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2d animation

2d animation

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Published by: nidhisree_d on Feb 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Time-Based Media

2D Animation

‡ Cel Animation 

Storyboard Soundtrack Aniamatics Design Timing Layout Key Animation Inbetweening Background Cel Production Photography

‡ Rotoscoping 
Process of tracing over film footage  Often used to create space in live action films and replace with animated objects  Or vice versa  A matte (or silhouette) of the object is traced, creating a space in the footage  This form of rotoscoping used in the early Star Wars film to give luminescence to light sabres
‡ Action filmed with sticks and then enhanced using rotoscoping techniques ‡ Also used in Who Framed Roger Rabbit 

Bluescreen/greenscreen techniques have overtaken this method
‡ Still used:Where bluescreen techniques not fine enough or the associated µlook¶ is required

‡ Bluescreen/Greenscreen 
   Action is shot against a blue or green background The background is replaced with another Also known as chroma-keying Blue or green commonly used because skin tones are complementary to these (other colours are possible)  Often used now to put live actors into all or part CGI environments
‡ Latest Star Wars ‡ Hell Boy 2

‡ Cutout 
Elements used in animation cut out from physical materials
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fabric Paper Photographs Etc 

Terry Gilliam famous for this style - example  Name now applied to a similar process done digitally
‡ Southpark ‡ Jib-Jab ±http://www.jibjab.com/originals/this_landµThis Land¶

‡ Stop Motion 
Inanimate objects are animated using camera techniques  Objects are filmed on a per frame basis, filming stops and then objects are moved and filmed again  Process is repeated  Essentially, a series of still images is played back at such a rate that motion appears to occur  Techniques
‡ Claymation ± objects modelled from deformable clay
± Aardman Animations ± Wallace and Grommit

‡ Pixilation ± Real actors are filmed moving slightly between frames. Often they remain in position whilst animation occurs around them
± Road to Nowhere ± Talking Heads

‡ Computer Animation 
‡ Has come to mean the animation of virtual objects (CGIs) produced in a 3D modelling package ‡ Does not include real objects as used in stop motion animation 

‡ May make use of the processes previously described as all can now be digitally captured or converted ‡ Many of the processes are now carried out digitally
± Chroma-keying with Adobe Photoshop and After Effects ± Rotoscoping with Photoshop ± Etc

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Storyboard 
A series of annotated drawings  Give an outline of the story with explanatory text  Focus on conveying the story  Pictures show changes in storyline  Need to communicate idea to uninvolved 3rd party

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Storyboard Examples ‡ Greg High - Artist 

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Soundtrack 
Often, the animation needs to fit with a soundtrack  This may be
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Music A script Narrative voiceover Sound effects 

Necessary to have this before proceeding with next phase as it will be crucial to timings and synchronization

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Animatics ‡ Aka previsualisations or story reels 
Animatics are partially animated storyboards  Allow issues with timing to be addressed before full production  Storyboards east ± storyboard production company
‡ http://www.storyboards-east.com/animat.htm

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Design 
More detailed drawings of any characters are done from different viewpoints  Same for important µobjects¶  Occasionally maquettes are created
‡ Models of characters so they can be easily visualised as 3d entities 

Exact colours are specified

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Timing 
Exposure sheets  Aka x-sheets
‡ Detailed tables showing exactly what will happen in each frame for each scene are produced
± Don Bluth ± Animation artist µAnastasia¶ etc.  http://www.donbluth.com/xsht.html

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Layout 
Lighting, poses and angle of view for each µshot¶ are determined  Character artists work on poses and produce drawings  Background artists work on scenics  Images from animatic stage replaced with these images
‡ Known as leica reel

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Key Animation 
Using the leica reel and layout information, lead artists draw the key frames for the animation
‡ Key frames ± the most important frames in the animation

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Inbetweening 
Use the key frames created by lead artists and complete the sequences between these

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Background 
Backgrounds also completed for all frames by the background artists

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Cel production 
Occassionally still done by hand using acrylics or other paints on celluliod sheets  More commonly, images scanned into computer and treated by software packages
‡ Colour consistency ‡ Layout and positioning

Processes - Cel Animation
‡ Photography 
If using traditional hand-painted cels,
‡ now filmed in a frame where cels are stacked in their correct order and photographed ‡ Process repeated for all frames 

Using digital processes
‡ Frames arranged in layer-based applications and rendered or exported to relevant formats

Processes ±
‡ Graphic types

Computer Animation 

Raster/Bitmap graphics  Vector Graphics  Mix of both

‡ Software for animation production 
Adobe After Effects - example
‡ Allows mix of variety of media ‡ Video format outputs 

‡ Animated gifs ± examples ‡ Graphic Image Format
± low µweight¶ files ± Common on web ± Very short looping animations 

Flash ± example
‡ Vector based ‡ Can incorporate bitmaps and video 

Toon Boom - example
‡ Vector animation

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