U.G.

Mathematics
(Short Questions and Answers)
Dr. Madhumanial Pal
Department of Applied Mathematics
with Oceanology and Computer Programming
Vidyasagar University
Midnapore - 721 102
West Bengal
~
,Asian "B""ks 7JJ'itJatt. t . . i H l i t t . ~
7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House, Ansari Road,
Darya Ganj, New Delhi-11 0002
Corporate and Editorial office
7/28, MahavirLane, Vardan House, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-IIO 002.
E-Mail: asian@nda.vsnl.netin;purobi@asianbooksindia.com
World Wide Web: http://www.asianbooksindia.com
Phones: 23287577,23282098,23271887,23259161
Fax: 91-11-23262021
Sales Offices
Bangalore
Chennai
Delhi
Guwahuti
Hyderabad
Kolkala
Mumbai
Noida
Pune
©Author
I st Edition 2004
1st Reprint-2007
103, Swiss Complex No. 33, Race Course Road, Bangalore-560 001
Phones: 22200438, Fax: 91-80-22256583,
Email: asianblr@airtelbroadband.in
Palani Murugan Building No.21, West Cott Road, Royapettah,
Chennai-600 014, Phones: 28486927,28486928,
Emai1: asianmds@vsnl.net
7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj,
New Delhi-I 10 002, Phones: 23287577, 23282098, 23271887, 23259161;
Fax: 91-11-23262021 E-Mail: asian@nda.vsnl.netin
6, GN.B. Road, Panbazar, Guwahati, Assam-78I 001
Phones: 0361-2513020, 2635729 Email: asianghyl@sancharnetin
3-5-1101/I/B Hnd Floor, Opp. Blood Bank, Narayanguda,
Hyderabad-500 029 Phones: 24754941, 24750951, Fax: 91-40-24751152
EmaiI: hydasian@hd2.vsnl.netin.hydasian@eth.net
lOA, Hospital Street, Calcutta-700 072
Phones: 22153040, Fax: 91-33-22159899 EmaiI: calasian@vsnl.com
Showroom: 3 & 4, Ground Floor, Shilpin Centre, 40, GD. Ambekar
Marg, Wadala, Mumbai-400 031;
Phones: 22619322, 22623572, Fax: 24159899
G-20, Sector 18, Aatta Market, Noida
Ph: 9312234916, Email: asiannoida@asianbooksindia.com
Shop No. 5-8, GF. Shaan Brahma Corn., Near Ratan Theatre,
Budhwar Peth Pune-02; Phones: 24497208, Fax: 91-20-24497207
Emai1: asianpune@asianbookindiaco1l1
ISBN: 978-81-8629-962-3
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Published by Kamal Jagasia for Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House,
Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-I I 0 002
Printed at Yash Prinlographs
Dedicated to my beloved son
Aniket
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Preface
This book titled U. C. Mathematics (Short Questions and Answers) has
been written for the students of B.A., B.Sc. general course for all Indian
Universities. All the efforts have been made to make this book useful for
other competitive examinations. Though the book is of general nature but
an effort has been made to cover up most of the topics prescribed for B.A.,
B.Sc. general courses. It is a short answer type book which includes the
topics classical algebra, linear algebra, abstract algebra, differential calculus,
integral calculus, differential equation, LPP, dynamics, probability, statistics
and numerical methods. Necessary theorems and formulae have been outlined
in the beginning of each chapter which may be almost essential in specific
problems.
While writing this book, the works of several authors have been frequently
consulted. So I am really indebted to those authors and express my gratitude
to all such persons.
This book could not have been completed without the extreme support and
encouragement of my wife Anita and indirect support of my son Aniket.
I would like to thank my teachers and colleagues for their invaluable sug-
gestions and support.
I would also like to thank the publisher of Asian Books Private Limited for
bringing out the book in such a good shape in such a short time.
It is earnestly hoped that the book will be liked by the students and teachers
alike. Comments and suggestions for the further improvement of the book shall
be gratefully accepted.
January 2004
Madhumangal Pal
Contents
Preface
(v)
Classical Algebra
I.l
1.1 Complex Number
1.1
1.1.1 Geometrical representation (,f a complex number: Argand
diagram
1.1
1.1.2 Representation of complex numbers
1.5
1.1.3 De Moiver's theorem and its use 1.10
1.1.4 Euler's definition of exponential and trigonometrical functions .... 1.12
1.2 Theory of Equation. 1.13
1.2.1 Remainder theorem and synthetic division 1.13
1.2.2 Descartes' rule of signs 1.17
1.2.3 Relation between roots and coefficients 1.20
1.2.4 Transformation of equation 1.22
2 Linear Algebra 2.1
2.1 Determinant 2.1
2.1.1 Some properties of determinants 2.1
2.1.2 Minor, cofactor and adjoint of determinant 2.4
2.1.3 Cramer's rule 2.8
2.3 Matrices 2.9
2.2.1 Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices 2.15
2.2.2 Adjoint and inverse of a matrix 2.17
2.2.3 Orthogonal matrix 2.19
2.2.4 Rank of a matrix 2.20
2.2.5 Solution of equations by matrix inverse method 2.22
2.3 Vector Space 2.23
2.3.1 Linearly dependence and independence of vectors 2.24
2.3.2 Basis of a vector space 2.26
2.3.3 Eigen values 2.27
3 Abstract Algebra
3.1
3.1 Set Theory 3.1
3.1.1 Basic set operations
3.2
3.1.2 Laws of algebra of sets
3.5
3.1.3 Cartesian product of sets 3.6
3.2 Relation
3.9
3.2.1 Types of relations
3.9
3.3 Mapping
3.11
3.4 Permutation
3.15
3.5 Group
3.18
3.5.1 Cyclic group, sub-group
3.22
3.6 Ring, Integral Domain and Field
3.24
4 Geometry
4.1
4.1 Transformation of Axes 4.1
4.2 Pair of Straight Lines 4.7
4.3 Polar Equation 4.16
4.4 General Equation of Second Degree 4.24
4.5 Direction Cosines and Ratios 4.27
4.6 Plane 4.31--
4.7 Straight Lines 4.39
4.8 Sphere 4.46
4.9 Cylinder 4.49
4.10 Cone 4.50
5 Vector Algebra 5.1
5.1 Elementary Operations 5.1
5.2 Scalar Product or Dot Product 5.5
5.3 Vector Product or Cross Product 5.8
5.4 Mechanical Problems 5.16
6 Differential Calculus 6.1
6.1 Number System 6.1
6.1.1 Absolute value of a real number 6.3
6.2 Sequence 6.5
6.3 Infinite Series 6.13
6.3.1 Series of positive terms 6.15
6.3.2 Alternating Series 6.20
6.4 Function 6.22
6.5 Limit and Continuity 6.26
6.5.1 Continuity of a function 6.32
6.6 Uniform continuity 6.36
6.7 Differentiation 6.37
6.8 Successive Differentiation 6.48
6.9 Partial Differentiation 6.53
6.10 Mean Value Theorem 6.61
6.11 Maximum and Minimum 6.68
6.12 Tangent and Normal 6.70
6.13 Asymptotes 6.75
6.14 Envelope 6.77
6.15 Radius of Curvature 6.79
7 Integral Calculus 7.1
7.1 Integration 7.1
7.1.1 Indefinite integration 7.1
7.1.2 Definite integration 7.8
7.2 Beta and Gamma Functions 7.17
7.3 Multiple Integral
7.21
7.4 Area, Surface and Volume 7.23
8 Differential Equation
8.1
8. I Introduction
8.1
8.2 Homogeneous Equation 8.10
8.3 Linear Equation 8.12
8.4 First Order Higher Degree ..... 8.17
8.5 Orthogonal Trajectories ..... 8.19

8.6 Higher Order First Degree 8.20
9 Linear Programming Problem 9.1
9.1 Graphical Method 9.1
9.2 Mathematical Preliminaries 9.5
9.3 Simplex Method 9.20
9.4 Duality 9.26
9.5 Transportation Problem 9.31
9.6 Assignment Problem 9.37
to Dynamics of Particles 10.1
10.1 Principle of Dynamics 10.1
10.2 Work, Power and Energy 10.5
10.3 Impulse and Impulsive Forces .... 10.10
10.4 Collision of Elastic Bodies .... 10.12
10.5 Motion in a Straight Line .... 10.15
10.6 Simple Harmonic Motion .... 10.17
10.7 Motion in a Plane .... 10.19
10.8 Central Orbit .... 10.24
10.9 Planetary Motion
.... 10.28
10.10 Artificial Satellites
.... 10.29
11 Probability and Statistics
11.1
11.1 Measure of Central Tendency
11.1
11.2 Measure of Dispersion
11.5
11.3 Theory of Probabil ity
1.15
I 1.4 Distribution Function
1.24
11.5 Mathematical Expectation
1.34
, 1.6
Correlation and Regression
1.42
11.7 Sampling Distribution
1.47
11.8 Testing of Hypothesis
1.48
12 Numerical Methods
12.1
12.1 Errors
12.1
12.1.1 Sources of error
12.1
12.1.2 Absolute, relative and percentage error
12.2
12.1.3 Generation of round-off errors
.12.3
12.2 Interpolation
12.2.1 Lagrange Interpolation
12.2.2 Finite differences
12.2.3 Properties of Ll and V
12.2.4 Shift operator E
12.2.5 Newton interpolation formulae
12.3 Numerical Differentiation
12.3.1 Differentiation based on Newton forward interpolation
12.3.2 Differentiation based on Newton backward interpolation
12.4 Numerical Integration
12.4.1 Euler-Maclaurin sum formula
12.5 Solution of Algebraic and Transcedental Equations
12.5.1 Bisection method
12.5.2 Regula-Falsi method or Method offalse position
12.5.3 Iteration method
12.5.4 Newton-Raphson method
12.6 Solution of System of Linear Equations
12.6.1 Gauss-Elimination method
12.6.2 Gauss-Seidal iteration method
12.7 Solution of Differential Equation
12.7.1 Taylor's series method
12.7.2 Euler method
12.7.3 Modified Euler method
12.7.4 Runge-Kutter methods
12.5
12.5
12.7
12.9
12.10
12.12
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.18
12.21
12.22
12.22
12.23
12.24
12.25
12.28
12.28
12.29
12.31
12.31
12.33
12.33
12.34
Ch.1 II Classical Algebra
1.1 Complex Number
1.1.1 Geometrical representation of a complex number: Ar-
gand diagram
Let z = x + iy be a complex number.
Let (r, B) be the polar of P whose cartesian coordinates be (x, y).
imaginary axis
P
y
o x
real axis
Figure: 1.1.1
Then x = rcosB, y = rsinO. Hence r = vx2 +y2 and B = .
. '. z = x + iy = r( cos B + i sin B) is called the polar form or normal form
or modulus amplitude form of the complex number.
r = length of OP, called the modulus or magnitude of the complex
number z and denoted by jzj or by mod z, i.e., jzl = v
x2
+ y2.
The angle B is the angle between the line segment 0 P and the positive di-
rection of x-axis, called the amplitude or argument of the complex number
z and is denoted by amp z = B = tan-
1

There are infinite number of values of B for which cos B = sinO = But
there is one and only one value a of 0 such that -7r < a 7r. The value of 0
which lies within (-7r, 7rJ is known as the principal value of the amplitude
and it is unique.
Note 1 The principal amplitude of the complex numbers a + ib, -a + ib,
-a - ib, a - ib, where a, b ;::: 0 may be calculated using the formulae tan-
1

7r - tan-
1
£, -7r + tan-
1
£ aIlcl - tan-
1
£ respectively.
Ex. 1 (i) Represent '-i' in the Argand plane and find its amplitude.
(ii) Find the principal amplitude of the complex number -1 + iV3.
1.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Find the principle amplitude of the complex number l.
(iv) Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the complex number
1/(1 + i).
(v) Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the following complex
numbers
(a) sin/3 + i cos /3,
(b) 1+itan!1I".
(vi) Show that the points 3 - 4i, -3 + 4i and 6 - 8i in the Argand plane are
collinear.
(vii) Find the principal amplitude of -1- i .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Representation of -i in Argand plane is shown below:
Imaginary axis
+
I
I I I Real axis
Origin
t-
i
Figure: 1.1. 2
The principal amplitude of -i is - tan-
1
~ = - ~ .
(ii) The principal amplitude of the complex number -1 + iV3 is
11" - tan-
1
( ~ ) = 11" - i = 2;.
(iii) The principal amplitude of 1 is tan-
l
(i) = o.
(iv)
1 1-i 1-i 1 1
We have 1 + i = (1 - i)(1 + i) = -2- = i - ii.
The modulus is J ~ + ~ = ~ .
The principal amplitude is -tan-
1
(*) = -tan-l 1 = - ~ .
(v) (a) Modulus of sin/3 + i cos /3 is JSin
2
/3 + cos
2
/3 = 1 and amplitude is
1 (cos/3) 1 1 11" 11"
tan - sin /3 = tan-cot /3 = tan - {tan( 2" - /3)} = 2" - /3.
(b) Modulus is J 1 + tan
2
i1l" = sec 3; and principal amplitude of 1 +
itan 3; = 1 - itan 2; is
- tan 211' 211" 211"
tan-
1
( 1 5) = - tan-
l
tan 5= -5'
CH.l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.3
(vi) The adjacent figure shows that the given points are collinear.
Imaginary axis
-3+4i· 4
Real axis
-4
-6
-S 6-Si
Figure 1.1. 3
(vii) We have tan-
l
= tan-II = but the point is in the third quad-
h .. I rd' 71" 371"
rant, so t e prmClpa amp Itu e IS -71" + 4' = -4"'
Exercise 1 Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the following
complex numbers (i) 3 + 4i, (ii) 4 - 8i, (iii) 1 - i,
(iv) 3 + iv's, (v) -2 + i, (vi) i, (vii) -1.
[Ans. (i) 5, tan-
l
t, (ii) 4V5, - tan-l 2, (iii) V2, (iv) 2v's, (v) V5,11'-
tan-
l
!, (vi) 1, (vii) 1,1I'.J
Ex. 2 (i) Show that the points -2 + i, 1 + 2i, 4 + 5i, 1 + 4i are the vertices
of a parallelogram.
(ii) Show that the points 2 - 2i, 5 + i, 2 + 4i, -1 + i are the vertices of a
square.
(iii) Name the nature of the figure you get, if the points representing the
numbers ±2 ± 3i in Argand plane are joined.
(iv) Show that the points -1, i, -i, !( V2 +iV2) are concyclic .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let A( -2+i), B(1 + 2i), C(4+5i), D(l +4i) be the vertices of a parallel-
ogram. The middle points of the diagonal AC and BD are respectively
1 + 3i, both are equal. Also IABI = 1(-2 + i) - (1 + 2i)1 = I - 3 - il =
J9TI = v'iO and ICDI =:; 1{4+5i) - (1+4i)1 = 13+il = J9TI = v'iO,
i.e., two opposite sides are equal.
Hence the given points represent the vertices of a parallelogram.
(ii) Let A(2 - 2i), B(5 + i), C(2 + 4i), D( -1 + i) be the vertices of a square.
The middle points of the diagonal AC and BD are respectively 2+i, both
are equal. Also IABI = 1(2 - 2i) - (5 + i)1 = 1- 3 - 3il = J9+9 = 3V2
1.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
and IBGI = 1(5 + i) - (2 + 4i)1 = 13 - 3
i
l = V9 + 9 = 3V2, i.e., two
adjacent sides are equal.
IAGI = 1(2 - 2i) - (2 + 4i)1 = 1 - 6il = J36 = 6.
. AB2 + BC
2
= 18 + 18 = 36 = AG2.
Thus one angle is right angle.
Hence the given points represent the vertices of a square.
(iii) Representation of the complex numbers ±2 ± 3i or, -2 - 3i, -2 + 3i, 2-
3i,2 + 3i in Argand plane is shown in the adjacent figure. From figure
it is obvious that the given points represent a rectangle whose sides are
4 and 6 units.
Imaginary axis
-2+3i 2+3i
Real axis
-2-3i 2-3i
Figure: 1.1.4
(iv) Let z = 0 be the centre of the circle.
Now, Iz - 11 = 1, Iz - il = 1, Iz + il = 1,
I
z- !(V2+iV2)1 = 1- ~ - i ~ 1 = J!+! = 1.
2 v'2 V2 2 2
That is, the distances between z = 0 afid the given points are 1.
Hence the given points are concyclic.
Ex. 3 (i) Find the area of the rectangle whose four vertices are ±a ± bi.
(ii) Find the area of the rectangle whose four vertices are ±3 ± 2i .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The vertices of the rectangle are -a - ib, -a + ib, a - ib, a + ib. The
length along the real axis is 2a and that of along the imaginary axis is
2b. Hence the area of the rectangle is 2a x 2b = 4ab square units.
(ii) Same as above. Put a = 3, b = 2.
CH.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA
1.1.2 Representation of complex numbers
Ex. 4 Express the following complex numbers into polar form
(i) -1 + iv'3, (ii) 1 - iv'3, (iii) 1 + iv'3, (iv) -1 - i, (v) 1 - i .
• SOLUTION:
1.5
(i) Let -1 = r cos 8, v'3 = r sin8. Then r2 = (_1)2 + (v'3)2 = 4 or, r = 2
and
tan 8 = -V3 = - tan i = tan(1I" - i) = tan(3
1f
)
or, 8 = 2;.
Hence -1 + iV3 = 2(cos 2; + i sin 2;).
(ii) Let 1 = rcos8, -V3 = r sin8. Then r2 = (1)2 + (-v'3)2 = 4 or, r = 2
and tan 8 = - v'3, but the point is in the fourth quadrant,
8 = -i (as tan i = v'3)
Hence 1- iV3 = 2{cos(-i) + iSin(-i)} = 2(cos i - isin i)·
(iii) Let 1 = rcos8, V3 = rsin8. Then r2 = (1)2 + (y'3)2 = 4 or, r = 2 and
tan8 = v'3 = tan i or, 8 = i·
Hence 1 + iV3 = 2(cos i + i sin i).
(iv) Let -1 = r cos 8, -1 = r sin8. Then r2 = (_1)2 + (_1)2 = 2 or, r = y'2
and tan 8 = = ~ = 1, but the point is in the third quadrant,
8 = -11" + tan-II = -11" + 1 = _3;.
Hence -1- i = y'2{cos( - 3;) + i sine _3;)}
= y'2(cos 3; - isin ~ ) .
(v) Let 1 = r cos 9, -1 = r sin9. Then r2 = (1)2 + (_1)2 = 2 or, r = y'2 and
tan 9 = 11 =. -1. The point is in the fourth quadrant, so 9 = - 1 .
Hence 1 - i = y'2{ cos( -i) + i sine -1)}ii\ y'2(cos 1 - i sin i)·
Ex. 5 Express the following expressions in the form A + iB
1 (1
')2 1 1 '5'9 '14
(
.) ( .. ) + , ( ... ) z + (.) ( ) z + z + z
1 1 + ., 11 3 ., 111 --1' IV (1 ')3' v '6 + '11 + '13
z -z z- -z z z z
• SOLUTION:
1 l-i l-i 1-i 1 1
(i) 1 + i = (1 - i)(l + i) = 1 - i 2 = -2- = '2 - '2
i
.
(ii) (1 + i)2 1 + 2i + i
2
1 + 2i - 1 = ~
3-i 3-i
= =
3-i 3-i
6i + 2i2 6i - 2 1 3 .
9 - i 2 = 10 = -5 + 5
z
.
2i(3 + i)
=
=
(3 - i)(3 + i)
1.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Let z = x + iy.
Then z + 1 = (x + iy) + 1 = (x + 1) + iy
z - 1 (x + iy) - 1 (x - 1) + iy
_ {(x + 1) + iy}{(x - 1) - iy}
- {(x -1) + iy}{(x - 1) - iy}
(x - 1)(x + 1) + y2 + iy{(x - 1) - (x + 1)}
=
(x_1)2+y2
_ (x
2
+y2 -1) - 2ixy
- . (x - 1)2 + y2
x
2
+ y2 - 1 - 2xy .
= (x - 1)2 + y2 + (x _ 1)2 + y2 z.
(iv) We know -i
3
= -i
2
.i = -(-1).i = i.
1 1 1
-:----:--::- = ----::----
(1 - i)3 1 - 3i + 3i
2
- i
3
1 - 3i - 3 + i
1 -2 + 2i -2 + 2i
= = -:-------:--:------,- =
-2 - 2i (-2 - 2i)( -2 + 2i) (_2)2 + (2)2
-2 + 2i 1 1.
= 8 = -4 + 4
z
.
(v) i
5
= (i
2
)2.i = (_1)2.i = i, i
9
= (i
2
)4.i = (_1)4.i = i,
i14 = (i
2
)7 = (_1)7 = -1, i
6
= (i
2
)3 = (-1)3 = -1,
ill = (i
2
)5.i = (-1)5.i = -i, i
13
= (i
2
)6.i = (-1)6.i = i.
i
5
+ i
9
+ i14 i + i - 1 2i - 1
Hence'
6
'11 '13 = .. = --= -2i + 1.
z +z +z -1-z+z -1
Exercise 2 Express in the form A + iB
(
.) 1 ( .. ) 1 ( ... ) 2 + 3i (. ) a + ib a - ib
1 --'b' 11 11l -2-" IV --'b - -+ 'b'
a-z z -z -z a-z a z
(v) (vi) (a+ib)2+(b+ia)2.
[A (
.) a . b ( .. ) 1 1. ( ... ) 1 8. (.) 4ab .
ns. 1 a2+b2 +za
2
+b2' 11 -2"+2"z, III 5+5
Z
' IV a2+b2z,
(v) 2
7
5 + i, (vi) 4abi.]
Ex. 6 Find the square root of the following complex numbers
(i) 5 - 12i, (ii) i, (iii) a
2
- 1 + 2ai .
• SOLUTION:
(i) 5 - 12i = 9 - 2.3.2i + 4i
2
= (3 - 2i)2.
Hence y'5 - 12i = ±(3 - 2i).
CH.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA
(ii) i = ~ ( 2 i ) = ~ ( 1 + 2i + i
2
) = ~ ( 1 + i)2.
Hence Vi = ±*(1 + i).
(iii) a
2
- 1 + 2ai = a
2
+ 2ai + i
2
= (a + i)2.
Hence v'a
2
- 1 + 2ai = ±(a + i).
Exercise 3 Find the square root of the following complex numbers
(i) 16i, (ii) -4i.
[Ans. (i) ±2J2(1 + i), (ii) ±J2(1 - i).]
Ex. 7 (i) Factorise a
2
+ ab + b
2
, using w, a cube root of unity.
(ii) Factorise x
6
- 1 into linear factors .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Asw
2
+w+1=Oor, _1=w+w2.
Now, a
2
+ ab + b
2
= a
2
- (w + w
2
)ab + b
2
= a
2
- wab - w
2
ab + b
2
= a(a - wb) - w
2
b(a - wb)
= (a - wb)(a - w
2
b).
(ii) x
6
- 1 = (x
3
)2 - 12 = (x
3
-1)(x
3
+ 1)
= (x - 1)(x
2
+ X + 1)(x + 1)(x
2
- X + 1).
Now, x
2
+ x + 1 = x
2
- (w + w
2
)x + 1 [since w + w
2
= -1]
= x
2
- xw - xw
2
+ w
3
= x(x - w) - w
2
(x - w)
= (x - w)(x - w
2
).
Similarly, x
2
- x + 1 = (x + w)(x + w
2
).
Hence, x
6
- 1 = (x - 1)(x + 1)(x - w)(x - w
2
)(x + w)(x + w
2
) .
. Exercise 4 Factorise into linear factors
(i) x
2
+ 1, (ii) x
3
- a
3
, (iii) x4 - a
4
, (iv) x
6
_ y6.
1.7
[Ans. (i) (x + i)(x - i), (ii) (x - a)(x - wa)(x - w
2
a), (iii) (x - a)(x + a)(x -
ia)(x + ia), (iv) (x - y)(x + y)(x - wy)(x + wy)(x - w
2
y)(x + w
2
y).]
Ex. 8 (i) If P(z) is a variable point in the complex plane, such that Iz-il =
2, find the locus of P.
(ii) In argand plane, what are the points representing Izl ::; 1 ?
(iii) On the complex plane, let p(z) be a variable point, on the complex plane,
such that Iz - 2il = 3; prove that the points z lie on the circle whose
centre is (0,2) and radius 3.
1.8 V.G. (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let z = x + iy. Then Iz - il = 2 becomes Ix + iy - il = 2.
or, Jx
2
+ (y - 1)2 = 2 or, x
2
+ (y - 1)2 = 4.
Which is the locus of the point P.
(ii) Let z = x + iy. Then Izl ::; 1 becomes Ix + iYI ::; 1.
or, Jx2 + y2 ::; 1 or, x
2
+ y2 ::; 1.
Which represents a circular disc of radius unity and centre at (0,0).
(iii) Let z = x + iy. Putting this value in Iz - 2il = 3 we get Ix + iy - 2il = 3,
or, Ix + i(y - 2)1 = 3 or, Jx
2
+ (y - 2)2 = 3
or, x
2
+ (y - 2)2 = 9,
which represents a circle centre at (0, 2) and radius is 3.
Ex. 9 For two complex numbers Z1, Z2 prove that
IZ1 + z21
2
+ IZ1 - z21
2
.= 2(lzll2 + IZ212).
• SOLUTION: L.H.S.= 1:::1 + z21
2
+ IZ1 - z21
2
= (Z1 + Z2)(Z1 + Z2) + (Z1 - Z2)(z1 - Z2)
= (Z1
Z
1 + Z1
Z
2 + z2
i
i + z2zd + (Z1
Z
1 - Z1
Z
2 - z2z1 + Z2
Z
2)
= 2(lz112 + IZ212).
Exercise 5 If z = x + iy, then prove that
(i) 3(x
2
+ y2) = 4x, if 21z - 11 = Iz - 21.
(ii) Iz - 11 = 2fz - il represents a circle.
(iii) the point z lies on the circle whose centre is at (-3,0) and radius is 2,
if Iz + 31 = 2.
(iv) Iz - 81 + Iz + 81 = ° represents an ellipse.
Ex. (i) If x = 2 + 3i, find the value of x
3
- 4x
2
+ 13x + 1.
(ii) Find the value of x
2
+ xy + y2 for x = 1 + i, y = 1 - i.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Given x = 2 + 3i or, x - 2 = 3i.
Squaring both sides we get
(x - 2)2 = (3i)2
or, x
2
- 4x + 4 = -9
or, x
2
- 4x + 13 = °
Now, x
3
- 4x
2
+ 13x + 1 = x(x
2
- 4x + 13) + 1 = x.O + 1 = 1.
(ii) x + y = 2 and xy = (1 + i)(1 - i) = 1 - i
2
= 2.
Then, x
2
+ xy + y2 = (x + y)2 - 2xy + xy
= (x + y)2 - xy = 4 - 2 = 2.
CH.l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA
Ex. 11 (i) If wi-I be a cube root of unity, show that
(1 - w)(I- w
2
)(1 - w
4
)(1 - w
8
) = 9.
(ii) If w be an imaginary cube root of unity, show that
x +wy +w
2
z
=w
y+wz +w
2
x .
1.9
(iii) If w
n
+ w
2n
+ 1 = 0 where w is an imaginary cube root of urtity and n
an integer, is n divisible by 3? , •
• SOLUTION:
(i) Since w is a cube root of unity, w
3
= 1 and 1 + w + w
2
= o.
Now, (1 - w)(1 - w
2
)(1 - w
4
)(1 - w
8
)
= (1- w)(1 - w
2
)(1 - w
3
.w)(I- w
3
.w
3
.w
2
)
= (1 - w)(1 - w
2
)(1 - w)(l - w
2
)
= {(I - w)(1 - w
2
)F
= {I - (w + w
2
) + w
3
} = (1 + 1 + 1)2 = 9.
x + wy + w
2
Z X + wy + w
2
Z
(ii) L.H.S. = =
y+wz+w
2
x w
3
y+w
4
z+w
2
x
[since w
3
= 1, so w
3
y = y,w
4
z = wz]
X + wy + w
2
Z = ~ = ~ = w=R.H S
w
2
(x + wy + w
2
z) w
2
w
3

