CARICATURING A Series of Lessons Covering All Branches of the Art of Caricaturing FULLY ILLUSTRATED CHICAGO FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO Publishers .


It has been made as brief as is consistent with clearness and complete' ness. book as I derived from writing. and each of the points illustrated are explained in illustration. no illustrations Ttfere spared. The many plates illustrate all points necessary. which makes this book a complete course in caricaturing. In addition to the text with reference to that particular the plates there are many caricatures of famous men included.Foreword In the writing and illustrating of this book my aim has been to produce a comprehensive and concise treatise on the art of caricaturing. Although the text is brief. Wishing you much 6021294 . and success. especially illustrating I shall consider my time well spent. If you obtain half as this much pleasure and profit from the use of it. Acting upon the assumption that it is easier to work if ones assignments are already made. Chapter XII has been made up of assignments and suggestions. Mitchell Smith.


Contents Frontispiece PAGE Facing Tide 7 11 Foreword List of Illustrations Chapter I Pen Lines and Material 15 Chapter Chapter II III The Face and Head Expression 2J 31 Chapter Chapter Chapter IV Exaggeration 37 43 V VI Comic Figures Action Shading and Shadows 47 55 61 Chapter VII" Chapter VIII Technique Chapter IX Animals Lettering 69 75 81 Chapter X Chapter XI This and That Chapter XII Assignments and Suggestions 85 .


Robert Tristram Plate 10 Plate 11 Poet 44 46 48 49 11 Benjamin Disraeli . The Great '. 18 19 Robert Herrick Plate 2 Plate 3 22 24 26 27 Bolivar Qemenceau Plate 4 30 32 33 Plate 5 Marshal Foch Plate 6 36 38 Plate 7 Bismarck Plate 8 Plate 9 39 40 42 Coffin. The Magician 16 17 Gladstone Frederick.List of Illustrations PAGE George Arliss " Frontispiece Plate 1 14 Nicola.".

: Plate 18 . 70 71 Josef Lhevinne Charles Darwin Plate 19 72 74 76 80 84 87 Caret Garrett Joe Byrns Booth Tarkington Giovanni Martmelli . Dawes 62 63 Jack Dempsey Plate 16 Plate 17 64 68 .12 List of Illustrations PAGE Hate 12 Lorado Taft 50 51 Marshal Joffre Plate 13 Plate 14 52 54 '56 57 .Woodrow Wilson Plate 15 60 Charles G.



caricaturing should procure a number of drawing pens in various sizes. The student. Art gum erasers. or. Caricaturing requires a great deal of sketching. and shaped with round. a good quality of heavy. black waterproof drawing ink Higgins is very good and pencils for sketching arid drawing. Other materials needed are. Gillotts drawing pens are perhaps the most The student of all pens by cartoonists and pen apdtjnk artists in generaL For drawing cartoons and caricatures siw^70J^opand^^ are the ones moat uattk-Qtber si?es and styles oipBSsmay be very useful.effect markedly original These lettering pens may be had many sizes. thumb tacks for fastening the drawing paper or board to the drawing board will also be needed. and is also very good for sketching. The most satisfactory material to make the drawings on is a good grade of Bristoli Board. But if the drawings are not intended for publication. mttrtTBook are reproduced a number of caricatures widely used of which enabled the artist to get an. and one should keep a supply of good paper for this 15 . especiaU^^owl poin^ens for drawing heavy lines for the outlines of cartoons.CARICATURING Chapter I Pen Lines and Materials necessary material used in drawing caricatures are few and inexpensive if we compare them to the tools of some of the professions. Nearly -all art work requires more or less hand that were outlined with a lettering pen m lettering. etc. hard surface bond paper gives satisfactory results. square or oblong nibs. The such as surgery. prospective student is advised to obtain some of these. because every artist should learn to manipulate the lettering pen and brush in lettering. All drawings should be completely drawn with pencil before drawing in ink.

. let us consider the manipulation of the pen. that is. NICOLA After which sudden outburst of scholarship and philosophy. to mental and mind never to return from that oblivion where all things material eventually go. for the benefit of beginners who are not familiar this medium of drawing. held the same as in the proper position for The drawing pen of the writing. with the thumb and first and second fingers with is right hand.16 Caricaturing record ideas and impressions before they escape from the purpose.

heavy slow lines. On Plate 1 are illustrations of various kinds of lines. shading and etc. Plate 1. . fast lines. dots. irregular lines^ and shaky GLADSTONE lines are most frequently used. especially. lines. of F. F and G are called Crosshatch of lines and they are used for shading. There are some examples Crosshatch in the iUustrations m this book. E.A variety Fine lines. of pen lines are used in cartooning and caricaturing.

T and U decreasing the pressure on the pen.18 Caricaturing Graded Q. L is also drawn with the same brush. and is termed Spatter. Plate 10. Ends of lines dhat do not have their termination in other lines are usually An example of this is Fig. was made with a small camels hair brush. N M which will be explained later. which should have. FREDERICK THE GREAT K on Plate 1 every cartoonist Lines such as these are sometimes used to stripe trousers. drawn thusly. 4. Plate 9. . S. R. 3. they lines as in are are best drawn by drawn increasing or rapidly. is dots drawn with the brush. See Fig.

One can often create something original by experimenting* and trying many ways and techniques of drawing an object* or was used in drawing caricature. The same pad used in stamping W the caricature of Robert Herrick. HERRICK In the drawing of caricatures and cartoons or any other com' mercial art. For pen and ink work the engraving is made on a sine printing plate. however. for that matter the artist should know something about the processes of reproduction for that particular form of art work.Pen Lines and Materials V and 19 W are stamped with pads of denim and knit goods. respectively. The artist should know that all work intended for line . to know all about these processes of reproduction. It is not necessary.

which is then treated with acid. The drawing to be reproduced is photographed on a chemically treated sine plate. or thickness. in drawing for reproduction one should use heavier lines than appear in a printed drawing. and how the pressure on the has been decreased pen gradually at the end of lines to taper them. Since the dimensions are. Notice also how the lines have been drawn. except the photographed' lines. This away the surface of the sine. it naturally follows that the pen lines are also reduced in the same proportion in breadth. which makes them really one'fourth the original sise. Study the many drawings in this book to see how they have been drawn. Notice that the outlines are invariably the heaviest. while the lines for shading and such. Study an accomplished artist's work and take advantage of what he knows. and avoid that cut off appearance that results from bringing the pen to an abrupt stop at the same pressure.2o Caricaturing rqproducttons should be made on white paper or Bristol Board with black drawing ink. making the entire line the same thickness. Drawings are usually reduced about one-half the original dimensions in reproduction. Colored inks do acid eats not photograph well. neither does black ink on colored paper. Therefore. and put your own original ideas in the drawing. somewhat like printing type. which are left in relief. reduced in proportion. This is the road that leads to success in art. of course. are finer. .


22 Caricaturing PLATE 2 .

than it is to draw hands well. These are all the are drawn equidistant from. draw a perpendicular line for the center of the face. and C. fourth. To draw a front view cartoon of the head. Fig.Chapter II The Face and Head The head is not so difficult to karn to draw. etc. Although the features of the head and face are exaggerated in cartoons. and parallel to. 1. the nose is as long as the distance from the nose to the bottom of the chin. 1 guide for the bottom of the ears and end of nose. third. Next draw line EE for the brows and the top of the ears. Near the center of this line draw a horizontal line. Since the subject of this book is 23 . but in drawing a caricature of a definite face it is better to A make guide lines for the top of the head and bottom of chm in the proportions outlined in the preceding paragraph. These propertions are as follows: The eyes are about midway between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. The next step is to place the features with a pencil. and the mouth is erne third of the distance from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin. and GG as a . mouth. but to learn to draw it well requires diligent study and practice. nose. beginning with the eyes. line lines necessary in drawing a cartoon. This line will be equidistant from the eyes and split the nose and mouth in two equal parts. the top of the ears are about on a line with the eyebrows. hair. Plate 2. 1. fifth. It may not seem reasonable to the beginner when told that it is much easier to karn to draw the head well. chin. as B. in life they follow closely definite proportions. brows. and finish by drawing There are many ways of drawing the features in a cartoon. second. and the bottoms on a line with the end of the nose. ears. as FF. which vary with the different expressions. Fig. Lines B. Kg.

