“There are four ways, and only four ways, in which we have contact with the world. We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts: what we do, how we look, what we say, and how we say it.” -Dale Carnegie Abstract
We are living in an era of information explosion in which advertising seems to be an indispensable building block of the media. Over-production and underdemand often lead to a competitive market where advertising is justified. Of all business activities, probably none is better known, more widely discussed, or more highly criticized by the public than advertising. One reason for this is that advertising has become the spokesman for business. As a form of mass communication closely linked with the world of commerce and marketing, advertising is a powerful tool for the flow of information from the seller to the buyer. It influences and persuades people to act or believe. There are many special and specific reasons for using advertising in its several forms. Announcing a new product or service, expanding the market to new buyers, announcing a modification or a price change, educating customers, challenging competition, recruiting of staff and attracting investors are a few of such reasons. In the process of creating advertisements for all these reasons, language, i.e., choice of expression is of crucial importance. What kinds of choices make an advertisement highly effective is something worthy to be studied from a linguistic the distinctive linguistic characteristics of advertisement.

In the words of the renowned advertising pioneer, William Bernbach, “The truth isn’t the truth until people believe you, and they can’t believe you if they don’t know what you’re saying, and they can’t know what you’re saying if they don’t listen to you, and they won’t listen to you if you’re not interesting unless you say things imaginatively, originally, freshly”, which is important because, “It is insight into human nature that is the key to the communicator’s skill. For whereas the writer is concerned with what he puts into his writings, the communicator is concerned with what the reader gets out of it. He therefore becomes a student of how people read or listen.” *Assistant Professor,,Chittur,Palakkad

With these two famous quotes, Bernbach emphasizes the importance of language in the modern world of advertising. Commercial verbiage is designed to entice the reader to “read on”, to explore the product or service being offered in greater detail.

Literature Review
The study of language of advertising from a linguistic perspective has been attempted by several scholars (Leech 1966; Geis 1982; Vestergaard and Schrodder 1985; Mencher 1990, etc.). Leech (1966), in his pioneering and comprehensive study on English in advertising, has analyzed in detail different aspects pertaining to grammar, vocabulary, discourse and rhyme and rhetoric of advertising with special reference to television. Illustration, display typography, vocal emphasis, prompt spelling, grammatical solecism, metaphor and paradox are some of the aspects linked with attention value. Simple and colloquial style and familiar vocabulary are connected with readability. Phonological regularities such as alliteration, rhythm, rhyme and jingle are related to memorability. Frequent use of imperatives and superlatives are connected with selling power. The distinctive property of advertising language has been closely identified with the use of clauses, phrases and words as minor sentences, which constitute a different kind of grammar called as disjunctive grammar. Geis (1982) has made an attempt to describe how language is used in American advertising, especially television advertising. He has focused on certain linguistic devices that figure most prominently in advertising. According to him, the advertising claims employing the word ‘help’ as in phrases like ‘helps to achieve’ and comparative phrases like ‘more or less’ are impressive because they are indistinguishable from the law like generic claims of scientists. He has concluded that advertisers in general tend to prefer vague language rather than language with explicit empirical consequences and to prefer subjective claims to objective claims. Vestergaard and Schroder (1985) have studied the language use in commercial

The marketing and advertising personnel have to consider the emotive power of the words they use in advertising in relationship with communicative functions of language such as expressive. besides it. They are: “new”. “love”. directive. Advertisements are used primarily to provide the consumer product awareness. It is highly . Language as a means of advertising Language has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour. contextual and poetic etc. it has social and practical aim. This is especially true in the fields of marketing and advertising. “discover”. The choice of language to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is vitally important. it contains information. and this will not be effectively done without the use of language. informational. music. “you” and “health”. There are several ways in which advertising is being used to persuade people to buy their product. Visual content and design in advertising have a very great impact on the consumer. pictures. They have also identified the importance of imperatives and directive speech acts in encouraging the audience to buy the products. particularly to consumers. it can capture all five senses and. ideas and/or images through impersonal media. Advertising is the sales and promotion of goods. “guarantee”. invokes emotions and imaginations. The language of advertising is not for the uneducated as it is full of rhetorical figures and incongruity. Language is considered as an effective tool in extending a company’s message to the people. It is with us everywhere in our modern society and it hits us in different ways – even when we are not ready for it. “safety”. but it is language that helps people to identify a product and remember it. “results”. “proven”. Mencher (1990) has looked into the aspect of vocabulary in advertising and identified ten words as the most personal and persuasive. “save”. Advertising unifies language.