(iii) If possible let, n is divisible by 3, i.e., n = 3p, p is any positive integer.
. .. w
n
+ w
2n
+ 1 = w
3p
+ w
6p
+ 1
= (w
3
)P + (w
3
)2
p
+ 1
= (I)P + (1)2
p
+ 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 i- O.
Hence n is not divisible by 3.
Exercise 6 Prove that (i) (1 + w
4
)4 = w
2
, (ii) (1 - w + w
2
)(1 + w - w
2
) = 4,
(iii) (1 + w)(1 + w
2
)(1 + w
4
)(1 + w
8
) = 1,
(iv) (k + kw - w
2
)3 = (k + kw
2
- w)3.
Ex. 12 If x = a + b, y = aw + bw
2
and z = aw
2
+ bw, show that
(i) xyz = a
3
+ b
3
,
(ii) x
2
+ y2 + z2 = 6ab.
• SOLUTION: (i) Given x = a + b, y = aw + bw
2
and z = aw
2
+ bw.
xyz = (a + b)(aw + b w 2 ~ ( a w 2 + bw)
= (a + b)(a
2
w
3
+ ab(w + w
2
) + b
2
w
3
)
= (a + b)(a
2
- ab + b
2
) (since w
3
= 1 and w + w
2
= -1)
= a
3
+ b
3
.
1.10 V,G, MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) We have x = a + b, y = aw + bw
2
and z = aw
2
+ bw,
x
2
+ y2 + z2 = (a + b)2 + (aw + bw
2
)2 + (aw
2
+ bw)2
= (a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
) + (a
2
w
2
+ 2abw
3
+ b
2
w
4
) + (a
2
w
4
+ 2abw
3
+ b
2
w
2
)
= a
2
(1 + w + w
4
) + 2ab(1 + w
3
+ w
3
) + b
2
(1 + w
4
+ w
2
)
= a
2
(1 + w + w
2
) + 2ab(1 + 1 + 1) + b
2
(1 + w + w
2
)
= a
2
,O + 6ab -f' b
2
,O = 6ab,
1.1.3 De Moiver's theorem and its use
Theorem 1 De Moiver's theorem: The value of (cos 8+i sin 8)n is (cos n8+
i sin n8) when n is integer and (cos n8 + i sin n8) is one of the value of (cos 8 +
i sin8)n, when n is fraction,
Q. 1 State De Moiver's theorem,
Ex. 13 (i) Find the cube root of (1 + i),
(ii) Solve x
3
+ 1 = 0 by DeMoivre's theorem,
(l
'I'I')F'dh lIt "'t 'f(1+i)n 1
10 t e sma es posItIve 10 eger n, I --, =,
1- 2
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let 1 = r cos 8, 1 = r sin 8,
. '. r2 = 1 + 1 = 2 or, r = v'2 and
tan 8 = 1 or, 8 = l
Then 1 + i = rcos 8 + irsin8 = v'2(cos ~ + i.sin ~ ) ,
Hence one cube root of 1 + i is
{v'2(cos ~ + i sin ~ )}1/3 = 21/6(cos ~ + i sin ~ )
[by DeMoivre's theorem]
(ii) x
3
= -1 = cos 1l' + i sin 1l' = cos( 1l' + 2k1l') + i sin( 1l' + 2k1l')
k = 0,1,2",.
1l' + 2k1l' ,,1l' + 2k1l'
or,x=cos 3 +2sm 3,k=0,1,2
1l' ,,1l' , , 51l', , 51l'
or, x = cos '3 + 2 sm '3' cos 1l' + 2 sm 1l', cos 3 + 2 sm 3'
N 51l'. ,51l' (2 1l' ) "(2 1l')
ow, cos 3 + 2 sm 3 = cos 1l' - '3 + 2 sm 1l' - '3
1l' ,,1l'
= cos '3 - 2 sm '3'
1 60
0 '600 1 ± iv'3
x = - ,cos ± sm or, -1, 2' -2-'
CH.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.11
(
l+i)n (1+i)2)n
(iii) We have 1 _ i = lor, 1 _ i
2
= 1
(
1 + i
2
+ 2i) n = 1 (1 - 1 + 2i) n = 1
or, 1 + 1 or, 2
or, in = 1
We know i
2
= -1, i
3
= -i, i4 = 1.
Hence the required smallest positive integer n is 4.
Ex. 14 (i) Find the modulus and the principle amplitude of the complex
number (1 + i)5.
(ii) Find the modulus and principal value of the complex number (cos 50°+
i sin 50°)6.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let 1 = r cos f), 1 = r sin f). Then r2 = 1 + 1 = 2 or, r = y'2 and tan f) = 1
or, f) = l'
... (1 + i)5 = (rcos f) + i sinf))5 = (y'2)5(cos 1 + i sin 1)5
= (y'2) 5 (cos 5; + i sin 5;)
= (y'2)5{cos(271' - 3;) + isin(271' _ 3;)}
= (y'2)5{cos( _3;) + i sin( _ 3;)}.
Hence the modulus is (y'2)5 = 2
5
/
2
and principal amplitude is _ 3: ..
(ii) (cos 50°+ i sin 50°)6 = cos 300°+ i sin 300°
= cos(3600 - 600) + i sin(3600 - 60°) = cos 60°- i sin 60°
= 1{ cos( -60°) + i sin( -60°)}.
Here r = 1 and f) = -60°. Hence the modulus is 1 and principal ampli-
tude is -60°.
Ex. 15 Show that (1 + V3i)30 = 2
30
.
• SOLUTION: Let 1 = rcosf), V3 = rsinf).
· '. r2 = 1 + 3 = 4 or, r = 2 and tan f) = V3 = tan j or, f) = j,
Hence (1 + iV3)30 = (r cos f) + ir sin f)) 30
= r
30
( cos 30f) + i sin 30f))
= 230{cos(30.J) + isin(30.j)}
= 230{cos(107l') + isin(107I')} = 230.
[since cos 1071' = 1 and sin 1071' = OJ
Ex. 16 (i) (sin f) + i cos f))n =f:. (sin nf) + i cos nO) ? (n > 1) Explain.
(ii) Show that, (sinf) + icosf))n = cosn(7I'/2 - 0) + i sin n(7I'/2 - 0), where n
is an integer.
1.12 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) When n = 2 then
(sine + i cos e)2 = sin
2
e - cos
2
e + 2isinecose
= - cos 2e + i sin 2e ¥= (sin 2e + i cos 2e).
Hence (sine + i cos e) ¥= (sinne + i cos n8) for n = 2, i.e., for n > 1.
(ii) (sine + i cos e)n = {cos(I - e) + isin(I - e)}n
= cosn(I - e) + isinn(I - e)
[by theorem]
Ex. 17 Find the values 1
1
/
3
.
• SOLUTION: 1
1
/
3
= (cosO + isinO)1/3 = (cos2k71' + isin2k1r)1/3
k = 0,1,2, ...
= cos 2k7r + i sin 2k7r k = 0 1 2
3 3 ' ".
the required values are
cos 0 + i sin 0 cos 211" + i sin 211" cos 411" + i sin 411"
'3 3 '3 3 .
1
211" ± . . 211"
or, ,cos 3 Z SIll 3'
[since cos 4; + i sin 4311" = cos(271' - 2;) + i sin(271' _ 2;)
= cos 2; - i sin 2;]
or, 1, cos 120
0
± i sin 120
0
or, 1, ± i{}.
1.1.4 Euler's definition of exponential and trigonometrical func-
tions
z2 z3
(i) e
Z
= 1 + z + - + - + ......
2! 3!
(ii) e
ix
= cosx+isinx
e
ix
+ e-
ix
e
ix
_ e-
ix
(iii) cos x = 2 ' sinx = 2i
Ex. 18 (i) By Euler's definition of sinz and cosz, where z is a complex
quantity, prove that cos
2
z - sin
2
z = cos 2z.
(ii) By Euler's exponential values of sinz and cosz, where z is a complex
number, establish that cos 2z = 1 - 2 sin
2
z.
• SOLUTION:
(i) cos
2
z _ sin2 z = (e
tZ
e-
iZ
) 2 _ (e
iZ
2
e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
+ 2 e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
- 2
= +------
4 4
e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
----- = cos2z.
2
CR.l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA
e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
- 2
(ii) Cos 2z = 2 = 1 + 2
e
2iz
+ e-
2iz
- 2
= 1- 2 4i
2
(
e
iZ
_ e-
iZ
)2
= 1 - 2 2i = 1 - 2 Sin
2
z.
1.2 Theory of Equation
Ex. 1 (i) Form the cubic equation whose roots are 0, 2, 3.
(ii) Form the polynomial whose zeros are 1, -2, 3, -4 .
• SOLUTION:
1.13
(i) Since the roots of the equation are 0, 2, and 3 the cubic equation is
(x - O)(x - 2)(x - 3) = 0
or, x(x
2
- 5x + 6) = 0
or, x
3
- 5x
2
+ 6x = O.
(ii) Since the zeros of the polynomial are 1, -2, 3, and -4 the polynomial is
(x - 1)(x + 2)(x - 3)(x + 4) = (x
2
+ X - 2)(x
2
+ X - 12)
= x4 + 2x
3
- 13x
2
- 14x + 24.
Exercise 1 Form the equation whose roots are
(i) 1, -1/2, 5; (ii) 0, 0, 3, 3; (iii) 2 + 3i, 1; (iv) 2 ± J3, 5.
[Ans. (i) !(2x
3
-llx
2
+ 4x + 5), (ii) x4 - 6x
3
+ 9x
2
, (iii) x
2
- 3(1 + i)x + 2 + 3i,
(iv) x
3
- 9x
2
+ 21x - 5]
1.2.1 Remainder theorem and synthetic division
Ex. 2 If the polynomial f (x) be divided by x - h, show that the remainder
is f(h) .
• SOLUTION: Let Q be the quotient and R be the remainder independent of
x, when f(x) is divided by (x - h).
Then f(x) = (x - h)Q + R.
Putting x = h we have f(h) = O.Q + R = R.
Thus f (h) is the remainder.
Ex. 3 (i) Use the method of synthetic division to determine the quotient
and remainder when 6x
4
+ 5x
3
- 13x + 2 is divided by x + 2.
1.14 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Find the remainder and quotient by synthetic division where x4 + x-11
is divisible by x + 2.
(iii) For what values of p, 2x
3
- px
2
+ 6x - 3p is completely divisible by x + 2?
(iv) Apply the method of synthetic division to find p in order that 2x4 -
7x
3
+ p
2
x + 15 may be exactly divisible by x - 3.
(v) Find the relation between a and b if 4x
3
- 3x
2
+ 2ax + b is divisible by
x + 2?
(vi) Show that 2x4 - 7x
3
+ 8ax
2
- 3bx + 17 = 0 is divisible by x - 2 when
32a - 6b - 7 = O.
(vii) Find the remainder, by synthetic division, when the polynomial 3x
4
-
4x
3
+ 2x2 - 9x + 1 is divided by 2x + 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have
-216 5 0 -13 2
. -12 14 -28 82
"-6-0------::
7
----:-
14
.,-----4-:-:1-8-4:--
The quotient is 6i
3
- 7x
2
+ 14x - 41 and the remainder \s 84.
(ii) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have
-21
1 0 0 1 -11
-2 4 -8 14
1 -2 4 -7 3
The quotient is x
3
- 2x2 + 4x - 7 and the remainder is 3.
(iii) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have
(iv)
-212 -p 6 -3p
. -4 8 + 2p - 28 - 4p
'-2-=-----4c---
p
--,I:-:4-+-:O-=2p'"----=2-=-8---:7-=-p-
For complete divisibility the remainder must be zero.
Therefore, -28 - 7p = 0 or, p = -4.
Here the multiplier is 3
31
2 -7 0
p2
15
6 -3 -9
3p2 - 27
2 -1
-3
p2 _ 9
3p2 -12
CH.1: CLASSICAL AI fiEBRA 1.15
In order to have exact divisibility the remainder must be zero, 3p2 -12 =
o or, p2 = 4 or, p = ±2.
(v) If the given expression be exactly divisible by (x + 2), then f( -2) must
be zero where
f(x) = 4x
3
- 3x
2
+ 2ax + b.
This gives -32 - 12 - 4a + b = 0 or, -44 - 4a + b = 0
or, -4a + b = 44 which is the required relation.
(vi) Here f(x) == 2x4 - 7x
3
+ 8ax
2
- 3bx + 17.
(vii)
f(2) must be zero for exact divisibility, this gives
32 - 56 + 32a - 6b + 17 = 0
or, -7 + 32a - 6b = 0
or, 32a - 6b - 7 = O.
Here we first divide by (x + 1/2) as shown below
1
3
-4 2 -9
-2
3 11 19
- --
2 4 8
1
91
-
16
11 19 91 107
3
-- --
2 4 8 16
Th
.. 1 ( 3 11 2 19 91) d h . d . 107
e quobent IS -"2 3x - 2
x
+ 4
x
- 8 an t e remam er IS 16'
Exercise 2 (i) Find the remainder when x
5
- 4x4 + 8x
2
- 1 is divided by
x - 3.
(ii) Find the relation between a and b if x
3
+ 2x2 + 2ax + b is divisible by
x+2?
(iii) Find the quotient and remainder when x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 3x + 2 is divided by
x-I, by synthetic division.
(iv) Find the remainder when x
3
+ 5x
2
+ 1 is divisible by x + 3.
(v) Find the remainder and quotient when 3x
2
+4x -11 is divided by x-I.
[Ans. (i) -4, (ii) b - 4a = 0, (iii) Quotient is x
2
+ 4x + 7, remainder is 9,
(iv) 19, (v) -4.]
Ex. 4 Show that if n is odd, then x + 1 is a factor of xn + 1.
• SOLUTION: If n is odd, then (_I)n + 1 = -1 + 1 = O .
... (x + 1) is a factor of xn + 1 when n is odd.
1 ~ 1 6 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 5 (i) Express x4 + 5x
2
- 3x + 2 as a polynomial in x + 2.
(ii) If f(x) = 2x4 - x
3
- 2x2 + 5x - 1, then show that f(x + 3) = 2x4 +
23x
3
+ 97x
2
+ 182x + 131.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let us divide x
4
+5x
2
-3x+2 by x+2 by synthetic method in succession.
-2 1 0 5 -3 2
-2 4 -18 42
1 -2 9 44
-2
1 -4
1
1
Hence f(x) = x4 + 5x
2
- 3x + 2
= (x + 2)4 - 8(x + 2)3 + 29(x + 2)2 - 55(x + 2) + 44.
(ii) Let us divide 2x4 - x
3
- 2x2 + 5x - 1 by x - 3 by synthetic method in
succession.
3 2 -1 -2
6
2
5 -1
39 132
131
Hence f(x + 3) = 2x4 + 23x
3
+ 97x
2
+ 182x + 131.
Exercise 3 (i) Express the polynomial x4 + 4x
3
- 2x2 + X + 2 = 0 as a
polynomial in x + 2.
(ii) Express 3x
3
- 4x
2
+ 5x + 6 as a polynomial in x - 1.
(iii) Express 3x
4
+ 5x
3
- 2x2 + 4x + 6 as a polynomial in x - 1.
CH.l: CLASSICA .... ALGEBRA
(iv) Express x4 - x
3
+ 2x2 - 3x + 1 as a polynomial in x - 3.
[Ans. (i) (x + 2)4 - 4(x + 2)3 - 2(x + 2)2 + 25(x + 2) - 24,
(ii) 3(x - 11
3
+ 5(x - 1)2 + 6(x - 1) + 10, (iii) 3(x - 1)4
+17(x - 1)3 + 31(x - 1)2 + 27(x - 1) + 16, (iv) (x - 3)4
+l1(x - 3)3 + 47(x - 3)2 + 90(x - 3) + 64]
1.17
Theorem 1 Fundamental theorem of classical algebra: Every algebraic
equation has at least one root real or imaginary.
Q. 1 State the fundamental theorem of classical algebra.
1.2.2 Descartes' rule of signs
Theorem 2 Descartes' rule of signs: An equation f (x) = 0 with real
coefficients cannot have more positive real roots than there are changes of
sign in f (x) and cannot have more negative real roots than there are changes
of sign in f ( - x ). If the number of real roots be less than the number of
changes of sign, then it will be by an even number.
Q. 2 State Descartes' rule of signs.
Ex. 6 (i) Use Descartes' rule of signs to determine the nature of the roots
of the equation x
6
- 3x
2
- X + 1 = O.
(ii) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of imaginary roots of
the equation x
5
+ x
3
- 2x2 + X - 2 = O.
(iii) Find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation 3x
5
- 4x
2
+ 8 =
o.
(iv) Use Descartes' rule of signs to determine the nature of the roots of the
equation x
8
- 1 = O.
(v) Use Descartes' rule of sign to show that the equation x
8
+ x4 + 1 = 0
has no real roots.
(vi) How many positive roots an algebraic equation can have if the sign of
the terms of the equation be all positive?
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let f(x) = x
6
- 3x
2
- X + 1.
There are two changes of sign in f (x). Hence there cannot be more than
two positive real roots.
Again f( -x) = x
6
- 3x
2
+ X + 1
There are two changes of sign in f( -x). Hence there cannot be more
than two negative real roots.
1.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
As the equation is of degree 6, hence the other two roots must be imag-
inary.
(ii) Letf(x)=x
5
+x
3
-2x
2
+x-2.
As number of changes of sign in f(x) is 3, there cannot be more than 3
positive real roots.
Again fe-x) = _x
5
- x
3
- 2x2 - X - 2
The equation has no negative real roots as there are no changes of sign
in f( -x).
As the equation is of degree 5, the other two roots must be imaginary.
Therefore the least number of imaginary roots is two.
(iii) Let f(x) = 3x
5
- 4x
2
+ 8.
Since number of changes of sign in f (x) is 2, hence there can be maximum
two positive real roots.
Again fe-x) = -3x
5
- 4x
2
+ 8
Here number of changes of sign is one. The equation has one negative
teal root.
As the degree of the equation is 5, the least number of imaginary roots
is 2.
(iv) Let f(x) = x
8
- 1.
As change of sign in f (x) is one, hence there cannot be more than one
positive real root.
Again f( -x) = x
8
- 1.
Here also number of changes of sign is one. Thus the given equation has
one negative real root.
As the degree of the equation is 8, hence the other six roots are imaginary.
(v) Let f(x) = x
8
+ x4 + 1.
As there is no change of sign, so the given equation has no positive real
roots.
Also f( -x) = x
8
+ x4 + 1 has no changes of sign. Hence the given
equation has no negative real roots .
. '. f(x) = 0 has no real roots.
(vi) If the sign of the terms of the equation be all positive i.e., there is no
change of sign between the terms, .then the equation cannot have any
positive real root.
Exercise 4 (i) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of complex
roots of the equation x
6
- 3x
2
- x + 1 = O.
CR.l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.19
(ii) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of imaginary roots of
the equation x
6
- 5x
2
- 2x + 1 = O.
(iii) Apply Descartes' rule of signs to find the number of imaginary roots of
3x
4
+ 4x
2
- 3x - 12 = O.
(iv) Is it true that all the roots of the equation 2x
3
- llx
2
+ 28x - 24 = 0
are non real.
(v) Find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation 3x
5
- 4x
2
+ 8 =
O.
(vi) Show that the equation 2x
7
- x
5
+ 4x
3
- 5 = 0 has at least two imaginary
roots.
(vii) Is it possible that all the roots of the equation 2x
3
-llx
2
+ 28x - 24 = 0
be complex? Justify your answer.
(viii) Prove that x4 + x
2
+ x-I = 0 has one positive, one negative and two
imaginary roots.
[Ans. (i) 2, (ii) 2, (iii) 2, (iv) No, (v) 2, (vii) No.]
Theorem 3 If two real numbers a and b be substituted for x in any polyno-
mial f(x) and if they have opposite signs, then the equation f(x) = 0 must
have at least one real root lies between a and b.
Ex. 7 Show that a root of x
3
- 4x + 2 = 0 lies between 1 and 2 .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x
3
- 4x + 2.
f(l) = 1- 4 + 2 = -1 < 0 and f(2) = 8 - 8 + 2 = 2> O.
Since f{l) and f(2) are of opposite signs, there must have at least one real
root lying between 1 and 2.
Exercise 5 Show that the equation
(i) lOx
3
-17x2 + X + 6 = 0 has a root between 0 and -1.
(ii) x4 -12x2 + 12x - 3 = 0 has a root between -3 and -4 and another between
2 and 3.
Ex. 8 If 1,0:, (3, 1', ... be the roots of the equation xn -1 = 0, then show that
(1 - 0:)(1 - (3)(1 - 1') ... = n.
• SOLUTION: Since 1, a, (3, 1', ... are the roots of the equation xn - 1 = 0,
hence
xn - 1 = (x - l)(x - o:)(x - (3)(x - 1') ...
Dividing both sides by x-I we have
x
n
-
1
+ x
n
-
2
+ ... + x + 1 = (x - o:)(x - (3)(x - 1') ...
Putting x = 1 to this relation. Then
n = (1- 0:)(1 - (3)(1 - 1') ....
1.20 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT (.lUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
1.2.3 Relation between roots and coefficients
Note 1 If a, 13" be the roots of the equation ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 0 then
a + 13 +, = -bfa, af3 + 13, +,a = cia, af3, = -d/a.
Note 2 If a, 13", J be the roots of the equation ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e = 0
then a + 13 +, + J = -bfa,
af3 + a, + aJ + 13, + 136 +,6 = cia or, (a + f3)(T + J) + af3 +,6 = cia
af3, + af3J + 13,6 + a,6 = -d/a or, af3(T + J) + ,J(a + 13) = -d/a,
af3,6 = e/a.
Ex. 9 (i) Solve the equation x
3
- 3x
2
+ 4 = 0, two of its roots being equal.
(ii) Solve the equation 2x
3
- 21x2 + 42x - 16 = 0 the roots being in G.P.
(iii) Solve the equation x
3
- 3x
2
- 6x + 8 = 0, given that the roots are in A.P .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the roots of the equation be a, a, 13.
Then 2a + 13 = 3 and a
2
+ 2af3 = O.
These give a = 2,13 = -1.
.'. the roots are 2,2, -1.
(ii) Let the roots of the cubic be a/f3, a, af3.
(
1 ) 21
Then a -g + 1 + 13 = 2 and a
3
= 8.
Solving these we get a = 2 and 13 = 4, ~ .
1 1
the roots are 8,2, 2 or 2,2,8.
(iii) Let the roots of the equation be (a - 13), a, (a + 13).
Then we have 3a = 3 or, a = 1.
Also 3a
2
- 13
2
= -6 or, 3 - 13
2
= -6
or, 13
2
= 9 or, 13 = ±3.
the roots are -2,1,4 or 4,1, -2.
Ex. 10 (i) If the roots of the equation x
3
- 3x
2
+ ax + b = 0 be in arithmetic
progression, prove that a + b = 2.
(ii) The sum of two roots of the equation x
3
+ alx
2
+ a2x + a3 = 0 is zero,
show that al a2 - a3 = O.
(iii) Find the condition that the roots of the equation
x
3
+ px
2
+ qx + r = 0 are in A.P.
CH.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.21
(iv) If the roots of the equation x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 are in G.P., prove that
a
3
c = b
3
.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the roots be (a - 13), a, (a + 13).
Then 3a = 3 or a = 1.
Also 3a
2
- 13
2
= a or, 3 - 13
2
= a or, 13
2
= 3 - a
and a(a
2
- 13
2
) = -b or, (1 - 3 + a) = -b or, a - 2 = -b
or, a + b = 2 which is the required relation.
(ii) Let the roots be a, -a, 13.
Then 13 = -aI, _a
2
= a2 and _a
2
j3 = -a3'
Substituting the values of 13 and a
2
we get -a2al = -a3
or, ala2 - a3 = 0, which is the required relation.
(iii) Let the roots be (a - 13), a, (a + 13).
p
Then 3a = -p or, a = -3"'
p2
Again 3a
2
- 13
2
= q or, 3 - 13
2
= q
p2
or, 13
2
= 3 - q and a(a
2
- 13
2
) = -r
or, _ P: + q) = -r
2p2 3r
or, -g+q= p
or, -2p3 + 9pq = 27r or, 9pq - 2p3 = 27r.
(iv) Let the roots be aj3.
=-a+
=b
a
3
=-c
Substituting (1) in (2), we get
b
-a.a = b or, a = --.
a
(1)
(2)
(3)
1.22 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 6 (i) Find the condition that the equation x
3
+ px
2
+ qx + r = 0
may have two roots equal but of opposite signs.
(ii) Solve the equation x
3
- 6x
2
+ 3x + 10 = 0, the roots being in A.P.
(iii) Solve the equation x
3
- 7x
2
+ 36 = 0 one of the root being double the
other.
(iv) Determine r so that one root of the equation x
3
- rx
2
+ rx - 4 = 0 shall
be reciprocal of another.
[Ans. (i) pq - r = 0, (ii) 5, 2, -1 or, -1, 2, 5, (iii) 3, 6, -2, (iv) r = 5.]
Exercise 7 (i) Solve the equation x
3
- 3x
2
+ 4 = 0, two roots being equal.
(ii) Solve the equation 4x
3
- 24x2 + 23x + 18 = 0, having given that the
roots are in A.P.
(iii) Solve the equation 27x
3
+ 42x2 - 28x - 8 = 0 whose roots are in G.P.
[Ans. (i) 2, 2, -1, (ii) -1/2,2,9/2, (iii) -2/9, 2/3, -2]
1.2.4 Transformation of equation
Ex. 11 (i) Transform the equation x
3
- 6x
2
+ 5x + 8 = 0 into another in
which the second term is missing.
(ii) Find the equation each of whose roots is greater by 2 than the roots of
the equation x4 + 8x
3
+ X - 5 = O.
(iii) Find the equation whose roots are squares of the roots of x
3
- 2x cos 0 +
1 = O.
(iv) Obtain an equation whose roots are twice the roots of the equation
x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 4x + 5 = O.
(v) Form the equation whose roots are reciprocal to those of x4 - 4x
3
+ 5x
2
-
8x + 7 = O.
(vi) Find the equation whose roots are equal in magnitude but opposite in
sign to the roots of the equation x4 + 3x
3
- 7x
2
+ 2x + 1 = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let us transform the equation by putting x = y + h .
... (y + h)3 - 6(y + h)2 + 5(y + h) + 8 = 0
or, y3 + (3h - 6)y2 + (3h
2
- 12h + 5)y + (h
3
- 6h
2
+ 5h + 8) = 0
To remove the second term we put 3h - 6 = 0 or, h = 2, thus the
transformed equation is y3 + (12 - 24 + 5)y + (8 - 24 + 10 + 8) = 0 or,
y3 -7y + 2 = O.
CR.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.23
(ii) Let a be a root of the given equation.
. a
4
+ 8a
3
+ a - 5 = 0
Let y = a + 2 or, 0: = Y - 2.
Putting this value in (1) we get
(y - 2)4 + 8(y - 2)3 + (y - 2) - 5 = 0
or, y4 - 24y2 + 65y - 55 = O.
(1)
(iii) Let a, b, c be the roots of the given equation. Since a is a root of the
equation
. '. a
3
- 2a cos 0 + 1 = 0 or, a (a
2
- 2 cos 0) = -1
Squaring both sides we get
a
2
(a
2
- 2cosO)2 = 1.
Let y = a
2
. .'. y(y - 2 cos 0)2 = 1
or, y3 - 4y2 cos 0 + 4y cos
2
0 = 1.
(iv) Let a, (3, 'Y ~ e the roots of the given equation
. 0:
3
+ 3a
2
+ 4a + 5 = 0
Let y = 2a or, a = y/2 Substituting in (1) we get
y3 + 3y2 + 4!£ + 5 = 0
8 4 2
or, y3 + 6y2 + 16y + 40 = O.
(v) The given equation is x4 - 4x
3
+ 5x
2
- 8x + 7 = 0
S b
·· 1
u stltutmg x = -, we get
y
1 4 5 8
---+---+7=0
y4 y3 y2 Y
or, 7y4 - 8y3 + 5y2 - 4y + 1 = 0 which is the required equation.
(vi) Putting x = -y in the given equation. The transformed equation is
(_y)4 + 3( _y)3 - 7( _y)2 + 2( -y) + 1 = 0
or, y4 - 3
y
3 - 7y2 - 2y + 1 = O.
(1)
Ex. 12 (i) If a, (3, 'Yare the roots of the equation x
3
- 5x
2
- 4x + 20 = 0,
determine the value of "L.. a
2
(3.
(ii) If a, (3, 'Y be the roots of the equation
x
3
- px
2
+ qx - r = 0
find the value of "L.. 0:
2
(3.
(iii) If a, (3, 'Y be the roots of the equation x
3
+ px + q = 0, find the value of
1
L(3+'Y'
1.24 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) If a, /3" be the roots of x
3
- px
2
+ qx - r = 0, find the value of (/3 +
,)(, + a)(a + (3).
(v) If a, /3" be the roots of the equation x
3
+ x + 1 = 0 find the value of
a
2
+ /3
2
+ ,2.
(vi) If a, /3" be the roots of the equation ax
3
+ bx
2
+ ex + d = 0, find the
value of E a
2

• SOLUTION:
(i) The given equation is x
3
- 5x
2
- 4x + 20 = O.
We have a + /3 +, = 5, a/3 + /3, + a, = -4, a/3, = -20.
We know E a
2
/3 = (a + /3 + ,)(a/3 + /3, + a,) - 3a/3,
= 5 x (-4) - 3 x (-20) = 40.
(ii) Here a + /3 +, = p, a/3 + /3, + a, = q, a/3, = r.
We know E a
2
/3 = (a + /3 + ,)(a/3 + /3, + a,) - 3a/3, = pq - 3r.
(iii) Since a, (3, ,·are the roots of x
3
+ px + q = 0, we have
a + (3 +, = 0, a(3 + /3, + a, = p, a(3, = -q.
1 1 1 1
Now, L /3 + , = a + /3 + (3 + , + a +,
= ~ + _1_ + ~ = _ (.!. + .!. + .!.)
-, -a -/3 a (3 ,
(3, + a, + a(3 p p
= = =
a/3, -q q
(iv) Since a, (3" are the roots of x
3
- px
2
+ qx - r = 0, we have
a + /3 + , = p, a(3 + (3, + a, = q, a(3, = r.
Now, (a + (3)(/3 + ,)(, + a) = (a + (3 + ,)(a/3 + /3, -t a,) - ap, = pq - r.
(v) Since a, (3" are the roots of x
3
+ x + 1 = 0,
a + /3 + , = 0, a/3 + (3, + a, = 1, a/3, = -1.
We have a
2
+ (32 + ,2 = (a + (3 + ,)2 - 2(a/3 + /3, + a,)
= 0 - 2.1 = -2.
(vi) Here a + /3 +, = - ~ , a(3 + /3, + a, = !!.., a/3, = - ~ .
a a a
Now E a
2
= a
2
+ /3
2
+ ,2
= (a + /3 + ,)2 - 2(a/3 + /3, + a,)
b
2
e b
2
- 2ae
= - - 2 - = ----::---
a
2
a a
2
Ex. 13 (i) Find the equation whose roots are the roots of the equation
x4 + 5x
3
- 6x
2
+ 8x - 9 = 0 with their sign changed.
CH.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.25
(ii) Remove the fractional coefficients of the equation
3 1 2 2
x - 2
x
+ aX = o.
(iii) Transform the equation 3x
4
- 5x
3
+ x
2
- X + 1 = 0 to one with unity as
its leading coefficient.
(iv) Diminish the roots of the equation x
3
+ x - 2 = 0 by 2.
(v) If a, /3" be the roots of the equation 2x
3
+ 3x
2
- X - 1 find the
h
. 1 1 1
equation w ose roots are -1--' -1 /3' -1 -.
-a - -,
(vi) If a, /3" be the roots of the equation x
3
- 2x2 + X - 3 = 0, then form
the equation whose roots are a/3, /3" ,a.
(vii) If a, /3" be the roots of the equation x
3
- px
2
+ qx - r = 0, find the
equation whose roots are /3 +", + a, a + /3.
(viii) Form the equation whose roots are reciprocal to those of x
5
+ 6x
4
- 7 x
3
+
8x
2
+ 9x + 1 = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Putting x = -y in the given equation.
(_y)4 + 5{ _y)3 - 6{ _y)2 + 8{ -y) - 9 = 0
or, y4 - 5
y
3 - 6y2 - 8y - 9 = O.
(ii) Putting x = y/a.
(
'!!.)3 _ !('!!.)2 + = 0
a 2 a 3a
3 1 2 2 2
or, y - 2
Y
a + aya = O.
If we take a = 6 (which is the l.c.m. of 2, 3) then the fractional coeffi-
cients become integral.
Thus y3 - 3y2 + 24y = O.
(iii) Dividing the given equation by 3,
x4 - + !x
2
- !x + ! = 0
3 3 3 3 .
Putting x = y / a.
- + _ + = 0
5 1 1 1
or, y4 _ _
ay
3 + _a
2
y2 _ _ ya
3
+ _a
4
= 0
3 3 3 3
Choosing a = 3 the equation becomes
y4 _ 5
y
3 + 3
y
3 - 9y + 27 = O.
1.26 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Applying successive synthetic division by 2.
2 1 0 1 -2
10
8
The transformed equation is y3 + 6y2 + 13y + 8 = O.
1 y-1
(v) Let y = -- or, a = --.
1-a y
Since a is a root of the given equation, so
23·
-+ - -a-1 =0.
a
3
a
2
or, 2 (y - 1) 3 + 3 (y - 1) 2 _ (y - 1) _ 1 = 0
y y y
or, 2(y - 1)3 + 3(y - 1)2y - (y - 1)y2 - y3 = 0
or, 3y3 - lly2 + 9y - 2 = O.
(vi) Let y =
3 3
or, y = -- = - or, "( = -.
"( "( Y
Also "( is a root of the given equation .
. '. "(3 - 2"(2 + "( - 3 = 0
or, _ + _ 3 = 0
y y Y
9 6 1
or - - - + - - 1 = 0
'y3 y2 Y
or, y3 - y2 + 6y - 9 = O.
(vii) Let y = a + or, Y = a + + "( - "( = p - "( or, "( = p - y.
Since "( is a root of the given equation,
"(3 - p"(2 + q"( _ r = 0
or,
or, y3 - 2py2 + (p2 +q)y - (pq - r) = O.
(viii) Putting x = in the given equation, we get

