... (Deut 28:1) Jeremiah

And it will be, if you really listen to me, says Yah w e h . . . (J er 17:24) Circumcise the foreskin of your heart... (Deut 10:16) Be circumsised for Yahweh and take away the foreskins of your heart... (Jer 4:4)

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. . . to all the host of the . . . heavens... (Deut 4:19; 17:3) . . . and he brought you out of the iron furnace, from Egypt . . . (Deut 4:20)

to all the host of the heavens... (Jer 8:2; 19:13)

. . . in the day I brought them out from the land of Egypt, from the iron furnace... (Jer 11:4) With all your heart and with all your soul... (Deut 4:29; 10:12; 11:13; 13:4) . . . With all my heart and with all my soul... (Jer 32:41) On the weight of this collection of evidence, Halpern concluded that Deuteronomy's law code came from the Levitical priests of Shiloh. The evidence also indicated that this group was connected with the full Deuteronomistic history, comprising seven books of the Bible, as well as the book of Jeremiah—or at least part of i t .

E a n dD
Halpern's investigations on D and mine on E came out complementing one another. We each had identified a biblical source with the same group: the priests of Shiloh. And the fact is that these two sources, E and D, have many things in common. They both refer to the mountain where Moses and the people go in the wilderness as Horeb (as opposed to J and P, which call it Sinai). They both use the crucial expression "place where Yahweh sets his name" (or "causes his name to be mentioned," or "causes his name to dwell"). (The expression does not occur in J or P.) They both regard Moses as good, and more than good. He is at a turning point in history and singularly crucial to it. His personality is carefully and extensively developed. (There is nothing omparable inJorP.) They both place great emphasis on the role of prophets—which makes sense, given that their heroes included such figures as Moses, Samuel, Ahijah, and later Jeremiah. (The very word "prophet" occurs only once in P and never in J.) They both favor and support the Levites. (In J. the Levites are dispersed as recompense for Levi's having massacred the people of Shechem; in P, the Levites are separate from, and lower than, the Aaronid family of priests.) They both regard Aaron as bad, referring to his role in the golden calf episode and to the snow-white Miriam episode. (Neither of these is mentioned in J or P.)
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The Priests of Shiloh
The laws and stories of D, therefore, were as tied to the life of the biblical world as J and E were. They expressed the convictions and the hopes of an old and distinguished priestly family through generations of frustration. And, in the later parts (Dtr ) , they reflected a happy day when, through King Josiah, some members of that family finally returned to positions of authority and respect. One might ask: could the Shilonite priests really have maintained their identity through three hundred years of being out of power and without a major religious center? Answer: yes. This has happened with families, especially politically active families, in many countries at various times in history. Indeed, there are families who trace their lineage to the biblical priests or Levites to this day, even though these groups have been out of power for nineteen hundred years. I f anything, the priestly families of biblical Israel and Judah would have been even more conscious of lineage^ecause the priestly role itself was hereditary. M o r e o ^ ^ j l j e ^ h i l o h priests were very possibly Mushite—i.e., descended from Moses—and a family with such a famous, noble ancestor would be even more likely to be conscious of its heritage. \ Further, the particular fate of the Shilonite priests over those centuries can account for peculiarities of the sources. For example, the ark is not mentioned in E or in the Deuteronomic law code, both of which were written when the Shilonite priests did not have access to the ark. But the ark is mentioned in the parts of Deuteronomy that were written during the reign of Josiah (Dtr ) , when the Shilonites did have access to the ark. The priests of Shiloh were apparently a group with a continuing literary tradition. They wrote and preserved texts over centuries:laws, stories, historical reports, and poetry.
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They were associated with scribes. They apparently had access to archives of preserved texts. Perhaps they maintained such archives themselves, in the same way that another out-of-power group of priests did at Qumran centuries later. The Qumran archives, known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, were the Qumran group's collection of laws, stories, and poetry; and i t , too, included a code of laws that would apply at such time that the Qumran group would return to a position of authority in Jerusalem: the Temple Scroll, which the archeologist Yigael Yadin recovered and published in 1977.

The Creation of the Deuteronomistic History
The Deuteronomistic historian, in the days of King Josiah, assembled his history out of the texts available to him. The beginning of his history was the book of Deuteronomy, and the conclusion was the story of Josiah. The way he handled the texts that came in between these also demonstrates the impact of the events of the ancient world on the way that the Bible's story came to be written. He took texts that told the story of his people's arrival in the land—the stories of Joshua, Jericho, and the conquest—and he added a few lines at the beginning and at the end to set the story in a certain light. This became the book of Joshua. He did the same with the next set of texts, which told the story of the people's early years in the land: the stories of Deborah, Gideon, and Samson. This became the book of Judges. Next he placed the stories of Samuel at Shiloh: the stories of Saul and of David, the first kings. This became the book of 1 Samuel. After that he set the Court History of David. That became the book of 2 Samuel. Then he took several texts that told the stories of the kings who came after David, and he assembled one continuous history out of them that went down to the time of his own king: Josiah. And that became the books of 1 and 2 Kings. I was able to establish this picture of his work by isolating the lines that he added to these archive texts. It is only possible to find them in the puzzle now by careful examination of wording, grammar, syntax, theme, and literary structure. I refer here only to those lines about which there is a relatively high degree of certainty. As a general rule we do not rush to call a line an insertion unless two or more of these clues are present. It is impressive to read these lines and see how he gave a shape and direction to six hundred years of history with just a few short insertions—short, but carefully worded and artfully inserted. The insertions in the book of Joshua are in God's first words to Joshua when he replaces Moses, in a passage concerning a national covenant ceremony that Joshua leads at Mt. Ebal, and in speeches that Joshua makes to the people at Shiloh before he dies. A l l of the inserted lines refer to the torah of Moses. They point out that Joshua read every word of it to the people and carved it in stone. They warn that the people's destiny in the land depends on how carefully they observe it.
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The insertion at the beginning of the book of Judges says that the people often failed to follow Yahweh, that they would turn to other gods, that Yahweh would then allow other peoples to overpower them, that they ^woujd then be sorry for their infidelity, and that Yahweh would then forgive them and provide a judge to save them. This pattern of infidelity-qefeat-repentance-forgiveness became a Leitmotif into which all the stories of the book of Judges then fit. The Deuteronomistic historian then added other short notices at subsequent locations in the book of Judges that demonstrated that this pattern was operative in history. That is, he noted that misfortunes that the people suffered were the result of their infidelity. * Thus the Deuteronomistic historian made it clear with only a small quantity of writing in Deuteronomy, Joshua, and Judges that (1) God had given the people instruction, (2) they had been warned that their fate depended on their fidelity to this instruction and (3) their subsequent history was the record of how well they fared when they heeded or failed to heed this warning. The Deuteronomist's insertions into the book of 1 Samuel were few but important. As in the book of Joshua, he placed them in communications that were made at important moments in history: in Samuel's speech to the people after the establishment of the ark, in Yahweh's instructions to Samuel to give the people a king, and in Samuel's speech to the people on the day of the inauguration of the monarchy. Each of these insertions involved the issue of the people's faithfulness to Yahweh alone.
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In 2 Samuel he made only one insertion, the promise of the Davidic covenant, that David and his descendants after him would hold the throne, eternally and urwonditionally. * In the books of Kings, his task was more complicated. He was not just inserting occasional lines into an otherwise continuous text. Rather, he had to fashion this section of his history out of several different texts from his archive. Apparently there was no single history of the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. There were only histories of one kingdom or the other. The Deuteronomist took one history of the kings of Israel and one history of the kings of Judah, and he sliced them up and wove them in between each other. For example, he tells the story of Asa, king of Judah. A t the end of it he turns to Israel and says, "Ahab, son of Omri, became king over Israel in the thirty-eighth year of Asa, king of Judah." Then he tells the story of Ahab, king of Israel, and at the end of it he turns back to Judah and says,
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"Jehoshaphat, son of Asa, became king over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab, king of Israel." And so on. He united the stories by beginning each with the formula "He did bad in the eyes of Yahweh" or "He did what was right in the eyes of Yahweh." And he only gave information that he regarded as relevant to his story about each king. For those readers who might want more facts, he referred them back to his sources, saying, for example, "And the rest of the acts of Ahab and all that he d i d . . . are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?" He was therefore not just recording annals. He was fashioning a history of his people, a history with a purpose and a message. He made the message clear with a few more insertions in these books. He inserted several more references to the Davidic covenant, some of which I quoted at the beginning of this chapter. They reemphasized the eternal and unconditional promise of this covenant, that David's family would always have a "holding" to rule, even if they did wrong. This was an important point for the Deuteronomist to develop. It enabled him to criticize the kings of Judah for wrongdoing and still be able to account for the historical fact that their family remained on the throne for hundreds of years.
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The Covenant
Modern investigators were confused over these insertions about the Davidic covenant. Sometimes the insertions reiterated this promise that the Davidic kings would rule forever, even if they sinned; but sometimes they seemed to be saying just the opposite, that the kings could rule only if they^id not sin. For example, the covenant promise in 2 Samuel 7 says explicitly that even if the king does wrong he keeps the throne: I shall chastise him with the rod of people and the lashes of humans if he does wrong, but my fidelity will not turn from h i m . . . . Your house and kingdom will be secure before you forever. Your throne will be established forever. But the covenant promise in 1 Kings 8:25 says that th£ king's tenure on the throne does depend on his behavior: There will not be cut off from you a man before me sitting on the throne of Israel only if your sons keep their way, to go before me as you went before me. How could the Deuteronomist insert lines that blatantly contradicted each other? Was the covenant conditional or unconditional? If we examine all of the passages that mention the Davidic covenant, we will find that all of the conditional passages spoke of the kings' holding the throne of Israel. A l l of the unconditional passages spoke of the kings' holding the throne. This petty difference of wording was not so petty to the writer. He had to deal with the historical fact that David's family started out ruling the whole united kingdom of Israel, but that they had lost all of i t except their own tribe of Judah. He therefore pictured the covenant promise to David to be partly conditional and partly unconditional. The throne of Judah in Jerusalem was unconditional. It was to belong to David's descen dants forever. But the throne of all Israel was to belong to them only if they were worthy. Which they were not. And so they lost i t . The Deuteronomistic writer added a slight, enigmatic twist on this point. When he pictured the prophet Ahijah of Shiloh taking the throne of Israel away from the Davidides and giving it to Jeroboam, he wrote that Ahijah says to Jeroboam: I shall give Israel to you. And I shall humble David's seed on account of this, but not for all time. Ahijah seems to be saying that the Davidic kings' loss of Israel will not last forever. And in fact King )osiah attempted to take back the northern territory of Israel. Again the events of the biblical world had an impact on the way a biblical author told the story. In this case, the political fortunes of the country affected the writer's formulation of the covenant between God and his anointed king, his messiah—which became one of the central elements of Judaism and Christianity. The man who assembled the Deuteronomistic history, like those who write J, E, and the Deuteronomic law code, was inextricably tied to the issues of the world around him, its moments of joy and its catastrophes. And those issues and events had an impact on the way he pictured God and history. Some would say that this makes this writer guilty of "pious fraud," making up a covenant between God and King David and concocting its terms to fit later events in history. It does not seem that way to me. The Deuteronomistic writer did not make up the Davidic covenant tradition himself. He only wrote about it. The tradition was much older than he was. Davidic covenant traditions appear in some biblical Psalms that were composed before the Deuteronomist ever picked up his q u i l l . Also, it is hard to imagine that the Deuteronomist could have gotten away with making up a Davidic covenant in 622 B.C. and claiming that it had been around for four hundred years without anyone's having heard of it. Who would have believed him? Rather, the process of writing history was more complex than that. The Deuteronomistic writer was governed by both events and tradition. His task was both to record history and to interpret history in the light of tradition.
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Giving Shape to History

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The Deuteronomistic historian developed other matters in the books of Kings besides David's covenant. A t several junctures he identified Jerusalem and its Temple as^the "place where Yahweh causes his name to dwell"—which is to say, ne, used the language of Deuteronomy's law code. In the law code the, expression "the place where Yahweh causes his name to dwell" refers to the one central place where all sacrifice is supposed to take place. The Deuteronomistic historian made it clear that the Temple m Jerusalem had become that place. He also added more references to the torah. And so he shaped his history of his people around the themes of (1) fidelity to Yahweh, (2) the Davidic covenant, (3) the centralization of religion at the Temple in Jerusalem, and (4) the torah. And then he interpreted the major events of history in light of these factors. Why did the kingdom split? Because Solomon had forsaken Yahweh and his torah. Why did David's descendants retain Jerusalem and Judah? Because God had made an unconditional covenant promise to David. Why did the northern kingdom of Israel fall? Because the people and their kings did not follow the torah. Why was there hope for the future? Because the torah had been rediscovered under Josiah, and now it would be fulfilled as never before. All of the Deuteronomist's major themes—fidelity, torah, centralization, Davidic covenant— culminated in Josiah. And then Josiah died from an Egyptian arrow.

A Priest in Exile
JOSIAH, the culminating hero of the Deuteronomistic history, had died. The Deuteronomistic history looked ironic, even foolish, twentytwo years later. The Babylonians had destroyed and exiled Judah. The "eternal" kingdom had ended. The family that would "never be cut off from the throne" was cut off from the throne. The place "where Yahweh causes his name to dwell" was burned down. And the things that were said to exist "to this day" did not exist anymore. What was to be done with the positive, hopeful history book that culminated in Josiah? Someone decided to make a second edition of it. Probably the nearest modern analogy would be if someone who admired the American President John Kennedy assembled a history of the United States from George Washington to Kennedy, constructing the story to climax in Kennedy's presidency as a culmination of things past and as the beginning of something new and hopeful. And then the president's early death left that history ironic and obsolete, even painful to read. It would not be enough just to add a chapter or two at the end, briefly describing the next few presidencies. Rather, someone would have to go back through the work and make changes at critical points so that it would no longer point so specifically to Kennedy. The changes would have to prepare the readers for the new ending and provide a context in which to understand the new events. Such was the task of this person whcHasijioned the second edition of the biblical history. He could not just addSa summary of the last four kings' reigns. He had to explain why the dream had failed.

Reshaping History
Clues in the text reveal how he did it. They were the same sort of clues that other investigators and I had used to find the hand of the creator of the first edition of the history (Dtr ): grammatical breaks (for example, when a text that has been speaking in the singular suddenly shifts to plural), special terminology (terms and phrases that occurred only in passages that were also suspected to be additions on other grounds), theme (destruction and exile), syntax, and literary structure. The clues were harder to trace in the case of the postdestruction writer than they had been with the Josiah writer because the postdestruction writer imitated the language and style of the earlier edition perfectly. (I shall discuss how he was able to do it later.) Also, he only added occasional paragraphs here and there to the Josiah edition. He was not writing a whole new version. Therefore, there were no obvious doublets or contradictions like those of J and E. In order to identify a line as a Dtr insertion, it was necessary to find converging lines of evidence, such as grammar, theme, and terminology, all pointing in the same direction. Just because a passage predicted an exile, that did not mean that one could conclude that it had been inserted by the exiled writer to explain his current situation. On the contrary, exile was a known and feared reality in the ancient Near East, and it could have been threatened at almost any time. But if a passage that predicted exile also broke the context in which it appeared, and there was a shift in grammar, and it used phrases that appeared only in other suspected passages, then the converging evidence was strong. Identifying Dtr insertions in this way, and using considerable caution, I uncovered the following picture of how the exiled writer reshaped the history.
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Exile
First the writer developed the idea of exile itself. He was not prepared just to add a statement at the end saying that the Babylonians conquered and exiled Judah—which would have been an unexpected, unrelated finish. Rather, he inserted references to the possibility of exile in various places in the history, so that conquest and exile now became a fundamental part of the story, a threatening sword hanging over Israel's and Judah's heads for centuries:... you will perish quickly from the l a n d . . . (Deut 4:26; Josh 23:16) Yahweh will scatter you among the nations... (Deut 4:27) Yahweh will drive you and your k i n g . . . to a nation that you have not k n o w n . . .(Deut 28:36) You will be lifted off the l a n d . . . (Deut 28:63) Yahweh will scatter you among all the peoples from one end of the earth to the o t h e r . .. (Deut 28:64) You will not lengthen days on the l a n d . . . (Deut 30:18) I shall cut off Israel from the face of the land that I gave t h e m . . .(1 Kings 9:7) This writer was not merely listing facts of history. He was producing an interpretive history. In it, exile was not just a one-time event. It was a theme.

Other Gods
Then the writer developed the reason for the exile. Why had this calamity happened? Answer: because the people had worshiped other gods. On this point he only had to emphasize what was already written in Dtr . The worship of Yahweh alone was the first of the Ten Commandments in Dtr (as it was. in the E Ten Commandments and the J Ten Commandments ), and it was called for in every book from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings. The exiled writer added ten more references to the command against apostasy, and he tied every one of them to a reference to exile. He placed them at significant points in the story: in God's last speeches to Moses, among Joshua's last words to the people after settling in the land, in God's words to Solomon after building the Temple, and in the chapter describing the fall of the northern kingdom. Strongest of all, he made this the point of God's last words to Moses before summoning him to his death. This is the last prophecy that Moses hears: When you are lying with your fathers, this people will rise and will whore after alien gods of the land into which they are coming, and they will leave me and break my covenant which I have made with them. And my anger will burn against them in that day, and I shall leave them, and I shall hide my face from them, and they will be devoured, and many evils and troubles will find them. And they will say in that day, "Is it not because our God is not among us that these evils have found us?" But I shall hide my face on that day because of all the wrong that they have done, for they turned to other gods. The scene was set. God had commanded the people not to worship other gods, and he had made destruction, exile, and abandonment—" hiding the face"— the penalty for breaking this command.
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Manasseh
Next, the exiled writer looked back through the history for some possible explanation, already existing in the story, for the kingdom's fall—something that had happened before Josiah, something that had been so terrible that Josiah's attempt at reform was not enough to counterbalance it. He found it in the story of King Manasseh, Josiah's grandfather. According to the Dtr story, Manasseh had undone all the good things that his father, King Hezekiah, had accomplished. Manasseh rebuilds the high places, he sets up a statue of the goddess Asherah, and he builds altars to pagan gods in the Temple precincts. In Dtr this had set up the story of Josiah nicely, because in the next two chapters Josiah sets all of this right again. He tears down the high places, burns the statue of Asherah, and smashes the pagan altars. But the person who produced the new edition, Dtr , now elaborated upon Manasseh's crimes and on their consequences. He added these words: Manasseh instigated them to do wrong, more than the' nations that Yahweh had destroyed before the children of Israel. And Yahweh said by the hand of his servants the prophets, "Because Manasseh King of Judah has done these abominations... he has caused Judah to sin by his idols. Therefore I am bringing such evil on Jerusalem and Judah that the ears of whoever hears about it will tingle... I shall wipe Jerusalem the way one wipes a plate and turns it over on its face. And I shall reject the remnant of my possession and put them in their enemies' hand, and they will be a spoil and booty for all their enemies, because they have done wrong in my eyes and have been angering me from the day their fathers went out of Egypt to this day."
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Manasseh had been so bad, and he had caused the people to be so bad, that he had brought about a prophecy that the kingdom would fall. X The person who inserted these remarks about Manassehk crimes then turned back to end of the scroll. It had concluded that "no king ever arose like Josiah," but he now added these words: \ But Yahweh did not turn back from his great fury which burned\ against Judah over all the things in which Manasseh had angered ) him. Without taking anything from Josiah, the Dtr historian had explained why Judah was still due to fall: the crimes of the past outweighed the good of the short-lived reform. He then added two short chapters describing Judah's last four kings, noting in the manner of Dtr that each "did what was bad in the eyes of Yahweh." The reform was over, and the country was back on the road to disaster.
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The Two Covenants
But there was still the matter of David's covenant. According to the Dtr history, it was eternal and unconditional. No matter what Manasseh or any other Davidide king did, the throne and the royal city were supposed to be secure forever. The person who was now redoing that history was apparently not willing to cross out that promise as if it had never been there—which is another indication that he was not simply committing pious fraud. How then was he to explain the fall of the kings, the Temple, and Jerusalem? He did it by drawing his readers' attention to another covenant: the Mosaic covenant. This covenant that Yahweh had made with the people in the wilderness, according to tradition, was definitely conditional. It required the people to obey God's commandments or else suffer severe consequences. The Dtr writer added several lines to Deuteronomy, emphasizing that destruction and exile were among these consequences. This pulled the carpet out from under the Davidic covenant. The fate of the nation ultimately depended on the people, not on the king. The Davidic family's rule was assured, yes, but if the people's own actions brought about the destruction of the country, then over whom was this family to rule?! The Davidic covenant thus logically came second after the Mosaic covenant. The first question was whether the nation was going to survive. Only after that came the question of who was going to govern it. There was a similar problem awaiting the exiled historian in the story of King Solomon. According to the Dtr account, God appears to Solomon after he finishes building the Temple, and God repeats the Davidic covenant promises, adding that the Temple will last forever. He says: I have sanctified this house that you have built to set my name there forever, and my eyes and my heart will be there all the days. The exilic historian again was not prepared to cross out this eternal promise even though it obviously had failed—the Temple was lying in ruins. Instead, he buried it in the folds of the conditional Mosaic covenant. He added four sentences in which he pictured God as now speaking not only to Solomon but to the entire people. God warns the people that if they do not keep the commandments he has given them he will exile them and reject the Temple. He says: I shall cut off Israel from the face of the land that I gave them, and 1 shall cast out the house that I sanctified to my name from before my face. Notice the difference between the two quoted sentences on this page. They both refer to the Temple as the place sanctified to Yahweh's name. But the second one, the exilic one, leaves out the word "forever." Again the events of the biblical world had enormous impact on the way the Bible was developing— and the form that the Bible took ultimately was also to have enormous impact on the character of Judaism and Christianity. In this case, the fall of David's family after centuries of rule resulted in an increased emphasis in the Bible on the covenant that Moses mediated between God and the people. The historical reality—now reflected in the wording of the Deuteronomistic history—was that any hopes the people might have for security could no longer be based on the Davidic covenant. Their survival and well-being depended not on a promise to a king of an eternal royal holding and Temple in Jerusalem, but on their fidelity to their own covenant with God. The Davidic covenant, therefore, became a promise only that the throne was eternally available to David's family. Even if it was unoccupied at the present, there was always the possibility that a descendant of David, a messiah, might come someday and rule justly. The implications for Judaism and Christianity were, of course, tremendous.
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From Egypt to Egypt
It remained for the exiled Deuteronomist to write the finish: the people's fate. He reported that the Babylonians deported the last kings and several thousand of the people to Babylonia. He reported last that the Babylonian emperor's appointed governor, Gedaliah, was assassinated and that the entire people then fled to Egypt. He did not add any interpretation of these last events, no summation, long or short, saying something like "And so Judah was exiled from its land because they worshiped other gods." This unelaborated