the language of advertising messages is subtle and mesmerising. we buy prestige. they nevertheless continue to make an impact on society. The language of ads is often used in ways which are more frequently associated with poetry or oratory than with commerce.e. selling through the art and business of persuasive communication. Language is the most powerful. ad techniques are also often changing in order to keep up with the society and also for novelty. Being loaded with psychological overtone. Even with the frequent change in ad techniques from time to time. But.. Advertising makes a psychological impact on the consumers and so invites them to buy a product. The copywriter is like a juggler. when we buy Chawanprash. With emphatic use of language. full of deviations. euphemisms and ungrammaticalities which make language Purists to frown seriously at it. ambiguities. convenient and permanent means of communication and. Advertising is an art of persuading people.persuasive. The language of advertising is usually very positive and emphasizes why between parity products one stands out against the other. Therefore it is the psychological makeup of the advertisement that makes us think that when we buy Maruti. since the society is ever-changing. therefore. A dusky woman will buy a tube of imported fairness cream at high price because the advertisement assures her great career and perfect marriage with instant loveliness. is for it to express new ideas in new ways – including new creations and coinages even if it means violating the rules of the language as long as it achieves its goals through these techniques persuasively. He knows which words would be most . one of the best ways the language of advertising can be eye-catching and memorable. Advertising helps in selling i. the copywriter draws catchy and memorable lines and makes his selling ideas clear before the buyers. we buy health and longevity. it makes mass selling possible through advertisements.

even for a moment. While designing an advertisement.A vast amount of time.emotional and moving in a headline to attract the buyers. Consumers subconsciously expect this to happen (Valladares. Language has creativity and productivity. It is human nature to want to escape from the humdrum into fantasy land. They will come down to earth again when they actually use the Product. Here again language does wonder in conveying the message in the most appropriate manner. which enables the advertiser to create exciting appeals in the advertisements. The basic concepts in marketing tell us that it is all about satisfying consumers’ wants and needs. he brings together art and commerce. not used artistically. and invite them into paradise. “Show. no category of needs constantly takes precedence over the other. It is this feature. Sell the sizzles. Language meant for advertisement is very witty. not the steak is another way of saying. Its basic object is to convert an indifferent customer into a potential buyer. fails to stir the minds of the people. Advertisers try to assess which needs are most important to consumers at any given time. Advertising offers people a reason to be seduced. Advertisement agencies are in search of gifted writers who can beguile the customers by the beauty of their language. money and energy go into the creative work of developing advertising appeals to influence the buying behaviour of consumers. Language. All appeals are created for the purpose of advertising needs and wants and sharing how the advertised products can satisfy those needs and wants. It is the power of language that sells the product like a hot cake and takes out money from the pockets of buyers. draw them a picture. and sometimes mysterious. Components of language . charming. 2000). don’t tell”. Sell them an idea. People are always more mesmerised by sleight of hand than a documentary. However.

syntax."Don't just book it. It guarantees that the receiver of the advertisement better remembers the text and recalls it at the right moment."Nothing sucks like an Electrolux" (vacuum cleaner). not spelling. Alliteration . Even the scientists cannot explain attractive power of rhythm and repetition on human mind.:. morphology. that are having great emotional and mnemonic effect. alliteration and assonance) is the mnemotechnical effect. Rhyme Rhyme is a pattern of “identity of sound between words or verse-lines extending from the end to the last fully accented vowel and not further. Rhyme covers the repeating of the similar sounds in the words. is known as phonology. Copywriters often use language with rhythmical arrangement.g. rhythm. slogans and headlines. including both the patterns of basic speech units and the accepted rules of pronunciation. and pragmatics) found across languages. rhythm and lexical stress. It is commonly found in jingles. For e.Linguists have identified five basic components (phonology. semantics. Thomas Cook it" (Thomas Cook is a travel company).” Rhyme refers to sounds. The listener or reader need not notice it and he perceives it only subconsciously. Phonological features of Language of advertising The study of speech structure within a language. Rhythm The aim of advertising is to be catchy and easy to remember for which the prosodic features – intonation. The result is that the text is memorable and linguistically neat. The smallest units of sound that make up a language are called phonemes. will be useful. Advertising language often uses the techniques similar to those in poetic texts. The advantage of so-called mnemonic devices (rhyme.