CR.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.27
1 6 7 8 9
-+---+-+-+1=0
y5 y4 y3 y2 Y
or, y5 + 9y4 + 8y3 - 7y2 + 6y + 1 = a which is the required equation.
Exercise 8 (i) Diminish the roots of the equation 2x
5
- x
3
+ lax - 8 = a
by 3.
(ii) Find the equation whose roots are the roots of 3x
4
+7x
3
-15x
2
+x-2 = 0,
each increased by 5.
(iii) If 01., (3, "I be the roots of the equation x
3
+ 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0, find the
equation whose roots are 1 + !., 1 + _(31 , 1 + !..
01. "I
(iv) If 01., (3, "I be the roots of the equation x
3
- 3x
2
+ 8x - 5 = 0, then form
an equation whose roots are 201. + 3,2(3 + 3,2"1 + 3.
[Ans. (i) 2y5 + 30y4 + 179y3 + 531y2 + 793y + 481 = 0,
(ii) 3y4 - 53y3 + 330y2 - 824y + 618 = 0,
(iii) 4y3 .:.. 9y2 + By - 2 = 0, (iv) y3 - 15y2 + 95y - 217 = 0.]
Ch.211 Linear Algebra
2.1 Determinant
2.1.1 Some properties of .determinants
(i) A determinant remains unaltered by chl:l.nging its rows into columns and
its columns into rows.
(ii) The interchange of two rows or columns of a determinant changes the
sign of the determinant without changing its numerical value.
(iii) If two rows or two columns of a detecminant be identical, then the value
of the determinant is zero.
(iv) If the elements of a determinant a be rational integral functions of x
and two rows or two columns become identical when x = a, then (x - a)
is a factor of a.
In general, if r rows (or r columns) become identical when x = a, then
(x - a)r-l is a factor of a.
(v) If every element of any row (or column) of a determinant be· multiplied
by a factor, then the determinant is multiplied by the same factor.
(vi) A determinant remains unchanged by adding (or subtracting) k times the
elements of any row (or column) to (from) the corresponding elements
of any other row (or column), where k is any given number.
Ex. 1 (i) If fl. be a determinant of order 3 and fl.1 be the determinant
obtained from fl. by interchanging first row and second row, what is the
relation between fl. and fl.l?
(ii) Justify the statement 'if two rows of a determinant are identical then
the determinant vanishes'.
(iii) Find the value of a determinant of order 3 when two columns are iden-
tical.
(iv) Prove that if every element of a third order determinant be multiplied
by the same constant p then the determinant is multiplied by p3 ..
• SOLUTION:
(i) As we know, interchange of two rows of a determinant changes the sign
of the determinant, therefore relation between fl. and fl.1 is fl. = -fl.l.
2.2 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) If we interchange the two identical rows then the determinant .6. becomes
( -.6.).
Hence .6. = -.6. or, 2.6. = 0 or, .6. = O.
i.e., if two rows of a determinant are identical then the determinant
vanishes.
(iii) Same as (ii).
al a2 a3
(iv) Let the third order determinant be .6. =
bl b2 b3
Cl C2 C3
pal pa2 p
a
3
Multiplying each element by p w ~ get pbl pb2 pb3
PCl P
C
2 P
C
3
Taking common p from all rows we get
pal pa2 pa3 al a2 a3
pbl pb2 pb3 = p3 b
l
b2 b3 = p3.6.. •
PCl P
C
2 PC3, Cl C2 C3
Hence the determinant is multiplied by p3.,
1 w w
2
Ex. 2 Simplify w w
2
1 where w is an imaginary cube root of unity.
w
2
1 w
1 w w
2
1 + w + w
2
w w
2
• SOLUTION: w w
2
1 = 1 + w + w
2
w
2
1
w
2
1 w 1 + w + w
2
1 w
(Adding second and third columns with the first column)
o w w
2
=, 0 w
2
1 = 0 [Since 1 + w + w
2
= 0]
w
2
0 w
abc
Ex. 3 Show that b C a = -(a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
- 3abc).
cab
abc
• SOLUTION: ,b c a
cab
cab b a
O
+ b c
=a a b - c b c c a
= a(bc - a
2
) - b(b
2
- ac) + c(ab - c
2
)
= abc - a
3
- b
3
+ abc + abc - c
3
= -(a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
- 3abc)
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
Ex. 4 (i) Prove that (a - 1) is a factor of the determinant
a+1
3
4
2
a+2
4
3
4
a+3
(ii) Show that (x - a)2 is a factor of the determinant
x a x
a x a
a a a
(iii) Show that (3 - , is a factor of the determinant
111
A= a (3 ,
a
2
(32 ,2
(iv) Show that x = a + b + c is a solution of the equation
a - x b c
b c - x a = O.
cab - x
(v) Prove that x = 1 is a root of the equation
x + 2 3 3
3 x + 4 5 = O.
3 5 x +4
• SOLUTION:
(i) Putting a = 1 in the given determinant we get
223
3 3 4 = 0,
444
since two columns are identical.
... (a - 1) is a factor of the given determinant.
(ii) Putting x = a in the given determinant we get
a a a
a a a = 0,
a a a
since all the three columns are identical.
2.3
We know, if r columns becomes identical when x = a then (x - a)r-l is
a factor of A .
... (x - a)2 is a factor of the given determinant.
2.4 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
1 1 1 0 0 1
(iii) = a (3 "'I = a - "'I (3 - "'I "'I
a
2
(32 "'12 a
2
- "'12 (32 - "'12 "'12
(Ci f- Cl - f- C2 - CS)
o 0 1
= (a - "'1)((3 - "'I) 1 1 "'I
a + "'I (3 + "'I "'12
.'. ((3 - "'I) is a factor of the determinant.
(iv) The given determinant is
a-a; b C a+b+c-a; b c
b c-a; a = a+b+c-a; c-a; a
cab-a; a+b+c-a; a b-a;
(ci f- Cl + C2 + cs)
Putting a; = a + b + c we get
o b c
o -a - b a = 0
o a -a - c
. '. a; = a + b + c is a solution of the equation.
(v) Putting a; = 1 in the given determinant we get
3 3 3
3 5 5 = 0,
3 5 5
since second and third columns are identical.
.'. (w - 1) is a factor, hence, IX = 1 is a root of the given equation.
Exercise 1 Show that (w - 1)2 is a factor of the determinant
a; 1 w
1 a; 1 .
111
2.1.2 Minor, cofactor and adjoint of determinant
Def. 1 Minor: The minor of any element aij in a determinant is a deter-
minant obtained by omitting from the ith row and jth column.
Def. 2 The cofactor of any element ai, in a determinant is a
determinant obtained by omitting from the ith row and jth column with a
proper sign. The sign of the cofactor of the element ai, is (-1)i+j.
Note 1 If Mi, and Aij be the minor and cofactor of the element ai, in the
determinant then Aij = (-1) i+ j Mij .
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
Ex. 5 (i) Find the cofactors of the elements a and b in
3 -4 a
2 7 b
5 -9 2
2.5
(ii) Prove that the minor and co-factor of x in the following determinant are
the same
x
'II
Z
x
2
'112
z2
'liZ
zx xy
• SOLUTION:
(i) Cofactor of a = (_1)1+3
2 7
= -18 - 35 = -53.
5 -9
Cofactor of b = (_1)2+3
3 -4
= -(-27+20) = 7.
5 -9
2 2
(ii) Minor of x = 'II z = xy3 - xz
3
.
zx xy
'112 z2
Cofactor of x = (_1)1+1 = xy3 - xz
3
.
zx xy
minor of x = cofactor of x.
Ex. 6 (i) Prove, without expanding, that
5 2 3
7 3 4 = o.
945
(ii) Without expanding find the value of the determinant
7 12 -3
9 14 -1
8 13 -2
(iii) Prove, without expanding, that
1 a b+ e
1 b e + a = O.
1 e a + b
(iv) Prove, without expanding, that
1 a a
2
- be
1 b b
2
- ea = O.
1 e e
2
- ab
2.6 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(v) Prove, without expanding, that
1 a be 1 a a
2
1bea= 1bb
2
1 e ab
(vi) Prove, without expanding, that
a d 3a - 4d
b e 3b - 4e = O.
e / 3c - 4/
• SOLUTION:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
5 2 3 5 5 3
7 3 4
= 7 7 4
( O ~ f- 02 + Oa)
9 4 5 9 9 5
= 0, since first and second columns are identical.
7 12 -3 7 12 -3
[ R\ +-R,-R,]
9 14 -1
=
1 1 1
8 13 -2 1 1 1
R ~ f- Ra - Rl
= 0, since second and third rows are identical.
1 a b+e
1 b a+e
1 e a+b
1 a a+b+e
=
1 b a+b+e ( O ~ f- 02 t' Oa)
1 e a+b+e
1 a 1
=(a+b+e) 1 b 1 =0,
1 e 1
since first and third columns are identical.
1 a a
2
- be 1 a a
2
- be
(iv) 1 b b
2
- ae = 0 b - a b
2
- ae - a
2
+ be
(v)
1 e e
2
- ab 0 e - a e
2
- ab - a
2
+ be
( R ~ f- R2 - Rl, R ~ f- Ra - R
1
)
b - a (b - a)(a + b + c)
= e - a (e - a)(a + b + c)
1 a+b+e
=(b-a)(e-a) 1 a+b+e =0
(since first and second rows are identical).
1 a be 1 a a
2
abc
1 b ea = -b b b
2
abc
1 e ab aCe e
2
abc
(multiplying first, second and third rows
=
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
by a, b, c respectively)
a a
2
1
b b
2
1 (taking common abc from third columns)
c c
2
1
1 a a
2
1 b b
2
1 C c
2
(interchanging columns)
a d 3a - 4d
(vi) b e 3b - 4e
c 1 3c - 41
adO
b e 0 +-- C
3
- 3C
1
+ 4C
2
]
c 1 0
=0
2.7
Exercise 2
1 w
(i) W w
2
w
2
1
Find the values of the following determinant without expanding.
w
2
1 w
3
w
2
530 480 438
1 ,(ii) w
3
1 w ,(iii) 480 450 396
w w
2
w 1 438 396 362
[Ans. (i) 0, (ii) 3, (iii) 0.]
Exercise 3 (i) Find the minor and cofactor of x in
3 -4 -3
2 7 x
5 -9 2
(ii) Show that (x + a + b + c) is a factor of the determinant
x+ abc
b x + c a
c a x + b
1 1 1
(iii) Show that a - b and a - c are two factors of abc
a
2
b
2
c
2
[Ans. (i) -7, 7.]
Der. 3 Adjoint or adjugate determinant:
The adjoint or adjugate of a determinant is the determinant whose
elements are the cofactors of the corresponding elements of
Theorem 1 Jacobi's Theorem
If 0) a determinant of order n and be its adjoint then =
Q. 1 State Jacobi's theorem.
2.8 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 4 A determinant fj. is said to be skew-symmetric if aij = -aji for all
i and j in fj..
o a-b
The determinant -a 0 c is a skew-symmetric.
b -c 0
Def. 5 A determinant fj. is said to be symmetric if aij = aji for all i and j
in b..
a x y
The determinant x b z is a symmetric.
y z c
Ex. 7 Prove that the value of every skew-symmetric determinant of odd order
is zero.
• SOLUTION: Let fj. be a skew-symmetric determinant of odd order. Let
fj.' be the determinant obtained by changing rows of fj. into columns, then
fj. = fj.'.
Again, fj.' is also obtained by multiplying each row of fj. by (-1). Hence
fj.' = (-1)nfj. = -fj., since n is odd .
... fj. = -fj. or, 2b. = 0 or, fj. = O.
Thus every skew-symmetric determinant of odd order is zero.
Exercise 4 Give an example of a third order skew-symmetric determinant
and find its value.
2.1.3 Cramer's rule
Ex. 8 (i) Solve by Cramers rule 2x - Y = 1, x + y = 2.
(ii) Using Cramers rule, solve, if possible, 2x - 3y = 1, x + y - 5 = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) -;
or,
we have by Cramer's rule
x y
.,-------;-=.,..----'----;-
1 -1
2 1
2 1
1 2
x y 1
333
or,
1
2 -1
1 1
x=y=1.
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
(ii) Here ~ = I ~ - ~ I = 2 + 3 = 5 i O.
we have by Cramer's rule
or,
or,
Exercise 5 Solve the following equations by Cramers rule
(i) x + y = 5, 3x + 2y = 12.
(ii) -x + y = 1, 4x + 3y = 3.
(iii) x + y = 0, 6x + 8y = O.
[Ans. (i) x = 2, y = 3, (ii) x = 0, y = 1, (iii) x = 0, y = O.J
2.2 Matrices
Ex. 1 If A = [ ~ 1 = ~ l' then find the value of IAI2.
1
-1 -1
• SOLUTION: IAI = 2 -2 = 2 + 2 = 4 .
. '. IAI2 = 16.
Theorem 1 Let A and B be two matrices. Then IABI = IAIIBI.
2 . ~
Def. 1 Singular matrix: A matrix A is said to be singular if IAI or det(A)
is equal to zero.
Def. 2 Non-singular matrix: A matrix A is said to be non-singular if IAI
or det(A) is not equal to zero.
Q. 1 Define singular and non-singular matrices.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that of the two matrices [ ~ ; 1 and [ ~ : lone is sin.
gular and the other is non-singular.
2.10 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) For what values of x, the matrix
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here I ~ ~ I = 10 - 4 = 6 # 0
and I ~ : 1= 20 - 20 = O .
[
3-
2
x
-2
2
4-x
-4
~ 1 is singular?
-1- x
. '. the first matrix is non-singular and second matrix is singular.
3 - x 2 2
(ii) If the matrix is singular then 2 4 - x 1 = O.
-2 -4 -1- x
or, (3 - x)[-(4 - x)(l + x) + 4]- 2[-2(1 + x) + 2]
+2[-8 + 2(4 - x)] = 0
or, (3 - x)(x
2
- 3x) + 4x - 4x = °
or, (3 - x)(x
2
- 3x) = 0
or, x = 3, x (3 - x) = °
or, x = 0,3,3.
when x = 0,3,3 then the matrix is singular.
Ex. 3 (i) If A = [ _ ~ ~ ] and I be the 2 x 2 unit matrix, fina HIe value
of A - 21.
(ii) Evaluate 3A - 4B where A = [ ~ ~ 4 ~ ] and
B = [ ~ ~ !].
(iii)
(iv)
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2.11
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have A = [ _ ~ ~ ] .
A - 2I = [ _ ~ ~ ] - 2 [ ~ ~ ]
- [ 4 ~ ~ 1 - ~ ]- [ _ ~ _ ~ ] .
(ii) 3A - 4B = 3 [ ~ - ~ ~ ] - 4 [ ~ ~ !]
= [ 9 - 4 -12 18 - 4] = [5 -12
3
149]
15 - 8 3 21 - 12 7
(iii) For equality of two matrices
[
x-
y
y-t]=[y-Z X
3
+-
y
Z]
z+t x+z 2+t
Comparing we get
x - y = y - z, y - t = x - z, z + t = 2 + t, x + z = 3 + y
or, x - 2y + z = 0, x - y - z + t = 0, z = 2, x + z = 3 + y
or, x - 2y + 2 = 0, x - y = 1 (since z = 2).
Solving x - 2y = -2 and x - y = 1 we obtain x = 4, y = 3.
Thus we get x = 4, y = 3, z = 2 and t = l.
(iv) We have
3 [ ~ ~ ] = [ _ ~ 2 ~ ] + [ c! d a 1 b ]
= [ 4+a 6+a+b]
c + d -1 2d + 3
Comparing we get 3a = 4 + a or, 2a = 4 or, a = 2
3b = 6 + a + b or, a - 2b = -6 or, b = 4
3d = 2d + 3 or, d = 3
3c = c + d - 1 or, 2c = d - 1 or, 2c = 2 or, c = 1
Hence a = 2,b = 4,c = I,d = 3.
Def. 3 Transpose of a matrix: The transpose of a matrix A is the matrix
obtained from A by changing its rows into columns or columns into rows.
Generally, it is denoted by A' or AT.
Q. 2 Define the transpose of a matrix.
2.12 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 4
(i) If A = [ !
2
3] [ -3
1
_ ], then find the
5
7 and B = 5
-3
matrix C such that A + B = C.
Then verify that (CTf = C.
(ii)
Find A, when [ !5
3
2] [ -1
3

1
3 + 5A = 5
6
• SOLUTION:
(i) C = A + B
= [1 2 3] + [-3 1 2] = [ -2
3 5 7 5 -3 -1 8
3 5]
2 6
Now aT = [-: !] and ((/T)T = [ -;
3
= C.
2
Hence (CT)T = C.
(ii) The given equation can be written as
[-1 3 7] [ 4 3 2] [-5
0
]
5A = 5 6 3 - -5 1 3 = 10
5
1 [-5 0 5] [-1 0 1]
or, A = 5" 10 5 0 = 2 1 0 .
Ex. 5 (i) Find (A + B)', where A = n and B = [!
(ii) Find two non-zero matrices whose product is a zero matrix. -
(iii) Cite one example to show that matrix multiplication is, in general, not
commutative.
(iv) Given A = : and B = are two matrices.
360 789
ine if they satisfy the commutative law of multiplication.
(v) Write [x y z]

fhb f9
c
] [X;] as a single matrix.
(vi) If A = show that A2 + 1= O.
(I and 0 being identity and null matrices of order 2).
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
.. [ cos 0 - sin
0
]
(VU) If A(O) = . 0 0' then show that
sm cos
A(O)A(¢)= A(¢)A(O)= A(O + ¢).
(viii) If
A = [ _ = and B = - ]
show that A2 + B2 = (A + B)2 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) A + B = + [! =
(A+B? = (A+B)(A+B)
= =
(ii) Let A:::: and B = be two non-zero matrices.
Bm AB = = is a null matrix.
(iii) Let A = [; and B = be any two matrices.'
Now AB = [; =
and BA = 1 [; =
... AB-#BA.
Hence matrix multiplication is, in general, not commutative.
(iv) AB [
4

0
1 [
0
1
5 0 0
6 8 0
P
0

4
o 1 [0 0
1
0 5 o = 0 0
7 8 6 o 40 122
.'. AB -# BA.
2.13
Thus the matrices A and B does not satisfy the commutative law of
matrix multiplication.
2.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vl[ x y z 1 ; 1
= [ ax + hy + gz hx + by + ! z gx + !y + cz 1 [ 1
= [ax
2
+ by2 + cz
2
+ 2hxy + 2gxz + 2Jyz].
(vi) A = [ - - ]
A2 = =
.'. A2 + 1= + =
(vii) A(8) = [C?S8 -sin8] and A(¢) = [C?S¢ -sin¢]
sm8 cos 8 sm¢ cos ¢
A(8)A(¢) = [ () - sin8]. [ ¢ - sin¢ ]
sm () cos 8 sm ¢ cos ¢
= [ cos ¢ cos 8 - sin ¢ sin 8 - sin ¢ cos 8 - cos ¢ sin 8]
cos ¢ sin 8 + sin ¢ cos 8 - sin ¢ sin 8 + cos ¢ cos 8
= [C?S(8+¢) -Sin(8+¢)] =A(8+¢).
sm(8 + ¢) cos(8 + ¢)
Similarl A(A.)A(8) = [ C?s(
8
+ ¢) - sin(
8
+ ¢) ]
y, 'f' sm(8 + ¢) cos(8 + ¢)
.'. A(8).A(¢) = A(¢).A(8) = A(8 + ¢).
(viii) A2 = =
B2 = =
... A2 + B2 = + =
A + B = + =
... (A + B)2 = =
Hence A2 + B2 = (A + B)2.
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2.15
Exercise 1 (i) If n be a positive integer and A = [ _ l' then
h h t A
2 = [ cos 2() sin 2() 1
s ow t a . 2() 2()·
-sm cos
(ii) If A = l' then find (A2 - 3A - 131).
[Ans. (ii) 0]
2.2.1 Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices
Def. 4 Symmetric matrix: A matrix A = [Aij] is said to be symmetric if
aij = aji for all i,j.
Alternative: A matrix is said to be symmetric if AT = A.
Def. 5 Skew-symmetric matrix: A matrix A = [Aij] is said to be skew-
symmetric if aij = -aji for all i,j.
Alternative: A matrix is said to be skew-symmetric if AT = -A.
Q. 3 Define symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and give examples.
Ex. 6 (i) If A = (-l then show that A2 is symmetric.
(ii) If A be a square matrix, prove that A + AT is a symmetric matrix and
A - AT is skew-symmetric.
(iii) Show that for any matrix A, AAT is symmetric.
(iv) If both A and Bare 2 x 2 real skew symmetric matrices, show that
AB=BA.
(
073 :1) (v) Express the matrix A = as the sum of two matrices of
which one is symmetrical and the other is skew-symmetrical.
• SOLUTION:
(i) A2 = A.A = (-Js (-Js = .
.... A
2
is a symmetric matrix.
2.16 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) We have (A + AT)T = AT + (ATf = AT + A.
Thus (A + AT) is symmetric matrix.
Again (A - AT)T = AT - (AT)T = AT - A = -,(A - AT) .
. '. (A - AT) is skew-symmetric matrix.
(iii) Let A be an m x n matrix, then AT is an n x m matrix .
. AAT is an m x m matrix.
Now (AAT)T = (AT)T AT = AAT.
Hence A4. T is a symmetric matrix.
(iv) Let A = ( ~ - ~ ) , B = ( ~ - ~ ) .
Then AB =, ( ~ - ~ ) ( ~ - ~ ) = ( ~ - ~ ) and
BA = ( ~ - ~ ) ( ~ - ~ ) = ( ~ - ~ )
. AB = BA.
(v) If A be a square matrix then ~ ( A + AT) is symmetric and ~ ( A - AT) is
skew-symmetric.
1 1
Then A = 2(A + AT) + 2(A - AT) .

