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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. Prompting the user for parameters. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Solution: assigning loads. heat transfer and fluid problems. constraints and solving. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 3D). in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. 2D. 3. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. 1. In general. 1D. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. axi-symmetric. 2. Preprocessing: defining the problem.e.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems.

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you should see something labeled X-Win32. as it automatically starts this application when booting..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. you can may want to reboot the computer. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. be sure that your local drive has space for it. . If you don't see this minimized program. Windows NT application 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc.. do this.

click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window. . don't select this icon.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. but rather. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. such as file controls. graphic controls and parameters.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. selections. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. 1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a.7. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. . Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.

Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. . c. such as listing of data etc. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued.b. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. More push buttons can be added if desired. e. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. while the versions appear different.0. solution. general postprocessor. organized by preprocessor. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. design optimizer. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. However. d. 2. the menu structure has not changed.

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This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. however. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The second is by means of command files. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code.

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Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. If the results differ by a large amount however. loading and constraints. it will only slow the calculations down. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. In general there are no real firm answers on this. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. General Models .e.. When point loads are used.. but for a larger model. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. For simple models it is of no concern. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. If the results are nearly similar. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test.

so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. for example. . In a solid mechanics problem. In general.In general however. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement.

select Interactive. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. 2. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. if you make some mistakes later on. r Then when you get ANSYS started. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from.db.db..db .. Or. r In the ANSYS Launcher.. you will at least be able to come back to this point. and select your job from the list that appears. Using the Launcher. There are two methods to do this: 1. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. solution. etc) that you previously saved. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Your model will be saved in a file called jobname.. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. and specify the previously defined jobname. To save your model. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. ANSYS Inc. loads. In that way...

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then you need only store your command file and/or the log file.err Error file (text). Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text).dbb Backup of the database file (binary). rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Frame again with various extensions: frame.db file. Listing of all error and warning messages. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. frame. say Frame. frame. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). other files may have been written. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. This file stores the geometry. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. and the jobname has been specified. These files may contain results. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. the name of all the files created will be FILE. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This file stores the geometry. Depending on the operations carried out. boundary conditions and any solutions. boundary conditions and any solutions. starting with an existing log file. then the created files will all have the file prefix. If you plan to use the command mode of operation.* where the * represents various extensions described below. That file may be rerun as is. q If you will always be using the GUI. frame.. from another ANSYS run. etc.. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution).db Database file (binary). Once the ANSYS has started. or move things from the /scratch directory. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. If you specified a jobname. etc. frame. then you only require the .

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while the second is a scalable vector plot.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. You can pick multiple items. 'Monochrome'.. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. However.. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. Then enter the file name of your choice. choose 'List Results'.0 Better Quality Plots . 2. and choose what you want to list from the menu.'. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . 1.. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Select 'Elem Table Data'. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. 3. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. Select 'File'/'Save As.. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. to get displacements. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. In the window that appears. 1. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'.' and give a file name to store the results. 'Reverse Video'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'.pic' (with a period).frame. Type in a filename (e. This is performed by running a separate program called display. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2.g..'. Either way..pic'. a large graphics window will appear. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.. or HPGL for example. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you.pic) in the 'Selection' Window.. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. To save some plots to a file. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. Decrease the size of this window.pic if your plot file is 'plots. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. but rather they will be written to the selected file. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Note that although the file is 'plots.n where n is plot number. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. you have a couple of options: 1. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.pic'(with a comma). Load your plot file with the following command: file. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . Now that the plots have been read in. Display wants 'plots. To do this. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible.: frame. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.

color. 3. i. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways.pscr plot.n command as the other options have now been set.color. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. . The printer information is still present.e. For subsequent plots. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. overheads or even posters! 2.3 /show.1. where xx is a number. issue the following commands: /show. enter the following commands in display: pscr. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. starting at 00. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. the postscript image will appear as blank box. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour.n where n is the plot number.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.grph. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. you set the postscript color option to '3'. as above. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. you only require the plot. To do this.pscr plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. the postscript image will appear as blank box. The printer information is still present.2 /show. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format.hpgl plot.

hpgl' extension. exit display by entering finish . the HPGL printer files could be given an '. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. In a similar way.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.

Step 1. Of course. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. mesh control.. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. holes. etc. analysis types will not be covered. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . by suppressing them in Pro/E. loads. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Also. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. you will want to leave it.W. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. if the feature is critical to your design. chamfers. many modeling options for constraints.

the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. So. For this model. Several edges are rounded. the plate and the loading hole are removed. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. A load is applied at the hole in the right end.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. . as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. Model units are inches.

The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. We proceed in a topdown manner. . Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. curves. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. Basically. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. This is where we specify modeling information. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. idealizations). and so on. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. surface regions. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using.Step 2. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. loads. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads.

Y. In the final computed model. all we need are constraints. Prescribed. and surfaces). . but this can contain numerous individual constraints. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. edges. rotational constraints are active if specified. Fixed. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. loads.Defining Constraints For our simple model. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). only one set can be included. A dialog window opens as shown above. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). Constraints are organized into constraint sets. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. For each direction X. and a specified material. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. and Z. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. and Function of Coordinates). For our solid model. For beams and shells. Select Surface.

You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. another might contain the support forces. Then select OK.For our model. The load should be . A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. Note these are relative to the WCS. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. and select the OK button. For example. another a temperature load. These can be solved at the same time. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. Enter the force components at the bottom. Loads are also organized into named load sets.

In the STRC MODEL menu. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . you will see the properties of the chosen material. If you select the Edit button. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Step 3. material). In an assembly. you could now assign this material to individual parts. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. loads. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. At this point.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below.

like "ansystest". The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Now select OK. Step 4.Specify a name for the analysis. Enter a short description. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. The MEC STRUCT window. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. . Select the type (Structural or Modal).

This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. shown in wire frame. The results are indicated in columns on the right. . If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. Select Close. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). evaluated for the model. Here is an image of the default mesh.

This will allow you to select points. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. For example. edges. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. . and so on. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. you can select the Controls option. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. maximum mesh size.

select Run . mesh). loads.Step 5. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. In the MEC STRUCT menu. materials.

We are now finished with Pro/E. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. In the Analysis list. and material) is listed. In the Solver pull-down list at the top.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. mesh. Select OK and read the message window. loads. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. .ans). Copy the . select Structural. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . select ANSYS.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program.

Step 8. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements.. you will be informed that the solution is complete. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model.ans file you created previously. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood .Step 6. This will read in the entire model. Select the . Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. and select Apply. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Step 7.. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values.

reaction forces. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial').123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. p. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. A = 3250mm2). In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: .

these keypoints are the ends of each truss. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. For this example. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'.

If you first press r . Note: When entering the final data point. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. and enter the x. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).y coordinates: 0.

Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. volumes. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. lines. elements. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. 3.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. The following window will then appear: . areas. thus making any conversions where necessary. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord.

Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.e. Left click and a permanent line will appear. r r r . Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. click on it).r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. When you're done. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points.

However. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. The following window will then appear: . Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. they have most likely NOT been deleted. This is called 'meshing'. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4.

Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.' button.. The following window will appear: r For this example. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r 5..r Click on the 'Add.

'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'.. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.. Click on 'OK'. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. .

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . Click 'OK' on the window to continue. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.We are going to give the properties of Steel. 7. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner.0'. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0.

r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . enter the desired number of divisions per line. enter '1' and then click 'OK'.r In the size 'NDIV' field. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. we have simply defined the element sizes. 8. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. therefore. For this example we want only 1 division per line.

. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q . keypoint numbers... node numbers. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering..Plot Numbering To show the line numbers.

so if you make some mistakes later on.. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). 1. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. Define Analysis Type .Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. To do this. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model..

pinned and roller-type connections. r 2. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. As shown above. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. for example. r In the Solution menu. Click 'OK'.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. In mechanical structures. these constraints will typically be fixed. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints .e. i. select Analysis Type > New Analysis.

r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Therefore. . ROT on KPs' window.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.

Therefore. 3. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. and 7 respectively. . Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. this is consistent with the previous values input. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Note that we are using units of N here. 5.ROT on KPs" window. r Using the same method. 210kN. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. 280kN. there are four downward loads of 280kN. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). and 360kN at keypoints 1.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. 3. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

.4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).

. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). . Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.r The above windows will appear. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2.

Deformation r In the General Postproc menu.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. . r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. The following window will appear. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.409).r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. The following window will appear. . One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

. Leave the other selections as the default values.r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. Click 'OK'.

From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. r .. you may want to use more useful intervals. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.r Looking at the scale..

.You should obtain the following.

This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. .

spars.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. therefore. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. strains)..r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. The Element Table is different for each element.' r . select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. beams.2 in the Help file.. using the item 'LS. If you wanted to save these results to a file. From Table 1. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE.

. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" . Then enter 1 after LS. in the 'Item. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.r As shown above. Next. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Comp' boxes. .. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS.'.

Again. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .

Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS... In the dialog box that appears.9MPa as predicted analytically. A . Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit... click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. ..HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82.

ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.

The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. scale factors. etc. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). units.The first step is to simplify the problem. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: .

Now pick keypoint #2. The following window will appear: r r For this example. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Pick keypoint #1 (i... Click on the 'Add.e. click on it).. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. The following window will appear: r . r r r 4. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.' button. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Click on the 'Options.. When you're done. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. r From the Preprocessor Menu.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. A permanent line will appear. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.

Click on 'OK'. . and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. r 5.. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom).. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). This gives us extra force and moment output. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.

Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. Saving Your Work . enter '20' (i. (Alternatively. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. However.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. r r r 7.. r 6. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. enter the desired element length. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. For an element length of 2cm. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution.. we have simply defined the element sizes. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. therefore.r Click on 'OK'. 8. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.

r r 3. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.Utility Menu > File > Save as. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Therefore. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained...ROT on KPs' window. r 2. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'.

since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find.2mm as shown above. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .4. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. Hand Calculations Now.

Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. 2. r r . Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. In this menu you will find a variety of options.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress).

r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). r . Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.

select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'..r You may want to have a more useful scale. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. r ..

' r . spars. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1....r Are these results what you expected? Again.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. Click on 'Add. strains). If you wanted to save these results to a file. the right end of the rod. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2.

. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.Comp' boxes in the above window.. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours ..r As shown above. in the 'Item.

Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. First. as shown in the following image. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. I and J.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically.Again. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. a bending moment diagram can be created. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. .

this will give a name to the data B.'. Same as above . Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. Enter SMISC. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. A. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . .. First. r Again. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. r In the window. the Element Table must be used. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. this will give a name to the data B..again. A.' in the 'Element Table Data' window.. click 'Add. Click 'Add. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D.To obtain the bending moment for this element..6 in the second Comp box E...

Click 'OK'. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Same as above D... Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.12 in the second Comp box E. . select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. enter SMISC. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu.C. For step D.

Now. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). Table 1. PIPE16 Item. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . Sequence Numbers. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. r Before the explanation of the above steps. you can double check these solutions analytically.

Material 1. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.1. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.33 !* LESIZE.2. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. 0. Copy the following code into the command line.25. Note that the text following the "!" are comments. 1.the Member moment for node I.PIPE16 KEYOPT. /PREP7 K.6.1.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. Major Poisson's Ratio.0. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.ALL FK. Young's Modulus. L.500.0.FY. then hit enter.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. x.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ . therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.2.0. Outside Diameter.0.70000 MP. Material 1. all of the lines.0. !* MP. . 2.2. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. K.1 !* R. y.0.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes. y.1.2 !* ET. . z Keypoint. x.0.1. Material 1.ALL.0 !* DK.PRXY.1.0.1.EX.1.1.20 LMESH. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Wall thickness ! Material Properties.

/STATUS. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code.

these keypoints are the frame vertices. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members.2. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . Alternatively. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Notice that by using variables like this. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. First. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3.

type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.# . each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. However. you may need to add comments. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.0. type help k into the command line For example. Reference number for the keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter. As with any programming language. y=y2. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. simply re-enter the code.for the second keypoint you might type: K. x=0. to enter the first keypoint type: K. Z where.0 r ! keypoint.2.1. ie . NPT. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. X. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined.y2. Y.follows: K.y1. #.0.

you have many controls. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. y = 325.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). translating and rotating it on all three axes. To get an isometric view..where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. You can either leave the 'Pan. Try experimenting with them. To define keypoint #1. for example. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0.. z = 0. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . In this example. 5. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. Rotate. Zoom. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. s 6. Zoom. This was simply used for convenience. click on 'Iso' (at the top right).

(This can be obtained from the list of lines). r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. we will use the command line to create the lines. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. P1. to obtain the first line. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. P2 Line. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r .1.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. Again. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. I would write: ' L. Keypoint at the end of line For example. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.

Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. we will again use the command line. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. define the type of element (pipe16).if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. 8. MAT. As in the verification model. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. LAB.7. C0 25 2 . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model.

therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.. VALUE2. Lab2. Lab6 Displacement on K. Lab5... DOF label. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. type: ' MP. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. value. value2. to pin the . value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa.0.33 ' r 10. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. type ' MP. Lab3. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. VALUE.EX.1. K #. Apply Constraints Once again. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Material Reference Number.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). 1.Valid material property label. Lab4. KPOI. Lab.PRXY.Material Property. > Static 2. For example. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. we will use the command line. Expansion key. KEXPND. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). DK.1..

UY. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0..0.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . KPOI. UX is not constrained. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5.0. FY. Again.. K #.1. Force Label directions (FX. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.1.UY and UZ). Lab' (ie 'DKDELE. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. UY. Lab. K. value2 Force loads at keypoints. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4).UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX..UX.UY. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. value. value1. UZ.first keypoint enter: DK. FZ).UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.5. FK. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. the command line code is: DK. value2 (if req'd) .

. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.FY. the code should look like this: ' FK. K.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.3. 'Def + undef edge' . the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.. If you need to delete one of the forces.3.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. 4. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST).

etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Back'. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. 'Left'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. Note the node numbers of interest.. and turn on 'Node numbers'. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r .. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Turn everything else off.'). List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. so we know what node(s) we're after. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame..2.