in which the same vowel in successive stressed syllables creates a vowel harmony. sea.” Onomathopoeic sounds can help to imagine certain situation or action better. It definitely brings something appealing to the slogan and that is the goal of advertisers. Copywriters use homophony to create puns in advertising language. This kind of play works best in print. It definitely attracts reader’s attention. tools) by people (singing. thunder…) by things (machines. “How much reality can you handle?” Transliteration Even the use of transliteration in advertisement is not so frequent. there are many words that sound the same but are spelled differently. They can in a way serve as mnemonic as well.:-“BE COINTREAUVERSIAL. laughter) and by animals.” (Here: COINTREAU is the name of French alcoholic drink) Homophones In English. A combination of speech sounds of this type will inevitably be associated with whatever produces the natural sound. Passion for Innovation. Prestige. Transliteration means the transformation of foreign words into English. When it is occurred it makes a positive result. Morphological and Lexical Advertising Language:- features of .” It is widely used in advertising slogans. It is not so obvious type of scheme as alliteration. in which successive words (more strictly. Linguists call them homophones.” Assonance Assonance is a linguistic device.g. Eg:. stressed syllables) begin with the same consonant sound or letter.Alliteration can be defined as “literary technique. Onomathopoeic words “It is a combination of speech-sounds produced in nature (wind. For E. Usually the spelling of the foreign word is different but the pronunciation in these special cases is the same as English.“Performance.

If an inanimate subject (in most cases the brand-name e. the rest of the phrase (if any) consisting of non-finite verbs.g. describe and specify the properties of the product in attractive way: “First automatic chronograph with a 72-hour powerreserve and patented compression push-buttons. Two auxiliary verbs often used in advertising are the future auxiliary ‘will’. “verbal groups are mostly of maximum simplicity.” . Mechanical automatic movement . The infinitive. In advertising language. The first one is “a verb phrase in which the first or only word is a finite verb. Knowledge of the morphology of our language is critical to vocabulary development and reflects the smallest building blocks for comprehension.The characteristics of the vocabulary of advertising is analysed in following paragraphs. Noun phrase In general. consisting of only one word. ‘Nivea peeling can…’) precedes ‘can’.Morphology is the study of the smallest units of meaning. made in house. because it evokes the impression of ‘promise’ and the modal auxiliary ‘can’.” In advertising. the consumer is told that the product gives him or her the ‘ability’ to do this or that. If an animate subject precedes the verb ‘can’. (in most cases ‘you’ = ‘customer’ ‘you can…’). Verb phrase There exist two types of structure of verb phrase: finite verb phrase and non-finite verb phrase. noun phrases in advertisements are far more complex than verb phrases. The complexity of pre-modification is based on the effort to catch. which is usually very complex and is characterized by certain unusual structural features. morphemes. the –ing participle and the –ed participle are the non-finite forms of the verb. the consumer is told what ‘possibilities’ the product offers.” According to Leech. the interesting part of the noun phrase is the pre modifying part. passive voice occurs very sporadically and so does the application of auxiliary verbs.

