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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. . PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. Prompting the user for parameters.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Preprocessing: defining the problem. 1. In general.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). heat transfer and fluid problems.e. Solution: assigning loads. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 2. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. 3D). constraints and solving. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. axi-symmetric. 2D. 1D. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. 3. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems.

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. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. as it automatically starts this application when booting. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Windows NT application 2. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. you can may want to reboot the computer.. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. be sure that your local drive has space for it. If you don't see this minimized program.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. you should see something labeled X-Win32.. do this. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.

type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. but rather. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. don't select this icon. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. .

Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 1. graphic controls and parameters. selections. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. such as file controls. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.7.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.

design optimizer. general postprocessor. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. 2. solution. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. e. the menu structure has not changed. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. . Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. More push buttons can be added if desired. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. However. organized by preprocessor. such as listing of data etc. c. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7.b. while the versions appear different. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. d.0. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. however. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. The second is by means of command files. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

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e. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. General Models . Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. In general there are no real firm answers on this. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. If the results differ by a large amount however. For simple models it is of no concern. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. loading and constraints. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. it is desired to minimize the number of elements.. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. it will only slow the calculations down. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined.. but for a larger model. When point loads are used. If the results are nearly similar. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it.

In general. . the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. In a solid mechanics problem.In general however. for example. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses.

db. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Using the Launcher. and select your job from the list that appears.db . and specify the previously defined jobname. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .. loads. r In the ANSYS Launcher.db. solution.. 2. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. you will at least be able to come back to this point. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. In that way. r Then when you get ANSYS started. To save your model. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems.. if you make some mistakes later on. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. There are two methods to do this: 1. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry.. ANSYS Inc. select Interactive.. Or. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. etc) that you previously saved..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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Listing of all error and warning messages. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. This file stores the geometry. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file.. Depending on the operations carried out. q If you will always be using the GUI. then the created files will all have the file prefix. other files may have been written. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). If you specified a jobname. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. That file may be rerun as is. then you only require the . This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to.db file. starting with an existing log file. say Frame. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc.err Error file (text).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. or move things from the /scratch directory. etc. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname.dbb Backup of the database file (binary).* where the * represents various extensions described below. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. These files may contain results. This file stores the geometry. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. frame.db Database file (binary). Once the ANSYS has started. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . boundary conditions and any solutions. frame. boundary conditions and any solutions. Frame again with various extensions: frame. and the jobname has been specified.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). from another ANSYS run. frame. etc. the name of all the files created will be FILE. frame. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text).

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. Select 'File'/'Save As. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. You can pick multiple items. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and choose what you want to list from the menu. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. choose 'List Results'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. 1.. while the second is a scalable vector plot. 2. Select 'Elem Table Data'. In the window that appears. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above.' and give a file name to store the results. 'Reverse Video'.0 Better Quality Plots . 1.. Then enter the file name of your choice.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. 'Monochrome'. to get displacements. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy .'. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. However. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'.. 3.

Decrease the size of this window. Now that the plots have been read in..g. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot.frame. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: .pic' (with a period). Display wants 'plots. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS..pic if your plot file is 'plots. you have a couple of options: 1. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. To save some plots to a file.pic'(with a comma). remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. To do this. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. Either way.: frame.pic'.. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. Type in a filename (e. a large graphics window will appear. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. but rather they will be written to the selected file. Load your plot file with the following command: file. or HPGL for example. This is performed by running a separate program called display..n where n is plot number. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.'.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Note that although the file is 'plots. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'.

for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. To do this. enter the following commands in display: pscr.pscr plot. you only require the plot.grph. The printer information is still present. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. i.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.hpgl plot. For subsequent plots. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. issue the following commands: /show. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. The printer information is still present. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. overheads or even posters! 2. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. starting at 00. the postscript image will appear as blank box. 3. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor.pscr plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour.n where n is the plot number.n command as the other options have now been set. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. you set the postscript color option to '3'.1.e. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner.color. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.2 /show. as above. where xx is a number. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. the postscript image will appear as blank box. .color. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper.3 /show.

eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. In a similar way. exit display by entering finish . This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).

etc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. holes. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. mesh control.. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. you will want to leave it. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. Of course. chamfers. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. if the feature is critical to your design. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. by suppressing them in Pro/E. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . many modeling options for constraints. Step 1.W. Also. loads. analysis types will not be covered. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

For this model. Several edges are rounded. the plate and the loading hole are removed. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. Model units are inches.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. . A load is applied at the hole in the right end. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. So. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end.

surface regions. This is where we specify modeling information. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. loads. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window.Step 2. idealizations). The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. Basically. . check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. and so on. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. We proceed in a topdown manner. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. curves. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams.

Select Surface. rotational constraints are active if specified. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. A dialog window opens as shown above. all we need are constraints. and Z. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). we can select one of the four buttons (Free. and a specified material. Y. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. In the final computed model.Defining Constraints For our simple model. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). Fixed. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. and Function of Coordinates). . For beams and shells. only one set can be included. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. edges. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. For each direction X. loads. Prescribed. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. For our solid model. and surfaces).

Note these are relative to the WCS. The load should be . and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. Then select OK. another a temperature load.For our model. and select the OK button. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. Enter the force components at the bottom. These can be solved at the same time. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. another might contain the support forces. Loads are also organized into named load sets. For example.

loads. Step 3. material). select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. At this point. you will see the properties of the chosen material. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. In the STRC MODEL menu. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. In an assembly. If you select the Edit button. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New .displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. you could now assign this material to individual parts.

Select the type (Structural or Modal). select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. Enter a short description. The MEC STRUCT window. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. . Now select OK. Step 4. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. like "ansystest".Specify a name for the analysis.

If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. The results are indicated in columns on the right. Select Close. shown in wire frame. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. Here is an image of the default mesh. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below).This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. evaluated for the model. .

setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. edges. you can select the Controls option. This will allow you to select points. For example. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. . and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. and so on. maximum mesh size.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command.

loads. select Run .Step 5. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. materials. mesh). In the MEC STRUCT menu.

We are now finished with Pro/E. select Structural. mesh. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. Select OK and read the message window. Copy the . .This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. loads. In the Analysis list. and material) is listed.ans). select ANSYS. The analysis we defined (containing constraints.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. In the Solver pull-down list at the top.

. Step 8.ans file you created previously. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left.. This will read in the entire model. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From.Step 6. and select Apply. you will be informed that the solution is complete. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Step 7. Select the . Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds.

and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. A = 3250mm2). (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). reaction forces. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: .

For this example. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . these keypoints are the ends of each truss. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. Note: to get the title to appear immediately.

and enter the x. If you first press r .y coordinates: 0. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. Note: When entering the final data point. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints.

Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. lines. volumes. 3. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. areas. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. thus making any conversions where necessary. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. The following window will then appear: . Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. elements.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box.

Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Left click and a permanent line will appear.e. When you're done. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. click on it). r r r . Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.

Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. However. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. they have most likely NOT been deleted. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. The following window will then appear: . This is called 'meshing'.

.. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. The following window will appear: r For this example. r 5.' button.r Click on the 'Add.

and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).r In the Preprocessor menu. .. Click on 'OK'.. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add.

6. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .

r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.0'. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. 7.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now.

enter '1' and then click 'OK'. For this example we want only 1 division per line.r In the size 'NDIV' field. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. therefore. 8. we have simply defined the element sizes. enter the desired number of divisions per line. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window .

Plot Numbering To show the line numbers.... Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q . q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. node numbers. keypoint numbers..

. so if you make some mistakes later on. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Select the name and location where you want to save your file.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Define Analysis Type . on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. To do this. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. 1.

r 2. r In the Solution menu. As shown above. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . for example. Click 'OK'. pinned and roller-type connections. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected.e. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. i. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. In mechanical structures. these constraints will typically be fixed.

Therefore. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. ROT on KPs' window. .

r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. 3. this is consistent with the previous values input.ROT on KPs" window. there are four downward loads of 280kN. Therefore. Note that we are using units of N here. r Using the same method. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. 5. and 7 respectively. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). 210kN. 280kN. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. . and 360kN at keypoints 1. 3.

. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS.

r The above windows will appear. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up.. . Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description).

Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2.

The following window will appear.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. . r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. . The following window will appear. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.409).r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7.

.r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'.

. r .r Looking at the scale.. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. you may want to use more useful intervals. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.

.You should obtain the following.

This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. .

beams. spars... r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. strains). we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. using the item 'LS.2 in the Help file.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. If you wanted to save these results to a file.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. therefore. The Element Table is different for each element. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations.' r . we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. From Table 1.

select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. Then enter 1 after LS. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Next..r As shown above. Comp' boxes. . in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.. in the 'Item. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" . enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.'.

select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .Again. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. .. Now go to 'File > Read input from..PDF version is also available for printing. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.HTML version. In the dialog box that appears. Open the . Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.' and select the file.9MPa as predicted analytically. A . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . ANSYS Inc. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem.

scale factors. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. etc. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . units. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. these keypoints are the ends of the beam.The first step is to simplify the problem. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Now pick keypoint #2. Pick keypoint #1 (i. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Click on the 'Add. r From the Preprocessor Menu.. When you're done. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.e. click on it). r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Click on the 'Options. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line...Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3.' button. r r r 4. A permanent line will appear. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. The following window will appear: r . we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. The following window will appear: r r For this example.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box..

This gives us extra force and moment output. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. Click on 'OK'...r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. r 5. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. .

We are going to give the properties of Aluminum.. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. (Alternatively. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. r 6. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. we have simply defined the element sizes..r Click on 'OK'. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. However. enter '20' (i. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. enter the desired element length. Saving Your Work . r r r 7. 8. For an element length of 2cm. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. therefore.

The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. r 2. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. r r 3. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints..ROT on KPs' window.. Select the name and location where you want to save your file.. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'.Utility Menu > File > Save as. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. Therefore. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. .

since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find.2mm as shown above. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. . Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.4. Hand Calculations Now.

In this menu you will find a variety of options. 2. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. r r .

Leave the other selections as the default values.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). Click 'OK'. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. r . Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution .r You may want to have a more useful scale. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'... If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. r . select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.

the right end of the rod... r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. strains). Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.r Are these results what you expected? Again. spars. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.' r . Click on 'Add.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. If you wanted to save these results to a file..

in the 'Item..Comp' boxes in the above window. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. . Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .r As shown above.

Again. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. I and J. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. First. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. as shown in the following image.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. a bending moment diagram can be created. . Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model.

Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . Same as above . this will give a name to the data B.... First. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.6 in the second Comp box E. .. Click 'Add. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.again. the Element Table must be used. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.this will give a name to the data B. r Again.' in the 'Element Table Data' window.. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. A. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.To obtain the bending moment for this element..'. A. r In the window. click 'Add. Enter SMISC.

. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. For step D. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res.12 in the second Comp box E. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. Click 'OK'. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. enter SMISC. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI..C. . Same as above D.

and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . you can double check these solutions analytically. Sequence Numbers. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). Table 1. r Before the explanation of the above steps.Now. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. PIPE16 Item. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter.

PRXY.20 LMESH. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes. Wall thickness ! Material Properties. Young's Modulus.2.25. 1. .0. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. y. Major Poisson's Ratio.1.PIPE16 KEYOPT.0. .the Member moment for node I. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate. Outside Diameter.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .33 !* LESIZE.1 !* R. L. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.1. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.500.0.ALL.0. /PREP7 K.6.1. x.1.1. Material 1.2. then hit enter. 0.0. !* MP. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.2 !* ET. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.70000 MP. Material 1. K.0 !* DK.0. Material 1.ALL FK. 2. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.EX.0.1. y. all of the lines.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2. x.1.FY. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Copy the following code into the command line.1.0. z Keypoint.

Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . therefore use the verification example as a reference as required.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines./STATUS. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.

Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. Alternatively. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. these keypoints are the frame vertices. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. First. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3.2. Notice that by using variables like this.

you may need to add comments. #.for the second keypoint you might type: K. type help k into the command line For example.2.0 into the command line followed by Enter. Reference number for the keypoint. Z where. x=0. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out.y1.follows: K.0 r ! keypoint. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. As with any programming language.0. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.y2. NPT. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.0. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.1. X. ie . to enter the first keypoint type: K. However.# . z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. Y. y=y2. simply re-enter the code.

To get an isometric view.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. s 6. In this example. translating and rotating it on all three axes. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. Zoom. Try experimenting with them. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. To define keypoint #1. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. Zoom. This was simply used for convenience. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Rotate. 5. you have many controls. z = 0. for example. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model.. You can either leave the 'Pan.. y = 325. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: .

2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. P1. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. I would write: ' L. Keypoint at the end of line For example.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. Again. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . we will use the command line to create the lines. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.1. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. to obtain the first line.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. P2 Line.

(ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . As in the verification model. 8. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. define the type of element (pipe16). LAB. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. C0 25 2 . Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. we will again use the command line.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. MAT.7. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output.

VALUE. 1. For example. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. type ' MP.1..Material Property. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. > Static 2. to pin the . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. Material Reference Number.EX. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). Lab5.PRXY. K #. value.0.33 ' r 10. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). value2. Lab3.1.Valid material property label. KPOI.. VALUE2. Lab. DK. Apply Constraints Once again. Mesh Size As in the verification model. DOF label. we will use the command line. Expansion key. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example.. KEXPND. Lab4. type: ' MP.. Lab6 Displacement on K. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. Lab2. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.

Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. FY.. Lab. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions..UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). Again. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .5. Force Label directions (FX. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. value2 Force loads at keypoints. FK. UX is not constrained. FZ).0. value1. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. K #.first keypoint enter: DK. value2 (if req'd) .UY. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. value. the command line code is: DK. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. K. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. UY.1. UZ. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3.0..1.UY.. KPOI.UY and UZ).UX.

'Def + undef edge' .-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST).. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.. the code should look like this: ' FK.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. If you need to delete one of the forces. K.FY. 4. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.3. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.

Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. 'Back'. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. so we know what node(s) we're after.'). and turn on 'Node numbers'. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r .2. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. Note the node numbers of interest. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero... Turn everything else off. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering..

Close this list window when you are finished browsing.. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.' from the 'List Results' menu.. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. 3. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table .. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. For each element in the model. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed.. 4. Click on 'OK'. . Then close the 'List Results' menu.

Plot Results > Line Elem Res.12) And.6 and SMISC. to define the table (remember SMISC..r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. Select Element Table > Define Table. the bending moment diagram can be produced. to plot the data from the Element Table .. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5... Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.

. In the dialog box that appears. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.. click on 'Save .HTML version..' and select the file. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..'. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A figure of the plate is shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. and uniform pressure loading. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). plane stress. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. scale factors.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. units. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . etc.

Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. however. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Subtraction will used to create this model. a. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies.

100. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle . This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. (Alternatively.0.0.200.0.s Fill in the window as shown above.0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.100) b.

your image should resemble the following: .50. the command line code for the above command is CYL4. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.20 ) c.s Fill in the window as shown above.100.50. Prior to this operation. (Alternatively. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.

The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. s . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation.

s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'.1. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.2) . Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.

3. For this example.. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. therefore Click on the 'Options. r . PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. Click and hold the K3 button..' button. as shown below. four-node element (PLANE42). we need a plane stress element with thickness. as shown in the above figure. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'.

3) 6. the command line code for the above step is R.3.200000 followed by MP.0.20) 5.1.1.(Alternatively. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.1.3) 4.EX. the command line code for the above step is MP.3 (Alternatively. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . the command line code for the above step is ET. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1.PRXY.1.

) 7.r Select an element edge length of 25.ALL) You should now have the following: . (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.ALL. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.25. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.

1. r r . the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.ROT on Lines' window. Fill in the window as shown below. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.0) 2... (Alternatively. Apply Constraints As shown previously. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. the left end of the plate is fixed.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).

4. therefore the last field is left blank. r r r . select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. Therefore. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. the command line code for the above step is DL. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. (Alternatively. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above.ALL.0) 3.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained.. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.001 mm .neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . Convergence using ANSYS . Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. 2. Hand Calculations Now.we need to calculate what we should find. The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9 MPa.4.just a flat plate). since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .

r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. we will check the stress at this point. (as shown below in red) . Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate...

To change the element size. r Resize Elements a.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.9141 MPa at this point.

the values converge towards a final solution.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. (note .8 MPa. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node).the element edge length decreases). The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. Click 'OK'. This is a mere 2.c. d. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. . As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie .

the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. However. USUM in the window.0012 mm. 4. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution... Therefore. . 3. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. r Observe the locations of deflection.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. Then select DOF solution. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.

) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.. von Mises in the window. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. . Then select Stress. obtain these results as a list. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. r 5.r Alternatively...

r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Select Stress. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Bracket Example .' and select the file. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A ..HTML version.. Open the .

This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Form Geometry Again. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Create the main rectangular shape . A figure of the plate is shown below. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. a. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket.

X coord for the center.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. RAD1 CYL4. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. the command line for this circle is CYL4. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.80. X coord (bottom left).50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. radius s Therefore. XCORNER. YCORNER. Y coord (bottom left). WIDTH. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0.50.80. XCENTER. width.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. Y coord for the center.0. YCENTER.100 b. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4.50 c. height s s Therefore.0. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. HEIGHT BLC4.

from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window. e. the command line code for the above step is AADD.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.ALL) s . Boolean Operations .. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively.. s To perform the Boolean operation.

You should now have the following model: f. Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s .

3.1.s Next select the three circles that we just created. (Alternatively.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3) r . the command line code for the above step is ASBA. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options. the command line code for the above step is ET.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.6..' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.1.

3) 6. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.1.200000 followed by MP.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.EX. (Alternatively.) r 7.1. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.1. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.20) r 5. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. Again. (Alternatively.PRXY. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.ALL.5. the command line code for the above step is R. 4.ALL) .0.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. we will need to make sure the model has converged.

1. (Alternatively.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE..0) 2. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Apply Constraints .

select 'circle' as shown in the window below. you have the option of creating a box. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. Rotate. r 3.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. polygon. Zoom. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. Apply Loads . For this case.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. Repeat for the second bolt hole.As illustrated. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan.ROT on Nodes' window..

. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. there is a single vertical load of 1000N.As shown in the diagram. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. 4. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results.

Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.USUM in the window. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. . Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . 3. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. 2.1. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0.

.. .. r 4. Then select von Mises Stress in the window. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively.. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.

Quitting ANSYS .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .' and select the file.. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Select Stress.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .

To quit ANSYS. In the window that appears.. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'. .. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. extrusion/ sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Filleting. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. ANSYS Inc. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.

Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . XCORNER. YCORNER. WIDTH. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

5 5 You should obtain the following: 2. 3.XCENTER. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.RAD .YCENTER.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.

It asks for the x.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.y and z offset of the copied area.5 Circle 2 8.5 0. r .2 4. The following window will appear. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.SUBTRACT 5.6 and then click OK. Enter the y offset as 4.5 0.BASE.2 0. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.

5 You should obtain the following 6. Add the smaller circles to the large area. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.ALL 7. .r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

Enter 0.r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .

Create the fillet areas r As shown below.8. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. .

Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. Plot Areas 3.Z) 2.X.#. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .Y. Then select the following two keypoints r r .0.0) and (0.5. (K. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.10. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints. 1. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.

. Click on OK.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

There are several ways to define a working plane. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . Create Bolt Holes 1. we need to use a different working plane. Change the Working Plane By default.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. for us to define the bolt holes. However.

Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . 2. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001.

The following window will appear. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.5 y=0 r=0. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. fill in the blanks as shown.note the origin of the working plane. .0. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. By default those values would be 0. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. 3. 4.0.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS...HTML version.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Open the . A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: . Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2.Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the Base 1.

5 into the command line) when prompted.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.7.6.20 followed by LARC.5.8.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.4. type LARC. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.5.1.

6.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.5.DY.DZ) r .Area#.DX. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.# Copies (include original).1.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied). YCENTER=20.4.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.

ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.3.r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .

the first keypoint defines the origin. Again. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.100.102 into the command line) .1. (Alternatively.101.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). type VOFFST. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. Note. Change the working plane As in the previous example. Therefore.6. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. type KWPLAN. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. (Alternatively. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. we need to change the working plane.

Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0.1. . YCORNER=0. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.27.26 4. WIDTH=102.2. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. YCENTER=180.

Area 3 5. Area 1. YCENTER=180. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51.32. . . RADIUS=32. Area 2.180.5. . DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . YCENTER=180.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. RADIUS=18.51.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD.

204 . type KWPLAN. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. (Alternatively.1. the first keypoint defines the origin. type WPCSYS.57735*26) 129-(0.200.201. 203.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.1. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.4 3.202 into the command line) 2.-1.

. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'..200.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A.203.204 4. In the dialog box that appears.'. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5. . Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.

.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. /title.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.

z) 1 2 (0.0) (1000.y..x. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.ANSYS Inc. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.67 iii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.0) 4. and rotation about the Z axis). For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . 6.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.#.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. > Add. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 7.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x... Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm..y.. enter the following geometric properties: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. 3. K.1.

81m/s2 in the y direction...0 2. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The following window will appear.. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. 10. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.86e-6 9.ii. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Density DENS: 7. enter the following density for steel: i.3 8. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. r .

There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.9..ALL. ACEL. . Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case).Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).1.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.0. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. DK.

777mm 2.2 . Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape ..4.

.PDF version is also available for printing.As observed in the upper left hand corner. A .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.777mm. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. This is in agreement with the theortical value. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

0.Modal Dynamic . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.Harmonic Dynamic .

..0) (1000.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. and rotation about the Z axis). 6. Distributed Loading 3. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis..K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.K#. enter the following geometric properties: i.x.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.0) 4.ANSYS Inc. 5. /title. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.y) 1 2 (0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.#. > Add.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.3 8. 9.ii.. 7. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833..333 iii. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm.

3. As shown in the following figure. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. . over the entire length of the beam.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. In the window that appears.. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. ..Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2 2. 4.

(ie. For this problem. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. . click 'Apply' 5.. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. 9. 3 for the 'J' nodes.. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.' 3.. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. Click 'OK'. Click 'Add. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. For this example. 8. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. In the second window of the same section. In the window that appears a. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. ' d. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. select 'NMISC.. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. r As shown in the plot below. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. 7. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. 6. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res.1. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa.

Open the .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .' and select the file. .

The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. contact elements).Harmonic Dynamic . This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. After each increment.Modal Dynamic . To solve this problem. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . the load will added incrementally. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.

Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.y) 1 2 (0. enter the following geometric properties: i.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. and rotation about the Z axis). 6.125 inches..03125 ii. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4...25 x 0. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.ANSYS Inc. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 1.. > Add..069e-5 iii.0) 3. With only 3 degrees of freedom...0) (5. 4. 5. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. 2. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.

. 8. 7.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.1 " (50 element divisions along the line).i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. If we were considering a block of wood.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. not non-linear material properties. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. for example. The following image will appear: ...0 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.

If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. C. however. this takes time. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in .

the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. D. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. F. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. By default. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. stress stiffening is automatically included. the previously computed matrix. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. By default. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . However. the load is ramped. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. type help followed by the command into the command line. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the modified Newton-Raphson. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. For more information about these commands.Now. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. This command controls the solution data written to the database. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. For some special nonlinear cases. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. E. By default. By default.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

..0.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Y.U.1 . > DOF solution. UY PLNSOL.1 2. > Def + undeformed PLDISP... View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1.> DOF solution. However. Modeling the system non-linearly.3. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. However. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. this is not realistic for large deflections. As you recall. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.. the load was applied in steps. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. Define Variables .. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load.

. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction..r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r . r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables..

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.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. A .

Harmonic Dynamic . . This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. For more information regarding setting the time value. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. see Chapter 8. In this example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . and many other solution control option. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing.Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1.

Once this occurs. Some analyses use normalized values. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. 2. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. If the problem is relatively linear. as expected. For each substep. In simpler terms. This is what will be explained next.5% for loads. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. we will look at the force curves. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. In the case of a structural example. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. In the case of a structural analysis. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. For instance. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used.5 in the help file. For ease of explanation. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. there are two curves plotted. you can see Chapter 8. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. For each parameter. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep.ANSYS Inc. this graph relates to forces and moments. which this graph is taken from. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. As can be seen in the graph above. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. However. which ever is greater. or is not converging. etc) that iterates to find a solution. if the solution is highly non-linear. Again.001). s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. Generally. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. many iterations will be required. which is discussed in the help file. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. the curves may be for temperature. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. Thus. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. such as this. for more information about changing iteration settings. . The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads.

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This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. in real-life.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable.Harmonic Dynamic . ie. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. load perterbations. 2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. large-deflection. For this type of analysis. However. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. This method is not recommended for accurate. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).Modal Dynamic . real-world buckling prediction analysis. material nonlinearities and gaps. static analysis to predict buckling loads. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.

. will be calculated. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. The required load to cause buckling. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. applied at the top-center of the beam.ANSYS Inc. /title. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. rigidly constrained at the bottom. Define Keypoints . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

3 .1.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L...333 iii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.#.X. > Add. 6. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833.100) 4.. K.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. enter the following geometric properties: i.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 7.0) (0.y) 1 2 (0.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. and rotation about the Z axis)...

The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. prestress effects must be activated.. r r .0 2. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. If you are looking at the abridged menu. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. select the unabridged version. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.8. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. 9..

Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. 4. . Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2).3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained).

Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.1 8. However. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. 5. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. 7.

11. r ... Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. however.r Complete the window which appears. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. as shown below. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. 9. This time... You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). is for an expansion pass. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. and ensure that it is on. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used.

r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. which is in Newtons for this example. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r .123). If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.LIST 2. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. /POST1 SET. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

X.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /TITLE. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.#.. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Y .

Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Define Mesh Size . 6. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.. > Add. and rotation about the Z axis). Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.y) 1 2 (0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties: i.333 iii.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.3 8.0) (0.1.2 5. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.100) 4.. 7.. L. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.

. The following image will appear: . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). ESIZE.1 9...

Enter 20 as the number of substeps. C. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . Ensure Line Search is 'On'. this takes time. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. B. F. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. E. D. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. however.

This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). For more information about these commands. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. 4.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). The model should now look like the window shown below. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. .

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .

> Def + undeformed PLDISP..r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 ..

UY PLNSOL.Y..1 .r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..U.0. > DOF solution.

stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. . 1. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. However.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. The following window should open automatically. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. .If it does not open automatically.

r To add another variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . On the Time History Variable window. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force.

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. .2. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.

' and select the file.000 N. A .PDF version is also available for printing.123 N. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. .. Open the . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.

The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. ANSYS Inc. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . In such a case. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . For instance. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.

X. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.100) 3..2 4..1. > Add.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.0) (0. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. L.#. 5.y) 1 2 (0.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. enter the following geometric properties: i.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. NonLinear Materials 2. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . 6. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears... In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. /title.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

i.003 0. click Add Point to add another. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.005 0.001 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. When all the points have been inputed. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. When the data for the first point is input. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . click Graph to see the curve.004 0. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.002 0. Then click OK. It should look like the one shown above. the stress-strain data must be included. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.

Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.100 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.150 0.060 0..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.250 0.. The following image will appear: .0 2.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.200 0. 8. /REPLOT 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines..

Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. you can plot certain parameters over time. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. data for every load step is written to the database. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. however. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. this takes time. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. E. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. D. . Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Therefore.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. F. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. C.

3. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .B. 5. type help followed by the command into the command line. 4. For more information about these commands.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10.

This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

.0.Y. > DOF solution.2..U. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. UY PLNSOL.1 .

The following window should open automatically. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. 1. . However.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. . select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically.

