# The following example illustrates the

Example Building
design
methods
presented
in the article
Page 1 of 14
TIME SAVING
DESIGN
AIDS
“Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced
Below is a partial plan of a typical floor in a
Concrete,
Two-Way Part
Slabs 2: Two-way Slabs,” by
cast-in-place reinforced concrete building. In
David A. Fanella, which appeared in the
this example, an interior strip of a flat
October
2001 edition of Structural
plate infloor
system
is designed
and- detailed
The following example illustrates the design methods presented
the PCA
book “Simplified
Design
Engineer
Unless
otherwise
Reinforced magazine.
Concrete Buildings
of Moderate
Size and Height”
noted, according
all
for third
the edition.
effectsUnless
of gravity
referenced
table,
figure,
and
equation
numbers
are
from
that
book.
noted, all referenced table, figure, and
to ACI 318-99.
equation
are from that article.
Example numbers
Building
Below is a partial plan of a typical floor in a cast-in-place reinforced concrete building. In this example,
an interior strip of a flat plate floor system is designed and detailed for the effects of gravity loads
according to ACI 318-05.

20?-0I

20?-0I

24?-0I

Design strip

24?-0I

20?-0I

20Ix 20I (typ.)

24Ix 24I (typ.)

Design Data
Materials
• Concrete: normal weight (150 pcf), 3/4-in. maximum aggregate, f’c = 4,000 psi
• Mild reinforcing steel: Grade 60 (fy = 60,000 psi)
• Live load = 50 psf

6(50) = 251. • Rectangular panels with long-to-short span ratio = 24/20 = 1.5 ft .251 × 24 × 18. Division of the total panel moment Mo into negative and positive moments.K. 1-8. Use Fig. 1-8 to determine h based on shear requirements at interior column assuming a 9 in.25 = 6.1672 = 8 8 = 248.02 = 8 8 = 244 ft .55 in. • L/D = 50/(112.K.22 x 24 = 5.kips For simplicity. Try preliminary h = 9 in. and then column and middle strip moments. more than 3 in the other O.3 + 1.33 ft From Fig. Total panel moment Mo in end span: Mo = qul 2l2n 0.TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 2 of 14 Two-Way Slabs Minimum Slab Thickness Longest clear span ln = 24 – (20/12) = 22. • Slab system has no beams N.35 < 2 O.5 + 30) = 0. 13.0 psf A = 24 x 20 = 480 ft2 A/c12 = 480/22 = 120 From Fig.2 < 2 O. Design for Flexure Use Fig.22 d = 0.5 ft-kips for all spans.5(c) = ln/30 = 8.K. use Mo = 248. involves the direct application of the moment coefficients in Table 4-2.9 in. h = 5.5 + 30) + 1. • Successive span lengths in each direction are equal O.3 in. • No offset columns O.6 can be utilized to compute the bending moments due to the gravity loads: • 3 continuous spans in one direction.A. d/c1 ≈ 0.kips Total panel moment Mo in interior span: Mo = qul 2l2n 0. 4-3. . minimum thickness h per ACI Table 9.K. the Direct Design Method can be used. Since all requirements are satisfied.251 × 24 × 18. slab: qu = 1.K. 4-4 to determine if the Direct Design Method of ACI Sect.2(112.

86 From Fig. neg.48 4.5.2) Min.75 7.75 7. 64.75 2. Middle strip width b = (24 x 12) – 120 = 168 in. 4-16. neg. neg. Neg.3 spaces. 4 34. 4 52.25 = 7. b2 = 20 + 7. .25 --1.75 in.2 34. As = 0.2) Reinforcement+ 64. Interior Span Column Positive Strip Middle Positive Strip Column Strip * Column strip width b = (20 x 12)/2 = 120 in. 4 End Span Ext. 4 22-No. ** Use average d = 9 – 1.75/2) = 23.7 0.94 10-No.72 2.75 7.94 1. Max.0 52.08 2.75 1.) As† (in. † As = Mu /4d where Mu is in ft-kips and d is in inches ‡ Min.2 120 120 120 168 168 168 7.68 1.3. Portion of total unbalanced moment transferred by flexure = γfMu b1 = 20 + (7.875 in.3 may be utilized.75 in.0 52.7 42.72 2. 13.72 14-No.6 77.2 120 7. As‡ (in. say 8 bars 168/18 = 9.TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 3 of 14 Two-Way Slabs Slab Moments (ft-kips) Total Moment Column Strip Middle Strip End Spans Positive 129.0 52. 173.0162b.3. they are not in this example. 13. 4 13-No.2 77. Span Location Mu (ft-kips) b* (in.6 0 Int. s = 2h = 18 in. Required slab reinforcement.) d** (in. 4 14-No.72 11-No.2 42.8 168 7.0 131.36 1. 4 14-No.75 7.8 Note: All negative moments are at face of support.0018bh = 0. or 18 in.75 = 27.2 Int.2 Ext.7 spaces.75 1. Ext.2) + For maximum spacing:120/18 = 6. neg. γf = 0. (Sect.68 1. Positive Int.94 1.94 2. Neg.62* * The provisions of Sect.12 2. however. Middle Positive Strip Int.75 7. Check slab reinforcement at exterior column for moment transfer between slab and column. 4 14-No. say 11 bars * Design for Shear Check slab shear and flexural strength at edge column due to direct shear and unbalanced moment transfer. Span Positive 87.6 64. b1 /b2 = 0.9 131.