~ -2)
o 2 .
-2 0
Ex. 7 If A, B, C are matrices of appropriate orders with AB = AC, then does
it imply that B = C? Give an example in support of your conclusion.
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2.17
• SOLUTION: Let A = B = and
C =
Now AB = and AC =
Thus AB = AC but B i= C.
Hence, AB = AC does not imply B = C.
2.2.2 Adjoint and inverse of a matrix
Def. 6 Adjoint of a matrix: If A = [aij]nxn be a square matrix, then
the transpose of the matrix [Aij]nxn whose elements are the cofactors of the
corresponding elements in IAI is called the adjoint or adjugate matrix of A.
It is generally denoted by adj.A.
Def. 7 Inverse of a matrix: Let A be a square matrix of order n x nand
there exists another square matrix B of the same order such that A.B =
B.A = I where I is the unit matrix of order n x n, then B is called the inverse
of A and is denoted by A -1.
Q. 4 Define adjoint and inverse of a matrix.
Ex. 8 Find the adjoint of the matrix
[
cosa
-sina
sina ]
cos a
• SOLUTION: Let an = cos a, a12 = sin a, a21 = - sin a, a22 = cos a.
The cofactors of an, a12, a21, a22 are respectively
An = (_1)1+1 cos a = cos a, A12 = (-1)1+2(-sina) = sina,
A21 = (-1?+1(sina) = - sina, A22 = (_1)2+2 cos a = cos a .
. '. the adjoint of A is
AdjA = (An A21) = -sina).
A12 A22 sma cos a
Ex. 9 (i) Show that the inverse of the matrix is equal to its trans-
pose.
(ii) Write down the inverse of the matrix A = !].
2.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Find A, if A = l
(iv) If A = then show that A2 - 4A + 31 = O.
(v) Let A, B be two matrices such that AB = 0, where 0 is the null matrix.
Does it imply that A = 0 or B = O? Give an example in support of your
answer.
(vi) If A be a non-singular square matrix and B, C are square matrices of
the same order such that AB = AC, show that B = C .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let A =
adj.A = and IAI = 0 - 1 = -1.
A-I = = - = .
. T [Ol]T [01]
Agam A = 1 0 = 1 0 .
Hence AT = A-I.
(ii) Here A = ! l
IAI = 8 - 3 = 5. adjA = [_!
. A-I = adj A = ! [ 4 -1].
. . IAI 5 -3 2
(iii) Let B = [;
IBI = 8 - 3 = 5. adjB = -!] .
. '. B-
1
= = -!].'
We have A [: = lor, AB = 1
or, A = B-
1
= -!]
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
= ~ [ ~ ~ ~ ~ ] = [-! - ~ l
(iv) A2 = [ 2 -1] [ 2 -1] = [ 5 -4].
-1 2 -1 2 -4 5
A2[_ 4t +_!I] [2 -1] [ 1 . 0 ] [ 0
= -4 5 - 4 -1 2 + 3 0 1 = 0 ~ ].
... A2 - 4A + 31 = O.
[
-1 1] [-2 2]
(v) Let A = -1 1 and B = _ 2 2 .
AB = [ = ~ ~ ] [ = ~ ~ ] = [ ~ ~ ] .
Thus AB = 0 does not imply A = 0 or B = O.
(vi) We have AB = AG. Given that A is non-singular. So A-I exists .
... A-I(AB) = A-1(AC) or, (A-
1
A)B = (A-
1
A)C
or, I B = IC or, B = G.
2.2.3 Orthogonal matrix
2.19
Def. 8 Orthogonal matrix: A matrix A is said to be orthogonal if AAT = I,
AT is the transpose of A.
Q. 5 Define orthogonal matrix.
Ex. 10 (i) Show that the matrix [ ~ - ~ ] is orthogonal.
Y2 72 .
(ii) Prove that the inverse of an orthogonal matrix is orthogonal.
(iii) Show that the product of two orthogonal matrices is orthogonal.
(iv) Show that the unit matrices are orthogonal.
(v) Show that the value of the determinant of an orthogonal matrix is either
1 or -1.
(vi) Show that the transpose of an orthogonal matrix is orthogonal.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let A = [ ~
Y2
Hence A is an orthogonal matrix.
~ ]
1 .
Y2
~ ] = I.
2.20 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Let A be an orthogonal matrix. We know for an orthogonal matrix A,
AT = A-
1
and AT A = I.
Now (A-1)(A-1)T = (AT)(AT)T = AT A = I.
Hence A -1 is orthogonal.
(iii) Let A and B be two orthogonal matrices. Then AT A = I and BT B = I.
Now (ABf(AB) = (BT AT)(AB) = BT(AT A)B = BTIB = BTB = I .
. '. AB is an orthogonal matrix.
(iv) Since IT 1= 1.1 = I, therefore unit matrices are orthogonal.
(v) Let A be an orthogonal matrix, then AT A = I .
. '. IAT AI = III or, IATIIAI = III = 1
or, IAI2 = 1 (since IATI = IAI)
or, IAI = ±l.
(vi) Let A be an orthogonal matrix then AAT = I.
Now (AT)T AT = AAT = I .
. '. AT is an orthogonal matrix.
Exercise 2 (i) Show that the matrix [ ~ ~ 1 is orthogonal.
(ii) Show that the matrix [ ~ ~ 1 1 is orthogonal.
. [cosa
Show that the matrIX .
sma
- sin a l'
IS orthogonal.
cos a
(iii)
(iv)
[
-1
Show that the matrix ~ - ~
2 ':-2]
1 2 is orthogonal.
2 1
(v) Find k, such that [ : ~ ~ ~
[Ans. (v) k = ±l.]
- sinO 0]
cos 0 0 is an orthogonal matrix.
o k
2.2.4 Rank of a matrix
Def. 9 Rank of a Matrix: The rank of a non-null matrix A is the order of
the largest square sub-matrix in A whose determinant does not vanish.
Ex. 11 (i) Find the rank of [!! ~ ] .
4 3 16
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
(ti) Find the rank of the matrix : !).
(iii) Find the rank of [ J
2.21
(iv) What is the rank of unit matrix of order two? Justify your answer.
(v) Find the value of xlor which the rank of the matrix ! is two .
• SOLUTION:
[1'2
[
2
-Iq [ 112 +- R, - 3R, ]
(i) 3 4 -2
4 3 16 0 -3
o f- R3 - (Rl + R2)
NP
2
-I; ] (112 +- R, -
-2
. 0
0 18
Here all the elements of lower triangular part are zero and the number
of non-zero rows is 3 so the rank of the given matrix is 3.
(ii) '" [ f- R2 - 2Rl 1
3 6 6 0 0 0 R3 f- R3 - (Rl + R2)
Here all the elements of lower triangular part are zero and the number
of non-zero rows is 2 so the rank of the given matrix is 2.
(iii) Let A [J 1
Now IAI = v'3 = -V6 O.
0
Hence the rank of the given matrix is 2.
(iv) Let 1= 1 be a unit matrix of order two.
1 0
Now III = 0 1 = 1 O.
Hence the rank of a unit matrix of order two is 2.
(v) If the rank of the given matrix is 2 then its determinant value should be
equal to zero. That is
'-
2.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
2 4 2
2 1 2 = 0
lOx
or, 2(x - 0) - 4(2x - 2) + 2(0 - 1) = 0
or, - 6x + 6 = 0 or, x = 1.
Theorem 2 If A and B be two matrices then rank(A + B) :c::; rank(A) +
rank(B).
Theorem 3 If A and B be two matrices then rank(AB) :c::; min{rank(A), rank(B)}.
2.2.5 Solution of equations by matrix inverse method
Ex. 12 (i) Write the matrix equation for the system of equations:
x + y + z = 3, 2x - 3y + 4z = 17, x + 6y - z = -8.
(ii) Given the matrices A ~ [! - ~ n X ~ [ ~ 1 and C ~ [n
write down the three linear equations given by AX = C .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The equations are written in matrix notation as AX = B,
where A = [ ~ - ! ! 1 ,X = [ : ] and B = [ 1 ~ ].
1 6 -1 z -8
(il) :T f ~ n ][ ~ ] ~ [ ~ 1
The three linear equations are x + 2y + 3z = 6,
3x - 2y + z = 2,4x + 2y + z = 7.
Ex. 13 (i) Solve by matrix method 2x - y = 1, x + y = 2.
(ii) Solve by matrix inverse method 3x - 2y = 4,4x - 3y = 5 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given equations can be written as
AX=B
where A = [ ~ - ~ 1 ' X = [ : land B = [ ~ l
(1)
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
1
2 -1 1 [ 1
IAI = 1 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 and adj A = -1
. A-I = adj A = ! [ 1 1].
. . IAI 3 -1 2
From (1), X = A-I B
or, [ : ] = ~ [ - ~ ~ ] [ ~ ] = ~ [ ~ ]
Hence x = 1, Y = 1.
(ii) The given equations can be written in the form
AX=B
where A = [! = ~ ] , X = [ : ] and B = [ : ].
IAI = ! = ~ = -9 + 8 = -1 and adjA = [ =!. ~ l
. A-I = adjA = -1 [-3 2] = [3 -2].
. . IAI --4 3 4-3
From (1), X = A-I B
or, [ : ] = [! = ~ ] [ : ] = [ ~ ]
Hence x ="2,y = 1.
2.3 Vector Space
2.23
(1)
Def. 1 Vector space: Let V be a non-empty set whose elements are called
vectors and F be a scalar field. The set V is called a vector space or a linear
space over the field F if the following axioms are satisfied:
(i) a + (3 E V for all a, (3 E V .
(ii) a + :a = (3 + a for all a, (3 E V
(iii) a + ((3 + 1) = (a + (3) + 1 for all a, (3, 1 E V
(iv) There exists a unique vector (j E V such that
a+ (j = a = (j + a for all a E V
(v) For any vector a E V there exists a unique vector -a E V
such that a + (-a) = (j
(vi) aa E V for all a E F and a E V
(vii) a(a + (3) = aa + b(3 for all a E F and a,(3 E V
(viii) (a + b)a = aa + ba, for all a, bE F and a E V
(ix) (ab)a = a(ba), for all a,b E F and a E V
(x) la = a, 1 E F and a E V.
2.24 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUb:::HIONS AND ANSWERS)
The set {(x, y, Z) : x, y, z E R} is a vector space over the field R.
Def. 2 Subspace: A non-empty subset W of a vector space V over a field F
is called a vector subspace or a linear subspace or simply a subspace of V if
W is a vector space over F w.r.t. addition and scalar multiplication.
Theorem _1 A W of V is a subspace of V iff
(i) a, j3 E W =} a + j3 EE Wand
(ii) a E W, e E F =} cal E W.
Ex. 1 (i) Let V = {(x, Y/' z) : x, y, z E R} and if W = {(x, y, z) : x - 3y +
4z = O} then prove W is a subspace of V.
I
(ii) Let V = {(x,y,z) : i,y,z E R} and if W = {(x,y,z) : x2 + y2 = z2}
then prove that W is not a subspace of V .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a = (Xl, yl, zI) and 7J = (X2' Y2, Z2) be two vectors of W.
Then Xl - 3Yl + 4Zl = 0 and X2 - 3Y2 + 4Z2 = o.
Adding these equations,
(Xl + X2) - 3(yl + Y2) + 4(Zl + Z2) = O.
This a + 7J = (Xl + X2, Yl + Y2, Zl + Z2) E V.
Again ea = (exl' eYl, eZl) E W as
eXl - 3eYl + 4ezl = 0 [by (1)].
Hence W is a subspace of V.
(1)
(ii) Let a = (-3,4,5) and 7J = (3,0,3) be two vectors ofW as (_3)2+4
2
= 52
and 3
2
+ 0
2
= 3
2
.
But a + 7J = (-3,4,5) + (3,0,3) = (0,4,8) ¢ W as 0
2
+ 4
2
# 8
2
.
Hence W is not a subspace of V.
2.3.1 Linearly dependence and independence of vectors
Def. 3 Linearly dependent: A set of vectors {Xl, X2, ... , xn} of En is said
to be linearly dependent if there exists a set of scalars ei, i = 1,2, ... ,n not
all of which are zero, such that
where 0 is the null vector in En.
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2.25
Def. 4 Linearly independent: A set of vectors {Xl, X2, ... , xn} of En is
said to be linearly independent if the only set of Ci for which
CIXI + C2X2 + ... + CnXn = 0
holds, be Ci = 0, i = 1,2, ... , n.
Q. 1 Define linearly dependent and independent vectors.
al b
l
CJ
Formula 2 Let Ll = a2 b2 C2 .
a3 b
3
C3
If Ll = 0 then the vectors (al,bl,cl), (a2,b
2
,c2) and (a3,b3,c3) are linearly
dependent and if Ll =f. 0 then they are linearly independent.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that the vectors (1,0,0)' (0,1,1), (1,1,1) in the real vector
space ll3 are linearly dependent.
(ii) Determine k so that the vectors (1, -1, 2), (0, k, 3) and (-1,2,3) are
linearly dependent.
(iii) Show that the vectors (2,1,0), (1, 1,0), (4,2,0) of R3 are not linearly
independent .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The value of the determinant form by the given vectors is
1 ° 0
° 1 1 =
1 1 1
1 1
1 1
= 1-1 = O.
The determinant value is zero, therefore the given vectors are linearly
dependent.
(ii) Since the vectors are linearly dependent
1 -1 2
° k 3 = °
-1 2 3
1 0 °
or, 0 k 3 = 0 [ C ~ +- G2 + G
l
, G
3
+- C
3
- 2G
1
]
-1 1 5
k 3
or, 1 5 = 0 or, 5k - 3 = 0 or, k = 3/5.
210
(iii) Here 1 1 0 = ° (since all the elements of third column are zero).
420
Hence the vectors are not linearly independent.
2.26 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 1 (i) Are the vectors (1, -2, 0), (3,0, -2) and (0, -1, -5) linearly
independent in the real vector space R3 ?
(ii) Show that the vectors (2,4,0), (0,1,0) and (2,6,2) are linearly independent
in the real vector space R3.
[Ans. (i) Yes.]
Ex. 3 (i) Express the vector (7,11) as a linear combination of the vectors
(2,3) and (3,5).
(ii) Express the vector (15, 18) as a linear combination of the vectors (3, 4)
and (3,3) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let (7,11) = cl(2, 3) + c2(3, 5) = (2Cl + 3C2, 3Cl + 5C2)
Comparing both sides we get 2Cl + 3C2 = 7 and 3Cl + 5C2 = 11.
Solving we get Cl = 2, C2 = 1. Hence the linear combination is (7,11) =
2(2,3) + (3,5).
(ii) Let (15,18) = Cl (3,4) + c2(3, 3) = (3Cl + 3C2, 4Cl + 3C2)
Comparing both sides we get 3Cl + 3C2 = 15 and 4Cl + 3C2 = 18.
Solving we get c! = 3, C2 = 2. Hence the linear combination is (15,18) =
3(3,4) + 2(3,3).
2.3.2 Basis of a vector space
Def. 5 Linear span: Let V be a vector space over the field F and W be
any non-empty sub-set of V. Then the linear span L(W) of W is the set of all
linear combination of finite sets of elements of W.
L(W) is said to be generated or spanned by the set Wand W is said to be
the set of generators of L(W).
Def. 6 Basis: Let V be a vector space over the field F and W be a sub-set
of V such that
(i) W is a set of linearly independent vectors in V and
(ii) W generates V,
then W is called a basis set or simply basis of V.
For example, {(1, 0, 0), (0, 1,0), (0,0, 1)} is the standard basis of R3.
Def. 7 The number of vectors in any basis of a finite dimensional vector space
V is called the dimension of the vector space and it is denoted by dim V.
Note 1 The basis of a vector space is not unique but the dimension is unique.
CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA
'2.27
:'
,
Theorem 2 If W be a proper sub-space of a finite dimensional vector-space
V, then W is finite dimensional and dim W :S dim V.
Theorem 3 If WI and W2 be two sub-spaces of a finite dimensional vector
space V, then
dim(WI U W2) = dim WI + dim W2 - dim(WI n'W2).
Ex. 4 Given that S = {(x, y, z) E R3 : 3x - 4y + z = o} is a sub-space in R3.
Find a basis and the dimension of S .
• SOLUTION: Let a = (x, y, z) be a vector of S. Then 3x - 4y + z = 0, i.e.,
z = -3x +4y.
Now, a = (x, y, -3x + 4y) = x(l, 0, -3) + y(O, 1,4). Thus the vector a is
a linear combination of the vectors (1,0, -3) and (0,1,4). Therefore, W =
{(I, 0, -3), (0, 1, 4)} generates S.
Also, the vectors (1,0, -3) and (0,1,4) are linear independent.
Hence W is a basis of S. The number of vectors of W is two, the dimension
of W is 2.
\ 2.3.3 Eigen values
Def. 8 Eigen values: The eigen values of. a square matrix A are the roots
of the equation IA - All = 0, i.e., the values of the variable A.
This equation is known as characteristic equation.
Ex. 5 (i) Find the eigen values of the matrix [! ~ ] .
(il) Find the eigen values of the matrix [ ~ ~ ~ ] .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let A = [! ~ J.
Now, A - AI = [! ~ ] _ A [ ~ ~ ] = [ 1 ~ A
Then IA - All = 11 ~ A 5 ~ A I = A2 - 6A - 7.
The eigen values are given by A2 - 6A - 7 = °
or, (A + 1) (A - 7) = ° or, A = -1, 7
... the eigen values are -1,7.
2.28 B.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Let A =
303
Now, A - >'1 = >.
30300 1
].
3 0 3 - >.
3 - >. 0 3
Then IA - >'11 = o
3
3 - >. 0 = (3 - >.)3 - 3.3(3 - >.).
o 3 - >.
The eigen values are given by (3 - >.)3 - 3.3(3 - >.) = 0
or, (3 - >'){(3 - >.)2 - 9} = 0 or, (3 - >')(9 - 6>' + >.2 - 9) = 0
or, >'(3 - >.)(>. - 6) = 0 or, >. = 0,3,6 .
. '. the eigen values are 0,3,6.
Exercise 2 (i) Find the eigen values of the matrix [!
(ii) Find the eigen values of the matrix
1 1 1
[Ans. (i) 4, -1, (ii) 1, 1, 3.]
Theorem 4 Caley-Hamilton theorem: Every square matrix satisfies its
own characteristic equation.
Some properties of eigen values:
(i) The eigen values of a real symmetric matrix are real.
(ii) The eigen values of a real skew-symmetric matrix are zero or purely
imaginary.
(iii) The eigen values of an orthogonal matrix are of unit modulus.
Ch.3\\ Abstract Algebra
3.1 Set Theory
Def. 1 Set: A collection of well defined objects are called set.
Upper case letters are used to denote a set.
Some examples of set are
(i) A = {I, 3, 5, 7, ... ,99},
(ii) B = {I, 4, 9,16,25, ... },
(iii) B = {x : x is a real number satisfying x(x
2
- 4) = O},
(iv) Collection of all chairs and tables of a class room,
(v) Collection of all Indian cricketers,
(vi) All books of class X,
(vii) All students of B.Sc. class.
The following collecticms are not the examples of set:
(i) All tall men of a class,
(ii) All good students of a college.
Def. 2 Null set or empty set: A set having no element is called null set or
empty set.
It is generally denoted by the symbol cp.
The following are the examples of null sets.
(i) A = {x : x is real number satisfying x
2
+ 4 = O},
(ii) Collection of Indian Presidents of age more than 150 years.
Def. 3 Singleton set or unit set: A set having only one element is called
a unit set or a singleton.
Def. 4 Finite set and infinite set: A set is called finite if it be empty or
contains a finite number of elements, otherwise a set is called infinite.
The set containing all even integers between 2 and 10 including 2 and 10 is
a finite set, while the set of all odd integers is an infinite set.
3.2 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Note 1 The notation x E A is used to denote the statement that the element
x belongs to the set A, while the notation x rt. A denotes that the element x
does not belong to the set A.
Def. 5 Sub-set and super set: If every element of a set A be also an
element of another set B, then A is called a sub-set of Band B is called super
set of A. Symbolically, A c B or B ::::> A.
For example, if A = {I, 3, 4, 5} and B = {I, 2, 3,4,5, 7}, then A c B.
If B contains some elements which are not the elements of A, then A is a
proper sub-set of B.
Note 2 To distinguish these two cases, we use the symbols ~ or :;2 to denote
a sub-set and use C or ::::> to denote a proper sub-set.
Def. 6 Disjoint sets: Two sets A and B are called disjoint if they have no
element in common.
For example, A = {I, 2, 3} and B = {1O, 11, 12} are disjoint.
Def. 7 Equal or identical sets: Two sets A and B are said to be equal or
identical, i.e., A = B, if they have the same elements. In this case, all elements
of A are also the elements of B.
For example, A = {I, 2, 3} and B == {3, 1, 2} are equal.
Some properties on sub-set are listed below.
(i) If A be a sub-set of Band B be a sub-set of C, then A is a sub-set of
C, Le., if A ~ Band B ~ C, then A ~ C.
(ii) If A ~ Band B ~ A, then A = B.
(iii) The null set <P is a proper sub-set of every set except <p itself.
Def. 8 Universal set: A universal set is the set of all elements from which
elements may be chosen to form sets for a particular problem. It is generally
denoted by S or U.
3.1.1 Basic set operations
Let S = {I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} be the universal set and A = {2, 5, 7, 8} and
B = {I, 3, 4,5,7, lO} be two of its subsets.
(i) Union: The union of two sets A and B is defined as AU B = {x : x E
A or x E B}.
For the above sets S, A, B, AU B = {I, 2, 3,4,5,7,8, 10}.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.3
(ii) Intersection: The intersection of two sets A and B is defined as AnB =
{x: x E A and x E B}. For the above sets An B = {5, 7}.
(iii) Difference: The difference between two sets A and B is defined as
A - B = {x : x E A but x tt B}. For the above sets S, A, B, A - B =
{2,8}.
(iv) Complement: The complement of a set A is denoted by A' or AC or A
and is defined as A' = {x : T E S but x tt A}.
For the above sets, the complement of A is {1, 3,4,6,9, 1O}.
A
AUB
(a)
AnB
(b)
V ~ n n diagram of A U B (a) and An B (b)
A-B
(c)
A
A'
(d)
Venn diagram of A U B (c) and An B (d)
Figure: 3.1.1
Q. 1 (i) Define the union of two sets and illustrate it with an example.
(ii) Define the intersection of two sets and illustrate it with an example.
(iii) Define the difference between two sets and illustrate it with an example.
(iv) Define the complement of a set and illustrate it with an example.
Ex. 1 (i) If A = {3, 5, 6, 7} and B = {O,3}i find (A U B) - (A n B).
(ii) If A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {1, 2, 7, 5}, find Au (B - C).
(iii) If A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4} and C = {2, 3, 6} are three subsets of
a universal set S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, then verify that
AU (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C).
3.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) If S = {I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, A = {I, 2, 4, 6}, B = {3, 4, 6, 8}, verify that
(A U B)I = AI n BI and (A n B)I = AI UBI, where AI denotes the
complement of A in S.
(v) Verify that A - (B U C) = (A - B) n (A - C) where A = {I, 2, 5}, B =
{2, 4, 6}, C = {5, 7}.
(vi) If P = {I, 2, 3, 4}, Q = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and R = {6, 7, 8, 9}, find (P n Q) U
(P n R).
(vii) If U = {I, 2, 3,4,5,6,7,8, 9} be the universal set and B = {I, 3, 5, 7}, C =
{2, 3,4, 5}. Find (B - cy.
(viii) If A = {x E Z/l :S x :S 1O} and B = {x E Z/6 :S x :S 15} then find the
value of A n B and AU B, where Z is the set of all integers.
(ix) Let Z be the set of all integers and A, B, C, D are sub-sets of Z defined
by A = {x E Z/O :S x :S IO}, B = {x E Z/5 :S x :S 15}, C = {x E Z/x ~
5}, D = {x E Z / x :S 15} find A U B, A n B, B - C and A - D .
• SOLUTION:
(i) A = {3. 5, 6, 7}, B = {O,3}.
... AU B = {O, 3, 5, 6, 7}, An B = {3}.
Hence (A U B) - (A n B) = {O, 5, 6, 7}.
(ii) A = {I, 2, 3}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {I, 2, 7, 5}.
Then B - C = {3,4,6}, AU (B - C) = {I, 2, 3, 4, 6}.
(iii) Here B n C = {2, 3} and AU (B n C) = {2, 3,4, 5}.
Au B = {I,2, 3, 4, 5}, Au C = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Thus (A U B) n (A U C) = {2, 3, 4, 5}.
Hence Au (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C).
(iv) Here S = {I, 2, 3,4,5,6,7, 8} and A = {I, 2,4, 6},
B = {3,4,6,8}
.'. AU B = {I, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}, (A U BY = {5, 7}
AI = {3, 5, 7, 8}, BI = {I, 2, 5, 7}.
Then AI n BI = {5, 7}.
Hence (A U BY = AI n B'.
Again An B = {4, 6}, (A n B)' = {I, 2, 3, 5,7, 8}.
A' U B' = {I, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8}. Hence (A n BY = AI UBI.
(v) Here A = {I, 2, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6}, C = {5, 7}.
B U C = {2, 4, 5, 6, 7}, A - (B U C) = {I}.
A - B = {1,5},A - C = {1,2} .
... (A - B) n (A - C) = {I}.
Hence A - (B U C) = (A - B) n (A - C).
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
(vi) Here P = {I, 2, 3, 4}, Q = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, R = {6, 7, 8, 9}.
Then P n Q = {3, 4}, P n R = ¢.
Hence (P n Q) U (P n R) = {3,4}.
(vii) B - C = { I ~ 7} .. ' (B - C)' = {2, 3,4,5,6,8, 9}.
'----
(viii) Here A = {x E Z/I ~ x ~ 10} = {I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1O} and
B = {x E Z/6 ~ x ~ 15} = {6, 7,8,9,IO,II,I2,I3,I4,I5}.
3.5
Then An B = {6. 7,8,9, 1O} = {x E Z/6 ~ x ~ 10} and AU B =
{I,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15} = {x E Z/I ~ x ~ 15}.
(ix) A = {x E Z/o ~ x ~ 10} = {O, 1, 2, ... ,9, 1O},
B = {x E"Z/5 ~ x ~ 15} = {5,6, 7, ... , 14,I5},
C = {x E Z/x ~ 5} = {5, 6, 7, ... },
D = {x E Z/x ~ 15} = {I5, 14, 13, ... }.
Then AU B = {O, 1,2, .. ",14, 15} = {x/O ~ x ~ 15}
An B = {5, 6, 7, .. ",9, 10} = {x/5 ~ x ~ 10}
B-C=¢.
A-D=¢.
Exercise 1 (i) If S = {I, 2, 3,4,5,6, 7}and A and B are its sub-sets given-
by A = {I, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7}, verify that (A n B)' = A' U B'.
(ii) If S = {I, 2, 3,4,5,6,7, 8} be the universal set and A = {I, 3, 5, 7}, B =
{I, 3, 6}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8} be subsets of S, then verify that AU (B n C) =
(AUB)n(AUC).
(iii) If A = {2, 4, 6, 8} and B = {-I, 0, 2}, find (A U B) - (A n B).
[Ans. (iii) {-I, 0, 4, 6, 8}.]
Ex. 2 If A and B are two subsets of a set S, find (A n B)' U (A' n B)' in the
simplest form .
• SOLUTION: (A n B)' U (A' n B)' == (B' U A') U (A U B')
= B' U (A' U A) U B' = B' U SUB' [since A' U A = Sj
=B'UB'=B'.
3.1.2 Laws of algebra of sets
If A, B, C be any three finite sets, then
(i) Commutative laws
(a) AUB=BuA
(b) AnB = BnA
3.6 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Associative laws
(a) AU (B U C) = (A U B) U C
(b) An (B n C) = (A n B) n C
(iii) Idempotent laws
(a) AUA=A
(b) A n A = A
(iv) Distributive laws
(a) An (B U C) = (A n B) U (A n C)
(b) AU (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C).
More results on set operations.
(i) AU S = S
(ii) AU 4> = A
(iii) A U AI = S
(iv) If A ~ B, then Au B = B
(v) AnS=A
( vi ) A n 4> = 4>
(vii) A n AI = 4>
(viii) If A ~ B, then An B = A.
3.1.3 Cartesian product of sets
Def. 9 Cartesian product: The cartesian product between two sets A and
B is defined as A x B = {(x, y) : x E A and y E B}.
For example, let A = {1,2} and B = {a,b} then
A x B = {(I, a), (1, b), (2, a), (2, b)}.
Q. 2 Define cartesian product of sets and give one example of it.
Ex. 3 (i) A = {1,2}, B = {3, 4, 5} and C = {4, 5, 6} then show that A x
(B n C) = (A x B) n (A x C).
(x is the cartesian product).
(ii) If A = {I, 2, 3} and B = {3,4}, then find AU B, An B, (A x B) and
(B x A).
(iii) For the sets A = {a,b,c} and B = {1,2} verify that
A x B =1= B x A.
(iv) If A = {a, b}, B = {I, 2} and C = {2, 3}, find (A x B) U (A x C).
CH.3: ABS'fRACT ALGELRA
• SOLUTION:
(i) B n C = {4, 5}, A x (B n C) = {(I, 4), (1,5), (2,4), (2, 5n
A x B = {(I, 3), (1,4), (1, 5), (2,3), (2,4), (2, 5n
A x C = {(1,4),(1,5),(1,6),(2,4),(2,5),(2,6n .
. '. (A x B) n (A x C) = {(I, 4), (1,5), (2,4), (2, 5n.
Hence A x (B n C) = (A x B) n (A x C).
(ii) A = {I, 2, 3} and B = {3,4}.
AUB = {1,2,3,4},AnB = {3}
A x B = {(I, 3), (1,4), (2,3), (2,4), (3, 3), (3, 4n and
B x A= {(3,1),(3,2),(3,3),(4,1),(4,2),(4,3n.
(iii) A x B = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (b, 1), (b, 2), (e, 1), (e, 2n and
B x A = {(I, a), (1, b), (1, e), (2, a), (2, b), (2, en .
. '. A x B of B x A.
(iv) A x B = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (b, 1), (b, 2n and
A x C = {(a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 2), (b, 3n.
(A x B) u (A x C) = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 1), (b, 2), (b, 3n.
3.1
Exercise 2 (i) Find the cartesian product A x B of the sets A and B where
A = {1,3,5} and B = {2,4}.
(ii) If A = {I, 2}, B = {2, 3}, C = {3,4}. Find A x (B U C).
[Ans. (i) {(I, 2), (1, 4 ~ . ( 3 , 2), (3, 4), (5,2), (5, 4n,
(ii) {(I, 2), (1,3), (1,4), (2, 2), (2,3), (2,4) }.]
Def. 10 Power set: The collection of all sub-sets of a set A including A, is
called power set of A and it is, generally, denoted by P(A).
Ex. 4 (i) Write down the sub-sets of the set {x, y, z}.
(ii) Write down all the subsets of the set S = {p, q, r}, what is the power set
of the set S?
• SOLUTION:
(i) The subsets of {:r,y,z} are 1>,{x},{y},{z}, {x,y},{y,z}, {z,x} arid
{x,y,z}.
(ii) The subsets of S are 1>,{p},{q},{r},{p,q},{q,r},{r,p} and {p,q,r}.
The power set of S is
{ 1>, {p}, { q }, {r }, {p, q}, { q, r}, {r, p}, {p, q, r} }.
Note 3 If a finite set has n elements, then its power set has 2
n
elements.
3.8 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Theorem 1 DeMorgan's laws
For any two sets A, B
(i) (A U BY = A' n B'
(ii) (A n B)' = A' U B',
where 'A" denotes the complement of the set A.
Proof:
(i) Let x be any element of (A U B)'
<=>x E (AUB)'
<=>x¢(AUB)
<=> x ¢ A and x ¢ B
<=> x E A' and x E B'
<=> x E (A' n B').
Hence (A U BY = A' n B'.
(ii) Proof is similar to (i).
Ex. 5 (i) By Venn diagram prove that A - (B U C) = (A - B) n (A - C).
(ii) Show by Venn diagram that An (B n C) = (A n B) n C .
• SOLUTION:
(i) In 'figure (a), the vertical lines represent the set (B U C) and horizontal
lines represent the set A. The region shaded only by horizontal lines
represent the set A - (B U C).
In figure (b), the horizontal lines represent the set (A - B) and vertical
lines represent the set (A - C). The double shaded region represents the
set (A - B) n (A - C).
Both the regions are identical, hence A - (B U C) = (A - B) n (A - C).
A
(a)
Figure: 3.1.2
(b)
(ii) In figure (a), the vertical lines represents the set A and horizontal lines
represents the set B n C. The double shaded region represents the set
An (B n C).
CH.3: ABSTRACT _\LGEBRA 3.9
In figure (b), the vertical lines represents the set (AnB) and horizontal
lines represent the set C. The double shaded region represents the set
(A n B) n C.
Both the regions are identical, hence An (B n C) = (A n B) n C.
B
3.2 Relation
A
C
B
of
Figure: 3.1.3
Def. 1 A relation between two sets A and B is a sub-set of Ax B and is
denoted by R. Thus RcA x B.
The notation xRy is used to represent (x, y) E R. xRy is read as 'x is
related to y'.
If A = B, then we say that R is a relation in the set A.
Def.2 For the set A the relation R = {(x,y) : x E A,y E A,x = y} is called
the identity relation in A and is denoted by fA.
For example, if A = {a, b, e} then fA = {(a, a), (b, b), (e, en·
3.2.1 Types of relations
Def. 3 Reflexive relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined in
it. R is said to be reflexive, if
(a, a) E R for all a E A
i.e., every element of A is related to itself.
A relation R in a set A is not reflexive if there be at least one element a E A
such that (a, a) rt R.
Def. 4 Symmetric relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined
in it. R is said to be symmetric, if
(a, b) E R ::::} (b, a) E R i.e., aRb::::} bRa for all (a, b) E R.
A relation R in a set A is not symmetric if (a, b) E R does not imply
(b,a)ER.
3.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 5 Anti-symmetric relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation
defined in it. R is said to be anti-symmetric, if
(a, b) E Rand (b, a) E R =? a = b.
A relation R in A is not anti-symmetric, if there exist elements a, b E A, a i-
b such that (a, b) E Rand (b, a) E R.
Def. 6 Transitive relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined
in it. R is said to be transitive, if
(a,b) E Rand (b,c) E R =? (a,c) E R,a,b,c E A.
A relation R is not transitive if (a, b) E Rand (b, c) E R do not imply
(a,c) E R.
Def. 7 Equivalence relation: A relation R, defined in A is said to be an
equivalence relation if and only if
(i) R is reflexive, i.e., aRa for all a E A.
(ii) R is symmetric, i.e., aRb =? bRa.
(iii) R is transitive, i.e., aRb and bRc =? aRc.
Ex. 1 If R be a relation in the set of natural numbers N defined by the
expression' (x - y) is divisible by 5', i.e.,
R = {(x, y) : x, yEN, (x - y) is divisible by 5},
prove that R is an equivalence relation .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let x E N. Then x - x = 0 which is divisible by 5.
Therefore, xRx for all x E N.
Hence R is reflexive.
(ii) Let xRy hold. i.e., x - y is divisible by 5
=? -(y - x) is divisible by 5
=? (y - x) is divisible by 5
=? yRx.
Hence R is symmetric.
(iii) Let xRy and yRz, i.e., (x - y) and (y - z) are divisible by 5
::} [(x - y) + (y - z)] is divisible: by 5
=? (x - z) is divisible by 5
=? xRz.
Hence R is transitive.
Thus R is an equivalence relation.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.11
Ex. 2 Let A be the set of integers. Show that the relation R defined by
'a ~ b', that is,
R = {(a, b) : a,b E A,a ~ b},
is not an equivalence relation .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a E A. Then a ~ a holds.
i.e., aRa holds. Hence R is reflexive.
(ii) Let aRb holds, i.e., a ~ b.
This does not imply b ~ a.
Hence R is not symmetric.
Thus R is not an equivalence relation.
3.3 Mapping
Def. 1 Mapping: Let A and B be two non-empty sets. If there exists
·a correspondence, denoted by f, which associates to each element x of A a
unique element y of B, then we say that f is a mapping of A into B. The
mapping of A into B will be denoted by f : A -+ B.
The set A and B are called respectively domain and codomain (or range) of
the mapping f.
The element y is denoted by f(x) and called the f image of x or the value
of the function for x.
Def. 2 Range: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. The range of f consists of
those elements in B which appear as the image of at least one element of A.
Def. 3 One-to-one mapping: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. If for Xl i= X2
=} f(XI) i= j(X2) then the mapping f is called one-to-one or one-one or 1-1
mapping.
e.g., the mapping f : R -+ R where f(x) = x is one-to-one mapping.
Def. 4 Onto mapping: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. If f(A) = B then
the mapping f is called onto mapping.
e.g., the mapping f : R -+ R where f(x) = x i'l onto mapping.
Def. 5 Identity mapping: If each element of a set is mapped on itself then
it is called the identity mapping. The mapping f (x) = x for all x E A is an
identity mapping.
3.12 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 6 Many-to-one mapping: If two or more elements of A correspond
to the same elements of B through the mapping f then it is, called many-to-one

e.g., the mapping f : R --+ R where f(x) = x
2
is many-to-one mapping.
De£< .. 7 Injection, surjection, bijection: The one-to-one mapping is called
injection. The onto mapping is called surjection. The one-to-one and onto
mapping is bijection .