Inside the noun phrase. improved are also used in advertisements. white. 5 a day.a year rather than Rs. slim. This exaggeration causes increased number of comparative and superlative adjectives. . Numerals Many advertisements make use of numerals to define the characteristics of the product exactly. natural. clusters of two. 1997). more comfort. In many cases. fresh. great. for example percentage of some substance in a product. Numerals are used to define quantity of various aspects. The product is better. more than any other product. Zeroes have a mesmerising quality which a smart copywriter exploits to sell (Thomas.Here the only verb is the verb ‘make’ in passive voice. clean. 5 a day rather than Rs. A limited range of evaluative adjectives includes new. But when it comes to your gain. more entertainment. So. nicer. Manipulating numbers to give an exaggerated notion of their gain and a minimized version of their spending is one of the tricks of the trade. big. right. soft. 1825 a year. it consists only of noun phrases. your safety costs just Rs. 150 a month or Rs.” Adjectives In many cases advertisements may contain the hyperbolic character of the language. Most advertisements use gradable adjectives (they describe qualities that can be measured in degrees. they can be used in comparative or superlative forms) than non-gradable adjectives (“they describe qualities that are completely present or completely absent). three or more adjectives are possible: Eg:-“Gingery Fudgy Nutty Creamy Mischievous Mouthfuls. whole advertising text does not contain any verb. you say get an interest of Rs. we say. 1800/. and tighter and the customer is happier and more satisfied. real. etc. number of years in connection to the length of the tradition of the product (Bhima Gold 85 Years old). The product offers more information. the number of satisfied customers. wholesome. newer.

The Hero Honda (CD-Dawn) ad picks up the similar theme and highlights the magic of digits in this way: 100 Days. Some ad lines include mathematical signs to establish their product in the market. Use of Compound words Very striking feature of advertising language is a variety of “lexical units. Zeroes epitomise the hugeness of size. Examples of compounds used in advertisements are: good-ashomemade. Dettol is a symbol of the good health and hygiene.000 Bikes. blending. In both ads. morphological and syntactic functioning and certain phonetical and graphic features. state-of-the-art. semantic unity. copywriter tries to include signs and symbols as they take less space and effort and finally convey the messages across the consumers Formation of new words and phrases Advertising texts take advantage of using made-up or adapted words and expressions in order to support the creative aspect of advertisement and its attraction. The numerical adjective (cardinal) 100 is being actively placed with % mark to ensure the genuineness of the product. When writing ad copy. The brand Dettol shows that how much one cares and loves for his family.00. pain-relieving. Celebrating a Record Breaking Achievement. The other forms of creation of new words are affixation. conversion. where each unit is consisting of two or more bases (roots)”. % marks are used to emphasize the USP (unique selling proposition). It multiplies the value of number and so the product. but they are effective and meaningful when they are use in context of place.1. A compound word may be characterized by its inseparability (it cannot be interrupted by another word). Anchor toothpaste has a different appeal segmented to a particular group who has an aversion to no vegetarian products. First ad talks of purity as a unique selling funda while other ad targets the vegetarian gentry. shortening. These signs could be anything. Two more ads have the similar propositions are Dettol: Be 100% sure and Anchor Tooth Paste: 100% vegetarian. .They are called compound words. and back-formation. hand-crafted.

For example: Ford: The choice is yours. touch-sensitive. one-of-a-kind. . If the picture accompanies the text.Compounds are very flexible and embody the innovative spirit of advertising fully. honest recommendations. a service or an idea as if a good friend recommended them. because these constructions are familiar to most potential customers in a society. as if the producer or the ad is speaking to you face to face.head-to-toe. platinum-inlayed. Advertisements with lots of pronouns of the first and second person are called gossip advertisements. the picture usually does not represent the figurative . “I” and “you” outnumber the other pronouns in advertisements because these help create a friend-like intimate atmosphere to move and persuade the audience. they can also make a profound impression on people’s mind when the consumers see the product for the first sight.” (Siemens Financial Services) An idiom ‘a bigger slice of the cake’ means a share of the available money or benefits that you believe you have a right to. The honor is ours.correct and common meaning of the idiom. making sincere promises.and. Idiomatic constructions Copywriters use idioms and proverbs in advertisements. The audience will easily accept a product. built-in etc. A picture represents two happy young women eating a cake Use of First and Second Personal Pronouns Pronouns of the first and second person: “we”. The use of second person addressee “you” tends to shorten the distance between the product or the producer and consumers. but it represents the image and representation of the literal meanings of its constituents “Challenge us – and get yourself a bigger slice of the cake. all-new. front-facing. of course .