24 Caricaturing FIG 4 / jCss* ) PLATE 3 .

Another advantage of drawing from photographs is that the head is more easily proportioned correctly. be good likeness by drawing from photographs. he can determine the correct proportions because he can measure the width of the head on and hair are more easily seen the photo and get the width of the head in die drawing accordingly. Note in Fig. shadowy and conspicuous features are more easily seen which helps one to know what to exaggerate to get a good likeness of the subject being caricatured. only this will lifelike in caricatures. Figure 1 was drawn Kg. 25 be dealt with here. Some of these methods are illustrated in the caricatures of Von Hindenburg on Mate 7. For the student who easier to get a or from photographs or has not studied drawing from life it will. mouth and other features may likewise be measured and placed correctly. For example. This is because the various features can be measured on the photograph and enlarged proportionately in the drawing. under nose. if one is going to make the drawing five times as high as the head in the photograph. The Mack bow tie and other Do shading give the drawing tone. To make except in ones where extreme exaggeration iff a drawing appear lifelike is ratter difficult fof beginners. wrinkles. which they do not understand. In good photographs the wrinkles. drawn from portraits. 2 the outlines for the black shadows under eyebrows. while blacked in on the large drawing giving it life and sparkle. perhaps. life. This is vary useful. because there are a great many little tricks for doing this. not forget shadows under ears in profiles. However. How this is done is illustrated on Plate 3 with the <^catures of Ex-Kaiser William. Attention called to the highlights on the eyes. one disadvantage of drawing from photographs is thai you can only get one viewto work from. under mustache.The Face and Head caricaturing. 2 is exaggerated a great deal. which heightens the effect. Highlights on eyes and placed correctly on the drawing. The features are drawn used. The nose. and invariably used to is is make the eyes lifelike. unless you have photographs in different positions of the same subject. With two positions it jp sometimes possible to construct a third view. and under difrt on the white collar. These outlined shadows have been from a photograph with little exaggeration. . or color. also. corners of eyes. and faces other than Caricatures are either direcdy front views.

Although drawing from photographs has some advantages. . 4) I BOLIVAR the same view as the one as Figures 3 and 5 are simply caricatures of the same subject in different techniques and degrees of exaggeration. hair.26 Caricaturing on this plate was drawn from an old photo taken while he was Crown Prince. The shape of the nose. 2 was made from a late photograph. By using these two was constructed showing the old man with drawings a third (Fig. forehead. and other features Grown Prince. m Figures 4 and 5 are such that it was possible to draw a profile also. Fig.

the top of pencil in line with the top of the head. CLEMENCEAU There is also a way to measure from life to aid the artist in getting pencil in the true proportions in mating a drawing. hold a a arms length and sight over the top of pencil. Caricatures of some subjects drawn in profile. and that is by experiment.The Face and Head drawing from life also has its advantages. and this 27 should always be done are better positions. when possible. In life drawing many sketches of different views and positions can be made to determine the best. Next place the thumb on the pencil in line vertical position at with the bottom of chin* The length of pencil from your thumb to the . while others are improved by using other There is only one sure way to determine which is best. or whatever putting object you are measuring. To do this.

can This method is be properly proportioned by using this method. and the and head as a legs are much shorter in proportion to the length of the torso. because of these characteristics mentioned in the likeness preceding paragrapLyTbe smooth rounded features of youth are difficult to Models of advanced age are draw and obtain a good br very little likeness for the reason that thero is nothing. also. The peculiarities of infancy and early youth are as follows: The cranium and forehead are much larger in proportion to the rest of the head. chin. easier to draw. and furrowing the face with wrinkles in the face and forehead. length of noee. the features whole are more gracefully rounded. in o^p fn rtkhV^">fcj^^ are sd3o)h4 is the reason that caricaturing. and blood vessels to be more in evidence. the neck is much smaller than in an adult. With old age the flesh becomes flabby and falls away from the bones.28 top. The eyes also appear deeper in their sockets. and to get a good of. The features and proportions the various ages should also be considered here. which illusion is caused by the aforementioned relaxation and drooping of the flesh above and below the eyes. and the bony structure becomes more prominent at the forehead. tendons. and the jaw bones. will Caricaturing be used for the height of the head in your drawing. causing the bones. but is good for characteristic of the difference in 4jwing from still life. adding to the character and dignity of general are years. etc. bridge of the nose. the eyes are somewhat below the center of the head. not only useful in drawing from life. caused boxes. women and children g6od-^3^ects for . The height of forehead. The dome of the skull appears broader. muscles. at most. by the loss of teeth and straightening of the lower jaw The nose is more powerful if not larger and the features in more prominent. and the face shorter. With age the head becomes more diminutive. placing is then held horizontally to deter' guide lines that far apart.. The pencil mine the width of the drawing. in proportion to the si2 of the head.



Study the wrinkles around the eyes. stupidity. Also the hair stands on end or is disorderly. In Smiling the brows are lifted in an arched position. They labeled underneath each drawing: fright. surprise. is not opened In Anger the brows are drawn down in die center and are knotted. so is the expression in a cartoon m On Plate 4 are illustrations of twelve of the most used expressions. The corners of the mouth are drawn upward and may. The eyes are opened very wide. and irregular. Study these drawings carefully and analyze each expression.Chapter HI Expression Expression as a cartoon is is very important cartooning and caricaturing. and forehead in all the different expressions illustrated. . In fright the eyebrows ire lifted and the forehead wrinkled. The eyes are pardy covered by the brows.shall be considered mam characteristics noted. and very often the teeth are visible as in the illustration. sneer. pain. are To help their you do this. anticipatioti. or knit. The corners of the mouth are drawn downward. attention. with the forehead wrinkled vertically. be opened slighdy. laughter. and contentment. mouth. or closed depending on the particular expression desired. Just an exaggerated drawing. smile. each expression . anger. and so is the mouth. separately and Surprise is similar to fright except that the mouth as wide and the eyebrows are not lifted as much. and the hair stands on end. weeprrig. The eyes are pardy dosed at the corners. nose and mouth. eyebrows. Note in Attention the shape of eyes.

32 Caricaturing PLATE 5 .

That is. The nose is turned up slightly and wrinkled.opened. is FOCH corner of the mouth should be elevated on the side on which the eyebrow nose is is down. The proper relation should be kept between the features. . The eyebrows The wrinHed and the mouth is. which is partly closed.Expression drawn with one eyebrow drawn down over the eye. One corner of the mouth is up and the other down. in Pain are knotted somewfeat as in anger. Sneer. the 55 The expression. Such mouths as are used in the illustrations of fright and surprise would not be suitable here. Note particularly the eyes and mouth.

the brows are higher. For example. brush perhaps. in a line. The only difference being. or entirely dosed. and Moon Mullins are especially good in this respect. Although these expressions are suitable for cartoons. and tears are drawn to hdp the Anticipation and Contentment. Pkte 5 are some reproductions of caricatures in various expressions and poses of s<5me rather famous men: Adolph Hitler and Admiral Coontz. have a body with the characteristic action of fright. Study the illustrations of Note how the brows. Figures 8 and 9 are to illustrate that animals can be stiff drawn with almost any expression. smiling. expressions in omcatures are seldom exaggerated as much as the illustrations on Ptfte 4. His nose trouble (mustache) takes on a new that of aspect in this a rather he is drawing. a head and face with an expression of strips. that fingers far apart. They were drawn this way so that you might more easily see JKJW to represent these many expressions. while in Fig.. Stupidity is expressed the illustration. Figure 1 has a stern look obtained by representing the mouth. Figure 5 is a profile of Hitler. feet off the ground. is more . expression. On "Smile" and "Anger" on Pkte 4. However. Weeping note how the eyebrows are drawn. tonsils. In Fig. 7 rather calm. tongue. Especially the eyes. and the mouth opened wider. showing teeth. eyes. the eyes more closed. or what you will. etc. Figure 4 is a two thirds front view caricature of Hitler. In Uproarious Laughter the nose for the moves upward to make room mouth to stretch big and wide. expression difficult with some animals than with others. angry. or really the mustache. is A very good thing for beginners in to study the expressions used Popeye. some of the better comic fright should is. In straight Figures 2 and 3 note that the same general principles were used as in the expressions.34 _ Laughter is Caricaturing very similar to smiling. and the is by drawing the eyes about half dosed as in mouth drawn down on one side. Drunkenness expressed much the same. nose. In the illustration of The eyes are partly. and mouth are drawn. 6 he has a grouch. Expression should be suited to action and vice versa.