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finish was possible precisely because the exiled Deuteronomist had already prepared the way for it. In his carefully placed insertions he had told his readers that worshiping other gods was the worst possible offense, that it would lead to defeat and exile, and that the kings, particularly Manasseh, had caused the people to go wrong. The short, straightforward report of the kingdom's calamity, in the light of this preparation, was powerful. The end of the kingdom had been predictable—and predicted. One of the exiled writer's insertions in particular prepared the way for the terse conclusion. He added a curse to the text of Deuteronomy. Deuteronomy already contained a horrifying list of curses in the Dtr version. This list of consequences of not keeping the covenant is still terrible to read: diseases, madness, blindness, military defeats, destruction of crops and livestock, and starvation to the point that people will eat their own children. The exiled Deuteronomist added references to exile in general, and he added one more specific curse to the end of the list. What is the worst possible thing that could be said to an Israelite as a threat? The last curse of Deuteronomy is: And Yahweh will send you back to Egypt... in the road that I had told you that you would never see again; and you will sell yourselves there to your enemies as slaves, and no one will buy. Back to Egypt! The ultimate curse for the people who started out as slaves there. The exiled writer then simply reported the people's fate at the end of 2 Kings. The Babylonian emperor appointed Gedaliah as governor of Judah. Gedaliah was assassinated. The people fled in terror of the Babylonians' reprisal. The last sentence of the story is: And the entire people, from the smallest to the biggest, and the officers of the soldiers, arose and came to Egypt, because they were afraid of the Babylonians. The exilic writer had made the new edition of the history into the story of the people of Israel from Egypt to Egypt. He had given a whole new shape and direction to the story without, apparently, deleting a word of the original edition.
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The Mercy of Yahweh
Was this the end of the story then? Did this as yet unnamed person see the people's exile to Babylonia and Egypt as the termination of the covenant and the demise of the people? Definitely not. He left open a channel of hope. His insertions into the text included a reminder that Yahweh is a merciful God, compassionate and forgiving. This was hardly a new idea in the biblical world. Both J and E had pictured the God of Israel as merciful and long-suffering. So had Dtr in Josiah's days. The person who produced Dtr now emphasized to his readers that if they would turn back to Yahweh, repent, and give up other gods, then their God would forgive them. Thus\he designed his history not only to tell the past, but to give hope for the future. \
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The Same Man
Who was he? How did he come to have a copy of the original version of the history? How was he able to imitate the language and style of that earlier edition so perfectly? Why did he choose to produce a new version of an old history in the first place, instead of writing an all-new work? The most likely answer to all of these questions is that both editions of the Deuteronomistic history were by the same person. He had a copy of Dtr because he wrote it. He chose to build on the earlier edition instead of writing an all-new work because he had created that earlier edition, and he was still able to be satisfied with all but a few sentences of his original work. (And, besides, what writer was ever eager to throw out a seven-book work he had produced and write a new one from the beginning?) The language and styles are similar because the same man wrote them. Biblical scholars argue generally that, rather than one man, it was a "school" that produced the Deuteronomistic material. They suggest that there may have been a circle of people who shared a articular outlook and set of interests, and that various Deuteronomistic sections of the Bible were produced by various members of this group. The various members of the "Deuteronomistic school," they suggest, wrote in similar styles and language because of their common membership in a group. Now it is true that different members of a common school of thought may write in quite similar styles. (The Pythagoreans in Greece are cited as an example.) Still, in the case of the Deuteronomistic history, the degree of similarity of Dtr and Dtr is phenomenal. Further, there is no compelling reason why we should hypothesize the existence of an otherwise unknown "school" when it was perfectly possible and logical for a single person to have done it. The first edition of the history, Dtr , had to be written before Josiah died in 609 B.C. The second edition, Dtr , had to be written after the Babylonian destruction and exile in 587 B.C. That is only a difference of twenty-two years. One person could easily have been alive and writing from the time of Josiah to the exile.
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The Identity of the Deuteronomist
It is time to name that person. In the first place, we know of a man who was alive and writing in precisely those years: the prophet Jeremiah. He was in the right places at the right times. He was a priest, of the priests of Shiloh-Anathoth. He was in Jerusalem during the reign of Josiah, when Dtr was produced. He was in Egypt after the destruction and exile, when Dtr was produced. His book is filled with the language of the Deuteronomistic history, the same favorite terms and phrases, the same metaphors, the same point of view on practically every important point. He was quite possibly the son of the man who unveiled the law code of Deuteronomy. He favored Josiah but not his successors on the throne. The book of Jeremiah, further, is filled throughout with the language of both Dtr and Dtr . How could phrases that are typical to Dtr appear in the book of Jeremiah, regularly intertwined with phrases that are otherwise unique to Dtr , unless all three came from the same source? To call it the result of a "Deuteronomistic school" of persons who all drew on a common bank of terminology is to ignore all of the evidence associating Jeremiah with this history. And, again, where is the evidence for the existence of such a literary school? What we have in the text of the book of Jeremiah, rather, is only a picture of the prophet Jeremiah associated with a particular scribe, named Baruch son of Neriyah. We have an explicit portrayal of his dictating prophecies to Baruch, who writes them on a scroll. The ancient Jewish traditions concerning who wrote the Bible are reported in a volume of the Talmud. According to that work, recorded some fifteen hundred years ago, the author of the Five Books of Moses was Moses, and the author of the book of Joshua was Joshua. That view comes as no surprise in a pious work of that period. What is intriguing, however, is that in that discussion the author of the books of Kings is identified as Jeremiah. Either the rabbis who produced the Talmud had a tradition that associated Jeremiah with the history, or they assumed the association because of the obvious similarity of language and outlook of the two works. Either way, the fact is that the association of Jeremiah with at least a large part of the Deuteronomistic history is an ancient one. There are numerous scholarly hypotheses regarding the authorship of the book of Jeremiah. The book is partly the oracles of the prophet, which are mostly in poetry, and partly the stories about the prophet's life, which are in prose. Some suggest that Jeremiah himself composed the poetry and that the scribe, Baruch son of Neriyah, was the composer of much of the prose. Baruch is mentioned numerous times in the book of Jeremiah. He is described as writing documents for Jeremiah. And it is reported that he went into exile in Egypt with Jeremiah." If it is true that Baruch wrote much of the prose of the book of Jeremiah, then he would presumably be the author-editor of the Deuteronomistic history as well. In the first edition of Who Wrote the Bible? I raised the possibility that Jeremiah might be the Deuteronomistic historian. I now admit that I was wrong and that such a speculation is extremely unlikely. It is far more probable that the author of the prose history in the book of Jeremiah was also the author of the Deuteronomistic history, whose prose resembles it so strikingly. What I do retain from my earlier views is the idea that it may be best to think of the Deuteronomistic writings as a collaboration, with Jeremiah, the poet and prophet, as the inspiration, and Baruch, the scribe, as the writer who interpreted history through Jeremiah's conceptions. Whether Baruch son of Neriyah was the recorder, the author, or the collaborator, it is important to take note of a fabulous archeological find concerning him which was made very recently. In 1980, the archeologist Nachman Avigad published a clay seal impression which he had acquired (see photograph below). In biblical times, documents were sometimes written on papyrus scrolls, which were then rolled up and tied with string. The string was then pressed into a ball of wet clay, and then someone would press his or her seal from a ring or cylinder into the clay. We can date the seals and the clayimpressions by the script. The seal impression that Avigad published is in a Hebrew script of the late seventh and early sixth century B.C. It reads: Ibrkyhw bn nryhw hspr In translation, this means "belonging to Baruch son of Neriyah the scribe." It was the first archeological discovery ever of an object that was identifiable as having belonged to someone who is mentioned in the Bible. It is, in effect, his signature. It is now located in the Israel Museum. It means that we have the signature of the recorder—and possibly the author/editor—of eight books of the Bible.
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(photo) Located now in the Israel Museum, this clay stamp reads "Belonging to Baruch son of Neriyah the scribe"—possibly the author/editor of eight books of the Bible. If we are right in identifying Baruch and Jeremiah with the fashioning of these books, then we not only have the connection between the biblical world and the formation of these books, as we had with J and E, but can also have

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some sense of the man who played a part in giving birth to them, his personality and his life story. One gets an impression of Jeremiah from the book that is called by his name —both from the text and from between the lines. It is quite often an impression of a tortured man, spiritual, bound to his mission, rejected by humans, persecuted. He gives the impression that he would rather be doing anything else than his appointed task, that he wishes that he could not see the future, and that he could escape his present, even by death. He must tell the truth no matter what the consequences. People fear him. He is profoundly solitary. One thing that Jeremiah does not appear to be is a fraud. And indeed he and Baruch were no frauds, pious or otherwise. The Deuteronomistic historian built his history around the Deuteronomic law code, which was an authentically old document, and which he may well have believed to be by Moses himself. He used other documents as well, and he fashioned a continuous history out of them. His own additions to that history gave it structure, continuity, and meaning. His last chapters told of events that he had witnessed personally. There need not be anything fraudulent in any of this. Quite the contrary. I t rather appears to be a sincere attempt, by a sensitive and skillful man, to tell his people's history—and to understand it. The historian painted his people's heritage. The prophet conceived of their destiny.

The Least-Known Age
T H E period that followed the disasters of 587 B.C. is the hardest for us to know. Even though it is more recent than the other periods I have described, it is the hardest to write about. There are two reasons for this. The first is simply the lack of sources. Neither the Bible nor archeology has told us very much. There is very little in the narrative books of the Bible that tells us about what happened to the generation of exiles and refugees from Judah. The story ends in the books of Kings and Chronicles with the fall of the kingdom, and the next books of historical narrative in the Bible (Ezra and Nehemiah) pick up the story fifty years later. A small portion of the book of Daniel deals with those years, but it refers only to a few events in the lives of Daniel and his friends. It does not deal with the fate of the nation. Probably our best means is deducing information from parts of the books of the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Archeology, too, has revealed little about the fate of the exiled community in Babylonia or about those in Egypt. We are not even sure about what was happening back in the land of Judah itself. We have some evidence that Judah's old neighbor Edom had not been very neighborly, but had shared in the Babylonian conquest of Judah and was encroaching on Judah's territory. And we know that the Samaritans continued to occupy the northern territory that had once been the kingdom of Israel. But we know hardly anything about how many of the Jews were able to remain in Judah or about what their lives were like there. The second reason why it is so difficult to talk about this period is that, for most of us, it is barely possible to know how it felt. Outside of those of us who have actually had the experience of being an exile or refugee, it would take an enormous leap of sympathy (in the true Greek sense of the word syra-pathos, "to feel with") to know what the exiles felt. We would have to imagine seeing the defenses of the city where we have lived all our lives torn down. A l l the public buildings and all the most beautiful homes are burned. The religious leaders of our community are executed. The national leader's children are butchered in front of him, then his eyes are put out, and then he is led away in manacles. We are carried away in a group of thousands, probably never to see our country again. And then we live as outsiders in our conquerors' country. I t is a horror. What were the exiled people of Judah to do? How were they to maintain their identity as a national group and not simply be assimilated into the mass of the Babylonian empire? Or to put it more practically, what did they have to hold on to?

Religion
Probably the most important single thing was religion. Other countries that the Babylonians conquered also had their own particular national religions, but one of the remarkable characteristics of pagan religions in the ancient world is that they were all extremely compatible. The god who was identified with the wind may have been called Marduk in Babylon and Baal-Haddad in Canaan and Zeus in Greece, but he was still essentially the same god. He was the wind. The Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar was essentially the same as the goddess Ashtoreth in Canaan and Aphrodite in Greece. She was fertility. And so on. The interchangeability of the pagan deities made it possible for a conquered people to assimilate to their conquerors' religion. But the religion of the people of Judah was different. There was no god in the pagan pantheon who corresponded to Yahweh. Scholars still debate the specific character of Judah's religion in this period. Was it completely

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monotheistic in the modern sense? Was Yahweh believed to be all-powerful? Were other lesser deities tolerated? But, whatever Judah's religion was, it was not compatible with pagan religion. Yahweh was not a force in nature. He was outside the natural realm, controlling its forces. And so, by holding on to their national religion in exile, the people of Judah, intentionally or not, reinforced their ethnic identity.

Life in Exile
Were they content in exile? Whatever tranquillity or acceptance they found in Babylonia, the community still expressed longing for home. They instituted five annual fast days to commemorate their misfortune. And they expressed their feelings in literature, which is preserved in several places in the Bible. The literature of the exile includes Ps^lm 137 and the book of Lamentations, as well as several sections from the prophets: the last part of the book of Jeremiah, reflecting the refugees' life in Egypt; and the entire book of Ezekiel and the latter part of the book of Isaiah, reflecting the exiles' life in Babylonia. It is not happy literature. Some of it expresses bitterness. Much of it expresses guilt. (Why did this happen to us? It must be that we did something wrong.) Just about all of it expresses sadness. Psalm 137, written by a Judean poet and preserved by the community among their psalms, is one indicator of the experience of exile: By the rivers of Babylon There u/e sat Also, we wept When we remembered Zion
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By the willows in her midst We hung up our harps For there our captors required of us words of song And our conquerors, joy "Sing us a song of Zion" How shall we sing a song of Yahweh on foreign soil? If I forget you Jerusalem Let my right arm forget Let my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth If 1 don't remember you If I don't hold up Jerusalem Over my highest joy Remember, Yahweh, the Edomites With the day of Jerusalem Who said, "Tear up, tear up To the foundation of it" Despoiled daughter of Babylon Happy is he who pays you back Your payment As you paid us Happy is he who takes hold and smashes Your suckling babies Against a rock The poem does not exude affection for the Babylonians. And it takes bitter note of the Edomites, Judah's kin and neighbor who abetted the conquering enemy. As for those of Judah who fled to Egypt, things did not go well for them either, because nineteen years later the Babylonians invaded Egypt. We only know of a colony of Judean mercenaries at Elephantine, which was located at the first cataract of the Nile. This fits with the report in Kings and Jeremiah that it was the Judean army that led the community to Egypt.

God, Temple, King, and Priest
How were the exiles and refugees to relate their fate to God? Questions of theology were not matters of purely theoretical speculation in this moment. Theology and history were now on a collision course. The way in which one understood God made a difference to the way in which one understood the situation in which the

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exiles found themselves. Is Yahweh a national God? If so, he is left behind j n Judah, and the people are cut off from him in exile. This very question is asked by the author of Psalm 137, translated on the previous pages: "How shall we sing a song of Yahweh on foreign soil?" Or is Yahweh a universal God? And if so, why did he let this disaster happen? That is, if Yahweh is the one true God of the whole world, why did he allow the Babylonians to destroy his Temple, carry off his anointed kings and priests, and exile the people? Since the exiled community was hardly likely to believe that the Babylonians were stronger than Yahweh, the answer that was regularly suggested to them was that it was their own fault. The} had failed to keep their covenant with Yahweh. They had worshiped other gods. The Babylonians were merely Yahweh's tool, which he was using to fulfill the covenant curses because Judah had broken its contract. One of the logical consequences of monotheism is guilt. There were also practical problems. Now that the Temple was destroyed, how were the people to worship God? The Egyptian group at Elephantine actually built a Temple there—which was clearly against the law of centralization in Deuteronomy. The extraordinary thing about the Elephantine Temple is that they worshiped Yahweh and two other gods, one male and one female, there. The Jews in other parts of the world apparently were not happy with this development, because when the Elephantine Temple was destroyed in the fifth century they would not help rebuild it. As for the Babylonian community, the prophet Ezekiel, who was one of the Babylonian exiles, envisioned a plan for a rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem. He described the new Temple in detail, including its measurements in cubits, but the Temple that he pictured was never built. The other practical and pressing problem was: now that the monarchy was gone, who was to lead the people? King Jehoahaz was imprisoned in Egypt. He died there. King Jehoiachin and King Zedekiah were imprisoned in Babylon. We do not know what happened to Zedekiah, but, according to the very last sentences of the book of 2 Kings, Jehoiachin was released from prison thirty-seven years after his capture. Still, that did not mean that he was reinstated as king. The priests, too, had lost their center, the Temple, and that meant that there were no more sacrifices to perform. It meant that their authority, their income, and most of their functions were threatened. It also meant that the rival priesthoods, the Mushites (those who traced their ancestry to Moses) and the Aaronids, did not have much left to fight over. In short, the Babylonian destruction of Judah had brought horrors and tremendous challenges and crises to this nation. They were forced to reformulate their picture of themselves and of their relationship with their God. They had to find a way to worship Yahweh without a Temple. They had to find leadership without a king. They had to learn to live as a minority ethnic group in great empires. They had to determine what their relationship was to their homeland. And they had to live with their defeat. And then, after only fifty years, the impossible happened. The exile ended, and they were allowed to go home.
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The Persian Empire: The Age of Mysteries
In 538 B.C. the Persians conquered the Babylonians. Babylonia, Egypt, and everything in between, including Judah, now were part of a tremendous, powerful Persian empire. The ruler of this empire was Cyrus the Great. In the same year that he took Babylon, Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to Judah. By royal decree, Cyrus permitted the exiles to rebuild their homeland and their Temple. The precious implements of the Temple, which the Babylonians had carried away, were returned—with one exception: the ark. For some reason, the biblical sources do not tell what happened to the ark containing the tablets of the Ten Commandments. Archeology, too, has shed no light on this at all. The disappearance of the ark is the first great mystery of this period, and it remains one of the great mysteries of the Bible. There is no report that the ark was carried away or destroyed or hidden. There is not even any comment such as "And then the ark disappeared, and we do not know what happened to i t , " or "And no one knows where it is to this day." The most important object in the world, in the biblical view, simply ceases to be in the story. Did it ever really exist? For the purposes of our search, it is necessary to recognize at least that the earlier historical books portray it as existing, enshrined in the Temple. The books of Kings and Chronicles say explicitly that the ark was placed in the inside room (the Holy of Holies) of the Temple on the day that King Solomon dedicated the Temple. It then ceases to figure in any direct way in the story, and there is no report of what happened to it when the Temple was destroyed. And now, in the report of the exiles' return to Judah, it is not mentioned, while the less important Temple utensils are. The community that returned to Jerusalem rebuilt the Temple, but this second Temple did not contain the ark. Nor did it have cherubs, the giant golden statues of winged sphinxes whose purpose, after all, was at least partly to spread their wings over the ark. The second Temple's Holy of Holies apparently was an empty room. All of this will be relevant to the search for who wrote the Bible. The second great mystery of this period is the disappearance of the Davidic dynasty. According to the biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah, those who returned from Babylonia were led by two men named Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel. Both of these men were from the royal house of David. They were descendants of King Jehoiachin. Zerubbabel is also mentioned in the
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biblical books of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, who prophesied in this period. But Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel cease to be mentioned after the fifth chapter of Ezra. There is no report of the disappearance of these men, no explanation of what happened to the royal family. Rather, as with the ark, the monarchy simply ceases to be mentioned. Neither the biblical nor the archeological sources indicate what happened to the family of the messiah, the descendants of David. Also, prophecy diminishes, and perhaps disappears, in this period. The age of the great prophets is past. The prophets Haggai and Zechariah preached at the time of Zerubbabel, but as the kings disappeared, so did the prophets. The fifty years of exile in Babylonia and Egypt are not described. The nation's most sacred object and its royal family disappear. Prophecy diminishes. And there are more unknowns. The entire period seems to be an age of mysteries. How many of the people who were in Babylonia actually took advantage of the opportunity to return to Judah? Did the majority stay or leave? The Bible's figures are confusing. According to the book of Jeremiah, 4,600 had been deported from Judah to Babylonia in 587; according to the book of 2 Kings, it was 11,600. But according to the book of Ezra, 42,360 returned just fifty years later. That is a very prolific community. I t is possible that this number of returnees includes some who came from Egypt. Or it may include people from the northern tribes of Israel who were deported to Mesopotamia by the Assyrians in 722 B.C. and who were now reunited with the exiles from Judah. We just do not know. We also do not know who was already in the land of Judah when the new returnees arrived. Had everyone left the land for Babylonia or Egypt? Probably not. But who—and how many— stayed?
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Back in the Promised Land
We do know something about how life developed in the land as the exiles returned and began to rebuild. They completed building the second Temple, and it was dedicated on Passover, 516 B.C. This was seen, at least by some, as the fulfillment of a prophecy of Jeremiah's. We do not know the size of the second Temple, whether it was the same as the first Temple or not. We do know that it did not have the ark, the cherubs, or the Urim and Thummim. (The Urim and Thummim were sacred objects that were used by the High Priest, apparently to obtain oracles.) We know that it had a High Priest. We know that the High Priest was an Aaronid, not a Mushite. Most important, our sources indicate that the entire Temple priesthood was Aaronid at this time. A l l other Levites were not recognized as legitimate priests. Levites were regarded as secondary clergy, assistants to the/Aaronids, who alone exercised the priestly prerogatives. The struggle between the Mushite and Aaronid priests was over. Somehow, the Aaronids had won completely. Their old claim that they alone jvere the legitimate priests was now the accepted view. The triumph of the Aaronid priesthood in this period was to have tremendous implications for the formation of the Bible. How did the Aaronid priests come to be so completely in control? Perhaps i t was because they were the priesthood in power at the time of the fall of the kingdom. Since the Babylonians took the upper classes into exile, it would thus be the Aaronid priests who would have been carried off to Babylon. For example, the prophet Ezekiel was an Aaronid priest, and he was among the Babylonian exiles. The Mushite priests, meanwhile, would have been more likely to be among the refugees in Egypt. For example, the prophet Jeremiah, who was apparently a Mushite priest, was among the Egypt refugees. Since it was now the Babylonian group that was leading the return and governing the new community (initially under Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel), the Aaronid priests would be, at the very least, in a position to dominate, and perhaps in a position to define who was a priest and who was not. Another reason why the Mushite priests lost to the Aaronids in this period may be that Mushites, notably Jeremiah, had been perceived to be pro-Babylonian. Now that the Persians had conquered the Babylonians, the Persian authorities might well have preferred to empower the Aaronid priests. The Aaronids had been anti-Babylonian, as indicated by the fact that the Babylonians had executed the chief priests in 587. There is one more reason to be taken in to account to explain the success of the Aaronid priests in rebuilt Judah. That is the influence and power of one man: Ezra.
7