For example. the most frequently used 20 words are: 1.good/best  3. Use of Emotive Adjectival Phrases or Evaluative Adjectives or Such words can stimulate envy. digital videos. “new” is the most common one. which shows people’s desire for original idea and fresh concept. such as photocopiers.big 14. especially exquisite instruments. you win.special 11. touch. It’s a little bit like a self-introduction to the potential customers to let them know you. digital televisions. dreams and desires by evoking looks.fine 13.According to the research of choice of words in advertising by linguist G.clean 4. An American advertising expert once said. The use of first person addresser “we” and “us” is the most direct way to tell the receiver what the sponsor of an ad slogan stands for. It is for Yamaha electronic organ.full 7. one can see lots of technical .rich   Among these words. Leech.great 15.wonderful 10. Yamaha: Every time we race. his view. It implies no matter how fierce the competition is. and his 20. smell.extra 19. “The most powerful words you can use in a headline are free and new. where the manufacturer put itself in a very humble position therefore it makes the readers feel they are respectable and higher in status.crisp 12.” Use of Technical Terms and Scientific Sounding Words In the advertisements of electrical appliances.This headline is from the Ford motor. N. his idea.bright 18.real 16. recognize you. believe you and trust you.delicious 6.easy 17. the customer is always getting benefits.sure 8.fresh 2. taste. and sounds without actually misrepresenting a product.

All to create subtle colors and textures you have to see to believe. People may not know the exact meaning of it. nothing. but they may consider it scientific and trustworthy. always. For color copying. the admen are also fond of the inclusive words such as all. to indicate that the reference is universal. none. For example: Opium: Never has a perfume provoked such emotion. every. The ultimate all inclusive one price sun kissed holiday. For example: Pure Color. Because our Laser Intensity Modulation System (LIMOS) various color intensity per dot in 256 gradations with 400 dots per inch resolution.g. Use of Coined Words Coined words are both new and memorable. It is an advertisement on providing a couple with a holiday inn. They can raise the interests of the ad headline receivers. Use of Negative Words Negative words are often used in advertisements such as no. etc. CocaCola: Always Coca-Cola. in which LIMOS (Laser Intensity Modulation System) is the technical term and sounds very professional. So experience Minolta digital full color copiers. For example: Hotel: TWOGETHER. never. Using of these words helps to leave an impression of professional and advanced in the technical field. etc. Use of Inclusive Words Apart from negative words. This is the advertisement of Minolta color copier. Coined words are kind of smart words that have special meaning in the specified context. Beautiful full-color copies are in full bloom from Minolta. they recognize the brand.terms that is rarely heard of. make them ponder upon the meaning and marvel at the smart idea of the admen. to show the uniqueness and unparalleled quality of the product. By so doing. “Twogether” and “together” are similar both . For e. they’re pure quality.

“Twogether” here can remind them of the romantic time in the past. make the body copy readable and memorable and arouse consumers’ interest and imagination. deeply affect readers by its readability. Pun The pun is “is a form of word play that deliberately exploits an ambiguity between similar-sounding words for humorous or rhetorical effect.make advertisement readable and memorable 3. Pun is a play on words. So this sentence has two meanings: First is “Coke refreshes you like no other can (can refresh you)”. For example: “Coke refreshes you like no other can”(Coca-Cola) In this advertising. This advertisement is just intended to cater for such a psychological need. Second is “Coke refreshes you like no other (drinks) can (refresh you)”. Appropriate application of pun can attract readers’ attention. and humour. the phrase ‘crème de la . Foreign words/Loan Words Foreign words are used in advertisements to emphasize the origin of the product or exclusiveness of the product in relation to particular country: “La crème de la crème of lip colour. it attracts readers attention 2. emotion between lovers tends to become common and ordinary on the surface after a long period.arise consumers interest and imagination and finally 4. wit. The use of Puns by admen has a number of advantages: spelling and pronunciation. and it also can be used as an auxiliary verb. it increases the humour of advertising and makes the advertising pregnant with meaning. “To” is misspelled as “Two” on purpose by the advertiser to indicate that the couple could get the romantic yesterday once more if they spend their holiday together in this inn. Even more. “can” maybe understand as a bottle for drink.” French word ‘crème’ evokes the impression of good-class French cosmetics.