36 Caricaturi unng PLATE 6 .

2. and that exaggerated. On 37 . and 3. expression. caricature is an exaggerated drawing. Page 39. It is always wise to make a number of pencil sketches trying various degrees of exaggeration. exaggeration of the face and head in caricaturing is the purpose of this chapter. accentuated as the artist has done in the drawing of Bismarck. and action.Chapter IV Exaggeration Exaggeration is the life of a cartoon or caricature. etc. Figures 1. If the nose or ears are large exaggerate these as in the caricature on the jacket of this book. The three forms of exaggeration in a humorous drawing are. supposed to have a likeness of the carica' if Since the caricature is naturally follows that it the most noticeable features are be easier to get a likeness of the model. exaggeration of form. See the caricature of Andrew Carnegie on Plate 14. What to exaggerate depends entirely upon the features of the subject being caricatured. before making a finished drawing with pen and ink. For example. will is by experiment. used in the drawings of Lafayette. Plate 3. hair. if the model has a round face and large eyes exaggerate these. if not always. accentuated. note the various degrees of exaggeration. Really that is what they are exaggerations. This statement raises the question of what to A exaggerate. there is only one way to determine what degree will give the best results and resemblance to the model. the Exaggeration Plate 6. tured. Or a prominent jaw may be beard. As to the degree of exaggeration. having a likeness of one particular person. and Ex'Kaiser Wilhelm II. and different techniques. However.. The chin. or prominent features of the model are usually. The most noticeable. and exaggeration of action will be treated in a separate chapter on action. it may also be exaggerated.

38 Caricaturing PLATE 7 .

second. jaw. Attention caricature of William is called to the difference in exaggerthis plate is a ation of the hair. In drawing caricatures a good rule to follow is this: first. only more so. of the English Practically the same thing was done in the two drawings and as Figure 2 seemed best. chin. nose. and chin. Figure 4 on Makepeace Thackeray. and ear. it BISMARCK Poet. The was made the large finished drawing. enlarged in Figure 3. while Figure 2 is exaggerated features are more. mustache. John Masefield. Figures* 1 saye and 3 are only sketches. make a drawing as true to life as possible using little exaggeration. especially the eyes.Exaggeration There is little 39 accentuation in Figure 1. which features to study this and make several sketches to determine .

40 Caricaturi wring PLATE 8 .

or express. Pershing. 1. experiment to see which technique priate for the exaggeration used. and two'thirds front view. of a great German. and ear were accentuated most in Expression and exaggeration should also be employed to bring out. the artist endeavored to represent a conceited man By with a strong wflL Likewise. Ybu will also see that the head is rather square. By doing all this sketching and experimenting you can get much better results. < especially. Plate 13* these drawings. an character of effort was made to represent the Von Hindenburg in the caricatures of him. There is one don't. People with deformities are invar" unfortunate iably sensitive and no one would want to hurt such an person. and exaggerating the jaw. front. the character of the Jjerson caricatured. make 41 sketches of profile. beard and other features. 2. Extreme exaggeration was employed in the large head on this time a fairly good plate which gives a humorous effect. very strong and fort'like. caricature obtaining as a reward for study and sketching a very original 1. Also the caricatures on Plate 8. There is little for exaggerup. third. for an example of same person. The caricatures of Ex Kaiser William II. Figures 4 and 5. If you are drawing is most appny n life. and naturally suggests squaring character of a soldier. in exaggeration. Plate 3. Note how the eyelids droop in this drawing. The Also see the two caricatures of General John J. are examples of this point. using a stern expression. Never emphasis deformities. and at the same ways of caricaturing the likeness was retained. and in the finished drawing you will note that a likeness was retained from Figure while the strong character of the Old Soldier was enaphasised. or grave abnormalities. and certainly the mustache is far too good a chance ation for the alert and original caricaturist to omit.Exaggeration exaggerate. . Study the caricatures of different Howard Thurston on Plate 15. chin. Plate 7 9 the exaggeration in Fig. In Fig. jaw.

42 Caricaturing PLATE 9 .

in drawing a sideview comic figure. Draw clothing. 43 . Since comic figures may be such gross exaggerations. the proportions of the limbs and torso may vary much in various types. and from other artists* work. Quite a lot of humor can be added by well drawn and well placed hands and feet. in the average figure. 2. The hands should reach midway of the thf^h and the elbow half way of the arm. as in Fig. Draw head as in Figure 1. Next block in body. by turning the toes out. turning the toes up at the end. especially between slender and corpulent figures. Some of the various ways of getting humor in the feet are. legs and arms. or in. so necessary in drawing a body for the head. Fig. The same procedure is used. This is illustrated to give it life. drawing from his own hands as a model. and 6 on the same part of the plate. is it You should know the proportions of a comic figure. For the beginner or amateur. which makes the elbow near the hip when the arms hang vertically. adding buttons.. It would be wise to clip hands that are good in various positions. However. 5. body to draw is the hand. m by Figures 4. it is better to draw a sort of skeleton Plate 9. Figure 7 shows a different technique. Note the proportions of Figures 3 and 5 on Plate 9. for a guide as in Figure A. 3. from The most difficult cartoons to keep for reference or models when needed. The amateur should give this item a good deal of study and practice. wrinkles. exaggerating. and finish as etc.Chapter V Comic Figures Just as a framework is necessary in drawing the head. the torso and legs are of equal length with the knee midway of the Icgi exclusive of the foot.

Plate 9. However. It diligent study gets the body and should Wrinkles and folds are used for but much fit should button'holes and pockets. Note also how the tie and collar are else. These will be treated in the two succeeding chapters. and elsewhere. The shoes should be in keeping with the other clothing. the lapels* buttons. and drawing it in other awkward positions. fine results here as everywhere drape naturally to get a good effect. knees. 1 1 and 12. this purpose at the shoulders. CfllTOEtL V^V COFFIN // \-TfT- Qothing is really a little difficult. That is. . while a hobo has ragged. drawn. See examples of this on Plates 9. The rich man is usually represented with patent leather shoes with white spats as Figure 6. a good comic figure must have action and proper shading. elbows.44 _ - Caricaturing the foot. 10. worn out shoes. a well dressed man has shined shoes.


46 Caricaturi unng PLATE 10 .

or stillness. Figure 3 is another example of action without motion. In Figure 1 the man is sitting erect and has little interest about it. hands and feet relaxed. cravat. hat flying in air. and a general disorder of the hair. Angles in lines. Straight and gracefully curved lines express order. jumping off the ground. and the "crows nest" was ment larger. or cartoon composition. hat. hair standing on end.Chapter VI Action Action is all important in cartooning. as if threatening to hit somer thing. Note also the difference in Figures 4 and 5 on Plate 10. and conversely. it is necessary to have what cartoonists term action. or if standing. Of course action is exaggerated in cartoons just as expressions and forms are exaggerated. even though the figure is not in motion. causing them to take dumped form with awkward positions. 47 . might be classed as anger and determination combined. Plate 12. It is the item that creates greatest interest in a cartoon. In anger the hands are tightly dosed and shaking. and other clothing. or between lines help to express disorder. Appropriate action for fear might be as follows: running. there is in the drawing of this cartoon. On Plate 10 is illustrated this kind of action. In cartoons. The characteristic actions for stupidity are. In Figure 2 this has been improved by having this man sit more on his spine and moving his knees up by putting his feet on a footstool. However. Do you not think this is a better cartoon than it would be if the sailor was standing erect. much room for improve- Action should be suited to expression. or foot stamping the ground. and fingers spread wide apart. Figure 2. except just its comical appearance. the feet.

Caricaturing FlGl FI63 FIG 5* PLATE 11 .

will find some examples in this book. and other top notch . Other good examples of 49 You DISRAELI action you can find in the daily comic strips. and in the cartoons of Herbert Johnson. especially Popeye and Moon Muflins.Action Study the appropriate actions for the various other expressions. cartoonists. Tony Sarg.

PLATE 12 .

See Figure 2. and these details require dose study. the hands. keeping the proper relationship between the . such as the weight of dothing. There are various other details that must be watched dosdy.Action In the act of walking. the TAFT qrward foot may or may not have the heel resting on the ground. while the rear foot is bent at the toes with the heel off the ground. feet and other parts of the body change position rapidly and this causes a shifting of wrinkles and folds in the clothing. Action and Shading. In walking. 51 The hands in different positions are necessarily drawn differently. Plate 12. but it is usually drawn straight.