Q. 1 Define mapping, one-to-one mapping, onto mapping, many-to-one map-
ping and identity mapping.
Q. 2 When is a mapping f : A --+ B said to be one-to-one and onto?
Ex. 1 (i) Show that the 'sets A = {I, 2, 3, 4} and B = {I, 4, 9, 16} is one-one
mapping.
(ii) Give an example of a mapping f w:hich is one-to-one but not onto.
(iii) Is f : R --+ R, given byJ(x) = E R, a mapping where R is the
set of all real numbers?
(iv) Show that whether the mapping f : Z --+ Z, defined by f(x) = lxi, x E
Z, and Z is the set of all integers is onto or not? Justify your answer .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The diagrammatic representation of the given mapping is shown below:
Here all the elements of A are
mapped with the elements of
B and also all the images are
unique. Hence f is a one-to-
one mapping.
(ii) Consider the following example.
Here all the elements of A are
uniquely mapped with the ele-
ments of B but or.e element of
the codomain B remains un-
mapped. Hence f is one-to-
one but not onto mapping.
(iii) Let -a E R (domain) where a > o.
But log( -a) R (codomain) .
. .. f : R --+ R is not a mapping.
A f B
3
4
16
Figure: 3.3.1
A
f
B
a
b
c
Figure: 3.3.2
OR.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.13
(iv) Since f(x) = lxi, all the elements of Z (domain) positive or negative
is mapped with only the positive elements of Z (codomain). So all the
negative elements of Z (codomain) remains unmapped.
Hence the mapping f is not onto.
Ex. 2 A mapping f : R -+ R is defined as follows:
{
1, if x is rational
f(x) = :-1, if x is irrational
R is the set of all real numbers. Find the range of f. What is the value of
f(V7).
• SOLUTION: Range of the mapping f is {-1, 1}. The value of f( V7) is - L
since V7 is irrational.
Def. 8 Inverse mapping: Let f : A -+ B be an on,Ao-one onto mapping
and 9 : B -+ A. The mapping 9 is called the inverse mapping of f if x E
A, y E Band f(x) = y '* f-l(y) = {x : x E A and f(x) = y}. The inverse
mapping of f is denoted by f-
1
, .
Q. 3 Define inverse mapping.
Ex. 3 (i) If f : R -+ R be defined by f(x) = x
2
+ 3, where R is the set of
real numbers, show that f-l(28) = {-5, 5}.
(ii) If a function f is defined by f(x) = x
2
,O :::; x :::; 1, determine f-l(y)
where 0 :::; y :::; 1.
(iii) Let the function f : R -+ R be defined by f(x) = 2; + 3, (R is the set of
all real numbers), x E R. If A = {x : 1 :::; x :::; 2}, find f(A).
(iv) If f : R+ -+ R+ be defined by f(x) = x
2
+ 3, where R+ is the set of all
positive real numbers, find f-l .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have
f-l(28) = {x E R: f(x) = 28} = {x E R: x
2
+ 3 = 28}
= {x E R: x
2
= 25} = {x E R: x = ±5}
= {-5,5}.
(ii) Given f(x) = x
2
or, f-l(x
2
) = x.
Let y = x
2
or, x = ±..jfJ.
_'. f-l(y) = ±..jfJ.
3.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) We have 1 ~ x ~ 2 or 2 ~ 2x ~ 4
or, 2 + 3 ~ 2x + 3 ~ 4 + 3 or, 5 ~ f (x) ~ 7
.'. f(A) = {y : 5 ~ y ~ 7}.
(iv) Here f(x) = x
2
+ 3 or, f-l(x
2
+ 3) = x.
Let x
2
+ 3 = y or, x = ±y'y"=3 .
. '. f-l(y) = ±y'y"=3, y ~ O.
Exercise 1 (i) If f : R+ --+ R+ be defined by f(x) = x
2
+ 3, where R+ is
the set of all positive real numbers, find f-l(7).
(ii) If f : R --+ R be defined by f(x) = x
2
+ 1, where R is the set of all real
numbers, find 1-
1
(10).
[Ans. (i) {-2, 2}, (ii) {-3, 3}.]
Def. 9 Composite mapping: Let 1 : A --+ Band 9 : C --+ D be two
mappings. The mapping h : A --+ D where h(x) = g{f(x)}, x E A is called
the product or composite of 1 and g. It is denoted by gof or gf.
Q. 4 Define composition of two mappings.
Ex. 4 (i) If S is the set of real numbers and f : S --+ S, 9 : S --+ S are
defined by I(x) = x
2
+ 2x - 3, g(x) = 3x - 4, prove that (gof)(x) =
3x
2
+ 6x - 13 and (fog)(x) = 9x
2
- 18x + 5.
(ii) Let A = {I, 2, 3}, B = {p, q, r} and let J : A --+ B defined by 1(1) =
p, 1(2) = q, 1(3) = r, 9 : B --+ A defined by g(p) = 3, g(q) = 2, g(r) = 1.
Find go 1 and log and show that go 1 i- log.
(iii) If 1 : x --+ x, 9 : x --+ x
2
and h : x --+ x + 1, then find ho(gof) and
(hog)of.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x) = x
2
+ 2x - 3, g(x) = 3x - 4 .
. '. (fog)(x) = fo(g(x)) = f(3x - 4)
= (3x - 4)2 + 2(3x - 4) - 3 = 9x
2
- 18x + 5.
(gof)(x) = go(f(x)) = g(x
2
+ 2x - 3)
= 3(x
2
+ 2x - 3) - 4 = 3x
2
+ 6x - 13.
(ii) (gof)(1) = go[l(1)] = g(P) = 3,
(gof)(2) = go[f(2)] = g(q) = 2,
(gof)(3) = go[f(3)] = g(r) = 1.
(fog)(p) = Jo[g(p)] = f(3) = r,
(fog)(q) = fo[g(q)] = f(2) = q,
(fog)(r) = fo[g(r)] = f(1) = p .
. '. (gof){1,2,3} i- (fog){p,q,r}.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
(iii) (ho(gof))(X) = ho{go(f(X))} = ho{g(x)} = h(x
2
) = x
2
+ 1.
((hog)of)(X) = (hog)(f(x)) = (hog)(x) = ho(g(x))
= h(x
2
) = x
2
+ 1.
3.15
Exercise 2 (i) Two mappings f : R -+ Rand 9 : R -+ R are defined as
follows:
f(x) = x
2
+ 1, g(x) = x. Determine the composite mappings fog. and
gof. (R is the set of all real numbers).
(ii) If f and 9 be two mapping from R to R given by f(x) = x
2
+ 3x + 1 and
g(x) = 2x - 3 then show that fog = 4x
2
- 6x + 1 and gog = 4x - 9.
[Ans. (i) (fog)(x) = x
2
+ 1, (gof)(x) = x
2
+ 1.]
3.4 Permutation
Def. 1 Permutation: A one-to-one mapping of a finite set onto itself is
called a permutation.
Def. 2 Identity Permutation: The permutation
is called identity permutation.
Def. 3 Cyclic Permutation: Let all, a12, ... ,alk be k elements of a finite
set S. If the permutation f on S of degree n such that f(ali) = ali+1, i =
1,2, ... ,k-1, f(alk) = all and f(ai) = ai where ai E S but ai ¢ {all, a12," . ,alk
then f is called a cyclic permutation or a cycle of length k.
Def. 4 Transposition: A cycle of length two is called a transposition.
Def. 5 Odd and Even Permutations: If a permutation can be expressed
as a product of odd number of transpositions then the permutation is called
odd permutation otherwise is called even permutation.
Q. 1 Define permutation, cyclic permutation, transposition, odd permuta-
tion, even permutation.
Ex. 1 For two permutations A = ( ~ ~ ~ ) and B = (! ~ ~ )
show that AB = BA = I.
3.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
AB = ( ~ ~ ~ ) (! ~ ;) = ( ~ ~ ~ ) = f.
BA = (! ~ ~ ) ( ~ ~ ~ ) = ( ~ ~ ~ ) = I.
Hence AB = BA = I .
. (123456)
Ex. 2 Express the permutatlOn 5 4 2 6 1 3 as a product of trans-
positions and find whether it is odd or even.
• SOLUTION: The cycle representation of the given permutation is
(15)(2463) = (1 5)(24)(26)(23).
Here the transpositions are (15)(24)(26)(23).
Thus the given permutation can be expressed as the product of an even
number of transpositions and hence the permutation is ·even.
Ex. 3 (i) Is the permutation ( ~ ~ ~ :) even or odd? Give reasons.
(ii) Show that a = ( ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ ) is an odd permutation while
f3
(
123456). .
= 5 4 2 6 1 3 IS an even permutatIon.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The cyclic representation of the given permutation is
(123) (4) = (1 2)(1 3) (4).
Here the number of transpositions is two, so the given permutation is
even.
(ii) a = (1325)(6) = (13)(12)(15)(6).
Here the number of permutations is three, the permutation a is odd.
f3 = (15)(2463) = (15)(24)(26)(23).
Here the number of permutations is four, hence the permutation f3 is
even.
Ex. 4 Find the inverse of the permutation ( ~ ~ ! : ~ ~ ) .
,
• SOLUTION: The inverse of the given permutation is
(
534612) (123456)
123456 - 562314·
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.17
Ex. 5 If p, q be two permutations of the set S = {1, 2, 3,4}, prove that pq i=
qp.
• SOLUTION: Let p = (! and q = ! i) be two
permutations on the set S = {1, 2, 3, 4}.
Now, pq = (! ! i) = !)
i)(! !) .
... pq i= qp.
Ex. 6 Show that the inverse of (1 3) (2 4 5) is (1 3)(2 54).
• SOLUTION: The (1 3)(2 4 5) can be written in the standard
(
1 2 3 4 5)
form as 3 4 1 5 2 .
(TTr: ;) = (! ; :) = (1 3)(2 5 4).
Ex. 7 Show that the identity permutation is an even permutation .
• SOLUTION: We consider an identity permutation of five symbols
(
1 2 3 45)
1 2 3 4 5 = (1)(2)(3)(4)(5).
The number of transpositions is 0 and therefore it is an even permutation.
(
1 2 3 4 5 6).
Exercise 1 (i) Show that Q = 4 3 1 2 6 5 IS an even permuta-
. h·l (3 (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). dd .
tlon w 1 e = 4 3 1 2 6 7 5 IS an 0 permutatlon.
(ii) Show that the product (1 245 3) (3 2 1 54) is (2 3 5).
(iii) Express the permutation given below as a product of transpositions and
hence find whether it is odd or even:
(
1 234 5 6)
542613·
(iv) Write down the permutation (! ! as a product of
disjoint cycles and then express it as a product of transpositions.
3.18 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(v) Show that the inverse of the permutation (1 2) of degree four is (2 1).
[Ans. (iii) (1 5) (24) (2 6) (2 3), even permutation, (iv) Disjoint cycles are (1
5) (2 74) (3 6), the transpositions are (1 5) (2 7) (2 4) (3 6).]
3.5 Group
Def. 1 Group: A non-empty set G with a binary operation 0 is called a
group if the following axioms satisfied:
(a) Closure axiom: For all a, bEG =} aob E G.
(b) Associative axiom: For all a, b, c E G =} (aob)oc = ao(boc).
(c) Identity axiom: There exists an identity element e (left or right) in G,
i.e., eoa = aoe = a for all a E G.
(d) Inverse axiom: For each element a E G there corresponding an unique
element a' such that a' oa = aoa' = e, a' is called the inverse of a.
e.g., the set of integers is a group w.r.t. addition.
Def. 2 Semi-group: A non-empty set G with a binary operation 0 is called
a semi-group if the following axioms satisfied:
(a) Closure axiom: For all a, bEG =} aob E G.
(b) Associative axiom: For all a, b, c E G =} (aob)oc = ao(boc).
Q. 1 Define a group.
Q. 2 Define group and semi-group with examples.
Ex. 1 (i) If the binary operation 0 be defined on I, the set of all integers,
by aob = a + b + 1, a, bE I, find the identity element with respect to o.
(ii) If the binary operation 0 be defined on I, the set of all integers, by
aob = a + b + 1, a, bE I, find the inverse of a with respect to o.
(iii) A binary composition 0 is defined on the set Z (the set of all integers)
by aob = 2a + b, for all a, bin Z. Examine if 0 is commutative and 0 is
associative.
(iv) A binary composition * is defined on the set Q (the set of all rational
numbers) by a * b = ~ b for all a, bin Q. Examine whether * is commu-
tative and associative .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let e be the element of I, such that eoa = a .
. '. e + a + 1 = a or, e + 1 = 0 or, e = -1 E I.
Hence (-1) is the identity element of I.
eR.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
(ii) Let a E I and a' be its inverse.
-1 is the identity element (see previous problem).
Then aoa' = e or, aoa' = -lor, a + a' + 1 = -1
or, a' = -2 - a.
Thus (-a - 2) E I is the inverse of a.
(iii) We have aob = 2a + b = b + 2a = boa.
. 0 is commutative.
(iv)
For the elements a, b, c E Z,
(aob)oc = (2a + b)oc = 2(2a -I- b) + c = 4a + 2b + c
and ao(boc) = ao(2b + c) = 2 ~ + 2b + c.
Since (aob)oc i= ao(boc), 0 is not associative.
. ab ba
GIven a * b = 2 = 2 = b * a.
* is commutative.
Let a, b, cEQ, then
ab abc abc
(a * b) * c = (-) * c = _2_ = -
2 2 4
(
bC) aQf. abc
and a * (b * c) = a * 2 = 22 = 4'
Since (a * b) * c = a * (b * c), * is associative.
3.19
Ex. 2 (i) Does the set 8 = {1, W, w
2
}, when w is an imaginary cube root of
unity, form a group under multiplication ? Give reasons to your answer.
(ii) Does the set of all integers form a group under usual multiplication?
Justify your answer.
(iii) Does the set of all odd integers form a group under addition? Give
reasons in support of your answer.
(iv) Examine whether the set of all rational numbers forms a group under
multiplication.
(v) If 8 = {-3, -2, -1,0,1,2, 3}, is (8, +) a group? Give reasons in support
of your conclusion.
(vi) Show that the set Z of all integers does not form a group under the
operation defined as x * y = x - y, for every x, y E Z.
(vii) Show that the set {1, 0, -1} does not form a group under usual addition .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The composition table is shown below:
3.20 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
x 1 W w
2
1 1 w w
w W w
2
1
w
2
w
2
1 w
We see from the composition table:
(a) The closure property holds.
(b) The operation is associative.
(c) 1 E S is the identity element.
(d) Each element has a unique inverse, i.e., inverse of 1, w, w
2
are re-
spectively 1, w
2
, w.
Hence S is a group under multiplication.
(ii) "Identity element of the set of all integers under multiplication is 1. The
set· of all integers does not form a group under multiplication as inverses
of the elements except 1 do not exist.
(iii) Let S be the set of all o d ~ integers. The closure property does not hold
for S, since sum of two odd integers is not an odd integer (e.g., 5+7=12).
Hence the set S does not form a group.
(iv) The set of all rational numbers Q does not form a group under multipli-
cation because the inverse of 0 E Q does not exist.
(v) The set S does not form a group as closure property does not hold. For
example, 3 + 2 = 5 ~ S.
(vi) Let x, y, z E Z.
Then (x * y) * z = (x - y) * z = x - y - z
and x * (y * z) = x * (y - z) = x - (y - z) = x - y + z.
... (x * y) * z -:f:. x * (y * z), i.e., associative property does not hold.
Hence Z does not form a group.
(vii) The set S is not closed w.r.t. addition as 1 + 1 = 2 ~ S.
Hence S is not a group w.r.t. addition.
Exercise 1 (i) Show that the set of all real numbers is not a semi-group
under the operation 0 defined by aob = a + 2b for all a, b E R.
(ii) Let 0 be a binary operation, on the set of real numbers R, defined as
aob = ab + 1, a, b E Rj show that 0 is commutative.
(iii) Show that the set of all real numbers is a semi-group over 0 defined as
aob = b for all a, b E R.
(iv) Show that the set {-I, I} forms a group w.r.t. multiplication.
(v) Show that the set {-I, 0, I} does not form a group under multiplication.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.21
(vi) If S= {O} be a singleton set with 0 as its unity element, then show that
it forms a group w.r. t addition.
(vii) Show that the set { ... ,2-4,2-3,2-2,2-1,1,2,22,23,24, ... } forms a mul-
tiplicative group.
(viii) Show that the set of integers form an additive group.
Ex. 3 In the group G = {I, -1, i, -i} under multiplication, find out the in-
verses of -1, i and -i.
• SOLUTION: Clearly 1 EGis the identity element of G.
Now, (-1)(-1) = 1, (i)( -i) = -i
2
= -(-1) = 1 and (-i)(i) = 1.
Hence inverse of -1, i, -i are respectively -1, -i, i.
Ex. 4 (i) Prove that identity of a group is unique.
(ii) Prove that the inverse of an element of a group is unique.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let e and e' be two identity elements of (G, *).
Let a E G. Then e * a = a and e' * a = a .
. '. e * a = e' * a :::} e = e' (by right cancellation law).
Hence the identity element of a group is unique.
(ii) Let (G, *) be a group and a E G.
Let a', a"-be two inverses of a. Also let e be the identity element.
. a * a' = a' * a = e and a * a" = a" * a = e
Now, a" = e * a" = (a' * a) * a" = a' * (a * a") = a' * e = a'.
Thus the inverse of an element in a group is unique:
Ex. 5 (i) If a be a fixed element of a group (G, *) then solve the equation
a*(x*a)=a.
(ii) In a group (G,o), prove that e-
1
= e, e being the identity element.
(iii) If a, b, c are in the group G, then show that
ab = ac :::} b = c
(iv) In a group (G, *), show that (a ~ b)-l = b-
l
* a-I, where a, bEG.
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have a * (x * a) = a.
Operating from left by a-I (the inverse of a) we get
a-l{a * (x * an = a-I * a
or, e * (x * a) = e (by inv:erse property).
or, x * a = e or, (x * a) * a -1 = e * a-I
(operating by a-I from right)
or, x * e = a -lor, x = a-I.
3.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Since e is the identity element of a group then by identity property
eoe = e. This follows that (from definition of inverse) e is the inverse of
. -I_
e' l.e., e - e.
(iii) Let a' be the inverse of a E G.
Now, a'(ab) = a'(ac)
=? (a'a)b = (a'a)c (by associative law)
=? (e)b = (e)c (by inverse axiom, e be the identity element)
=? b = c (by identity axiom)
(iv) Let us consider the relation.
(b-
1
* a-I) * (a * b)
= b-
1
* (a-
1
* a) * b (by associative law)
= b-
1
* e * b (by inverse axiom)
= b-
1
* b (by identity axiom)
= e (by inverse axiom).
Hence (a * b)-1 = b-
1
* a-I.
3.5.1 Cyclic group, sub-group
Def. 3 Abelian or commutative group: A group G is said to be an abelian
group or commutative group if aob = boa for all a, bEG.
e.g., the set of integers is an abelian group w.r.t. addition.
Def. 4 C y c ~ i c group: If all the elements of a group are generated from a
single element a by composition then the group is said to be cyclic. The
element a is called the generator of the cyclic group.
For example, the group {1, w, w
2
} is a cyclic group with generators wand
w
2
.
Def. 5 Sub-group: A non-empty subset H of a group (G, 0) is said to be a
subgroup of G, if H forms a group under the binary composition 0 of G.
For example, the set of even integers is a subgroup of the group of integers
under addition composition.
Q. 3 (i) Define abelian group.
(ii) Define cyclic group.
(iii) Define subgroup of a group.
Ex. 6 (i) S = {1, -1, i, -i} is a group with respect to usual multiplication.
Show that it is a cyclic group.
(ii) Is the multiplicative group formed by the roots of x4 = 1 cyclic?
eR.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.23
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here i
1
= i,i
2
= -1,i
3
= -i,i
4
= 1.
Also (_i)l = -i, (_i)2 = -1, (-i)3 = i, (_i)4 = 1.
That is, all the elements of S are generated by i and -i. Hence i and
-i are the generators of S and consequently S is a cyclic group.
(ii) [Hints: Roots of x4 = 1 are 1, -1, i, -i and then same as previous
problem]
Ex. 7 (i) Give an example of a finite cyclic group indicating its generator.
(ii) If (ab)2 = a
2
b
2
the show that the group is abelian.
(iii) Show that every cyclic group is abelian.
(iv) If every element of a group be its own inverse then show that the group
is abelian .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The group G = {I, -1, i, -i} is finite and its two generators are i, -i.
(ii) We have (ab)2 = a
2
b
2
or, (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb)
or, a(ba)b = a(ab)b (by associative law)
or, (ba)b = (ab)b (by left cancellation law)
or, ba = ab (by right cancellation law)
Hence the group is abelian.
(iii) Let p, q be two elements of a cyclic group G whose generator is a. Then
there exist integers x and y such that
p = aX and q = a
Y
.
Now, pq = aX.a
Y
= a
X
+
Y
= a
Y
+
x
= aY.a
x
= qp
... pq = qp for all p, q E G.
Hence every t:yclic group is abelian.
(iv) Let a, bEG. Since every element is its own inverse,
a = a-I,b = b-
1
Since a, bEG::} ba E G and (ba)-l = ba.
Now, ab = a-1b-
1
= (ba)-l = ba.
Hence the group is abelian.
Ex. 8 Give one example to show that union of two sllbgroups of a group may
not be a subgroup of the same group.
3.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: Let HI = {I, w, w
2
} and H2 = {I, -1, i, -i} be two subgroups
of the multiplicative group C (the set of complex numbers other than zero).
Then HI U H2 = {I, -1, i, -i, W, w
2
}.
Since iw ¢ HI U H2, HI U H2 is not closed.
Hence HI U H2 is not a subgroup of C.
3.6 Ring, Integral Domain and Field
Def. 1 Ring: A non-empty set with two binary compositions addition (+)
and multiplication (.) is called a ring, if the following postulates are satisfied.
I. Under addition composition:
(i) Closure axiom: a + b E R for all a, b E R.
(ii) Associative axiom: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) for all a, b, c E R.
(iii) Identity axiom: a + 0 = 0 + a = a for all a E R,
o E R be the additive identity element.
(iv) Inverse axiom: a + (-a) = (-a) + a = 0 for all a E R,
(-a) E R is the inverse of a.
(v) Commutative: a + b = b + a for all a, bE R.
II. Under multiplication composition:
(vi) Closure axiom: a.b E R for all a, bE R.
(vii) Associative axiom: (a.b).c = a.{b.c) for all a, b, c E R.
III. Distributive:
(viii) a.{b + c) = a.b + a.c and (b + c).a = b.a + c.a for all a, b, c E R.
e.g., the set of integers is a ring.
Def. 2 Ring with unity: If a ring R contains a multiplicative identity ele-
ment for every a E R then R is called a ring with unity.
e.g., the set of integers is a ring with unity, 1 is the unit element.
Def. 3 Commutative ring: A ring R is said to be commutative ring if for
all a; b E R, a.b = b.a. .
e.g., the set of integers is a commutative ring.
Def. 4 Divisors of zero: Let R be a ring with the additive identity O. If
the non-zero elements a, b E R be such that
a.b = 0 or b.a = 0,
then a and b are called divisors of zero.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.25
Def. 5 Integral domain: A ring is called an integral domain if (i) it is
commutative, (ii) it has unity and (iii) it is without zero-divisors.
e.g., the set of numbers is an integral domain.
Def. 6 Field: A ring is called a filed, if it has at least two elements and
it (i) is commutative, (ii) has unity, (iii) has multiplicative inverse for every
non-zero element.
e.g., the set of rational number is a field.
Q. -1 (i) Define ring.
(ii) Define a ring with unity element. Give an example of a ring without
unity.
(iii) Define commutative ring.
(iv) Define an integral domain.
(v) Define a field.
Ex. 1 Given that the set of all 2 x 2 of the form where
x, y, Z are integers forms a ring with respective to matrix addition and matrix
multiplication. Is it a commutative ring? Justify your answer .
• SOLUTION: Let A:;:: and B:;:: be two matrices.
Now, AB = (Xl YI) (X2 Y2) = (XIX2 XIY2 + YIZ2 ) and
o Zl 0 Z2 0 Zl Z2
BA = (X2 Y2) (Xl YI) = (X2Xl X2YI + Y2
Z
1 ).
o Z2 0 Zl 0 Z2Z1
Since AB i= BA, the ring is not commutative.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that in a ring a + c = b + c implies a = b.
(ii) In a ring (R, +,.) show that a.O = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let R be a ring. If c E R then -c E R, (-c) is the additive inverse of c.
Adding (-c) to the relation a + c = b + c from right.
(a + c) + (-c) = (b + c) + (-c)
=> a + (c + (-c)) = b + (c + (-c)) (by associative)
=> a + 0 = b + 0 (by inverse)
=> a = b (by identity).
3.26 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) We have by additive identity property
0+0=0
Operating both sides by a E R
a.(O + 0) = a.O
::} a.O + a.O = a.O (by distributive)
Adding -a.O from right side, we get
(a.O + a.O) + (-a.O) = a.O + (-a.O)
a.O + (a.O - a.O) = a.O + (-a.O) (by associative)
::} a.O + 0 = 0 (by additive inverse)
::} a.O = 0 (by additive identity).
Ex. 3 Why is the set of natural numbers not an integral domain?
• SOLUTION: The set of natural numbers N = {1, 2, 3, ... }.
N is not an integral domain as additive identity element 0 ¢ N.
Ex. 4 Show that the set of all even integers does not form a field.
• SOLUTION: ~ e t of all even integers does not form a field as multiplicative
identity 1 does not exist.
Ex. 5 (i) Give an example of a field with three elements.
(ii) Give an example of a ring which is not a field.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The set F = {O, 1, 2} forms a field under addition and multiplication
molulo 3.
(ii) The set of integers is a ring but not a field as multiplicative inverse of
the elements do not exist.
Ex. 6 Is every field an integral domain ?
• SOLUTION: Yes, every field is an integral domain. We can prove that the
field is without zero divisors, hence field is an integral domain.
Ex. 7 If M2 denotes the ring of all 2 x 2 matrices of the form (: ~ ) where
a, b, c, d are rational numbers, is M2 a field ?
• SOLUTION: The mUltiplicative identity of M2 is ( ~ ~ ) .
Inverse of (: ~ ) is equal to ad ~ bc (!c ~ b ) .
But as a, b, c, d are all rational numbers, therefore, ad - bc may be equal to
zero, i.e., inverse does not exist.
Hence M2 is not a field.
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.27
Ex. 8 Show that the multiplicative inverse of a non-zero element in a field is
unique.
• SOLUTION: Let e be the multiplicative identity of the field F.
Let a' and a" be two inverses of a E F .
. '. a'.a = a.a' = e and a".a = a.a" = e.
Now a" = e.a" = (a'.a).a" = a'.(a.a") (by associative)
= a'.e = a'.
Thus inverse of an element in a field is unique.
Ex. 9 (i) Prove that in a field (-x)-l = -x-I.
(ii) Show that in a field F,
(-a).b = -(a.b), a, bE F
(iii) Show that (a-
1
)-1 = a .
• SOLUTION:
(i) -x + x = 0, (0 is the identity element)
or, (-x + x)-l = 0 or, (-x)-l + x-I = 0
or, (-x)-l = -x-I.
(ii) We have -a + a = 0 (by additive inverse)
Operating b from right we get,
(-a + a).b = O.b
=> (-a).b + a.b = 0 (by right distributive law)
.'. (-a).b is the additive inverse of a.b.
Hence (-a).b = -(a.b), for all a,b E F.
(iii) Let e be the multiplicative identity of F.
Then a.a-
1
= e where a-I E F is the inverse of a.
Also we have (a-
I
)-1.a-
1
= e.
... (a-
I
)-1.a-
1
= a.a-
1
or, (a -1) -1 = a (by right cancellation law).
Ex. 10 (i) In a field F, prove that a
2
= b
2
=> either Po = b or a = -b.
(ii) Prove that a ring R is commutative if (a + b)2' = a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
for all
a,bE R
(iii) If a, b E F (a field) and a =I 0 then show that there exists a unique
element x such that a.x = b.
3.28 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) Given a
2
= b
2
.
Adding (_b
2
) on both sides we get,
a
2
+ (-b
2
) = b
2
+ (_b
2
) (_b
2
is the inverse of b
2
)
=} a
2
+ (_b
2
) = 0
=} a.a - b.b = 0
=} a.a + a.b - a.b - b.b + 0 = 0
=} a.(a + b) - (a + b).b = 0 (by distributive)
=} a.(a + b) - b.(a + b) = 0 (by additive commutative)
=} (a + b).(a - b) = 0 (by distributive)
Since field is without zero divisor, therefore, either a - b = 0 or a + b = 0,
i.e., either a = b or a == -b.
(ii) We have (a+b)2 = a
2
+2ab+b
2
or, (a + b).(a + b) = a.a + 2a.b + b.b
or, a.(a + b) + b.(a + b) = a.a + 2a.b + b.b
(by distributive law)
or, a.a + a.b + b.a + b.b = a.a + 2a.b + b.b
(by distributive law)
or, a.b + b.a + b.b = 2a.b + b.b (by left cancellation law)
or, a.b + b.a = a.b + a.b (by right cancellation law)
or, b.a = a.b (by left cancellation law).
Hence R is commutative.
(iii) Since a =f. O .... a-I exists and a-I E F.
Left multiplying ax = b by a -1 we get
a-l.ax = a-l.b
or, e.x = a-l.b (left identity)
or, x = a-l.b.
Ex. 11 (i) If in a ring R, a
2
= a for all a E R, prove that a+b = 0 =} a = b
for all a, b E R.
(ii) If D be an integral domain and x be an element of D such that x
2
= x,
then prove that x = 0 or 1.
(iii) If a, bE F, F is a field and b =f. 0, then prove that a = 1, when (ab)2 =
ab
2
+ bab - b
2
.
(iv) If a, b, e, d are the members of a ~ e l d then show that ~ = ~ if ad = be .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a E R. By additive closure
a+a = (a+a)2 = (a+a)(a+a)
CH.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
= (a
2
+ a
2
)(a
2
+ a
2
) (by distributive law)
= (a + a)(a + a) (since a
2
= a)
or, (a + a) + 0 = (a + a) + (a + a) (by additive identity)
or, 0 = a + a (by left cancellation)
i.e., a + a = O.
Now, we have a + b = O .
. a + a = a + b ..
By left cancellation, a = b.
(ii) Let us consider the relation
x(x - 1) = x
2
- x (by distributive law)
= 0 (since x
2
= x)
Since D is an integral domain, so it is without zero divisor.
Thus, x = 0 or l.
(iii) Given (ab)2 = ab
2
+ bab - b
2
'* (ab)(ab) = (ab)b + bab - bb
'* (aba)b = (ab)b + bab - bb
'* aba = (ab) + ba - b (by right cancellation)
'* aab = 2ab - b (as ab = ba for a field)
'* aab = (2a - l)b
'* aa = (2a - 1) (by right cancellation)
,*aa-a-a+1=O
'* (a - l)(a - 1) = 0 '* a-I = 0
,*a=l.
(iv) We have ~ = :. '* ab-
1
= ed-
1
b d
'* b-1a = ed-
1
'* b(b-1a) = bed-
1
'* a = bed-
1
'* ad = bed-1d
'* ad = bc.
Again ad = be '* add-
1
= bed-
1
'* a = bed-
1
'* b-1a = b-1bed-
1
'* b-1a = ed-
1
'* ab-
1
= ed-
1
a e
'* b = "d'
Ex. 12 Prove that every field is without zero divisor.
3.29
3.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS ( ~ H O R T QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: Let F be a field and a, bE F.
We shall prove that, if a.b = 0 then either a = 0 or b = 0 for all a, bE F.
Suppose a.b = O. Let a ¥= 0, so a-I exists.
Now, a-l(a.b) = a-I.O
=> (a-Ia).b = 0 => b = O.
Similarly, if b ¥= 0 then a = O.
Thus F has no zero-divisor.
Note 1 A field is an integral domain.
Ch.4 II Geometry
".
Two Dimensions
4.1 Transformation of Axes
Change of origin without change of direction of axes (translation):
If (x, y) and (x', y') be the old and new coordinates respectively of a point P
then x = x' + a,y = y' + (3 where (a,(3) is the new origin w.r.t. to the old
coordinates system.
Rotation of rectangular axes without changing the origin (Rotation):
If (x, y) and (x', y') be the coordinates of the same point P in old and new
coordinates system then x = x' cos 0 - y' sin 0, y = x' sin 0 + y' cos 0, where 0
is the angle of rotation.
Equation of the curve after rotation at an angle 0: If the axes are
rotated at an angle 0 then the curve ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
becomes in the form ax,2 + by,2 + 2g'x' + 2f'y' + c' = 0, where 0 is given by
2h
tan 20 = --b'
a-
Combination of translation and rotation: If the origin is shifted to (a, (3)
and the axes are rotated through an angle 0 in the anticlock wise direction
(positive) then the changes the coordinates (x, y) of a point P are given by
x = a + x'cosO - y'sinO, y = (3 + x' sinO + y'cosO, where (x',y') are the
coordinates of P in new system of axes.
Ex. 1 Find the equation of the line ~ + ~ = 2, when the origin is transformed
to the point (a, b).
• SOLUTION: Putting x = x' + a and y = y' + b.
The transformed equation is
~ + a ~ + b ~ ~ ~ ~
-a- + -b- = 2 or, ~ + b + 2 = 2 or, ~ + b = O.
Ex. 2 (i) Find the transformed from of the equation x
2
- y2 = 4 when the
axes are turned through an angle of 45° keeping the origin fixed.
4.2 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Find the translation which transforms the equation x
2
+ y2 - 2x + 14y +
20 = 0 into X,2 + y,2 = 30.
(iii) Find the angle through which the axes are to be rotated, so that the
equation 17x
2
+ 18xy -7y2 = 1 may be reduced to the form AX2 + By2 =
1.
(iv) The coordinates axes are rotated through an angle 60°. If the trans-
formed coordinates of a point are (2V3, -6), find its original coordinates.
(v) Show that the equation 4xy - 3x
2
= 1 is transformed to x,2 - 4y,2 = 1
by rotating the axes through an angle tan-
1
2.
(vi) To what point the origin is to be transferred to get rid of the first degree
terms from the equation 8x
2
+ 10xy + 3y2 + 26x + 16y + 21 = O?
(vii) Transform the equation 3(12x - 5y + 39)2 - 2(5x + 12y - 26)2 = 169,
taking the lines 12x - 5y + 39 = 0 and 5x + 12y - 26 = 0 as the new
axes of x and y respectively.
(viii) What will be the form of the equation x
2
- y2 = 4, if the coordinates
7r
axes are rotated through an angle - 2"'
(ix) Find the angle of rotation of the axes for which the equation x
2
- y2 = a
2
will reduce to xy = c
2
. Determine c
2
.
(x) Find the equations of the following when ax+by+c = 0 and bx-ay+d =
o are considered as axes of x and y respectively.
(ax + by + c)2 = a
2
+ b
2
and (ax + by + c)(bx - ay + d) = a
2
+ b
2
.
(xi) Show that if the origin is transferred to (0,1) and the axes are rotated
through 45°, the equation 5x
2
- 2xy + 5y2 + 2x - 10y - 7 = 0 referred
x,2 y,2
to new axes becomes 3 + ""2 = 1.
(xii) P is the point (2,4). If the axes are turned through an angle of 30°
keeping the position of the origin unchanged. Find the new coordinates
of P .
• SOLUTION:
(i) For rotation x = x' cosO-y' sinO = x' cos 45°-y' sin 45° = x' /V2-y' /V2
and y = x' sinO - y' cos 0 = x' /V2 + y' /V2.
The transformed equation is
(
X' - y')2 _ (X' + y')2 = 4
V2 vI2
or, -4x'y' = 8 or, :r'y' + 2 = O.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.3
(ii) Given equation is x
2
+ y2 - 2x + 14y + 20 = 0 or, (x _1)2 + (y + 7)2 = 30.
Substitute x-I = x' and y + 7 = y' we get x,2 + y,2 = 30 .
. '. the translation is x' = x-I, y' = y + 7.
(iii) The angle of rotation e is given by
2h
tan2e = --b where a = 17,b = -7,2h = 18.
a-
. 18 3 1 -1 3
tan 2e = 17 _ (-7) = 4" or, e = "2 tan 4"'
(iv) Let (x, y) and (x', y') be respectively the old and new coordinates after
transformation .
. '. x = x' cose - y' sine and y = x' sine + y' cose.
Here x' = 2V3, y' = -6 and e = 60°.
Then
. '. the original coordinates are (4V3, 0).
(v) Let e = tan-
1
2 or, tane = 2.
, . n 2 {) 1
Slnu = J5' cos u = J5'
, , . x' 2y'
Then x = x cos e - y sm e = - - -
J5 J5'
2x' y'
y = x' sin 0 + y' cos 0 = J5 + J5'
Substituting the values of x and y to the equation 4xy - 3x
2
= 1 we get
~ ( x ' - 2y'). (2x' + y') - ~ ( x ' - 2y')2 = 1
J5 J5 5
or, 4(2x,2 - 2y,2 - 3x'y') - 3(x,2 - 4x'y' + 4y'2) = 5
or, 5x,2 - 20y,2 = 5 or, x,2 - 4y,2 = 1.
(vi) Putting x = x' + 0' and y = y' + (3. Then
8(x' +0')2+ lO(x' +O')(y' + (3)+3(y' +(3)2 +26(x' +0') + 16(y' + (3) +21 = 0
4.4 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
( vii)
or, 8x
/2
+ 10x'y' + 3y/2 + x'(16a + 10/3 + 26) + y'(10a + 6/3 + 16) + 8a
2
+
10a/3 + 3/32 + 26a + 16/3 + 21 = O.
To remove the first degree terms, putting 16a + 10/3 + 26 = 0 and lOa +
6/3 + 16 = O.
Solving we get a = -1, /3 = -1.
. '. the required point is (-1, -1).
L
12x - 5y + 39 12x - 5y + 39 d
=
J144 + 25 13
_ 5x + 12y - 26 _ 5x + 12y - 26
Y - - .
J25 +144 13
The given equation reduces to 3(13X)2 - 2(13y)2 = 169
or, 3X2 - 2y
2
= 1, where X = 0 and Y = 0 are new axes.
(viii) If (Xl, yl) be the new coordinates of a point (x, y) then x = Xl cos e -
yl sine, y = Xl sine + yl cose.
Here the angle of rotation e = -11'/2.
Then x = Xl cos( -11' /2) - yl sin( -11' /2) = yl and
y = Xl sin( -11' /2) + yl cos( -11' /2) = _Xl.
The equation reduces to y/2 - x/2 = 4.
(ix) Putting x = Xl cos e - yl e and y = Xl sin e + yl cos e, we get (Xl cos e -
yl sine)2 - (Xl sine + yl cose)2 = a
2
or, X
/2
( cos
2
e - sin
2
e) + y/2(sin
2
e - cos
2
e) + xlyl (-4 sin e cos e) = a
2
.
To reduce to the form xy = c
2
, putting cos
2
e - sin
2
e = 0 or, tan
2
e = 1
or, tane = ±1 or, () = ±11'/4, which is the angle of rotation.
The equation reduces to =r=4x'y'(sin1l'/4.cos1l'/4) = a
2
I I 1 1 2 I I 2/
or, =r=4x y . J2' J2 = a or, x y = ±a 2.
Obviously c
2
= ±a
2
/2.
(x) Let >X = ax + by + c and Y = bx - ay + d.
Y
The given equations reduce to (a
2
+ b
2
)X2 = a
2
+ b
2
and (a
2
+ b
2
)XY =
a
2
+ b
2
, or, X
2
= 1 and XY = 1 where X = 0 and Y = 0 are the
equations of the new axes.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.5
(xi) If the origin is transferred to (a,j3) i.e., (0,1) and the axes are rotated
through 45° then
x = a + x' cos 0 - y' sin 0 = 0 + x' cos 45° - y' sin 45°