It is no wonder that humour is not omitted in advertising branch. Consequently it is obvious that in some cases seriousness must prevail. It helps us to overcome hard life situations. The function of declarative sentence is to describe the products reasonably and perfectly. The cause might be the fact that as some people remember good jokes. These three types of sentences are all fit for the principle that advertising should have attention value and memory value. Advertisers know that the more fun in the slogan. It causes that the reader cooperates with the text having his own individual situation in mind. the function of interrogative sentences is to raise a question then answer it. Readers usually do not tend to memorize the things that are sad or boring. Sentence Types:Sentences may be classified into any of following four types. Humour Humour is one of the greatest things in human being’s life. Questions are used in advertisements as it evokes the sense of personal communication in the reader. the better. interrogatives. Syntax:The study of how individual words and their most basic meaningful units are combined to create sentences is known as syntax. One insurance company emotionally . declaratives. It is matter of fact that the use of humour must be appropriate to the type of advertised product. the function of imperative sentence is to persuade consumers to buy the product. some people remember good slogans and humour is a good means how to achieve it. The rules of grammar that is followed while communicating using a language is called syntax. to simplify the problem or just to make our day or mood better.crème’ is taken from French and it means ‘the best people or things of their kind’. These two aspects are avoided by marketers. imperatives and exclamatives. which helps the consumer to eliminate the doubt of the product.

presupposition is very frequent way of expressing the content. because it creates a sense of “one person is talking to another because all ads are urging us to some action. In advertising language.” Imperatives are sentences. if you fall ill?’ Another reason is the presupposition. it is very interesting to advertisers.” But in question mentioned above.g. which normally have no overt grammatical the consumers by creating the fear of critical illness in its mediclaim policy: ‘Who will take care of your family. No way. as it suggests. In advertisements.:“Why do leading beauty experts and models use and recommend Perfectil?” Here one can deduce and belief from the content of this advertisement that beauty experts and models use and recommend Perfectil. there are often cases where the question is stated as kind of a ‘problem’ and then the text offers an answer – ‘a solution’ for the problem: “Got wedding on the brain? Time to visit our new website.” Another typical type of question used in advertising is rhetorical question. An E. nothing.” one may oppose: “I don’t believe. a hidden process.” The . Angela Goddard writes that presupposition is “all about reading between lines. and whose verb has the base form. since this is. as we can be taking in all sorts of assumptions without consciously paying attention to them. Copywriters use imperatives.” Presuppositions are present in any communication and many questions presuppose something. the receiver is unconsciously led to believe that the content is truthful and that there are no doubts about the fact that they use and recommend it. It assumes only one possible answer: “What more could anyone ask from a Clarins gift?” The implied answer to this is “Of course. Advertisers rather use presupposition than assertion because it is much easier to deny an assertion than a presupposition: The statement “Leading beauty experts and models use and recommend Perfectil.

It is a rhetorical device heightening the emotional tone of the message and its importance. watch. which act as appeals for notice: look. etc. Parallelism is often accompanied by . try.” Each clause has the same idea and structure beginning with verb in imperative following by direct object. which have to do with the acquisition of the product: get. Parallelism means the parallel presentation of two or more than two similar or relevant ideas in similar structural forms. see. *Items. make sure. which have to do with the consumption or use of the product: have. United Airlines: Life is a journey. buy. remember.Drink less caffeine. For E.G:Express card: Don’t leave home without it. *Items. choose. Exclamatives are sentences which have an initial phrase introduced by what or how.” Sentence structure:The most important structural tendencies used by copywriters in advertising language are outlined below.Arrange your insurance with NFU Mutual. each clause is printed in separate line. The typography and layout often contributes to the text. It can be defined as “repetition of formal patterns”. .frequently used imperative clauses in advertisements are: *Items. For Eg: “Tips for a good night’s sleep: . use. etc. etc.Take warm baths. The last clause makes up a semantic and formal parallel to first two clauses. enjoy. . Schematic Pattering Parallelism is one of the forms of schematic pattering. travel it well. usually with subjectverb order. in this case. ask for.