The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. so you must change them manually. . This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. On the Time History Variable window. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. click the add button again. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.r To add another variable.

HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. However. When you verify this example analytically.. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. you will see the solutions are very similar. ..This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. Open the . and subsequently the stress. A . was low (in the linear range). as the force increased. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.

please use the links below.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.2 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. The following window will appear .ANSYS Inc.. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.

This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.r As shown. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. . It is therefore more exact but.

r For this problem. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. . 4.. we will use the default options so click on OK.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 3. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary.

r To view the next mode shape.311 51.22 ANSYS 8.01 145.0 0.300 52. instead of 10 elements. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. Select 'Def + undef edge'.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. 2. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.51 472.69 472.64 285.2 0.0 0. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .e. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .68 285.1 0.54 Percent Error 0.94 145.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

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Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1... (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . By default. and the following window should pop up. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. which is node #2. In our case it is assigned Frequency. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. .4. Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

3 and 51 Hz. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear . view the log scale of UY.94Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.311 and 51. To get a better view of the response.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

A .This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.0.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. . r For ANSYS version lower than 7. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. See the help file for instructions.' and select the file.100 Hz..

.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . a static analysis may be used instead.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case. for example.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture.ANSYS Inc. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . The smaller the time step. However. After the application of the load. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). if stresses and forces are of interest than. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Select 'Reduced' as shown. In ANSYS. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. the calculations are much quicker. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. r . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Therefore. It is the quickest of the three methods. All types of non-linearities are allowed. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. In other words. please use the links below. However. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.

see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. 3. choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs.2. The following window will open. . Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0).

001 seconds to be used for this load step.Initial Conditions i. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. Therefore. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. initial displacement and initial velocity. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). Note that for the reduced method. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. Load Step 1 .. for this example we can skip this step. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. both default to zero. two sets of initial conditions are required. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.001. This will specify a time step size of 0. s set [DELTIM] to 0. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order.4. However.Time Step . a. ii. . Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .

Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .iii.

. Specify Time and Time Step Options . Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N.s01 b. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Load Step 2 i. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.001 for the end of the load step iii. Load Step 3 i. ii.Time Step . and set a time of 0. ii.

s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. By default. In our case it is assigned Frequency. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). select Utility Menu > List > nodes). Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii.. which is node #2.Time Step . . r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. 1.

.r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . and the following window should pop up.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2.

. Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.3.

We did not specify damping for our system. . We also see another response at a higher frequency. s s Expand the Solution For most problems.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. we would have to expand the reduced solution. if stresses and forces are of interest. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. However. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. Note that the response does not decay as it should not.

Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. 1. For this case.11 seconds r r r 2. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam ... Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses.08 and 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.08 and 0.11 seconds.

0.7.DAMP BFUNIF.UX . 0. 5.R5. .00000000 . 0. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy. 0. q .00000000 . q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0.00000000 BETAD. 0. /COM. 0.DEFA ACEL. 0. 0.00000000 .00000000 D.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 0. 1. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.00000000 OMEGA. /GOPR 1. 0. 0. 0.R5. 0.00000000 . but now we will consider damping. D._TINY DELTIM.000000000E-03. 0. 0.00000000 TINTP.00000000 .00000000 DCGOMG. 0.REDU. 1. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.00000000 .01 in all three load step files. We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 . 1.0.00000000 0..TEMP.UY . 0.00000000 . 0.00000000 ERESX. 0. 0. The file should look like the following.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic.s01.00000000 ALPHAD. -1.ANSYS RELEASE 5. 1.00000000 . We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.00000000 . 0.ROTZ. 0.00000000 0. D. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.00000000 .00000000 DMPRAT. 4 TRNOPT. 0.00000000 CGLOC..0.00000000 . TINTP.00000000 .1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0.00000000 . 0. 0.000000000E-03 TIME.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 0. . 0.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.00000000 .00000000 ..00000000 NCNV. 0.. 0. 0 DOMEGA.500000000 . Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.00000000 .00000000 TREF. -1.

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. After selecting MDOFs. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' . simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. After the results have been calculated. Open the ..HTML version.

A .PDF version is also available for printing. .and select the file.

0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

> click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ALL. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.0.0.05 AESIZE.10 6. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0 2. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.KXX. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.ANSYS Inc.05 7.1.PLANE55 For this example. Y=0.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..1 4.. Give example a Title 2. Quad 4node 55). we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. 1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Height=1 BLC4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. 5.0.1. Width=1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Apply Constraints .

Convection. Heat Generation. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.options cannot be selected.For thermal problems. In this example. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Heat Flow. r r The following window will appear: . Heat Flux. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. or Radiation. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > DOF solution. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. r 3. Temperature TEMP .

A .PDF version is also available for printing. . however. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. Open the .HTML version. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. followed by the side and bottom constraints.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.Modal Dynamic .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 to solve simple thermal examples.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Width=1.. 6. Quad 4Node 55 ET.05 AESIZE. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Height=1 BLC4. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.ANSYS Inc. Y=0.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0.05 7.. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Give example a Title 2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.ALL. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4node 55).1 4. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0 2.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. 5.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0.1.KXX.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. 1. Apply Conduction Constraints .

Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. The following window will appear: r .In this example. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.

This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. 4. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank.r Fill in the window as shown. r . This is because we have uniform convection across the line.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1... Temperature TEMP . This will eliminate convection through the side. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. > DOF solution. thereby modeling an insulated wall.

..PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .040 kJ/kg*K. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Also. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.

5.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.C.1.05 7.PLANE55 For this example. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.ALL...DENS.1.2.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Width=1.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Height=1 BLC4.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /Title.0.04 MP.1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..ANSYS Inc. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Quad 4node 55).0.0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.KXX.920 6..05 AESIZE.1.1 4. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL At this point. Y=0.

We will use the defaults. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. .4 The window shown below will pop up.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. so click OK.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. .2.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . Min no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. Max no.

E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. For a complete description of what these options do.D) Set Line search to ON . In this example. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Heat Flow. refer to the help file. Convection. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. Heat Flux. or Radiation. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. 3. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. r r . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Heat Generation.options cannot be selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Basically. By writing the data at every step.

The following window will appear: .

Temperature TEMP . > DOF solution.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. r 4.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

.Animate Results Over Time r First. user specified. specify the contour range. with 8 contours. . from 100 to 500. Fill in the window as shown. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours..

Auto contour scaling OFF.300 Time Range.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 .r Then animate the data.

. the curves are practically identical. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. As can be seen. Also.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected.

Analytical Solution .

The following window should open automatically.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Creating the Temperature vs. .

.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. node 261. Pick the center node on the mesh. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

From experience. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. This is because the solution has not completely converged. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. . r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. will cause the solution to converge. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. so you must change them manually. Instead.2. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. To cause the solution to converge. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300.

Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. Open the .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.Modal Dynamic . As a warning. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. In this case. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .

X1.X2.Y1.. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /title.ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.Y2 .. Axisymmetric Tube 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. we must define a U-shape. 6. 5. Triangle 6node) element.For an axisymmetric problem. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. axisymmetry is not supported. . however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. click the Options.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). to create the geometry mentioned above. button.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD... For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. Many elements support axisymmetry. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. Solid. Therefore. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 9.3 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: .7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

as shown below.C. By using the symmetry B.0 2.C. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. command. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. at x=0.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

then click OK. .r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below.

The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. Therefore. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. 4. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. . It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Once you've clicked Sele All. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. This is required to constrain the model in space. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. 3. click on Cancel to close the window.

r 5. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .

55 in the Min.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0.Max box.. . 2. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. as shown below and click OK.182 MPa. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.

The following window will appear. such as corners.. to approximate the analytical solution. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. the stress in the tube is 0. matching the analytical solution. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. (0. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.17866)/2.18552 + 0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.. Thus. . we must average the stress over the thickness. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. The average is used because in the analytical case. 3.182 MPa.

as expected due to the change in geometry. the model is a flat.. Open the . rectangular plate. . If this is done. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.HTML version.. with a rectangular hole in the middle. The rest of the commands remain the same.PDF version is also available for printing. Thus.4. Now go to 'File > Read input from. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.7. a wall thickness of 10.

and rotation about the X. . It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. /title. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) .. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Y and Z axis). Define Element Types For this problem. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Y and Z axis. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16.Catapult 3.

s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. s Select 'Combination'. UY). 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. 4. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. Click 'OK'. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 .. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. b.. a. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements..a. UZ. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. c. ROTY). K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. there should now be three types of elements defined. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. s Select 'Combination'. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'.. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. For this example. ROTX. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. UY.

1000) (1000. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.33 6.0. N.0) (0. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.0. c.x.1000) (1000. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.z) (0.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis.#..0.0. Click 'OK'.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. there should now be three types of elements defined. In the window that appears. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.y. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window.0) . Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.. 5. Define Element Material Properties 1.y. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.

1000.700.. The following window will appear. Then click 'OK'.0.0) (700. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.1500) (0.500) (0.0.1000) (0.-500) 7. .0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.1000..400.500) (0.0.0) (0. Create PIPE16 elements a.0. 'Material number' is set to 1.1000) (0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.500) (400.

Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .1. the first entry would be: E. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.6).b. node a.

Then click 'OK' b. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. three nodes are required. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Create elements When defining a joint.

Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. we do not need to mesh our model. node b. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. Then click 'OK' b.node a. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. you can list all the elements defined in the model. To do this.E. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . 11. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table.node a. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. 10. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.

we need to include the effects of large deformation. 3... Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes .0 2.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

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Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. Fill this table as done previously.. 8. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file... However.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.1). Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. . This will give you the max stress at the j node. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. fill it in as shown previously .. however. r r 7.. However.3 (instead of NMISC. > Add.. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.. this is not always the case. 1.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. we can now solve the optimization problem. Comp selection box r r r 6.

. .1.. . .1 /title.. .BEAM3 !* !* R.3 !* LESIZE..1. LMESH.P51X.2.. ..2. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.(W*H**3)/12.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.0.1 !* /GO DK.1 FITEM.. .ans. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM. .start70.0 MPDATA.1....2..ORDE.75.100.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.1.. !* ET.0. Design Optimization *SET.txt’ Click ‘OK’.1 FITEM.2 .1.1..H .2..LINE.ORDE.ALL. !* !* MPTEMP.ANSYS RELEASE 7. FLST. K.1.1..UY.3. ... 20 /PREP7 K.W ..... .1000.EX.H.RATI.0. .1.2. . 2 !* HPTCREATE.0. . L.0. .. 20 *SET. MPTEMP.3.0 FLST.1...PRXY.UX...200000 MPDATA.W*H.0.1. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad. .. 1..

.NMISC.0. .!* /GO DK.Volume.MAX *SET.SMax_I. . using command line code.ETAB. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.SMaxJ.1.P51X.P51X.SMaxI.0. most of these changes will already be made.EVOLUME AVPRIN.0. If you created the geometry etc.NMISC.VOLU.0..3.1. Therefore.UX.SORT.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.0. .ITEM..0.SMAX. !* *GET. . . .UY.optimization. . !* *GET. !* SSUM !* *GET.0.SMAX_I.MAX AVPRIN.0.DK.0.3 !* /GO FK. . 3 !* ESORT.ORDE.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.FY.SSUM. 1 !* ESORT. . . ETABLE.UY. However.ETAB.EVolume.. .SMax_J.SMAX_J.0. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. ETABLE.UY. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. Change this to: DK.2. . .-2000 ! /STATUS. .1. . .UX.SORT.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.C:\Temp\.1.2. . FLST. ETABLE. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. .P51X. .1 FITEM.0.0.0.

UY. To define variables. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. r Click ‘OK’. Without this SV.0.-2000 Change to: FK. . For the width and height. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. . Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.FY.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs.P51X. In this example. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect .DK. .FK. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . If you are comfortable with command line coding. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. NOTE: As previously stated. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. .0.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . . .0. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. In our problem.2. Change to: DK. Now that we have decided our design variables. In this example. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. the width and height of the beam are the DVs.FY. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. . we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.P51X. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. These variables are necessary to constrain the design.0. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem.3. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. . 2.UY. .

Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. we do not need to define an allowable range. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). > Add... we will select a tolerance of 0.01MPa. > Add. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3... a...01mm.. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.on the volume of the beam.. . For the stress variable. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.

. Under Convergence Tolerance..2 Click ‘OK’. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Percent forward diff.. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. confirm that the analysis file. DELTA = 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. Click ‘OK’. Defaults to 0. 6. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.. Defaults to 10... method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong.2% 7. enter 200.001) c. it is advisable to use different solution methods. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. .

Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .. C. B.24 mm. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. You will probably see that the width=13. View the Results 1. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2..The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. height=29. and the stress is equal to 199. 2.. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.16 mm..

In the window. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. .. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy...

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing... bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. A . Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. In addition. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. Alternatively. all of the results data (ie stress.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file.. .HTML version. displacement.

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however.5 MPa.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. v = 0. Apply loads to the super-element .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For this example. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. substructuring will be used for the wood block. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 3.WIDTH. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Apply remaining loads to the model. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass... Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.2. .XCORNER.YCORNER. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2... Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

This element has 4 nodes. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.SUBST 2. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.29 6.. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. r .For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. 7. 5. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

the stiffness matrix is to be generated.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. r . r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. With the option SEPR. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. In this case. 3.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. 5.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

WIDTH. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.YCORNER. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.. FILNAME.. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.XCORNER. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4.. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 .

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.1 10. Young's modulus EX: 2.. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. 9. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Therefore. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.... 7.5 (MPa) ii. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.).. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . Select Model Data. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. .6. The following window will appear. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.. For Selected set as shown.41 8.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

. Y coordinates. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities ... Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.. . 40 as shown.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . The following window will appear. Select Nodes.SUB File. By Location.

Apply super-element load vectors .. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. In the window that appears.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .

SUM. > DOF solution.0..1 .r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5... r 4. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..U. Translation USUM PLNSOL.

.Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

.. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . FILNAME. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname .Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass.

. r 3.. The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. r . RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass.3.db . Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line. r 2.. Type 'EXPASS.. The following window will appear. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem ...

SUM. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .0.U. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution. Translation USUM PLNSOL...1 .4.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Open the . A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

"A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steel link. However.. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). Loads will not be applied to the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. For convenience.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. . with no internal stresses.the solutions and . stress is created in the link. the link will attemp to expand. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. a thermal conductivity of 60. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

where the thermal effects will be applied. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.y. K." Thus. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. For instance.. the geometry is kept constant.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Thermal Environment . The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .x. and using it with any following coupled environments.2 . thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. However. For our case. and write them to memory.0) (1..1. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. Thermal Stress Example 2.y. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. the element types can change. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. It is important to note. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. the analyses are coupled. Although the geometry must remain constant. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file..Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. For a listing.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.#.z) 1 2 (0.0) 4. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.

Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.. enter the following geometric properties: i. 6. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. KXX: 60. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. 9.1 meters. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes.. representing a link 1 meter long. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. 7.. . Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.5 8... Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. 5. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10..

This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. 2. such as the element type. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. 1. see the help file. In this case it is LINK 8. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. material properties. so it can be used in the next stage. It does not clear the geometry however. In this case. Structural Environment . A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. For more information on this element.3 . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.11. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. etc. which is defining the structural environment. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

0 2. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. . Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ALPX: 12e-6 3.

4. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.rth. 7.rth. were . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. 6. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5.rth is the thermal results file. . this data can be found as file. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis.rth. enter the file name File. to 348 Kelvin. We will use these results in determing the structural effects.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. as expected. This should make it visible. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. the left-most point. 8. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. The thermal solution has now been obtained. you will get error messages. 3. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. If this is not done.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 10. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.9.

2. List the Stress Data . Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line.LS. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. Instead. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. an element table must be created first.1 ETABLE. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.1 3.As shown. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.CompStress.

Note the stress in each element: -0.CompStr The following list should appear. or 180 MPa in compression as expected. .General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB.180e9 Pa. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

HTML version.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. Open the ... . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. computational time can be kept to a minimum. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. rather than increasing mesh density.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Thus. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . as shown below . /title. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. P-Method Meshing 2.ON Select p-Method Struct.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1...

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.3.52) (80.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x...100) (20. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.100) .0) (0.52) (55.100) (45. K.y.y.#.x.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.

2.7.48) (20.100) (100.1.9.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.3.11.8.. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.6. 6..10.0) 5.0) (80. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.48) (45.4.5. .12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.0) (55.

to open the keyoptions window. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). For now we will leave them as default.. 8. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Plane146.. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. After clicking OK to select the element. shown below. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. enter the following geometric properties: i. 7. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. For more information on these elements. Solid147. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library.. go to the Element Library in the help file. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add. and Plane145.. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. click Options. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. .ii. 10.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 9.0 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.

. Min no. of substeps to 20. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. of substeps to 100. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. Max no.

Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.5. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up.

.The following stress distribution should appear.

3. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear. .

. As a comparison. these orders may go as high as 8. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. For more complex geometries. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress.

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This is the benefit of using p-elements. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . .. thus computational time will be low. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. However.As one can see from the two plots. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.HTML version.. and still get reasonable results. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered.

but will not be discussed here. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. Element birth is also possible. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The elements are still technically there. For further information. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required.

. enter the following properties: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. /title.03. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..03 BLC4.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.03 4. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0. enter the following properties: ..0. enter the following properties: i.0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears.0.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. For this example. Quad 4node 55). Element Death 2. 5. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.03 Height = 0.0.

We will use the defaults. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. ANTYPE.i. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software.0005m. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Therefore. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. so click OK.. Density DENS: 920 6..4 2. you . 7.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.must type NROPT. 3. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.FULL into the commmand line. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.

Basically. For a complete description of what these options do.D) Set Line search to ON . By writing the data at every step. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . refer to the help file. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. 4.

Heat Flux. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.5. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. or Radiation. Heat Generation. . all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. In this example. Heat Flow. Convection.

The model should now look as follows: .

r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. elements to create the desired effect. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting.LAST 2. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. or turn off. the user can manually kill. Assume the material melts at 273 K. Here. ... We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. For instance.

with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire. 3. .' Fill the window in as shown below.r Click on 'Add. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K... Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK.

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. . 2. Click OK to restart the analysis. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All.all into the command line. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. and close the warning message. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. which this analysis doesn't call for.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. thus it is just warning the user. This is much too time consuming in this case. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. this will kill only those elements.

With the window still open. . select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.

2. View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. That way..PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. to more accurately model element death over time.This procedure can be programmed in a loop.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. more accurately modelling the heating process. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. using command line code. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end.' and select the file. Open the . A . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The beams.. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. /title. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. Contact Elements 2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. causing it to bend and contact the lower. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. as shown below. are 100mm long.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

Height) 1 2 (0. click Options. 10) (50. Width. 100. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid...Width. 15.. WP Y... > Add. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 100. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).WP X. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.. 10) 4. Quad 4node 42) element./PREP7 3.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. r While the Element Types window is still open.WP Y. 0... This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. 5. .

incremements slowly when contact is immenent. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail.. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact.. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. This way. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. pt-to-surf 48) element. click Options. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window...3 7. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 6.. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. r While the Element Types window is still open.. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. This is an important step. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. 8.

require a target element. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). If there is too much penetration.. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target.. rather than node to element edge. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. be sure to understand how the elements work. you should increase KN. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. such as CONTA175.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. you should decrease KN. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. > Add. ANSYS recommends a value between 0.. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. to function. Since this "spring" is so stiff. ii. Thus. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). 10.. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. enter the following properties: i. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. resulting in convergence difficulties. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact.It is important to note. given in %. . A small value of TOLS. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. In this situation. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. When using contact elements in your own analyses. Other contact elements. This will be covered below. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. such as TARGE169. As the surfaces approach each other.

A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. However. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes.. tolerances. In this simple case. First. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. Select the top beam and click OK... contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. In this case. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. when the geometry is complex.. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. etc. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. 11. the source nodes will be selected. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. .

Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus... Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50. . s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. This will select the nodes above the lower beam.100.

. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. .. you should only have the following nodes remaining.s Now if you list the selected nodes.

and click OK. . it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. Source. This can be very useful in other applications as well.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. If you have a lot of contact elements. Now we can use this component. In this case.

select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. clicking the Also Select radio button.. and click the Sele All button. This is done by opening the entity select menu. This is done by opening the entity select menu. 12. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100.. and click the Sele All button. clicking the Also Select radio button. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities. These values will be the ones you'll use. enter the name Target. When creating the component this time. Using the same procedure as above.... IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing..Now select the target nodes. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.

.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged.

you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . Unfortunately. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. your model should look like the following.At this point. If you wish.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..0 2. The following image will appear: . shown below. The preprocessor stage is now complete. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers).. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. If you zoom in on the contact areas.

Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Enter 100 as the number of substeps.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. B. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. this takes time. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. D. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. C. however. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. E. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance.

Once everything is working. Also. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. If you have too few substeps. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. For more information about these commands. leave these relatively high at first. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. 3. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. Again.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Note. 5. this is a point load on a 2D surface. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 .Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. However. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.2.0 (true scale) radio button. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. then click ok. 3. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . If you leave the scaling as default.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. producing a stress distribution in both. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. Open the ... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.' and select the file. .PDF version is also available for printing.As seen in the figure.

To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.How long is the truss. using a length of 200 m.LENGTH. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.How tall is the truss. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.HEIGHT. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.20 *ask. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask. Variables including length.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. finish /clear ANSYS Inc.DIVISION. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.100 *ask.2 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.How many cross supports even number. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

100 mp.X_COORD.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.j.(DIVISION-1).KEYP.OSCILATE.i.1.0.0.THEN k.KEYP.NUM_K.1.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.200000 mp.1 .GT.3 esize.prxy.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.ex.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.0 *else k.i.X_COORD.(KEYP+1) *if.1.KEYP.i.link1 r.LE.THEN L.1..DIVISION.1.1.

and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.all finish 1.10_K. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. in the code above there is a statement: *if. In this case. *ask. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. then..10). For example.GT.8. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true.i. For example. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false.OSCILATE..2.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. Command File Mode of Solution . FVAL.". *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. Thus in later parts of the code. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. INC. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. IVAL. OSCILATE. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable.. For more information on this command. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. the most intutitive method is to use "=".9. Par.LENGTH. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. This translates to "if the variable. As seen above.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. This argument can be a single value. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. The syntax for the expression is *DO. *do. 2. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'.1. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. see the help file.THEN.3. 4.How long is the truss. determining if a certain case has occured. or a mathematical expression.lmesh. (ie 1.. However. is greater than zero.0.

. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A ..' and select the file. Open the .

. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . /title.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Stress. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. etc.) of the following example.

. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Y and Z directions).Height.3. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 7. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Width.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static .0.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. 5. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.3 6.0.

3. 4. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE).0 2.ANTYPE. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. options 1. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). For this example we are trying to display a section. therefore. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). 5.

let's view deflection of the entire model.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. offset the working plane to the desired position. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. To illustrate how to take a cross section.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane.

you should now have the following: .As desired.

let's view stresses within the entire model.1 /TYPE. simply use: WPCSYS.-1.8 PLNSOL. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.90 /CPLANE. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.U. however.0. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).0. Equivalent Stress Again.0 WPROTA.Width/2..0 2.0. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises .SUM. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.This can be repeated for any slice..1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.1.0.

Because it is much easier. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.0.S.1 /TYPE. You should now see the following: .1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.0.1.EQV.5 PLNSOL.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.

just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes.3. For more information on how to modify the animation.. Unfortunately. select the node in the back. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there).. Finally. In the graphics window. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). Animation Now. and the Y axis. but please bear with me. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. type help ancut into the command line. the origin. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. the sweep direction. Next. r r . the sweep direction is in the Z direction. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. for something a little more impressive.

A .' and select the file.. .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .

Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For example. . a plot of the stress along that path can be made. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial.

Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.WP Y.WP X. select the area to remain (ie. 4..0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5.. the circles) and click OK. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. The remaining area should look as shown below. r . select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. /title.0. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the rectangle) and click OK. Then.200. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.

.. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. click 'Options..' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. In the 'Element Types' window. 8. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears..6.... > Add. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter a thickness of 10. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 .

The model should now look like the figure below. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. 10.. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. . uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area..0 2. 3. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.9. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.

Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate.4. 1. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . However. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. you could create a normal contour plot. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this. .

Turn window 1 'off'. r r 2.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. To keep window 1 visible during replots. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. shown below. you must make a couple of changes. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. meaning this function off. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r .

you must choose what to map to the path. equivalent stress is desired. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. 3. what results should be available to the path. r . or in other words. For this example.

so disregard the warning. This is of little concern though.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. 4. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r .

there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Note. . these dots are not shown here.The display should look like the following. Due to resolution restrictions.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing..' and select the file.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. A . .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . finer resolution can be achieved.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Use of Tables for Data Plots . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. rather than using a contour plot. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. a special type of array. By plotting this data on a curve.. /title. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Length of the following beam using tables.

. Define Element Material Properties .... 6. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.0) 4.z) 1 2 (0.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. enter the following geometric properties: i.0) (400. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5..y.#..x. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. K.2.. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii. > Add. 7. and rotation about the Z axis). Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.1.y. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. The model should now look like the figure below. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.3 8. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. 9.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. 2.4.. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. This example is a simplified use of tables. but they can be used for much more. > OK. Create the Table . Tables. For this example there are 21 nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. 1. a special type of array. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model.. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. Therefore. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'.

The reason for this will be explained below.1]. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . In the window shown below. Note there are 22 rows. Enter Data into Table First..2. select Model Data > Nodes r . Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. one more than the number of nodes.. 3. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.

2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . r . Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X].. and continues down the column.. column 2. the vertical displacement will be recorded. and continues down the column.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. column 1. Next.

This causes problems during plotting.4. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. to provide room to move this data. as it is keypoint 1. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. Thus. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit .

r . Select File > Apply/Quit 5. UY = -0. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Fill it in as shown. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table.833) is in row two.

r r . To see the changes to the labels.. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below..r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .

' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. . A ...HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

0 dk.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.2.all. finish /clear /title.1.beam3 r.prxy. changing the background colour. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . For instance.2 et.100.ex. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.333.1.1.0 L.0.1.200000 mp.100. etc. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.0. numbering the nodes.all finish /solu antype.3 esize.10 mp.5 lmesh.0 K.833.

.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1.2..fk.fy. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. The following window will appear: .

This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. However. When you click OK. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. For instance. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. sometimes the numbers won't show up. You should get the following: . To remedy this problem.

the nodes have been numbered. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. These extra symbols may not be necessary.As shown. 2. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols .

In our case. . or Initial Conditions. so those sections won't be used.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. there are no Surface or Body Loads. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. Under the Boundary conditions section.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

. The following output should be the result. it is things associated with the window background. In this case. To turn off the triad.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. the legend or title can be turned off. etc. As shown in the window.

. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape..4..

don't be alarmed. The following should appear. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. such as BEAM3. thus elements are not going to show up. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. To aid in this process.When using line elements. If there is no change in output. . ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements.

.As shown. . the elements are no longer just a line. you can change the view orientation. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. To get a better 3-D view of the model.. but they have volume according to the real constants. 5.

By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate.This window allows the user to rotate the view. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. such as isometric or oblique. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. translate the view and zoom. . Using these options. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. You can also select predefined views. Basic rotating.

Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. . you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. they can be changed. Under non-uniform contours. Under uniform contours. If you don't like the colours of the contour.. plot the deformation contour for the beam. those can also be changed.6. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. Changing Contours First. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours..

and we'll set the background colour to white. but don't want a black background.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus.. 7. Here we are only using Window 1. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation.. .

select Save As. Notice how all the text disappeared. If there is information that needs to be added. such as contour values. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. To save the display. this can be done in other graphic editors. This is because the text colour is also white. ... Under the File heading.The resulting display is shown below.

as is the help file. . If you are looking for a specific option. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. these are just a few.

delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired.. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. select Read Input from. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch.g. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. 2. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. or if you'd like to save the whole file. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. When it is complete. Then before you are finished. e.cmd) is stored and select it. to a text file. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. You may need to select Plot -> . GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file.. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor.. see the next item in this list. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. frame. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame.

Command Line File Loading Alternatively. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. etc.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. mode). .. then from the ANSYS input window. stress.frame. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS..on. you may need to point it to the proper directory. Save those changes to disk. Select File -> Clear & Start New. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. If the file was in the directory. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show.) between frame and cmd. To rerun the command file. At this point you could type in /menu..cmd. type /input. X11c...frame.cmd and yes that is a comma (. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. you would use the following syntax /input. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.

x2..z2..theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .kp2.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline. kp18 a.kp3..rad1.kp1.y1.kp2.l2. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.kp1. l10 v. .kp1. .x1.kp1. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis..kp2 larc. .a2. a10 see online help see online help rectng. kp6 a.kp2.xcoord.z1. ...z1.kp2.rad2. applying loads and constraints.y2. . Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.x2.zcoord l..ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry..x1.kp#.a1.theta1.kp1..y1.y2 block..l1. kp8 va.rad1.z2 cylind.ycoord.rad2.theta2 sphere.theta1.

..number. current type is set by mat mat.number r..number..area1.number esize.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.all amesh.a2 aina. .all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.r1.r2.number mp.line1.label.a2. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.c0.. . current type is set by type type. a9 aglue.a2.inc or lmesh.. r6 may define as many as required.a2.line2.inc or amesh.a1..number.a1. . c4 may define as many as required...c1..a1.a1. . current type is set by real real.area2. a9 asba.type may define as many as required.size. .

FY.MY.vol1.FY.MX.ROTZ.e.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.UZ.ROTX.label.value labels: UX.ROTZ.kp#.area#.kp#.line#.inc or vmesh.node#.MZ f.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.value labels: UX.UZ.label. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .ROTY.value labels: FX.vol2.label.value labels: FX.ROTX.label.UY.FZ.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).MY.ALL dl.ROTY.ALL d.MX.UY.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.FZ.node#.

0.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs". if only is entered.ndivs.ndivs+1.1.else .GT.1.x.x2.0.x1. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.2.i.i.0 k.0. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.1 ! do i = 1.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.ndivs. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1.Enter number of divisions (default 5). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.then .

.! /pnum.kp.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .all.1 kplot klist..

Boolean operations. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. extrusion. ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Pure Conduction .Modal Dynamic Analysis . This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. ANSYS 7. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). Dynamic Analysis . Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.Transient Thermal Examples .

Analysis of heat conduction over time. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Modelling Using Axisymmetry .Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples .Thermal Examples .

The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Using element death to model a volume melting. Additionally. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . a special type of array.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 k.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.-1 k.0.0.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .6.0.0.8. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.7.7 emis2=0.0.1.5. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.699*10**(-8) k. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.1 k.0254 rout=8*0.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.0 k.

emis2 VTYPE.6.7.7.TEMP ET.all csys.MATRIX50.LINK32.KXX..1 csys..2.loc.8.offset ! inner cylinder.1 MAT..x.s.VM125 TOFFST.1 MAT.rout LMESH.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .arc.1 TYPE... generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.2..s.emis1 EMIS..1.2.rin.all lsel.1 MP.arc. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.KXX.2 lsel.1.circle.1 lsel.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.ndiv ET.rin LMESH.1. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.1.1 R.1 ESIZE.2 SE.ndiv CIRCLE.1.ALL lsel.loc..x.all MP..rout.0 GEOM.1 STEF.stefbolt WRITE..1.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.5..

T2 nsel.TEMP.CHAR.loc.all nsel.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM..1 nsel.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.Q.s.LABEL.all nsel.VALUE.HEAT *DIM.0.2 *DIM.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.all *GET. K /POST1 csys.loc.ALL.loc.x.x.x.all csys.s.ITEM.FSUM.3 LABEL(1.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.TEMP.s.x.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.s.ALL.rout D.csys.loc.1.1 nsel.rin D.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .1. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.T1 nsel.

' '.2).3) (1X.' '.1.2).VALUE(1.3).exact *VFILL. /COM. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.*VFILL.F10.VALUE(1.1F5.VALUE(1.A8.------------------------------------------------------/COM. *VWRITE.1).VALUE(1.1.DATA.--------------.' '.1).DATA.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.F10. FINISH .1).Q *VFILL.3) /COM.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.LABEL(1.DATA.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.

dat at the UNIX prompt. press this key. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them.dat. To use pico to edit the file test. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. nedit . but have a steep learning curve. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The first three mentioned below are text based. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. for example. but the backspace key does work normally. one simply types pico test. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. In pico. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. so they are always available. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico.

It features pull-down menus. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. multiple file editing. undo. saved. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. Applications .. Therefore..exe (look under the r: drive). and block delimiting with the mouse. From a UNIX command window. Very nice. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. when saving files in PFE.3 file format used by DOS. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor.nedit is a very simple to use. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. and look at the option in the dialog box. type wabi or win. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. and then renamed back to its original name. yet powerful X Windows editor. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. It could then be edited. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. For this reason.

Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. To start ANSYS. Press Enter to continue. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. To start the X-Windows portion of the program.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands.. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. Once this is done. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. 2. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. you may enter ANSYS commands. select your desired font size. over a modem. two methods are avialable: 1. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. From this menu. it is necessary to select the Interactive .x11c /menu. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. Press Enter to continue. If you've got some time. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. heat transfer and fluid problems. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. check . Then choose GUI configuration. From the next dialog box that appears.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. item.

To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. If you've got some time. see Dr. Toogood. For more information about this program. including static analysis. Fyfe. like that shown above. sensitivity studies. see Dr. A companion program. performs finite element analysis. and design optimization. For further information on using ANSYS. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. Pro/Mechanica. see Dr. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. check out the Fluent Web page. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. click on the car figure. Yokota.out the ANSYS Web page. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. For further information on this program. .

f >& errorfile will compile main. To change the executable's output name to test.f. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. redirecting it). Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. for example.f sub1. For learning about the compiler's many options.for or TEST. and output is the name of the file to which the output .f and not test.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. you now type./test. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. .f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. For example: xlf main.F.f sub1. e. isn't it?). Note that the .out./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.f and sub1.e. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f sub2. i.f sub3. your file must be named something like test./a. see Configuration Files). such as error messages. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. xlf by itself.f To run this program.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.cshrc file. type the command. to a file. This program would be run by entering .f Normally no options are required.' is in your path (this is changed in your . These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.out (logical.

In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. because it too is being sent to the output file. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. if you know when to enter data. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. you can still run your program this way. printed and even imported into a word processor. Note that the text . The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. If the program normally prompts the user for input. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. So. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. symbolic and plotting functions. the prompt will not appear on the screen. however.m files.will be sent. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. you simply type: . and not actually exit the editor. From the Matlab prompt.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). and what data to enter. The resulting text file may then be edited. In this way you will have one window to edit your . turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . The keyboard will still accept the input. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes.

See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. For example. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. The workstations are named mec01. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. by issuing the command.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx.ualberta. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. but is very slow when running it over a modem. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. Once the job is completed. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). you will need to acquire and run an X server program.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*.labs through to mec30. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page.labs. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network.labs. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. you must have an X server running on your local machine. For example. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine. .ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30).

Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. either through lynx. newsgroups and WWW. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. In this command. Many applications. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. You can enter the mail program called pine. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. for example. just outside the main part of the lab. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. but GPU does. see FTP. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. Pine is based on the pico editor.txt. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet.ualberta.srv. To do this. This file is printed in the small room. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. If your CNS login id is jblow.ca. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII).The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. To use E-mail then. type. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. To use it. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). . The mecxx. free of charge. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. or by typing pine at the prompt. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below.

85. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. room B-111).lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. For further information.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). see table of contents. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. .128. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service.eps scale c where filename.145 (see FTP). your job (but not your file) will be deleted. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). If you fail to do so. getting started. From a GPU account login. or appendices.20 per page. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. Prints are $0. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. room 240. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. issue the command: plotpostscript filename.

1. width/2. Note that Young's Modulus. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.3.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. reaction forces. E. 0 K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. 0 ! keypoint.4.height K.2. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. height . is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. 3*width/2. x. 0. width. and stress for the truss system shown below. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. #.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. A. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p. y K.123) ! /title.

LINK1 R.7. K.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.2 L. 3*width.3.1.1. 2*width.UY.3 L.U.1.2.5.1. ! ! define lines ! L.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.3.EX. K.6.3.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.0. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.5 L.4.1.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.5.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .FY. .6 L.FY.5 L.1.ALL.1. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.7.FY.200e3 ! element type #1.4 L. .SUM.-210e3 FK.1.FY.-280e3 FK.5.6.K. spring element ! real constant #1.2 PLNSOL.4 L.5. 5*width/2.ALL.1.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.7 L.2.6 L.4.F PLDISP.3 L.3250 MP.7.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.

SAXL.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .LS. 1 PRETAB.SAXL.ETABLE.SAXL PLETAB.

A.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.4.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. reaction forces.mece. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. 3*width.2. #. width/2.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. x. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. Note that Young's Modulus. and stress for the truss system shown below. 0 K.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. height K. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. width. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. 0 ! keypoint.2. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 0.123) ! /title.3 L.1. 0 K.3.7. 2*width.6.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. E. 3*width/2. 5*width/2.3 L.5. p.ualberta.1. height K.height K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. y K.1. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

S.ualberta.ALL.0 SFL.4.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 DL.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2. .html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRES.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.

This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.80.80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.20.20 CYL4. A figure of the plate is shown below. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. plane stress. and uniform pressure loading.-20.50.20.80.0.50 CYL4.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.60 ! Enter the pre-processor . The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.20 BLC4.100 CYL4. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.0. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.20.0.

DL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.9.material number.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.real set number.0.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .ALL.0.80.EX. DL.ALL. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK. DL.ALL CYL4.AADD.material number. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.PRXY.force ! Solve the problem .keypoint.11.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.ALL.1.Young's modulus.200000 MP.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .10.1.6.0 . .ALL.80.0 . DL.1...static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.20.20 ! r.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.14.0 .0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.30 CYL4.ALL.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.ALL.10 ASBA.3 ! mp.0 .1.0 ! amesh. DL.ALL.value ! mp.FY.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH. 9. 7.5 ! lesize.ALL.0.10 CYL4.0 .50.all areas.ALL.13.3.0 .1. DL. 8.0 .12. DL.Poisson's ratio.direction.PLANE82 KEYOPT.

1 /CONT.OFF /WIND.2. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .3.LTOP /WIND.0.LBOT /WIND.10.U.SUM.1.0. PLNSOL.8 /CONT.2.1 /replot PRNSOL.4.RTOP /WIND.4..0036 /CONT.ALL.1. PLDISP.1 /GCMD..3. PLNSOL.S.0.4.ALL.DOF.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.EPTO.EQV.0...0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.2.-0.3.340000.2 /GCMD.10.0.0.1 /GCMD.0. PLNSOL.EQV.10..05e-3 /FOC.

2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.mece. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.www. plane stress. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.80.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.ualberta. A figure of the plate is shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . and uniform pressure loading. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

0 .200000 MP. .mece.ALL.0 .force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 7.0 .www.real set number..Young's modulus.ALL CYL4.1.ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.11.ALL. DL.0.80.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.50.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.PRXY.20 BLC4.80.0 .0 ! amesh.ALL.1. DL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.value ! mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. DL. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.0 .80.50.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.0.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.13.3.20. 9.0.ALL.direction.6.material number.30 CYL4..FY.0 .1.1.EX.9.10 ASBA.12.10.10 CYL4.20. DL.50 CYL4.5 ! lesize.20 ! r.Poisson's ratio.material number.20. DL.all areas.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.-1000 (fk command) !fk.0.ALL.3 ! mp.ALL ! Boolean Addition .80.ualberta.0 . DL.20.html CYL4.PLANE82 KEYOPT. 8.14.ALL.keypoint.ALL.60 AADD.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DL.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.0.20 CYL4.-20.

1 /CONT. PLDISP.10.0.2.340000.10.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3.LBOT /WIND..0036 /CONT.1.05e-3 /FOC.4.-0.8 /CONT.EQV.2.U..EPTO.1.3.OFF /WIND.DOF.4..2.0.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.0.ALL.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND. PLNSOL.RTOP /WIND.S.1 /GCMD.0.2 /GCMD..EQV.mece.1 /replot PRNSOL.3. PLNSOL.0.SUM.LTOP /WIND.0.4. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10. PLNSOL.www.1 /GCMD.ualberta.0..RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.0.

Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Filleting. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. . We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. extrusion/sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

0.5.22.ALL ! Sweep K.5.2.1 AGEN.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.0.0 K.. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0..8.2.5.5. ..0.0.1002.. 1001 and 1002 K.2.0. ..2.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.3.0. . .5 AADD.1001.5 AADD.5 CYL4.4.3. AL.1.6.10.5 BLC4.0.1.3.11.1.8.10.2001.5.360.1001.1.ALL CYL4.3.0.1 BLC4.11) AL. .7.2 ASBA.7.5..0 K.3.0.3.0.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .14 AADD.9 lines 9.4.0.26. ..2.1002.2.2002.0 VROTAT.6 AGEN.5.1.-0.ALL LFILLT.