= v'2 - v'2 and y = 13 + x' sin
0
+ y' cos 0 = 1 + v'2 + v'2
Putting these values to the given equation we obtain
5 x' y'
or, 2"(x' - y')2 - 2( ) - (x' - y')(x' + y') + 5
+ +
5
+_(X'2 + 2x'y' + y'2) - 12 = 0
2
X,2 y,2
or 4x,2 + 6y,2 = 12 or - + - = 1
, , 3 2 .
(xii) Let (x', y') be the new coordinates of the point (x, y).
Then x = x' cos 0 - y' sinO, y = x' sinO + y' cos O.
Here x = 2, y = 4 and 0 = 30°.
. ,V3,1 ,I,V3
2 = x . 2"" - y . 2" and 4 = x . 2" + y . 2""
or, V3x' - y' = 4 and x' + V3y' = S.
x' y' 1
or = =--
, S + 4V3 -4 + SV3 3 + 1
4.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
, 8 + 4V3 In, -4 + 8V3 In
or x = = 2 + y 3 y = = -1 + 2y 3
, 4 '4 .
. '. the new coordinates are (2 + V3, -1 + 2V3).
Exercise 1 (i) Find the angle of rotation of the coordinates axes about
origin which will transform the equation x
2
- y2 = 4 to xV = 2.
(ii) Find the coordinates of the point (-2,4) referred to new axes obtained
by rotating the old axes through an angle of 45° in the positive direction.
(iii) Find the transformed equation of the line y = V3x, when the axes are
rotated through an angle i in the positive sense.
(iv) Find a new origin without rotating the axes in order that the equation
y2 + 2y - 8x + 25 = 0 will turn out to be y2 = 4ax. Determine a.
[Ans. (i) 37rj4, (ii) (V2, 3V2), (iii) y' = 0, (iv) (3, -1), a = 2.]
Ex. 3 (i) If the expression ax + by changes to a' x' + b' y' by a rotation of
the rectangular axes about the origin, prove that a
2
+ b
2
= a,2 + b'2.
(ii) By shifting the origin to the point (a, /3) without changing the directions
of axes, each of the equation x - y + 3 = 0 and 2x - y + 1 = 0 is reduced
to the form ax' + by' = O. Find a and /3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the transformation be x = x' cos B - y'sinB,
y = x' sinB + y' cos B.
Then
ax + by = a( x' cos 8 - y' sin 8) + b( x' sin 8 + y' cos 8)
= x' (a cos 8 + b sin B) + y' ( -a sin B + b cos B)
= a'x' + b'y'
where a' = acosB + bsinB and b' = -asinB + bcosB.
Now, a,2 + b,2 = (a cos B + bsinB)2 + (-asinB + bcosB)2
= a
2
(cos
2
B + sin
2
B) + b
2
(cos
2
B + sin
2
B) + 0
= a
2
+ b
2