' from the 'List Results' menu. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. 4. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.. Click on 'OK'.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Then close the 'List Results' menu... the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. For each element in the model. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses.. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. . 3.

12) And. to plot the data from the Element Table . select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5. Select Element Table > Define Table. the bending moment diagram can be produced. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. to define the table (remember SMISC.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again.6 and SMISC. Plot Results > Line Elem Res.....

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file.'. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.. In the dialog box that appears.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.HTML version. A . click on 'Save ..

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS Inc. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. plane stress. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). A figure of the plate is shown below. and uniform pressure loading. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.

The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . etc. scale factors. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. units. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.

Subtraction will used to create this model. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. a. however.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS.

0.0.200. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.s Fill in the window as shown above.100. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.100) b.0.0. (Alternatively.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .

the command line code for the above command is CYL4.100. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. your image should resemble the following: .s Fill in the window as shown above.50. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.20 ) c.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. Prior to this operation.50. (Alternatively.

from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. s . Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.

Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.1.2) . Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

as shown in the above figure. Click and hold the K3 button. four-node element (PLANE42).3. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. as shown below. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element..' button. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. r .. we need a plane stress element with thickness. For this example. therefore Click on the 'Options.

1.PRXY.1.200000 followed by MP.3) 4.20) 5. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.(Alternatively. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.0. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .1. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. the command line code for the above step is R. the command line code for the above step is ET. the command line code for the above step is MP.3.EX. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.1.3) 6. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.1.3 (Alternatively. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.

(Alternatively.r Select an element edge length of 25. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.ALL) You should now have the following: . Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.) 7.ALL.25. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.

Fill in the window as shown below. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. 1. the left end of the plate is fixed. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. (Alternatively..ROT on Lines' window.0) 2. r r . It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).. Apply Constraints As shown previously.

there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate.ALL. the command line code for the above step is DL. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. (Alternatively.4. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. Therefore.0) 3.. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. r r r .r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. therefore the last field is left blank.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude. Convergence using ANSYS . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0. Hand Calculations Now.4. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3.just a flat plate).we need to calculate what we should find. 2.001 mm . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9 MPa.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie .

First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged.. we will check the stress at this point. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question.. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. (as shown below in red) . r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress.

The equivalent stress was found to be 2. To change the element size. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: .9141 MPa at this point. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. r Resize Elements a. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).

Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. the values converge towards a final solution. This is a mere 2. Click 'OK'. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node).the element edge length decreases). d. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. .c. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS.8 MPa. (note . The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.

r Observe the locations of deflection. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. . 3. However. 4. Therefore. USUM in the window. Then select DOF solution. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.0012 mm.

. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate... . obtain these results as a list. von Mises in the window. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. Then select Stress. r 5.r Alternatively..

Bracket Example .' and select the file.HTML version. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . Select Stress..PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from..

Form Geometry Again. A figure of the plate is shown below. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. a. Create the main rectangular shape . The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example.

50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. width. XCORNER. YCORNER. X coord for the center. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4.80. HEIGHT BLC4.0. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.80. the command line for this circle is CYL4. height s s Therefore. YCENTER. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.50. Y coord (bottom left).0. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.100 b. Y coord for the center. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . WIDTH. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4.50 c. RAD1 CYL4. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. radius s Therefore. X coord (bottom left). XCENTER.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open.

ALL) s . Boolean Operations .Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. s To perform the Boolean operation. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window. e. the command line code for the above step is AADD. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively..WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following..

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.You should now have the following model: f.

PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. (Alternatively.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.6.1. the command line code for the above step is ET.1.. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.s Next select the three circles that we just created.3) r .' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively..3. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.

3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.ALL.3) 6.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.EX.1.ALL) . we will need to make sure the model has converged. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.200000 followed by MP.PRXY.1.20) r 5. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.5.0. the command line code for the above step is R. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.1. 4. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. (Alternatively. (Alternatively.) r 7. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. Again.

Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.0) 2. Apply Constraints . It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively.. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. 1.. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. Rotate. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. Apply Loads .As illustrated.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. For this case. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected.ROT on Nodes' window. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. Repeat for the second bolt hole. you have the option of creating a box. polygon. r 3. Zoom.. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.

.As shown in the diagram. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. 4. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . . 3.1. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.USUM in the window. 2. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection.

(General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. r 4. .) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.r Alternatively. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution... obtain these results as a list..

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Select Stress.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Open the . A . Quitting ANSYS ..PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'. . click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit..To quit ANSYS.. In the window that appears.

extrusion/ sweeping. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. ANSYS Inc. Filleting. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. copying. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. YCORNER. XCORNER.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . WIDTH.

YCENTER.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.XCENTER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.RAD . Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5. 3. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.

r .5 0. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.5 0.BASE.5 Circle 2 8. The following window will appear. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA. It asks for the x.SUBTRACT 5.2 4.2 0. Enter the y offset as 4.6 and then click OK.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.y and z offset of the copied area.

ALL 7.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Add the smaller circles to the large area. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. .5 You should obtain the following 6. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

Create the fillet areas r As shown below. . zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.8.

Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .10.5. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.Z) 2. Plot Areas 3.X. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.0.Y. Then select the following two keypoints r r . 1. (K.#. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.0) and (0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.

r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. . Click on OK.

r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . we need to use a different working plane. However.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. Change the Working Plane By default. Create Bolt Holes 1. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. for us to define the bolt holes. There are several ways to define a working plane.

The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. 2. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation.

0. fill in the blanks as shown. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. .5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.0. 3. By default those values would be 0. 4. The following window will appear. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.5 y=0 r=0.note the origin of the working plane.

Youi should obtain the following model. .

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file..HTML version.. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .

Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the Base 1.

Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.1.20 followed by LARC.4.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.7.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.5.6.5 into the command line) when prompted. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively. type LARC.5.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .8.

DY.DX. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.1.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.DZ) r .Area#.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.6.# Copies (include original).Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.5. YCENTER=20.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied). Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.4.

Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.3.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.

Again.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm).6. we need to change the working plane.100.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. Change the working plane As in the previous example. type KWPLAN.102 into the command line) . we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. (Alternatively.101. the first keypoint defines the origin. type VOFFST. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane.1. Note. Therefore. (Alternatively.

WIDTH=102.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. YCORNER=0. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.26 4.27.1. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. YCENTER=180.2. . Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51.

180. YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.5. YCENTER=180. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 2.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . Area 1. RADIUS=18.51. . . .32. Area 3 5.

type KWPLAN. type WPCSYS. 203.4 3. the first keypoint defines the origin.1. (Alternatively.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.201. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.-1. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. 204 .57735*26) 129-(0.200. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.202 into the command line) 2. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.1.

Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.204 4.203.200. ...Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A.'. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. In the dialog box that appears. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Harmonic Dynamic . /title.. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . > Add. and rotation about the Z axis).#. K.67 iii. 6. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.... Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.z) 1 2 (0... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.0) (1000. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.1.0) 4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.y.y.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. 7.. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.x.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. enter the following geometric properties: i.. 3. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.ANSYS Inc.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.0 2. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.86e-6 9. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Density DENS: 7. 10. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. r .81m/s2 in the y direction. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem..3 8. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.ii. The following window will appear. enter the following density for steel: i.

This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction..8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.9. ACEL.ALL. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. .Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).1.0. DK.

.777mm 2. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. > Def + undef edge PLDISP.2 ..

..PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.777mm.As observed in the upper left hand corner. This is in agreement with the theortical value..HTML version. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. A .

Harmonic Dynamic . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.

/title. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 . This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .K#.x.ANSYS Inc. > Add. Distributed Loading 3.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.#.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. and rotation about the Z axis)..y) 1 2 (0. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.. 5.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties: i. 6..0) 4.0) (1000...

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.ii. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii..333 iii. . 9. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . 7.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..

3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. As shown in the following figure. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. over the entire length of the beam. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. .2 2. 4.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. In the window that appears. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section..

Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. r As shown in the plot below. Click 'Add. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. 7..' 3. Click 'OK'. select 'NMISC.. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. In the second window of the same section. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. (ie.1. For this example. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2.. 9. 6. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). 3 for the 'J' nodes. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. 8. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. In the window that appears a. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. For this problem. ' d. . The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. click 'Apply' 5. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element.

. Open the .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing..

Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.Modal Dynamic . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . contact elements). After each increment.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.Harmonic Dynamic . the load will added incrementally. To solve this problem. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.y) 1 2 (0. 4.. 5. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. > Add. enter the following geometric properties: i... 1.0) (5. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.125 inches.25 x 0..125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . and rotation about the Z axis).ANSYS Inc.03125 ii. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.069e-5 iii. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 6.. 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.0) 3. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.i. we would have to consider non-linear material properties.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. for example. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 8. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). If we were considering a block of wood. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. not non-linear material properties. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.0 2... Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. 7. The following image will appear: .

Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. however. C. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in .

By default. F. D. For more information about these commands. This command controls the solution data written to the database. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. stress stiffening is automatically included. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . By default. By default. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. For some special nonlinear cases. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options.Now. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. type help followed by the command into the command line. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. By default. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. the previously computed matrix. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. the load is ramped. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. the modified Newton-Raphson. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. E. However. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment.

. 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.

1 2..0.1 .. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.U. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.. UY PLNSOL.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..Y.

3. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions...> DOF solution. However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables . the load was applied in steps. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. As you recall. this is not realistic for large deflections. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Modeling the system non-linearly. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. However.

.. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction... Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r . r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add.

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This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A . Open the ..

Harmonic Dynamic .5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. see Chapter 8.Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. For more information regarding setting the time value. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. In this example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . . and many other solution control option.

such as this. . which ever is greater. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. 2. Again. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. etc) that iterates to find a solution. For ease of explanation. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. This is what will be explained next. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. In the case of a structural example. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. In the case of a structural analysis. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. which this graph is taken from. If the problem is relatively linear. you can see Chapter 8. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. Some analyses use normalized values.5% for loads. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. Thus. the curves may be for temperature. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER.5 in the help file. there are two curves plotted. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). or is not converging. we will look at the force curves. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number.ANSYS Inc. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. However. Once this occurs. as expected. this graph relates to forces and moments. for more information about changing iteration settings. As can be seen in the graph above. For instance. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. which is discussed in the help file. many iterations will be required.001). if the solution is highly non-linear. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. For each parameter. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. For each substep. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. Generally. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. In simpler terms. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied.

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2. real-world buckling prediction analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. material nonlinearities and gaps. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.Harmonic Dynamic . it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. ie. large-deflection. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This method is not recommended for accurate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. However.Modal Dynamic .Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. load perterbations. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. . There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. For this type of analysis.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. in real-life. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). static analysis to predict buckling loads. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

ANSYS Inc. will be calculated. Define Keypoints . Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. applied at the top-center of the beam.. The required load to cause buckling. /title. rigidly constrained at the bottom. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3.

This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 7.1. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.0) (0. > Add... Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii..#. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. K. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. 6... Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.X.y) 1 2 (0.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS ..3 . Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.. enter the following geometric properties: i.333 iii. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.100) 4. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis).

The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). prestress effects must be activated. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. 9. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'..8.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. r r .. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. If you are looking at the abridged menu. select the unabridged version.0 2.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. . 4. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load.3.

1 8. 7. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. 5.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . However. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.

as shown below.. is for an expansion pass. 9.. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. and ensure that it is on. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). however. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. This time.. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. 11. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes .r Complete the window which appears. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. r .

View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. /POST1 SET.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well.LIST 2.123). which is in Newtons for this example. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r .

.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /TITLE. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.X.#.Y . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3..

Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.2 5..3 8. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.1.100) 4.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. and rotation about the Z axis). Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.y) 1 2 (0.. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Mesh Size . the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. enter the following geometric properties: i. L. 7.. With only 3 degrees of freedom.333 iii.0) (0.

1 9.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. ESIZE.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). The following image will appear: . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..... Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.

This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. E. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. D. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. however. B. C. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. this takes time. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. F.

This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. For more information about these commands. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. The model should now look like the window shown below.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line. . 3. 4.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution.

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 . > Def + undeformed PLDISP...

.1 .r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.0.. > DOF solution.Y.U. UY PLNSOL.

The following window should open automatically. However. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. 1. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. .Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.

r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. .

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.r To add another variable. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. On the Time History Variable window. click the add button again. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r .

. so you must change them manually. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.2. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40..123 N. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. . the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force. A . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.PDF version is also available for printing. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above..HTML version. Open the .000 N.

The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In such a case. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.Modal Dynamic . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. ANSYS Inc. For instance. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

5. 6.2 4.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window.X.100) 3.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. NonLinear Materials 2... Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. enter the following geometric properties: i.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.#.y) 1 2 (0.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .0) (0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. > Add. /title. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K.1.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. L. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element...

These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. It should look like the one shown above. click Graph to see the curve.005 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.003 0. Then click OK. the stress-strain data must be included. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. When the data for the first point is input.004 0. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. When all the points have been inputed. click Add Point to add another.i.002 0.001 0. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.

Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).. The following image will appear: .150 0.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.200 0.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.060 0. 8.100 0.. /REPLOT 7.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back..0 2.250 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0.

Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. data for every load step is written to the database. . Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. F. however. C. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. this takes time. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. D. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. you can plot certain parameters over time. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Therefore. E. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into.

000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). type help followed by the command into the command line. 5. For more information about these commands.B. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . 3.

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .This shows the convergence of the solution.

1 .Y.U. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. > DOF solution. UY PLNSOL...0.2.

1. However. . The following window should open automatically. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. .If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. This will make the reaction force the x-variable.r To add another variable. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. On the Time History Variable window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. . click the add button again.

. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. When you verify this example analytically. However.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. Open the . was low (in the linear range). This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. Now go to 'File > Read input from..HTML version. A . you will see the solutions are very similar.PDF version is also available for printing. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations.' and select the file. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. and subsequently the stress. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. as the force increased.

If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. please use the links below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The following window will appear .2 2. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.ANSYS Inc.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.

This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. . It is therefore more exact but. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries).r As shown. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual.

we will use the default options so click on OK. .r For this problem.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. 3. 4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.

r To view the next mode shape. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).0 0.64 285. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .51 472. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.2 0.e.1 0.01 145.0 0.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.68 285. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .69 472.311 51.22 ANSYS 8. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .94 145. Select 'Def + undef edge'.300 52. 2.54 Percent Error 0. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . instead of 10 elements.

3. Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

By default.. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. which is node #2. and the following window should pop up. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.4. . 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. view the log scale of UY. To get a better view of the response.311 and 51. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .3 and 51 Hz.94Hz.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . Now go to 'File > Read input from.100 Hz.0. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the ..' and select the file.HTML version. See the help file for instructions. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. r For ANSYS version lower than 7.PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A ..

.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . a static analysis may be used instead.Harmonic Dynamic . where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. for example. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For our case.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. .

the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The smaller the time step. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . After the application of the load. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. However. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.ANSYS Inc.

The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Therefore. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. However. Select 'Reduced' as shown. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. if stresses and forces are of interest than. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). please use the links below. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. All types of non-linearities are allowed. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. the calculations are much quicker. In ANSYS. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. However. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). It is the quickest of the three methods. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. In other words. r . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

The following window will open.2. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). 3. see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. . Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs.

Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). s set [DELTIM] to 0. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. two sets of initial conditions are required. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. Load Step 1 . Therefore. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. This will specify a time step size of 0. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. both default to zero. Note that for the reduced method..001. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. a. ii.Initial Conditions i.Time Step .001 seconds to be used for this load step.4. However. for this example we can skip this step. initial displacement and initial velocity. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. .

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

Time Step . Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .. ii.001 for the end of the load step iii. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). and set a time of 0. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Load Step 3 i. Load Step 2 i.s01 b. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. ii.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Specify Time and Time Step Options .

. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. By default.Time Step . Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. which is node #2.. 1.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).

and the following window should pop up.r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ...

The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2.

frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs. .3.

We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. if stresses and forces are of interest. We also see another response at a higher frequency. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. we would have to expand the reduced solution. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. . We did not specify damping for our system. However.

Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .11 seconds. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). 1. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass..08 and 0.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.11 seconds r r r 2. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). and switch it to ON in the window that pops open.. For this case. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded.08 and 0. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.

0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.ROTZ. /COM. 0. 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0.00000000 ERESX. We will now re-run our transient analysis. 4 TRNOPT. 0.000000000E-03. 0. 0.00000000 0. The file should look like the following. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.00000000 ALPHAD. 0.7. -1. 1.00000000 ..00000000 D. 0. 0.00000000 CGLOC.TEMP.00000000 NCNV.00000000 TINTP. 0. but now we will consider damping.00000000 .We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam. 0.000000000E-03 TIME.DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 .00000000 . 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. -1.00000000 0. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.00000000 OMEGA. 0. 0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.00000000 DMPRAT. 0.00000000 BETAD.00000000 .0. 0.00000000 .00000000 .UX .00000000 . /GOPR 1.00000000 .0. 0.00000000 .00000000 DCGOMG.. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 1.00000000 . .DEFA ACEL. . 0 DOMEGA. 0. D. 0. 0.00000000 CGOMEGA.. 0. 0.00000000 0. 5.00000000 .s01. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.01 in all three load step files. 0.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0. TINTP. 0.00000000 .00000000 . 1.00000000 ..R5. q .UY . 0. 0.00000000 0.00000000 . D.00000000 .500000000 . 0. 0.00000000 TREF.ANSYS RELEASE 5.R5._TINY DELTIM.REDU. 1.

and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.' . Now go to 'File > Read input from. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. After the results have been calculated.. After selecting MDOFs.HTML version.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. Open the . simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files ..q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs..

PDF version is also available for printing.and select the file. A . .

Harmonic Dynamic . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Modal Dynamic . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

1.. Give example a Title 2.1 4.1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4node 55). Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.0. 5.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Apply Constraints . Quad 4Node 55 ET. Y=0. Width=1.ALL.05 7.PLANE55 For this example. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ANSYS Inc.05 AESIZE. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Height=1 BLC4.0 2. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0.1..10 6.0. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.KXX.

Heat Flow. Convection. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.For thermal problems. r r The following window will appear: . In this example. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. Heat Flux. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Heat Generation. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. or Radiation. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line.options cannot be selected.

r 3.. Temperature TEMP . constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.. > DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. followed by the side and bottom constraints.' and select the file. Open the . then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. however. . The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A .PDF version is also available for printing. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100.

Harmonic Dynamic . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .0 to solve simple thermal examples.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Width=1. 5. Y=0...ALL. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Quad 4Node 55 ET. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.PLANE55 As in the conduction example.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.1.05 7. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Height=1 BLC4.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 1.KXX.ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0.1 4.0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Quad 4node 55).0.1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.05 AESIZE. Apply Conduction Constraints .0 2. Give example a Title 2.

constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.In this example. The following window will appear: r .

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. 4. This is because we have uniform convection across the line.r Fill in the window as shown. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. r . Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank.

Temperature TEMP . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ... This will eliminate convection through the side.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. thereby modeling an insulated wall. > DOF solution. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.

' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . .. A .

Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.040 kJ/kg*K. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Also. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .

1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.PLANE55 For this example.0.2. /Title. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1.1.ALL. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4node 55). Height=1 BLC4.0.ALL At this point.KXX..1 4..04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP..0.DENS.05 AESIZE. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Y=0. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .C.04 MP.ANSYS Inc.1. 5.1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.Transient Thermal Conduction 2.05 7. Width=1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.920 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. so click OK. . We will use the defaults. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.4 The window shown below will pop up.

. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.2.

Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Max no. of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. Min no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON.

3. By writing the data at every step. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. In this example. or Radiation. Basically. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected.D) Set Line search to ON .options cannot be selected. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. refer to the help file. For a complete description of what these options do. Heat Generation. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. Heat Flux. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. r r . Convection. Heat Flow. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up.

The following window will appear: .

> DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Temperature TEMP .. r 4. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method.

Animate Results Over Time r First. . user specified.. specify the contour range. Fill in the window as shown. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.. with 8 contours. from 100 to 500.

300 Time Range. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 .r Then animate the data. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time... Auto contour scaling OFF.

the curves are practically identical. .You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. Also. As can be seen. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds.

Analytical Solution .

ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Creating the Temperature vs. . The following window should open automatically.

If it does not open automatically. node 261. . select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the center node on the mesh. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. Instead. so you must change them manually. . Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response.2. To cause the solution to converge. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. will cause the solution to converge. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. From experience. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. ..

point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. As a warning.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. In this case. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Modal Dynamic . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.

/title.ANSYS Inc.X1..X2.Y2 .. Axisymmetric Tube 2. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.Y1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

For an axisymmetric problem. button. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). we must define a U-shape. click the Options. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. 6. axisymmetry is not supported. 5. Many elements support axisymmetry.. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0.. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. Therefore..ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. .. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Triangle 6node) element. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. Solid. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. to create the geometry mentioned above.

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 9.7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left.C. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. command. at x=0. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. By using the symmetry B. as shown below. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.C.

r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. then click OK. Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. .

The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. Once you've clicked Sele All. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. 4. Therefore. 3. This is required to constrain the model in space. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). otherwise it would be free to float up or down. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. click on Cancel to close the window. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. .

r 5.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Max box. as shown below and click OK.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. 2. .55 in the Min... Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.182 MPa.

Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. . This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.182 MPa.. Thus. The average is used because in the analytical case. such as corners. we must average the stress over the thickness. to approximate the analytical solution.18552 + 0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. the stress in the tube is 0. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. (0. The following window will appear. matching the analytical solution. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube.17866)/2. 3..

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. as expected due to the change in geometry. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. Thus.. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. A . If this is done. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. Open the .4.' and select the file. with a rectangular hole in the middle. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. rectangular plate.PDF version is also available for printing.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. The rest of the commands remain the same. . the model is a flat.

and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. a wall thickness of 10. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Y and Z axis. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Catapult 3.Y and Z axis).. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. . /title. and rotation about the X. Define Element Types For this problem. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements.

K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX.. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. Click 'OK'. UY). UZ. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b.. ROTY).. ROTX. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements..a. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. c. there should now be three types of elements defined. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. a. For this example. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. b. s Select 'Combination'. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. 4. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. s Select 'Combination'. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. UY.

s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window.. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.0. c.#.0) (0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. N. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.1000) (1000. Define Element Material Properties 1. there should now be three types of elements defined. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.z) (0.0. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. In the window that appears.y.0) . 5.x.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.0. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.y.33 6. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. Click 'OK'..1000) (1000.

1500) (0.0.1000) (0. The following window will appear.0.1000) (0.700.1000. 'Material number' is set to 1.0) (0.500) (400. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0. .0) (700..-500) 7. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes . Create PIPE16 elements a.0.0. Then click 'OK'.500) (0.400. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.0..1000.500) (0.

node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .b. node a.6).1. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. the first entry would be: E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. three nodes are required. Then click 'OK' b. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Create elements When defining a joint. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation.

Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. we do not need to mesh our model.E. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. you can list all the elements defined in the model. Then click 'OK' b. To do this. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . node b. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.node a. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. 10. 11.node a. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes .. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..0 2. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. we need to include the effects of large deformation. 3. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .

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Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

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Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

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Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

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You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

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**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

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**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

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5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

8. we can now solve the optimization problem. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. In this case the maximum values for each are the same... r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. However. . Comp selection box r r r 6. However.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions... fill it in as shown previously . This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Fill this table as done previously. this is not always the case. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. 1.. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. > Add.1). In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.. r r 7... View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'.3 (instead of NMISC. This will give you the max stress at the j node. however.

... it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM. .0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.1.75.0. 20 /PREP7 K. !* ET. .1.txt’ Click ‘OK’.1....1 FITEM.0.3. . 20 *SET. FLST.3....W*H.. .ans. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.2.. .. .1.2.1....ALL.LINE.1..W .(W*H**3)/12..ORDE.2.RATI.1 FITEM.UX.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.1.0. . . ...PRXY.1 !* /GO DK.ANSYS RELEASE 7.. . !* !* MPTEMP.0.1.0.BEAM3 !* !* R.UY.0 MPDATA.2 .1.H .3 !* LESIZE. 2 !* HPTCREATE.1. .'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'. 1. . LMESH.ORDE.EX.1000..1.P51X..200000 MPDATA.2.H...2. MPTEMP. K. Design Optimization *SET... 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.0.start70. .0 FLST..1 /title. L. .100..

SMax_I. using command line code..0.SMAX.FY.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. . .1 FITEM. 3 !* ESORT.SMax_J. most of these changes will already be made. .1.0.ORDE. However.UX.0. ETABLE. . !* SSUM !* *GET.EVolume.SORT.SMaxJ. ETABLE. .C:\Temp\.SSUM.0. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.0.!* /GO DK..2.P51X.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.0.0.VOLU.EVOLUME AVPRIN. .optimization. Change this to: DK.SMAX_J. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. . .NMISC. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. . . Therefore.0.ITEM.2.Volume.0.SMAX_I.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. .MAX *SET.P51X.0. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 .0. FLST.NMISC. !* *GET.-2000 ! /STATUS. !* *GET.ETAB..1. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.SMaxI.3.MAX AVPRIN.3 !* /GO FK. .0.UY. If you created the geometry etc.ETAB.DK. .UY. 1 !* ESORT.1.SORT.1. .0.UY. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.UX. . . . . ETABLE. .P51X. .

P51X. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam.0. 2. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .P51X.0. Now that we have decided our design variables. . Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. For the width and height. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required.UY. In this example. 3.3. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. .This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . .FY. In our problem. r Click ‘OK’. Change to: DK. .FY.FK. .UY. If you are comfortable with command line coding.0. To define variables. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values.2. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. . our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero.-2000 Change to: FK. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. In this example. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. Without this SV.DK. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect .0. NOTE: As previously stated. . State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. .

we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.on the volume of the beam. For the stress variable. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. > Add. we do not need to define an allowable range.01MPa. we will select a tolerance of 0.. ... Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. > Add. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). a. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam..01mm. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.... Because the volume variable is the objective variable.

. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. method/type and maximum iterations are correct.. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. Percent step size SIZE = 100. 6. it is advisable to use different solution methods.. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. enter 200. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window.001) c. confirm that the analysis file.2 Click ‘OK’. Percent forward diff. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.2% 7. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method.. . If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Defaults to 10.. DELTA = 0. Defaults to 0. Under Convergence Tolerance. Click ‘OK’. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step.. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.

83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2.16 mm. You will probably see that the width=13. C.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. 2. height=29. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A... B. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r . For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.24 mm. and the stress is equal to 199. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’... This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. View the Results 1.

Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. . In the window. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’...

Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables.' and select the file.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .PDF version is also available for printing. displacement. . In addition. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS... Open the . use whichever variable is necessary to plot. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer... you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. all of the results data (ie stress.HTML version. Alternatively.

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Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. however. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. v = 0.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. substructuring will be used for the wood block. For this example.5 MPa. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Apply loads to the super-element .

Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). . then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Apply remaining loads to the model.. 3. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.YCORNER. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2... The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.WIDTH.XCORNER. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing..HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4.2. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. 5. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. 7. r . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE.SUBST 2.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). This element has 4 nodes. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.29 6. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear.

s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. With the option SEPR. r . r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. 3. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. In this case.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. 5.4.

. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3... FILNAME. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.WIDTH. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model.YCORNER..XCORNER.

... Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers..5 (MPa) ii. 9. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc.). Select Model Data. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For Selected set as shown. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.6. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). 7. Therefore.. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.1 10.41 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data .. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . The following window will appear. Young's modulus EX: 2. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11..SUB File. The following window will appear. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Select Nodes. 40 as shown. .. By Location.. Y coordinates.

In the window that appears... Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Apply super-element load vectors .0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. r 4. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. > DOF solution.. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.0.1 . Translation USUM PLNSOL.SUM.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector..U.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. .

Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass.. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . FILNAME. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .

r . RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. r 2.3.db . Type 'EXPASS. The following window will appear.ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass... r 3. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element... Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step.. The following window will appear. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.

U. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > DOF solution.0.1 .4. Translation USUM PLNSOL.SUM. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution ..

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

..HTML version.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc..the solutions and . For convenience. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.. However. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. the link will attemp to expand. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steel link. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). with no internal stresses. a thermal conductivity of 60. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. stress is created in the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. Loads will not be applied to the link.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.. For instance.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.y. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. and write them to memory. the analyses are coupled. K.. However. the element types can change. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.#.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. For a listing. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Thermal Environment ..1. For our case.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.0) (1. Although the geometry must remain constant. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Thermal Stress Example 2. It is important to note.z) 1 2 (0. and using it with any following coupled environments.0) 4. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file." Thus.x.y. the geometry is kept constant. /title. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. where the thermal effects will be applied.2 . By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. representing a link 1 meter long.1 meters. 9. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.. 5. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element.5 8. KXX: 60. 7.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. > Add. 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties: i. .... Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.

For more information on this element. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. such as the element type. material properties. which is defining the structural environment. In this case. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. In this case it is LINK 8.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. see the help file. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. etc. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 1.11. Structural Environment .3 . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. It does not clear the geometry however. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. so it can be used in the next stage. 2. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same.

enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. .Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. ALPX: 12e-6 3. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.

Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. as expected. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. were . We will use these results in determing the structural effects. If this is not done. The thermal solution has now been obtained.rth. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. 7. to 348 Kelvin. 6. this data can be found as file.rth is the thermal results file. the left-most point. This should make it visible. enter the file name File. 3. 8. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.If the Physics option is not available under Solution.rth. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. you will get error messages. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. 4.rth. .

Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9. 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.

List the Stress Data .LS. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.1 3. 2.1 ETABLE.As shown. Instead.CompStress. an element table must be created first. the stress can't be listed in the normal way. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below.

. or 180 MPa in compression as expected. Note the stress in each element: -0.180e9 Pa.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB.CompStr The following list should appear. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

HTML version. A .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from. .This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. Thus. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . rather than increasing mesh density. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0.

ON Select p-Method Struct. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. as shown below . Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. P-Method Meshing 2. /title.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..

y.52) (55.#. K. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.y.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.x.100) (45..100) ..100) (20. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.3.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.0) (0.52) (80.

0) 5... 6.10.3.6.0) (55. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.9.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.8.2.11.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.100) (100.1.5.7. .0) (80.4.48) (45.48) (20.

These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.. 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window.. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. go to the Element Library in the help file. For now we will leave them as default. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight.. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. After clicking OK to select the element. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. click Options. enter the following geometric properties: i. to open the keyoptions window. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Solid147. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type.. shown below. > Add. 7. Plane146. For more information on these elements. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. and Plane145.

ii..0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.3 9. . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 10. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

of substeps to 20. Max no. of substeps to 100. . Min no. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3.

Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select Stress > von Mises SEQV .5. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

3. . Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.

these orders may go as high as 8. As a comparison. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. For more complex geometries. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. .

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Open the .. thus computational time will be low.PDF version is also available for printing. and still get reasonable results. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. .As one can see from the two plots. However. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered.HTML version. This is the benefit of using p-elements. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..

The elements are still technically there. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. Element birth is also possible. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. For further information. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. but will not be discussed here. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

enter the following properties: i.03 Height = 0. Element Death 2.0.03 BLC4.0... 5. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0. For this example. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.03 4. enter the following properties: i. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.. enter the following properties: .0.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Quad 4node 55). Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0. /title. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.03..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. so click OK. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software.. you . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Density DENS: 920 6. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up.i.4 2. ANTYPE.. We will use the defaults. Therefore.0005m. 7.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. B) Set Number of substeps to 20.FULL into the commmand line. 3.must type NROPT. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.

the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. refer to the help file. For a complete description of what these options do.D) Set Line search to ON . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Basically. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . By writing the data at every step. 4.

Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. or Radiation. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow.5. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. Heat Generation. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. In this example. Heat Flux. . Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Convection.

The model should now look as follows: .

Here..r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. For instance.LAST 2. or turn off. Assume the material melts at 273 K. . We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting.. the user can manually kill. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. elements to create the desired effect.

. 3. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting.' Fill the window in as shown below. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.r Click on 'Add. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. ..

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. this will kill only those elements. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart.all into the command line. This is much too time consuming in this case.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. . 2. which this analysis doesn't call for. Click OK to restart the analysis. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. thus it is just warning the user. and close the warning message. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1.

select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK. .With the window still open.

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. . the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. That way. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.This procedure can be programmed in a loop. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. to more accurately model element death over time. A . a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point..HTML version.. using command line code. more accurately modelling the heating process.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Contact Elements 2. causing it to bend and contact the lower. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. as shown below. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. /title. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. are 100mm long.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor .

..Width. click Options.WP Y. ./PREP7 3.. Width. Quad 4node 42) element. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Height) 1 2 (0.. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. r While the Element Types window is still open. 0. 100. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. > Add. 5. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).. 10) (50. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements.... 15. 100.. 10) 4. WP Y.WP X.

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.. click Options. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. pt-to-surf 48) element.. This way. 8. This is an important step. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions.3 7.. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail.. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. r While the Element Types window is still open.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9... 6. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. . Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line.

such as TARGE169. In this situation. If there is too much penetration. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target.. given in %. ii. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. require a target element. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. 10. you should decrease KN. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. enter the following properties: i. A small value of TOLS. resulting in convergence difficulties. . When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). Other contact elements. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. > Add. This will be covered below. to function. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. Thus. rather than node to element edge...It is important to note. be sure to understand how the elements work. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. ANSYS recommends a value between 0.. you should increase KN. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. When using contact elements in your own analyses. As the surfaces approach each other. Since this "spring" is so stiff. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. such as CONTA175. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes.

s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. First. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. the source nodes will be selected. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. etc. However. Select the top beam and click OK. 11. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. when the geometry is complex... it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. tolerances. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. In this case. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction.. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. . ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. In this simple case.

. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK. This will select the nodes above the lower beam.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.100.. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.

.s Now if you list the selected nodes... Utility Menu > List > Nodes. you should only have the following nodes remaining.

This can be very useful in other applications as well. and click OK. In this case. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. . Source. Now we can use this component. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. If you have a lot of contact elements.

These values will be the ones you'll use.. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants.. clicking the Also Select radio button. enter the name Target. and click the Sele All button. and click the Sele All button.. This is done by opening the entity select menu.. clicking the Also Select radio button. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. 12. Using the same procedure as above. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others. This is done by opening the entity select menu. When creating the component this time. . The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100.. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam.. Utility Menu > Select > Entities.Now select the target nodes. s s s Click the lower area for the area select.

Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged. .Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up.

the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. Unfortunately.At this point. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . If you wish. your model should look like the following.

Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers).. If you zoom in on the contact areas. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. shown below. The following image will appear: . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The preprocessor stage is now complete.

Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. D. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. B. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. E. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. C. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. however. this takes time. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20.

3. Again. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . If you have too few substeps.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Also. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. Once everything is working. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. For more information about these commands. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. type help followed by the command into the command line. leave these relatively high at first. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Note. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. However. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . this is a point load on a 2D surface.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. thus we will use a point load for simplicity.

many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.0 (true scale) radio button. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. If you leave the scaling as default.2. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. 3. then click ok.

PDF version is also available for printing. A . the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. producing a stress distribution in both.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As seen in the figure. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer...

using a length of 200 m.How tall is the truss.DIVISION. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.100 *ask. finish /clear ANSYS Inc.HEIGHT. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.LENGTH. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.How long is the truss. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.How many cross supports even number.2 .20 *ask. Variables including length. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.

link1 r.THEN L.1.0 *else k.0.100 mp.i.1.KEYP.ex.0.KEYP.1.GT.prxy.1.X_COORD.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.X_COORD..1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.THEN k.LE.1.NUM_K.1 .1.200000 mp.j.OSCILATE.(DIVISION-1).(KEYP+1) *if.i.DIVISION.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.3 esize.KEYP.i.

For example. or a mathematical expression. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. This argument can be a single value..10_K. INC.GT. For example. in the code above there is a statement: *if. *do. Thus in later parts of the code..3. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'.i.THEN. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. 4. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. For more information on this command. IVAL. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.How long is the truss.. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.10).". the most intutitive method is to use "=". As seen above. OSCILATE. Par. see the help file.0. The syntax for the expression is *DO. However. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. Command File Mode of Solution . The *SET command can also be used to define variables.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. determining if a certain case has occured. *ask.8. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. FVAL. then.. In this case. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command.2.lmesh. This translates to "if the variable. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. (ie 1.all finish 1. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false.OSCILATE.9. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. 2.LENGTH.1. is greater than zero.

. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Stress. /title. etc..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.) of the following example.

Height. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 6. 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.3. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element..0. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . Y and Z directions)..Width.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.0.

3. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. 5. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1).ANTYPE. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. therefore. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . options 1. For this example we are trying to display a section. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE).0 2. 4.

r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. let's view deflection of the entire model. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown.

let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. offset the working plane to the desired position.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. To illustrate how to take a cross section.

you should now have the following: .As desired.

Equivalent Stress Again.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.SUM.0 WPROTA..This can be repeated for any slice. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises ..0.1.U.0 2. however. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.90 /CPLANE.1 /TYPE. simply use: WPCSYS.0.-1.Width/2. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).8 PLNSOL. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.0.0. let's view stresses within the entire model. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.

1.1 /TYPE.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE. You should now see the following: .0. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.EQV.5 PLNSOL. Because it is much easier.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.0.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).S.

for something a little more impressive. Finally. r r . type help ancut into the command line. For more information on how to modify the animation.3. the sweep direction. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. Animation Now.. the origin. but please bear with me. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. In the graphics window. Next. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. Unfortunately. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. select the node in the back. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. and the Y axis..

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. .HTML version.. Open the .' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..

a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For example. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. . The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.

/title. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5.WP Y.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .WP X. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. select the area to remain (ie. r .0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. 4.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.0.200. the rectangle) and click OK... Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. Then. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. the circles) and click OK. The remaining area should look as shown below.0.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii..3 .6.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter a thickness of 10. In the 'Element Types' window.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7.. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. 8.. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. click 'Options.... > Add. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants.

. The model should now look like the figure below. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.9. . uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area.. 10. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.0 2. 3. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction.

1. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. you could create a normal contour plot. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . which would have the distribution over the entire plate.4. However. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. if the stress near the holes are of interest.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . r r 2. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. you must make a couple of changes.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. To keep window 1 visible during replots. Turn window 1 'off'. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. shown below. meaning this function off.

r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. For this example. r . click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. 3. equivalent stress is desired. what results should be available to the path. you must choose what to map to the path. or in other words. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.

4. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. so disregard the warning. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. This is of little concern though.

. these dots are not shown here.The display should look like the following. Note. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Due to resolution restrictions.

Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .' and select the file.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.HTML version. .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Length of the following beam using tables. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Use of Tables for Data Plots . a special type of array. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. By plotting this data on a curve. finer resolution can be achieved. rather than using a contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. /title..

0) 4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. and rotation about the Z axis).. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties . In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.z) 1 2 (0... enter the following geometric properties: i.x. 6. K.2. 7..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.y.1.#. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.y. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii.0) (400.. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The model should now look like the figure below..3 8. 9.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. . Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.

Create the Table . > OK.4. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. a special type of array. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. but they can be used for much more. Tables.. 2. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. For this example there are 21 nodes.. This example is a simplified use of tables. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. Therefore. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. 1.

2. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. The reason for this will be explained below. 3. Note there are 22 rows..1]. Enter Data into Table First. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . select Model Data > Nodes r .r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up.. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. one more than the number of nodes. In the window shown below.

Next. r .2) > All > DOF solution > UY].r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. and continues down the column. column 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. the vertical displacement will be recorded. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.. column 2. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1..1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .1) > All > Location > X]. and continues down the column.

to provide room to move this data. as it is keypoint 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. This causes problems during plotting.4. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). This is why a table with 22 rows was created. Thus. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.

Select File > Apply/Quit 5. r .833) is in row two. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. Fill it in as shown. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. UY = -0. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400.

. To see the changes to the labels.r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. r r .

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file... . Open the . A .HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

ex.5 lmesh.2.1. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu. changing the background colour.1.1.1.3 esize.all. For instance. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.0.all finish /solu antype.0 L.200000 mp.0 K.0 dk.10 mp.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100. numbering the nodes.100.prxy. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.0.333.1.833.2 et.beam3 r. etc. finish /clear /title. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.

fy.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. The following window will appear: .fk. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering...2.

the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. When you click OK.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. sometimes the numbers won't show up. For instance. However. You should get the following: . This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. To remedy this problem. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up.

The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. 2. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. the nodes have been numbered. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. These extra symbols may not be necessary. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols .As shown.

Under the Boundary conditions section.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. In our case. so those sections won't be used. there are no Surface or Body Loads. or Initial Conditions. . click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

In this case. it is things associated with the window background. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. etc. . As shown in the window. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. the legend or title can be turned off.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. The following output should be the result. To turn off the triad.

. .. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.4.

Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. such as BEAM3. thus elements are not going to show up. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. To aid in this process.When using line elements. If there is no change in output. don't be alarmed. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. . The following should appear. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description.

View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. . 5.As shown. you can change the view orientation. the elements are no longer just a line.. but they have volume according to the real constants.. To get a better 3-D view of the model.

By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. . This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. Using these options. Basic rotating. translate the view and zoom.This window allows the user to rotate the view. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. such as isometric or oblique. You can also select predefined views.

Under uniform contours. Changing Contours First.. they can be changed. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. those can also be changed. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected.6. . plot the deformation contour for the beam. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire.. Under non-uniform contours. If you don't like the colours of the contour.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire.. 7. and we'll set the background colour to white. . Here we are only using Window 1.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus.. but don't want a black background. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation.

select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. . Under the File heading. such as contour values. select Save As. To save the display. This is because the text colour is also white. If there is information that needs to be added.. this can be done in other graphic editors.The resulting display is shown below.. Notice how all the text disappeared.

If you are looking for a specific option. these are just a few. as is the help file. . the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS.

or if you'd like to save the whole file. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. Then before you are finished. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. select Read Input from. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. e. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. 2. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. When it is complete..cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file.. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. to a text file. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor.g.cmd) is stored and select it. see the next item in this list. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. frame. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You may need to select Plot -> . GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI.

start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.. then from the ANSYS input window..q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS.cmd. stress. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear.on. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. type /input. Save those changes to disk. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely.frame. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. X11c..cmd and yes that is a comma (. you would use the following syntax /input.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. . etc. To rerun the command file. If the file was in the directory.frame. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example../myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. you may need to point it to the proper directory. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands...) between frame and cmd. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. Select File -> Clear & Start New. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. mode). At this point you could type in /menu.

z2 cylind. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.theta1.x2. . a10 see online help see online help rectng.kp1.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.y1.z2.a1. kp8 va. l10 v.x2.kp2..zcoord l. .y2 block.kp#. .l1. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.x1..xcoord. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus ..z1.theta2 sphere.kp1. applying loads and constraints.rad2.z1..kp1.theta1..kp2. kp6 a.ycoord. .rad1..kp2 larc..kp1. .kp1..l2.rad1...a2.y2.kp2. kp18 a.x1.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.rad2.kp3.y1.kp2.

number. current type is set by real real.inc or amesh. c4 may define as many as required.c1. .a2..line1. a9 asba.a1. a9 aglue. r6 may define as many as required.r1. . ..c0.. . current type is set by mat mat.number..number.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .inc or lmesh.size. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et..number r. .line2.r2.number esize.number mp.a1.a1.all amesh. current type is set by type type..a2.a2.area2..a1.a2 aina.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.area1.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh..label..type may define as many as required..

MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.line#.MZ f.area#.UY.MY.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).value labels: UX.ROTY.MY.label.inc or vmesh.ALL d.ROTZ.ROTZ.ROTX.FZ.label.UZ.MX.UZ.label.ROTY.e.vol1.kp#.node#.ALL dl.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .value labels: FX.value labels: UX.node#.FZ.FY.UY.vol2.label.value labels: FX.MX.FY.kp#.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.ROTX.

ndivs.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.x1.0.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.0 k.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.2. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.else . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.GT.ndivs.ndivs+1.x2.1.x. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.1.1.0. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs". a default of "5" is used ! *IF.then . if only is entered.Enter number of divisions (default 5).0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.0.i. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .1 ! do i = 1. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.i.

.! /pnum.all.1 kplot klist.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates ..kp.

ANSYS 7. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. Boolean operations. extrusion. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

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0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example.Modal Dynamic Analysis .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example. ANSYS 7. Dynamic Analysis .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Pure Conduction . In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc.Transient Thermal Examples . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.

Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Modelling Using Axisymmetry .Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Analysis of heat conduction over time.Thermal Examples .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Additionally. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. Using element death to model a volume melting.

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TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. a special type of array.

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5.-1 k.0. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0 k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.6. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.0 k.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.8.7.1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0.0.0.0.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.0254 rout=8*0.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.7 emis2=0.1 k.699*10**(-8) k.

generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.LINK32.1 lsel.7.emis1 EMIS.rin.2.loc.emis2 VTYPE.s..x..1 MAT.rin LMESH.5..s.1.loc.arc.1.1.8.all csys.0 GEOM..ALL lsel..1 ESIZE.1.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .KXX.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.all MP.1..1 TYPE.1 MAT.ndiv CIRCLE. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.KXX.1 MP.x.1 R.stefbolt WRITE.VM125 TOFFST.rout..offset ! inner cylinder.MATRIX50.1 STEF..7.1.2 SE.2 lsel.TEMP ET.6...arc..all lsel.rout LMESH.2.ndiv ET.1 csys.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.2.circle.

1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) . K /POST1 csys.x.rin D.s.s.all nsel.TEMP..x.csys.s.loc.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.loc.loc.all *GET.VALUE.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.2 *DIM. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.ITEM.1 nsel.0.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.rout D.x.HEAT *DIM.ALL.3 LABEL(1.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.CHAR.T2 nsel.1.all csys.ALL.LABEL.TEMP.FSUM.1 nsel.1.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.x.T1 nsel.s.all nsel.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.loc.Q.

VALUE(1.1). FINISH .1.1). /COM.3) (1X.1).VALUE(1.VALUE(1.' '.--------------. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.1.Q *VFILL.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.*VFILL.DATA.3) /COM.2).VALUE(1.F10.2).DATA.VALUE(1. *VWRITE.3).F10.1F5.------------------------------------------------------/COM.' '.A8.VALUE(1.DATA.LABEL(1.' '.exact *VFILL.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.

In pico. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. nedit . It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. The first three mentioned below are text based. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. press this key. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. one simply types pico test. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. To use pico to edit the file test. but have a steep learning curve.dat. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. so they are always available. but the backspace key does work normally. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. for example.dat at the UNIX prompt.

. Applications . Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. and block delimiting with the mouse. It features pull-down menus. and then renamed back to its original name. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. Therefore. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe.exe (look under the r: drive). it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files.nedit is a very simple to use. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. type wabi or win. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. Very nice. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. It could then be edited. undo. multiple file editing.3 file format used by DOS. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. From a UNIX command window. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. and look at the option in the dialog box. saved. when saving files in PFE.. For this reason. yet powerful X Windows editor.

ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. 2.. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. Once this is done. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. two methods are avialable: 1. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. item.. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. From this menu. select your desired font size. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. If you've got some time. From the next dialog box that appears. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. you may enter ANSYS commands. Then choose GUI configuration. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. To start ANSYS. check . You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. Press Enter to continue. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.x11c /menu. it is necessary to select the Interactive . heat transfer and fluid problems.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. over a modem. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Press Enter to continue.

performs finite element analysis. see Dr. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. like that shown above. Yokota. . Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. For further information on this program. including static analysis. Toogood. see Dr. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. If you've got some time.out the ANSYS Web page. see Dr. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. check out the Fluent Web page. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. click on the car figure. and design optimization. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. Fyfe. Pro/Mechanica. For further information on using ANSYS. For more information about this program. sensitivity studies. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. A companion program.

f sub1. If your program code consists of many files and libraries.e. isn't it?).f sub3. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test.F. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. i.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename./test. your file must be named something like test. This program would be run by entering . you now type. to a file.out (logical. see Configuration Files). type the command. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'.f and sub1.f Normally no options are required.for or TEST. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files./a. For learning about the compiler's many options. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. For example: xlf main. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.f sub2. Note that the .out. xlf by itself.f.f >& errorfile will compile main. the name of the resulting executable will default to a.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. and output is the name of the file to which the output . consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.' is in your path (this is changed in your . If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. .f and not test.cshrc file./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. for example. redirecting it). e. such as error messages. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. To change the executable's output name to test.f To run this program. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.f sub1.

symbolic and plotting functions.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. The resulting text file may then be edited. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. and not actually exit the editor. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. From the Matlab prompt.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. The keyboard will still accept the input. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. you simply type: . if you know when to enter data. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. Note that the text . the prompt will not appear on the screen. printed and even imported into a word processor. So. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. If the program normally prompts the user for input. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical.will be sent. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. however. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. In this way you will have one window to edit your . and what data to enter. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. because it too is being sent to the output file. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . you can still run your program this way.m files.

Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab.ualberta. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations.labs.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. . if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. For example.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*.labs. The workstations are named mec01. For example. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.labs through to mec30. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. by issuing the command. you must have an X server running on your local machine. Once the job is completed. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB.

You can enter the mail program called pine. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. or by typing pine at the prompt. free of charge. To use it. If your CNS login id is jblow. To do this. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. see FTP. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. for example. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print.ualberta. but GPU does. just outside the main part of the lab. This file is printed in the small room. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. type. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. In this command. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand.ca. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). newsgroups and WWW. Many applications. Pine is based on the pico editor. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. To use E-mail then. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. The mecxx. either through lynx. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero).txt. .srv. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them.

your job (but not your file) will be deleted.145 (see FTP). If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. or appendices.85. room 240.128. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. For further information. issue the command: plotpostscript filename. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). Prints are $0. To print from Windows applications in Wabi.eps scale c where filename.20 per page.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. room B-111). It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. . the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. If you fail to do so. From a GPU account login. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. see table of contents. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. getting started. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing.

is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0 ! keypoint.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.3. 3*width/2. A.2. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. height . Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.1. #. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. p. x. Note that Young's Modulus.123) ! /title. 0 K. 0. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. reaction forces.4.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. width/2. width.height K.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. E. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. and stress for the truss system shown below. y K.

5.3.6 L.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.F PLDISP.ALL.1.4.7.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.1.2.EX.-280e3 FK. 5*width/2.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.5.FY.1.4. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.5 L.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.ALL.200e3 ! element type #1.1.4 L.2 PLNSOL.1.1.6.3. 2*width. spring element ! real constant #1.U.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.7.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .UY.FY.6.4 L. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.3250 MP.3 L. . ! ! define lines ! L.1.5.2 L.0. K. 3*width.5 L.-210e3 FK.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.FY.5. . K.6 L.K.7 L.3.SUM.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.FY.1.7.3 L.LINK1 R.1.2.

SAXL PLETAB.ETABLE. 1 PRETAB.SAXL.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL.LS.

2. 2*width.1.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. x. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.123) ! /title. 0 K.mece.2. 0 K. 0.1. A. y K. E. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. width/2.4.ualberta.5. #. height K. width.height K. reaction forces. 3*width.7. height K.1. 5*width/2.6.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. 3*width/2. 0 ! keypoint. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. p. Note that Young's Modulus. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.2. and stress for the truss system shown below.3 L.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.3 L.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 SFL.PRES.ualberta.4.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.0 DL.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .S.mece. .

0.0.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .50 CYL4.0.20. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.100 CYL4.20 BLC4.80. plane stress. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. A figure of the plate is shown below.-20.20. and uniform pressure loading.0.80.80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.50. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.20.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.20 CYL4.

10 ASBA..ALL.real set number.force ! Solve the problem . ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.ALL.200000 MP.20.0 . 7.ALL.1. DL.1. DL.10.13.0 . 9..0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.9. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.1.PLANE82 KEYOPT. 8.0 .12.10 CYL4.AADD.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.0.1.50.EX. .80.Poisson's ratio.material number.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .14.1.6.ALL CYL4.0.20 ! r.0 . plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.ALL.PRXY. DL.ALL.ALL.Young's modulus.0 .subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .value ! mp.0.3. DL.material number.0 .keypoint.0 .ALL.5 ! lesize.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.direction.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DL.FY.30 CYL4.ALL.80.all areas. DL.11.3 ! mp. DL.ALL.0 ! amesh.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.

3..EQV.4..0..4.0.10.EQV..10.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.OFF /WIND.0.ALL.0.0.S.LBOT /WIND.05e-3 /FOC. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .8 /CONT.1.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL.DOF.1 /CONT.0036 /CONT.1.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.0.RTOP /WIND.2. PLNSOL.0. PLDISP.EPTO.0.2 /GCMD.SUM.-0..10. PLNSOL.LTOP /WIND.1 /GCMD.2.U.4.1 /replot PRNSOL.340000.2.3.ALL.3.

ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. and uniform pressure loading. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.mece. plane stress.0. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).0. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A figure of the plate is shown below.80. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.

0 .20.3.PLANE82 KEYOPT.value ! mp.-20.ALL.PRXY.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.10 ASBA.0 .ALL CYL4.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Young's modulus.0 .0 .80. DL.1.14.1.9. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.6.ALL ! Boolean Addition .12.1.20 CYL4.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.60 AADD.0.html CYL4.20 ! r.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .50.5 ! lesize.20 BLC4.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .0 ! amesh.200000 MP. DL. 9.0. DL.all areas.EX.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP. 7.ualberta..80.ALL. .ALL. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.ALL. DL.direction.Poisson's ratio.material number.13.10 CYL4.0.1.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..20.30 CYL4.50. 8.real set number.FY.80.0 .material number. DL.0.ALL. DL.keypoint.20.10.20.www.ALL.1.-1000 (fk command) !fk.0 .ALL.11.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.0 .3 ! mp.80.ALL.50 CYL4. DL.0.mece.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.ALL.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.

0.4.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3.mece.0.EQV.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.2.S..0.-0.4.2. PLNSOL.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.1.U.LTOP /WIND.10.1.1 /CONT.1 /GCMD.0.LBOT /WIND.340000.3.1 /replot PRNSOL.1 /GCMD.EQV.0036 /CONT..10.www..2 /GCMD.ALL.OFF /WIND..10.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. PLNSOL.0. PLDISP.8 /CONT.EPTO.0. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .DOF.SUM.4.ualberta.ALL.05e-3 /FOC.RTOP /WIND.3. PLNSOL..2.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping. Filleting. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. . and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. copying.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.

-0.3.0.1.0.6.0.1.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .2.0.5.1002.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.2.11. .3..6 AGEN.2 ASBA. .7.0 K. 1001 and 1002 K.10.4.360.0 VROTAT.0.1001.5.11) AL.22.2..0.5 AADD.. .7.0 K.0.5 CYL4. .2001...3.1.ALL ! Sweep K.5 BLC4.1002. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.1 AGEN.5.0.1. AL.3.5.ALL CYL4.9 lines 9.. .1001.1.5.0.5.2.5 AADD.ALL LFILLT.2..ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4. .4.14 AADD.8.3.0.0.2.10.3.1 BLC4.8.2002.5.26.0.

0.2.6.0.ALL VOFFST. .101.5.20 LARC.2.159.13.0.45.1 VGEN.82 K.7 AADD. .62 ASBA.2.3. .8.0.109.2003 CSYS.100.sqrt(3)/0.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .7 vsbv. .4.102.5 vsbv.4.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.2.K.-20.0.9 vsbv.0.6 AL.5.2 CYL4.102.2.0.0 K.20 K.102.5.0.6 vsbv.26 K.1.1.5.1.5 CYL4.2003.-20.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.0.8 vsbv.02 KWPLAN.7.2001. .all.0 K.6.51 AADD.1 KWPLAN.69 AGEN.2.6. .26 VOFFST.180.-1.102. .0.5.1.20.27.109.102 BLC4.51.all. .10 AGEN.100.20 L.10 vsbv.11 vsbv.5.4. .all.8.109.5.8.20 LARC.2002.1. . .all.5.180 CYL4.25.101.26 VADD.6. .102 K.7.1.82 K.3.

20.2.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.57735*26).0 A.0 K.1.203.200.202.26 K.-20.200.203.-1.204 VOFFST. VADD. .5. .32. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together . .-20.0.180. .AADD. .7.201.38 AADD.51.32.61.201.57735*26) + 38.26 K.34.3 CYL4.202 CSYS.200.36.37 CYL4.0 system K.61.60 VSBV.204. .129-(0.30 KWPLAN.51.0.-1. 129-(0.33.1 WPCSYS.18.60 VADD.61. sqrt(3)/2*76.180.

We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Filleting. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.www. extrusion/sweeping.ualberta.

www.2 ASBA.1.0.5.1. AL.1 BLC4.2001.3...0.3.4..22.0. .5.11. .5.360.26.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. LFILLT.ALL LFILLT.2.0.0.0 K.-0.ualberta.1.0.2.5 AADD.0.8.3.1002.1.3.5. .2.5.4.9 AL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .6.8.7..1001.0.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.ALL ! Sweep K.14 AADD.mece..2. K.1 AGEN.2.3.0.6 AGEN.1002.5 AADD.1.3.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.5 BLC4.3.0. .2.. .1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .5 CYL4.5.0.0 VROTAT.2002.5.2003.ALL CYL4.0 K.1001..10.7.0.0 K.0. .

.0.26 VOFFST.3. .6 AL.1.5 vsbv.2 CYL4.27.0. .6.101.102 K.5.5.20 K. .34.0 K.109. . .12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.100.02 KWPLAN.2.1 VGEN.7. .all.-1.5.0.html KWPLAN.11 vsbv.20 LARC.all.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .51 AADD.1.10 vsbv.1.sqrt(3)/0.ualberta.4. .mece.2.2.5 CYL4.51. .all.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.159.2.1.101. .0.7.5.102.82 K.32.26 K.2001.2.100.0 K.20 LARC.62 ASBA.2002.8.-20. .0.0.4.45.109.8 vsbv.102.0. .180 CYL4.6.0.69 AGEN.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .102 BLC4.20 L.2 AADD.82 K.5.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.9 vsbv.6.5.2.ALL VOFFST.10 AGEN.13.8.38 AADD.all.5.109.2003 CSYS.25.6 vsbv.7 vsbv.20.-20.7 AADD.4.www.102.8.6.0.1.1.33.36.102.180.5.26 VADD.

57735*26) + 38.20.7. .0 K.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.32.html CYL4.ualberta.57735*26).0 K.203.202 CSYS.-1.61.www.5.202. sqrt(3)/2*76.204.203.0 A.51. VADD. .1 WPCSYS.200. .60 VSBV.26 K.30 KWPLAN.201.61.200.200.0.204 VOFFST.-20.60 VADD. .1.180.180.-1.129-(0. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .26 K.mece.201. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.51.2. 129-(0.-20. .0.18.3 CYL4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .61.

Width*(Height**3)/12.Height MP.2.1.2 ET.1.0. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Width*Height.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 K.0 L. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.1.1.EX.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.Length.

8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.MP.1.0. ACEL.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .1..1.86e-6 LESIZE.0 DK.ALL.9.Length/10. LMESH.PRXY.0.7.3 MP.ALL.DENS.

ualberta.1.www.1.0 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.2.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .DENS. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Width*Height.1.2 ET.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.1.EX.0. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 L.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Width*(Height**3)/12. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.0.PRXY.mece.7.Height MP. LMESH.Length/10.1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.Length.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ALL.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.

0.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.ualberta.9.mece.1. ACEL.ALL.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..www.html DK.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

ANSYS Command Listing /title. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0 L.1. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.1000. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.2.0.0.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .0 K. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.

UY DK.NMISC.1.2 ETABLE.ALL.333.1.PRES.EX.1.1.1.33 ESIZE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP. 3 PLLS.2.0 DK.0.SMAXJ.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .I.SMAXI.1.SMAXJ.SMAXI.0.NMISC.1.UY. 1 ETABLE.0 SFBEAM.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .200000 MP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.833.UX.100.100 LMESH.ET.10 MP.BEAM3 R...area.PRXY.

0.ualberta. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.2..0 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.1. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ht.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1000.mece. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'..1. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0 L. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.1.www.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. ANSYS Command Listing /title.2 ET.

R.PRXY.EX. 1 ETABLE.33 ESIZE.100 LMESH.UY DK.1.1.SMAXI.833.10 MP.UX.200000 MP.PRES..100.SMAXI.ualberta.0 SFBEAM.333.1.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..0.0.NMISC.UY.0 DK.I..www.2.ht..SMAXJ.0 ! Real constants .NMISC.area.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.SMAXJ.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.2 ETABLE.ALL. 3 PLLS.mece.

nodal.1 ! activate element type 1 R. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. 0.4 aplot ! define element type ET.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.2.2 ! element type 1.3.plane42.0.10.2. /title.0.. one above top of the other. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. strs out type..1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force. 1.5.7. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.5..01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . In this model there are two blocks.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. plane stress w/thick. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.01 ! thickness 0. with a small separation.

2.01 ! cm. 1.1.loc.r..2 /pnum.! define material properties MP.s.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .y.NUXY.2D contact elements keyo.2.35 mat.2.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.1 esize.1 ! nsel.0.10 TYPE.1 r.005.7.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.99.NUXY.2 amesh.area.EX. 0..1 amesh.2 ! nsla.2.contac48.2. 20e3 MP.3 MP.1..s.mat.source.0.20e3.EX.2.5 mat.1 ! defines second element type .2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.3 ! meshing esize. 200e3 MP. 0..0.1 real.

r.20.fy.all.s.1.1 nsla.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.2.loc.7.loc.s..on pred.4 fk.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .r..on nropt.all.100 autots.4 dk.target.full.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).source.y.1 nsel.y.loc.x.stat.loc.asel.5 ksel.all.-100 allsel time.x.node gcgen.1 nsubst.loc.all.area.y.s.s.01 cm.target.3 finish /solution antype.loc.2.y.99.5 ksel.r.s.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.all. a small tolerance is used d.

ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.1.125 mp.03125.0.0 k.ex.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.2. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.beam3 r.2 et.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0.069e-5.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor . This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .1. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.3 esize. After each increment. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.30.0.1 lmesh.0.0.5.0 l.0.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.1.1. To solve this problem.4. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. izz.0e6 mp. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1. the load will added incrementally.1.prxy.

/solu antype.1.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .5. max # substeps=1000.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.1 PRNSOL.mz.static nlgeom.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.1000.all fk.2. min # substeps=1 outres.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.all.U.all ! save results of all iterations dk.

all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).30.ualberta.03125.www.0e6 mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.1.1. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.4.prxy.1 lmesh. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0 k.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.5.1.1.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3 esize.mece.0.069e-5. To solve this problem.0 l.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0. the load will added incrementally. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0.ex.2 et.0.1.beam3 r.2. After each increment.0.0. izz.125 mp.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.

5.all dk.ualberta.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-100 solve /post1 pldisp.mece.1.U.static nlgeom.1000.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.all.1 outres.on autots. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mz.on nsubst.www.1 PRNSOL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.all fk.html /solu antype.

2. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. load perterbations. real-world buckling prediction analysis. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. material nonlinearities and gaps. ie. This method is not recommended for accurate.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. . Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. For this type of analysis. However. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. largedeflection. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).0 to solve a simple buckling problem. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. in reallife.

ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.333.1.0.PRXY.1.EX. applied at the top-center of the beam.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.100 L.10 LMESH. ANSYS .10 MP.1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.1.200000 MP. The required load to cause buckling. area (mm^2). I (mm^4).STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.0.ALL.2 ESIZE.BEAM3 R.1.2.3 K.833. rigidly constrained at the bottom.0 K.1. will be calculated.100.0.

333.1.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .833.LIST SET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.2 ESIZE.PRXY.1 LMESH.EX.LANB. I.ON DK.1.100.0.0.subspace.0 K.ALL FK.0.2.2. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.ON MXPAND.200000 MP.PSTRES.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.FY.3 R.1.1.BUCKLE BUCOPT.0.0 L. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1.10 K.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .100.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.

20 NEQIT.-50000 FK.Y.3 /AXLAB.1.1 DK.ON /ESHAPE.3.X.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .F.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2 PLVAR.ALL NSUBST.2.ALL.FY.1000 AUTOTS.U.2.Y XVAR.1.Y NSOL.2.ON LNSRCH.NLGEOM.0 FK.ALL.FX.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.ON OUTRES.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.2.

structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. load perterbations. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.mece. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. material nonlinearities and gaps. For this type of analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. However. large-deflection.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ie. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This method is not recommended for accurate.ualberta. real-world buckling prediction analysis. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. static analysis to predict buckling loads. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.www. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. 2.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. in real-life.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.0.3 K.2.1.333. will be calculated.mece. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.0.833.2 ESIZE.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . rigidly constrained at the bottom.PRXY.ALL. area (mm^2).www.100. I (mm^4).1.1.100 L.1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET. applied at the top-center of the beam. The required load to cause buckling.1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.10 LMESH.EX.0 K.BEAM3 R.200000 MP.1.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0.10 MP.

0. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 LMESH.0.ON OUTRES.FY. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.mece.ALL FK.200000 MP.3 R.subspace.1.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .ON DK.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.333.0 K.STATIC NLGEOM.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.ualberta.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.LANB.0. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .PRXY.ON MXPAND.STATIC PSTRES.1.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .html ANTYPE.1.10 K. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. I.100. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .BUCKLE BUCOPT.0 L.833. since all loads are scaled during the analysis. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.100.1.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).2.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.EX.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.www.1.LIST SET.2 ESIZE.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.html NSUBST.20 NEQIT.0 FK.1 DK.1.FY.3.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .Y.2.ALL.www.2.FX.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y NSOL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.2.mece.X.3 /AXLAB.ON LNSRCH.ON /ESHAPE.ualberta.-50000 FK.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.F.Y XVAR.2 PLVAR.U.

1.0.100 l.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.3 TB.75 .12.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.1.EX. For this analysis.2. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.001.. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..1. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0. For instance.MELA.0. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.1.LINK1 R. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.75000 MP. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.2 ET.1. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0 k.25 MP.PRXY. In such a case.

450 ESIZE.1.X.0 DK..ALL.435 TBPT....225 TBPT.U...0.275.025.Y XVAR....DEFLECTION /AXLAB.all FK.F.ON NEQIT..1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.Y.2..355 TBPT..1000 ANTYPE.25.5 LMESH.Y NSOL..390 TBPT..2 PLVAR.1 PLNSOL.U.1..3 /AXLAB.ON NSUBST.20.1 OUTRES.TBPT.2.1.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .15.FY..420 TBPT.2.003.002.240 TBPT..005..004.449 TBPT.ON LNSRCH.2.1000..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.250 TBPT..Y.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.06..3.150 TBPT.ALL AUTOTS.300 TBPT..

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.1.1. For instance. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. For this analysis.100 l. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.www. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.2.1.0 k. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0.2 ET. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.0.ualberta.LINK1 R. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.. In such a case.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.

2.250 TBPT..mece..449 TBPT.390 TBPT.435 TBPT..2.ualberta..1000.2 PLVAR.DEFLECTION /AXLAB..1.U.ON LNSRCH..Y..www.005..003..1.355 TBPT..001.240 TBPT.FY.0 DK.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM..0..025.0.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.Y XVAR..PRXY..X.12.275.20..1 OUTRES.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..ALL.3 /AXLAB.EX.2.Y NSOL.3 TB.150 TBPT.1.06..F.75 TBPT.1000 ANTYPE.5 LMESH.1....Y.U.25.300 TBPT.002..LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ON NEQIT.15.MELA.004..75000 MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . MP.1 PLNSOL...2.all FK.1.1.ALL AUTOTS. TBPT.420 TBPT.3.ON NSUBST.225 TBPT.450 ESIZE.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE...

0. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0.33 MP.1.01 MP.0. /TITLE.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .10 LMESH.EX.33e-10.1.1.Dynamic..2 ET.2.PRXY.BEAM3 R.0 K.DENS.1.1.1.0001.1.ALL.1.0 L.7830 LESIZE.068e11 MP.0.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS..8.0 /PREP7 K.2.

Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .y) 1 2 5..0) .. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4. 3. 1.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS. Define Lines (0.0) (1. Open preprocessor menu 2.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.

8..3 To enter the density of the material. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified.. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8. 7. 9. 10.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.068e11 ii. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0... Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..01 m x 0. enter the following geometric properties: i.0001 ii.33e-10 iii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Young's modulus EX: 2.01 m.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. > Add. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.

Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.1.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.1.1.1.1.PRXY.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.0001.1.DENS.0 K.2 ET.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.EX.1.I.BEAM3 R.0 L.0.2.8.01 MP.33 MP.2.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .0.068e11 MP.33e-10. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.

..FRONT MXPAND.2 MODOPT.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 LMESH..ALL.0. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .SUBSP.10.5 EQSLV.5.5 DK.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.LIST SET.1.LESIZE.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.

1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2 ET.DENS. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0001.1.0.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.0.2.33e-10.8.01 MP.EX.7830 LESIZE.1..ualberta.ALL.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .PRXY.068e11 MP.0..1.10 LMESH.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.33 MP.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 K.1.www.2.I.0 L.1.BEAM3 R.mece. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.0.

10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.FRONT MXPAND.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 MODOPT.0.1.ualberta.mece.5 DK.LIST SET.5 EQSLV.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .SUBSP.www.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.5.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace. .

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.100 Hz. These 3 methods are the Full .Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

7830 LESIZE.0 K.U.BEAM3 R. UY_2 STORE.0001.DENS.2 PLVAR.ALL FK.2. KBC.0.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.EX.1.PRXY.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.100..2.2.1.MERGE PRVAR.0.100 HARFRQ.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .01 MP.33e-10.1.ALL.FY.0.10 LMESH. However.Y. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.068e11 MP.100.0 L..2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.8.2 ET.1.1.2.33 MP. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1.2.I.1.1. NSUBST.3 DK.0.

100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.www.ualberta.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.mece. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. These 3 methods are the Full .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

ualberta.1.2.0.0. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2. However.100 HARFRQ.7830 LESIZE.100.EX.1.8.BEAM3 R.01 MP.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.2.1.FY.2.MERGE PRVAR.068e11 MP.DENS.0.ALL. NSUBST.33 MP.0001.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.100.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.3 DK.1.2 ET.0. KBC.U. UY_2 STORE.10 LMESH.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.I..Y.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 K.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1.1.1.www.1. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2.ALL FK.PRXY..mece.33e-10.0 L.2 PLVAR.

a static analysis may be used instead. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. .Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case. for example. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.

It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. However. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. . In ANSYS. In other words. All types of non-linearities are allowed. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. After the application of the load. The smaller the time step. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Therefore. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically.

S. DELTIM.. However.10 LMESH.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.ALL. However.1. if stresses and forces are of interest than.UY. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. . Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.0.1.0 L.FY.2.0001.0.1.2.ALL F.All. NSEL..11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .DENS. TRANS TRNOPT.068e11 MP. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.1. . M. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.7830 LESIZE. the calculations are much quicker. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).2 ET. It is the quickest of the three methods.1.2.0.PRXY.8.01 MP.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .1..1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.33e-10.11.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.REDUC..0 K.2.EX. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.ALL D.0.33 MP. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.Dynamic.BEAM3 R. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0 /PREP7 K.0.1.

UY_2 STORE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.0. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.0 !* LSSOLVE.MERGE PLVAR.' NSOL.2.1 KBC. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. ! Sets time to 0.2.'.2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.001s TIME.2.'Dynamic'. .ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.0 FDELE.3.Y.U.'rdsp'.!At time equals 0. In this case.1. time !Please note.001 KBC.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. For our case.mece.ualberta.University of Alberta . Copyright 2003 . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. for example.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.http://www. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.

we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. In ANSYS. In other words. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.mece. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. However. Therefore. Copyright 2003 . The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The smaller the time step.ualberta. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. After the application of the load. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.http://www.University of Alberta .

0 L. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.2 ET. It is the quickest of the three methods. TRANS TRNOPT.UY.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. the calculations are much quicker.2. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis..1.11.Dynamic.DENS. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.mece.PRXY.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.2.7830 LESIZE.0 /PREP7 K. if stresses and forces are of interest than.2.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.0 K. Because of the reduced size of the matrices..FY.068e11 MP.1.33 MP.0. .0.0. However.EX. All types of non-linearities are allowed.All. ..1. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.2.University of Alberta . NSEL.ALL F. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.8.ALL. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.S.1.ualberta.1.0.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.http://www.10 LMESH.0.0001.REDUC.ALL D. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). DELTIM.1. However.33e-10.1. M. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.1.BEAM3 R.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 . The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.01 MP.

U. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.http://www. time !Please note.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.mece.ualberta.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. UY_2 STORE.2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.'rdsp'.3. Copyright 2003 .2.University of Alberta . In this case.html !At time equals 0.0.'Dynamic'.0 !* LSSOLVE.1 KBC.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.2.'.1.001 KBC.0 FDELE. ! Sets time to 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.' NSOL. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.Y.2.001s TIME.MERGE PLVAR.

Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.one corner.0 blc4. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.length.0 height=1.0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. then width and height . PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.1.0.

0 NSEL.ALL.TEMP.X.LOC.MP.height D.S.1.Y.A.Y.0. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .TEMP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.X.10 ESIZE.ALL NSEL.KXX.LOC.LOC.length NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.A.length/20 AMESH.TEMP.S.500 NSEL.100 NSEL..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 D.LOC.ALL.

1.0. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.length/20 AMESH.one corner.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .h.length.1. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.www. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .KXX.0 height=1.ualberta. PLANE55 MP.10 ESIZE.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0..0 blc4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.

0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.LOC..ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.S.X.LOC.ualberta.mece.X.TEMP.500 NSEL.S.A.Y.100 NSEL.TEMP.. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.h.ALL.length NSEL.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.height D.TEMP.www..ALL NSEL.0 D.Y.A.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.0 NSEL.LOC. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1. PLANE55 MP. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 to solve simple thermal examples.length.Thermal .0.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0.0 height=1.0 blc4.one corner. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title. then width and height .1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.KXX.

S.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .length SF.length/20 AMESH.CONV.0.0 D.1 ESIZE.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.S.MAT.500 NSEL.ALL.1 TYPE.LOC.ALL.TEMP.ALL.TEMP.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.100 NSEL.Y.ALL.X.X.height D.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.0 SF.LOC.ALL NSEL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.Y.CONV.S.10.TEMP.S.100 NSEL.0 NSEL..

Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. PLANE55 MP.1.html Thermal .length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0.0 height=1.length.10 MAT.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.1 TYPE. then width and height Copyright 2003 . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0.one corner.KXX.ualberta.0 blc4.0 to solve simple thermal examples.1 ESIZE.1.http://www.University of Alberta .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.

500 NSEL.ALL.length SF.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.0 SF.CONV.html AMESH.0 D.S.S.Y.ALL NSEL.http://www.ualberta.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.LOC.10.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.University of Alberta . ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .height D.ALL.ALL.0.100 NSEL.mece.S.TEMP..X.100 NSEL.TEMP.TEMP.LOC.CONV.Y.LOC.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.X.0 NSEL.

Also. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.040 kJ/kg*K. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry .

height D.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.length=1.kxx.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 nsubst.TEMP ANTIME.920 mp.c.0.Dens.4 time.500 ! area .100 NSEL.0.2.LOC.0.all kbc.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.500 NSEL.05 AMESH.one corner.off lnsrch.TEMP.1.on outres. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .ALL.Temp.0 height=1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ALL IC.20.Y.1.LOC.full lumpm. PLANE55 MP.2.100 autots.5 ESIZE.20 neqit.1.040 mp.0.0 D.1.100.5.ALL NSEL..all.8. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.TEMP.1..ALL.0 blc4.300 nropt.0.length.all.0.S.Y.500 PLNSOL.s.

It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Also. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 height=1. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 blc4. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.one corner. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .length.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.040 kJ/kg*K.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! area .ualberta.mece.0.

500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.05 AMESH.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.300 nropt.20 neqit.ALL.1.5 ESIZE.TEMP.0 D..LOC.20.0 nsubst.full lumpm.S.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.ALL IC.100 NSEL..1.100 autots.mece.Y.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.1.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.2.on outres.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.0.TEMP.www.Temp.0.500 PLNSOL.all.s. PLANE55 MP.500 NSEL.8.ALL.all.4 time.2.0.off lnsrch.1.ALL NSEL.all kbc.040 mp.5.height D.kxx.c.TEMP ANTIME.Y.920 mp.Dens.0. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. As a warning. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. In this case. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.

plane2 keyopt.loc.y.-100 fk.20..20.50 d.15.100 rectng.0 dl.1.1 mp.all.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ex.95.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .1.s.all finish /solu antype.12.100 aadd.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.2 amesh.1. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.prxy.55 prnsol.uy.y.symm lsel.5 rectng.fy.x.fy.45.0.0 nsel.0.all.all et.0 lsel.3 esize.0.all nsel.off rectng.20.loc.1.all fk.0.s.loc.0.s.200000 mp.s.1.3.

1.all /expand.2.axis.10 /view.27..1..nsel.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .

Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.mece.www. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.ualberta. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. As a warning. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta ... ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.. In this case.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.

/prep7 /triad.1.0 dl.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2.100 aadd.1.s.uy.95.0.comp nsel.3.0 nsel.fy.0..100 solve finish /post1 nsel.loc..s.1.y.x.www.2 amesh.0.100 rectng.mece.0 lsel.-100 fk.all nsel.1.15.fy.y.all.all finish /solu antype.55 prnsol.all et.1.20.all fk.1.1 mp.s.0.ualberta.loc.5 rectng.20.45.20..ex.12.27..s.prxy.50 d.200000 mp.symm lsel.0.axis.all /expand.loc...plane2 keyopt.10 /view.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.off rectng.3 esize.1.

Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7. a wall thickness of 10. ANSYS Command Listing .1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.

0. .1000. 0. 6 E. 1. 8 E.1000.1. 0 N. MP.1000 N.1000. 2. 0./title.1 REAL.5. 6.0. 0.COMBIN14 R.10. 5 E.COMBIN7 ET.10. 1.200000 MP.1500 N. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 6 E.2.EX. 8 E. 9. 1. 8 E. 7.12.10 R.1 MAT. 5 E. 0.1 E. 0. 0. 0 N. 0. 0 N. 0.3. 400. 700. 3. 0. 7. 700.12. 4 E. 5.1000.-500 TYPE. 0. 9.13. 3.1000 N.1e9.13.3. 0. Catapult /PREP7 ET.11.40. 4 E.PRXY.1. 3 E.2. 0.1. . 5. 2. 0.1000 N.13 E.PIPE16 ET. 0.33 N. 8. 400. 0. 0.1e9 R. 4. 500 N. 3 E.12. 6. 0. 2. 500 N. 0 N.1000 N.1e9.1. 500 N.

1. 11 E. 10.7.2 E.3 REAL.. 9.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.5.3 E.U.KP.8 E.0 NLGEOM.2 *GET.2 REAL.12.5 D.FY.8.TYPE..13 ! Load node 7 .12.ELEM. 11 TYPE.VERT7.ALL.6 /PNUM.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.7.ON NSUBST.0 /PNUM.NODE.13 F.4. 2.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.4.0.3.

1.40. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.www. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1.2.7.mece.PIPE16 ET. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .COMBIN7 ET.1.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . a wall thickness of 10.3.COMBIN14 R. Catapult /PREP7 ET.ualberta. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.

12.2.-500 TYPE.0.KP. 6.6 /PNUM. 3. 0.2 E. 11 TYPE. 1. 5.www. MP. 8 E.ELEM.13 E. 0.12. 4 TYPE. 11 E. 500 N. . 2.8. 4 E.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 4 E. 10.html R.EX. 2. 0 N.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 9. 9.PRXY. 0.0 /PNUM. 0 N. 0.1000. 0. 7.1000 N. 3. 400. 8 E.1000.10.mece. 0. 9.5. 1. 7. 6. 8 E. 1.1 REAL.1e9. 0.1500 N. 0. 700. 0.3 E. 0 N. 0. 500 N.1 E.11. 4. 5.13.33 N.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 400.1.3. 6 E.1000 N. 500 N.1000 N.1000 N.12.3 REAL.1 MAT.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 2.200000 MP. 5 E.1. 0. 0. 0. 0.2 REAL.ualberta. 5 E.8 E. 700.13. 3 E.0 NLGEOM. 8. 0 N. 3 E. .1e9. 0. 0. 6 E. 2. 0.1000.1000.10.5. 1.1e9 R. 0.

2 *GET.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .7.www.FY.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.4.3.ualberta.mece.html NSUBST.7.12.13 F.5 D.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.4.VERT7.U.NODE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..12.ALL..

100 LMESH..1..H. ET.1..0. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.200000 MP. not '^').W. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.1. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.1.EX. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.0 L.20 K.75.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title..H.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.3 ESIZE. Design Optimization *set.LINE.(W*H**3)/12.0.0 K.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.BEAM3 R.2.W*H.20 *set.1.1.0. However.RATI. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.2 HPTCREATE.1000. deciding which variables to use as design. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .PRXY. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. height MP. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.I (note '**'.

FIRS OPFRST.50.'optimize'..0.ITEM.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.VOLU.0 DK.Volume. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .NMISC. min 10 mm.2.FY.MAX ETABLE.1.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.1.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.001 MPa.1.EVOLUME ETABLE.W.SMAX_I. min 10 mm.Y.optimize.SMAX_J.1 node ESORT.UY.SORT.DV.SORT.0..UX..30. max 50 mm. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.100.50.SSUM.OBJ.0 DK.X.txt ! Assign optimize.001mm OPVAR.0 DK.'txt'.SMAX_I.10.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.3 node ESORT.ANTYPE.W /AXLAB.1.VOLUME.0. tolerance 0. max 50 ! Width design variable.SMAX.0 FK.200.SV.0.001 MPa OPVAR.3.txt.ETAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.H..NMISC.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.001mm OPVAR.SMAXJ.. tolerance 0.0.SMAX. max 200 ! Volume as object variable. Percent step size.H.001 mm.0.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL..MAX *SET. min 195 MPa..UY.200 OPTYPE.2.001 tolerance 0. *GET.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.EVolume.195. ! Height state variable.SMAXI. *GET.DV. SSUM *GET.10.SMAX_J.ETAB.