Ezra
In the entire Bible, two men are known as lawgivers: Moses and Ezra. Ezra came from Babylon to Judah eighty years after the first group of exiles returned, in 458 B.C. He was a priest and a scribe. The biblical record states explicitly that he was an Aaronid priest. It also indicates that he was no ordinary scribe. His writing skills were associated with one document in particular: "the torah of Moses." Ezra arrived in Jerusalem with two important documents in his hand. One was this "torah of Moses," and the other was a letter from the Persian emperor, Artaxerxes, giving him authority in Judah. The emperor's authorization empowered Ezra to teach

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and to enforce "the law of your God which is in your hand." The enforcement powers included fines, imprisonment, and the death penalty. What was this "torah of Moses," this "law of your God which is in your hand"? References to it in the biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah include material from JE, D, and P. It is therefore likely that the book that Ezra brought from Babylon to Judah was the full Torah—the Five Books of Moses—as we know it. Ezra's political authority was somehow shared with a governor, Nehemiah, who also was appointed by the emperor. With the backing of the emperor, who was perhaps the most powerful man in the world, Ezra and Nehemiah wielded considerable authority. They rebuilt the city walls of Jerusalem that the Babylonians had torn down. They enforced the observance of the Sabbath. They forced intermarriages between Jews and others to be dissolved. In the absence of any Judean kings, these two men were the leaders of the people. Judah was not an independent country. It was now a province of the Persian empire. And Ezra and Nehemiah were the emperor's designated authorities.
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Temple and Torah
In the second Temple period, centralization was achieved. There apparently was no competition from any other religious center in Judah. What Hezekiah and Josiah had tried to do was now actually achieved. One God, one Temple. The Elephantine Temple was far away, and in any case it was destroyed around the time that Ezra was in Jerusalem. Ezra called a public assembly at the water gate of Jerusalem. He held it on the fall holiday, when the people would come from all over Judah to Jerusalem. On that occasion he brought out the scroll of the Torah and read it to the assembled mass. This was followed by a covenant ceremony in which the people renewed their commitment to their God and to their pact with him as written in this Torah. The period of restoration, the age of the second Temple, appears from biblical and postbiblical sources to have been a time of dedication to the book as never before. Why? Presumably because political authority was now more in the hands of the priests, who had more of an interest in it than the kings had had. Perhaps, also, the book came to be especially treasured by the people at this time because it was a link to the past. It was the connection that meant for the ex-exiles that this was a rebuilding, not just a new start. As a work of history, it gave a feeling of heritage from an extraordinary past. As a work of law, it showed a way to participate in the covenant— which is to say, in the heritage—in the present. How did Ezra come to have a copy of this book? How did it come to have all the sources combined? How was he able to promulgate it successfully as "the torah of Moses," which was then accepted for two and a half millennia? When we know who produced P and who combined all the sources into one work, we shall know the answers to these questions, and much more.

A Brilliant Mistake
U N T I L now I have spoken almost exclusively in terms of the facts themselves—meaning the evidence from the text and from archeology— and not of the history of how we found out what we know. I took this approach because I wanted this to be a presentation of evidence and conclusions rather than a history of scholarship. But now I must tell about one wrong turn that was taken in the search for who wrote the Bible, because it dominated the investigation for a hundred years. The great majority of biblical scholars, myself included, accepted it. Most still accept it, at least partly. This is the most controversial part of the story, for, from this point on, the controversy is not just with religious fundamentalists but with other critical investigators as well. Also, it is necessary to tell the story of this wrong turn because it played a part in arriving at what 1 believe is the solution. Oddly enough, it is sometimes necessary to go through a mistake to get to a discovery. Or to put it more in terms of the respect I hold for the great biblical scholars of the past: even when we think that we see farther than our predecessors, we should remember that it is only because we are sitting on their shoulders. The central and most controversial question in this search all along has been over when P, the Priestly source, was written. It has been generally accepted that J and E came from the early period— the days of the two kingdoms, Judah and Israel. And it has been even more universally accepted that D came primarily from the middle period—from Josiah's time. But finding the writer (or writers?) of the P laws and stories has proved to be the hardest task. P is the largest source, about the size of the other three put together. It includes the creation story in the first chapter of the Bible. It includes the cosmic version of the flood story, the version in which the windows of the heavens and the fountains of the deep are opened to flood the world. It has stories of Abraham, Jacob, the exodus, and the journey through the wilderness, most of which are

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doublets of stories in J and E. (The differences are extraordinary, but more on that later.) And it contains a tremendous body of law, covering about thirty chapters of Exodus and Numbers and all of the book of Leviticus. And so this is no minor question. Simply put, the search for the writer of most of the Five Books of Moses begins with a mistake.

The Mistake
It began in a lecture in Strassburg in 1833. Professor Eduard Reuss told his students that the biblical prophets do not refer to the Priestly (P) law. The prophets do not quote P, nor do they even give the impression that they are familiar with it. He concluded that the law was later than the prophets. P was written when prophets were no longer prophesying; in other words, in the days of the second Temple. The law was later than the prophets. That was the first step of the mistake. Reuss was actually afraid to state his critical views in print at that time. He waited forty-six years before publishing a long work on the subject, in 1879, but by then one of his own students had already developed and published the idea independently. The student, Karl Graf, was convinced by his teacher's arguments, and in his own investigations he developed them further. By that time, scholars had already concluded that D was from Josiah's time, and Graf accepted that as a starting point. Then he scrutinized sections of J, E, and P in order to see which of them came before D and which came after. He concluded that J and E were written before D, which, as we know, became the general view to the present day. But, following his teacher Reuss, Graf claimed that the great P corpus of law was written after D, late in the biblical world, in the days of the second Temple. Graf was suggesting a whole new picture of the history of biblical Israel, in which the elaborate legal and ritual system and the centrality of the priests and the Temple to thelife of the people were developments of the end of the biblical period, not of its beginning. There was one particularly serious problem with this idea that the person (or persons) who wrote P came from the postexile community. True, it was a time when priests were in charge and a time of centralization of the religion around the Temple. But the question was: if P was written by someone from the time of centrality of the Temple, why is a Temple never mentioned once in P? Yahweh never commands Moses to tell the people to build a Temple when they get to the land. There is not one law whose fulfillment requires the presence of a Temple. Priests, yes. An ark, an altar, cherubs, Urim and Thummim, and other sacred instruments, yes. But not a single reference to a Temple. Graf's solution to the problem of the missing Temple was critical to his analysis. He argued that the Temple was mentioned in P, many times, but in disguise. It was not called the Temple; it was called the Tabernacle. The Tabernacle is the tent that Moses builds in the desert to house the ark. In the E source it is mentioned only three times. In J and D it is not mentioned at all. P, on the other hand, mentions it over two hundred times. P gives elaborate information on its materials and construction and the laws relating to it. It figures regularly in P's stories. In P, all assemblies of the people take place at the Tabernacle. The Tabernacle is simply essential to P. According to Graf (and then others) the Tabernacle never existed. Graf concluded that the Tabernacle was a fiction, made up by someone living in the days of the second Temple. This second Tern pie writer wanted to establish a law code that was in the interests of the Temple priests of that time. In order to give such laws a claim of antiquity, and thus give it authority, this writer wanted to claim that this was the torah that God gave to Moses at Mount Sinai. In short, it was another case of "pious fraud." But this presented a problem. How could this writer compose a story in which God gives Moses laws about a Temple when no Temple was actually built until over two hundred years after Moses was dead? In order to make anyone believe that the Priestly laws came from Moses' quill, the second Temple writer had to invent some device that would connect the era of Moses with the era of the Temples. The Tabernacle was that device. And so, in this writer's conception, Moses built the Tabernacle and gave the laws concerning it. Then, after Moses' time, the Tabernacle continued to serve as the people's central shrine until the Temple was built as its successor. Then the ark was transferred from the Tabernacle to the Temple, and the laws that required the presence of the Tabernacle now required the presence of a Temple instead. The Priestly Tabernacle was thus a literary and legal fiction created by the post-exile author (or authors) of P to support the rebuilt Temple and the reestablished priesthood in Jerusalem of their day. One of the arguments given in favor of this idea was that the Tabernacle, as described in the book of Exodus (chapter 26), was too big for the Israelites really to have carried through the desert during their forty years of wandering there with Moses. A second argument came from comparing the measurements of the Tabernacle with those of the Temple. Scholars determined that, according to Exodus 26, the Tabernacle was thirty cubits long and ten cubits wide. According to 1 Kings 6, the Temple was sixty cubits long and twenty cubits wide. The two structures thus have the same proportions, the Tabernacle being half as long and half as wide as the Temple. Investigators thus saw the Tabernacle as a fictional miniature of the Temple. The Tabernacle was a fiction, a symbol of the second Temple. That was the second step of the mistake. And then came Wellhausen. As Freud is to psychology or

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Weber to sociology, Julius Wellhausen stands out as a dominant figure of modern biblical scholarship. Much of what Wellhausen said came from those who preceded him. He took and used conclusions from Graf, De Wette, and others. His own contribution does not so much constitute a beginning as a culmination. He brought all the pieces together, along with his own investigations and arguments, into a clear, organized synthesis. His books were extremely influential. Across Europe and England, people who had not accepted the critical investigation into who wrote the Bible began to be persuaded. Wellhausen's reputation was tremendous. He actually resigned his academic position in Greifswald partly because of the impact he was having on his students. In his letter of resignation he said: I became a theologian because I was interested in the scientific treatment of the Bible; it has only gradually dawned upon me that a professor of theology likewise has the practical task of preparing students for service in the Evangelical Church, and that I was not fulfilling this practical task, but rather, in spite of all reserve on my part, was incapacitating my hearers for their office. What was he saying that was so powerful? He identified the sources J, E, D, and P, and he laid out a neat scheme of the history of the biblical world in which each found its place. And that scheme culminated in the laws and stories of P. Once Wellhausen accepted Reuss' claim that the law was later than the prophets, and he accepted Graf's claim that the Tabernacle was nothing more than a symbol of the Temple, the scene was set. Wellhausen took the case one step further. For him, the Tabernacle was the key to the whole puzzle. The history of the centralization of the religion around the Tabernacle (meaning around the Temple) was the clue to the history of the writers: In the stories and laws of J and E, there was no idea of centralization. Why? Because they were written in the early days of Israel, when anyone could sacrifice anywhere. In D, centralization was strictly demanded: "You must only sacrifice at the place where Yahweh causes his name to dwell." Why? Because it was from the time of King Josiah, a time when centralization was first introduced and needed firm insistence. In P, Wellhausen said, centralization was not demanded. It was assumed. Over and over in the laws and stories of P, it was simply understood that there was only one place on earth where one could sacrifice, and that one place was the Tabernacle (meaning the Temple). Why? Because it came from the time of the second Temple, a time when it was an accepted fact that people were supposed to sacrifice only at the Temple. The laws and stories of P take centralisation for granted. That was the third step of the mistake. There were other arguments for this, of course. In the P list of different kinds of sacrifices there is one called a "sin offering" and one called a "guilt offering." There are no such sacrifices mentioned in J, E, or D. Wellhausen reasoned that it was only logical that sin and guilt sacrifices would be instituted after the experience of exile. It was then that the people felt guilty, believing that the destruction and exile were punishment for their own sins. And so this was another proof that someone wrote P in the second Temple days. Also, in the P list of holidays there is a holiday that has come to be known as the Fall New Year, followed by a Day of Atonement ten days later. These holidays also are not mentioned in J, E, or D; and these extra two holidays also involve atonement for sin. Wellhausen argued that this, too, reflected the days when Judah felt guilty in the wake of the destruction and exile. There was one more piece of evidence for looking for the writer of P in the days of the second Temple. That evidence was the book of the prophet Ezekiel. Like the prophet Jeremiah, Ezekiel was a priest. Unlike Jeremiah, Ezekiel was an Aaronid priest. Like Jeremiah, Ezekiel went into exile. Unlike Jeremiah, Ezekiel was exiled in Babylonia. There he produced his book. That book, the book of Ezekiel, is written in a style and language remarkably similar to P's. It is almost as much like P as Jeremiah is like D; there are whole passages in Ezekiel that are nearly word-for-word like passages in P. For Wellhausen, one passage in Ezekiel was particularly important. Ezekiel declares that, in the future, only certain Levites may be priests. A l l others are disqualified from the priesthood because of their past transgressions. The only Levites who may function as priests are those who are descendants of Zadok. Zadok was David's Aaronid priest. And so, according to Ezekiel, only Aaronid priests are legitimate. A l l others are excluded. And this, Wellhausen said, is just the point of view in P. It is quite clear in P that only Aaronids are priests. Several P stories (which I shall tell below) and many P laws make this point crystalclear. P simply does not recognize Moses' descendants or anyone else as legitimate priests. Wellhausen concluded that P was written in the days of the second Temple, when the Aaronid priests came to power. They took Ezekiel's prophecy as their inspiration, and, once and for all, the competition between the priestly families was over. The Aaronids had won, and one of them wrote a "torah of Moses" that reflected their victory. Wellhausen's picture was very attractive. It placed a priestly source in a priestly period. It identified guilt sacrifices and holidays of atonement in a period of guilt and atonement. It placed Ezekielian ideas in the period that came right after Ezekiel. It explained the concentration on the Tabernacle in P in terms of the period of concentration on the Temple. It was logical, coherent, persuasive— and wrong.
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What is Wrong with This Picture?

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Reuss simply was mistaken. Prophets do quote P. Notably, Jeremiah quite plainly alludes to it. The famous opening of P's story in the first chapter of the Bible is: In the beginning of God's creating the heavens and the earth, the earth was unformed and v o i d . . . . And God said, "Let there be light." In one of Jeremiah's prophecies, he refers to a coming time of destruction. He speaks poetically of a time when nature will be turned upside down.
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He begins with the words: I looked at the earth, And here it was unformed and void, And to the heavens, And their light was gone.
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The two are too similar for coincidence. And it hardly seems likely that the P story of the creation of the universe was based on a line from a destruction prophecy in Jeremiah. It is rather Jeremiah who is dramatically dismantling the picture that is found in P. Jeremiah in fact seems to enjoy such reversals on P's language. P several times uses the expression "Be fruitful and multiply," and P emphasizes the ark, which the Tabernacle houses. But Jeremiah prophesies:
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It will be, when you will multiply and be fruitful in the land in those days, says Yahweh, that they will no longer say, "the ark of the covenant of Yahweh," and it will not come to mind, and it will not be made anymore.' Recall that Jeremiah is from the priests of Shiloh, who brought us E, the source that never mentions the ark, and D, the source that mentions it rarely (only in chapters 10 and 31). Then it is not surprising to find Jeremiah eschewing the ark in a twist of P's own language. P in Leviticus begins with seven full chapters of rules of sacrifices. It lists kinds of sacrifices, it tells which animals to sacrifice, and it tells when and how to sacrifice them. It concludes: This is the torah of offering, grain offering, sin offering, trespass offering, installation offerings, sacrifice, and peace offerings which Yahweh commanded Moses in Mount Sinai in the day that he commanded the Israelites to offer their sacrifices to Yahweh in the wilderness of Sinai.
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But Jeremiah says: For I did not speak with your fathers and I did not command them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt about matters of offering and sacrifice.
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Why is Jeremiah hostile to P? Let me get to that later. For now, the important thing is that he knows P. Jeremiah is not the only prophet who knows P. Ezekiel knows i t , quotes i t , and bases prophecies on i t . Take Ezekiel 5 and 6. In these chapters, Ezekiel indicts his people for not keeping their covenant with God. This sort of prophecy is known among biblical scholars as a "covenant lawsuit." The prophet acts as a prosecuting attorney in a divine court, accusing the people of breach of their contract with God. In the case of Ezekiel 5 and 6, the contract in question is a chapter in P (Leviticus 26). There, the P record of the covenant between God and Israel gives a list of blessings and curses. It says that the blessings will come: If you walk according to my statutes and you keep my commandments and do them. And the curses will come: If you despise my statutes and disdain my judgments so as not to do all my commandments. Those are the words of the covenant. The words of the indictment in Ezekiel's covenant lawsuit are: You did not walk according to my statutes, and you did not do my judgments.
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The P covenant curse says: You will eat the flesh of your sons. Ezekiel's covenant lawsuit includes the judgment: Fathers will eat sons in your midst. The P covenant curses say: And I shall send the wild beast among you, and it will bereave y o u . . . . And I shall bring the sword over you.. . . And I shall send pestilence in your midst. Ezekiel's covenant lawsuit includes the judgment: And I shall send hunger and evil beast over you, and they will
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bereave you, and pestilence and blood will pass through you; and I shall bring the sword over you.
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And so on. Ezekiel's indictments and judgments of the people appear to be based nearly verbatim on the words of the P text— which is exactly what one would expect a covenant lawsuit to do. But investigators following Reuss, Graf, and Wellhausen concluded that P was written after Ezekiel. How could they explain the fact that this meant that a contract had to be based on the lawsuit of that contract? Most said that this particular portion of P (Leviticus 26) must have been written earlier than the rest of P. But Ezekiel quotes other portions of P as well, notably the P version of the story of the exodus from Egypt. In the P story, God tells Moses: I shall bring you to the land which I have lifted up my hand to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I shall give it to you.
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In Ezekiel, God says to Ezekiel: I brought them to the land which I lifted up my hand to give to them.