The knee of the forward leg is bent upward. Plate 9. Note the action of the arms and legs in running. and the other with the fingers pointing upward. except that they are off the other is bent downward. while that of the is The forward hand is dosed. of course. walking figures (2 and 3) on Plate For running action study Figure 1 on Plate 12. bent upward JOFFRE of the arm in the backward swing. Note the comical action in the 12. and downward on the forward swing.52 Caricaturing arms and legs in action. ground. The elbow is. Drawing them off the ground improves the action a great . The feet are drawn partly open practically the same as in walking. Also Figure 6. and others.

Keep the weight of the body balanced properly on the feet. The front and twcKthirds front view figures in motion are in perspective. but you will see the arm in foreshortened somewhat For this foreshortening is position. 4 on this same plate see the notes flying from the singing man^s mouth. you can not see the length of the arm. showing the movement and direction of tie hat. For an example of hands in perspective you are referred to Figure 2 on Plate 11. and the dust sucked upward and forward ov^r the shadow. 4. 53 and see in dooe by simply drawing a shadow underneath. drawn employed. An example of this is the feet of Figure 3 on Plate 12. In Figure 3 mentioned immediately above. as you may the above mentioned drawing* Other details that add to the is action are. In Fig. The hand will also appear larger in comparison to the arm because it is positions nearer the eye of the observer. . Analyse the action of Figures 1. but only picking up the brief case. So in the above mentioned motion of the front and two-thirds front figures the hand and foot in front appear larger. and to the rear of the man. Especially note the fine streamlines running back from the feet. and from the head. The use of skeletons in drawinstructing ing comic figures as explained in tfe preceding chapter. short curved lines to the right of the hat causes an illusion that makes it seem that the hat is also in a twirling The motion. and underneath.Action deal. Figure 1 represent the excitable. tie and coat tails blowing backward. hat blowing off. 3. If me stands in front of you and points his hand and arm at you. which it is not feet. If is doing here. in acquiring is was meant to doubly useful good action. note how the body is balanced on the the legs were in a vertical position here. Also use heavy lines for the nearer objects and conversely for the more distant objects. shouting type of baseball fan the player in what to do next. then the hand would have to support part of the weight of the body. and 5 on Plate 11.

54 Caricaturing PLATE 13 .

but are only shaded with a fine pen. There is no outline of the white parts. The different methods of shading are. say the coat should be solid black. A On handled the shadows. weave. Sometimes stripes illustrate these various styles of shading. at wrinkles. and material of the clothing. dots. cross hatch. When it is consistent with the technique and purpose of the cartoon. In Figure 4 note how the socks are drawn. checks. Plate 11 is an example. due to the different type. and the vest shaded with parallel lines. are not solid black. and stipple or spatter. 3.Chapter VII Shading and Shadows Shading is employed to put tone and life into cartoons* In shading the artist must take into consideration the purpose of the cartoon. Note also how the white spats are drawn on Plate 12. the trousers striped. Also how the shoes and hats are drawn. 11 and 12 Suitable shading gives a cartoon a professional appearance. stripes. For example. mustache and 55 . Your attention is called to the shadows under eyebrows. naturally be shaded quite differently from one of a rich man. color. and a cartoon of a cowboy would be shaded differently from either the rich man or the tramp.Rgure 1. plaids. style. and the proper technique to be used in the cartoon. cartoon of a tramp would Shading helps to express character. Figure 2 illustrates checks and Fig. drawn and highlighted. Lettering pens or a small brush are used for making large stripes or for solid black areas. under upper eyelids. it is advisable to employ a variety of shading. solid black. The caricatures on Plate 7 are good examples of shadows on the head. plaid and wriggly stripes. Plates 9. Shadows are also very important in drawing cartoons and carica' the various plates in this book note how the cartoonist has tures. shaded. under nose.

56 Caricaturing PLATE 14 .

and under the spats on the shoes. trouser bottoms. the trousers. belts. The right foot bafl player. of the foot' would appear on the ground an . vestt coat tails. lapels. Shadows under the shoes aid in making if the feet appear in contact with the ground. pocket flaps. and under the shoes. 57 and shadow under the coat on the in the completed full figure caricature at the right. These shadows aid in giving the drawings depth or perspective. buttons. by causing the features to stand out more prominently. They appear under the collar. Plate 11. WILSON In th' drawings on Plates 11 and 12 are other applications of shadows.Shading and Shadows chin. Figure 5.

all other objects in the The same ingly from the same same composition should be lighted and shaded accorddirection. Therefore. it is in the Although absolute accuracy is not necessary in cartoons as more serious arts. Figure I on Plate 12 illustrates this point. This is an error often made by beginners. Curved strokes are essential in representing line The rounded objects. but would appear as if in the air. shading on the mast. and straight Surface direction is lines in representing plane surfaces. or curvature of the surface on which the shadows fall. represented by lines drawn in the same general direction as the surface direction. . In Figure 3 on Plate 10. crows nest. If the shading lines were drawn vertically and horizontally they would not make a satisfactory shadow. then the shadow would be drawn with vertical and horispntal lines. As it is. shadows are used to make the feet contact the ground. and tele" scope also bring out the surface direction. and in a line parallel with the direction this man is running. gross incongruities will ruin an otherwise good cartoon. notice that the black shadow under the crows nest follows the curva' ture of the mast. so are they used to that they are off the ground. the beginner should watch carefully for such errors and correct them. That is. Shadows that are not in perspective should conform to the shape of the object from which the shadow is cast. if one object in the composition throughout is lighted from the East with the shadow cast Westward. In that case the shadow would have the approximate shape of this figure in silhouette. Just as was drawn just back of the toe. on which his shadow was cast. resting on its edge. Now if there was a house or board fence directly back of this figure.58 Lancaturing appropriately drawn shadow bodi feet are off the ground. direction of light and shadow should be maintained a composition. With the lines drawn vertically and hori' spntally the shadow would not appear flat on the ground. Notice that these cross hatch lines are show drawn so that the shadow seems to be laying flat on the ground.


60 Caricaturing MAGICIAN KATE 15 .

Cabinet Members. By "purpose of the cartoon" is meant is intended to aid or injure the one caricatured. VicerPresidents. the style or method used in producing a work of art. Congressmen. golf. Names. baseball. football. in other words. naturally he wifl be represented differently from what he would otherwise. or rather may influence the artist in choosing the technique. hunting. In caricaturing the purpose of the drawing may influence the technique of the artist. dates. Here again the purpose of the drawing may determine placed so as to the way it it whether should be drawn. Around diis central figure are drawn smaller action figures illustrating one or more sports. a caricature drawn for newspaper reproduction is usually drawn 'with pen and ink lines similar to the drawings on Plates 8. and other statesmen and prominent men may be caricatured. pebbled surfaced board. and 16. If it is to harm the caricatured. Senators. Ripley of "Believe It Or Not" fame produces his drawings by this method. Often in these humorous drawings the central figure is drawn with a small body and a large caricatured head. Sports cartoons may of course illustrate various sports. For example. and others. such as: boxing. caricatures are used in sports cartoons for number of newspapers. 13. Figures 1. 4. somewhat as the caricatures on Plates 8. Governors.Chapter VIII Technique the method of performance in art. and 16. Some artists use Lithographic Pencils on a specially prepared. Somewhat the same technique is employed in political cartoohs. Wash is seldom used Technique is in this country for A large newspaper drawings. basketball. 13. and 5 on Plate 3 represents 61 . fishing* horseback riding. in which Presidents. comments and other lettering and details are make a good composition.

and strong willed monarch.62 Caricaturing the Ex'Kaiser as a rather stern. It shoulcl be interesting for the student to study some of the caricatures of Thomas Nast. ruthless. There is no doubt that he is stern and strong willed. even though cartoonists of today do not go as far as Nast did. but even in them one can discern that he is no weak person by his stern features and prominent jaw. but not so terrible as these caricatures represent him. if he can acquire reproductions of same. Figures 2 and 3 on the same DAWES plate represent more of a kindly old gentleman. .

Some of these are spattered. There are three ways of putting this quality in and exaggeration. Marshal Foch. some with curved lines. although caricadifferently. cartoon is rather flat and uninteresting if it lacks these qualities. It is assumed that the above tures of named caricatures are best the same men might be drawn as they are. action. expression. A them. Some of the caricatures in this book might be termed modernistic. The character of the person and the shape of the features has determined the technique used. T. DEMPSEY of Hindenburg. Coffin. Charles Darwin. Lorado Taft. some and some with lines. Especially the caricatures R.Technique Humor is very important in newspaper cartoons. are drawn with straight light and very heavy lines which were made with a lettering pen. There are also others of this type. for which they were most adapted. The caricatures . and Jack Dempsey. and these are. Carnegie.


might be drawn with curved lines, but it would not be as good as this drawing and would lack its originality. perhaps T. Coffin could hardly be drawn well with However, the drawing of


Woodrow Wilson



straight lines

due to the round face. Neither could that of Carnegie, for

the same reason.


are simply not adapted to the techniques

.employed in some of the other drawings. If the head is drawn in a modernistic technique, the body, if a body is u&d, should be in the same style. This was done in the caricatures of

Hindenburg and Howard Thurston.