For E. Hear new. clauses or sentences. and I like what I know’. In this case. Another reason for omitting verbs is that there is no importance to define neither the tense nor the aspect of the verb or it would be cumbersome. that the reader of the advertisement turns to the visual layout.” Epiphora . One reason is. Explore the mountains. There is a widely spread tendency to punctuate phrases. Now available when you’re awake.” Antimetabole is another form of schematic pattering. It is defined as “the repetition of words in successive clauses.g. which provides him many clues to correct interpretation. ‘I know what I like. the verb can be clearly deduced from the context and integrated.Anaphora – “the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of several consecutive sentences or verses to emphasize an image or a concept” “Explore the hills. epiphora.” We may connect these two incomplete sentences with the linking verb ‘are’. e.g. assonance and antithesis also belong to techniques of schematic pattering.” Schematic pattering occurs in all levels of language. Feel new.” “See new. Ellipsis Ellipsis belongs to cohesive devices and it is defined as “the omission of part of a structure. so the explicit structure of the sentence is not so important.” Ellipsis in advertising is used for economical reasons. Explore the rivers. to save space and money because words cost money. Explore the sea. . but in reverse grammatical order. but there are cases where the tense and aspect are not so definite.“the repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases. Incomplete sentences In some cases the whole advertisement may come without a main verb. alliteration.:“The curls of your dreams. Anaphora.

These attributes may include sensations. A trope is “a word or phrase that is used in a way that is different from its usual meaning in order to create a particular mental image or effect. The connotative meanings depend on people’s entire previous experiences and on conventions of community. Therefore. desires. as if it were a living entity.” It is a figurative expression. often one with specifically human attributes. and powers of speech. but even thought. or an abstract concept. It is used very widely – in all the expressions like “…(name of a facial crème) gives you silky skin”. may have also its figurative meaning. “… (name of a product) fulfills your wishes” or “Dirty kitchen? Nothing cleans it up like … (name of a cleaner)” are on the base of personification of a brand name: a cleaner ‘cleans’. among others. The same linguistic expression. polysemy. emotions. because ‘buy’ has some unpleasant connotations. and not ‘buy’. antithesis. cleaning is an activity proper to human beings.” The readers of advertisements usually do not register or realize that there is used personification in the text. Simile . (Vestergaard and Schroder 1985) believe that in advertising language. The most important tropes used in advertising language are: personification. the connotations of the same expression will differ slightly from person to person and the same denotations can have different connotations in different context. metaphor and metonymy.Semantics Semantics refers to the ways in which a language conveys meaning. the most frequent word for ‘acquisition of product’ is ‘get’. which “involves directly speaking of an inanimate object. It connotes additional layers of meaning and evokes associations. however. and homonymy. like ‘money’ and the parting with it. Semantics moves beyond the literal meaning of words and is culture-dependent. simile. physical gestures and expressions. Personification Personification is a term used mainly in literature to name the figure of speech. hyperbole.

:. “so… as”. It is extremely common for people to take one well-understood or easy-to perceive aspect of something and use that aspect to stand either for the thing as a whole or for some other aspect or part of it. for example: HALLS advertisement A single metaphor may be worth of a hundred words of advertising text. an associated word often expresses the whole group: ‘I like Volvo’ (= Volvo cars) .In advertisements.Simile is defined as “a direct.”. ‘than’. expressed comparison between two things essentially unlike each other. ‘Wall Street’ for the American financial industry. similes are marked by use of the words ‘like’. ‘as’ or ‘as if’. There are cases. but resembling each other in at least one way. For E. In advertising.” The commonly used examples of metonymy are ‘The press’ for the news media. Businessmen and manufacturers use the figure of speech to advertise their goods in as attractive a way as possible. We may also find comparative constructions used when comparing two things or two situations: “as…as”. Hyperbole A hyperbole is “the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration using adjectives and adverbs to achieve emphasis. a metaphor usually creates a comparison between the product or service and some other quality the advertiser wishes to be associated with the product or service advertised.” Usually. It has an interesting value and stimulates the curiosity of the reader about the product. in which a famous person stands for and represents the whole brand.g. Metonymy A metonymy is “the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity.“No other pain-relieving gel works like Deep Relief.” Metaphor Lakoff and Johnson define metaphor as “statements and/or pictures which cause a receiver to experience one thing in terms of another.