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There are numerous other parallels of wording between P's exodus story and Ezekiel's review of the story. It appears that Ezekiel's source for the exodus event is P. But, again, investigators since Reuss, Graf, and wellhausen concluded that P was written after Ezekiel. How can they explain the fact that this meant that the telling of the story in P had to be based on the retelling of the story in Ezekiel? I do not think that they can explain it. It seems to me that what we would naturally expect is that a prophet would quote the torah, not the opposite. (And Ezekiel does quote torah explicitly. ) We would naturally expect the retelling of a story to be based on the telling, and not the opposite. We would expect a contract litigation to be based on its contract, and not the opposite. The biblical investigators of the nineteenth century were attributing enormous influence to the prophet Ezekiel. Yet all sorts of crucial matters in Ezekiel are ignored or even contradicted in P. Notably, Ezekiel gives a plan for the rebuilding of the Temple in elaborate detail, but the P Tabernacle-Temple does not correspond to Ezekiel's model at a l l . I believe that new methods of linguistic analysis now put any last arguments on this point to rest. In 1982, Professor Avi Hurvitz of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem demonstrated that P is written in an earlier stage of biblical Hebrew than Ezekiel. Of course, one might argue that perhaps Jeremiah did not write Jeremiah and Ezekiel did not write Ezekiel. But that is not the defense that the Wellhausen proponents have made. Rather, there is a tremendous investigation of the books of the prophets to determine exactly what portions were written at which point in history. The texts that I have cited here from Jeremiah and Ezekiel seem to me to resist cutting and reassignment; and, in any case, the linguistic evidence does not only place P before the prophets in relative chronology, it places it before the time in which Wellhausen pictured it. Besides Hurvitz's book, five other scholars in recent years, two in Canada and three in the United States, have uncovered linguistic evidence that most of P is written in the biblical Hebrew of the days before the exile to Babylon. Reuss' claim, that the P law came after the prophets, was simply wrong. The evidence from the prophets rather indicated that the author of the P laws and stories was to be sought before the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel—i.e., before the Babylonian exile.
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Wellhausen's claim, that P assumes centralized religion, was also wrong. P constantly commands that sacrifices and other religious ceremonies must take place at the Tabernacle—or the Tent of Meeting, as it is also known. Just as D regularly commands the people to come to "the place where Yahweh causes his name to dwell," P regularly commands them to come to the Tabernacle. The point is the same. They are only using different euphemisms for the same idea: there can be only one approved religious center. P commands this repeatedly in the early chapters of Leviticus and Numbers. P says it especially clearly-in Leviticus 17: Any man from the house of Israel who slaughters an ox or sheep or goat, in the camp or outside the camp, and does not bring it to the Tent of Meeting to offer it as a sacrifice to Yahweh before the Tabernacle of Yahweh, blood[guilt] will be reckoned to that man. He has spilled blood. And that man will be cut off from his people.
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If you do not come to the central place, you will be cut off. It is as if you have committed murder (spilled blood). That hardly assumes centralization. It demands it. How did Wellhausen explain this? He said that this section of Leviticus was not really part of P. It had much style and language in common with P, but it was an older, originally separate work, called the Holiness Code, which was edited into the P law code later. But that answer does not really solve the problem. Wellhausen still said that this "Holiness Code" was written by someone after Ezekiel, so it is still part of the world of the exile and second Temple period. And, in any case, there are still all the other commands about the Tabernacle mall through P. P by no means takes centralized religion for granted. And that means that P does not have the comfortable fit in the days of the second Temple—the days of successful centralization of religion—that Wellhausen pictured. Wellhausen's other

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interpretations of the evidence are not compelling arguments either. He related P's sin and guilt sacrifices to the days after the exile, when the people of Judah felt guilty about their fate. That is a dangerous kind of reasoning. It is extremely precarious to date a piece of literature based on a guess as to when the author's community felt a certain way. It is especially precarious when the feeling in question is guilt. People, whether as individuals or communities, can feel guilt at just about any moment in history. It is easy to imagine Judean priests adding guilt sacrifices to the ceremonies in Jerusalem, say, in 722 B.C., after the northern kingdom of Israel had been destroyed by the Assyrians. At that time there would have been Israelite refugees in Jerusalem who could have felt at least as guilty as the Judeans did after 587. The same goes for the addition of holidays of atonement in P. In fact, the period after the fall of Jerusalem is, if anything, the hardest time to imagine the creation of such a holiday, because there is a matter of promulgation. If the Day of Atonement was made up because of the people's feelings of guilt after their fall, how could the writer of P's laws possibly have hoped to convince anybody that it was an ancient law? Who would have believed that it was written by Moses but somehow unknown to anyone until after 587 B.C., just when they happened to be feeling guilty? It is easier to picture successful promulgation of new laws in the days of the first Temple, when religious reforms such as those of Kings Hezekiah and Josiah were presenting new laws and newly discovered documents. The prophets do quote P, and the Priestly laws and stories do not take centralized religion for granted. This seriously weakens the see nario pictured by Reuss, Graf, and Wellhausen. We cannot confidently look for the writer of P—of the majority of the Five Books of Moses—in the days of the second Temple. But this does not tell us where we should look for this person either. The third part of the structure of the brilliant mistake, however, holds the clue to where to look for this writer. Wellhausen was right about one thing: the key to the whole puzzle was the Tabernacle.

The Great Irony
THE combination of P with J, E, and D was even more extraordinary than the combination of J and E with each other had been centuries earlier. P was polemic—it was an answer-torah to J and E. JE denigrated Aaron. P denigrated Moses. JE assumed that any Levite could be a priest. P said that only men who were descendants of Aaron could be priests. JE said that there were angels, that animals occasionally could talk, and that God could be found standing on a rock or walking through the garden of Eden. P would have none of that. D, meanwhile, came from a circle of people who were as hostile to P as the P-circle were to JE. These two priestly groups had struggled, over centuries, for priestly prerogatives, authority, income, and legitimacy. And now someone was putting all of these works together. Someone was combining JE with the work that was written as an alternative to it. And this person was not merely combining them side by side, as parallel stories. He or she was cutting and intersecting them intricately. And at the end of this combined, interwoven collection of the laws and stories of J, E, and P, this person set Deuteronomy, the farewell speech of Moses, as a conclusion. Someone was merging the four different, often opposing sources so artfully that it would take millennia to figure it out. This was the person who created the Torah, the Five Books of Moses that we have read for over two thousand years. Who was this person? Why did he or she do it? This was the first question of this book: if Moses did not produce these books, who did? I think that it was Ezra.

An Aaronid Priest
The person who assembled the four sources into the Five Books of Moses is known as the redactor. The redactor is harder to trace than any of the authors of the sources. For the most part, the redactor was arranging texts that already existed, not writing very much of his or her own, and so there is little evidence to shed light on who he was. We do not have whole stories or long groups of laws to examine in order to deduce where he came from, what his interests were, or whom he opposed. Still, we do know a few things about this person. To start with, the redactor came from the circle of Aaronid priests. Either he was a priest himself, or he was aligned with them and was committed to their interests. There are several reasons for this conclusion. In the first place, he began the major sections of his work with P stories or laws, never with J or E. What are now the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers all begin with Priestly texts. Second, he used Priestly documents as the framework for the work. The first document he used was the Book of Generations, better known as the list of "begats" to readers of the Bible, most of whom find it one of the most tedious things in the Bible. It begins: This is the Book of Generations of humans. Then it lists the generations of humans from Adam
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to Jacob, telling who begat whom and giving the ages of the people on the list. Frank Moore Cross demonstrated that the Book of Generations was originally a separate document. The person who assembled the Torah cut it into several parts and then interspersed the parts through the book of Genesis. This arrangement gave the stories from the different writers organization and continuity. The redactor took the part of the document that covered the ten generations from Adam to Noah and placed it between the Adam story and the Noah story, then he took the part that covered the ten generations from Noah to Abraham and placed it between the Noah story and the Abraham stories, and so on. This gave the stories of Genesis a sensible framework, setting all of them into a flow of history. The Book of Generations was a Priestly document. Like the P stories in Genesis, the Book of Generations refers to God as Elohim, not as Yahweh. Like the P creation story, the Book of Generations says that humans are created in God's image. Like many P stories and laws, the Book of Generations is concerned with repetitious details of names and dates. That is, the redactor used a Priestly document as the structuring text of the book of Genesis. The redactor also used a Priestly text as the structure for the next fifteen chapters of the Bible—the stories of the enslavement of the Israelites and the exodus from Egypt. The text he used was the P version of the plagues that Yahweh inflicted upon the Egyptians. Simply put, he used the language of the P version to give unity to the different sources. In the P version, each of the plagues on the Egyptians was followed by the words: But Pharaoh's heart was strengthened, and he did not listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken. The redactor inserted words similar to these following plagues in the JE stories as well. Then, when he combined the P plague stories and the JE plague stories, the common endings gave the whole combined story a unity. The point is that the redactor was using Priestly documents as the governing structure of the work. Third, he added texts of his own, and these new texts were in the typical language and interests of P. I shall refer to some of these texts below, and I have listed all of them in the Appendix. For now, let it suffice to say that they are so much like the P texts in their language that for a long time investigators thought that they were part of P itself. Professor Cross went even further. He concluded that P and R (redactor) were virtually the same thing. He argued that there were major gaps in the flow of the P story. Since the P story was incomplete, and the structure of the work came from Priestly documents, Cross concluded that there never was a separate P source. Rather, he said, a single person (or circle) wrote the P portions of the Pentateuch around the JE portions in the first place. This same person fashioned the framework that held all the stories together. The redaction and the Priestly writing were all one process. On this point I have disagreed with my teacher. As indicated in the preceding chapters, the P narrative appears to me to be a continuous, consistent story. If J and E are separated from it, we can read this story with hardly a gap. Where the gaps do occur, they are explainable in terms of the priestly author's interests, as I described in the last chapter. If we look at the biblical flood story with the two sources separated, we can see that each story is complete. Likewise with the rebellion story (Korah, Dathan, Abiram). Likewise with the two stories of the splitting of the Red Sea, and with the two stories of the event at Mount Sinai. In each case, the Priestly story is not written around the J or E story. It rather appears to be an originally separate, continuous, consistent story, which someone else has combined with the earlier version. Also, there is the matter of the P stories being alternative versions of the ] and E stories. What would have been the point of the P author's writing these alternative presentations of the stories if he was combining them with the very texts to which they were alternative? Still, even though I was persuaded by the evidence that the Priestly writer and the redactor were two different persons, I was also persuaded by Professor Cross that the redactor was himself from the Aaronid priestly family, using priestly documents and priestly terminology. There is a way of distinguishing the original P texts from the Priestly redactor's insertions, which I shall discuss below. But, again, the point for now is that the redactor came from the same group as the P writer. His work explicitly expressed a priest's concerns and interests, he used P language, he started each major section of his work with a P text, and he framed the work with priestly documents. It is not really surprising to find that the redactor was a priest. The majority of the stories and all of the law that we have looked at so far have turned out to be by priests (E, P, and D). Priests had access to documents and the religious authority to promulgate the documents. Part of the priests' official function was to teach law and tradition. It is only natural that the priests who produced P and them Deuteronomistic history (which probably included JE) should have passed their works along to other priests, and that these documents should have been preserved in priestly circles. Then a moment in history came when a priest saw value in putting them together.
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In the Days of the Second Temple
That moment had to be in the days of the second Temple. The sources—J, E, P, and D (Dtr and Dtx )—were not all completed until shortly before that time. Also, if we look at what this priest added to these sources, we can see clues pointing even more specifically to the moment of creation of the final work. For example, he
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added chapter 15 of the book of Numbers. I t is a chapter of laws that is separated from all the other priestly laws. For some reason it was inserted between chapters that contain stories, rather than among the other laws. It is in between the spy story and the rebellion story. I t is written in typical priestly language, and i t is about a typical priestly concern: sacrifice. It is too typical. It deals with regular sacrifice, holiday sacrifice, sacrifices of vows, and individual sacrifices for sin through error. These are all things that were dealt with already in P. This chapter is largely a doublet, repeating things that have already been said, while adding some offerings to the list. But there is one striking difference: Numbers 15 never mentions the Tabernacle. The absence of any mention of the Tabernacle in a text that,duplicates priestly laws of sacrifice is no coincidence. Elsewhere in P mit is emphasized over and over that the Tabernacle is crucial to sacrifice. There cannot be any sacrifice except at the entrance of the Tabernacle. This other text, Numbers 15, appears to come from a time when priests could no longer insist on the presence of the Tabernacle for sacrifice. It fits the days of the second Temple, when the Tabernacle no longer existed. The second Temple had no Tabernacle, no cherubs, and no ark. Yet sacrifices were made there. Numbers 15 appears to be the text that created a link between the old days and the new, between the first Temple and the second. It had to be written either in Jerusalem as a second Temple law, or while still in Babylonian exile, as a program for the future. There is another insertion that is more revealing. The P source gives laws about holidays in Leviticus 23. The text there lists the three main holidays— the feast of Passover, the feast of Weeks, and the feast of Booths—and also the new year and Day of Atonement holidays. This holiday list is plainly marked. It begins (verse 4) and ends (verse 37) with the words "These are the holidays of Yahweh." But then, two verses after the end of the list (verse 39), suddenly there is another law about one of the holidays: the feast of Booths. This additional law, which is disconnected from all the other holiday laws, says that on this holiday which is called "Booths" (Hebrew: Sukkot) the people are actually supposed to build booths (i.e., huts or tents) and live in them for a week. The text says that this practice is to remind the people that their ancestors lived in temporary structures in the wilderness after they left Egypt. The text lists species of trees that are to be used on this holiday. What is this all about? Why does this one law about one particular practice on one holiday appear separately, after the end of the holiday section? The answer lies in the days of the second Temple. According to the book of Nehemiah, when Ezra gathered the people at the water gate to read the Torah to them, they found something in the Torah that apparently was brand-new to them: a law that prescribed actually living in booths on the feast of Booths. The text is explicit that this law had never before been observed in the entire history of the country. It says: The children of Israel had not done so from the days of Joshua son of Nun until that day. Now, this event in the days of Ezra refers to the passage in Leviticus about the booths. It even mentions the same species of trees that are listed in Leviticus. And so we have an oddly placed law in Leviticus, and we have a report that this oddly placed law was never part of the people's life or tradition until the days of the second Temple. This fits with the other evidence that the final stage of the formation of the Five Books of Moses was in the days of the second Temple. This makes perfect sense. The second Temple days were the time when the Aaronid priests were in authority. There were no more kings. Rival priesthoods had been superseded. It is really no surprise that an Aaronid priest of the second Temple days should have been the redactor of the final work. This was the time, as never before, that the priests had the authority to promulgate the work—and to enforce it.
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Ezra
One Aaronid priest in particular had all this power: Ezra. He had the backing of the emperor. He had enforcement powers. Even though he was not the High Priest, he had enormous authority. And his authority was directly linked to a scroll that he brought to judah, a scroll that is identified as "the Torah of Moses which Yahweh God of Israel gave. " As I said in Chapter 8, in the entire Bible only two men are known as lawgivers: Moses and Ezra. Ezra was a priest, a lawgiver, and a scribe. He had access to documents. And the biblical biography of Ezra is explicit about which documents interested him. It says: Ezra had set his heart on seeking out Yahweh's T o r a h . . . . It also says: He was a ready scribe in the Torah of Moses. It also reports that the emperor authorized him to teach and enforce the law of your God which is in your hand. The first time that we find the full Torah of Moses in Judah, it is in Ezra's possession. He sought it out, he was a scribe who worked with it, he personally carried it to Jerusalem, and he personally gave it its first public reading. And when he read it to the people, they heard things that they had never heard before. This does not prove that it absolutely had to be Ezra who fashioned the Five Books of Moses. But he was in the right priestly family, in the right profession, in the right place, in the right time, with the authority, and with the first known copy of the book in his hand. If it was not Ezra himself who composed the work, then i t was someone close to him—a relative, a colleague in the priesthood, a fellow scribe—because it could not have been produced very long before he arrived with it in Judah. The Temple had been standing for only about one generation when he came
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to Jerusalem. In light of all this, it is fascinating that there actually was an ancient tradition about Ezra and the Torah of Moses. The tradition says that the original scroll of the Torah (and other books of the Bible) was burned up in the fire that destroyed the Temple in 587 B.C. but that Ezra was able to restore it by a revelation. This tradition is preserved in a work called the Fourth Book of Ezra. This book is not part of the Bible. It is rather part of the collection known as the Pseudepigrapha, which are works written by Christians and Jews between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D. The Fourth Book of Ezra comes from around 100 A.D. In i t , God speaks to Ezra from a bush. Ezra says: The world lies in darkness, and its inhabitants are without light. For your law has been burned, and so no one knows the things which have been done or will be done by you. If then I have found favor before you, send the Holy Spirit to me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in your Law. Ezra then recites the lost texts for forty days. Not to overstate the importance of this relatively late text, the point of this is simply that already in early times Ezra was associated with the production of the sacred text. Even Jerome, in the fourth century A . D., said: . . . whether you choose to call Moses the author of the Pentateuch or Ezra the renewer of the same work, I raise no objection. Modern investigators, too, have occasionally expressed the suspicion that Ezra was the man who fashioned the Five Books of Moses. In the present state of our knowledge, the evidence seems to me to point with high likelihood to Ezra, the priest, scribe, and lawgiver who came to the land with the Torah of Moses in his hand.
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The Combination
And so the nineteenth-century investigators who said that the Priestly writer came from second Temple days were partly right. The final Priestly hand on these texts was from those days. His Priestly source (P) was from earlier (Hezekiah) days. Why did he do it? Why commit this extraordinary irony, combining texts that were diametrically opposed to each other? He did i t , presumably, for the same reasons that J and E had been combined about 250 years earlier. By this time, all of his source texts were famous. J and E had been around for centuries and were quoted in D. P had been around since Hezekiah's days, it had been associated with a national reform, and it had the support of the priesthood that was in power. D had been read publicly in the days of Josiah, and it contained a law requiring that it be read again publicly every seven years. How could the redactor have left any of these out? The issue again was successful promulgation. Who would have believed that it was the Torah of Moses if it did not include the famous stories of Adam and Eve (J), the golden calf (E), Phinehas (P), and Moses' farewell speech (D)? Besides, there were groups who supported these various texts. The Shiloh Levite priests who had produced E and D may not have been in priestly power in the second Temple days, but that did not mean that they did not exist. They could still raise their voices and protest the authenticity of a Torah that did not include their texts. Indeed, the combination of all the sources in this period may have been precisely as a compromise among various factions of Israelite-Judean society. The question still remains as to why the redactor had to mix them all together. Why not just preserve them all side by side like the four Gospels of the New Testament? The difference was that by Ezra's time all of the sources apparently had come to be attributed to Moses. What was the redactor to do? He could not have two or three different texts all be by Moses, especially when they sometimes contradicted each other. And so he took on the enormous, intricate, and ironic task of combining these alternative versions of the same stories into one work.
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Method
How does one set out on a task like that? It could not be done according to any existing guidelines, because i t was a one-time effort, unique, a response to a very specific need at a particular moment in history. It could not be done in any systematic way, because the source texts were so diverse. They were in prose and poetry. They included stories, laws, lists, and architectural instructions. The person who set out to assemble them had to have exceptional literary sensitivity and exceptional skills. He had to have a sense of which contradictions were tolerable to readers and which were not. He had to make the jagged edges smooth, to make pieces of stories that were never meant to go together flow comfortably. His only guideline seems to have been to retain as much of the original texts as possible without intolerable contradictions. The evidence of this is that when we separate JE from P in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, each flows sensibly on its own with very few gaps in its story. There are few signs of the redactor's having cut anything. He had to solve problems involving different sorts of contradictions and repetitions at each new turn. He could not start with a single overarching decision of method. There was no one critical decision to be made. He had to make hundreds of