Since stipple, or rather spatter has been employed in a number of drawings in this book, it seems appropriate to explain here the

procedure for this method of drawing.


large caricature of Carnegie






on the

eyebrows, and beard. As one can readily see, first an outline drawing is made. If it is suitable to be spattered, a stencil is cut for this

a sheet of transparent paper, sufficiently large, over the drawing and trace the outlines of the areas to be stippled (spattered)* If transparent paper is unavailable, the
this stencfl, place

To make

drawing may be traced with carbon or graphite paper. In this way the drawing to be traced would be placed on top. The next step is to cut
out the portions to be spattered from the
stencil, as

the shaded area in

Figure 2, Plate 14. single edge razor blade, or a pocket knife is very useful to cut the stencil where it is inconvenient to cut with shears.
Place the stencil over the outline drawing so that the cut out portions register perfectly with the outlines of the drawing to be
stippled. Thumb teck the two together, or place weights on them to hold them in the desired position. Pour a small quantity of drawing ink in a saucer or similar receptacle. An old tooth brush is used for



Dip the brush lightly in the ink and draw the brisdes across

litde practice will teach

a coin or other suitable object as illustrated in Figure you to do this properly.

Plate 14*


Some solid black should also be used with this spattered shading to give contrast and thereby improve the drawing as a whole. In the
Hindenburg Caricature, Pkte 7, spatter shading has been used on the body and in tie lettering underneath, as the same technique should be employed consistently throughout an entire drawing or composition,
as stated previously in this chapter.




For this technique, Lamp Quite often wash is used in caricaturing. used with a water color brush. First an outline Black water color is drawing is made with a pen and black waterproof drawing ink on water
color paper.





applied with a camels hair brush.

Additional washes are used for the darker parts, and an effort is
to blend the



frontispiece is a reproduction of

an air'brushed caricature

This drawing was made for study of George Arliss by Eddie Burgess. a theatrical display, and the artist has produced something original and
very good. This caricature has originality, humor, and most important of all, it has a fair likeness of the subject caricatured.
Caricatures of


subjects are better


in one technique,

while others are best caricatured in another technique.
judgment, and experiment.

The only way to

determine the best technique for any particular subject

by good

68 Caricaturing PLATE 17 .

Chapter IX

caricaturing of animals should be learned along with the caricaturing of the human form. Cartoons of animals are frequently used in newspaper drawings; especially political cartoons* in which


they are employed as symbols of
nations of the World.

political parties,

or of the various

These symbolic animals and the things they represent are listed immediately below. The donkey is the symbol of the Democratic Party. The elephant represents the Republican Pirty; G. O. P. (Grand Old Party) Other symbolic animals are, the Tammany Tiger, the British lion, the Chinese Dragon, the American Eagle, and the Russian Bear. Animals are sometimes used as symbols for ball teams. Wildcats, Panthers, Tigers, Bulldogs, and others are employed for this purpose. Practically the same rules used in caricaturing the human body

are used in caricaturing animals. The greatest difference is that of form. As in the case of the human form, the forms of animals are exagger* ated; the most prominent features being accentuated most. Action and expression are also exaggerated. The expressions of animal* are prac^
it is

the same as that of humans and the same rules apply, although sometimes more difficult because of the difference the form of


the head, from the form of the human head and face. The action in the movements of animals is necessarily different from human action; especially in the quadrupeds. The actions of walking, running and galloping are essentially the same in all animal^ except apes and other bipeds. These actions are rather difficult to describe, and should be 'studied from life, and from the work of artists who are *p of anfmal$ especially good in the dr^ffey^st1








at one In walking, quadrupeds only have two feet on the ground is forward If the right rear foot tome. Take the horse for an example. front foot is slightly off the ground and on the ground, then the right left rear foot is in front of the rear foot. At the same time the


lifted to

foot is also lifted and be brought forward, and the kft front and down with each is moved alternately up moving forward. The head can only and the tail also varies in action. These descriptions

and the principles of the various actions, impart to one a general idea, drawn one must for as stated previously, to get the actions correctly

draw from use a good drawing for a model, or else


Plate 18. 6. Plate There g. Galloping height of the head. galloping gives In galloping the feet are moved in pairs. Plate 17.72 Caricaturing to walking except movements are faster. All be under the body. considering the and tail are blown to rearward. and the rear feet are extended to the the action. Fig. 1. or the front pair are may DARWIN still rear. and die bronco is also . and Figure 2. Both pairs are either more forward. Swimming and bucking. the action of standing. on Plate 8. climbing. Running action is similar or trotting action is little used in cartoons because The running a better effect. The mane 17. action is illustrated by Figure 5. although they under the body. Fig. feet are off the ground with shadow underneath to improve The head is thrust forward with die nose held higher. 3.

Examples of this are Figure 4. The pelican in Figure 2 is also an trample of accentuating the most noticeable features. You should always consider the purpose of a cartoon and choose the style accordingly. donkey drawn to criticise the Democratic Party might be drawn sled: and fat if it was intended to criticise the party for reckless spending. Other examples are Mickey Mouse and Felix the Cat. on the other hand. down-and-out appearance. and quadrupeds are given the same action as bipeds. but as a general rule it is A quite true. You need only to use good judgment in delErmining what to do and must have a basic knowledge of a thing to be capable of using the best judgment. and Figure 5. Quite often comic animals are represented wearing human apparel. Plate 18. The fish which has just escaped from tie pelican's beak adds interest to the drawing. Plate 17. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. suits and shoes. The expression should be consistent with the style. For example. you must also consider the idea to be expressed. In caricaturing animals the style of drawing is influenced by the purpose for which it is drawn. or to criticise the Domx crats should be drawn with a starved. the donkey in a cartoon for the aid of the Republican Party. spectacles. stupidity: ears drooping and eyelids heavy and pardy dosed donkey a book for children might be represented quite differently from either of the two above. such as. such as hats. moth-eaten. A drawn to illustrate However. a donkey drawn in a political cartoon intended to aid the Democratic Party should be sleek and fat with a merry expression. .Animals flying are illustrated 75 by Figures 1 and 2 on Plate IS.

74 Caricaturi urtng PLATE 19 .

enough for a book in itself. practice is necessary to acquire the dexterity required to do good lettering. and the materials However. which is also somewhat of a block form. It should also be of an for same. The shading on the letters is also made to match the drawing. The student of Commercial Art. and other materials used for caricaturing. lettering is often exagger" ated. Note the word "Hindenburg" on Plate 7. In fact there are is first included so that the student may know the many books published on lettering and the student is advised to obtain a good one on this subject and learn to do good lettering. black lettering ink. and block letters suggest strength and power. paper. Therefore. or Caricaturing should acquire some knowledge of this subject. for lettering is a long subject. but it requires a knowledge of the various strokes. forms of letters. Oily the most important points in lettering can be treated here. just as the drawings are exaggerated. guide lines. a T square for making vertical and horizontal guide lines.Chapter X Lettering Lettering is necessary in most forms of commercial art. and pencils. Lettering is really not very difficult. appropriate style to harmonise with the technique of the drawings- Note how this was done on the plates of this book. the word "Carnegie" on Plate 14. so it is apparent that this style of lettering was the most appropriate for this drawing. This caricature shows strength of character. . especially. Block letters were used to harmonize with the caricature. this s&ort chapter steps in lettering. In pen and ink cartoons and caricatures. Cartooning. For lettering you should have lettering pens in various si^es and styles.

German Text. The four top lines on Plate 19 are GARRETT Gothfc. All letters having elementary strokes consisting of light and or rather lines are classified as Roman. and the letters derived from the two. Gothic. Gothic letters are those having the elementary strokes of even width. Text letters heavy stroke^ indude all styles of Old English. They are. and Text. Roman. AH slanting fetters are classified as Italics r^rdkss <rf their oder .76 Caricaturi ring There are three classes of letters used by letter craftsmen.