(ii) Putting x = x' + a, y = y' + /3. Then the given equation becomes
(x' + a) - (y' + /3) + 3 = 0 and 2(x' + a) - (y' + /3) + 1 = 0
or, x' - y' + (a - /3 + 3) = 0 and 2x' - y' + (2a - /3 + 1) = O.
According to the problem a - /3 + 3 = 0 and 2a - /3 + 1 = O.
Solving we get a = 2, /3 = 5.
eR.4: GEOMETRY 4.7
Ex. 4 Show that the equation of the circle x
2
+ y2 = a
2
is invariant under the
rotation of axes .
• SOLUTION: Putting x = x' cos 0 - y' sinO, y = x' sinO + y' cos O.
Then x
2
+ y2 = a
2
becomes
(x' cos 0 - y' sinO)2 + (x' sinO + y' cos 0)2 = a
2
or, x'2(cos
2
0 + sin
2
0) + y'2(sin
2
0 + cos
2
0)
+2x'y'( - sinO. cos 0 + cos O. sinO) = a
2
or, x,2 + y,2 = a
2
.
Hence the given equation is inv>triant w.r.t. rotation of axes.
4.2 Pair of Straight Lines
Some useful formulae on pair of straight lines:
(i) A second degree homogeneous equation of the form ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = 0
represents a pair of straight lines through the origin iff h
2
~ abo
(ii) The angle between the lines ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = 0 are
0= tan-
1
( ± 2):: ~ ab).
(iii) Condition of coincidence: If 0 = 0 then the lines are coincident and
hence h
2
= abo
(iv) Condition of perpendicularity: If 0 = rr/2 then a + b = 0 i.e.,
coefficient of x
2
+coefficient of y2 = O.
(v) The equation of bisectors of the angles between the lines ax
2
+ 2hxy +
by2 = 0 are
(vi) The equation ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of
straight lines if
a h 9
h b f = O.
9 f c
Ex. 1 Find the equation of the pair of straight lines joining the origin to the
points of intersection of the line x + 2y = 5 and the parabola y2 = 8x.
• SOLUTION: Since the pair of lines passing through the origin and the in-
tersection of x + 2y = 5 and y2 = 8x, so it is a homogeneous equation of
. 2 x + 2y
x and y. To make homogeneous we wnte y = 8x = 1.8x = --5-.8x or,
5y2 = 8x
2
+ 16xy, which is the required pair of the straight lines.
4.8 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 2 (i) Find the value of k for which the equation x2_y2_2x+4y+k = 0
may represent a pair of lines.
(ii) For what value of A, does the equation xy + 5x + AY + 15 = 0 represent
a pair of straight lines?
(iii) Show that 6x
2
- 5xy - 6y2 + 14x + 5y + 4 = 0 represents a pair of straight
lines which are perpendicular to each other.
(iv) Show that the equation 4x
2
+ 12xy + 9y2 -16x - 24y + 16 = 0 represents
a pair of coincident straight lines.
(v) Show that the equation x
2
+ 2V3xy + 3y2 - 3x - 3V3y - 4 = 0 represents
a pair of parallel lines, by factorising the left hand side.
(vi) Test whether the equation x
2
+ 6xy + 9y2 - 5x -15y + 6 = 0 represents
a pair of parallel straight lines.
(vii) For what value of A, 3x
2
+ AXY - 5y2 + 2x + 2y = 0 will be a pair of
straight lines ?
(viii) Show that the equation x
2
+ 6xy + 9y2 + 4x + 12y - 5 = 0 represent pair
of parallel lines and find the distance between them.
(ix) Find the angle between the pair of straight lines represented by the
equation 3x
2
- 10xy + 3y2 = O.
(x) Prove that the equation y3- x 3+3xy(y-x) = 0 represent"s three straight
lines.
(xi) Find the equation of the lines which pass through the origin and whose
distance from (h, k) are equal to d .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 29X + 21Y + c = 0
we have a = l,h = O,b = -1,9 = 1,1 = 2,c = k.
If the curve represents a pair of straight lines then
a h
9
1 0 1
h b
I
0 -1 2 =0
9 I
c 1 2 k
or, 1( -k - 4) + 1(0 + 1) = 0 or, -k - 3 = 0 or, k = -3.
(ii) Here a = 0, h = 1/2, b = 0,9 = 5/2, 1= A/2 and c = 15.
If the given curve represents a pair of straight lines then
o 1/2 5/2
1/2 0 A/2 = 0
5/2 A/2 15
eH.4: GEOMET'lY
or _!(15 _ 5),) + ~ ( ~ - O ) =Oor 5), = 15 or ).=3.
'22424 '44'
(iii) Here a = 6, h = -5/2, b = -6, 9 = 7, f = 5/2 and c = 4.
a h 9 6 -5/2 7
Now, h b f = -5/2 -6 5/2 = O.
9 f c 7 5/2 4
Hence the given curve represents a pair of straight lines.
Here the coefficient of x
2
+ coefficient of y2 = 6 - 6 = o.
. .. they are perpendicular to each other.
(iv) The given equation is 4x
2
+ 12xy + 9y2 - 16x - 24y + 16 = 0
or, (2x + 3y - 4)2 = 0 or, 2x + 3y - 4 = 0, 2x + 3y - 4 = O.
Hence the given curve represents a pair of coincident straight lines.
(v) The given equation can be written as
x
2
+ x(2V3y - 3) + (3y2 - 3V3y - 4) = 0
or x = -(2V3y - 3) ± V(2V3Y - 3)2 - 4.l.(3y2 - 3V3y - 4)
, 2
=
-(2V3y - 3)
2
V(12y2 - 12V3y + 9) - (12y2 - 12V3y - 16)
± 2
=
-(2V3y - 3) ± 5
2
or, 2x = -2V3y + 3 ± 5 or, 2x + 2V3y = 8 and 2x + 2V3y = -2.
or, x + V3y = 4 and x + V3y = -2.
Hence the given equation represents a pair of parallel straight lines.
(vi) The given equation can be written as
x
2
+ x(6y - 5) + (9y2 - 15y + 6) = 0
-(6y - 5) ± v'(6y - 5)2 - 4.1.(9y2 - 15y + 6)
or, x = 2
=
-(6y - 5) ± 1
2
4.9
4.10 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
or, 2x = -6y + 5 ± 1 or, 2x + 6y = 6 and 2x + 6y = 4
or, x + 3y = 3 and x + 3y = 2.
Hence the given equation represents a pair of parallel straight lines.
(vii) Here a'= 3, h = >"/2, b = -5, 9 = 1, f = 1, c = O.
3 >../2 1 a h 9
Now, D. = h b f
9 f c
= >../2 -5 1 = 2 + >...
1 1 0
If the equation represents a pair of straight lines then D. = 0 or, 2 + >.. = 0
or, >.. = -2. -
(viii) The given equation can be written as
x
2
+ x(6y + 4) + (9y2 + 12y - 5) = 0
-(6y + 4) ± V(6y + 4)2 - 4(9y2 + 12y - 5)
or, x = 2
= -(6y ~ 4) ± 6 = -(3y + 2) ± 3.
the straight lines are x + 3y = -5 and x + 3y = 1.
Distance from (0,0) to the first line is ~ = ~ and that of from
1 + 9 yl0
d 1
· . -1
secon me IS r;n'
yl0
Hence the distance between the lines is I ~ - -;,; I = !n.
yl0 ylO yl0
(ix) We have 3x
2
- lOxy + 3y2 = 0
or, (3x - y)(x - 3y) = 0 or, 3x - !J = 0, x - 3y = 0
or, y = 3x and y = ix.
Hence the angle (9) between these lines is
3 _1 4 4
tan 9 = 3
1
= -3 or, 9 = tan -1 -3'
1 + 3'3
Alternative method:
The equation is of the form ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = O.
... a = 3, 2h = -10, b = 3.
The angle between these lines is
CH.4:
2../h
2
- ab 2J25 - 9 4
tan() = = = -
a+b 3+3 3
_1
4
or, () = tan 3.
(x) Given that y3 - x
3
+ 3xy(y - x) = 0
or, (y - x)(y2 + xy + x
2
) + 3xy(y - x) = 0
or, (y - x)(y2 + 4xy + x
2
) = 0
or, (y - x)(y + 2x ± ../3x) = 0
or, y - x = 0, y + 2x ± ../3x = o.
The three straight lines are
y = x, y = (../3 - 2)x,y = (-../3 - 2)x.
(xi) Let y = mx be the equation of the line passing through the origin.
Distance from (h, k) to the line is
I
k - mh 1= d (given)
Jl+m2
or, (k - mh)2 = d
2
(1 + m
2
)
or, m
2
(h
2
- d
2
) - 2khm + (k
2
- d
2
) = 0
2kh ± J4k
2
h
2
- 4(h
2
- d
2
)(k
2
- d
2
)
or, m = ----'-----2-'-----'-'----'-
= kh ± Jk
2
h
2
- (h
2
- d
2
)(k
2
- d
2
)
Hence the required lines are y = (kh ± dJh2 + k
2
- d
2
)x.
4.11
Exercise 1 (i) Find the value of k for which the equation x
2
-y2+2x+k =
o may represent a pair of straight lines.
(ii) Examine whether the equation 2x
2
+5xy+3y2+5x+6y+3 = 0 represents
a pair of straight lines.
(iii) Find a value of k so that the equation z2 + kxy + y2 - 5x - 7y + 6 = 0
may represent a pair of straight lines.
(iv) Test whether the equation 4x
2
- 4xy + y2 -12x + 6y + 8 = 0 represents
a pair of parallel straight lines.
(v) Find the lines represented by the equation x
2
+ 2xy sec () + y2 = O.
(vi) Find the angle between the pair of lines x
2
+ 2xycosec a + y2 = O.
4.12 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vii) Show that the equation 4x
2
+ 4xy + y2 + 4x + 2y + 1 = 0 represent pair
of parallel lines and find the distance between them.
(viii) Show that the equation of the lines passing through the origin and per-
pendicular to 5x
2
- txy - 3y2 = 0 is 3x
2
- txy - 5y2 = o.
[Ans. (i) k = 1, (ii) yes, (iii) -5/2,10/3, (iv) yes, (v) x = (-secO±tanO)y,
(vi) 7r/2 - a, (vii) 0.]
Ex. 3 If p be the perpendicular drawn from the origin upon a line whose
· 1 1 1
mtercepts on the axes are a and b, show that 2 + b
2
= 2.
a p
• SOLUTION: Since the intercepts on the axis are a, b then the equation of
h 1
· . x Y 1
t e me IS ;; + b = .
Distance from the origin to this line is
1 1 1
I
-1 I = p (given)
J ~ + b .
or, 2 + b
2
= 2·
a p
Ex. 4 (i) Show that origin and the point (1, -2) lie on opposite sides of
the line 3x - 4y - 5 = O.
(ii) Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the axis
of y is double the distance from the point (2, 2).
• SOLUTION:
(i) Distance from the origin to the given line
-5
(d
1
) = J9+16 = -1 < 0 and that from (1, -2)
9 + 16
(
d ) = 3.1 - 4.( -2) - 5 = ~ O.
2 V9 + 16 5 >
,Since d
1
and d2 have opposite signs then the origin anq the point (1, -2)
are in opposite side of the given line.
(ii) Let (a, (3) be the point. Distance from (a,(3) to y-axis is a.
Also distance between (a, (3) and (2, 2) is
J(a - 2)2 + ((3 - 2)2.
According to the problem
a = 2J(a - 2)2 + ((3 - 2)2 or, a
2
= 4(a
2
+ (32 - 4a - 4(3 + 8)
or, 3a
2
+ 4(32 - 16a - 16(3 + 32 = O.
Hence the locus of the point is 3x
2
+ 4y2 - 16x - 16y + 32 = o.
CR.4: GEOMETRY 4.13
Ex. 5 (i) Show that the condition for one of the straight lines given by
ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = 0 may coincide with one of the straight lines giyen
by a'x
2
+ 2h'xy + b'y2 = 0 is 4(ah' - a'h)(hb' - h'b) = (ba' - b'a)2.
(ii) The gradient of one of the straight lines represented byax
2
+2hxy+by2 =
o is twice that of the other. Show that 8h
2
= 9ab .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the common line be Ix + my = O.
Let (lx + my)(llx + mlY) = ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2.
Comparing we have lh = a, mml = band lml + 1
1
m = 2h.
Again let (Ix + my)(l2x + m2Y) = a'x
2
+ 2h'xy + b'y2, where 112 =
a', mm2 = b' and 1m2 + 1
2
m = 2h'.
Now, 2(ah' - a'h) = lh(lm2 + 12m) -1l2(lml + 11m)
= 12(hm2 -12ml).
Similarly, 2(hb' - h'b) = m2(ltm2 - mI12).
Again, a'b - b'a = 112mml - mm21lt = lm(ml12 -11m2).
Hence
4(ah' - a'h)(hb' - h'b) = 1
2
m
2
(m112 -11m2)2 = (a'b - b'a)2.
(ii) Let (llx + mly)(l2x + m2Y) = ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2.
On comparison we have
lt12 = a, mlm2 = b and 11m2 + 1
2
m 1 = 2h.
The lines are itx + mlY = 0 and 1
2
x + m2Y = 0
11 12
or, y = --x and y = --x.
ml m2
According to the problem
11 12
-- = -2- or, ltm2 = 212ml (1)
ml m2
Now, ab = 1112mlm2 = (212ml)(l2mt} = 2(l2mt)2 [using (1)]
and 2h = ltm2 + 12ml = 312ml·
Ex. 6 Find the vertex and latus-rectum of the curve 3x
2
+ 12x - 8y = O .
• SOLUTION: We have 3x
2
+ 12x - 8y = 0 or, x
2
+ 4x + 4 = iy + 4
4.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
2 8 (3) 2 8
or, (x + 2) = 3 y + 2" or, X = 3 Y,
where X = x + 2 and Y = y + 3/2.
The curve represents a parabola with vertex at (-2, -3/2) and latus rectum
is 8/3 (as 4a = 8/3).
Ex. 7 (i) Find the pole ofthe line 5x-6y = 10 with respect to the parabola
y2 = 5x.
(ii) Find the pole of the focal chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax, passing
through (9a,6a) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let (a,iJ) be the pole. The polar of it w.r.t. theparabolaisyiJ= ~ ( a + x )
or, 5x - 2yiJ + 5a = O.
Comparing it with the given line, we have, -55 = -2iJ
-6
or, iJ = 3, a = -2 .. '. the pole is (-2,3).
-5a
10'
(ii) The equation of the chord passing through the focus (a, 0) and (9a, 6a) is
6a
y = -9 --(x - a) or, 3x - 4y - 3a = O. (1)
a-a
Let (a, iJ) be the pole. The equation of the polar of (a, iJ) is yiJ =
2a(x + a) or, 2ax - iJy + 2aa = O.
It is identical with (1). Comparing we get
2a iJ 2aa 8a
- = - = -- or, a = -a,iJ =-.
3 4 -3a 3
.'. the required pole is (-a, 8a/3).
Ex. 8 Is the line 2x + 4y = 9 normal to y2 = 8x ? Find the foot of the normal.
• SOLUTION: Let (a, iJ) be a point on the parabola y2 = 8x .
... iJ2 = 8a (1)
The equation of tangent at (a, iJ) is
yiJ = 4(x + a) or, 4x - yiJ + 4a = O. (2)
The equation of normal at (a, iJ) is a line perpendicular to (2) .
. '. its equation is iJx + 4y + k = O.
It is identical with the given line. Then
iJ 4 -k
- = - = - or, iJ = 2, k = -9.
2 4 9
From (1), 8a = 4 or, a = 1/2 .
. '. the given line is normal to the parabola and the foot of the normal is
(1/2,2).
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.15
Ex. 9 (i) Show that 3x+4y+7 = o touches the circle'x
2
+y
2
-4x-6y-12 =
o and find the point of contact.
(ii) Find the tangent to x
2
+ y2 - 6x - 6y + 14 = 0 from (5,5) .
• SOLUTION:
(1
·) "tliT h 3 4 7 0 -4y - 7
vve ave x + y + = or, x = 3
Putting this value to the equation of the circle.
( - 4 ~ - 7) 2 + y2 _ 4 (-4
Y
3
- 7) _ 6y - 12 = 0
or, (4y + 7)2 + 9y2 + 12{4y + 7) - 54y - 108 = O.
or, 25y2 + 50y + 25 = 0 or, y2 + 2y + 1 = 0
or, {y + 1)2 = 0 or, y = -1,-l.
Now, x = {4 - 7)/3 = -l.
. .. the point of intersection between the line and the circle is (-I, -1).
Since the number of point of intersection is one so the line touches the
circle.
(ii) The equation of straight lines passes through (5, 5) are
y - 5 = m(x - 5)
which is a tangent of the given circle.
The center and radius of the circle are respectively (3,3) and V9 + 9 - 14 =
2.
Now the distance from mx - y + 5 - 5m = 0 to the point (".3,3) is
1
3m
- 3 + 5 - 5m I = 2 or,
Vl+m
2
1
2
-
2m
I
VI +m
2
= 2
or, (1- m)2 = 1 + m
2
or, 1 + m
2
- 2m = 1 + m
2
or, m = O.
. . . the required tangent is y = 5.
Exercise 2 (i) Find the pole of the line x + 2y + 3 = 0 w.r.t the circle
x
2
+ y2 - 2x + 5 = O.
(ii) Find the equation of the tangent and the normal at (1, -1) to the conic
y2 _ xy - 2x2 - 5y + x - 6 = O.
[Ans. (i) (2, 2), (ii) x + 4y + 3 = 0 and 4x - y - 5 = 0.]
4.16 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
4.3 Polar Equation
(i) Relation between cartesian and polar coordinates: If (x, y) and
(r,8) are respectively cartesian and polar coordinates of a point P then
x = r cos 8, y = r sin 8 and r = J x
2
+ y2, 8 = tan -1 Jt.
x
(ii) Distance between two points: If A(rl. (
1
) and B(r2' (
2
) be two points
then the distance between A and B is AB = J r ~ + r ~ - 2r1r2 COS(82 - (
1
).
(iii) Area of a triangle: Let A(rl. (
1
), B(r2' (
2
), C(r3, (
3
) be the vertices
of a triangle AB C then the area is
(iv) Polar equation of a straight line: The general form of a straight line
is ~ = A cos 0 + B sin 0, where A and B are constants. The slop of the
r
line is -AlB.
(v) Polar equation of the line }:Jassing through two points: If the line
passing through the points (rl' 8d and (r2' (
2
) then its equation is
(vi) Polar equation of a circle:
(a) Let (c, a) be the polar coordinates of the centre and a be the radius
then the equation of the circle is r2 - 2cr cos(8 - a) + c
2
- a
2
= O.
(b) If the circle passes through the pole with centre at (c, a) and radius
a (in this case c = a) then the equation ofthe circle is r = 2a cos(8-
a). This equation is of the form r = A cos 0 + B sin O.
(c) If the pole is on the circle and the initial line passes through the
centre then the equation of the circle is r = 2a cos 8, where a is the
radius and (a,O) is the centre.
I
(vii) folar equation of a conic with the focus as the pole: If the focus
and the pole of the conic are same then the equation of the conic is
~ = 1 - e cos 0, where 1 and e are respectively semi-latus rectum and
r
eccentricity.
{
e < 1, conic is an ellipse
If e = 1, conic is a parabola
e> 1, conic is a hyperbola
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.17
Ex. 1 (i) 'Transform the cartesian coordinates (-1, -1) to the polar coor-
dinates.
(ii) Find the polar coordinators of the point whose cartesian coordinates are
(1, -y'3).
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let -1 = r cos 0, -1 = r sin O .
. '. r2 = 1 + 1 = 2 or, r = J2 and tanO = = ~ = 1.
Since the point is on the third quadrant and tan 0 = 1.
Then 0 = 7r/4 + 7r = 57r/4 .
. '. the required polar coordinates is (v2, 57r/4) or (v2, -37r /4).
(ii) Let 1 = r cos 0, -y'3 = r sinO.
r2 = 1 + 3 = 4 or, r = 2. Also, tan 0 = -y'3 or, 0 = -7r/3.
... the required polar coordinates is (2, -7r /3).
Ex. 2 (i) Find the cartesian coordinates of the point whose polar coordi-
nates is (2,7r/2).
(ii) Find the cartesian coordinates of the point whose polar coordinates is
(2,150°).
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here r = 2 and 0 = 7r/2. Then x = rcosO = 2cos7r/2 = 0 and y =
rsin7r/2 = 2.1 = 2.
Hence the corresponding cartesian coordinates is (0,2).
(ii) Here r = 2 and 0 = 150°. Then x = r cos 0 = 2 cos 150°
= 2 cos (90° + 60°) = -2 sin 60° = -2yt = -y'3 and
y = rsinO = 2sin1500 = 2 cos 60° = 2 . ~ = 1.
Hence the required cartesian coordinates is (-y'3, 1).
Ex. 3 Find the distance between the points whose polar coordinates are
(-12,7r/3) and (9,-7r/6).
• SOLUTION: The distance between the points (-12,7r/3) and
(9, -7r /6) is
J( -12)2 + 9
2
- 2( -12)(9) cos( 7r /3 + 7r /6)
= J225 + 216 cos 7r /2 = J225 = 15.
Ex. 4 If (8,7r/4) and (6,-7r/12) are the polar coordinates of two adjacent
vertices of a square, find its area.
4.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: The distance between the given points is
y'(8)2 + 6
2
- 2.8.6 cos(1I"/4 + 7r /12)
= y'100 - 96. cos 7r /3 = y'100 - 96/2 = v'52.
the area of the square is (v'52)2 = 52.
Ex. 5 Find the polar equation of the straight line joining the points whose
polar coordinated are (1, 7r /2) and (2, 7r).
• SOLUTION: The equation of line joining the given points is
~ sin(7r - 7r /2) + ~ sin(7r /2 - 8) + l sin(8 - 7r) = 0
or, ~ sin 7r /2 + ~ cos 8 - sin 8 = 0
1 . 8 1 8
or, ;- = sm - 2 cos .
Ex. 6 . (i) Transform to cartesian coordinates the equation r ~ cos ~ = at.
(ii) Transform the polar equation r cos(8 - a) = p to cartesian equation.
(iii) Transform polar to cartesian equation r3 = a cos
2
~ .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have r
1
/
2
cos ~ = a
1
/
2
.
2
Squaring both sides r cos
2
8/2 = a or, i(1 + cos 8) = a
or, r + r cos 8 = 2a or, r = 2a - r cos 8
or, r2 = (2a - r cos 8)2 or, x
2
+ y2 = (2a - x)2
or, x
2
+ y2 = x
2
- 4ax + 4a
2
or, y2 + 4ax - 4a
2
= 0, which is the required
equation.
(ii) Given that rcos(8-a) = p or, r(cos8cosa+sin8sina) = p or, xcosa+
y sin a = p, which is the cartesian equation.
(iii) The equation can be written as r3 = ~ ( 1 + cos 8)
or, 2r
4
= a(r + rcos8) or, 2(x
2
+ y2)2 = ar + ax
or, {2(x
2
+ y2)2 - ax}2 = a
2
(x
2
+ y2) (as x
2
+ y2 = r2)
or, 4(x
2
+ y2)4 + a
2
x
2
_ 4ax(x
2
+ y2)2 = (l2X
2
+ a
2
y2
or, 4(x
2
+ y2)4 _ 4ax(x
2
+ y2)2 = a
2
y2.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.19
Exercise 1 (i) What is the cartesian equation of the polar equation r2 =
a
2
cos 20 ?
(1
'1') £ I [ .
Trans orm the po ar equation - = 1 + cos 0 to a cartesian equation.
r
[Ans. (i) (x
2
+ y2)2 = a
2
(x
2
- y2), (ii) y2 + 21x _[2 = 0.]
Ex. 7 (i) Transform the cartesian equation x
2
+ y2 - 2ax = 0 to the polar
form.
(ii) Transforms the cartesian equation x
3
= y2(2a - x) to polar equation.
(iii) Transform to polar coordinates the equation (x
2
+ y2)2 = a
2
(x
2
_ y2) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Putting x = r cos 0, y = r sin 0 to the given equation we get
r2 cos
2
0 + r2 sin
2
0 - 2ar cos 0 = 0
or, r2 = 2ar cos 0 or, r = 2a cos 0, which is the required polar equation.
(ii) We have x
3
+ xy2 = 2ay2 or, x(x
2
+ y2) = 2ay2
or, r cos O.r2 = 2ar
2
sin
2
0 (since x = r cos 0, y = r sinO)
or, r cos 0 = 2a sin
2
O.
(iii) Putting x = r cos 0, y = r sinO to the given equation.
Then (r2)2 = a
2
(r2 cos
2
0 - r2 sin
2
0)
or, r
4
= a
2
r2 cos 20 or, r2 == a
2
cos 20.
Exercise 2 (i) Transform the equation (x
2
+ y2)2 = ax
2
to polar equation ..
(ii) Transform the cartesian equation xy = a
2
to polar equation.
(iii) Change the cartesian equation y2 = 4x + 3 to polar equation.
[Ans. (i) r2 = a cos
2
0, (ii) r2 sin 20 = 2a
2
, (iii) r2 sin
2
0 = 4r cos 0 + 3.]
Ex. 8 (i) On the parabola 3r(1- cos 0) = 1 find the point with the smallest
radius vector.
(ii) Find a point on the conic ~ = 1 - cos 0 having the least radius vector.
r
(iii) Find the points on the conic ~ = 1 + 2 cos 0 whose radius vector is 5.
r
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have 3r(1 - cos 0) = 1 or, r = 3( 1 0)'
1- cos
The radius vector r will be minimum when cos 0 is minimum. The
minimum value of cos 0 is -1 at 0 = 71'.
1 1 1
Hence the minimum value of r is ( ) = 3.2 = -6'
3 1 - COS7r
4.20 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Here r = i . The radius vector r will be least if 1 - cos 0 is max-
I- cosO
imum. Its maximum value is 2 at 0 = 11'.
Hence the least value of r is ~ . The required point is (1/2,11').
(iii) When radius vector r = 5 then we have from the curve
5 11' 311'
"5 = 1 + 2 cos 0 or, 1 + 2 cos 0 = 1 or, cos 0 = 0 or, 0 = 2"' 2
Hence the required points are (5,11'/2) and 5,311'/2).
Exercise 3 (i) On the curve r = 21 0 find the point with the small-
5 - 2 cos
est radius vector.
(ii) On the conic r = 6 0' find the point with the smallest radius vector.
1 - cos
(iii)
(iv)
Find the point on the conic ~ = 1 - cos 0 whose radius vector is 4.
r
Find the point on the conic 12 = 1 - 4 cos 0 whose radius vector is 4.
r
[Ans. (i) (3,11'), (ii) (3,11'), (iii) (4, cos-
1
i), (iv) (4,120°).]
Ex. 9 (i) Find the nature of the conic ~ = 3 - 3 cos 0.
r
(ii) Determine the nature and latus rectum of the conic whose polar equation
. 8
IS r = .
4 - 5 cos 0
(iii) Find the nature of the conic r = 4 1 0
- 5 cos
(iv)
(v)
Determine the nature of the conic ~ = 3 - v'3 cos 0.
r
Find the latus rectum and eccentricity of the conic ~ = 3 - 4 cos O.
r
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given equation can be written as 2/3 = 1 - cos O.
r
C
.. 'h
i
II
omparmg It WIt - = 1 - e cos u,
r
we have 1 = 2/3 and e = 1.
Since e = 1, the given equation represents a parabola.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.21
(ii) The equation r = 8 l} can be written as
4 - 5 cos
825
- = 4 - 5 cos 0 or, - = 1 - - cos O.
r r 4
Comparing it with ~ = 1 - e cos 0, we have I = 2 and e = 5/4. Since
r
e > 1 the equation represents a hyperbola whose semi-latus rectum is 2
i.e., latus rectum is 4.
1 1
We have r = 4 0 or, - = 4 - 5 cos 0
- 5 cos r
(iii)
1/4 5
or, - = 1 - - cos O. Here I = 1/4 and e = 5/4 > l.
r 4
Hence the conic is a hyperbola ~ n d semi-latus rectum is 1/4.
(iv) Here ~ = 3 - V3cosO or, 4/3 = 1- ~ cosO.
r r v3
Comparing it with ~ = 1 - e cos 0 we get I = 4/3 and
r
e = 1/v'3 < l.
Hence the given conic is an ellipse.
(v) The given equation can be written as 5 ~ 3 = 1 - ~ cos O.
Comparing with ~ = 1 - e cos 0 we get I = 5/3 and e = 4/3.
,r
Hence the latus rectum is 21 = 10/3 and the eccentricity is 4/3.
Exercise 4 (i) Find the nature of the conic ~ = 4 - 5 cos O.
r
(ii) Determine the nature and latus rectum of the conic whose polar equation
(iii)
(iv)
. 3
Isr=34 Ll'
- COS!7
Determine the nature of the conic r = 2 ; O'
+ cos
Determine the nature of the conic ~ = 2 + 4 cos (J and also find its length
r
of the latus rectum.
[Ana. (i) hyperbola, (ii) hyperbola, 2, (iii) hyperbola, (iv) hyperbola, 3.]
Ex. 10 (i) The latus rectum of a conic is 10 and its. eccentricity is ~ . Find
the length of the focal chord inclined at an angle 60° with the major
axes.
4.22 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Find the length of the focal chord of the parabola ~ = 1 - cos 0 which
r
is inclined to the axis at an angle 7r /3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The equation of a conic with focus as pole is ~ = 1 - e cos O. Here 21 = 10
r
(ii)
and e = 1/2. Let S be the focus and PSP' be a focal chord.
SP= I
1 - ecosO
5 5 20
= 1 = 1 1 =-.
1 - 2 cos 60
0
1 - 2' 2 3
I 5 5
SP = 1 = 1 1 = 4.
1- - cos(-1200) 1- - (--)
,2 2' 2
Hence the length of the focal chord is
SP + SpI = 20 + 4 = 32.
3 3
Here the equation of a conic is ~ = 1 - cos O.
r
Let S be the focus and PBP
'
be a focal chord.
6 6
Then SP = 1 /3 = --1 = 12 and
-COS7r 1-
2
~
P 6 0 0
S -120
0
pI
Figure: 4.3.1
SpI = 6 = 6 = 6 - 4
1 - cos ( -27r /3) 1 - cos 120
0
1 + 1/2 - .
Hence the length of the focal chord is
SP + BP' = 12 + 4 = 16.
Ex. 11 (i) Find the centre and radius of the circle r = 3 cos 0 + 4 sin O.
(ii) Find the centre and radius of the circle r = acosO + b sin O.
(iii) Find the polar coordinates of the centre of the circle r = 8 cos O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let 3 = a cos 0', 4 = a sin 0'. Then 9 + 16 = a
2
or, a = 5 and tan 0' = 4/3
_1
4
or, 0' = tan 3'
.. . r = 3 cos 0 + 4 sin 0 = a cos () cos 0' + a sin () sin 0'
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.23
= acos(O - G) = 5cos(O - G).
Hence the polar coordinates of the centre are ( ~ ; tan -1 ~ ) and radius is
5/2.
(ii) Let a = ACOSG, b = AsinG. Then A = Ja
2
+ b
2
and
-1 b
G = tan -.
a
Thus r = a cos 0 + b sin 0 = A ( cos 0 cos G + sin 0 sin G)
A
= Acos(O - G) = 2.2 cos(O - G).
the radius of the circle is Ja
2
2
+ b
2
and the polar coordinates of the
(
Ja
2
+b
2
b)
centre are 2 ' tan-
1
~ .
(iii) The given equation is of the form r = 2a cos O. . a = 4.
Hence the polar coordinates of the centre are (4, 0) and radius is 4.
Ex. 12 Find the polar equation of the circle which passes through the pole
and two points whose polar coordinates are (d,O) and (2d, 7r /3). Find also the
radius and the centre of the circle.
• SOLUTION: Let the equation of the circle be
r = a cos 0 + bsinO.
Since it passes through (d,O) and (2d,7r/3) then d = a and
. .. the required equation of the circle is
r = d cos 0 + V3d sin 0 = 2d ( ~ cos 0 + ~ sin 8 )
= 2d(cos 8 cos 7r/3 + sinO sin 7r/3) = 2d cos(O - 7r/3).
Hence the radius is d and centre is (d, 7r /3).
(1)
Ex. 13 Show that the equation of a parabola in polar coordinates can be
expressed in the form r
1
/
2
sin(8/2) = (1/2)1/2, where I is the semi latus rectum
of the parabola.
• SOLUTION: The equation of the parabola i ~ polar coordinates is ~ = 1 - cos (}
r
I 2' 2 (}
or, - = Slll -
r 2
4.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
or rl/2 sin - = -
() ( l ) 1/2
, 2 2
4.4 General Equation of Second Degree
The general equation of second degree is
ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = O.
The curve represented by this equation is a conic section or conic. Let D =
a h 9
ab - h
2
and Do = h b f '. The nature of the conic is represented by these
9 f c
two quantities.
Type
D=
Do Canonical form Name
ab - h
2
D>O Do < 0
~ + ~ = 1
ellipse
D >0 Do < 0
x
2
+ y2 = a2
circle
Elliptic D>O Do> 0
x
2
~
Q2" + b =-1
imaginary
ellipse
D>O Do = 0
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
y2 ::;: 0 pair of imag-
inary lines or
point ellipse
D=O Do =1= 0 x"'" = 4ay or parabola
y2 = 4ax
Parabolic D=O Do = 0 x
2
= a
2
or pair of
y2 = b2
parallel lines
D=O Do = 0 x
2
= 0 or pair of coin-
y2 ::;: 0
cident lines
D <0 Do < 0
x
2
~ - 1
hyperbola
Q2"-b --
Hyperbolic D <0 Do = 0
x
2
- a
2
y2 = 0 pair of inter
-secting lines
D <0 Do> 0
x
2
~
~ - = 1
hyperbola
Ex. 1 (i) Find the nature of the conic 6x
2
- 5xy - 6y2 + 14x + 5y + 4 = O.
(ii) If the equation 6x
2
+ kxy - 3y2 + 4x + 5y - 2 = 0 represents a pair of
intersecting straight line, find the values of k.
(iii) What is the nature of the conic, represented by 4x
2
- 4xy + y2 - 12x +
6y + 9 = O.
(iv) State the nature of the conic represented by 4x
2
-4xy+y2+2x-26y+9 =
O.
(v) Does the equation x
2
- 5xy + 4y2 + X + 2y - 2 = 0, represent a pair of
straight lines ?
Cti.4: GEOMETl1Y 4.25
(vi) Determine the nature of the conic represented by the equation 3x
2
-
- 3y2 - 8xy + lOx - 13y + 8 = 0 ?
(vii) Show that x
2
- 2xy + 2y2 - 4x - 6y + 3 = 0 represents an ellipse .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21Y + c = 0
we have
a = 6,h = -5/2,b = -6,g = 7,/ = 5/2,c = 4 .
. '. D = ab - h
2
= -36 - 25/4 < 0 and
a h 9 6 -5/2 7
~ = h b 1 = -5/2 -6 5/2
9 1 c 7 5/2 4
(
25) 5 ( 35) (25 )
= 6 - 24 - 4 + 2" - 10 - 2 + 7 - 4 + 42 = O.
Hence the given conic is a pair of intersecting lines.
tii) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21 y + c = 0
we have
a = 6,h = k/2,b = -3,g = 2,1 = 5/2,c = -2.
If the given equation represents a pair of straight lines then
a h 9 6 k/2 2
h b 1 = k/2 -3 5/2 = O.
9 1 c 2 5/2 -2
(
25) k (5k)
or, 6 6 - 4 - 2" ( - k - 5) + 2 4 + 6 = 0
k
2
21
or, 2 + 5k + 2 = 0 or, k
2
+ 10k + 21 = 0
or, (k + 3)(k + 7) = 0 or, k = -3, -7, which are the required values of k.
(iii) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21Y + c = 0
we have
a = 4, h = -2, b = 1, 9 = -6, f = 3, c = 9.
Now, D = ab - h
2
= 4 - 4 = 0 and
a h 9 4 -2 -6
~ = h b f = -2 1 3
9 f c -6 3. 9
= 4(9 - 9) + 2( -18 + 18) - 6( -6 + 6) = O.
- ~ .'
. '. the given conic represents a pair of coincident lines.
4.26 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0
we have
a = 4,h = -2,b = l,g = 1,/ = -13,e = 9.
Now D = ab - h
2
= 4 - 4 = 0 and ,
a h 9 4 -2 1
a = h b / = -2 1 -13 = -625 =I O.
9 / e 1 -13 9
The given conic represents a parabola.
(v) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/ y + e = 0
we have
a = l,h = -5/2,b = 4,g = 1/2,/ = l,e = -2.
Now, D = ab - h
2
= 4 - 25/4 = -9/4 < 0 and
a h 9 1 -5/2 1/2
a = h b / = -5/2 4 1 = O.
9 / e 1/2 1-2
Yes, the equation represents a pair of intersecting straight lines
(vi) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0
we have
a = 3, h = -4, b = -3, 9 = 5, / = -13/2, e = 8.
Now, D = ab - h
2
= -9 - 16 = -25 < 0 and
a h 9 3 .-4 5 33
a = h b / = -4 -3 -13/2 ="4 > O.
9 / e 5 -13/2 8
. '. the conic is a hyperbola.
(vii) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0
we have
a = l,h = -1,b = 2,g = -2,/ = -3,e = 3.
Now, D = ab - h
2
= 2 - 1 = 1 > 0 and
a h 9 1 -1 -2
~ = h b / = -1 2 -3 = -26 < O.
9 / e -2 -3 3
Hence the given conic represents an ellipse.
Ex. 2 (i) Find the centre of the ellipse 7x
2
- 2xy + 7y2 + 22x -lOy + 7 = O.
(ii) Show that the curve 4x
2
+ 4xy + y2 + 4x + 2y + 20 = 0 has infinitely
many centres.
CH.'t: GEOMETP' 4.27
• SOLUTION:
(i) Comparing the given equation with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/y + c = 0
we have .
a = 7,h = -l,b = 7,g = 11,/ = -5,c = 7.
The centre (a, (3) is obtain from the equations
aO' + h(3 + 9 = 0 and hO' + b(3 + / = o .
. '.7O'-(3+11=Oand-O'+7(3-5=O.
Solving we get 0'= -3/2, (3 ::;; 1/2.
Hence the required centre of the conic is (-3/2,1/2).
(ii) Comparing the given equation with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/y + c = 0
we have
a = 4, h = 2, b = 1, 9 = 2, / = 1, c = 20.
The (a, (3) be the coordinates of the centre and it is obtain from the
equations aO' + h(3 + 9 = 0 and hO' + b(3 + / = O.
or, 40' + 2(3 + 2 = 0 and 20' + (3 + 1 = O.
These two equations are identical and they are 20' + (3 + 1 = O. This
equation has infinite solutions. Hence the given conic has infinite many
centres.
Three Dimensions
4.5 Direction Cosines and Ratios
Some important formulae on three dimensions
(i) Distance between two points: Let P(XI, Yb Zl) and
Q(X2, Y2, Z2) be two points. The distance between P and Q is
V(X2 - Xl)2 + (Y2 - Yl)2 + (Z2 - zt)2.
(ii) Internal point: If R divides P(XI, Yb zt) and Q(X2, Y2, Z2) internally
in the ratio m : n then the coordinates of R are
(
mX2 + nXl mY2 + nYl mZ2 + nZl)
m+n ' m+n '. m+n .
(iii) Mid-point: If R is the mid.point of P(XI, Yll zt} and
Q(X2, Y2, Z2) then the coordinates of R are
(
X2 + Xl Y2 + Yl Z2 + Zl)
2 ' 2. ' 2' .
4.28 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Direction cosines: If a directed line makes angles Ct., /3, 'Y with the
positive directions of x, y, Z axes respectively the cos Ct., cos /3, cos'y are
called the direction cosines of this line. Direction cosines (d.cs) are
generally denoted by 1, m, n.
The direction cosines 1, m, n satisfy the relation 12 + m
2
+ n
2
= 1.
(v) Direction cosines of a line joining two points: Let
P(XI,YI,Zl) and Q(X2,Y2,Z2) be two points. Directio/Il ratios (d.rs)
of this line are X2 - Xl, Y2 - Yl, Z2 - ZI and the direction cosines are
X2 - Xl Y2 - Yl Z2 - Zl .. .
PQ ' PQ ' PQ ,where PQ IS the dlstance between the pomts
P and Q.
~ (vi) Angle between two lines: If h, ml, nl and h, m2, na are the d.cs of
two lines then the angle () between them is
If ab bb C! and a2, b
2
, C2 are the d.rs of two lines then the angle () between
them is
£I -1 ± ala2 + bl b2 + ClC2
u=cos .
J a ~ + b ~ + C ~ J a ~ + b ~ + C ~
(vii) Condition for perpendicularity: If iI, mb nl and 1
2
, m2, n2 are d.cs
or d.rs of two lines then they are perpendicular to each other if and only
if h12 + mlm2 + nln2 = o.
(viii) Condition for parallel lines: If iI, ml, nl and 1
2
, m2, n2 are d.cs of
two lines then they are parallel if and only if
11 = ml = nl = 1.
12 m2 n2
Ex. 1 (i) Find the direction cosines of the straight line passing through the
points (1,2,4) and (3,1,3).
(ii) Can 1, 2, 3 be the direction cosines of a straight line? Can they be
direction ratios ? Justify your answer.
(iii) Can the numbers )a, ~ , -~ be the direction cosines of any line?
Justify your answer.
(iv) A directed straight line makes angles 60°,45° with the axes of x and Y
respectively. What angle does it make with the z-axes ?
(v) Find the direction cosines of a line equally inclined to the coordinates
. axes.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.29
• SOLUTION:
(i) The d.rs of the line joining the given points are {I - 3,2 - 1,4 - 3} or,
{-2, 1, I}. The d.cs are
{
-2 II} { -2 II}
vi 4 + 1 + 1 ' vi 4 + 1 + 1 ' vi 4 + 1 + 1 or, J6' J6' J6 .
(ii) {I, 2, 3} do not form d.cs, because 12 + 22 + 3
2
= 14 =1= 1. But they may
be d.rs of a straight line.
(
1)2 (1)2 ( 1)2 1 1 1
(iii) v'3 + J2 + - J2 = 3" + "2 + "2 =1= 1.
{
III}
Hence v'3' J2' - J2 can not be a d.cs of any line.
(iv) Let a = 60°,13 = 45°. We know cos
2
a + cos
2
13 + cos
2
, = 1
or, cos
2
60° + cos
2
45° + cos
2
, = 1
or, cos
2
, = 1 - cos
2
60° - cos
2
45° = 1 - ~ - ~ = ~ .
or, cos, = ~ or, , = 60°. Hence the line makes 60° with the z-axis.
(v) Here a ~ 13 =,. Then the d.cs are {cos a, cos 13, cos,}
, {cosa cos a cosa}
or, {cosq, cos a, cos a} or, .f ' .f '-.Ir==::;:=
v 3 cos
2
a v 3 cos
2
a v 3 cos
2
a
{
III}
or, v'3' v'3' v'3 .
Ex. 2 The length of the projections of a segment of a straight line on the axes
of coordinates are 3, 4, 5 units respectively. Find the length of the segment.
• SOLUTION: Let the line be PQ and make angles with coordinates axes be
a,f3" then we know that P'Q' = PQcos9, where P'Q' is the projection of
PQ on a line AB and 9 is the angle between PQ and AB. Taking AB as
x-axis, y-axis and z-axis successively we have
3 = PQ cos a, 4 = PQ cos 13, 5 = PQcos,.
Squaring and adding we get
9 + 16 + 25 = (PQ)2(cos
2
a + cos
2
13 + cos
2
,) or, (PQ)2 = 50 or, PQ = 5J2,
which is the length of the line segment.
Ex. 3 Find the projection of the curve x
2
+ 2y2 + 3z
2
= 12, 3x + 1 = 0 on the
yz-plane.
• SOLUTION: Putting x = -1/3 in the equation x
2
+ 2y2 + 3z
2
= 12 we get
1 107
(-1/3)2 + 2y2 + 3z
2
= 12 or, 2y2 + 3z
2
= 12 - 9 = 9
y2 z2
or, 18y2 + 27z
2
= 107 or, 107/18 + 107/27 = 1.
4.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SliURT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
This equation represents a curve surface (elliptic cylinder) projecting the
given curve on the yz-plane. The projection is an ellipse with centre at (0,0)
d
. h {ITff d {ITff h I th f· .. d ..
an Wit V 18 an V 27 as t e eng 0 Its semi-maJor an seml-mmor
axes.
Ex. 4 Find the locus of a point P which is equidistance from the points
(2, -2, 1) and (0,2,3).
• SOLUTION: Let the coordinates of P be (x, y, z). Distance from (x, y, z) to
(2, -2, 1) is V(x - 2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z - 1)2 and that of from P to (0,2,3) is
V(x - 0)2 + (y - 2)2 + (z - 3)2.
According to the condition,
V(x - 2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z - 1)2 = vx2 + (y - 2)2 + (z - 3)2.
Squaring we get
(x - 2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z - 1)2 = x
2
+ (y - 2)2 + (z - 3)2
Of, -4x + 8y + 4z = 4 or, x - 2y - z + 1 = 0.
Ex. 5 Find the coordinates of the points which divide the distance between
two points (2,0,1) and (4,-2,5) internally and externally in the ratio 3:2.
• SOLUTION: The coordinates of the internal point are
(
3.4+2.2 3.(-2)+2.0 3.5+2.1) r (16 -6 17)
3+2' 3+2 ' 3+2 a 5' 5 ' 5
and the coordinates of the external point are
(
3.4 - 2.2 3.(-2) - 2.0 3.5 - 2.1) (8 -6 1 )
3 - 2' 3 - 2 ' 3 _ 2 or , , 3.
Ex. 6 Show that the points (0,7,10), (-1,6,6) and (-4,9,6) form an isosceles
right-angled triangle.
• SOLUTION: Let the coordinates of A, B, C be respectively (0, 7, 10), (-1,6,6)
and (-4,9,6).
(AB)2 = (0 + 1)2 + (7 - 6)2 + (10 - 6)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18
(BC)2 = (-1 + 4)2 + (6 - 9)2 + (6 - 6)2 = 9 + 9 + ° = 18 and
(CA)2 = (-4 - 0)2 + (9 - 7)2 + (6 - 10)2 = 16 + 4 + 16 = 36.
Since AB2 + BC
2
= CA2 and AB = BC, ABC is an isosceles right-angled
triangle.
Ex. 7 Show that the points (1,1,1), (-2,4,1), (-1,5,5) and (2,2,5) form a
, square.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.31
• SOLUTION: Let A(l, 1, 1), B( -2,4,1), C( -1,5, S) and L!(2, 2, 5) be the cor-
ner points of the square ABCD.
AB2 = (1 + 2)2 + (1 - 4)2 + (1 - 1)2 = 9 + 9 + ° = 18
BC
2
= (-2 + 1)2 + (4 - 5)2 + (1- 5)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18
CD
2
= (-1- 2)2 + (5 - 2)2 + (5 - 5)2 = 9 + 9 + ° = 18 and
DA2 = (2 - 1)2 + (2 -1)2 + (5 - 1)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18 .
. AB = BC = CD = DA.
Again AC
2
= (1 + 1)2 + (1 - 5)2 + (1 - 5)2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 36 and
BD2 = (-2 _2)2 + (4 - 2)2 + (1- 5)2 = 16 +4+ 16 = 36.
i.e., the AC and BD are equal. Hence ABCD is a square.
Ex. 8 If a, f3, 'Y be the direction angles of a line then show that sin
2
a+sin
2
f3+
sin
2
'Y = 2 .
• SOLUTION: We know, if a, f3, 'Y be the direction angles of a line then cos
2
a+
cos
2
f3 + cos
2
'Y = 1
or, (1 - sin
2
a) + (1 - sin
2
(3) + (1 - sin
2
'Y) = 1
or, 3 - a + sin
2
f3 + sin
2
'Y) = 1 or, sin
2
a + sin
2
f3 + sin
2
'Y = 2.
Exercise 1 (i) What are the direction cosines of the straight line joining
the points (3,4, -1) and (1,7, -I)?
(ii) Show that 1, 1, 1 can not be the d.c's of any directed line.
[Ans. (i) {2/vU, -3/Vl3,0}.]
4.6 Plane
(i) General equation of plane: ax+by+cz+d = ° is the general equation
of the plane, where a, b, c are d.rs of the plane.
(ii) Equation of the plane passing through a point: The equation of
the plane passing through a point (Xl, YI, Zl) and having d.rs a, b, c is
a(x - xt} + bey - yt} + c(z - zt} = 0.
(iii) Equation of the plane in normal form: Ix + my + nz = p is the
normal form of a plane, where I, m, n are the d.cs of the plane and pis
the perpendicular distance from origin to the plane.
(iv) Intercept form of a plane: If the plane cuts the coordinates axes at
(0, 0, 0), (0, b, 0) and (0,0, c) then its equation is :. + !b + :. ::;: 1.
a c
(v) Perpendicular distance of a point from a plane: Let ax + by +
cz + d = ° be the equation of the plane and (Xl! yl! zt) be a given point.
Then the distance is
l
ax
1
+ byl + CZI + dl.
va
2
+h2+c
2
4.32 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vi) Angle between two planes: The angle between two planes alx+bly+
ClZ + d
l
= 0 and a2x + b
2
y + C2Z + d
2
= 0 is given by
-1 ± ala2 + bl b2 + ClC2
cos· + + + +
(vii) Condition for perpendicularity: If the planes alx+blY+ClZ+d
l
= 0
and a2x+b2Y+C2Z+d2 = 0 are perpendicular then ala2+blb2+CIC2 = o.
(viii) Condition for parallel planes: If the planes alX + bly + CIZ + d
l
= 0
and a2x + b2Y + C2Z + d
2
= 0 are parallel then
al b
l
Cl
a2 b2 C2
(ix) Planes bisecting the angles between two planes: Let the equations
of the planes be alX + blY + ClZ + d
l
= 0 and a2X + b
2
y + C2Z + d2 = o.
The equations of the planes are
alx + bly + ClZ + dl = ± a2x + b2y + C2Z + d2
v' ai + bi + ci v' + + .
(x) Coplanarity of four points: If the four points' (Xl, Yb zI),
(X2,Y2,Z2), (X3,Y3,Z3), (X4,Y4,Z4) are coplanar then
X2 - Xl Y2 - Yl z2 - zl
X3 - Xl Y3 - Yl Z3 - Zl = O.
:1:4 -j'>Xl Y4 - YI z4 - Zl
Ex. 1 (i) Find the equation of the plane which passes through the point
(1, -1, 2) and is parallel to the plane 2x + - Z + 1 = o.
(ii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection
of the planes 3x + Y - 5z + 7 = 0 and X - 2y + 4z + 3 = 0 and through
the point (-3,2, -4).
(iii) Find the equation of the plane passing through P(a, b, c) and perpendic-
ular to OP, where 0 is the origin.
(iv) Find the equation of the plane so that the foot of the perpendicular from
the origin to it is (2,3, -1).
(v) Find the equation of the plane that bisects perpendicularly the line seg-
ment joining the points (2, -1,3) and (-4,2,2).
(vi) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point
(4, -3,5) and containing the y-axis.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.33
(vii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (I, 0, 0), (O, 1,0)
and (O, 0,1) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the equation of the plane passing through (I, -1,2) be
a{x - 1) + b{y + 1) + c{z - 2) = O. (I)
Since it is parallel to 2x + 3y - z + 1 = 0, the d.rs are proportional, i.e.,
abc
- = - = - =k.
2 3 -1
Putting the values of a, b, c to (I) we get the required equation of the
plane.
Hence the required equation of the plane is
2{x - 1) + 3(y + 1) - l(z - 2) = 0 or, 2x + 3y - z + 3 = O.
(ii) Let the equation of the plane passing through the given planes be (3x +
y - 5z + 7) + k{x - 2y + 4z + 3) = O.
If iJ passes through the point (-3, 2, -4) then
(-9 + 2 + 20 + 7) + k{ -3 - 4 - 16 + 3) = 0 or, 20 - 20k = 0 or, k = 1.
Hence the required equation of the plane is
(3x + y - 5z + 7) + l{x - 2y + 4z + 3) = 0 or, 4x - y - z + 10 = O.
(iii) Let the equation of the plane passing through P{a, b, c) be l{x - a) +
m{y - b) + n{z - c) = O.
The d.rs of the line OP are {a - 0, b - 0, c - O} or, {a, b, c}. If the plane
is perpendicular to the line 0 P then = mb =
a c
Hence the equation of the plane is
a{x - a) + b{y - b) + c{z - c) = 0 or, ax + by + cz = a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
.
(iv) The d.rs of the line passing through origin (0) and P(2, 3, -1) are {2-
0,3 - 0, -1 - O} or, {2, 3, -I}.
(2,3, -1) is the foot of the perpendicular on the required plane.
Let the equation of the plane be
a(x - 2) + b(y - 3) + c(z + 1) = O.
Since OP is perpendicular to the plane (1), = =
Hence (1) becomes
2(x - 2) + 3(y - 3) - l(z + 1) = 0 or, 2x + 3y - z = 14.
(v) The plane passing through the middle point of
A(2, -1,3) and B{ -4,2,2) i.e., through the point
(-1,1/2,5/2).
(1)
4.34 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
The d.rs of AB are {6, -3, 1}.
These d.rs are proportional to the d.rs of the line perpendicular to the
plane. Hence the equation of the plane is 6(x + 1) - 3(y - 1/2) + l(z -
5/2) = ° or, 6x - 3y + z + 5 = 0.
(vi) Let the equation of the plane passing through (4, -3,5) be
a(x - 4) + b(y + 3) + c(z - 5) = 0. (1)
The plane (1) containing y-axis, so all the points on y-axis are the points
on the plane (1).
Let (0,1,0) be a point on y-axis. Equation (1) passes through it, so
-4a + 4b - 5c = 0. (2)
Again (1) containing y-axis, so a.O + b.1 + c.O = 0 ({O, 1, O} are the d.cs
of y-axis)
i.e., b = 0 .
. '. (1) and (2) become a(x - 4) + c(z - 5) = 0 and 4a + 5c = O.
x-4 z-5
On dividing we have -4- = -5- or, 5x-20 = 4z-20 or, 5x-4z = O.
(vii) Let the equation of the plane through (1,0,0) be
a(x - 1) + b(y - 0) + c(z - 0) = O.
It also pass through (0,1,0) and (0,0,1),
a(O - 1) + b(l - 0) + c(O - 0) = O.
a(O - 1) + b(O - 0) + c(l - 0) = O.
Eliminating a, b, c from (1), (2) and (3) we get
x -1 y z
.:...1 1 0 = O.
-1 0 1
or, (x - 1) - y (-1 - 0) + z (0 + 1) = ° or, x + y + z = 1.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Ex. 2 (i) Find the distance of the point (1, 2,-3) from the plane 5x - 3y +
z + 5 = 0.
(ii) Find the distance between the planes x + 2y - 3z + 5 = ° and x + 2y -
3z - 7 = 0 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The distance from the point (1,2, -3) to the plane 5x - 3y + z + 5 = 0 is
1
5.1- 3.2 + 1.(-3) + 51 __ 1_
y'25+9+1 - y'35'
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.35
(ii) The distance from the origin to the plane x + 2y - 3z + 5 = 0 is
5 5
=+=;=4 =+:::;:::9 = vT4'
Again the distance from the origin to the plane x + 2y - 3z - 7 = 0 is
-7 7
=+=;=4 =+=='9 = - vT4'
Hence the required distance between the given planes is
1
5 -71 12
vT4 - vT4 = vT4'
Ex. 3 Show that the points (1,1,1) and (2,1,1) lie on the opposite sides of the
plane 2x + y + 3z - 7 = o .
• SOLUTION: At (1,1,1), dl = 2x + y + 3z - 7 = 2.1 + 1 + 3.1 - 7 = -1 < 0
and at (2,1,1),
d2 = 2x + y + 3z - 7 = 2.2 + 1 + 3.1 - 7 = 1 > O.
Since dl and d2 are opposite in sign, the points lie opposite sides of the
given plane.
Ex. 4 (i) Reduce the equation x + 5y - 7z + 10 = 0 to the normal form.
Hence find the length of the perpendicular from origin to the plane.
(ii) Write down the intercept form of the equation of the plane 5x + 2y +
3z -17 = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Dividing the given equation by J1
2
+ 52 + (_7)2 = J75 = 5V3 we get

5V3 5V3 5V3 5V3
x y 7z 2
or, 5V3 + V3 - 5V3 = - V3'
Which is the normal form of the given plane and the perpendicular
distance from the origin is 1- 1 =
(ii) The equation can be rewritten in the form 5x + 2y + 3z = 17 or,
x y z
17/5 + 17/2 + 17/3 = 1, which is the required intercept form of the
given plane.
Ex. 5 (i) Find the angle between the planes x-y+2z = 9 and 2i+y+z = 7.
(ii) Determine the value of h for which the planes 3x - 2y + hz - 1 = 0 and
x + hy + 5z + 2 = 0 may be perpendicular to each other.
4.36 p.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SbLUTlON:
() between the planes is given by
1.2 + (-1).1 + 2.1 1 600
cos () = = - = cos
Jli + (-1)2 + 22v'22 + 12 + 12 2
or, () = 60°.
(ii, :;Since the planes are perpendicular i.e., the angle between them is
7r 3.1 + (-2).h + h.5
cos 2" = -..;r=9=+=4=+=======h"""2 ";-'-;=1 =+:::::h=;;:2=+=2==='5
;' or, 3 - 2h + 5h = 0 or, 3h + 3 = 0 or, h = -1.
Ex. 6 Show that the point (3,9,4), (4, 5,1), (-4,4,4) and (0, -1, -1) are copla-
nar.