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correct decisions in order to turn his diverse sources into a flowing, sensible narrative. His first decision was what to do with two creation stories. He chose to keep them both, back to back. The first one, Genesis 1 (P), had a broader, more cosmic perspective, and the second one ( ]) had a more earthly, human-centered perspective. Placed beside each other, they simply appeared to be a broad presentation of the major acts of the creation followed by a more specific focus on particular aspects of it. The fact that the order of events changed and that the name of the deity changed apparently did not trouble him. That is not an indictment of his logic or of his skill. He simply was able to live with these sorts of developments, as were his readers for the next two millennia. Next came the J stories of Adam and Eve and of Cain and Abel. These stories involved close personal contacts with the deity, plus cherubs (real ones, not statues), powerful plants (tree of life, tree of knowledge of good and bad), and a talking snake. P had no equivalents of such stories, and so the redactor was free simply to place the J texts after the two creation stories. Then he inserted the first ten begats from the Book of Generations, which ended with Noah. At that point, the redactor came to the first real challenge of his unique task. He had two flood stories. They were both complete. They had definite similarities and blatant differences. The J flood story was about forty days of rain. The P flood story was about a year-long cosmic crisis. The J story had fourteen of the clean animals and two of the unclean. The P story had two of each. The J story had Noah sending out three doves (or one dove three times) at the end. The P story had one raven. There was no way that the redactor could place these two back to back as he had done with the creation stories. But apparently he was not prepared to discard one or the other either. And so he attempted to combine them into one story that would still make sense—and still be a good story. His final product was the first text I used in this book (Chapter 2, pages 54-59). He cut the two stories up and wove the corresponding pieces together perfectly. Now the rain in ] appeared to be nothing more than another reference to the waters that were spilling through the cosmic firmament of P. Now the "two-of-each" animals in P were understood to mean that the fourteen of each of J's clean animals came to the ark "two by two." Now the raven from P was understood to have flown away from the ark and not returned, so that Noah had to send out doves to see if the floodwaters had subsided. It was a brilliant synthesis of the two stories, all apparently without deleting a word of either of the original texts. And it worked for two and a half millennia. This method of segmenting the stories and weaving the corresponding parts together worked so well that the redactor used it to assemble the P story of Korah with the JE story of Dathan and Abiram. He also used it to fashion the spy story, the story of the plagues in Egypt, and the story of the splitting of the Red Sea. But he was not bound to this method. In some cases he chose to cut the P story into several small pieces and distribute these pieces through several JE stories. In this manner, he scattered the P components of the Jacob-and-Esau story through the much longer JE account of the twin brothers. He did the same with the short P record of the migration to Egypt, spreading its pieces through fourteen chapters of the JE story of Joseph. In the case of the story of the rebellion at Peor, as we saw, he cut off the beginning of the P story and the end of the JE story to create the continuity he sought. Did i t boiher him that the seductive women were Moabite in the first half of the story and Midianite in the second half? Apparently not. In other cases, he chose to separate the two versions of doublet stories, thus depicting them as separate events. For example, he placed the JE story of the covenant with Abraham at Genesis 15 and the P story of this covenant at Genesis 17, with another story in between the two. And so now the two versions of the Abrahamic covenant appeared to be picturing two separate meetings between God and Abraham. Even more dramatic was the redactor's separation of the two stories of Moses' getting water from the rock. The JE version now is located at Exodus 17. The P version comes two books later, in Numbers 20. Separated, they appear to tell about two different incidents, separated by years and distance, even though they both occur at places with the same name. Thus some repetitions and contradictions were tolerable to him, and some were not. He was not prepared to have two floods that each destroy all the world except for a man named Noah. But he was willing to have Moses strike two rocks at two places called Meribah. He was willing to have Moses repeat the Ten Commandments in his farewell address in Deuteronomy 5, even though they came out differently there from the way they appeared in Exodus 20. In Exodus 20, the fourth commandment is: Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yah'
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weh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it. But in Deuteronomy, when Moses repeats the commandment, he says that it was: Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There'
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fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day The first version is from P, and it quotes the P creation story for its reason for keeping the sabbath: because God rested on the seventh day. The second version is from D, and it gives a common D reason for keeping commandments: because God freed you from slavery. To the redactor, and to his readers, the two different wordings of the same commandment were compatible. (It is interesting to note that one of the Dead Sea Scrolls collapses these two texts and simply lists both reasons for keeping the sabbath side by side. ) In all of this, no one method governs the process. The redactor's texts were diverse and complicated, and he was wise enough and skillful enough to handle each case according to his judgment of what it needed.
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Continuity
The redactor still had to give the entire collection of pieces a meaningful organization. There had to be continuity. In part, the continuity was provided by the nature of the texts themselves. What made all of the stories naturally fit together was that they were all set in history. A l l of the texts pictured events in the order in which they were understood to have occurred in historical sequence. That may seem so obvious as to be petty to us. But that is only because we live in a postbiblical (and post-Greek) world. The Bible was the first attempt at writing history. We may argue about whether it is good history-writing or bad—I would say that it is mostly very good—but the fact remains that it is the first history writing. The only things that come close to it in the ancient Near East are royal annals like the Sennacherib Prism Inscription, which record the kings' military campaigns, naming places conquered and spoils taken. But these are more like reports or lists than actual history. The first known extensive works of national history were precisely the sources that this redactor was assembling. The redactor organized these sources into the flow of history by using three documents. The first was the Book of Generations. He cut up its long record of who begat whom, and then he distributed the pieces at the appropriate points in the stories from Adam to Jacob. By doing this, he gave a historical continuity to the entire book of Genesis. The second document he used was the P plagues narrative. He used its language of "Pharaoh's heart was strengthened" as a framework that united the various JE and P stories of the exodus from Egypt. The structure covered the first twelve chapters of the book of Exodus, up to the moment of the people's departure from Egypt. His third document was a list of the stops that the Israelites made during their forty years in the wilderness. This itinerary list is now located in the book of Numbers, chapter 33. It begins with the explicit statement: These are the journeys of the children of Israel who went out from the land of Egypt.... Then it goes on to list each of the places they went, starting with the city of Rameses in Egypt, continuing through all their encampments in the wilderness, and ending with their arrival at the Jordan River, the doorstep of the promised land. Most biblical scholars had thought that this list was merely a summary of all of the places mentioned in the stories up to that point, but Frank Cross demonstrated that the list was originally an independent document like the Book of Generations. The redactor used this list as a framework for the wilderness stories, just as he had used the Book of Generations for the Genesis stories and the P plagues narrative for the Egypt stories. He distributed the pieces of the list of the people's journeys through the text, setting each of his stories in its appropriate place. This gave the same sort of continuity to the books of Exodus (starting at chapter 12), Leviticus, and Numbers that he had given to Genesis. Deuteronomy was already a continuous unit, depicting the last words and actions of Moses. A l l that the redactor had to do to fit it in was to move the JE and P stories of Moses' death to the end of Deuteronomy. The last chapter of Deuteronomy (chapter 34) is now a combination of all three versions of Moses' death (JE, P, and D ) . The redactor's contribution also included his adding occasional verses to enhance the transitions and combinations of his sources and to clarify or emphasize points that were especially important to him. He also added a few passages that were important in his own day, including the sacrificial laws in Numbers 15, the law about booths, a passage emphasizing the sabbath, and a passage about returning from exile. This redactor was an Aaronid priest like the person who produced P. But, ironically, his task was the exact opposite of that earlier person's. The person who produced P was fashioning a work that was an alternative to earlier sources (JE). The redactor was fashioning a work that reconciled opposing sources. This was the key I found which, I believe, along with other supporting evidence, made it possible to separate P and the redactor's work from each other. The P texts struggled with the other sources. The redactor's text embraced them.
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The First Bible
When the redactor included Deuteronomy among his sources, he achieved an additional effect which he may not even have intended. Deuteronomy was now both the last book of the Torah and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history. There was now a natural continuity from Genesis to the end of 2 Kings. The American biblical scholar David Noel Freedman has called this eleven-book continuous story the Primary History (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings). He has also referred to it as "The First Bible. "That really is a useful way to look at it. The Primary History formed the core around which the rest of the Bible was built. It told the stories of the events that set the stage for everything that was to happen later: the creation, the birth of the people, the settlement in the land, the establishment of the messianic line. It contained the four major covenants (Noah, Abraham, Sinai, David). The various prophets could be understood against the background of the history it told. Isaiah could be understood better when seen against the background of the reign of Hezekiah, in which he lived. Jeremiah could be understood better against the background of Josiah. The rest of the books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament likewise came to be understood by the communities who preserved them in the context of the central events of the Primary History. That is why I chose to concentrate on these particular books here, and that is why the redactor's work was so important to the formation of the Bible.

Artistry Upon Artistry
The redactor, whom I identify as Ezra, has been the least appreciated of the contributors to the Five Books of Moses. Usually, more credit is given to the authors of the stories and the laws. That may be an error. The redactor was as much an artist, in his own way, as the authors of J, E, P, and D were in theirs. His contribution was certainly as significant as theirs. His task was not merely difficult, it was creative. It called for wisdom and literary sensitivity at each step, as well as a skill that is no less an art than storytelling. In the end, he was the one who created the work that we have read all these years. He assembled the final form of the stories and laws that, in thousands of ways, have influenced millions. Is that his influence? Or is it the influence of the authors of the sources? Or would it be better to speak of a literary partnership of all these contributors, a partnership that most of them never even knew would take place? How many ironies are contained in this partnership that was spread over centuries? How many new developments and ideas resulted from the combination of all their contributions? In short, the question for the last chapter of this book is: is the Bible more than the sum of its parts?

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APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

GENESIS 17:7-14 CIRCUMCISION

LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

TEN COMMANDMENTS
EXODUS 29:1-9 AARON SON AND LEVITES PRIEST

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APAT NA PUNDASYON

1. Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision

2. Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron at Levita

3. Ikatlong Pundasyon Ang Ten Commandments ni Yahweh

4. Ika-apat na Pundasyon Ang mga Appointed Feast ni Yahweh

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ANO ANG SINA-UNANG PANANAMPALATAYA NI ABRAHAM, NI DATH MOSES, NI YAHSHU‟A MESSIAH?
Jeremiah 6:16 Thus saith , Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.

APAT NA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH MGA BATAS NA MAGPAKAILANMAN NI YAHWEH (FOREVER LAWS OF YAHWEH)

GENESIS 17:7-14 CIRCUMCISION

LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

TEN COMMANDMENTS
EXODUS 29:1-9 AARON SON AND LEVITES PRIEST

APAT NA PUNDASYON HINDI DAPAT TANGGALIN MAGPAKAILANMAN

1. 2. 3. 4.

Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron at Levita Ikatlong Pundasyon Ang Ten Commandments ni Yahweh Ika-apat na Pundasyon Ang mga Appointed Feast ni Yahweh
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APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

FALSE MESSIAH AND FALSE PROPHETS SHALL RISE
Mark 13:22-23'For false Messiahs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect, But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things'.

HINDI NATIN MASISISI ANG MGA KASALUKUYANG TIGAPAGTURO NG BIBLIA DAHIL HINDI NILA PINAGTUUNAN NG MALALIM NA PANSIN NA PAGKATAPOS NG MINISTERIAL NI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH AY LALABAS ANG MGA BULAANG MESSIAH AT MGA BULAANG PROPETA NA MAGTUTURO NG MGA KASINUNGALINGAN AT BABAGUHIN ANG NAITATAG NA MAGPAKAILANMANG PUNDASYON (FOREVER LAW).

1. Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision
(CIRCUMCISION) WALANG-HANGGANG TIPAN KAY YAHWEH: Genesis 17:7 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an EVERLASTING COVENANT, to be the MIGHTY-ONE unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. Genesis 17:8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their MIGHTY-ONE . Genesis 17:9 And YAHWEH said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. Genesis 17:10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. Genesis 17:11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. Genesis 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Genesis 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an EVERLASTING COVENANT. Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

MGA INA-ARAL NG MGA BULAANG PROPETA

Ang itinuturo ng mga BULAANG PROPETA ay tinanggal na raw ang pagtutuli na “Walang -Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ang ibig sabihin ng „walang-hanggang tipan‟ ay „Forever Contract‟ na hindi pwedeng palitan kahit kailan at hindi pwedeng palitan ng kahit na sino pang Apostol o si Pablo man. Dahil sa hindi naraw umiiral ang „walang hanggang tipan‟ na pagtutuli ay pwede na ngayon ang mga hindi -tuli (supot). Sa ganitong aral ay binale-wala na nila ang Walang-Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh (Genesis 17:7-10). Kasi nalito sila sa nabasa nila sa Gawa 15:1-2 na tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyo na nagsasabi na „ka ilangang magpatuli sa APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

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pamamaraan ni Moses kung hindi ay hindi kayo maliligtas‟. Ang pamamaraan ni Abraham ang dapat ipatupad kaya tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyong nagtuturo sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses. Ito ang resulta ng ang mga Pare na Hindi-Levita at Pare na Hindi Israelita ( 1Kings 12:31-32, 1Kings 13:33-34, 2Chronicles 11:13-17, 2 Kings 17:24-41,Nehemiah 7:61-64) ay hindi naunawaan ang Genesis 17:9-14. Katunayan hindi tutol si Apostol Saul (Pablo) sa Pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Abraham. Pagkagaling ni Apostol Saul sa pakikipag-usap sa mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa suliranin ng pagtutuli ay tinuli ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) si Timoteo sa Gawa 16:3-4 at ibinalita pa sa lahat ng lugar na pinuntahan nila ang naging desisyon ng mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa pagtutuli. Ang naging dahilan ng kalituhan ay ang pagtutol ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses at hindi sa pamamaraan ni Abraham na orihinal na pamamaraan ng pagtutuli. Pagkatapos na makunsulta ang mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem na huwag ng gambalain ang mga Hentil (di-tuli) na mananampalataya dahil binabasa naman tuwing Sabbath ang mga batas sa aklat ni Moses, samakatwid ay matututuhan din nila iyon, ay tumuloy na ng lakad si Apostol Saul (Pablo) kasama si Silas tumungo sa Syria at Cilicia at tumuloy sa Derbe at Lystra na nadatnan nila si Timoteo na mananampalataya kaya tinuli ni Apostol Saul si Timoteo. Isa pang kalituhan ay ang pagkakalagay ng chapter sa Gawa 15 ay inihiwalay ang chapter 16 ni Padre Hugo noong ika-12 Siglo ng pairalin at lagyan na ng Chapter at Verses ang Biblia. Paanong masasabi ng mga Hindi-Tuli (supot) na pwede na sila na makasama sa Tamang Pananampalataya na may Walang–hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh kung hindi sila magpapatuli ? Sa Genesis 17:14 ay sinabi ni Yahweh na „hindi kasama‟ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ngunit sa I Corinto 7:18-19 at sa Galatia 5:2 at sa Galatia 6:13 ang konklusyon ni Apostol Saul ay “dahil ang mga taong „tuli‟ (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi naman sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh ay hinihimuk pa silang mga (Hintil) hindi tuli na magpatuli upang magaya sa kanilang mga tuli (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh”, kaya bale-wala ang kahalagahan ng kanilang pagka-tuli dahil sila ay hindi naman sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh. Nasasainyo na iyan kung gusto ninyong sumunod kay Apostol Saul ay Pauline belief kayo o gusto ninyong sumunod kay Yahweh na sinasamba ni Abraham ay Abrahamic belief kayo. Ngunit ang sinulat ni Apostol Saul ay malalalim kaya nagbilin ang Disipolo ni Yahshu‟a na si Pedro sa 2 Pedro 3:15 -16 at si Apostol Saul ay hindi Levita kundi mula sa lahi ni BenYahmin Phillipians 3:1-5 at galing sa paniniwala ng mga Pariseo. Basta ang sabi ni YAHWEH ang Pinakamakapangyarihan sa lahat at sinasamba ni Abraham na „ hindi kasama‟ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh.

Those Circumcised who Do Not Keep the Law of Yahweh, even they are circumcised, the Messiah shall have no profit on them Galatians 6:13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. Galatians 5:2 Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, the Messiah shall profit you nothing.

Being Uncircumcised shall be cut- off and put away from the Covenant of Yahweh to Abraham Gen. 17:14. 1Corinthians 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised. 1Corinthians 7:19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of YAHWEH. Uncircumcised man can Keep the Commandment of YAHWEH but he is out of the Covenant of Abraham to YAHWEH.

DECISION OF JAMES Acts 15:19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to YAHWEH: Acts 15:20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day. APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

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The Teaching is Introductory to the Gentiles for the book of Moses being preach and read in the synagogues every Sabbath day, they will Increased their learning soon and the Gentiles can follow the Laws and Statutes of YAHWEH as in Genesis 17:12-14. Genesis 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Genesis 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

2. Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron at Levita
AARON SON AND LEVITES: Exodus 29:1 And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish, Exodus 29:2 And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou make them. Exodus 29:3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. Exodus 29:4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. Exodus 29:5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: Exodus 29:6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. Exodus 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. Exodus 29:8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them. Exodus 29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a PERPETUAL STATUTE: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

PERPETUAL STATUTE (WALANG-HANGGANG BATAS NI YAHWEH) perpetual [pər péchoo əl] adj 1. lasting for ever: lasting for all time 2. lasting indefinitely: lasting for an indefinitely long time 3. occurring repeatedly: occurring over and over statute [státtyoot] n

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1.LAW law enacted by legislature: a law established by a legislative body, for example an Act of Parliament 2.BUSINESS established rule: a permanent established rule or law, especially one involved in the running of a company or other organization

MGA PEKENG-PARI 2kings 13:33-34 Pinalitan ang mga Levitang Pare ng mga Hindi-Levita ni Haring Jeroboam ng Israel, sapalagay mo may tama silang itinuro? 2 Kings 17:24-41 Itinapon ang mga Israelita kasama ang mga Paring Hindi-Levita at ang isa lang ang pinabalik sa Samaria para magturo samakatwid nag-ordain siya ng mga Pari na nagmula sa Abba, Cutha, Separvaim , Hammath at Babylonia na tinawag na Paring Israelita na hindi naman Israelita. Nehemiah 7:61-66 Ang Tunay na pari ay Levita na lahi ni Aaron (Ex. 29:1-9) na ang natira ay si Ezra. Lumitaw ang mga pekeng-pari na walang pinanggalingang lahi na maipakita na sila ay lahing Levita.

Pagbabalik sa Lupang Pangako Ang mga nakabalik sa Yahrusalem ay pinamunuan ni Sheshbazzar at Zerubbabel na kapwa galing sa lahi ng Yahuwdah. Ang gumanap na Pari ay si Ezra na galing sa lahi ni Aaron na may dalang mga aklat ni Moses at Karapatan na ibinigay ni Artaxerxes na Emperador noon ng Persia. Si NehemiYah naman ang naatasan ng Emperador na maging Governador at ipinatupad ang pagganap ng mga Sabbath at Kapistahan ni Yahweh, ipinagbawal ang pag-aasawa ng mga Yahuwdah sa ibang lahi at pinahiwalay ang mga Yahuwdah na nakapag-asawa ng ibang lahi. Ang lupain ng Yahuwdah ay naging isang probinsya ng Persia. Ipinatawag ni Ezra ang lahat sa Kapistahan ng Tabernakulo sa ika-pitung buwan at binasa ang Torah ni Moses na napakinggan ng lahat at ang lahat ay sumumpang susundin muli ang kontrata at kasunduan ni Yahweh at ng mga Yahuwdah.

AKLAT NI MOSES Ang Torah ni Moses o ang aklat ni Moses ay nadala ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron dahil tanging ang lahi lamang ni Aaron ang may karapatang humawak at mag-ingat noon. Paglipas ng panahon ay nakasama na ang mga teksto at komentaryo ng Israelitang-Pari na HINDI nagmula sa lahi ng Levitang si Aaron, 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34, at ang teksto at komentaryo ng mga Paring Hindi-Israelita, 2Kings 17:24 , 2Kings 17:27. Sila ay walang maipakitang katunayan na lahi silang Levita na mababasa sa Nehemiah 7:64. Ang Yahweh (J) Text at ang Elohim (E) Text at ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at ang Deuteronomy (D) Text ay magkakasama sa nabuong mga aklat na tinawag ngayon na Limang Aklat ni Moses. Mapapansin ang nakasulat sa mga Aklat ni Moses ay inuulit-ulit ng J, E, P at D text. Ang J-Text o Yahweh Text ay mula sa pag-iingat ng mga Levitang lahi ni Aaron, na tanging mga Levitang lahi sa anak ni Aaron lamang ang inatasan ni Yahweh na hahawak at mag-iingat ng mga banal na kasulatan o mga aklat ni Moses (2Samuel 6:6-7, Deuteronomy 10:8, 31:26). 2Samuel 6:6-7 And when they came to Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of Yahweh, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. And the anger of Yahweh was kindled against Uzzah; and Yahweh smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of Yahweh. Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time Yahweh separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of Yahweh, to stand before Yahweh to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day. Deuteronomy 31:26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of Yahweh your Mighty One, that it may be there for a witness against thee.

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Ang E-text o Elohim Text ay mula sa mga Israelitang Hindi-Levita na itinalagang Pari ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) (1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34), sila ay hindi naatasan na mag-ingat ng mga kasulatan na tanging Levita na lahi ni Aaron lamang ang may karapatang humawak. Ang P-Text at D-Text ay mula sa mga Pari na nagmula sa limang bansa ng Babylonia, Cuthah, Hamath, Ava, Separvaim (Neh 7:64) na walang talaan na lahi silang Levita at naturuan lamang ng isang Paring-Israelita na Hindi Naman Levita na pinabalik ng Hari ng Assyria sa lupain ng Israel (2Kings 17:27-28).

Inulit-ulit ang Nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses Genesis 1 ay Elohim (E) Text ay inulit sa Genesis 2 na Yahweh (J) Text, nadagdag ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at Deuteronomy (D) Text Ang istorya nila Adam at Eve at Cain at Abel ay Yahweh (J) Text ay tinutukoy ang pagiging malapit sa anghel (tunay na anghel hindi istatwa), sa mga halaman at pakikipag usap sa ahas. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay walang kwento tungkol dito. At binangit ang henerasyon mula kay Adam hanggang kay Noah. Ang istorya sa naganap na malaking baha sa Yahweh (J) Text ay 40 araw na umulan. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay halos isang taong delubyo. Ang Yahweh (J) Text ay may 14 na malilinis na mga hayop at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay 2 malinis at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Yahweh (J) Text ay nagpadala si Noah ng 3 kalapati o tatlong beses na nagpalipad ng kalapati, ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay isang uwak ang pinalipad ni Noah. Ang J-Text at E-Text sa Kontrata ni Abraham sa Genesis 15 ay siningitan ng ibang istorya at sa Genesis 17 naman ang PText, lumalabas na dalawang beses nagkita sila Abraham at Yahweh. Mas dramatiko ang J-Text at E-Text sa Exodus 17 nang si Moses ay kumuha ng tubig sa bato, samantalang ang P-Text sa dalawang aklat sa Numbers 20 ay lumalabas na dalawang insidente sa dalawang magkaibang pankakataon o panahon samantalang naganap iyon sa isang lugar sa Meriba at sa isang pagkakataon. Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit- muli sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20.