They are Gothics. and Text. and Text Italics. which the strokes use this plate for a guide. or a square-nib pen. Roman. etc. and the numerals The arrows on in show the order well learned. For Gothics there is either a round-nib pen. or slanting guide lines for Italics. square the paper with the drawing board and draw horizontal guide lines with a T square as illustrated on Plate 19. or if Italics^ with the same slant. As you will see.S. and y extend downward. Roman Italics. also. Spacing of letters is another important item . The chisel pointed and the oblong-nib pen are adapted to the Roman and Text fetters. The pen to use is one that will best produce the demen' tary strokes of a letter with the least amount of effort. and t extend upward from the body of the letters. d. k. q. j. 1.Therefore Gothic. respectively. for the letters C. Romans may be made with a round-nib pen by using double strokes as in the words "DOUBLE-STROKE" on Plate 19. Different styles of lettering pens are adapted to the various classes of alphabets. O. f. the small letters b. classifications. There is no fixed rule . p. Note the number and distance of these lines. The Q. See "Card" on the plate. Lettering should first be drawn in with pencil and then with the It is advisable for beginners to proper lettering pen. Special care should be given to the layout of lettering in regard to composition. The beginner should the strokes and their order have been various strokes overlap in seme letters. These complete strokes are illustrated separately on Plate 19. pen However. so that all letters can more easily be made perpendicular.g. d> e. according to the preceding definition. h. draw vertical guide lines. and extend to the uppermost guide line. Capitals rest on the line on which the body of the small letters rest. while the letters g. until were made. There is quite a variety of lettering on the other plates in this book which the student may study. if drawn slanting are designated as Gothic Italics. and how the letters are placed between them. In the words "King" and "Mars" the letters are outlined and shaded. balance. the four top lines of lettering illustrate the direction of strokes employed in constructing the letters.andG. For lettering.

while some are narrow. letter styles may be originated from the three basic alphabets. Some require more space than others. letters Certainly ugly gaps and crowded are detrimental to the appearance of lettering. by one's aesthetic sense. although to a less extent than the fine arts. that is. letters The only practical way to determine the proper space for them is. combination of letters in some words to obtain a pleasing result or effect. Some of the alphabet are broader than others.78 Caricaturing for the spacing of letters. and the may determine the space. Lettering provides an outlet for artistic expression. and there axe them. many ways of New shading .


Caricaturing BYRNS .

" Besides the relative sizes of objects in perspective. there must be a balance of the objects represented. Another good example of perspective is a raileye. Stand in the center of the track and see how the telegraph wires beside the R. such as a hole punched in paper with a small pencil lead. arranging objects in a pleasing group is called composition. If upward and inward run meet and vanish at an indefinite point. ascend to perspective. In line drawings. and importance. on a plane surface. there is another way to obtain the illusion of distance in drawings. according to si?e. R. To obtain a pleasing group. then the attention of the eye will be attracted by the bright color to that particular side. Tones and values should be balanced. the effect of distance on the appearance of objects. would descend and bear inward toward the track until they converge and vanish at eye level. which In art. distant objects are simply drawn with finer really amounts to the same thing. below the level of the eye. The from the relative si^e of an object is determined by the distance it is you look through a small aperture. in three dimensions. objects eye level. If there is much bright color near one side of a painting. which is also the "Horizon Line.Chapter XI This and That Perspective is the art of representing objects. than it is nearer the eye. and subdued colors are used for the remainder of the picture. So rails till road track. above the level of the eye they descend to the eye level. To fill 81 . Color is less brilliant at a distance. you may see a large mountain at a distance. as they appear to the observer. This is by color. Objects of most interest should be placed near the center of the composition. color. lines. No large open or blank spaces should be permitted to detract from a composition. In they of this nature.

and lettering other detail. There is also a specified place for this notice in books. as well as expensive. doors and furniture may be used. Washington. &/2 x if possible. Only printed matter. etc. you should keep a "morgue of clippings. You should do this previous to the printing of the work for there are some requirements as to the of the printing. Enclose and'require first class Bristol Board. smoke. or at least. postage. with a few exceptions. As suggested before. either in Art or is termed Plagiarism to Copyrights. requesting the required forms and information. anything from memory. etc. However. They should be mailed flat. trees. in which entirely different objects or figures may be used. windows and curtains. as: clouds. if you should pay publish something you wish to Copyright.82 Caricat wring in such places lettering and other detail may be used in cartoons.. fences. Only send good drawings of a reasonable quantity Enclose a neat and terse letter to the one you are sending . and is punishable by Federal Statutes To copyright drawings before submitting them to Editors or Publishers is unnecessary. Clippings are also an aid in getting ideas composition in a clipping may be adapted for an A original drawing. Practically just all artists do this. on 11. postage for the return of the drawings. and name of the owner of same. Drawings intended for sale should be made on a good grade of and a margin left all the way around the drawings. according to ones need. houses. D. pictures on wall. outdoor details may be employed. Don't copy outright an entire figure or composition. in the same technique. of Library Congress. very likdy because no one can draw for drawings. and then it is necessary to a fee. It is unnecessary to tefl the . pertaining Literature. actions. may be copyrighted. C. Stealing another's ideas. automobiles. especially Copyright Notice. On the plates in this book. techniques. For indoor detail. For compositions representing outdoor scenes. note how large open spaces were avoided by the placing of the comic figures. otherwise you would collect a large number that would never be used. for this is really stealing. which should contain the date of Copyright." for reference as models when needed. written with pen and ink or typewriter white letter sise paper. write to die Register of Copyrights. the drawings to. attempting to steal. Of course will only want to you keep unusually good examples of various kinds.

Bookman.. few artists There is pleasure in Art for the one that enjoys drawing. An example of the latter is the caricature by Eddie Burgess. It is the quality of your he likes work. see Frontispiece.This and That Editor your qualifications in submitting free lance work. of. otherwise he will return it to you if you have enclosed proper and sufficient postage for that purpose. and try out any Art should be in you should think The greatest pleasure in creating something original. illustrating Painting. you do this your success is assured . take my dear reader. Caricatures are also employed to a considerable extent in the theatrical business. Golf. Do not be d^ couraged have. The Saturday Evening Post. Another good method for selling caricatures is to sell the original caricature to the subject from which it was made. and one who does not care for drawing will perhaps never succeed anyway. if you really like SUCCESS as your If whatever deter goal and let nothing you from your course. American Magazine. Magazines. and are widely used in Newspapers. Newspaper Ads. They are made with a large head and some hobby or sport. Esquire and others. to draw. Skiing. How exalted and wonderful it is to create life something good! and from photographs dipped from in Histories magazines and newspapers* Good studies may also be found and English Books containing pictures of writers and poetsPractice caricaturing from Success is to the ambitious and the persistent. that interest editors most. Some of the maga2^nes using caricatures are. regardless of if profit or recognition. Hobby Caricatures are perhaps best for this purpose. for he wifl consider If it upon its merits regardless of your training and experience. Always strive idea for originality. Do much sketching. Caricatures are becoming rather popular. and not how or why you can do it. you do not gain recognition immediately. Colliers. and other printed matter. and in Theatrical Displays. your work and it is suitable for his publication he will purchase it. So. etc. such as: a small humorous body. Books. They are used in Posters. Fishing.

84 Caricaturing TARKINGTON .

However this does not mean that some are not gifted with more imagination than others* but that whatever imaginative powers one has must be developed. but he probably learned much quicker and with less effort. not far advanced. lights and shades. It is accomplished by the careful repro- duction of lines. one of the greatest artists of all time. Even Michael Angelo. dosing the right. The amateur needs something of the professional's experience and imagination in the form of suggestions to add to his own initiative in producing an original work of art both drawings and suggestions which he can grasp and follow. colors. Perspective is the science of representing things as they appear rather than as they really are. just as a very talented artist must develop his talent by study. The author knows from personal experience th&t it is much easier to study when one has definite assignments of work to be done. But the most perfect drawing cannot entirely overcome some degree of flatness in a picture.. Although it is presumed that the majority of people who use this book will have had some practice in drawing. then vice versa and you will note that you see farther around the right side with .Chapter XII Assignments and Suggestions This final chapter of assignments is included to facilitate study of the principles of caricaturing explained and illustrated in the preceding chapters. To a great extent the imagination must be developed. many will be beginners. Look at some cylindrical object such as a barrel with the left eye. This is due to the fact that an artist draws only one picture and our eyes see two pictures when viewing objects in reality. or at most. and it is especially difficult for the novice to study without a guide for his efforts. had to learn to draw just the same as a less talented artist.