Because values are so closely tied to human behaviour and so difficult to change. a dark rustic girl becomes Miss India in few days after applying a particular brand of fairness cream and the back pain of a housewife gets out of the window. Attitudes are a . for example. The combination of pleasant senses of vision and hearing often stimulates the good feelings of readers and arouses consumers' buying desire. New 2006 Fiesta. Advertisers often refer to core values. in a few seconds with Moov. Knowing the difference and when to use which style is the essence of pragmatics. projects dream.Antithesis “Antithesis is a figure of speech. private research firms try to monitor values and look for grouping of values and behaviour patterns. The language used in a formal speech may bear little resemblance to what we would hear at a lunch with five friends. CONCLUSION Advertising takes the consumers to a illusionary world where in just a minute a hungry child gets instant gratification with Maggi noodles. Shouts outside. advertising sells hope. clauses or sentences.” “Imagine a mini phone with maximum style and design. satisfies ego and ensures prestige and status by inviting us to grab a particular product. when selecting their primary appeals.” The way we speak to our parents is not the same as the way we interact with a sibling. These are the unique marvels of advertising that heavily broods on our emotional anxieties. psychological fears and social affiliations.” Pragmatics “‘Pragmatics’ refers to the ways the members of the speech community achieve their goals using language. It is based on antonyms (words of opposite meaning) or opposite ideas: “Talks inside. In this way.” Antithesis relates to words. which uses the same or similar structure to express two opposite ideas so as to achieve the effects of emphasizing the meaning and the contrast.

Jana Lapsanska. Some ads are based on our strong.Dr G S Chauhan. Language is a weapon that he triggers off on human psyche.”Advertising Language: the psychology behind the advertising messages”. 1. The copywriter is very cautious in selection of words and phrases while writing an ad copy. October 2006 . positive emotions. university of Bratislava. REFERENCES The following resources have been extensively referred for the preparation of the article. Advertisements are the best specimen to witness the social changes and trends that affect the masses. and accordingly he plans his advertising messages and casts his spells over the customers. Sometimes. The copywriters are always in search of smarter ways to grind the customers to part with his money. He studies the temperament of a buyer and makes use of language with the assurance that it will evoke the desired reaction to what he wants to sell.”The language of advertising with the concentration on the linguistic means and the analysis of advertising slogans”. Exploiting our dreams and aspirations. June 2006 2. the advertiser is over ambitious in promoting his product by creating unrealistic desires without showing the means to fulfill such desires. The copywriter’s criterion for creating an advertisement is the finest form of deep analysis and strong command over his customers and market. Language in India strength for today and bright hope for tomorrow”.reflection of our values. the advertisers pick-up the beautiful words and phrases to design emotional messages. The advertiser knows the nerves of the society and its subjects.

Robert G Wyckham.3. Journal of business ethics(1984) p47-53 .”The influence of language on communication and persuasion in advertising:.Kpolugbo Stella N and Masagbor Richard A.2008 6.May2009 4.May2001 5.”Gender related means in advertising”. An Encyclopaedia of the arts . Tomas Bata university in zlin.”The language of advertising “. William Ryall Carol.”The Language of advertising.p175-188 7. 2006.P M Banting and AKP wensley.Kalev Hannes Leetaru. bachelor thesis.”Language use in advertising: an analysis of linguistic features across readership domains”. Martina krizkova. who controls quality?”. The city university of Newyork.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful