Short title: Vermicompost, FYM and PSB in organic rice

Split application of vermicompost, with and without FYM and PSB, and its effect on growth and yield of organic rice (Oryza sativa L.)
T. BARIK*, S. SAHU Department of Agronomy, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, 751003 ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Farm of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during rainy (kharif) and winter (rabi) seasons of 2007. The treatments consisted of different combinations of PSB (2 kg/ha), FYM (15 t/ha) and vermicompost (VC) @ 5t/ha in organic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications. Application of PSB recorded significantly higher yield of 3.82 and 4.20 t/ha when pooled over rainy and winter seasons. Various growth characters and yield attributes also followed a similar trend. PSB recorded significantly higher net return (Rs 14036 /ha) and benefit – cost ratio (1.68). Application of 50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 days after transplanting produced the highest grain yield of 4.11 and 4.48 t/ha, when averaged over the kharif and rabi seasons, respectively. The net return and benefit- cost ratio of the above treatment over the two years were Rs 15657/ha and 1.73, respectively. Available N, P and K contents of the soil after harvest of the two crops were higher when PSB and organics were applied. VC @ 5 t/ha was at par with 15 t/ha of FYM almost in all the growth characters, yield attributes and yield. Key words: FYM, Organic rice, PSB, Vermicompost The modern intensive agriculture which brought about “Green Revolution” during early seventies resulted in degradation of the environment which has led to

*Corresponding author: Email- bariktrilochan@yahoo.com

decline in productivity and many adverse effects on environment and human health (Kler and Walia, 2006). Organic farming which largely excludes the use of chemicals in agriculture relies on holistic production and management system for enhancing health of agricultural ecosystem (Otto, 2003). In this system of holistic management as the soil is kept biologically active the plethora of micro-organisms present in soil takes care of making the soil productive, living and vibrant. Again contrary to the argument that plants always take up nutrients in inorganic form, it is a fact that plants can and do absorb significant amounts of large organic molecules including vitamins, chelated minerals, hormones and other compounds beneficial to it (Singh and Singh, 2007). It is expected that with green manuring of Sesbania; use of FYM, vermicompost, PSB and neem (Azadirachta indica) cake, rice can be grown successfully and profitably in an organic farm. Many researchers have found that vermicompost stimulates further plant growth even when the plants are already receiving optimal nutrition (Atiyeh et al. 2000). Again one or two application of pitcher khad (pot manure) reduces the cost of plant protection to a negligible level. Keeping all these in view an experiment was taken up to study if the above claims also hold good for medium land rice under Orissa condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS The field study was conducted at Agronomy Farm of the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during rainy (kharif) and winter (rabi) seasons of 2007. The latitude and the longitude of the research station are 20 015’ N and 85052’ E, respectively, with an altitude of 25.9 m above the mean sea level. The soil was loamy sand in texture, slightly acidic with pH (6.1), low in organic carbon (0.46%) and available N (162.2 kg/ ha), medium in available P (9.9kg /ha) and K (153.3 kg/ ha) content. Bulk density was 1.65 (g /cm3) and EC was 0.259 dS/m. Rice variety ‘Lalat’ was used during both the seasons. This variety is resistant to blast and leaf spot and moderately 2

resistant to bacterial leaf blight (BLB), sheath blight, brown plant hopper (BPH) and leaf folder. The treatments were: FYM 15 t/ha (basal); Vermicompost (VC) 5 t/ha (basal); 75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal); 75% FYM (basal) + 12.5% VC (basal) + 12.5% VC as topdressing at 10 days after transplanting (DAT); 50% FYM (basal) + 50% VC (basal); and 50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 DAT; all of which were also taken up with PSB @ 2 kg/ha as another six treatments. Thus the RBD design had 12 treatments and 3 replications. Green manuring was done during kharif with sesbania which were incorporated at 40 days after sowing. Farm yard manure and vermicompost were applied as per the treatments. No chemical fertilizer was applied. Neem cake was applied uniformly @ 250kg/ha. The N, P and K contents of various organics are given in Table 1. No major incidence of pests and diseases was observed. However, from precautionary point of view pot manure was applied at 20 and 40 days after sowing. The pot manure was prepared as follows. Fresh cow-dung, cow urine, mixture of three different kinds of leaves and water at the rate of 1kg each, were kept in a cement tank along with 50g of molasses. Leaves of neem, Callotropis gigantia and Pongamia pinnata were taken in equal proportions to make total of 1 kg. The leaves were cut into small pieces before use. The mixture was fermented for 7 days after which the liquid was collected, diluted 20 times with water (by volume) and sprayed on the crop. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It is to be noted that growth characters, yield attributes and yield of rice during both the years followed almost similar trend. Effect of phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) It was found that application of PSB recorded significantly higher growth characters (Table 2) like plant height, total and effective tillers/clump (27.3%and 3

34.6%),number of leaves per clump at 45 DAT and at harvest, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation (50.0%), CGR, NAR, and root dry weight (44.4%) than the crop which was grown without PSB. The increase in various yield attributing characters (Table 3) and yield (Table 4) were quite marked in PSB. The values were 7.1% in case of length of panicle, 10.3% in fertile grains/ panicle, 1.6% in 1000-grain weight and 25.0% in weight of panicle when pooled across the years. Like wise it was 16.3 and 8.2% during wet season, and 19.7 and 12.8% during dry season in grain and straw yield, respectively, when pooled over the two years. PSB would have helped in higher availability of phosphorus and better root growth. Beneficial effect of PSB on release of greater amount of phosphorus has been reported by Gaur (1990). Available N and K content of the soil after harvest of the crop was lower when PSB was applied (Table 5) while it was reverse in case of P. The post harvest variation in nutrient content of soil due to PSB application in rice may be attributed to the differential uptake of nutrients. Increased availability of nutrients would have enhanced root proliferation which helped in more uptake of nutrients. It was found that various physical and chemical characteristics of the soil changed due to the effect of PSB. Electrical conductivity and organic carbon content increased while with respect to bulk density and pH it reduced. Total uptake of N, P and K were higher in case of PSB over no application. The maximum net monetary (Rs 10656) return (Figure 1) and benefit- cost ratio of 1.56 were obtained due to PSB application because of higher grain and straw yields as compared with the crop planted without PSB. Effect of manurial scheduling From the study it was found that the yield obtained from sole application of vermicompost @ 5 tons/ha was lowest (Table 3) but was on a par with application of FYM @ 15 tons/ha in all the years and seasons. Statistically equal yield, growth 4

parameters and yield attributes in VC treated plots may be attributed not only to the presence of higher amount of nutrients or hormones in vermicompost (Canellas et al., 2002) but also the presence of higher number of microorganisms which would have helped in better decomposition of added organic matters like sesbania, and neem cake and ultimately resulted in better availability of nutrients from them. Among rest of the treatments the growth characters (Table 2), root weight, yield attributes and yield of grain and straw gradually increased in the order of combinations consisting of 75% FYM to 50% FYM and from basal application of VC to its split application with varying levels of significancy. With respect to percent increase in length of panicle of “50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 DAT” over VC was 23.4. Similar values for fertile grains/ panicle was 31.9; 1000-grain weight was 8.6 and weight of panicle was 44.9. Pooled grain and straw yield during kharif and rabi seasons were 40.2, 15.3; and 44.1, 18.4%, respectively. The basal application of FYM and split application of VC is expected to supply nutrients and growth hormones (from VC) in a more continuous manner which increased the growth attributes leading to higher photosynthesis and translocation of photosynthates towards sink as indicated from the yield attributing characters and grain yield. It is also a fact that nutrients in organic matters/manures are released to the plant via the activities of soil microbes. This must have occurred in a more efficient and continuous manner when a combination of FYM and split application of VC was used. The total uptake of nitrogen in FYM treated plot was only 6.1% higher over VC; while that of others ranged from 24.3 (75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal)) to 37.40% (50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 DAT) over sole VC. Similar values for total uptake of phosphorus were 6.8 and 27.2 to 39.4% and for potash were 5.2, and 13.5 to 23.6%, respectively. Higher uptake is found to be related to high biomass production. Available N and P content of the soil after harvest of the crop was higher than the 5

initial value in case of all the treatments. This might have happened due to the fact that the release of nitrogen is slow from the organics. With respect to phosphorus there was slight loss from the initial value in all the treatments except 100% FYM. With respect to the physico-chemical properties, reduction in bulk density was highest in case of FYM and lowest in 50% FYM combinations. This might have happened due to bulkiness of FYM in the former. The pH in case of FYM treatment reduced from initial value of 6.4 to 5.33 while in case of VC it increased to 6.43. As the pH of vermicompost remains close to neutrality it might have helped in increasing the pH when VC was applied @ 5 t/ha. Topdressing or basal application of VC did not have any conspicuous effect on pH. The organic carbon of sole VC increased by 20.6% over sole application of FYM. Economics of production Application of PSB recorded significantly higher values over no application of PSB with respect to net return and benefit – cost ratio, the respective values being Rs

14036 and Rs 9137/ha, and 1.68 and 1.45. This happened due to higher yield in case of application of PSB. This indicates that with very little investment in PSB (Rs 60/ha for

2 kg of PSB) the advantage is much higher. With respect to manurial schedules net return was significantly lowest in case of VC (Rs 4327/ha) followed by FYM. Each of the two treatments containing either 75% or 50% FYM were at par among them being the highest in case of “50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 DAT” (Rs 15657/ha). B-C ratio was lowest in vermicompost (1.45) and highest in “50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing at 10 DAT” (1.73). This indicates that 50% substitution of FYM with vermicompost and split application of the latter has tremendous effect on the economics of organic rice production. Hussain et al. (2004) have stated that higher productivity, net return and benefit – cost ratio of rice occurs due to use of green manuring crop, vermicompost and farm yard manure in organic 6

farming. Application of FYM 15 t/ha as basal + vermicompost 2.5 t/ha (basal) + vermicompost 2.5 t/ha as topdressing at 10 days after transplanting produced the highest grain yield of 4.29 t/ha of organic rice when pooled over two seasons. Further study may be done on twice topdressing of vermicompost in organic rice. REFERENCES Atiyeh, R.M, Subler, S., Edwards, C.A., Bachman, G., Metzger, J.D. and Shuster, W. 2000. Effects of vermicompost and composts on plan growth in horticultural container media and soil. Pedo Biologia, 44 : 579-590. Canellas, L.P., Olivares, F.L., Okorokova-Facanha, A.L. and Facanha, A.R. 2002. Humic acids isolated from earthworm compost enhance root elongation, lateral root emergence, and plasma membrane Ht+ATPase activity in maize roots. Plant Physiology 130 : 1951-1957. Gaur, A.C. 1990. Phosphate Solublising Microorganisms as Biofertilizer. Omega Scientific Publisher, New Delhi. Hussain, T., Anwar-ul-Haq, M. and Tahir, J. 2004. Use of BM-technology in integrated nutrient management for rice – wheat and cotton production. 6th IFOAM-Asia Scientific Conference "Benign Environment and Safe Food" 7th – 11th September 2004. Yangpyung / Korea. pp. 304 – 351. Kler, D.S. and Walia, S.S. 2006. Organic, integrated and chemical farming in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under maize – wheat cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy 51 : 6-9. Otto, S. 2003. Codex alimentarious. In: The world of organic agriculture – statistics and future prospects, pp. 41-44. Yussefi, M. and Willer, H. (Eds.), IFOAM. Singh Y.V. and Singh, B.V. 2007. Organic farming – Status, myth and opportunities. Intensive Agriculture (July – December) : pp. 37-41.

7

Table 1. N, P and K content (%) of various organics used in the experiment Organic source FYM Sesbania Neem cake Vermicompost N 0.52 3.87 5.1 1.56 P 0.179 0.148 0.432 0.537 K 0.233 1.308 1.083 0.608

8

Table 2. Growth parameters as affected by PSB and manurial scheduling in organic rice pooled over two years Treatment Plant Total Effectiv Numbe Numbe LAI Dry CGR height tillers/ e tillers/ r of r of at 45 weigh at 45at clump clump leaves/ leaves/ DAT t/ 60 harvest at 45 at clump clump clum DAT (cm) DAT harvest at 45 at p at DAT harvest harve st (g) Without PSB With PSB SE m± CD (P=0.05) 100% FYM: 15 t/ha (basal) 100% VC: 5 t/ha (basal) 75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC 75% FYM (basal) + 12.5% VC (basal) + 12.5% VC as topdressing 50% FYM (basal) + 50% VC (basal) 50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal) + 25% VC as topdressing SE m± 96.6 101.7 0.6 1.6 95.8 92.9 98.7 100.0 103.5 106.1 1.0 9.9 12.6 0.5 1.3 9.8 9.6 10.0 10.2 13.1 14.9 0.8 7.8 10.5 0.5 1.4 7.9 7.4 8.4 8.9 10.1 12.5 0.8 9 26.2 31.6 0.6 1.8 23.1 18.8 25.0 27.9 34.2 40.6 1.1 13.0 18.3 0.3 0.8 13.5 12.0 14.4 15.7 17.6 20.4 0.5 4.3 5.2 0.1 0.3 3.8 3.1 4.1 4.6 5.6 6.7 0.2 19.8 29.7 0.7 2.1 16.9 16.1 21.4 25.7 30.4 38.0 1.5 15.6 21.6 0.8 2.3 12.4 11.5 16.0 18.9 23.6 29.3 1.0

RGR at 30 - 45 DAT

NAR at 30 - 45 DAT

Root weig ht/ clum p (g) at harve st 1.8 2.6 0.1 0.4 1.4 1.2 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.3 0.2

0.039 0.039 0.001 NS 0.034 0.033 0.037 0.039 0.042 0.045 0.001

2.9 3.2 0.1 0.2 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.5 0.1

CD (P=0.05)

3.0

2.3

2.5

3.2

1.5

0.5

4.4

3.0

0.003

0.2

0.6

PSB - Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, VC- Vermicompost, DAT – Days after transplanting, Table 3. Yield attributes, and uptake of nutrients as affected by PSB and manurial scheduling in organic rice pooled over two years (pooled) Length Fertile Sterili 1000- Weig Net Cost of of spikelet ty (%) grain ht of retur cultivation panicle s/ weigh panic n (x103) in Treatment (cm) panicle t (g) le (g) (x103) rupees in rupee s Khari Rabi Kharif Rabi f PSB Without PSB With PSB SE m± CD (P=0.05) Manorial scheduling 100% FYM: 15 t/ha (basal) 100%Vermicompost (VC): 5 t/ha (basal) 75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC 75% FYM (basal) + 12.5% VC as basal + 12.5% VC as topdressing 50% FYM (basal) + 50% VC ( as basal) 50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC as basal + 24.0 25.7 0.22 0.59 23.4 22.2 24.7 25.1 26.4 27.4 107 118 2.13 6.35 100 96 115 117 121 126 8.4 8.2 0.08 0.25 7.4 7.3 7.7 8.2 9.3 9.7 10 22.02 22.38 0.48 1.44 21.36 21.55 21.71 21.89 23.28 23.40 1.84 2.30 0.07 0.23 1.74 1.67 2.13 2.15 2.30 2.42 6.90 10.58 0.28 0.82 5.87 2.06 10.04 9.93 11.65 12.89 7.07 11.83 0.18 0.53 6.16 2.19 10.59 11.15 12.26 14.37 10.21 14.89 0.32 0.94 9.61 6.06 13.85 13.93 15.76 16.10 12.36 18.84 0.11 0.32 13.63 6.99 17.53 17.61 18.57 19.28 20.46 20.72

18.45 22.20 20.17 20.34 21.06 21.35

25% VC as topdressing SE m± 0.44 4.23 0.15 0.85 0.14 0.46 1.34 0.33 0.96 0.61 1.78 0.18 0.54 CD (P=0.05) 1.23 12.64 0.42 NS 0.39 PSB - Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, VC- Vermicompost, DAT – Days after transplanting,

Table 4. Yield of grain and straw (t/ha) as affected by PSB and manurial scheduling in organic rice pooled over two years Treatment 2007 20072008 2008Poole kharif 08 rabi kharif 09 rabi d Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw yield yield yield yield yield yield yield yield yield yield PSB Without PSB 3.16 3.49 3.23 3.34 3.40 3.47 3.78 3.57 3.39 3.47 With PSB SE m± CD (P=0.05) Manorial schedule 100% FYM: 15 t/ha (basal) 100%Vermicompost (VC): 5 t/ha (basal) 75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC 75% FYM (basal) + 12.5% VC as basal + 12.5% VC as topdressing 50% FYM (basal) + 50% VC ( as basal) 2.85 2.80 3.51 3.51 3.81 3.39 3.30 3.56 3.61 3.75 2.95 2.82 3.64 3.65 3.93 11 3.35 3.26 3.60 3.63 3.74 3.11 3.07 3.79 3.82 4.13 3.49 3.41 3.62 3.61 3.85 3.50 3.42 4.36 4.39 4.60 3.46 3.41 4.00 3.96 3.82 3.10 3.03 3.82 3.84 4.12 3.42 3.34 3.69 3.70 3.79 3.65 0.10 0.43 3.67 0.03 0.08 3.84 0.13 0.37 3.84 0.11 0.32 3.98 0.05 0.13 3.86 0.28 0.80 4.55 0.11 0.32 3.95 0.11 0.31 4.01 0.10 0.30 3.83 0.03 0.09

HI

49.46 51.11 0.21 0.63 47.55 47.51 50.86 50.95 52.05

50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC as basal + 25% VC as topdressing SE m±

3.99 0.05

3.82 0.05

4.24 0.22

4.00 0.08

4.23 0.07

3.91 0.53

4.71 0.19

3.89 0.21

4.29 0.04 0.13

3.91 0.08 0.22

52.36 0.43 1.22

CD (P=0.05) 0.15 0.15 0.64 0.23 0.20 1.56 0.54 0.61 PSB - Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, VC- Vermicompost, DAT – Days after transplanting, Table 5. Soil physical and chemical characteristics as affected by PSB and manurial scheduling in organic rice Treatment Bulk pH EC Organic Available nutrient (kg/ha) density (dS/m) carbon 3 N P K (Mg/m ) (g/kg) Without PSB With PSB SE m± CD (P=0.05) 100% FYM: 15 t/ha (basal) 100% VC: 5 t/ha (basal) 75% FYM (basal) + 25% VC 75% FYM (basal) + 12.5% VC (basal) + 12.5% VC as topdressing 50% FYM (basal) + 50% VC (basal) 50% FYM (basal) + 25% VC (basal)+ 25% VC as topdressing 1.46 1.42 0.002 0.01 1.41 1.42 1.45 1.45 1.46 1.46 6.21 6.01 0.01 0.04 5.33 6.43 6.33 6.33 6.13 6.13 0.227 0.266 0.001 0.003 0.237 0.241 0.246 0.247 0.253 0.256 6.3 7.5 0.02 0.1 6.3 7.6 7.2 7.1 6.5 6.5 240.7 224.8 1.4 0.7 242.9 239.7 229.3 228.4 228.9 227.5 12.4 12.8 0.1 0.3 14.0 13.2 12.8 12.8 11.9 11.0 179.6 175.6 0.3 0.8 181.4 181.5 179.4 179.6 174.7 169.0

Total uptake of nutrients (kg/ha) N P K
54.12 67.65 16.18 18.35 65.3 6 82.4 5

1.4 4.2
50.80 47.58 62.69 63.46 68.34 72.54

0.1 0.4
13.91 12.64 17.15 18.10 20.56 22.20

0.5 1.3
63.2 1 60.1 0 75.9 4 76.6 4 81.2 7 85.8 2

12

SE m± CD (P=0.05) Initial value

0.003 0.01 1.48

0.02 0.06 6.4

0.001 0.004 0.259

0.04 0.1 5.6

1.2 3.4 158.0

0.3 0.8 14.0

0.5 1.4 153.3

2.7 8.0 -

0.3 0.8 -

0.8 2.5 -

PSB - Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, VC-Vermicompost

13

a b

d e f

d

c

c

Figure 1. Net return and benefit-cost ratio as affected by PSB and manurial scheduling in organic rice (pooled). NB: Bars with same letter are not significantly different at P<0.05. Price of produce/ input – Paddy Rs 740/q, straw – Rs 70/q, FYM – Rs 0.50/kg, Vermicompost – Rs 2.00/kg, PSB – Rs 30/kg, Casual labourer – Rs 70/ 8 hours 14

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.