Sa Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it.

Sa Deuteronomy 5:12-15 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ni Moses : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. Ang unang bersyon galing sa P-text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God rested on the seventh day‟. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D-Text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God freed you from slavery‟.

Sa Natagpuang Dead Sea Scroll Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: „ Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag-uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath‟. (In all of this, no one method governs the process). Itong naisulat at iniaral ng P at D Text ay itinuwid ng Messiah na mababasa sa Matthew 12:1-12.

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Alexander The Great Nasakop Ang Kaharian ng Persia Itinayo ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt Nasakop ni Alexander the Great ang Kaharian ng Persia na pinaghaharian noon ni Darius III. Nasakop din ni Alexander the Great ang Syria, Egypt, Mesapotamia, Bactria at ang India. Itinatag niya ang Alexandria sa Egypt na sentro ng kanyang kaharian, at ang pumalit sa kanya bilang Pharaoh ay si Ptolemy II Soter ay itinayo naman ang Museum at Library ng Alexandria. Ang kanyang mga General si Ptolemy at Nearchus, Aristobulus at Onesicritus. Siya rin ang naging dahilan ng paglaganap ng mga Grego. Ang mga dokumento mula sa Assyria (kasama ang mga dokumento ng naipatapon noon na mga Israelita sa Assyria), Greece, Persia, Egypt, India at maraming nasyon ay nakalagak sa Alexandria Library at Museum. Maraming scholars ang tumira sa Museum upang mag-saliksik, magsulat, magsalin at maglimbag ng mga dokumento.

Greek Pentateuch Si Ptolemy II ay nagpatawag ng 72 Hebrew scholars at nag utos na isalin sa wikang Grego ang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ang limang aklat ni Moses na tinawag sa Grego na „Pentateuch‟. Sinulatan ni Ptolemy II si Eleazar ang Punong Pari sa Yahrusalem upang maglagay ng anim (6) na Hudyong Tigapagsalin na nanggaling sa bawat Tribo ng Israel (12 x 6 = 72). Tinawag ang unang limang aklat ni Moses na „Pentateuch‟ na ibig sabihin ay Limang- aklat.

ROMAN TIME Nasira ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt Tinalo ng mga Romano ang mga Grego at nasira ang Alexandria Library sa pag-kubkub ng mga Romano sa Alexandria na sentro ng mga Grego.

GREEK PENTATEUCH NAGING LATIN SEPTUAGINT Ipinagpatuloy ni Ptolemy ang pagsasalin ng 72 Hebrew scholars ng limang aklat ni Moses sa Hebrew ay isinasalin sa wikang Grego at ang iba pang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ay idinagdag dito. Paglipas ng panahon nadagdag na ang iba-iba pang mga aklat sa Hebreo ay ipinasalin na rin sa wikang Grego at maraming beses itong neribisa sa pagkakasalin sa wikang Grego at ang „Pentateuch‟ na nakasama na ang iba -iba pang aklat na Hebreo naisalin sa Lumang-Wikang Grego ay isinalin muli sa Makabagong-Wikang Koine Greek. Ang Lumang-Wikang Gregong „Pentateuch‟ (ibig sabihin ay Limang-Aklat) (Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‟s bersyon) ay naisalin naman sa wikang Latin at tinawag na Septuagint sa Latin o LXX (dahil hindi na ito Limang Aklat kundi marami na) na siya namang pinagbasehan ng mga bersyon ng Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian at Coptic na bersyon. At ito rin ang mga pinagbasehan ng mga Apostolic Fathers at Christian New Testament. Samantala ang Makabagong -Wikang Koine Greek bersyon ay nirebisa at isinalin sa „Aquila‟ ng Sinope‟s Greek bersyon. Ang Septuagint o LXX ay ang pinagbasehan na “PINANIWALAAN” (canon) at ang iba pang aklat na idinagdag na mga sulat ng mga Propeta kagaya ng aklat na Maccabees, Wisdom of Ben Sira, Daniel at Esther ay mas mahaba pa sa Masoretic Text. Ang ilan na bagong dagdag, ang aklat na Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Macabees at iba pa ay galing sa orihinal na Gregong pagkakasulat. Hindi naisama sa Septuagint ang sikat na mga aklat na „Enosh o Jubilees‟ at iba pang mga kasulatan. Ang Septuagint ay galing sa salitang Latin na ibig sabihin ay „pitumpong tigapagsalin‟ o LXX. Sumunod na panahon ay masusing nirebisa at isinalin sa Makabagong Greek bersyon na tinawag na „Aquila, Symmachus at Theodotion. Ang tatlong ito ang Mas-makabagong Greek bersyon ng kasulatang Septuagint na hango sa Pentateuch na hango sa aklat ni Moses sa Hebreo at iba pang nadagdag na mga aklat sa Hebreo at Grego.

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ANG MGA PINANINIWALAAN NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANO NA MGA ALAMAT BAGO REBISAHIN ANG PENTATEUCH GREEK O SEPTUAGINT LATIN OLD TESTAMENT NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANONG MANUNULAT

ALAMAT NI MYTHRA (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI ATTIS (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI KRISHNA (900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na „NABUHAY NA MULI‟. Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus.

ALAMAT NI HORUS (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

NAKILALA NG MARAMING TAO SI YAHSHU‟A ANG MESSIAH NA MAY 12 DISIPOLO Ang pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ang Messiah ng Nazareth ay pangalang Hebreo ay isinusulat sa Aramaic na Yeshu‟a na ang pagbigkas ay Yah-shu‟a. Ang Aramaic ang umiiral na pangkalahatang wika sa Yahrusalem noong panahong iyon. Mula sa Aramaic ay isinalin ito sa wikang Grego na IESOUS na binibigk as na „Yeh-soos‟ at nang maisalin ang Gregong pangalan sa Latin ay naging IESUS na binibigkas sa Latin na „Yay-soos‟. Nang maimbento ang letrang „J‟ ay naging JESUS na bigkas ay „Jey-zus‟.

MARAMING BESES SINIRA ANG ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY Si Theophilus ay Patriarka ng Alexandria noong 385 hanggang 412 A.D. ang mga Hudyo, Christian at pagano ay samasamang naninirahan sa Alexandria. Nagkaroon ng pagkaka-alitan sila-sila at nawasak na naman ang Alexandria. Ang huling sinisisi sa pagkakasunog sa Alexandria ay si Moslem Caliph Omar noong 640 A.D. pagkatapos na malaman niya na nasa Alexandria ang lahat ng kasulatan at talino sa mundo na kumokontra sa Koran ay lahat ng aklat sa Alexandria ay sinunog na tumagal ng halos anim na buwan.

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SAAN GALING ANG NEW TESTAMENT?
Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang „ Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‟s Greek bersyon, ika -apat ang Pinaka-lumang (Pentateuch) Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‟s bersyon, ang ika -lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami beses at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ay ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong mga pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

Ang New Testament o Tinatawag na Greek New Testament o Greek Scriptures Ang orihinal na indibidwal na aklat ay naisulat noong 45 A.D. sa Koine Greek dahil iyan ang pangkalahatang wikang umiiral noong panahong iyon sa Emperyo ng Roman. Nagmula ang ilan sa Hebreo at Greek na sulatin. Ang Rylands Papyrus 52 ay pangkalahatang tinanggap na pinaka- unang naitalang New Testament na umiidad noong 117 A.D at 138 A.D.

NAKILALANG MGA CHURCH FATHERS: Ang mga Church Fathers ay ang mga naunang maimpluwensyang manunulat sina Clement ng Rome, Ignatius ng Antioch at Polycarp ng Smyrna. Ang kasulatan na Didache at Shepherd of Hermas ay kasulatan ng mga Church Fathers ngunit hindi lang alam kung sino ang sumulat. Si Clement ng Roma ay sinulat ang 1 Clement noong 96 A.D., siya ay nanawagan sa mananampalataya ng Corinto. Si Ignatius ng Antioch ay istudyante ng Desipolong si John (YahYah) ay sumulat sa mga naunang Christians bago siya patayin sa Roma. Binanggit siya sa mga sulat ni Apostol Pablo. Polycarp ng Smyrna ay isang Bishop ng Smyrna (ngayon ay Izmir, Turkey). Siya ay Desipolo ni John (YahYah) na anak ni Zebedee na pinaniniwalaan na sumulat ng ika-apat na Gospel. Samantalang si Eusebius na ipinagpipilitan na si Polycarp ay kasama ni John the Evangelist. Si Polycarp ay pinakiusapan si Anicetus na Bishop ng Rome na ipagdiwang ang Easter sa 14 Nisan ay hindi siya pumayag, kahit sa paggamit sa kalendaryo ng mga taga Kanluran. Si Polycarp ay pinatay ng mga taga Smyrna noong 155 A.D. Hindi siya nasunog sa apoy na pinaglagyan sa kanya, kaya siya ay sinaksak hanggang mamatay at dahil sa dugo niya ay namatay ang apoy sa kanyang paligid.

GREEK FATHERS: Clement ng Rome, Irenaeus ng Lyons, Clement ng Alexandria, Athanasius ng Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril ng Alexandria ang Cappadocian Fathers (Basil ng Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Peter ng Sebaste at Gregory ng Nyssa), at Maximus ang Confessor.

NAKILALANG MGA GREGO AT PEKENG-PARI O ANG MGA CHURCH FATHERS AT ANG KANILANG BULAANG-ARAL Clement ng Rome Ignatius ng Antioch ay istudyante ng Desipolong si John (YahYah) ay sumulat sa mga naunang Christians bago siya patayin sa Roma. Binanggit siya sa mga sulat ni Apostol Pablo. Polycarp ng Smyrna ay isang Bishop ng Smyrna (ngayon ay Izmir, Turkey). Siya ay Desipolo ni John (YahYah) na anak ni Zebedee na pinaniniwalaan na sumulat ng ika-apat na Gospel. Didache at Shepherd of Hermas ay kasulatan ng mga Church Fathers Clement ng Roma ay sinulat ang 1 Clement noong 96 A.D., Eusebius na ipinagpipilitan na si Polycarp ay kasama ni John the Evangelist.

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GREEK FATHERS: Clement ng Rome, Irenaeus ng Lyons, Clement ng Alexandria, Athanasius ng Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril ng Alexandria ang Cappadocian Fathers (Basil ng Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Peter ng Sebaste & Gregory ng Nyssa), at Maximus ang Confessor. Irenaeus ng Lyons Saint Irenaeus, (b. 2nd century; d. end of 2nd/beginning of 3rd century) ay Bishop ng Lugdunum sa Gaul, sa ngayon ay Lyons, France. Siya ay disipolo ni Polycarp. Siya ang unang tumanggap na ang apat na Gospel ay katanggap-tanggap na piliin, noon nagsimula ang pagkalikha ng New Testament noong 180 A.D. Clement ng Alexandria Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens) (c.150-211/216), ay kaanib ng iskwelahan at simbahan ng Alexandria. Sinulat niya ang Clement of Alexandria. Origen of Alexandria Origen, o Origen Adamantius (c 185 - c254) isa sa mga naunangChristian eskolar at isang Egyptian na nagtuturo sa Alexandria kung saan nagturo rin si Clement. Ang Patriarka ng Alexandria una ay sumusuporta sa kanya ngunit siya ay tinanggal dahil naordinahan ng walang permiso ng Patriarka. Sa kanyang kaalaman sa Hebreo itinuwid niya ang Septuagint at sumulat ng mga komentaryong napasama nang isalin sa mga aklat sa Biblia. Sa kanya si Yahweh ay hindi makapangyarihan kundi isa lamang Unang Prinsipyo at ang antas ng Messiah ay mas mababa, ang kanyang pagkakaunawa sa Trinity ang pre-existence ng kaluluwa ay idineklara na isang paglait. Sumulat siya ng mahigit 6,000 aklat. Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang „ Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‟s Greek bersyon, ika -apat ang Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‟s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Si Philo at Josephus ay nagtiwala at pinagbasehan ang Septuagint sa kanilang mga sinulat na patungkol sa mga kasulatan ng Hudyo. The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint. Pope Theonas of Alexandria ay ang Punong Papa ng Alexandria na naging Coptic Church at ang Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 282 hanggang 300 A.D. Pope Achillas of Alexandria ang pang 18 Papa ng Coptic Orthodox Church at ng Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 312 hanggang 313 A.D. Si Achillas naman ay inordinahan na Pari ni Pierius, at naging lider ng Catechetical School of Alexandria sa pagkawala ni Pierius na naging martir ng Alexandria. Siya ay kasing galing sa Greek philosophy at theological science kapantay ni Athanasius ng Alexandria at tinawag siyang "Achillas the Great". Siya ang pumalit pagkamatay ni Peter ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng Pagpapahirap ni Diocletian . Minana niya ang mga problema ng simbahan kagaya ng Meletian heresy at ang patuloy na alitan sa Arianism. Sa pamumuno ni Achillas bilang Patriarka, siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng mga sumusuporta kay Arius upang tanggalin ang suspensyon kay Arius. Sa resulta nito ay ibinalik si Arius bilang Pari sa Bucalis na isang pinakamatanda at maimpluwensyang simbahan sa Alexandria.

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EMPEROR CONSTANTINE Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced /ˈ kɒnstɛntaɪn/), was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337A.D. Kilala bilang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian , at binigyang laya ang mga religion sa kanyang nasasakupang emperyo. Ginawa siya at ang kanyang ina si Reyna Helena bilang Santo ng Eastern Orthodox Church at Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine. Sa Latin Church kahit hindi siya ginawang santo ngunit siya ay tinawag nila na “Constantine The great” sa kanyang kontribusyon sa Christianity. Si Constantine ay ginawa ang sina-unang Greek colony ng Byzantium bilang bagong imperial residence ang Constantinople na nanatiling kapital ng Byzantine Empire sa loob ng 1,000 taon.

50 KOPYA NG BIBLIA NI CONSTANTINE Noong 322 A.D. inutusan ni Emperor Constantine si Eusebius na gumawa ng 50 kopya ng Banal na Kasulatan na ginawa ng Kilalang-Manunulat at isulat na maliwanag na madaling maintindihan at sa tatlo o apat na kopya ay ihatid sa kanya upang siyasatin at gamitin ang dalawang karwahe ng kaharian sa paghahatid. Si Eusebius ay kumuha ng mga aklat sa kanyang lugar sa Caesarea ng mga bagong-salin na mga aklat mula sa Hexaplar Recension na nagmula sa sulat ni Origen na “Hexapla”. Ang 27 aklat na pinagbasehan ay ang rebisyon ng “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

The Bibles of Constantine There is another piece of evidence that bears on the subject of the canon - even though we may not know how to interpret it. About the year 322 CE, the emperor Constantine, wishing to promote and organize Christian worship in the growing number of churches in Constantinople, directed Eusebius to have 50 copies of the sacred Scriptures made by practiced scribes and written legibly on prepared parchment. At the same time the emperor informed him, in a letter still preserved to us, that everything necessary for doing this was placed at his command, among other things two public carriages for conveying the completed manuscripts to the emperor for his personal inspection. According to Eusebius: Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. (Vita Const. 4.36.37) The exact meaning of the concluding words has been taken in a half dozen different senses. Two of the most popular are, that the pages had 'three or four columns of script', or that as the copies were completed, they were sent off for the emperor's inspection 'three or four at a time'. The astonishing thing is that Eusebius, who took care to tell us at some length about the fluctuations of opinion in regard to certain books, has not one word to say regarding the choice he made on this important occasion. Of course, 50 magnificent copies, all uniform, could not but exercise a great influence on great influence on future copies, at least within the bounds of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and would help forward the process of arriving at a commonly accepted New Testament in the East. Some have suggested that the codex Sinaiticus is one of the 50 bibles commissioned by Constantine, but its Alexandrian type of text makes this unlikely.

Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στ ἰχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension

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of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.

Alexander Bishop ng Alexandria Alexander ng Alexandria ay pang 19 na Patriarka ng Alexandria mula 313 A.D. hanggang pagkamatay niya noong 326 A.D. siya ang nagtala ng Easter, siya ay ang lider na kontra sa Arianism sa First Council of Nicaea. Siya rin ang adviser ni Athanasius ng Alexandria na pumalit sa kanya bilang lider ng Church fathers.

Athanasius ng Alexandria Athanasius ng Alexandria (c 293-2 May 373) isang theologian, pumalit kay Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria, Pope ng Alexandria, ay isang Egyptian. Siya ay kilala sa aral niyang Trinity.

Arius Arius (AD ca. 250 or 256 - 336) isang Paring Christian mula sa Alexandria, Egypt ang nagpasimuno ng Arianism. Siya ay mula sa Libya na sakop pa ng Egypt, ang kanyang ama ay si Ammonius. Si Arius ay estudyante ni Saint Lucian ng Antioch. Siya ay na excommunikado ni Bishop Peter ng Alexandria sa kanyang pagsuporta sa paniniwala ni Meletius. Si Bishop Peter ay pinalitan ni Bishop Achillas ay muling tinanggap bilang Pari si Arius sa simbahan ng Baucalis sa distrito ng Alexandria.. Noong 318 A.D. nakipagtalo siya sa kanyang Bishop si Alexander ng Alexandria na pumalit kay Bishop Achillas. Ipinilit niya na si Iesous ( Jesus) "ang Son of God," ay hindi katulad o hindi parehas na mananatili magpakailanman (co-eternal) kagaya ng God the Father, at minsan binanggit niya na hindi tutuo ang Iesous (Jesus). Si Arius kasama ang kanyang tigasunod na mga Pari ay na excommunikado, ngunit ang debate ay nagpatuloy sa Eastern Roman Empire. Maraming bishops lalo na ang mga nakapag-aral kay Lucian ng Antioch ay naniwala kay Arius. Sa panahong iyon si Constantine I ay ang naging Emperador ng Silanganan noong 324 A.D. at ang mga debate ay matitindi sa panahong iyon. Maraming sinulat si Arius ngunit walang natira, inutos ni Emperor Constantine ang pagsunog sa lahat ng sulat ni Arius at ang mga natira sa sinulat ni Arius ay sinira ng mga nakalaban ni Arius. Ang tatlong natira sa sinulat ni Arius ang sulat niya kay Alexander ng Alexandria na naitago ng mga Athanasius, On the Councils of Arminum and Seleucia, 16; Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.7; and Hilary, On the Trinity, 4.12), Ang sulat niya kay Eusebius ng Nicomedia (as recorded by Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.6 and Theodoret, Church History, 1.5) . Ang kanyang kumpisal kay Constantine (as recorded in Socrates Scholasticus, Church History 1.26.2 and Sozomen, Church History 2.27.6-10). COUNCIL OF NICAEA Noong 325 A.D. si Emperor Constantine ay binuo ang Council of Nicaea . Sa 1,800 na Bishop na imbitado, 318 na Bishop lamang ang nakadalo. Natalo sa debate si Arius at si Athanasius na ipinadala ni Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria ang pinanigan ni Constantine na ang itinuturo ay ang Trinity.

Ang Mga Sumunod na Mga Bishop ng Alexandria

Cyril ng Alexandria Cyril ng Alexandria (ca. 378 - 444) ay Bishop ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng kasikatan ng Emperyo ng Romano ".

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John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (c 347– c 407), Pangunahing Bishop ng Constantinople, sinulat niya ang Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom .

Cappadocian Fathers Ang mga eskolar sina Saint Macrina the Younger , Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa at Peter of Sebaste na naging Bishop ng Sebaste. Ang mga eskolar kasama ang kanilang kaibigan si Gregory Nazianzus ay ipinakita na ang mga Christian ay kayang makipag usap sa mga mataas ang aral na nagsasalita ng Grego kahit na ang kanilang paniniwala ay talihis kay Plato at Aristotle at iba pang Pilosopong Grego ay nakapag-dagdag ng malaki sa pagkaka-kilala sa Trinity na tinapos sa First Council of Constantinople noong 381 A.D at ang pinal na bersyon ng Nicene Creed.

Mga Latin Fathers Ang mga sumulat sa wikang Latin ay ang tinawag na Latin Fathers sila Tertullian, si Cyprian ng Carthage, si Gregory the Great, si Augustine ng Hippo, si Ambrose ng Milan, at si Jerome.