12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.100.109.0.5 CYL4.6 AL.102.0.8.1.1 VGEN.0. .2003.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.1.7.27.11 vsbv.0.0 K.180.2.all.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .101.sqrt(3)/0.4.82 K.26 VOFFST.2 CYL4.26 K.82 K.0 K.10 vsbv.69 AGEN.-20.8 vsbv.2.10 AGEN.4.6 vsbv.2003 CSYS.20 L.2.7.0.8.1.8.5.180 CYL4.102.0. .3.100.102.5.-1.62 ASBA.102 K.K.1.7 vsbv.26 VADD.2002.1 KWPLAN.25.2.3.2001.51.5.5.20 LARC.1.7 AADD.20 K. .0.02 KWPLAN.1. .5. .all.101. . .6.0.0. .4.159.20.20 LARC.0.102 BLC4. . .6.2.5.9 vsbv.6.6.2.5.ALL VOFFST.5.109.-20.102. .all.5 vsbv.45.109.13.51 AADD.all. .

26 K.200.-20.201.180.7.1. . .-20.5. .4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.204 VOFFST.-1.0 system K.0 K. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .201.57735*26).26 K.18.57735*26) + 38.51. .129-(0.AADD.33.202.200.203.180.2.61.-1.32.60 VSBV.20.60 VADD.32. sqrt(3)/2*76. VADD.51. .0.3 CYL4.36.38 AADD.30 KWPLAN.61. .203.0 A. 129-(0.0.34.204.1 WPCSYS.61.200.202 CSYS.37 CYL4.

We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. copying.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Filleting. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.ualberta.mece.

.5 AADD.10..0.1 BLC4. .0. .7.0.2002.www.0 VROTAT.3.5 AADD...1002.11.4.3.1.22.ALL ! Sweep K.0.0.5.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.1001.0.5 BLC4.1.6 AGEN.5.5.1.1.2001.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0. LFILLT..3.1002.5.5 CYL4.2003.2.ualberta.14 AADD.2. .3.3.mece.6.9 AL. . .0 K.8.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.2 ASBA.0.2.4.5.2.0.2..3.0. K.1.0.0.2.1001..1 AGEN.-0.0 K.5.3.0 K. AL.ALL LFILLT.26..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .360.ALL CYL4.5.0.8.0.7.

6.7.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8 vsbv.6.0.1 VGEN.2001.5 CYL4.02 KWPLAN.6 AL.2002.2 CYL4.32. .180 CYL4.26 K.5.20 K.8.7 AADD.6 vsbv.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.102 BLC4.13.20 LARC.0.6.34.0.102 K.10 AGEN. .2.-20.109. .5.100.69 AGEN.11 vsbv.82 K.7.102.36.38 AADD.101.4.5. .180.5.101.5. . .html KWPLAN.all.26 VADD.82 K.51.0.-1.7 vsbv. .33.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.5.4.3.9 vsbv.2003 CSYS.10 vsbv.20 L.1.0.0.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. .mece.1.62 ASBA.20 LARC. .ALL VOFFST.6. .20.0.100.ualberta.1.26 VOFFST.2. .27.102.4.sqrt(3)/0.159.8.2.102.8.2. .25.102.0.5 vsbv.5.all.1.109.45.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 K.2.1.-20.1.0 K.all.109.2 AADD.5.2.51 AADD.all.

-1.0.ualberta. sqrt(3)/2*76.203. 129-(0.18. .201.30 KWPLAN.61.60 VSBV.0 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. . ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .61.26 K.7.1.61.0. .3 CYL4.mece.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.203.26 K.57735*26) + 38.180.202. .202 CSYS.204.51.180.www.200.201.-20.57735*26). .32.0 A.5.1 WPCSYS.0 K.204 VOFFST.200.129-(0.-1. VADD.2. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .20.60 VADD.200.html CYL4.-20.51.

1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.2 ET.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 L.1.1.Width*Height.Width*(Height**3)/12.1.0 K.Height MP.Length.0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .2. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.EX.

3 MP.7.0.0.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1.9. LMESH.0 DK.86e-6 LESIZE.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .1.MP.ALL..PRXY.1.DENS.ALL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Length/10. ACEL.

0 L.1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP. ANSYS Command Listing /Title. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K. LMESH.ualberta.1.EX.2 ET. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.1.www.1.1.0.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Width*(Height**3)/12.ALL.Width*Height.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.Height MP.0.Length/10.1.DENS.7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRXY.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2.Length.0 K.

.9.0.html DK.1.www. ACEL.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.ualberta.mece.ALL.

A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.2.0.1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.0 L. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1000.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .1.0 K.

NMISC.0 DK.UX. 1 ETABLE.200000 MP.833.1.BEAM3 R. 3 PLLS.33 ESIZE.1.ET.SMAXJ.1.1..UY.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .SMAXI.NMISC.I.333.10 MP.SMAXI.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.area.1..EX.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0 SFBEAM.1.1.PRXY.100 LMESH.100.UY DK.2.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .0.SMAXJ.0.2 ETABLE.PRES.ALL.

.mece.www.ualberta. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0 L.2. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 K.1. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.1. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.2 ET.1.1000.ht.. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

NMISC..area.0.10 MP.2 ETABLE.UY DK.1.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.NMISC.0 DK..ht.1.1.UY.1.33 ESIZE.1.SMAXJ.EX.ALL.833. 3 PLLS.100.100 LMESH. 1 ETABLE.333.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.200000 MP..mece.UX.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0 ! Real constants .SMAXJ.2.PRES..SMAXI.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.SMAXI.0 SFBEAM.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. R.I.PRXY.www.

0.2 ! element type 1.1.3. nodal. 1. strs out type.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. with a small separation.plane42.01 ! thickness 0.2..1 ! activate element type 1 R..5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.5.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG. plane stress w/thick. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. one above top of the other. 0.7. /title.4 aplot ! define element type ET. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.2. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied..0. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.10. In this model there are two blocks.

s.EX.1.5 mat.1 r. 0.3 ! meshing esize.EX.r.0.! define material properties MP.2 ! activates or sets this element type real..y.99.01 ! cm.2. 20e3 MP.1 ! defines second element type .20e3.1 ! nsel.0.NUXY.s.0.2.2 /pnum.contac48.mat.1.2. 2.2.2.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel. 200e3 MP.area..005.loc.7.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .2D contact elements keyo.1 real.2 ! nsla..NUXY. 0.1 esize.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.2 amesh.35 mat.3 MP.source.1 amesh.10 TYPE.. 1.

full.target.y.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.stat.y.s.-100 allsel time.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.all.1.x.source.on pred.1 nsubst.loc.2.loc.s.99.s..7.r.on nropt.1 nsla.all.4 fk.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.asel. a small tolerance is used d.4 dk.all.s.20.r.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .100 autots.01 cm.2.5 ksel..all.loc.y.loc.loc.5 ksel.y.area.x.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).1 nsel.all.node gcgen.target.r.3 finish /solution antype.loc.fy.s.

prxy.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.1.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .3 esize.0.1 lmesh.0 k.beam3 r.0.5.2 et.1. the load will added incrementally.0e6 mp.0.03125.30.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0 l.1. After each increment.ex. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area. izz. To solve this problem. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.125 mp.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0.1.4. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.2. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.1.1.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.0.069e-5.

on ! auto time stepping nsubst.all ! save results of all iterations dk.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.all.1.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.static nlgeom.1 PRNSOL.5. max # substeps=1000.all fk.U.1000.2./solu antype. min # substeps=1 outres.mz.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .

0.0. the load will added incrementally.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.2 et.4.0e6 mp.mece.1.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.069e-5. To solve this problem.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.prxy. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .5.03125.0.www.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.30.2.0 l.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.1. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.beam3 r.0. izz. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.1.3 esize.1.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ex.1 lmesh.ualberta.125 mp. After each increment.0.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0 k.

1000.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.on nsubst.1 outres.all.static nlgeom.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.5.U.on autots.1 PRNSOL.2.all fk. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .all dk.html /solu antype.mz.mece.1.

Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. However. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. ie. .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. in reallife. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. load perterbations. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This method is not recommended for accurate. largedeflection. real-world buckling prediction analysis. static analysis to predict buckling loads. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. 2. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. material nonlinearities and gaps. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. For this type of analysis.

1.0.0.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. applied at the top-center of the beam.2 ESIZE.833. area (mm^2).This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1.100 L.10 LMESH.100.0 K.0.200000 MP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.333.3 K. will be calculated.10 MP.EX.PRXY. The required load to cause buckling.BEAM3 R.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.2. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis. I (mm^4). ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.ALL.1.1. ANSYS . rigidly constrained at the bottom.

10 K.BUCKLE BUCOPT.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.ON DK.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.0.3 R.2. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.PSTRES.ON MXPAND.333.2.1.1.1.100.200000 MP.FY.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .PRXY.833. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.2 ESIZE. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.subspace.100. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1 LMESH. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1. I.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.1.1. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.0.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .0 L.ALL FK.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).0.0 K.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.LIST SET.0.EX. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .LANB.

Y XVAR.ALL NSUBST.FX.0 FK.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.Y NSOL.U.1000 AUTOTS.2.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .1.2.F.FY.2 PLVAR.2.X.ALL.ALL.NLGEOM.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ON /ESHAPE.ON OUTRES.Y.ON LNSRCH.-50000 FK.3.3 /AXLAB.1.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.1 DK.2.20 NEQIT.

This method is not recommended for accurate.mece.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. For this type of analysis.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 2. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .www.ualberta. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. However. static analysis to predict buckling loads. in real-life. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. real-world buckling prediction analysis. material nonlinearities and gaps. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. large-deflection. ie. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). load perterbations.

1.2.0 K.1.PRXY.0. applied at the top-center of the beam.100.1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.1.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.EX.0.10 MP. rigidly constrained at the bottom.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.2 ESIZE.0. area (mm^2).ALL.mece.BEAM3 R.333.www.10 LMESH.833.3 K.ualberta.1.200000 MP.100 L. will be calculated. I (mm^4).ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. The required load to cause buckling.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

0 L.1.1.FY. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .1.100. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.2 ESIZE.333.PRXY.ON OUTRES.subspace.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .0.mece. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .LANB.ALL FK. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.LIST SET.html ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.STATIC PSTRES.2.ualberta.3 R. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.10 K. I.ON DK. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .0.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1.ALL.0 K.0.833.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.1 LMESH.STATIC NLGEOM.0.BUCKLE BUCOPT.EX.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.ON MXPAND.1.200000 MP.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.1.www.

0 FK.ALL.www.1000 AUTOTS.Y.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .2.3 /AXLAB.X.ON /ESHAPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.F.20 NEQIT.2.html NSUBST.1.2 PLVAR.2.1 DK.-50000 FK.Y NSOL.ualberta.3.ON LNSRCH.U.FY.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y XVAR.mece.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.FX.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.

The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.1.0 k.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.LINK1 R.EX.MELA.75 .12.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.PRXY..2 ET.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.2. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).25 MP.0.3 TB.100 l.001.0.1.0.1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.75000 MP. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". For instance. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.1. For this analysis.1.. In such a case.

..FY.5 LMESH..3..1.TBPT.250 TBPT.25.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE...DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1 PLNSOL.420 TBPT.15...002.450 ESIZE..Y NSOL....2.449 TBPT.X.1 OUTRES.0.ON NEQIT..390 TBPT.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.003.U.20.U.F.Y.355 TBPT.300 TBPT..025.Y XVAR..3 /AXLAB.all FK....2 PLVAR.ALL AUTOTS.2.Y.06.1000.0 DK.435 TBPT..004.240 TBPT.ALL.225 TBPT..275..ON NSUBST.2.1..1.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.2.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .150 TBPT.005.ON LNSRCH.1000 ANTYPE.

0 k..1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.2 ET.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.1.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. For this analysis. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.mece. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.0.2. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.LINK1 R.100 l.1. In such a case.ualberta. For instance.1..

...002.025..005.004.300 TBPT..2.PRXY..2.Y NSOL.275.FY.3 /AXLAB.ON NSUBST.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 OUTRES.150 TBPT.355 TBPT..EX.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .75 TBPT.ALL.003.1.DEFLECTION /AXLAB..1.2 PLVAR.1..www.240 TBPT.Y.25.0.MELA.435 TBPT.1000..ualberta.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM..ON LNSRCH.5 LMESH.390 TBPT.1.ON NEQIT.12..225 TBPT.3..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.U.420 TBPT..20..250 TBPT.3 TB.Y XVAR..1..all FK.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin..2. TBPT.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.75000 MP.Y..450 ESIZE.ALL AUTOTS.X...1 PLNSOL.0 DK.F.001.0.1.15..449 TBPT..mece.1. MP...2.1000 ANTYPE.U.06..

2.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0.0 L.7830 LESIZE.0 /PREP7 K.33 MP.10 LMESH.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0.2.DENS.0 K.2 ET.0..0001.1.01 MP.33e-10.8.1.1.1.068e11 MP. /TITLE.0.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .BEAM3 R.ALL.1.Dynamic..1.1.PRXY.EX.

Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Lines (0. 1.0) (1. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ... Open preprocessor menu 2... Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0) .Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS. 3.y) 1 2 5. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.

10. 9. 8.3 To enter the density of the material.. . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..33e-10 iii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.068e11 ii. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. 7.01 m x 0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. 6.... > Add. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Young's modulus EX: 2. enter the following geometric properties: i... and rotation about the Z axis). Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.0001 ii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis.01 m. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0..

height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .2.0 K.1.2 ET.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.33 MP.0001.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.068e11 MP.1.DENS.EX.8.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 R.1.0.0.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.1.2.01 MP.1.0 L.33e-10.I. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.1.PRXY.1.

5 DK.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1.10 LMESH.2 MODOPT.ALL.. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .FRONT MXPAND.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.5 EQSLV.0.10..5.SUBSP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. .LIST SET.LESIZE.

1.0.BEAM3 R.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.1.2 ET.2.0.2.0001.www.01 MP.ALL.I.1.0.DENS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.33 MP. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.1.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.ualberta.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..7830 LESIZE.0 L.068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.EX.PRXY.33e-10.mece.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.10 LMESH.0 K.1.1.8.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.LIST SET.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SUBSP.1.10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.0.www.2 MODOPT.ualberta.5. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .5 DK.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.FRONT MXPAND.5 EQSLV.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .mece.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. These 3 methods are the Full . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.100 Hz.

1.33 MP.2.DENS.01 MP. UY_2 STORE.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2.1.2.ALL FK.BEAM3 R.0001.1.1.2.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.100..FY.33e-10. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.MERGE PRVAR.1. NSUBST. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.100.0.0.ALL.PRXY.0.EX.0.8. KBC.0.10 LMESH..1.I.0 K.7830 LESIZE. However.1.2 PLVAR.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .100 HARFRQ.2 ET.Y.3 DK.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.U.2.1.068e11 MP.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full .www.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.100 Hz.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2.0 L.0001.1. However.1.3 DK. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.10 LMESH.100.PRXY.mece.1.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.Y.100 HARFRQ..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.2.U.DENS.0.2 PLVAR.1.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2 ET. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1.MERGE PRVAR.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.1.0. UY_2 STORE.1.2. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.ualberta. NSUBST.ALL FK.1.100.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0.8.I.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print..FY.7830 LESIZE.0 K.BEAM3 R.2.0.www.33e-10.1.2.01 MP.068e11 MP.33 MP.EX. KBC.

where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. for example. a static analysis may be used instead. For our case. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load.

we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. . It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. In ANSYS. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The smaller the time step. In other words. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. After the application of the load. All types of non-linearities are allowed. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Therefore. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. However. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure.

1..2.0. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.1. DELTIM.PRXY.0 /PREP7 K.S. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).1.1.2.1.33e-10.0. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.01 MP.8. the calculations are much quicker.2 ET. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. However.UY.FY. However.0 K.EX. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.2.33 MP. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.. It is the quickest of the three methods..11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .068e11 MP.0. if stresses and forces are of interest than.ALL D. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.ALL F.1. TRANS TRNOPT.All.1.BEAM3 R.REDUC.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).1. . The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.ALL.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .0001.2.Dynamic.0 L.11. .DENS. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. M.7830 LESIZE. NSEL.. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.0.10 LMESH.

ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.0.001s TIME.MERGE PLVAR.2.2.Y.U.2. In this case.1 KBC.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.' NSOL.'rdsp'.!At time equals 0.1.'. ! Sets time to 0. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.3.0 FDELE. .001 KBC.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.0 !* LSSOLVE.'Dynamic'. if you are using a later version of ANSYS. time !Please note.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. UY_2 STORE.

Copyright 2003 .mece. For our case. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. for example. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.University of Alberta . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.http://www.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.ualberta. The smaller the time step.University of Alberta . It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure.mece. After the application of the load. However.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.http://www. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. Copyright 2003 . In ANSYS. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. In other words. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Therefore. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture.

10 LMESH.1.2.Dynamic.ALL D.0 /PREP7 K.UY. M.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 L. DELTIM.11.ALL F.068e11 MP. It is the quickest of the three methods.0 K.2.ALL.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. .1. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).. TRANS TRNOPT.0. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.0001.0. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.ualberta.REDUC.PRXY. However.mece. if stresses and forces are of interest than. NSEL.University of Alberta ..http://www. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. . All types of non-linearities are allowed.DENS.01 MP. However.33e-10. the calculations are much quicker. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.1.7830 LESIZE.8..1.1.BEAM3 R.All.33 MP..-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .0.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .0.EX.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.S.1.1.2 ET.1.2.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).FY. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.1.0. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.2. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.

UY_2 STORE.'.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.0 !* LSSOLVE.2.1.MERGE PLVAR.html !At time equals 0. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.' NSOL. time !Please note.0 FDELE.'Dynamic'.U.001 KBC.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.'rdsp'. Copyright 2003 .2.0. ! Sets time to 0.001s TIME.3.1 KBC. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. In this case.mece.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.Y.University of Alberta .2.ualberta.http://www.

length. ANSYS Command Listing /title.one corner.0.0 height=1. then width and height . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 blc4. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.

MP.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.X.TEMP. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.length NSEL.A.S.KXX.S.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.TEMP.0.ALL..0 D.length/20 AMESH.Y.ALL NSEL.A.LOC.ALL.LOC.10 ESIZE.height D.TEMP.X.Y.500 NSEL.100 NSEL.0 NSEL.

length.one corner. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.ualberta.www. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.h.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .1.10 ESIZE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . PLANE55 MP.mece.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.length/20 AMESH.KXX.0. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 height=1..0 blc4.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7..0.

Y.height D.h.TEMP.ALL.S.S..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.X.TEMP.Y.A.LOC.0 NSEL.LOC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.X.ALL NSEL.ualberta. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .LOC. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.length NSEL.TEMP.www.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.100 NSEL..500 NSEL.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..A.0.ALL.0 D.

one corner. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX.Thermal .0 height=1.1. PLANE55 MP.0. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. then width and height .length.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0 blc4.0 to solve simple thermal examples. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0.

100 NSEL.LOC.ALL.length SF.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.Y. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .S.S.X.S.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.1 ESIZE.height D.TEMP.CONV.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.length/20 AMESH.CONV.Y.1 TYPE.ALL NSEL.0 NSEL.S.500 NSEL.0 SF.MAT.X.100 NSEL.TEMP.LOC.TEMP.ALL.0.LOC.0 D.10.

0.KXX.mece.http://www. then width and height Copyright 2003 .0 blc4. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.1 ESIZE.1.0. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.1 TYPE.length.ualberta. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1.html Thermal .10 MAT.0 to solve simple thermal examples. PLANE55 MP.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .one corner.University of Alberta .

LOC.100 NSEL.height D.ALL.0 NSEL.Y.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 D.LOC.500 NSEL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .X.CONV.TEMP.http://www.100 NSEL.ALL.University of Alberta .Y.CONV.S.length SF.S.mece.ALL.TEMP.S.0 SF.0.LOC.TEMP.ALL.10.ualberta.ALL NSEL..ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.S.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.html AMESH.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.X.

0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.040 kJ/kg*K. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Also. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

Temp.ALL.0.TEMP.5 ESIZE.height D.all.100 NSEL.5.0 height=1.0.1.on outres.05 AMESH..all.0.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL IC. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ALL NSEL.ALL.TEMP ANTIME.c. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.kxx.4 time.20 neqit.TEMP.0.length=1.300 nropt.2.040 mp.off lnsrch.1.0.Y.1.500 ! area .20.Y.s.500 PLNSOL.all kbc.0 D.S.full lumpm. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ..Dens.500 NSEL.1.100 autots.one corner.920 mp.LOC.100.0 nsubst.2.LOC.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL. PLANE55 MP.0 blc4.length.8.

mece. Also. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.0. height ! area . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.length. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.one corner. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta.040 kJ/kg*K.www.0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 height=1.0 blc4. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

1.5 ESIZE.100 autots.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.100 NSEL.ALL.height D.all.Y.S.500 PLNSOL.www.1.040 mp.ALL IC.0.0 D.0 nsubst.TEMP ANTIME.c.5.LOC.ALL.920 mp.kxx.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.8.off lnsrch.TEMP.0. PLANE55 MP.1.all kbc.full lumpm.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.20.100.Y.4 time.mece.LOC.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.s.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.20 neqit.300 nropt.05 AMESH.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.2.2.0.Dens.all..1.on outres.ALL NSEL..TEMP.Temp.1.0.500 NSEL.

As a warning. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. In this case. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.

20.all.55 prnsol.loc.all nsel.all fk.20.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.x.12.1.1 mp.plane2 keyopt.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .ex..s. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.95.all finish /solu antype.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.15.1.loc.s.0 lsel.uy.0 nsel.all et.50 d.100 aadd.0.3.1.prxy.0.symm lsel.2 amesh.off rectng.1.s.-100 fk.200000 mp.5 rectng.0.1.45.0 dl.fy.y.20.s.0.100 rectng.3 esize.y.all.fy.loc.0.

..nsel.1.1.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .27.all /expand.axis.2.10 /view.

. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.ualberta.mece.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.. In this case. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.www. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. As a warning.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.

1.12.1.1.all nsel.all.www..all et.loc.20.20.200000 mp.1.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .s.mece.2 amesh..50 d.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.0 dl.fy.20.all finish /solu antype.100 aadd..off rectng.prxy.0.0..95.s.15.27.ex.s.loc.0.3.1.y.55 prnsol.1.3 esize.comp nsel.all fk.0..loc.0 nsel.45.ualberta.uy. /prep7 /triad..symm lsel.1.1 mp.100 rectng.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.plane2 keyopt.x.fy.0 lsel.all /expand.s.axis.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-100 fk.2.y.10 /view.5 rectng.all.

1.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. a wall thickness of 10. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.7. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. ANSYS Command Listing .

6 E. 0. 0. 7.13. 0. 0. 3 E.3.13. 7. 0. 0.1e9 R.40. 4 E.10. 1. 400. 8 E.1500 N. 5 E. 5. 0 N.PIPE16 ET. 6.PRXY. 2. 0.1e9. 3. 0.10.1 E. 0.1e9.-500 TYPE. 2.1000 N. 500 N. 2.1000 N.2.12. 0.3. 3.1000 N. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 4.2. 700.1.11.1000. 0 N.EX.1. 0.5. 0 N. 9.1000 N.1000.10 R.1000. 0. 0. 1.COMBIN7 ET. 0. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 0. 500 N. 6./title.12.1 REAL. 0. 500 N. 0 N. 4 E.13 E. MP. 6 E.200000 MP.1000.0. 5. 8 E. 9.33 N.COMBIN14 R. 3 E. 8. 400. 8 E. 5 E. 0. . . 1. 700.1.1 MAT.1. 0.12.

2 *GET.FY.8 E.ALL. 2.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ELEM.7.3 E.6 /PNUM.4.2 REAL.8.4.ON NSUBST.VERT7.5.KP.13 F..NODE.0 NLGEOM.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP. 11 TYPE.12.2 E..TYPE. 1. 10.U. 11 E.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.13 ! Load node 7 .0 /PNUM. 9.12.3 REAL.7.5 D.3.0.

html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.3.COMBIN7 ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.COMBIN14 R.7. Catapult /PREP7 ET.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. ANSYS Command Listing /title.1. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.40. a wall thickness of 10.ualberta.mece.www.PIPE16 ET.

mece. 0 N. 0.11.33 N.1e9.3. 0 N.3 E.1 E. 3. 2. 5.1 REAL. 8 E. 6 E.1e9. 3 E. 9.1000. 9.1000. 1. MP. 6. 4 TYPE. 400.1000 N.1e9 R. 4 E.KP. 0. . 0.8 E. 3.1. 10.1500 N.1000 N. 1. 0 N.1000 N.5.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 2.0 NLGEOM.2 E. 0. 2.html R.12. 0.1 MAT.1000 N.1000. 8. 9. 0.13. 4 E. 7.EX.0.10.2. . 5 E. 500 N.-500 TYPE.12. 500 N.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 8 E.ualberta. 6 E. 0. 8 E.1000. 2. 0. 700. 0.10.PRXY.12.8. 4. 3 E. 11 E.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 0. 700. 0.6 /PNUM. 0.200000 MP. 0. 7. 5 E.1.2 REAL.ELEM. 1. 5. 0.13 E.5. 0.0 /PNUM. 6. 400. 1. 0.3 REAL. 0.13. 0 N.www. 0. 500 N.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 11 TYPE.

4.13 F.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .12.12.mece.U.html NSUBST...NODE.VERT7.0.ualberta.2 *GET.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.FY.4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.5 D.7.3.7.ALL.

It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .(W*H**3)/12.1.20 K.1. height MP.I (note '**'. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.0 K.3 ESIZE.LINE.75..H.EX.2.W*H.1.BEAM3 R. However.1000. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. ET.0 L.2 HPTCREATE.H.RATI. Design Optimization *set.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.20 *set..100 LMESH. not '^').200000 MP.0.0. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. deciding which variables to use as design.W.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.1.0.PRXY.

1.001mm OPVAR.SMAX_J.001 MPa.0 DK. max 200 ! Volume as object variable.W /AXLAB.0 DK.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE..3 node ESORT.UY.optimize.SMAX_J.200.MAX ETABLE.SMAXJ. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.001 MPa OPVAR. min 10 mm. ! Height state variable.0.SMAX.50..OBJ. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.txt.X.FY.0.. max 50 ! Width design variable.NMISC.1. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .EVolume.001mm OPVAR.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.SMAXI. min 10 mm.Volume.W.ANTYPE. *GET.txt ! Assign optimize.10.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.SMAX.ITEM.EVOLUME ETABLE.ETAB.2.SORT..'txt'.SORT.SMAX_I.0.1. tolerance 0.2.10.SMAX_I.UY.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.0 DK.'optimize'.1.200 OPTYPE.0..C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.VOLU. Percent step size.195..001 mm..Y.UX.30. tolerance 0.3.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.0 FK. min 195 MPa.VOLUME. *GET.0.H.100.ETAB.1 node ESORT.DV.001 tolerance 0.H. SSUM *GET. max 50 mm.SSUM.FIRS OPFRST.50.0.NMISC.DV.MAX *SET.SV.

height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.20 K.RATI.1. Design Optimization *set. However.0 L..1..I (note '**'.2 HPTCREATE..1. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.PRXY.H. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.0.75.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.W*H. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.1.mece.0.(W*H**3)/12..200000 MP. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.1000.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.H.2.0.BEAM3 R.www. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. MP. deciding which variables to use as design. ET.0 K.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.W.20 *set. not '^').ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.LINE. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.EX. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables..ualberta.

3 ESORT.FIRS OPFRST.W /AXLAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.001 OPVAR.www.. *GET.200 OPTYPE.EVolume. OPEXE PLVAROPT.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.0.ualberta.0 FK.2. min 195 MPa.001 OPVAR.txt ! Assign optimize. max 50 mm.OBJ.1.001 OPVAR.30.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..Y.X. max 200 MPa.0 DK.VOLU.1.0 DK.SMAX..C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.MAX *SET.ITEM. min 10 mm. SSUM *GET.SMAXI.'optimize'.txt.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.SORT..FY.SMAXJ.SMAX_J.. to Width design variable.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100.NMISC.Volume. min 10 mm. *GET.0.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize. Volume as object variable.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.DV.SMAX.DV.SV.SORT.UY.H.1 ESORT.100 LMESH.VOLUME.SMAX_J.0 DK.EVOLUME ETABLE. tol Height state variable.10.1.mece...SSUM..SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.H.ETAB.SMAX_I.0.3.ETAB.0. ESIZE.195..2.optimize..50.UX. Percent step size. max 50 mm. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UY.1.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.0.NMISC.0.50.10.SMAX_I.200.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.W.MAX ETABLE.'txt'.

This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. substructuring will be used for the wood block. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. v = 0. Apply loads to the super-element 2. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).5 MPa. Apply remaining loads to the model. however. For this example. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. 3. ANSYS Command Listing .

29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.EXT M.PRXY.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.2 MP.ALL.ALL NSEL.2.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.40.EX.1.0.EX.0.PRXY.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.FX.S.PLANE42 TYPE.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.5 NSEL.0. amesh.10.0.ALL NSEL.2.ALL. START /FILNAME.R. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS . 2.S.SUBST SEOPT.2 NSEL.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.db ! GEN.100.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.1.0 F.LOC.GEN..1.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.Y.2.5 MP.100.LOC.140 NSEL.0.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.

superelement solution written to GEN.MAX SETRAN.TYPE.Y.ALL.S.0 NSEL.GEN2.SELV.2 real.U.SUM.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 D.LOC.0.1..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.MaxNode.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.NUM.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.1.10.GEN2 NSEL.U.! Meshing AESIZE.LOC.1.0.STATIC NSEL.S.1.SUM. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME. mat.ALL NSEL..40 CPINTF.GEN2 SE.NODE.1 *GET.MATRIX50 TYPE.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .2 amesh.GEN.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.Y..1 ! Superelement ET.ON.1 ESEL.ALL.1.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.ALL.1 SFE..ALL ESEL.MaxNode.S.

ualberta. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. v = 0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. substructuring will be used for the wood block.5 MPa. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.. For this example. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. Apply loads to the super-element 2. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.mece. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. 3. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. however. Apply remaining loads to the model. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).

ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.0.100.2.ALL.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.1.Y.GEN.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname. START /FILNAME.FX.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.EX.0.LOC.ualberta.40.EXT M.0.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.0 F...PLANE42 ! Element type MP.5 NSEL.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.www. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.1.ALL NSEL.X.140 NSEL.PLANE42 TYPE.1.1.10.S.db ! GEN.ALL.S.mece. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.R.ALL NSEL. amesh.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LOC.2 NSEL. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).SUBST SEOPT. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.100.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.PRXY..

1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.1 ESEL.U.0.ALL ESEL.NODE.1 *GET.0 D.USE EXPSOL.STATIC NSEL.2 real. MP. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ON.Y.TYPE. 2.Y.5 MP..GEN2.NUM.MaxNode.SUM. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.GEN.PRXY.S.MATRIX50 TYPE.ualberta. mat.LOC.MaxNode.1..1..0 NSEL.0.ALL..1.S.0.EX..YES SEEXP.2.1 SFE..SUM.GEN2 NSEL.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.10.LOC.1 ! Superelement ET.MAX SETRAN.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.U.2 amesh.www.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.SELV.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.ALL.1.40 CPINTF.ALL NSEL.GEN2 SE.S.

A steel link. However.. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). and using it with any following coupled environments. and write them to memory. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. a thermal conductivity of 60. the geometry is kept constant. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . where the thermal effects will be applied. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. It is important to note. For our case. For convenience.. the link will attemp to expand. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. . The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. For instance. the element types can change. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. For a listing. the analyses are coupled.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. with no internal stresses. Loads will not be applied to the link. However. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Although the geometry must remain constant. stress is created in the link. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem." Thus.

clear finish /solu antype.0 solve finish /post1 etable..1.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .analysis.UX.CompStress.all physics.rth environment tref.temp.0 l.60.2 et. mp.0 k.write.ex.thermal dk. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.read.2.1.1.1.LS.temp.write.1 lmesh.1.1.4e-4.0 dk.struct ldread.1.prxy..0.348 solve finish /solu physics..5 esize.read.12e-6 physics.0.all.1.0 physics.alpx.thermal physics. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.200e9 mp.3 mp.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg..1.tts mp.struct physics.273 dk.link33 r.2.1.1.kxx..

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.mece. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . However. the link will attemp to expand. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.www. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. a thermal conductivity of 60. where the thermal effects will be applied. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). stress is created in the link. For our case. For convenience. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. Loads will not be applied to the link. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. the analyses are coupled. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. A steel link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such..ualberta. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution." Thus. the geometry is kept constant. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. However. and using it with any following coupled environments. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).. with no internal stresses.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.

however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.1 lmesh. mp.. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.1.write.1.1.thermal dk.rth tref.UX.0 k.prxy. For instance.1.struct ldread.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.alpx.read.0 l.ex.www. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.1. For a listing. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.1.clear etchg. and write them to memory..0.273 dk..temp.all physics.0. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.0 dk.link33 r.all.temp. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1..mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.read.1.html Although the geometry must remain constant.thermal physics.60.200e9 mp.ualberta.4e-4.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .tts mp.struct physics.0.1.kxx.1. the element types can change.2 et. It is important to note.348 solve finish /solu physics.0 physics.12e-6 physics.clear finish /solu antype.2.2.3 mp.write.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..5 esize.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.CompStress.ualberta.html solve finish /post1 etable.mece.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .LS.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 PRETAB.

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. .Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.

0 k.1.7.all lsel.100.3.3.4.3 esize.loc. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .all lsel.20 outres.4.9.1.1.100.all.45.12 et..all finish /solu antype. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.10.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.s.0.0.52 k.0 nsubst.55.0.1.0 k.100 k.1 lsel.0 k.20.5 amesh.10.80.48 k.2.100 k.1.ex.2.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 a.100 k.6.11.9.7.11.12.10 mp.prxy.5.20.8.all time.0 dl.20.80.6.52 k.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .loc.3.1.100.x.48 k.200000 mp.3 r.all.8.s.1.x.45.plane145 keyopt.on /prep7 k.5.100 k.55.

last plesol.all solve finish /post1 set.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .all.sfl.-100 lsel.pres.s.

0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ualberta.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Thus. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum.

5.45.4.6.100.0 dl.1.100 k.100 k.x.5 amesh.0.0 a.0 k.6.9.mece.8.all lsel.1 lsel.-100 lsel.1.all.12.10.1.48 k.ex.55.80.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .last plesol.200000 mp.2.all finish /solu antype.100 k.2.3 esize.www.1.all.5.html /prep7 k.100 k.45.ualberta.0 k.x.all lsel.0 nsubst. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .3.52 k.s.11.plane145 keyopt.all time.10.7.100.80.100 sfl.11.s.all.loc.3 r.8.20 outres..1.20.20.20.55.12 et.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1.prxy.1.pres.10 mp.0 k.loc.s.all solve finish /post1 set.48 k.7.0.4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.52 k.3.0.3.100.9.

Thus.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0. rather than increasing mesh density. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. computational time can be kept to a minimum.1.03. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0 k.0.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor .0 k.3. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.0.03.2. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.

1.off solve finish /post1 set.2.c.s.8 esize.temp.03 a.20 neqit.1 IC.off lnsrch.all kbc.all.melty.60 nropt.last etable.273 finish /solu antype.full lumpm.1.kxx..conv.Plane55 MP.melty.4 time.all.rest ekill.all finish /solu antype. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements . esel.368 nsel.1.0 nsubst.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.0.etab. 20 Max no.0.1.1.0.1.3.10.s.on outres.k.all.4.Dens.temp.all esel.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . not ramped ! Initial conditions.268 nsel.all /gst.0005 amesh.920 mp.2040 mp.100 autots.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.ext sf.

/post1 set.live plnsol.last esel.s.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .

0 k.03 k.0.03.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .03. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.3. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.2.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0.0.www.mece.4.03 a.1. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. computational time can be kept to a minimum.3.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ualberta.2.0. Thus. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. rather than increasing mesh density. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0 k.

ualberta.live plnsol.all.Dens.all finish /post1 set.0 nsubst.all.s.2040 mp.last etable.268 nsel.temp.melty.ext sf.conv.full lumpm.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .all /gst.all finish /solu antype.melty.1 IC.off solve finish /post1 set.last esel.rest ekill.off lnsrch.on outres.1.1.60 nropt.kxx.1.273 finish /solu antype.mece.etab. 20 Max no.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.920 mp.s.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.20 neqit.100 autots. esel.368 nsel.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . not ramped ! Initial conditions.0005 amesh.4 time.www.Plane55 MP.s.c.8 esize. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.temp.all esel.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.10.all kbc.1.all.0..

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

7.Height KSEL.ALL.-2500 KSEL.Y.90 /CPLANE.05.1.LOC.1.0.All.0.S.ALL KSEL.1 WPOFFS.1.0.Width/2.0 ASEL.LOC.Z.Z.14.LOC.S.8 WPCSYS.0 WPOFFS.S.Width FK.0 WPROTA.1 /TYPE.FY.5 PLNSOL.SUM.0.R.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.U.All.43.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.LOC.1 /TYPE./SOLU ANTYPE.1.X.R.Length KSEL.0.0.EQV.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.0 ASEL.-1.2 ! Animate the slices .5.0.0.0 DA.

YS.1.Height.1 /REPLOT.000000. 1 .ualberta. Stress.3 esize.Length /ANGLE.0.SOLID45 MP.0.0.Width.1. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.FAST ET.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.) of the following example.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1.200000 MP.mece. etc.PRXY.60.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.EX.20 vmesh.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

ALL.90 /CPLANE.Y.www.0.LOC.LOC.0.R.S.1.0.0.43.Z.LOC.-1.14.-2500 KSEL.FY.Z.1 /TYPE.X.R.S.0 ASEL.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.EQV.S.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.0.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.U.Height KSEL.LOC.Width FK.0.ualberta.Length KSEL.05.SUM.0.8 WPCSYS.ALL KSEL.1.1 /TYPE.Width/2.7.1.5 PLNSOL.5.0.0 ASEL.All.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.All.1 WPOFFS.0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.mece.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0 WPROTA.0 WPOFFS.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 DA.

The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.10 cyl4.1.50.10 asba.200.50. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.all . Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.10 cyl4. In this tutorial.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.150.100 cyl4. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.50. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0.100. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.50. For example.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.

s...AVG nsel.SEQV.cutline.all nsel...-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.100 SFL.S..y.200.et.y.3 esize.1.all.bot nsel.5 amesh.1.2.top /POST1 PLNSOL.s.off /noerase /window.loc.50 ppath.0 dl.1.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .loc.200000 mp.2.PRES.2.all PLPAGM.1.1.1.50 path.0.ex.eqv.plane2.1000 ppath.loc.10 mp.0.200..eqv.y..1 /window.all.3 R.S.1.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.s.2.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.50 PDEF.prxy.

ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.0.. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. For example. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece..www.200. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0. In this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.

1.all et.loc.2.1.loc.2.eqv.50.s.5 amesh.cutline.all.s.ex.0.off /noerase /window.eqv.50 PDEF.100.y.50.100 SFL.1.200.bot nsel..prxy.www.50. cyl4.1 /window.PRES.3 esize.all.1.S.y.loc.0.150.s.0 dl.200.S.10 cyl4.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.all nsel.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.plane2.1..2..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10 mp.2.10 cyl4..y.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel..ualberta.all PLPAGM..200000 mp.AVG nsel.1.SEQV..50...all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 path.1.10 asba.50 ppath.top /POST1 PLNSOL.1.1000 ppath.3 R.

1. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Length of the following beam using tables.1. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 k.2400.1.length.ex. a special type of array. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 l.beam3 r.3 k. rather than using a contour plot.200000 mp.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. By plotting this data on a curve.2 esize.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0.1. finer resolution can be achieved.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .40 mp.prxy.1. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.320e3. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.I.2.elementsize lmesh.1.0.

1).all.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.all fk.2.graph.loc.2).node.all.x *vget.graph(1.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.0 400 *vget.2) /axlab.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.graph(2.2.fy.y *vplot.1).node.1).u.graph(1. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.antype.node.static dk.graph(2.TABLE.graph(1.loc.graph(rows.y *set.0 *set.rows.u.node.x *vget.2.1).Length /axlab.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.x.2).graph(rows. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .2).y.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.2. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.1.graph(1.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..3 k. Length of the following beam using tables.2400.ualberta. rather than using a contour plot.0 k.1. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7..1.320e3. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0 l.prxy.2 esize.www.40 mp.length.1. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.mece.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.ex.1. a special type of array. By plotting this data on a curve.h.I.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.0. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.200000 mp.0. finer resolution can be achieved.beam3 r.1.

graph(2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.0 *vget.all.y.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.2).h.rows.2) /axlab.1).www.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.x. lmesh.1).mece.node.node.1).x *vget.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.u.fy. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.graph(1.node.1. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2.2.2).Length /axlab. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .y *set.graph(1.all fk.graph(2.graph(1..x *vget.1).2.loc.node.all.2.loc.graph.0 *set.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.ualberta..graph(rows.static dk.u.TABLE.graph(1.graph(rows.2).all finish /solu antype.1 *vget.y *vplot.

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