Your purpose when beginning should be perfection rather than speed. The best method of attaining these four essentials in one drawing is by much study and ways of drawing one caricature. It is only by experiment that one learns the easy ones. Practice these lines until you can draw them evenly and steadily. not exaggerating. draw per' fecdy straight lines without the aid of a ruler or some kind of straight . and originality. exaggeration. Of course such simplified drawings exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics of the per' son they portray are little more than suggestions of those prominent features which our eyes catch. exaggerating and simplifying as as the drawing will stand and still retain a good likeness. Add your own originality of execution and you have the most you can do with your present knowledge and skill. and farther around the left side with the left eye. and the objects in the picture stand out in startling perspective. Keep sketching. ' ASSIGNMENTS NUMBER (1) 1 With parallel lines in a Gillott's pen number 303. Unless you have done considerable work with a drawing pen. trying die good rule to follow in doing this is to first lines much not necessary. Next make another drawing exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics and simplifying the drawing. So each eye gives a slightly different picture of the barrel or other object. These two visual images are combined in the brain into one visual percept. seeing them as one. free from nervousness. (2) Figure B on the same plate is also produced with the 303 to space pen. it will be necessary to draw them slowly at first. our minds suggesting the balance.86 Caricaturing the right eye. Plate 1. Some faces seem to have been made to order for cartoonists while others are very difficult. Speed will come with practice. draw a picture as much like the subject as possible. By means of the stereoscope one looks at two pictures. Only slight pressure is used in such light lines as these. There are four essentials of a good caricature: a likeness of the person portrayed. leaving out different A sketching. practice the vertical Figure A. simplicity or economy of lines used in drawing. PracIt is practically impossible to tice these horizontal strokes. Be careful them as evenly as possible.

the variation or irregularity serves mostly as a relief from the monotx ony which results from exact repetition of a stroke or motif. and variety to prevent monotony.ssignments and Suggestions 87 edge. but should have slight variation to convey feeling. . C MARTINELLI (4) Figure left to right. This movement is obtained by the longer oblique stroke opposed by a shorter stroke. and by the variation. should be less difficult (3) The wavy vertical lines in Figure for the beginner than the preceding exercises. D illustrates shaky lines which have movement from They are termed dynamic because they convey the sense of movement. However. Free hand lines are not supposed to be straight hard lines* such as the draftsman employs.

This type of tone often employed for shadows and not infrequently for shading of is clothes. (11) V Make Make careful and exact copies of the four caricatures first which are included (12) in the chapter. Practice larger pen. Also of N. Practice them until you have gained some facility and and sure* ness in handling the pen. andU. static lines do not convey the feeling of motion. Copy Figure 4. Spatter work (9) It lines. R. and W. draw it with ink. (6) G shows a combination of the lines lines static. Parallel hatch are Static is or straight lines in cross' the opposite of dynamic. S. saipe plate. therefore. original caricatures of these four men. (2) care to. Over these pencil guide lines sketch in the face of Figure 2. Without work. Make important that you attain facility in drawing graded this ability you can hardly do professional looking several sheets of the exercises in Figures Q. Give your imagination free range.Caricaturing (5) Figures E and F are termed Crosshatch. and P. Figure 1 should be drawn in pencil. T. then erase the pencil guide lines and you have an interest' ing head. O. with a (8) Make is several copies each of Figures will I. for you remember that drawings are usually reduced to ^2 se & reproduction. and L. J. and add a small body if you . be treated later. Finish as in Figure 3. You may change the expressions. and employ more or less exaggeration accent ing to your mood. in Figures C D to form a dynamic Crosshatch. Re(10) Also see what you can do with Figures member that originality is one of the most important aspects of any kind of art. (7) Movement is obtained by opposing strokes in the herring' this pattern of strokes bone weave of Figure H. Feel free to make any changes which you think will improve them. 2 Figure ! With a ruler or T"square draw the lines as in Draw them twice as large as they appear on this plate. K. NUMBER (1) Plate 2.

Reprcx . draw ten sised eyes. (9) Age. (7) Using similar diagrams. and 2/3 front view. instead of as a discouraging factor. (7) Copy Foch outright the caricature of on page 33. vary the features. Draw five heads of old men and five of old women. etc. 2. If this greater difficulty help. such as different variety shaped and (6) Going back to Plate make ten diagrams of Figure these guide lines. on page 1. by Figures 8 and 9 on the same plate (5). Copy these. Can you express the smile. and (3) Draw each expression in profile sad. incentive to conquer. view. NUMBER 3 (1) For the purpose of memorizing the essentials of expression. you need further Refer to this subject in Chapter IL (10) Youth. angry. make several copies of each expression illustrated on Plate 4. (4) Figures 4 and 5. To get original in your work. on Plate 3. Draw five heads of children. (5) Figures 4. 5 and make (4) For further practice of expression turn to Plate exact copies of Figures 1. Colliers. draw ten side view (profile) heads* Employ the same form of variation as in exercise 6. etc. the sfcern and angry expressions? 7 show Der Fuehrer smifitig.(3) For further practice in drawing the head in direct front view. and 3. refer to drawings in this book and to cartoons such as Esquire. Using comic heads. (5) Draw the caricature of Bolivar. Plate 3. Block them out with die aid of guide lines. front view. 5. noses of different length and shape. The cartoonist This illustrated makes animals express their feelings also. respectively. 2. Draw these. comic (8) The head But in 2/3 front is more difficult than the front or should only serve as a greater profile. and the caricature of Qemenceau on page 27. Saturday Evening Post. 6. (2) For each expression draw a small comic head but simplify further the features and expression. and (6) is interested. copy Figures 2 and 3. illustrate the head in 2/3 froot 26. Draw ten heads in 2/3 front. in magazines.

side Draw an elephant's head as above. Also get variety and exaggeration in hair. slender. and degrees of exaggeration ranging from mere dots and slits to the large. page 39. (6) Copy the head Copy Copy all you (7) three drawings on Plate 8. sises. and chins. of Bismarck. Copy Figure 3 following the procedure as illustrated. 2. except substitute anger NUMBER (1) 4 eyes in various shapes. jaws. and flat. and 2/3 front. and 7. refer to Chapter VII and the accompanying Plate. employ the method of block' ing out figures as illustrated in Figures A. Also same shading. but be sure to retain a likeness of the subject. Note the difference in exaggeration and technique. (2) (4) Copy Figures 2 and 4 on Plate 6. Plate 7. short. (9) for smile* Draw a donkey's head. fifty Draw about pug. . smiling. fat. For an explanation of spatter shading as used in Figure 3. and 3. (5) Draw several original heads. 1 Note the snorting expression of the pony. 6. tall. as 3 and 4 except 2/3 front. 14. Change any part wish. "comehither'" eyes of an irresistible young lady. suitable ones selected from your work in exercises 1. (8) Figures NUMBER 5 (1) In all exercises for this section. 1. and 3. Also both caricatures of Masefield on this same plate. fat. chins with beard and stubble beard.90 Caricaturing duce exactly the parallel (8) line and Crosshatch shading in view. pointed chins. roman. and short figures. Draw a large variety of ears in all shapes and si^es. Make double chins. this drawing. Get the same expressions and selection of actions as in the originals. (3) Originate ? comic figures in front view. using for features. Plate 9. Draw them front. and 4. B. (3) crooked. (2) Copy Figures 5. Get a slender. profile. No. As for noses make them long. (4) (5) Same Same as Exercise 3 except in side view.

Crosshatch. Make hair dishevelled. (7) Draw Hitler making a speech. mouth opened wide. reread carefully. using cube of about 2 inches square. carefully. NUMBER 7 in the use of parallel lines. (2) Copy all figures on Plate 10. to bring tones of different values for the different planes Draw a cast. copy the drawings on pages 56 and 57. it (Chapter VII) before doing the exercises for this chapter. It also casts a shadow. Does the shadow seem to A beneath. They show the essential with everything superfluous omitted. side view. out the form forcefully. punching a bag. How can you show the curvature shadow. Can you (8) Draw a football player kicking hard kick? quately represent a to first base and really make (9) Draw a baseball player running him step on it! Suggest the stadium full of wildly cheering fans. block. Copy these and shading illustrations on Plate 12. (5) For a change and rest from figures. and 51. 49. (1) For further practice But and spatter in shading. Also represent the shadow on end. (10) Do two action figures of your own choosing. (3) Plate 11 illustrates several good action studies. (2) sible. Remember simplicity is essential for good cartoons. Draw (4) the shadow. Use a model if posShade the and have the light coming from only one direction. Place M crowd listening. suggest a gesticulating. a football. Use Crosshatch for lie flat on the ground? Does it stand on edge? Why? . Get plenty (4) Copy the action action into it.NUMBER (1) 6 action before beginning the Read carefully the chapter on following exercises. Also the one on page 52. and arms and hands wikfly on a balcony and very simply. about 4 inches high and (3) Draw a cylinder standing of the surface? 2 inches wide. copy the caricatures on pages 44. eyes wild with emotion. Draw the it with a shadow chair is setting in the sunlight. only ade' Good cartoons suggest rather than portray faithfully. of (6) Draw a boxer.

Draw him. The boat is small and the man is so heavy that it is almost standing on end. f NUMBER 8 (1) Copy the caricature of Jack Dempsey on page 63. also a tones? (6) Draw a fat man in a boat fishing. (8) Draw a vest and trousers as if they were on a man but don't draw the man. (7) Draw a man's coat. and heavy stripes.92 Caricaturing (5) A burglar The moonlight of his shadow casts a is running very rapidly beside a board fence. The toes are turned up this and show slightly. (4) Copy the drawing of Coffin on page 44. his feet to the fence and a part on the fence. Also the shadow of the man is shown on the water. Note the flying notes which (3) Copy signify that Paderewski is playing. these tricks of shading and shadows. This drawing has crosshatch. Draw an original composition. Hate 13. parallel lines. as tie author has depicted? (5) In the Can you obtain the same expression two caricatures of Pershing. Draw shadow beneath the end of boat which is above water. and shade it according to what you have (10) Remember all learned. Note this is entirely different from die one on page 63. front view. (9) pair of shoes are on the floor. page 54. Place shadows where needed. Have you gotten a pleasing contrast between your light and dark side of fence. The solid black affords contrast and lends color to the drawing. the composition on page 64. Draw them with shadows which emphasize A contact with the floor. Note the simplicity of this drawing. Can you represent water simply? This a good exercise. Make wrinkles as if coat were is on a man. without the man. Reproduce the technique of the original drawing. Suggest houses on other is shadow from few bushes and trash to represent an alley scene. All drawings should be mack twice the sise which they appear in this book. Place shadows under lapels and buttons. (2) Copy the drawing on page 62. note .

. you have an NUMBER 9 (1) After rereading Chapter IX. Note the simplification and exaggeration in Figure 2. (7) Using any model you prefer. Deal. for such work will not be of any help in developing your ability to draw* Draw them carefully with the same actions and expressions. Can you make the donkey look lasy and slow? How should his ears be? His head? What about shading and shadows? (3) With the help of Plate 8. draw a caricature using soft lead pencil and wash. standing on rear . with Jack Garner in the saddle. brush try a caricature in this medium. draw a bucking horse ridden by (2) Draw a cowpuncher. (4) Draw a woodpecker pecking on a snag. make copies of all animals on Plates 17 and 18. Do not draw them just to get them done. side view. labeled G. papers. air Draw Learn to exercise initiative and originality.OJP. Make a drawing of this idea . then draw an (9) (7) Draw an elephant.the difference in treatment or technique. How idea? New boxing gloves on man and his wife and (8) Take a good gag pertaining to a illustration of the joke. another one with crayon or any other medium you If (8) prefer. Have him holding a tep gallon hat in one hand.feet. (6) Copy the two caricatures of Howard Thurston. unless you think you can improve them. a donkey. punching a bag which is labeled by a Draw Peter Rabbit riding on a sled which is being pufled which wifl interest children. apply it to a rooster and hen. Suggest a landscape of cactus and distant mesas. the reins with the other. front feet. Plate 15. Copy these as exercises in Also make a drawing of Sam InsulL technique. dog. can you best express the This is another propagandist^ idea. How can you suggest flying dust and the rapidity of his head movements? (5) Finland. Draw Draw the Russian bear eating a man which is labeled this in the style of a propaganda cartoon for news' (6) Draw the British lion being subdued by Mahatma Gandhi.

Letter the following in the same style: "Crown Prince." "Ferdi- nand." "John Dewey. NUMBER (1) first 10 Copy the lettering on Plate 19. All lines will converge at the horizon." (4) The word "Coonts." page priate for cartoons. before lettering beginning with the not necessary to make the fine arrowed lines which plate merely for the purpose of indicating the direction and order of the stroke. On either side is a fence* There is also a telephone line on one side of the road. but shade the letters differently. Where will the (2) Draw a straight road viewed from its middle. Develop your imagination by originating ideas. Letter the word Roosevelt in the same style. copy the word "William II. Always use guide lines. It is are on die Copy the words "Drawing the Head" as they appear on Plate 2. But have expressions con- with action and vice versa. From Plate 3. any views you choose. 32. lettering pen. NUMBER (1) 11 Draw falling from right to shadows fall? a house in perspective. and lay out the Draw pencil guide lines in pencil also. comic style. page 24. For help in these per' . two (7) Letter several other words in a style similar to that of the above exercise. page 22. Develop originality by drawing correctly but differently. shows another style approIn the same style letter "Marshal Foch." This (3) (2) is words a style often used in newspaper cartoons. Draw the two o's interlocking or passing through each other as links of a chain.94 Caricaturing (10) sistent Draw any and in five animals you wish with any actions and expressions. table in perspective." * (?) Letter the words "Brandenburg and "HohensollenT in the style of the word "Hindenburg" on page 38. (3) Draw a Also the interior of a room showing windows and door in perspective. Note the shadows cast by letters upon other letters. (6) Letter your name with conjoined letters as in "Ignace Paderewski." page 64. Have sunlight left and shade accordingly.

etc. (4) For an exercise in composition. Roosevelt. for balance of objects. balance of tones with most important items most noticeable. Woodin. Herbert Hoover. Bernard M. Edgar Hoover. Charles G. Davis. Remember that distance is suggested by graduated tones. Senator Borah. look up pictures of the following people and draw caricatures of them. H. William G. W. Adolph S. walls. and those which are superfluous. the darkest in foreground and lightest in the distance. care of the Publisher. Joe E. apply ing what you liave learned in the eleven preceding sections: William Bankhead. Bfll Tilden. entirely eliminated. Raymond Moley. etc.. Address him. encyclopedias. histories. Note: criticism of The Author of this book offers profitable and constructive your work. John W. Ernest Lubitsch. NUMBER 12 (1) In magazines. Raymond Ditmais. Al Smith. Clark Gable. furniture. Dr. J. Pat Harrison. Eugene O"Nefl. D. draw an interior scene showing a man and a pretty girl. "Diszy" Dean. Jimmy Durante. Baruch. Leopold Stokowski. Dr. Calvin Coolidge. Dawes.spective drawings refer to Chapter XI. Jack Garner. those of less importance subdued. pictures on Arrange various items of the picture to put across the idea. and F. McAdoo. Sen. Jim Barley. . windows. Ochs. Brown.

Painting and Decorating. Show Card Writing. Character and Expression. U. Political and Editorial Cartooning. Interior Decoration. Mixing Colors. Sign and Scene Planting. . Write for our complete free catalog of books on Lettering. Cartoon Animals and Backgrounds. Furniture Finishing.A COMPLETE COURSE IN CARTOONING Size 6% x 10% inches. Action and Perspective. about Materials. many Humorous Them. pencil and brush of Eogene Zimmerman (Zim). CHICAGO. Articles How to Illustrate BBGXNKIHG with the simplest kind of practice sketches. will find this and even the professional cartoona reference book worth times its price. 160 Pages. Designing. Authors and humorists mastery of humorous illus- Not a dull page in the course.0O complete trating. whose work needs no introduction. Cloth Binding CONTAINS over two hundred original drawings from the pen. Van Bora SL A. Com- Wash ers will find mercial artists. Illustrated Jokes and How to Sell Picture Animating and Chalk Talking. may illustrate their own writing. $2. ist Drawing. School and College Humor. DRAKE & Co. Every imaginable phase of cartooning is explained and illustrated in f ulL Teachers. PUBLISHERS W. the book leads you a dozen interesting' chapters to Sports Cartooning. A Word Practice ture. School and college students can turn their art ambitions into profitable channels. printed on Plate Paper. preachers and professional chalk-talkers will find the book full of material that can be worked into illustrated lectures. Seasonal and Holiday Cartoons. etc. ad writers and sign painta wealth of humorous suggestions that can be applied profitably. FREDERICK 600-610 J. Introduction. Sketches Faces in Carica- Comic Figures and Simple Cartoons. Them. S. Table of Contents by Chapters.




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