4 bars = 1.25 in.7 in.6 = 40 ft-kips Required As = 40/(4 x 7. O. > 18 in.2 = 6. Add 1 additional bar on each side of the 47 in.TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 4 of 14 Two-Way Slabs γfMu = 0. 4) within the 47 in.5. say 7 bars Must provide 7-No. Reinforcement details at this location are shown in the figure on the next page. < 18 in. Provide the required 7-No. Check bar spacing: For 7-No. < 18 in. slab width over the column. 4 bars within an effective slab width = 3h + c2 = (3 x 9) + 20 = 47 in.62 x 64.2 in. .29 in. 4 within 120 – 47 = 73 in.K. For 4-No.K. strip. 4 bars by concentrating 7 of the column strip bars (11-No.29/0. width: 73/4 = 18. O. width: 47/7 = 6. the spacing becomes 73/6 = 12.2 Number of No. 4 within 47 in. Check the combined shear stress at the inside face of the critical transfer section.75) = 1.

6 + 57.141 vu = vu = 109.2 = [2b1d(b1 + 2b2) + d3(2b1 + b2)/b1]/6 = 5.2 psi Determine allowable shear stress φvc from Fig.62 = 0.0 c1 /d = 20/7.75 = 2.2 psi OK 9” slab is OK Reinforcement Details The figures below show the reinforcement details for the column and middle strips.7 psi > vu = 168.251[(24 x 10.8 of ACI 318-05.141 in.75 = 9.6 = 167.58 From Table 4. 4-13: bo /d = (2b1 + b2)/d bo /d = [(2 x 23.5 = 74.3 64.1 kips When the end span moments are determined from the Direct Design Method.38 c2 /c1 = 1.TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 5 of 14 Two-Way Slabs vu = Vu + γ vMu Ac J/c Factored shear force at edge column: Vu = 0.1 5.99 x 2.3Mo = 0.3 x 248.6). The bar lengths are determined from Fig.75]/7. 105 0. 13.3. γv = 1 – γf = 1 – 0. 13. the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear must be 0.1 in.3.38 × 64.875) + 27.31)] = 64.6 ft-kips (Sect. .9 Ac Jc = (2b1 + b2) d = 585. 000 + 585.83) – (1. 6 × 12.6.74 βc =1 φvc = 189.

The program covers wide range of two-way slab systems and can be used for more complex slab layouts. Please note that the Equivalent Frame Method is used by the pcaSlab program. .TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 6 of 14 Two-Way Slabs The PCA computer program pcaSlab can be used to expedite the design of different slab systems. The output of the program for the slab in the example is shown in the following pages.

00. License ID: 12345-1234567-4-2D2DE-2C8D0 File: C:\Data\Time Saving Design Aid\Two-Way Slabs.slb Project: Time Saving Design Aids Frame: Two-Way Slab Engineer: PCA .TIME SAVING DESIGN AID Page 7 of 14 Two-Way Slabs X Z Y pcaSlab v2. Licensed to: pcaStructurePoint.

0)c 14-#4(73.9) 16-#4(240.3) 10-#4(240.TIME SAVING DESIGN AID Page 8 of 14 14-#4(240.0)c 10-#4(81.9) 11-#4(55.6) 12-#4(83.2) 12-#4(83.0)c 14-#4(73.9) Middle Strip Flexural Reinforcement Column Strip Flexural Reinforcement pcaSlab v2.3) 11-#4(55.5) 14-#4(82.2) 12-#4(83.0)c 11-#4(55. Licensed to: pcaStructurePoint.5) 14-#4(240.0)c 14-#4(240.0)c 11-#4(55.00.4) 14-#4(82.4) Two-Way Slabs 10-#4(81.slb Project: Time Saving Design Aids Frame: Two-Way Slab Engineer: PCA .6) 12-#4(83.9) 16-#4(240. License ID: 12345-1234567-4-2D2DE-2C8D0 File: C:\Data\Time Saving Design Aid\Two-Way Slabs.

Licensed to: pcaStructurePoint.00. License ID: 12345-1234567-4-2D2DE-2C8D0 File: C:\Data\Time Saving Design Aid\Two-Way Slabs.0 LEGEND: Envelope Curve Capacity Curve Support Centerline Face of Support 300.slb Project: Time Saving Design Aids Frame: Two-Way Slab Engineer: PCA .k-ft -300.TIME SAVING DESIGN AID Page 9 of 14 Two-Way Slabs Middle Strip Moment Capacity .k-ft -300.0 300.0 Column Strip Moment Capacity .0 pcaSlab v2.