0 L..0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.2 HPTCREATE. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.W*H..H.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.0. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. MP.. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.www.2.200000 MP.(W*H**3)/12.20 *set.I (note '**'.W.1.EX. Design Optimization *set.mece.1..20 K. ET.RATI.ualberta.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.75. deciding which variables to use as design.1. not '^')..LINE. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.0 K. However.PRXY.BEAM3 R. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.1000. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.1.H..1..1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

..UY..0 FK.1.DV.txt.FY.SORT. max 200 MPa.UX.0.OBJ. Percent step size.W /AXLAB.001 OPVAR.100.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.txt ! Assign optimize.ETAB.NMISC.3.10.SSUM.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.W.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.Y.1. min 10 mm.UY.10.0 DK.200 OPTYPE.VOLUME.SMAXJ.SMAX_J.MAX *SET.VOLU.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.H.'optimize'.mece.001 OPVAR.MAX ETABLE. SSUM *GET.2.EVolume.SMAXI.3 ESORT.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.0 DK.SMAX_I. min 10 mm. to Width design variable....001 OPVAR.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.SMAX_J.optimize.'txt'.100 LMESH.50.EVOLUME ETABLE. *GET. *GET.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..SMAX.0.30.DV.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable. min 195 MPa.SORT.. max 50 mm.1 ESORT.195.0.FIRS OPFRST. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.0 DK.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.1. Volume as object variable.200. tol Height state variable.SV.X.Volume.SMAX_I. ESIZE. max 50 mm.ETAB.H.0.ITEM.www..50.0.2. OPEXE PLVAROPT.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SMAX.ualberta.NMISC.

Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). 3. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Apply remaining loads to the model. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. however. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. ANSYS Command Listing .5 MPa. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. For this example. v = 0.

5 MP.140 NSEL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 2.5 NSEL. amesh.Y.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.S.0.ALL.GEN.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.LOC.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.0 F.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.FX.SUBST SEOPT.0.0. START /FILNAME.X.EX. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.2.100.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.PLANE42 TYPE.0.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .2.1.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.2 NSEL.EX.1.ALL.R.db ! GEN.1.40.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.100.S..2.EXT M.PRXY.LOC.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.PRXY.2 MP.ALL NSEL.1.10.0.ALL NSEL.

STATIC NSEL.ALL.0 NSEL.1 ESEL. mat.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS..1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.GEN.MaxNode.U.0.2 real.40 CPINTF.1.1. superelement solution written to GEN.MATRIX50 TYPE.10.2 amesh..LOC.GEN2.TYPE.SUM.S.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.MAX SETRAN.0 D.MaxNode.S..1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .NODE.1.U.ALL.Y.1.S.LOC.ALL NSEL.GEN2 SE.ALL ESEL.ALL.SELV.Y.1.0..1 SFE.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.! Meshing AESIZE.SUM.1 *GET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.1 ! Superelement ET.ON.GEN2 NSEL.NUM.

please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.mece.www.ualberta. 3. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Apply remaining loads to the model. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.5 MPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs)..0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. however.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. v = 0.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.. For this example. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Apply loads to the super-element 2. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. substructuring will be used for the wood block. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.

1.www...1.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100.ALL. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.FX.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.10.S.LOC.0.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.LOC.100.0 F.SUBST SEOPT..100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET. START /FILNAME.EXT M.X.5 NSEL.Y. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.1.0. amesh. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .PLANE42 ! Element type MP.S.ALL NSEL.0.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.PRXY.R.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.ALL.ualberta.2.ALL NSEL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.GEN.2 NSEL.0.140 NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EX.PLANE42 TYPE.40.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).1.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.db ! GEN.

1.SUM.2.NODE.LOC.1 ESEL. mat.U.SELV.2 amesh.ALL ESEL.Y.0.ALL NSEL..PRXY.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y.GEN2.GEN.0.ALL.40 CPINTF.ON.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1.USE EXPSOL..YES SEEXP. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .MaxNode.NUM.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.www.TYPE.10.mece.1 ! Superelement ET.STATIC NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1.EX.MAX SETRAN.2.GEN2 NSEL. MP.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS..MATRIX50 TYPE.1.0 NSEL.ALL.ualberta.1 SFE.LOC.5 MP.GEN2 SE.1 *GET.MaxNode. 2.ALL.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.0.0 D.1.S.S.2 real..U..S.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.SUM..

which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. the analyses are coupled. Loads will not be applied to the link. However. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.. with no internal stresses. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. a thermal conductivity of 60. the link will attemp to expand. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. and write them to memory. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. . stress is created in the link. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K)." Thus. It is important to note. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. For instance. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. the geometry is kept constant. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. where the thermal effects will be applied.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.. For our case. For convenience. and using it with any following coupled environments. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). Although the geometry must remain constant. However. the element types can change. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. A steel link. For a listing.

273 dk.0 solve finish /post1 etable.0 physics.rth environment tref.1.0.1.2 et. mp.0 l.thermal dk.1.UX.12e-6 physics.link33 r.CompStress.1..0.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.2.tts mp..struct physics.kxx.1.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.clear finish /solu antype.0 k..ex.LS.4e-4..all physics.read. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .1 lmesh.0 dk.1.alpx.read.prxy.0..1.thermal physics.5 esize.analysis.2.temp.60.1.1.1.struct ldread. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.write.200e9 mp.temp.all.3 mp.write.

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

the geometry is kept constant. the analyses are coupled.ualberta.. Loads will not be applied to the link. However.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. and using it with any following coupled environments. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). For our case. with no internal stresses. For convenience. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.www. A steel link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. stress is created in the link. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. . Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece. where the thermal effects will be applied. However. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. the link will attemp to expand.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). a thermal conductivity of 60. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . By creating the geometry in the first physical environment." Thus..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.

and write them to memory..all.1. mp.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file...1 lmesh. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.200e9 mp.1.1.ex.2 et. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. For a listing.1.rth tref.kxx.write. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.html Although the geometry must remain constant.1. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.struct physics.temp.clear finish /solu antype.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .link33 r.3 mp.read.1.tts mp. the element types can change.1.0 physics. It is important to note.thermal physics.1.60. For instance. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.write.ualberta.348 solve finish /solu physics.alpx.2.struct ldread.1.read.0.temp.4e-4.0 l.12e-6 physics.0.0 k.1.clear etchg.0 dk.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k...thermal dk.273 dk.5 esize.0.UX.prxy.2.all physics.mece. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.1.

CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .LS.html solve finish /post1 etable.1 PRETAB.ualberta.CompStress.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.

The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. . This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum.

1.2.all finish /solu antype.55.48 k.3.1.100 k.6.0 k.0.20.8.on /prep7 k.1.3 esize.55.10.8.x. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.12 et.3.45.20 outres.5 amesh.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100 k.0.2.s.100 k.4.100.1.all.loc.0.0 nsubst.52 k.3 r.loc.5..11.200000 mp.45.10.20.0 k.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .9.48 k.6.7.all lsel.1.4.prxy.12. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .7.80.80.all lsel.plane145 keyopt.1 lsel.ex.all.3.100.5.11.0 k.1.52 k.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.s.100 k.0 dl.all time.1.9.100.20.0 a.x.10 mp.

all solve finish /post1 set.s.last plesol.pres.all.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .sfl.-100 lsel.

This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.mece. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.ualberta.0. Thus.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . computational time can be kept to a minimum. rather than increasing mesh density.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.www.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

0 k.all.s.x. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .5.7.s.20.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .6.1.80.3 r.48 k.100.all finish /solu antype.200000 mp.52 k.5.1.6.10.1.all lsel.x.12.0 k.-100 lsel.10.0 a.4.9.all.2.plane145 keyopt.3.0.12 et.3.loc.20.2.all solve finish /post1 set.20.11.3 esize.7.prxy.100.0 k.45.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.100 k.10 mp.20 outres.1.100 k.100 sfl.s.1.3.48 k.last plesol..all lsel.100 k.loc.all time.100.80.11.8.45.55.8.52 k.4.5 amesh.pres.all.1 lsel.mece.html /prep7 k.0 nsubst.1.ualberta.55.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100 k.0.0.9.ex.0 dl.1.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

0.03. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.1. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum. Thus.0 k. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. rather than increasing mesh density.2.0.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.03.3.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0 k.0. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.

100 autots.60 nropt.all kbc.0 nsubst.1.20 neqit.temp.s.920 mp.all esel.off solve finish /post1 set.1.0005 amesh.all.on outres.all finish /solu antype.temp.1.1.4. not ramped ! Initial conditions.kxx.Dens.4 time.all.etab.Plane55 MP. esel.rest ekill.c.268 nsel.ext sf. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.off lnsrch.273 finish /solu antype.8 esize.0.1.03 a.2.k.s.melty.last etable.0.2040 mp.3.all.all /gst.1.melty.conv. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .1 IC..full lumpm. 20 Max no.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.0.10.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .368 nsel.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.

last esel.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ./post1 set.live plnsol.s.

the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.03.1.3. rather than increasing mesh density. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.3.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.0.2. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.03 a.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.03 k.1. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.4.03. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.www. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0 k.0.0.0.0.2.0 k. Thus. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ualberta.

all /gst.c.Dens.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.last etable.1.temp.0.268 nsel.all finish /solu antype.0005 amesh. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .kxx.2040 mp.4 time. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.s.last esel.8 esize.full lumpm.all finish /post1 set.all.mece.920 mp.10.www..all.ext sf.on outres.conv.Plane55 MP. esel.off lnsrch.all.live plnsol.all kbc.melty.1.melty.1.273 finish /solu antype.1.ualberta.off solve finish /post1 set.all esel.1.20 neqit.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .1 IC.etab.rest ekill.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0 nsubst.temp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .s.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.100 autots.368 nsel.60 nropt.s. not ramped ! Initial conditions. 20 Max no.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

0.1 /TYPE.Width/2.0 DA.X.0.7.Z.1/16*Length /CPLANE.SUM.S.0.0 ASEL.All.U.ALL.All.FY.0.1 /TYPE.8 WPCSYS.0 WPOFFS.5.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.0.1 WPOFFS.0.90 /CPLANE.5 PLNSOL.Length KSEL.R.-1.0.Y.EQV.Width FK.1.S.1.0.-2500 KSEL.2 ! Animate the slices .Z.0.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.0 WPROTA.1./SOLU ANTYPE.43.0.05.S.LOC.Height KSEL.1.LOC.14.LOC.0 ASEL.R.0.ALL KSEL.

PRXY.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1. Stress.YS. etc.1.3 esize. 1 .000000.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.FAST ET.1 /REPLOT.60.www. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.200000 MP.SOLID45 MP.ualberta.20 vmesh.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.Length /ANGLE.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.Width.EX.Height.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .) of the following example.1. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.

0.Z.0.0 WPOFFS.0.R.0.R.43.0.ALL.Z.0.EQV.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.LOC.1.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.1.90 /CPLANE.05.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.5.0 ASEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1/16*Length /CPLANE.www.1.1 /TYPE.0.LOC.0.-1.mece.ualberta.1 WPOFFS.0 ASEL.Height KSEL.5 PLNSOL.14.FY.1 /TYPE.S.SUM.0.0 DA.7.ALL KSEL.Y.U.LOC.LOC.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.S.Width FK.0.S.0 WPROTA.8 WPCSYS.All.Width/2.-2500 KSEL.Length KSEL.All.X.

Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.100.50. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.50. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.150. For example. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.10 cyl4. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.200.0.50. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.all . a plot of the stress along that path can be made.10 asba.50. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.10 cyl4.0. In this tutorial.100 cyl4. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.1.

2.ex.200000 mp.200.0.eqv.1.s.loc.1.2.100 SFL.PRES.0.2.off /noerase /window..prxy..all PLPAGM.bot nsel.all nsel.plane2.1000 ppath.all.10 mp.y..200.3 R.loc.1.1..loc.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.1.1.0 dl.3 esize.s.SEQV..y..all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 ppath.50 path.y.1 /window.et.1.2.S.s.top /POST1 PLNSOL.50 PDEF.cutline.S.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.AVG nsel.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes ..eqv.all.5 amesh.

one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.www. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes..mece. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. For example.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. In this tutorial. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.ualberta.. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.200.

prxy.eqv..all..PRES.0.3 R.2..10 mp.all.100 SFL.3 esize.S.1..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.5 amesh. cyl4.1.1.2.50.S.cutline.s..mece.0 dl.50.SEQV.1.1.y.1000 ppath.loc.100.y.top /POST1 PLNSOL..plane2.s.50 PDEF.eqv.AVG nsel.10 cyl4.150.50.off /noerase /window.bot nsel.10 cyl4.all et.10 asba.50 ppath..50 path.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 /window.all nsel.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.2.50.1.y.all PLPAGM.loc.0.ex.200.www..1..UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.2.200000 mp.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.loc.200.s.ualberta.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.1.length.1.40 mp.2.200000 mp.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.3 k.1.320e3.prxy.0 l. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.2400. Length of the following beam using tables.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry . finer resolution can be achieved. rather than using a contour plot.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.ex.1.elementsize lmesh.2 esize. By plotting this data on a curve.0 k. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. a special type of array.0.0.beam3 r.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.I. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.

2.graph(1.graph(2.graph(2.2.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.1.2) /axlab.1).y *vplot.graph. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.u.2).1).fy.0 400 *vget.2.static dk.graph(1.graph(rows.TABLE.y.graph(1.all fk.loc.1).x *vget.2).Length /axlab.0 *set.x.loc.rows.node. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.antype.node.graph(1.graph(rows.2).-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.node.x *vget.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.node.1).2. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.all.all.y *set.u.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.

ex.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. finer resolution can be achieved.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.320e3. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.ualberta. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.www.2.length. rather than using a contour plot. a special type of array.1.3 k.40 mp. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Length of the following beam using tables.. By plotting this data on a curve.. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 l.prxy.0 k.200000 mp. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.2 esize.1.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.h.1.2400. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.mece.beam3 r.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .I.

2..ualberta.y *set.2.fy.graph(2.all finish /solu antype.0 *vget.graph(2.1).1.y.loc.graph(1.2) /axlab.all fk.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.graph(1.u.2.node.mece.node.h. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.y *vplot.graph(1.u.0 *set. lmesh.x.all. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.all.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.2).static dk.2).TABLE.graph(1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(rows.1).x *vget.loc.1).node.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.graph.1).Length /axlab.rows.1 *vget..2).2.node.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.graph(rows.x *vget.www.

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