Tertullian Promotor ng Tawag na Old Testament at New Testament Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c 160 - c 225), ay naging Christian noong 197 A.D. ay isang manunulat at theologian ay isang anak ng Romanong Centurion. Siya ay isang abogado sa Roma at binansagang “Father of the Latin Church”. Siya ang nag lunsad ng salitang “Trinitas” ng Christian Devine Trinity sa wikang Latin kahit na nauna ng naisulat ni Theophilus of Antioch (c. 115 - c. 183) na nagmula sa Koine Greek at ang “vetus testamentum (Old Testament) at "novum testamentum" (New Testament). Siya rin ang nauna na tumawag ng "vera religio", na naging sistema ng Religion ng Roman Empire at iba pang tinanggap na Kulto na tinawag na "superstitions". Sa sumunod na panahon sumali siya sa sektang Montanists na kontra sa umiiral na paniniwala.

Cyprian ng Carthage Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) ay bishop ng Carthage ay isang importanteng manunulat na ipinanganak sa Carthage na naging Bishop noong 249 A.D. Ambrose ng Milan Saint Ambrose (c. 338 – 4 April 397), ay bishop ng Milan na naging maimpluwensya at isa sa apat na orihinal na Doctors of the Church. Jerome of Stridonium Saint Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ay kilala na translator ng Biblia sa Latin mula sa Grego at Hebreo na gumawa ng Vulgate Bible na ginagamit ng Roman Catholic Church. Siya ay tinawag na Doctor of the Church.

Augustine ng Hippo Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), ay ipinanganak sa Algeria ay naging Bishop ng Hippo, isang philosopher at theologian ay isang Latin Father at Doctor of the Church. Siya ay importante sa paglaganap ng Western Christianity. Siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng Platonism. Ang mga ginawa niya ay ipinagpatuloy ni Pope Gregory the Great.

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Gregory the Great Saint Gregory I the Great (c. 540 – March 12, 604) ay ang pope mula September 3, 590 A.D. hanggang mamatay. Kilala rin siya bilang Gregorius Dialogus (Gregory the Dialogist) sa Eastern Orthodoxy ay Doctor of the Church at pang apat sa great Latin Fathers of the Church (ang ibang Latin Fathers sina Ambrose, Augustine, at Jerome).

Apologetic Fathers Sina St. Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athenagoras of Athens, Hermias at Tertullian.

Ang Pangalawang Council of Nicea noong 787 A.D. Ang ika-pitong Economical Council ng Roman Catholic sa Nicaea (Iznik sa Turkey) ay ibinalik ang pagpuri sa mga imahen na pinatigil noong panahon ng Byzantine Empire sa panahon ni Leo III.

Modern positions Sa Roman Catholic Church, si St. John ng Damascus, na nabuhay noong ika-walong siglo ay ang pinaka-huling Church Fathers at ang una sa susunod na Church writers, scholasticism. Si St. Bernard ay isa pa rin sa huling Church Fathers.

PINAGMULAN NG ENGLISH BIBLE
Mula sa Hexaplar Recension ay isinalin ito sa English Hexapla na New Testament ng Wiclif's Bible noong 1380 A.D., William Tyndale's Bible noong 1534A.D., Cranmer's the Great Bible noong 1539 A.D., ang Geneva Bible noong 1557 A.D., Rheims Bible noong 1582 A.D., at ang Authorised, o King James Bible noong 1611 A.D., at naisalin na sa kasalukuyang New King James Bible, NIV Bible, Holy Bible, Catholic Bible.

Hexapla (Ἑξαπλά: Gr. for "sixfold") is the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions. Especially it applies to the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria, which placed side by side in six (6) columns: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Hebrew Culturally, it is considered a Jewish language Hebrew transliterated into Greek characters Aquila of Sinope native of Pontus in Anatolia known for producing an exceedingly literal translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek around 130 CE Symmachus the Ebionite (fl. late 2nd century) was the author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament Septuagint 72 Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the third century BC Theodotion (d. ca. 200 A.D.) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar The English Hexapla is an edition of the New Testament in Greek, along with what were considered the six most important English language translations in parallel columns underneath, preceded by a detailed history of English translations and translators by S. P. Tregelles. The six English language translations provided are Wiclif's (1380), William Tyndale's (1534), Cranmer's (the Great Bible 1539), the Geneva Bible (1557), Rheims (1582), and the Authorised, or King James Bible, (1611). The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

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Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version. The English Hexapla was published by Samuel Bagster and Sons, of Paternoster Row, London, who are described on the title page as being a "warehouse for Bibles, New Testaments, Prayer-books, Lexicons, Grammars, Concordances, and Psalters, in ancient and modern languages." It was published in 1841

3. Ikatlong Pundasyon Ang Ten Commandments ni Yahweh
TEN COMMANDMENTS: Exodus 20:1 And Elohim spake all these words, saying, Exodus 20:2 I am YAHWEH thy Elohim, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Exodus 20:3 Thou shalt have no other elohim before me. Exodus 20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Exodus 20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I YAHWEH thy MIGHTY-ONE am a jealous Elohim, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; Exodus 20:6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Exodus 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of YAHWEH thy MIGHTY-ONE in vain; for YAHWEH will not hold him guiltless that taketh his NAME IN VAIN. Exodus 20:8 Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Exodus 20:9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: Exodus 20:10 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of YAHWEH thy MIGHTY-ONE: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: Exodus 20:11 For in six days YAHWEH made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore YAHWEH blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. Exodus 20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which YAHWEH thy MIGHTY-ONE giveth thee. Exodus 20:13 Thou shalt not kill. Exodus 20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. Exodus 20:15 Thou shalt not steal. Exodus 20:16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. Exodus 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's

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Matthew 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. Matthew 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit muli ng Tigapagsulat sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20.

Sa Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it. Sa Deuteronomy 5:12-15 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ng D-Text ay : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. Ang unang bersyon galing sa P text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God rested on the seventh day‟. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D Text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God freed you from slavery‟. Kumparasyon Sa Natagpuang sa Dead Sea Scroll Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: „ Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag-uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath‟. (In all of this, no one method governs the process). Itong naisulat at iniaral ng P at D Text ay itinuwid ng Messiah na mababasa sa Matthew 12:1-12.

MGA SABBATHS (PLURAL) Exodus 31:13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my Sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am Yahweh that doth sanctify you.

4. Ika-apat na Pundasyon Ang mga Appointed Feast ni Yahweh
APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH Leviticus 23:1-44

Leviticus 23:41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto YAHWEH seven days in the year. It shall be a STATUTE FOREVER in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.

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FEAST OF YAHWEH Leviticus 23:1 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Leviticus 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of Yahweh, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts. Leviticus 23:3 Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of Yahweh in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:4 These are the feasts of Yahweh, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons. Leviticus 23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is Passover of Yahweh. Leviticus 23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto Yahweh: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. Leviticus 23:7 In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh seven days: in the seventh day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:9 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Leviticus 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: Leviticus 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before Yahweh, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it. Leviticus 23:12 And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:13 And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto Yahweh for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin. Leviticus 23:14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your Elohim: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven Sabbaths shall be complete: Leviticus 23:16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for a burnt offering unto Yahweh, with their meat offering, and their drink offerings, even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:19 Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings. Leviticus 23:20 And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits for a wave offering before Yahweh, with the two lambs: they shall be holy to Yahweh for the priest.

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Leviticus 23:21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations. Leviticus 23:22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am Yahweh your Elohim. Leviticus 23:23 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Leviticus 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation. Leviticus 23:25 Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:26 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Leviticus 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before Yahweh your Elohim. Leviticus 23:29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. Leviticus 23:30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people. Leviticus 23:31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:32 It shall be unto you a Sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath. Leviticus 23:33 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Leviticus 23:34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:35 On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:37 These are the feasts of Yahweh, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day: Leviticus 23:38 Beside the Sabbaths of Yahweh, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto Yahweh. Leviticus 23:39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto Yahweh seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a Sabbath. Leviticus 23:40 And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before Yahweh your Elohim seven days. Leviticus 23:41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto Yahweh seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.

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Leviticus 23:42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths: Leviticus 23:43 That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am Yahweh your Elohim. Leviticus 23:44 And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of Yahweh.

ARAL NG BULAANG PROPETA NA TINANGGAL NA RAW ANG MGA KAPISTAHAN NI YAHWEH

Isaiah 1:9 Except YAHWEH of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah. Isaiah 1:10 Hear the word of YAHWEH, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our Elohim, ye people of Gomorrah. Isaiah 1:11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith YAHWEH: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats. Isaiah 1:12 When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts? Isaiah 1:13 Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and Sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. Isaiah 1:14 YOUR new moons and YOUR appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.

Ang Mga Kapistahan ni YAHWEH ay IBA sa mga Kapistahan ng MGA HINDI SUMUSUNOD kay YAHWEH.

SI YAHSHU‟A MESSIAH GUMANAP NG MGA KAPISTAHAN NI YAHWEH Matthew 26:18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Rabbi saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples. Mark 14:14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Rabbi saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? Luke 2:41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. John 2:23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did. Mark 14:1 After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. John 7:2 Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand.

Jeremiah 6:16 ‘Thus saith Yahweh, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls.’ Do not remove the old paths which are the Foundations declared by Yahweh as FOREVER.

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TEACHINGS OF FALSE PROPHETS Not only many but all the teachings and doctrines of present church pastors, priests and ministers, they were all teaching the doctrines of adversary rooted from Arius and Athanasius those Early-Researchers of the Scriptures. Their teachings even from the start of the Bible when Adam ate the forbidden fruit they teach Adam did not die, their reasoning in fact after eating the forbidden fruit Adam got children, making the word of adversary correct than the word of Yahweh. These are the teachings of all the pastors, ministers and priests of all churches denominations around the world. When Yahweh told Adam in Gen. 2:17 „but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shall surely die‟.The adversary is always opposite and contradict the instructions of Yahweh to Adam. In Gen. 3:4-5 „and the serpent said unto the woman, „Ye shall not surely die: for Yahweh doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil‟. The woman ate it and gave some to her husband and he did eat it. This happened in Paradise the Garden of Eden, then drove them out of the Garden and placed on the ground from which he was taken. Adam lives for 930 years and died, Gen. 5:1-5. But on 2 Peter 3:8 „but, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with Yahweh as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day‟. Adam died on the same day he ate the forbidden fruit because Adam when they were in Paradise in the Garden of Eden they did not complete one day in Yahweh for Adam live only for 930 years, less that a few minutes to complete one day in Paradise and died. The word of Yahweh is correct „thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shall surely die‟. The word of adversary are all lies for he is a liar from the beginning and the father of lies, YahYah 8:44.

Why these pastors, ministers, priests of churches was deceived and never come to the truth just right on the beginning of the Bible? Because they did not read the Bible? I do not agree, although in Churches they are oblige to read the cathetism but in their private lives I believed they read the Bible from the beginning of Genesis to the last verse of Revelations. But is that enough to understand the secret of the Bible? In YahYah 14:26 „but the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you‟. This means that the Holy Spirit will teach us and remind us of everything Messiah had said, and that Holy Spirit will be send by the Father Yahweh in the name of Messiah who is speaking. Therefore what is the name of Messiah that the Holy Spirit will be send to teach and remind us everything Messiah had said. These pastors, ministers, priests of churches of all denominations will claim that the name of the Messiah is „JESUS‟. We cannot agree to the name „Jesus‟ because the letter „J‟ was invented 373 years ago, while the Messiah walk on this earth 2,000 years ago, therefore there is no letter „J‟ and it is not „Jesus‟ his name. In many dictionaries and encyclopedias and even in „The Passion of Christ‟ movie the name of Messiah was called Yahshu‟a. Therefore only on the name Yahshu‟a the Holy Spirit will be send by the Father Yahweh, not on any other name, not of course in the name Jesus. Only in the name Yahshu‟a the Holy Sp irit will be send and that Holy Spirit will teach us and remind us of everything the Messiah had said. In 2 Peter 1:21 „for the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of Yahweh spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit‟.

THE PRESENT DOCTRINE INHERITED FROM FIRST-EARLY-RESEARCHERS WHICH SEEMS RIGHT BUT THE END THEREOF ARE THE WAYS OF DEATH All the teachings and doctrines of church pastors, priests and ministers seems right, but they were all teaching the doctrines that will end to death. In Proverb 14:12 „there is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death‟. The right and correct way of teaching the doctrines that will lead to Eternal Life can be found in YahYah 17:3 „and this is Life Eternal, that they might know thee the only true God (Yahweh), and Jesus Christ (Yahshu‟a Messiah), whom thou hast send‟. Did these church pastors, priests and ministers teaches this doctrine that the members should know the true only one God which is Yahweh and only Yahshu‟a Messiah whom was sent? Let us look at the „Jesus believers‟ in different denominations. Others they have conflict that the Messiah is the „Son of Man‟, or the „Son of Dyos‟ (God). But both of them was wrong, because they don‟t have the Holy Spirit that was send only in the name Yahshu‟a Messiah, they have the spirit of Jesus but not the Holy Spirit that was send by the Father Yahweh in the name Yahshu‟a.

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Son of Man or Son of Dyos (Theos, God) You can find two different views about the Messiah whether Messiah is the „Son of Man‟ or The „Son of Dyos‟ (God). In Luke 3:38 „Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the „Son of Yahweh‟. In continuation of the geneo logy from Adam generation to his descendants until to the generation of Yahshu‟a, they were all called Son of Yahweh not Son of Man. And not Son of „Dyos‟ because „Dyos‟ originated in the name „Theos‟ is the deity of Greek people not of the descendants of Abraham, and not „Son of God‟ because the word God originated in Assyrian deity name „Gad‟. The prophet Isaiah excoriated Israel for their abominations in serving pagan idols. One of the most prominent was the Syrian god of fate or luck, otherwise known as Gad: “But you are they that forsake Yahweh, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for that troop, and that furnish the drink offering unto that number” (Isa. 65:11). “Troop” is translated from the Hebrew Gad, pronounced “God”(see Strong‟s Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, No. 1409 and note the phonetic Gawd in this reference.). The word “God” and its Germanic roots “Gott” and “Gut” are connected to the ancient Syrian idol “Baal Gad,” which Yahweh judged Israel for worshiping. The New Bible Dictionary says of Gad, “A pagan deity worshiped by the Canaanites as the God of Fortune for whom they „prepare a table‟” (Isa. 65:11) The Anchor Bible Dictionary says about “Gad”: “A Deity (or spirit) of fortune mentioned in Isa. 65:11 as being worshiped, along with Meni (a god of fate or destiny), by apostate Jews, probably in postexilic Judah,” Vol. II, p. 863. Further, this resource tells us, “The place name Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17) could be interpreted as „Lord Gad‟ or as involving an epithet (gad) joined to the divine name Baal” (Ibid.) The heathen nations that Yahshu‟a (Joshua) was directed to destroy had a place called Baal -gad, which is none other than “Lord-God,” a reference to Isaiah 65:11 and the worship of this “deity” by those who forsake Yahweh! As the Anchor Bible Dictionary affirms: “The apostates of Isa. 65:11 were looking to Gad [God], not Yahweh, as the source of well-being and prosperity” (Vol. II, p. 864). In Hastings‟ A Dictionary of the Bible, we find that the word Gad or God was “originally an appellative” and used as a divine name in pagan worship (see Gad, p. 76). Theosophy (Greek, theos, ”god”; sophos, “wise”), designation for any religious philosophical system purporting to furnish knowledge of God, and of the universe related to God, by means of direct mystical intuition, philosophical inquiry, or both.

Let Us Avoid Misconception or the Carry Over from researches of First-Early-Researchers who did not come to Yahshu‟a Messiah Sunday worship and the Seventh-day Adventist: This Sunday worship is not found in the Bible only the Pentecost Day was being held on the First day of the Week which is Sunday, but the Sabbath is the only day sanctified by Yahweh to be Holy. The Seventh Day Adventist is performing the Sabbath Day worship but neglected the other Sabbaths in the Feast of Yahweh in Leviticus chapter 23 and the Sabbathical Year. Sabbaths is plural in Exodus 31:13. Jesus doctrine that Jesus died in cross on Friday: The Prophet Daniel (Dan.9:27) prophesied that on the middle of the week the Messiah shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease‟, and in the middle of the week is Wednesday. Jesus doctrine that Jesus died in cross with two other criminals.: Yahshu‟a the Messiah said from his mouth on Luke 13:33 „nevertheless I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following : for it cannot be that a Prophet perish out of Yahrusalem‟. In Deuteronomy 18:15 „Yahweh your Mighty One will raise a PROPHET from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me (Levites also), unto him ye shall hearken‟. (Yahshu‟a Messiah is a Levite, his genealogical mother (Marriam) is a cousin of a Levite Elizabeth , Luke 1:5,1:36)

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Jesus died. In Daniel 9:26 „and after three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself‟: Yes the Messiah was cut-off but it does not mean was killed. Jesus was cut off from the land of the living: The Prophet Isaiah prophesied on Isaiah 53:8 „he was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? For he was cut-off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken‟. Prophet Isaiah wrote a challenging question that „Who among in his generation that can declare that he was cut off ou t of the land of the living? Stricken means he was only deeply or badly affected by something such as grief. In Dictionary: stricken [stríkən] (archaic) Past participle of strike

adj a. deeply or badly affected by something: deeply or very badly affected by something such as grief, misfortune, or trouble b. affected by illness: experiencing severe physical symptoms caused by illness or injury Jesus dying word is Eli, Eli Lama Sabachtani was heard by witnesses. This Greek word Eli Lama Sabachtani has equivalent word in Hebrew as „Mah Yad Shebaq‟. In Strong‟s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary no. 2241, no.1682, no.2982, no. 4100, no.3027, no.4518, no.7662. The witness should hear „Mah Yad Shebaq‟ because Yahshu‟a is a Hebrew man and speaking in Hebrew language not in Greek language (Acts 10:28, Acts 26:14). If Eli, Eli Lama Sabachtani is translation, then the witnesses will say he is waiting for „Mah Yad‟ not for Prophet EliYah. In Matthew 27:46-49. if that man in the cross is Yahshu‟a speaks “my Eli, my Eli, why has you forsaken Yob (Job) is better than this man because Yob did not charged or blamed Yahweh in Job 1:22. me” will make

Jesus was nailed to cross:Simon of Cyrene (now Libya) speak Greek and until now in Susa, Shihat and Beda in Libya these Greek descendant resides. Never in the scriptures that Simon of Cyrene returned the cross. Jesus is three days and three nights in the grave: the teachings and doctrines of church pastors and priests and ministers, they were all teachings the doctrine of wicked and adulterous generations teaching that Jesus died on Friday and rise on early Sunday morning whi ch is less than two days. Remember that Yahshu‟a reminds the wicked and adulterous generation in Matthew 16:4 „a wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Yonah‟. The three days and three nights is for wicked and adulterous generation.

False Prophet Prophecy you shall not be afraid of him In Deuteronomy 18:22 „when a prophet speaketh in the name of YAHWEH, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which YAHWEH hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shall not be afraid of him‟.

False Prophet Prophesied that Yahshu‟a should die The High Priest at time of ministerial of Yahshu‟a is „Caipas‟ who does not b elong to Aaron descendants, whom the true lineage of forever high priest belongs written in Exodus chapter 29. But Caipas prophesied that Yahshu‟a will die in YahYah 11:51 „and this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophes ied that Yahshu‟a should die for that nation‟. This prophesies of false prophet as reminded in Deuteronomy 18:22 that we APAT NA MGA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH

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should not believe and should not be afraid of it. The teachings and doctrines of Jesus church pastors, priests and ministers rely on the prophesy of false prophet Caipas.

Yahshu‟a is The Son of Yahweh not Son of Man Remember that Father Yahweh revealed to Simon Bar-Yonah that Yahshu‟a is the Son of Yahweh. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the MESSIAH, THE SON OF THE LIVING YAHWEH‟. And Yahshu‟a answered and said unto him, „Blessed art thou, Simon BarYonah, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven‟. In continuation on Matthew 16:20-23 „then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Yahshu‟a the Messiah (the Son of Yahweh).

Yahshu‟a said that the Son of Man will be killed Not the Son of Yahweh Luke 9:22 „the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day‟. Mark 8:31 „the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again‟. Luke 9:44 „let these saying sink down into your ears, for the Son of Man shall be delivered into the hands of men‟. Mark 9:31 „the Son of Man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him, and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day‟. Matthew 17:22-23 „the Son of Man shall be betrayed into the hands of Man, and they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again‟. Mark 10:33-34 „the son of Man shall be delivered unto the scribes, and they shall c ondemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles. And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him, and the third day he shall rise again‟. Matthew 20:18 „the Son of Man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death‟. Luke 18:31-33 „behold, we go up to Yahrusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished. For he shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on, and they shall scourge him, and put him to death, and the third day he shall rise again‟.

Those Who Search the Scriptures but did not come to Yahshu‟a Messiah YahYah 5:39-40 „search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me. And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life‟. Yes, people search the scriptures thinking they might find eternal life, but they did not come to Yahshu‟a Messiah, but instead they come to false prophets of falsified name Iesous Kristos later become Jesus Christ and believed on the doctrines of church pastors, priests and ministers teaching the prophecy of false prophet Caipas, YahYah 11:51„and this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Yahshu‟a should die for that nation‟.

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Ang Emmanuel ay Hindi “God with us” Ang Emmanuel ay hindi “God with us” o sumasaatin ang Maykapal. Ang ibig sabihin ng Emmanuel ay „Pillar‟ o poste. Tingnan ang Strong‟s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary, sa Greek no. 1694 na katumbas ng Hebrew no. 6005 at no. 5973, at no. 6004, at no. 5978, at no. 5982 „Ammud‟ ay Pillar. Sa Isaiah 7:14 hindi sa Isa iah 8:10 na maling interpretasyon na naisalin sa pagsalin ng sulat ni Mateo sa Mateo 1:23.

Ang Salitang Christo ay Wala sa Orihinal na Biblia

YahYah(John)1:41“Una niyang natagpuan ang kanyang kapatid na si Simon at sinabi niya „Natagpuan namin ang „Messiah‟ (sa interpretasyon ay Christo). 2 Peter 1:20-21 “Ating unang alamin na walang nakasulat sa Banal na Kasulatan sa kanyang sariling interpretasyon. Dahil isinulat ito ng mga tao noong panahong iyon hindi sa kagustuhan ng tao kundi mga taong pinabanal ni Yahweh na nagsalita at pinakilos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh”. Christo ay interpretasyon lamang ng mga translators na mga Griyego, ngunit ang „Christo‟ ay wala sa wikang Griyego. Maari nang masakop ng Griyego ang mga sakop ng Persia sa Ester 1:1 ay nasakop nila ang bansang India na pinanggalingan ng istatwang si Chrishna ay dinudurog ang ulo ng ahas na kagaya ng naihula sa darating na Messiah sa Genesis 3:15.

Father Emmanuel: Christ comes from the Greek word Christos, meaning “the anointed one”. Srila Prabhupada: Christos is the Greek version of the word Krishna. Mark 7:19 Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats? (Thus he declared all foods clean). Pwede na raw kainin lahat, ang pinagtatalunan dito ay ang mga tradisyong mali at lahat sila doon sa Israel ay hindi kumakain ng baboy at ipinagbabawal na pagkain sa Leviticus 11.

Kung ano iyong idinagdag iyon pa ang itinuturo nila.

Only Few Know the Secret Truth and is not heard by Many
Matthew 13:17 „that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them, and to hear those things which ye hear, and not heard them‟. Daniel 12:10 „many shall be purified, and made white, and tried, but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand‟. YahYah 7:16 „if any man will do his will, whether I speak of myself‟. he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of Yahweh, or

Matthew 16:17 „And Yahshu‟a answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar -Yonah, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven‟.

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Mark 4:10-13 „and when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. And he said unto them, unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of Yahweh, but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables, that seeing they may see and not perceive, and hearing they may hear and not understand, lest at any time they should be converted and their sins should be forgiven them. And he said unto them, know ye not this parable? And how then will ye know all parables?

Matthew 15:13 But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up.
PRAYER I pray again to Almighty Father Yahweh through the name of Yahshu‟a the Messiah that you received the Holy Spirit of Yahweh, that you be blessed like Simon Bar-Yonah for flesh and blood had not revealed it unto you, but our Almighty Father Yahweh which is in heaven, that you were able to understand this revelations of Almighty Father Yahweh in heaven to understand that Yahshu‟a is the SON OF YAHWEH.

2 Corinthians 4:1-4 “ samakatwid nakita natin ang pagpapatutuo na ating natanggap ang pagkahabag, hindi dapat tayo ay manlumo bagkus ating tanggalin na ang mga bagay na hindi-katotohanan na huwag manatili sa ating mahusay na kaalaman o sundin ang mga salita ni Yahweh na may pandaraya, ngunit sa paglalaganap ng katotohanan na itinatalaga natin ang ating sarili sa bawat konsyensya ng tao na nakikita ni Amang Yahweh. Ngunit ang Katotohanan ay itinago, itinago ito sa mga nalito, na sa kanila ay ang kanilang sinasambang-Makapangyarihan ng mundo ay binulag ang kanilang isipan na hindi naniniwala, maliban na ang kaningningan ng mga aral ni Yahshu‟a Messiah na siyang simbolo ni Amang Yah weh ay sumilay sa kanila”.

Ngunit ang Katotohanan ay itinago, itinago ito sa mga nalito, na sa kanila ay ang kanilang sinasambangMakapangyarihan ng mundo ay binulag ang kanilang isipan

Palatuntunan sa Dapat at Hindi-Dapat Kainin ng mga Anak ni Yahweh nasa Leviticus 11 Sa mga makakaing malilinis na hayop ay ang ngumunguya at biyak ang kuko. Ang hayop na ngumunguya ngunit hindi biyak ang kuko kagaya ng kabayo ay marumi na hindi dapat kainin. Ganoon din ang biyak nga ang kuko ngunit hindi naman ngumunguya kagaya ng baboy ay marumi at hindi dapat kainin, maging ang patay na katawan nito ay hindi dapat hawakan. Sa mga gumagalaw sa tubig ay ang may kaliskis at palikpik lamang ang malinis na dapat kainin. Ang walang kaliskis at palikpik ay marumi para sa inyo at huwag kakainin. Tingnan ang Leviticus 11 upang kumpirmahin ang mga bagay na ito. Sa Markos 7:19 ay dinagdagan ng mga Tigasalin ay isinulat na pwede na raw kainin ang lahat ng hayop. Ang tinutukoy dito ay ang paghuhugas ng kamay at hindi ang marumi o malinis na hayop, dahil ang lumalabas sa tao ang nakakapagparumi sa tao ang mga kasalanan na salita na nagmumula sa kanilang puso ang nagpaparumi sa tao.

IBINILIN NI YAHWEH KAY MOSES NA SABIHIN NIYA KAY AARON AT MGA ANAK ANG PAMAMARAAN NG PAGBABASBAS Bilang 6:22-27 Basbasan ka ni YAHWEH ng Pagpapala at ingatan ka Hayaan ang Mukha ni YAHWEH ay lumiwanag sa iyo at mapagpala sa iyo Ingatan ka ni YAHWEH at bigyan ka ng Kapayapaan.

Numbers 6:22-27 And

spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying, On this wise ye shall bless thee, and keep thee: make his face shine upon thee,

bless the children of Israel, saying unto them,

and be gracious unto thee: lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. And they shall put my name upon the children of Israel; and I will bless them.

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THE FALSE MESSIAH AND FALSE PROPHETS SHALL RISE TO SEDUCE IF WERE POSSIBLE EVEN THE VERY ELECT

Mark 13:22-23'For false Messiahs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect, But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things'.

THE FALSE PROPHETS WANT THE MESSIAH TO BE A MAN OF SIN THAT‟S WHY THEY PUT HIM TO DEATH BY HANGING HIM ON A TREE OR CROSS
Deuteronomy 21:22 And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: Deuteronomy 21:23 His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of Yahweh) that thy land be not defiled, which YAHWEH thy Mighty One giveth thee for an inheritance.

THE FALSE PROPHETS WANT THE VERY ELECT TO BE ACCESSORY TO THE MURDER BY BELIEVING IN THEIR HEART THAT THE MESSISH WAS KILLED, YOU KILLED ALREADY THE MESSIAH IN YOUR HEART
John 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

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PAUNANG SALITA
Jeremiah 6:16 Thus saith , Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.

Pangalan ng Ama sa Langit ay YAHWEH na Nakasulat sa Letrang Lumang Paleo-Hebreo ng 6,823 ulit sa Lumang Tipan pa lamang, ito ay natagpuan sa Kweba ng Qumran sa Dead Sea, Israel na tinawag na ―Dead Sea Scroll‖. Ang Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish at Muslim at iba pang pananampalataya ay kasama sa nagsasaliksik nito.

MAGANDANG BALITA BIBLIA

PREFACE: Ang Yahweh na katangi-tanging tawag ng mga Hebreo sa Diyos (na karaniwang isinasalin na Jehovah) ay pinanatili sa saling ito upang ipakita ang pagkakaiba ng salitang ―Panginoon‖ na katumbas ay ―Adonai‖. (Judges 1:7)

Dead Sea Scroll (YAHWEH) YHWH na nakasulat sa Hebreo-Aramaic ay pinapalitan ng salitang Adonai kapag binasaba

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Kweba sa Qumran na Pinagkunan ng Dead Sea Scrolls

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ITUTURO SA LAHAT SA IBANG BANSA ANG PAGSISISI AT KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN SA KANYANG PANGALANG YAHSHU‟A NA NAGSIMULA SA YAHRUSALEM Luke 24:47 ‗and the repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME among all nations beginning at Jerusalem‘ Nagsimula sa Yahrusalem ang Pagtuturo sa pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan sa Kanyang Pangalan na Yahshu‟a at mula sa Yahrusalem ay itinuro ito sa ibat-ibang Bansa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa Pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ngunit inilihis at ginawa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa ibang pangalan - kay Iesus o Jesus na. Ang pangalang Yeshu‟a ay Aramaic hanggo sa pangalang Hebreo na Yahshu‟a.

How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus
By:JOSEPH STALLINGS

Kopya ng Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6

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Ang Tamang Pagbasa ng Biblia Dahil ang Banal na Pangalan ng Makapangyarihan ng Israel ay mahalaga at ganoon din ang
pangalan ng Messiah ng Nazareth ay mahalaga upang ipadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh ay dapat na ibinabalik ang pangalan ni Yahweh at pangalan ni Yahshu‘a (Yeshua ay sa Aramaic ang bigkas sa Hebreo ay Yahshu‘a) sa bawat pagbasa ng Biblia upang ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh ay sumaatin at siyang Banal na Ispiritung iyan ni Yahweh ang magtuturo sa atin at magpapaunawa sa atin ng mga nilalaman ng Banal na Kasulatan na tinawag na Biblia. Ang Biblia ay isinulat ng mga tao na puspos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh kaya ang makaka-unawa lamang nito ay ang may Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh, 2 Pedro 1:20-21. Sa bawat nakasulat na Diyos o Lord o God sa Lumang Tipan ay ibalik na natin ang pangalan ni Yahweh, ganoon din sa pagbasa ng nakasulat sa Bagong Tipan na pangalang Jesus ay ibalik na natin ang tamang pangalan na Yahshu‘a ang tunay na Messiah ng Nazareth. Sa ganoon ay makaka-iwas tayo sa mga Sumpa na nakasaad sa Revelation 22:18-19 na ang sinuman na mag-alis ay aalisan ng karapatan sa parte ng Aklat ng Buhay, Awit 69:28-29, at ang sinuman na magdagdag ay daragdagan ng salot na nakasaad sa Banal na Kasulatan na tinawag na Biblia. Sa ganoon ay tiwasay tayo na malayo tayo sa mga aksidente at sa mga salot na sakit at manatili sa parte ng Aklat ng Buhay upang magkaroon ng Buhay na Walang hanggan.

Dahilan sa orihinal na pagkakasulat ang mga pangalan ay pinalitan ng mga ‗translators‘ ay
kailangan na ating ibalik ang mga orihinal na pangalan lalong-lalo na ang mahahalagang pangalan na kasama ang pina-ikling pangalan ni Yahweh na ‗Yah‘ at ang pangalan ni Yahshu‘a ang tunay na Messiah ng Nazareth. Ang salitang ‗Elohim‘ ay plural ng singular na ‗Eloah‘ na ibig sabihin ay ‗Mighty-One‘ na nasalin bilang ‗Adonai‘ at sa Tagalog ay ‗Panginoon‘. Sa Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of Yahweh came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. Noon nagsimula ang tawag na Elohim sa mga ‗mighty men‘. Ang English na ‗Mighty-One‘ ay mas tamang isalin sa salitang Tagalog na ‗Makapangyarihan‘, dahil ang salitang ‗Panginoon‘ ay nagmula sa salitang ‗Adonai‘ sa Judges 1:7 na Hari ng Canaan na naging Palestino sa ngayon ay siyang si Baal mababasa sa footnotes ng Hosea 2:16. Lumang Tipan:

Exodus 3:15 And Elohim said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Yahweh the Elohim of your fathers, the Elohim of Abraham, the Elohim of Isaac, and the Elohim of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
Tamang pagbasa:

Exodus 3:15 And Yahweh said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Yahweh Mighty-One of your fathers, the Mighty-One of Abraham, the Mighty-One of Isaac, and the Mighty-One of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
Lumang Tipan: Genesis 2:3 ―Pinagpala ng Diyos ang ikapitong araw at itinalaga, sapagkat sa araw na ito ay nagpahinga ang Diyos ng likhain ang lahat.

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Tamang pagbasa: Genesis 2:3 ―Pinagpala ni Yahweh ang ikapitong araw at itinalaga, sapagkat sa araw na ito ay nagpahinga si Yahweh ng likhain ang lahat.
Bago tayo magpatuloy alam natin na bagong imbento lamang ang Letrang “J” kaya imposibleng Jesus ang pangalan ng Messiah, ganoon din ang pangalan ni Juan o “John” ay ang dapat ay “YahYah”. Sa Israel ngayon ang tawag kay John ay “Yochanan” na isang kontradiksyon sa nakasulat sa YeremiYah (Jeremiah) 43:4 at sa Luke 1:61. Tangi ang Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh na “Yah” sa Awit 68:4 ang may kapangyarihan na pagsalitaing -muli si ZechariYah sa Luke 1:22, Luke 1:59-64. Ang Semetic na kapatid na wika ng Hebreo at sa Arabic ang pangalan ni John ay “Yahya”.

Bagong Tipan: Mateo 3:14-15 ―sinansala siya ni Juan na ang wika ―Ako po ang kailangang bautismuhan ninyo, at kayo pa ang lumapit sa akin? Ngunit tinugon siya ni Jesus ‗Hayaan mo itong mangyari ngayon sapagkat ito ang nararapat nating gawin upang matupad ang kalooban ng Diyos. At pumayag si Juan. Tamang pagbasa: Mateo 3:14-15 ―sinansala siya ni YahYah na ang wika ―Ako po ang kailangang bautismuhan ninyo, at kayo pa ang lumapit sa akin? Ngunit tinugon siya ni Yahshu‟a ‗Hayaan mo itong mangyari ngayon sapagkat ito ang nararapat nating gawin upang matupad ang kalooban ni Yahweh. At pumayag si YahYah. Bagong Tipan:

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:
Tamang pagbasa:

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Yahshu’a Messiah, which Yahweh gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant YahYah:

Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh sa YahYah (John) 14:26
―Ang Mang-aaliw na siyang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh na ipadadala ng Ama sa aking pangalan,
siyang magtuturo sa inyo ng lahat ng mga bagay at ipa-aalala sa inyo ang bawat nasabi ko sa inyo‖. Tanging sa nag-iisang pangalan ni Yahshu‘a (Gawa 4:12) ipadadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh at iyang Banal na Ispiritung iyan ang magtuturo sa atin ng mga katotohanan at magpapaalala sa atin ng mga iniaral ni Yahshu‘a Messiah.

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2 Peter 1:20-21
―Ating unang alamin na walang nakasulat sa Banal na Kasulatan sa kanyang sariling interpretasyon. Dahil isinulat ito ng mga tao noong panahong iyon hindi sa kagustuhan ng tao kundi mga taong pinabanal ni Yahweh na nagsalita at pinakilos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh‖.

Ang Banal na Kasulatan ay isinulat ng mga tao na kinasihan ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh,
samakatwid ay tanging ang may Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh lamang ang makakaunawa ng Banal na Kasulatan at ito ay sa pamamagitan ng pangalan ni Yahshu‘a ay ipadadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh.

Ang Salitang Christo ay Wala sa Orihinal na Biblia
YahYah(John)1:41―Una niyang natagpuan ang kanyang kapatid na si Simon at sinabi niya ‗Natagpuan namin ang ‗Messiah‘ (sa interpretasyon ay Christo).

2 Peter 1:20-21
―Ating unang alamin na walang nakasulat sa Banal na Kasulatan sa kanyang sariling interpretasyon. Dahil isinulat ito ng mga tao noong panahong iyon hindi sa kagustuhan ng tao kundi mga taong pinabanal ni Yahweh na nagsalita at pinakilos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh‖.

Christo ay interpretasyon lamang ng mga translators na mga Griyego, ngunit ang ‗Christo‘ ay
wala sa wikang Griyego. Maari nang masakop ng Griyego ang mga sakop ng Persia sa Ester 1:1 ay nasakop nila ang bansang India na pinanggalingan ng istatwang si Chrishna ay dinudurog ang ulo ng ahas na kagaya ng naihula sa darating na Messiah sa Genesis 3:15.

Father Emmanuel: Christ comes from the Greek word Christos, meaning ―the anointed one‖. Srila Prabhupada: Christos is the Greek version of the word Krishna.

Krishna ng India

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Exodus 23:13
―Huwag babanggitin ni mamutawi sa ating mga labi ang mga pangalan ng mga sinasamba ng taga ibang bansa‖. Ang bansang Israel ay ang sinasamba ay si Yahweh lamang, ang ibang bansa kagaya ng Canaan (Palestino) ang sinasamba ay si Adonai o Baal (Hukom 1:7, Adonai ay si Baal at nasalin bilang Lord, Hosea 2:16), ang Lord ay naisalin na Panginoon. Sa katabing bansa ng Israel ang Masry o Egypt ay maraming istatwang sinasamba at isa na dito si ‗El‘ at bawat bansa ay may kanya-kanyang ‗El‘ o plural ay Elohim (nasalin na God). Ang bansang Griyego ang sinasamba ay si Theos (nasalin na Diyos), ang bansang India ay maraming istatwa at isa na dito si Krishna (nasalin na Christos). Ang Syria naman ang sinasamba ay si Gowd (nasalin na God) at sinasamba naman ng mga teutonic–Germans. Si Zeus (pagbasa ay ‗sus‘ ay isa sa Greek Mythology God) ay idinugtong sa pangalan ng Messiah kaya naging Yehsoos (Yeh-sus) sa Griyego at Latin. Huwag Babanggitin ni Mamutawi sa Inyong Labi ang Pangalan ng Sinasamba ng mga taga ibang Bansa

Amun

Anubis

Aten

Atum

Bastet

Bes

Geb

Hapy

Hathor

Horus

Isis

Khepri

Khnum

Ma'at

Nephthys

Nun

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Nut

Osiris

Ptah

Ra

Ra-Horakhty

Sekhmet

Seshat

Seth

Shu

Sobek

Tawaret

Tefnut

Assyrian Gods at Goddesses at Babylonian Gods at Goddesses                       Apsu underworld ocean; begetter of the skies and earth Tiamat primeval chaos; bearer of the skies and earth Lahmu & Lahamu Anshar Kishar Anu sky god, father & king of the gods Antu(m) 1st consort of Anu Aruru (Ninmah, Mami) mother goddess; midwife of the gods Mammetum maker or mother of fate Nammu associated with water. Ellil (Enlil) initially, leader of the pantheon Ea (Enki, Nudimmud) god of the waters Mummu craftsman Qingu battle leader Sin (Nannar) moon god Ningal the consort of Sin Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna) goddess of love, procreation, and war Siduri barmaid Shamash (Babbar, Utu) sun god Aia Shamash's consort Kakka Anshar and Anu's vizier Ninlil Elil's consort

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                                      

Nusku god of fire and Ellil's vizier Gerra (Gibil) god of fire Ishum god of fire Kalkal Ellil's doorkeeper Nash a pure goddess Zaltu strife Ninurta chamberlain of the war god Ninsun great queen Marduk supplants other Babylonian deities to become central figure Bel (Canaanite Baal cleverest; sage of the gods Ashur god of Assyria and war Shullat Shamash's servant Papsukkal vizier of the great gods Hanish weather god's servant Adad a storm god Shara Nin-ildu carpenter Gushkin-banda creator of god and man, goldsmith god Nin-agal patron of smiths. Ereshkigal (Allatu) supreme goddess of underworld Belit-tseri tablet-scribe of the underworld Namtar(a) the fate-cutter, herald of death Sumuqan cattle god Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu) underworld; hunter; god of war and plague Irra plague god Enmesharra underworld god Lamashtu dread female demon also known as 'she who erases' Nabu god of writing and wisdom Ningizzia guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis)**** vegetation Belili (Geshtinanna) Gizzida (Gishzida) consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu Nissaba (Nisaba) cereal grain harvest Dagan fertility and the underworld Birdu an underworld god Sharru god of submission Urshambi boatman to Utnapishtim Ennugi controller of the Anunnaki Geshtu-e god whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami to create man.

Roman at Greek Gods
Roman God Kapantay sa Greek God

Roman

Greek

Apollo

Apollo

Bacchus

Dionysus

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Ceres

Demeter

Cupid

Eros

Diana

Artemis

Fortuna

Janus

Juno

Hera

Jupiter

Zeus

Maia

Mars

Ares

Mercury

Hermes

Minerva

Athena

Neptune

Poseidon

Pluto

Hades

Proserpina

Persephone

Saturn

Cronus

Uranus

Ouranos

Venus

Aphrodite

Vesta

Hestia

Vulcan

Hephaestus

PILIPINAS AY NASA BIBLIA

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