SOLUTION: Here
4-3 5-9 1-4 1 -4 -3
-4-3 4-9 4-4
=
-7 -5
0 =0.
0-3 -1-9 -1-4 -3 -10 -5
Hence the given points are coplanar.
Ex. 7 (i) Find the equation of the plane through the point (1,2, -3) and
normal to the straight line joining the points (-1,3,4) and (5,2, -1).
(ii) Find the equation of the plane which is perpendicular to the plane x +
2y - z + 1 = 0 and which contains the line of intersection of the planes
x + 2y + 3z - 4 = 0 and 2x + y + z + 2 = O.
(iii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (2,5, -8) and
perpendicular to each of the planes 2x - 3y + 4z + 1 = 0 and 4x + y -
2z + 6 = O.
(iv) Find the equation of the plane passing through (4,1,0) and parallel to
the plane 3x - 4y + 7 z + 10 = O.
(v) Find the equation of the plane passing through (2,1, -1) and perpen-
dicular to the line whose d.rs are 3,4, -2.
(vi) Find the equation of the plane passing through (2,3,4) and parallel to
the zx-plane.
(vii) Find the equations of the planes bisecting the angle between the planes
3x - 4y + 12z = 26, x + 2y - 2z = 9.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.37'
(viii) Show that 2x2 - 6y2 - 12z2 + 18yz + 2zx + xy = 0 represents a pair of
planes .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The d.rs of the line joining the points (-1,3,4) and (5,2, -1) are { -6,1, 5}.
Since the plane normal to this line {-6, 1, 5} are also d.rs of the re-
quired plane. Hence the equation of the plane passing through the point
(1,2, -3) is
-6(x - 1) + 1(y - 2) + 5(z + 3) = 0 or, 6x - y - 5z = 19.
(ii) Let the equation of the plane contains the line of intersection of the given
planes be
x + 2y + 3z - 4 + k(2x + y + z + 2) = 0
or, (1 + 2k)x + (2 + k)y + (3 + k)z + 2k - 4 = O. {1)
If it is perpendicular to the plane x + 2y - z + 1 = 0 then 1.(1 + 2k) +
2(2 + k) - 1.(3 + k) = 0 or, k = -2/3.
Then (1) becomes (1 - 4/3)x + (2 - 2/3)y + (3 - 2/3)z - 4/3 - 4 = 0
or, x - 4y - 7 z + 16 = O.
(iii) Let the equation of the plane passing through the point (2,5, -8) be
a(x - 2) + b(y - 5) + c(z + 8) = O. (1)
If it is perpendicular to the given planes then
2a - 3b+ 4c = 0
and 4a + b - 2c = 0
Solving (2) and (3) we get
abc abc
6 - 4 = 4 + 16 = 2 + 12 or i = 10 = "7
(2)
(3)
(1) becomes 1.(x-2)+1O(y-5)+7(z+8) = 0 or, x+10y+'lz+4 = 0,.
which is the equation of the plane.
(iv) Since the required plane is parallel to the given plane, the d.rs of the
required plane are {3, -4, 7}. Hence the equation of the plane is 3(x -
4) - 4(y - 1) + 7(z - 0) = 0 or, 3x - 4y + 7z - 8 = O.
(v) The plane is perpendicular to the line with d.rs 3,4, -2, therefore the d.rs
of the plane are also 3,4, -2. Hence the equation of the plane passing
through the point (2,1, -1) is 3(x - 2) + 4(y - 1) - 2(z + 1) = 0 or,
3x + 4y - 2z = 12.
(vi) The plane is parallel to the zx-plane and passes through the point (2,3,4).
Then its equation is
1.{x - 2) + O.(y - 3) + l.(z - 4) = 0 or, x + z = 6.
4.38 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT:QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vii) The required equations of the planes are
3x - 4y + 12z - 26 = ± x + 2y - 2z - 9
J9 + 16 + 144 J1 + 4 + 4
3x - 4y + 12z - 26 x + 2y - 2z - 9
or, 13 = ± 3
or, 9x - 12y + 36z - 78 = ±(13x + 26y - 26z - 117)
or, -4x - 38y + 62z + 39 = 0 and 22x + 14y + lOz -195 = O.
Hence the required planes are
4x + 38y - 62z - 39 = 0 and 22x + 14y + 10z - 195 = O.
(viii) We have 2x2 - 6y2 - 12z2 + 18yz + 2zx + xy = 0
or, 2x2 + x(2z + y) + (18yz - 6y2 - 12z2) = O.
x=
-(2z + y) ± J(2z + y)2 - 4.2.(18yz - 6y2 - 12z2)
4
-(2z + y) ± J49y2 + 100z
2
- 140yz
=
4
-(2z + y) ± (7y - 10z)
=
4
or, 4x = -(2z + y) ± (7y - 10z)
or, 4x = -(2z + y) + (7y - lOz) and
4x = -(2z + y) - (7y - lOz)
or; 4x = 6y - 12z and 4x = 8z - 8y .
. '. the equation of the planes are
2x - 3y + 6z = 0 and x + 2y - 2z = O.
Exercise 1 (i) Find the distance of the point (1, 2, 0) from the plane 4x +
3y + 12z + 16 = O.
(ii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, -2,6) and
containing the x-axis.
(iii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of the
planes 2x + y + 2z = 9 and 4x - 5y - 4z = 1 and the point (3,2,-1).
(iv) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (-1,0,1) and
the line of intersection of the planes 4x - 3y + 1 = 0 and y - 4z + 13 = O.
(v) Express the following in the normal form 2x - 3y + 4z - 5 = O.
(vi) Find the equation of the plane passing through (3,5,1), (2,3,0) and
(0,6,0).
(vii) Find the equation of the plane which contains the line of intersection of
the planes x + 2y + 3z - 4 = 0 and 2x + y - z + 5 = 0 and which is
perpendicular to the plane 5x + 3y + 6z + 8 = O.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.39
(viii) Show that the four points (0, -1,0), (2, 1, -1), (1, 1, 1) and (3,3,0) are
coplanar.
(ix) Find the angle between the planes 2x + Y + Z = 6, x - Y + 2z = 3.
(x) Find the distances of the points (2,0,1) and (3, -3,2) from the plane
x - 2y + z - 6 = 0. Do the points lie on the same side or opposite sides
of the plane ?
(xi) Find the distance between the parallel planes x - 4y + 8z - 90 = ° and
x - 4y + 8z + 20 = 0.
[Ans. (i) 2, (ii) 3y + z = 0, (iii) 11x - 5y - z = 24, (iii) 12x - 8y - 4z + 16 = 0,
(iv) 12x-8y-4z+16 = 0, (v) Jg- ~ + ~ = ~ , (vi) 3x+2y-7z-12 = 0,
(vii) 51x + 27y - 22z + 96 = 0, (ix) 60°, (x) -3/.;6,5/.;6, opposite side,
(xi) 110/9.]
4.7 Straight Lines
(i) Equations of straight lines:
(a) If the line passes through the point (Xl, YI, Zl) and its d.rs I, m, n
then the equations of the line are
x - Xl Y - YI Z - Zl
=
m n
This is known as the symmetric form or the canonical form or the
standard form.
(b) If the line passes through two given points (Xl, YI, zt) and (X2' Y2, Z2)
then its equations are
X - Xl Z - Zl
= =
( c) Parametric form: If the line passes through the point (Xl, Yl, Zl)
and d.rs be I, m, n then its equations are X = lr+xl, Y = mr+YI, Z =
nr + Zl, where r is the parameter.
(d) Plane intercept form: The planes alx + b1y + CIZ + dl = 0 and
a2x + b
2
y + C2Z + d
2
= 0 together represent the straight line of
intersection of the planes.
(ii) Coplanarity of two straight lines: The lines
X - Xl Y - Yl Z - Zl X - X2 Y - Y2 Z - Z2
---,---"- = -- = -- and --= --= --
It ml nl 12 m2 n2
4.40 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
are coplanar if and only if
X2 - Xl Y2 - Yl
h ml
=0.
l2 m2
(iii) Perpendicular distance of a point from a line: The perpendicular
distance from the point (ex, 13, "() to the line
X - Xl Y - Yl Z - Zl .
--=--=--IS
1 m n
[(ex - Xl)2 + (13 - yd
2
+ ("( - zd
2
_ {l(ex - xd + m(j3 - Yl) + n("( - Zd}2] 1/2
[2 + m
2
+ n
2
(iv) Shortest distance between two skew lines: The shortest distance
between the lines
X - Xl Y - YI Z - Zl X - X2 Y - Y2 Z - Z2
--=--=--and =--=--
h ml nl l2 m2 n2
is
X2 - Xl
Y2 - YI
Z2 - Zl
h
ml nl
±
l2 m2 n2
[
2
h
2
h
r'
ml nl
+
nl
+
ml
m2 n2 l2 n2 l2 m2
Ex. 1 Find the angle between the two straight lines whose direction ratios
are respectively 5, -12, 13 and -3,4,5 .
• SOLUTION: The angle B between the lines is given by
cosB = 5.(-3) + (-12).4 + 13.5 = 2 =..!...
v'25 + 144 + 169v'9 + 16 + 25 13\1"2.5\1"2 65
-1 1
or, B = cos 65 .
Ex. 2 Obtain the direction cosines of the line formed by the planes 3x + 2y +
Z - 5 = 0 and x + y - 2z - 3 = O.
CH.4: GEOMETRY
• SOLUTION: Let I, m, n be the d.rs of the line .
. '. 31 + 2m + n = 0 and 1 + m - 2n = O.
Solving these equations
m n
=
-4 - 1 1 + 6 3 - 2 -5
Also [2 + m
2
+ n
2
= 25 + 49 + 1 = 75.
m n
= =
7 1
the d.rs of the line are {-5, 7, 1} and the corresponding d.cs are
{
-5 7 1} { -1 7 1}
05' v'15' V75 or V3' 5V3' 5V3 .
4.41
Ex. 3 Obtain in the symmetrical form, the equation of the straight line x -
2y + 3z = 4, 2x - 3y + 4z = 5.
• SOLUTION: Let l, m, n be the d.rs of the line.
· '. 1 - 2m + 3n = 0 and 2l - 3m + 4n = O.
Solving
m n m n
-8+9=6-4=-3+41=2='1'
Putting.z = 0 to the given equations we get
x - 2y = 4 and 2x - 3y = 5.
Solving these equation we obtain x = -2, y = -3.
Hence the equation of the line in symmetrical form is
Ex. 4 Are the two lines
x+2_y+3_:.
1 - 2 -1'
x-2 y-3 z+4 x+l y-2 z+3
-3- = -2- = -4- and -5- = ~ = -2-
perpendicular to each other ?
• SOLUTION: The d.rs of the given lines are {3, 2, 4} and {5, -6, 2}.
Now, 3.5 + 2.( -6) + 4.2 = 11 =1= 0, therefore, the given lines are not perpen-
dicular.
Ex. 5 (i) Examine whether the straight lines
x-I = y - 2 = z - 3 and x-I = y - 1 = z - 1
2 3 4 1 2 3
are coplanar.
4.42 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
x-I y-2 z-3
(ii) Does the line -1- = -1- = -2- lie on the plane 2x + 4y - 3z = 1?
(iii) Find the values of I and a for which the line
x-2 y+3 .::-6. .
-Z- = -4- = ---=2 IS perpendIcular of the plane 3x-2y+az+1O = O.
(iv) Find the values of a and d for which the line
x - 10 Y + 8 :; - 3. .
---1- = -2- = -1- lIes In the plane ax + 2y - 3z + d = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here
(ii)
1 -1 2-1 3-1 0 1
2 3 4
=
2 3
1 2 3 1 2
Hence the lines are coplanar.
x-1 y-2 z-3
Let -- = -- = -- =r.
1 1 2
... x = r + 1, y = l' + 2, z = 2r + 3.
Putting these values in 2x + 4y - 3z = 1 we get
2(r + 1) + 4(r + 2) - 3(2r + 3) = lor, 1 = 1
2
4 =0.
3
Le., every point on the line is on the plane. Hence the line lie on the
plane.
(iii) Since the given line and plane are perpendicular, so their d.rs are pro-
portional,
1 4 -2 1
- = - = - or, - = -2 or, 1 =-6
3 -2 a 3
-2
and - = -2 or, a = 1.
a
... the required values of 1 and a are respectively -6 and 1.
(iv) The point (1O, -8, 3) on the straight line is also on the given plane .
... lOa + 2.( -8) - 3.3 + d = 0 or, lOa + d = 25 (1)
Since the line is on the plane, (-l).a + 2.2 + 1.(-3) = 0 or, a = 1.
From (1), d = 25 - lOa = 25 - 10 = 15.
Ex. 6 (i) Find the distance of the point (3, 2,1) from the line
x-1 y z-2
-3- = '4 = -1-·
CH.4: GEOMETRY
(ii) Find the shortest distance between the lines
• SOLUTION:
x-1 y-2 z-3 x-3 y-3 z-4
-2- = -3- = -4-' -3- = -4- = -5-
(i) The distance from the point (3, 2, 1) to the given line is
[(
3 _ 1)2 22 (1 _ 2)2 _ {3.(3 - 1) + 4.2 + 1.(1 - 2)}2] 1/2
+ + 3
2
+ 4
2
+ 12
[
(6+8-1)2]1/2 f5
= 4 + 4 + 1 - 26 = V "2;
(ii) The required shortest distance is
1-3 2-3 3-4
2
3
3
4
4
5
[ ! : '+ i : '+ ; ! ']'/2
-2 -1 -1
234
345 1
= [(15 - 16)2 + (10 - 12)2 + (8 - 9)2]1/2 = yI6'
4.43
Ex. 7 Two lines have d.c.'s {1,a,a}, {a,a,1}. Find the d.c.'s of a line perpen-
dicular to them .
• SOLUTION: Let the d.cs of the requires line be {l,m,n}.
Since this line is perpendicular to the lines whose d.cs {1, a, a} and {a, a, 1},
I + a + a = a and a + a + n = a or, I = a, n = a.
Hence the required d.cs are {a, 1, a}.
Ex. 8 (i) Find the coordinates of the point where the line
x-a y-(3 z-,
=--=--
m n
meets zx plane.
(ii) Find the coordinates of the point where the straight line joining the
points (5, -2, 3) and (3, a, 1) cuts the xy-plane.
4.44 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given line is
x - a y .- (3 z - ,
=--=--
m n
x-a -(3 z-,
On the zx-plane y = O. Then -- = - = --
I m n
x - ex -(3 1(3
or, -1- = -:;;; or, x = a - ;:;;:.
S
· ·1 1 n(3
IIDI ar y, z = , - -.
m
. h . d . . ( 1(3 0 n(3)
t e reqUIre pomt IS a - -, " - - .
.. m m
(ii) The equations of the line joining the given points is
x-5 y+2 z-3 x-5 y+2 z-3
--= =-- or --=--= --.
5 - 3 -2 - 0 3 - 1 2 -2 2
On the xy-plane, z = 0
x - 5 y + 2 0 - 3 x - 5 y + 2 -3
--= --= -- or -- =--=-
2 -2 2 1 -1 1
or, x = 5 - 3 = 2 and y + 2 = 3 or, y = 1.
the required point is (2,1,0).
E (
.) F· d h . f . . f h 1· x - 2 y - 1 z - 3
x. 9 I m t e pomt 0 mtersectlon 0 t e me -2 - = ---=-3" = -2-
and the plane 2x + y - z = 3.
(ii) If the lines
x-I = y - 4 = z - 5 and x - 2 = y - 8 = z - 11
2 1 2 -1 k 4
are intersecting, find the value of k.
(iii) Find the value of m for which the line x; 1 = y: 2 = z ~ 2
3
parallel
to the plane x - 3y + 6z + 7 = O .
• SOLUTION:
x-2 y-l z-3
(i) Let -2- = ---=-3" = -2- = r
or, x = 2r + 2, y = -3r + 1, z·= 2r + 3.
Putting these values in 2x + y - z = 3 we get
2(2r + 2) + (-3r + 1) - (2r + 3) = 3 or, -r - 1 = 0 or, r = -1.
. . . x = 0, y = 4, Z = 1.
Thus the required point of intersection is (0,4,1).
CH.4: GEOMETRY
(ii) If two line3 intersect then they should be coplanar.
2-1 8-4 11-5
i.e., 2 1 2 = 0 or,
-1 k 4
1 4 6
2 1 2 = 0
-1 k 4
or, (4 - 2k) - 4(8 + 2) + 6(2k + 1) = 0 Of, 10k - 30 = 0
or, k = 3.
4.45
(iii) If the line is parallel to the given plane then 3.1 + m.( -3) + (-2).6 = 0
or, -3m - 9 = 0 or, m = -3.
Ex. 10 Find the perpendicular distance of the point P(x, y, z) from the y-
axis.
S Th . f h .. x y z
• OLUTION: e equatIon 0 t e y-axIs IS 0 = i = O·
The distance from the point P(x, y, z) to the y-axis is
Ex. 11 Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (1,
2, 3) and parallel to the line = =
• SOLUTION: Since the required line is parallel to the given line, the d.rs of
the required line are {2, 3, 4}. Hence the equations of the line passing through
the point (1, 2, 3) are
x-I y-2 z-3
-2- = -3- = -4-'
Exercise 1 (i) Find the direction cosines of the lines represented by the
equations 3x - 2y + z + 4 = 0 and 2x + 2y - z - 3 = O.
(ii) Find the direction cosines of the line, represented by the equations x +
y - z + 1 = 0 and 4x + y - 2z + 2 = O.
(iii) Examine if the straight lines
x-I y-2 z-3 x-2 y-3 z-4
-- = -- = -- and ----,.. = -- = --
2 3 4 3 4 5
are cpplanar.
(iv) that the perpendicular distance from the point (-1,3,9) to the
, . i . x - 13 Y + 8 z - 1. I1<l1 .
bne -5- = -=s- = -1- IS Y 131 umts.
4.46 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(v) Find the coordinates of the point in which the straight line
x-I y+2 z
= =-
3 -1 4
intersects the plane 4x + y + z = 2.
(vi)
x-I y-2 z
Find the point where the line -2- = -1- = 3" meets the plane 3x +
7y + z = l.
(vii) Find the point of intersection of the straight lines
x+l y+3 z-2
-- = -- = -- and the plane 3x + 4y + 5z = 5.
1 3 -2
(viii) Find the equation of the line through the origin which has d.rs 1, -1,4.
(ix) Find the equation of the line through (-1, -3,5) which has d.rs 2,1, -3.
(x) Find the equation of the line through the points (2,0,4) and (1, -3,4).
(xi) Find the equation of the line through (2,3,4) and parallel to
x-2 y-l z-1
--=--=--
230
(xii) Show that the lines
x y-2 z+3 x-2 y-6 z-3
- = -- = -- and -- = -- = -- are coplanar.'
1 2 3 2 3 4
(xiii) Find the shortest distance between the lines
x - 3 = y + 15 = z - 9 and x + 1 = y - 1 = z - 9.
2 -7 5 2 1 -3
(xiv) Find the perpendicular distance of the point P(x, y, z) from the x-axis.
[Ans. (i) {0,1/V5,2/V5}, (ii) {1/v'I4,2/v'I4,3/v'I4}, (iii) coplanar,
(v) (1, -2,0), (vi) (-1,1, -3), (vii) (1,3, -2), (viii) I = ~ = !, (ix) xiI =
y+3 _ z-5 ( ) x-2 _ 1l. _ z-4 ( .) x-2 _ 1l.::! _ z-4 ( ... ) 4 [(;3
1 - -3' x 1 - 3 - 0 ,Xl 2 - 3 - 0 ,Xlll V.J,
(xiv) y'y2 + z2.]
4.8 Sphere
Equation of sphere:
(i) If (0, f3, ')') be the centre and r be the radius of a sphere then the equation
of it is (x - 0)2 + (y - f3)2 + (z _,),)2.= r2.
(ii) If x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 represents the equation of
a sphere then its centre and radius are respectively (-u, -v, -w) and
vi u
2
+ v
2
+ w
2
- d.
CH.4: GEOMETRY
(iii) If (Xl, Yl , Zl) and (.7.:2, Y2, Z2) be the end points of a diameter of a sphere
then the equation of this sphere is
(x - xd(x - X2) + (y - Yl)(Y - Y2) + (z - zt}(z - Z2) = o.
Ex. 1 Find the centre and the radius of the sphere
x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2x + 2y + 2z + 2 = O.
• SOLUTION: Comparing the given equation with x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy +
2wz + d = 0 we have u = 1, v = 1, w = 1, d = 2.
the coordinates of centre are (-u, -v, -w) or, (-1, -1, -1) and radius
= Ju
2
+ v
2
+ w
2
- d = Jl + 1 + 1- 2 = 1.
Ex. 2 Discuss the position of the point (2, -3,0) w.r.t the sphere x
2
+ y2 +
z2 + 2x - 8y + 4z = 9.
• SOLUTION: Comparing the given equation with x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy +
2wz + d = 0 we have u = 1, v = -4, w = 2, d = -9.
Centre and radius of the sphere are respectively (-1,4, -2) and
Jl + 16 + 4 + 9 = J35.
Distance (D) between (-1,4, -2) and (2, -3, 0) is
J( -1 - 2)2 + (4 + 3)2 + (-2 - 0)2 = J9 + 49 + 4 = J62.
Since D > radius, the point (2, -3,0) is outside of the sphere.
Ex. 3 Find the equation of the sphere through the circlE ;c2 + y2 + z2 =
25, x + 2y - z + 2 = 0 and the point (1,1,1).
• SOLUTION: Let the equation of the sphere passing through the given circle
be (x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 25) + k(x + 2y - z + 2) = O. If it passes through the point
(1, 1, 1),
(1 + 1 + 1 - 25) + k(1 + 2 - 1 + 2) = 0
or, -22 + 4k = 0 or, k = 11/2.
Hence the required equation of the sphere is
(x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 25) + II (x + 2y - z + 2) = 0
or, 2(x
2
+ y2 + z2) + llx + 22y - lIz = 28.
Ex. 4 (i) Find in the form x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 the
equation of the sphere described on the join of (3,3, -·1) and (1, -3,4)
as a diameter.
(ii) Write' down the equation of a sphere one of whose diameter has the end
points (2,-1,3) and (0,4,-5). Find its centre.
4.48 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) The required equation of the sphere is
(x - 3)(x - 1) + (y - 3)(y + 3) + (z + 1)(z - 4) = 0
or, x
2
- 4x + 3 + y2 - 9 + z2 - 3z - 4 = 0
or, x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 4x - 3z -10 = O.
(ii) The equation of the sphere is
(x - 2)(x - 0) + (y + 1)(y - 4) + (z - 3)(z + 5) = 0
or, x
2
- 2x + y2 - 3y - 4 + z2 + 2z - 15 = 0
or, x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 2x - 3y + 2z - 19 = O.
The centre of this sphere is (1,3/2, -1) as 2u = -2,2v = -3,2w = 2.
Ex. 5 Find the equation of the sphere passing through the four points (0, 0,
0), (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0), (0,0, c).
• SOLUTION: Let the equation of the sphere be
x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 (1)
If it passes through the points (0,0,0), (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0) and (0,0, c) then
d = 0, a
2
+ 2au = 0, b
2
+ 2vb = 0, c
2
+ 2wc = O.
or, 2u = -a,2v = -b,2w = -c,d = O .
. '. (1) becomes x
2
+ y2 + z2 - ax - by - cz = 0 which is the required equation
of the sphere.
Ex. 6 (i) Show that the plane 2x - 2y + z + 12 = 0 touches the sphere
x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 2x - 4y + 2z - 3 = O.
(ii) If the plane x + y + z = h touches the sphere x
2
+ y2 + z2 = 48, then
find the value of h.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The equation of the sphere can be written as
(x - I? + (y - 2)2 + (z + 1)2 = 9 = 3
3
.
... the centre and radius of the sphere are respectively (1,2, -1) and 3.
Distance from the centre (1,2, -1) to the given plane is
1
2.1- 2.2 + 1.(-1) + 121
V = 3 = the radius of the sphere.
4+4+1
Heoce the given plane touches the sphere.
(ii) The centre and radius of the sphere x
2
+ y2 + z2 = 48 are respectively
(0,0,0) and v'48 = 4J3.
Distance from (0,0,0) to the plane x + y + z = h is
1
0+0+0-hl_ ~
VI + 1 + 1 - J3'
eRA: GEOMETRY 4.49
Since the plane touches the sphere, ~ = 4V3 or, h = 12.
Ex. 7 If ( ~ , 2 , 3 ) be endpoint of a diameter of the sphere x
2
+ y2 + z2 - 2x +
4y - 6z = 2 find the other endpoint of the diameter .
• SOLUTION: The equation of the sphere can be written as
(x - 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z - 3)2 = 4
2
.
. '. the centre is (1, -2, 3).
Let the coordinates of the other endpoints be (a, b, c).
Since the centre is the middle point of the extremities of a diameter,
l+a 2+b 3+c
-2- = 1, -2- = -2, -2- = 3 or, a = 1, b = -6, c = 3.
the coordinates of the other point is (1, -6, 3).
Exercise 1 (i) Find the centre and the radius of the sphere
x
2
+ y2 + z2 + 2x - 4y - 6z + 5 = O.
(ii) Find the centre and the radius of the sphere
3x
2
+ 3y2 + 3z
2
+ 2x + 2y + 2z - 2 = O.
(iii) Find the equation of the sphere described on the join of (2, -3,4) and
( -1, 0, 5) as diameter.
[Ans. (i) (-1,2,3), 3, (ii) (-1/3, -1/3, -1/3), 1, (iii) x
2
+ y2 + z2 - X + 3y-
9z + 18 = 0.1
4.9 Cylinder
Ex. 1 (i) Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is
x y z d d' . 2 't
- = - = - an ra IUS IS unl s.
1 -2 2
(ii) Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is the x-axis
and radius 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let (a, j3, ')') be any point on the cylinder.
The distance from (a, f3, ')') to the axis is
[
:! j32 2 (1.a-2.
f3
+2.')')2]1/2
a + +')' - 1+4+4
4.50 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Since the radius of the cylinder is 2,
[
2 (32 2 (l.a - 2.(3 + 2.,)2]1/2 - 2
a + +, - 1+4+4 -
or, 9(a
2
+ (32 + ,2) - (a - 2(3 + 2,)2 = 36 .
. '. the required equation of the cylinder is
9(x
2
+ y2 + z2) - (.r - 2y + 2z)2 = 36.
(1
'1') Th . f tl .. x y z
e equatIOn 0 le x-aXIS IS "1 = 0 = O·
Let (a, (3,,) be any point on the cylinder.
The distance from (a, (3,,) to the axis is
[
(l.a - 0 + 0)2] 1/2
a
2
+ (32 +,2 - = radius of the cylinder = l.
1+0+0
or, a
2
+ (32 +,2 - a
2
= lor, (32 + ,2 = l.
.' the required equation of the cylinder is y2 + z2 = 1.
Ex. 2 Find the equatiOl{' of the cylinder generated by the linei' parallel to the
axis of x and which passes through the curve of intersection 3x
2
- y2 + 2z2 = 1
and x - y + z = 2.
• SOLUTION: Let the equation of the generator passes through the point
(a, (3,,) be
x-a y-(3 z-,
-1- = -0- = -0- (as generators are parallel to the x-axis).
or, y = (3, z = ,.
Putting these values in 3x
2
- y2 + 2z2
3x
2
- (32 + 2,2 = 1, x - ;3 +, = 2.
Eliminating x we get
3(2 + (3 - ,)2 - (32 + 2,2 = 1
1 and x - y + z
or, 3 (4 + (32 + ,2 + 4(3 - 4, - 2(3,) - (32 + 2,2 = 1
or, 2(32 + 5,2 + 12(3 - 12, - 6(3, + 11 = 0
the required equation of the cylinder is
2y2 + 5z
2
+ 12y - 12z - 6yz + 11 = O.
4.10 Cone
2 we get
Ex. 1 (i) Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin and the
base is the circle :r = a, y2 + z2 = b.
(ii) Find the equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is the origin
and the base is the circle y = 2, x
2
+ ;:;2 = 9.
CH.4: GEOMETRY 4.51
• SOLUTION:
X y2 + z2
(i) From x = a we have - = 1 and from y2 + z2 = b, = 1.
a b
Making homogeneous, the equation of the cone is
y2 + z2 (X)2
b = 12 = -;; or, a
2
(y2 + z2) = bx
2
.
(ii)
2 + 2
Th· . lb· Y 1 d x z
e gIven Clrc e can e wntten as 2" = an 9 = 1.
x
2
+ z2 (Y 2
Making homogeneous we get 9 = 1
2
= -;- )
or, 4(x
2
+ z2) = 9y2, which is the required equation of the cone.
Ex. 2 Find the equations of the generator of the cone x
2
+ y2 - z2 = 0 through
the point (3,4,5).
• SOLUTION: We have x
2
+ y2 - z2 = 0
or, x
2
= z2 - y2 = (z - y) (z + y).
The two generators of A- /-l system can be written as
z - y = AX, z + y = tx.
If it pass through (3, 4, 5) then 5 - 4 = 3>' or, >. = 1/3 and 5 + 4 = 3/ A or,
9A = 3 or, A = 1/3.
Hence the equation of the generator passes through (3, 4, 5) is z - y =
tx,z + y = 3x.
Ex. 3 Show that the straight line x-I = y - 2 = z + 1 lies entirely on the
surface x
2
- xy + 2x - 3y + 2z + 7 = O.
• SOLUTION: Let x-I = y - 2 = z + 1 = r .
... x = r + 1, y = r + 2 and z = r - 1.
Putting these values to the given surface
(r + 1)2 - (r + l)(r + 2) + 2(r + 1) - 3(r + 2) + 2(r - 1) + 7 = 0
or, (r2 + 2r + 1) - (r2 + 3r + 2) + (2r + 2) - (3r + 6) + (2r - 2) + 7 = 0
or, 0 = o .
... (r + 1, r + 2, r - 1) is a point on the surface, for all values of r. Hence
the given line lies entirely on the given surface.
Ex. 4 Find the equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is origin, axis
7r
the z-axis and semi-vertical angle "4.
S E
· fh . x Y z
• OLUTION: quatlOn 0 t e z-aXIS are 0 = 0 = 1·
4.52 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Let P(x, y, z) be any point on the cone. The d.rs of the generator OP are
{x,y,z}. Now semi-vertical angle of cone is which is angle between OP and
axis z.
Thus
7r x.O + y.O + z.l
cos '4 =
Ch.5!! Vector Algebra
5.1 Elementary Operations
Def. 1 Scalars and vectors: Scalar is a single real number called magnitude
and is not related to any direction in space.
The vector is a quantity which has a magnitude as well as a definite direction
in space.
The speed of a bus is a scalar quantity but the velocity is a vector quantity.
Def. 2 Line vectors: The vector AB, A is called the origin and B the
terminus. The magnitude of the vector is given by the length AB and its
direction is from A to B. These vectors are called line vectors.
Def. 3 Equal vectors: Two vectors are said to be equal when they have the
same length (magnitude) and are parallel having the same sense of direction.
The equality of two vectors is written as a = b.
Def. 4 Zero vector: If the origin and terminal points of a vector are same
then it is said to be a zero vector. Evidently its length is zero and its direction
is indeterminate.
Def. 5 Unit vector: A vector is said to be a unit vector if its magnitude be
of unit length.
Def. 6 Position vector: The position vector of any point P, with reference
to an origin 0 is the vector oF. Thus taking 0 as origin we can find the
position vector of every point in space. Conversely, corresponding to any
given vector r there is a point P such that oF = r.
Def. 7 Addition of two vectors: Let a and b be two vectors with respective
to the origin O. The sum of these two vectors is given by a + b.
The vectors addition follow the following relations:
(i) a + b = b + a (commutative)
(ii) (a + b) + c= a + (b + c) (associative)
Def. 8 The unit vectors i,;, k: The vectors i,;, k have unit magnitude and
they lie on the x, y and ::; axes respectively.
We can expresses any vector in terms of these three unit vectors i,;, k
5.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 9 Collinear vectors: Two vectors a and b are said to be collinear if
a = >'b, for some scalar >., i.e., two vectors are collinear if the coefficient of i, J
and k are proportional.
Def. 10 Magnitude of a vector: Let a = ali + a2J + a3k. Then the
magnitude or length of the vector a is denoted by lal or a and is defined as
10,1 = vi ai + a ~ + a ~ . .
Def. 11 Distance between two points: Let PI and P
2
be two vector whose
position vectors are respectively ali + a2J + a3k and bli + b
2
J + b
3
k. Then the
vector P I P ~ = position vector (p.v.) of P
2
- position vector (p.v.) of PI =
(bli + b
2
J + b
3
k) - (ali + a2J + a3k) = (b
l
- al)i + (b
2
- a2)i + (b
3
- a3)i.
Then the distance between two points PI and P
2
is the magnitude of the
vector P I P ~ and is given by
Note 1 If a be a vector, then the unit vectors in the direction of a are given
a
by ± lal'
Ex. 1 (i) Find the value of n if a = 4i + nJ - 3k and lal = 13.
(ii) If a = 2i + J + 3k, b = i + 3J + k find the unit vector in the direction of
a-b.
(iii) Find the distance between A and B whose-position vectors are 5i+5J+k
and 9i + 2J + k respectively.
(iv) Find the values of>. when a = 5i-3J+8k, b = >.i+3J+2k and IO:-bl = 9.
(v) Two vectors 5 and iJ are obtained by joining the origin to the points
(1,0, -1) and (-1, I, 1). Find the value of 15 + iJl .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have 0: = 4i + nJ - 3k and 10,1 = 13 .
. '. V16 + n
2
+ 9 = 13 or, 25 + n
2
= 169
or, n
2
= 169 - 25 = 144 or, n = ±12.
(ii) 0: - b = (2i + J + 3k) - (i + 3J + k) = i - 2J + 2k.
10: - bl = VI + 4 + 4 = 3.
Hence the unit vector in the direction of 0: - b is
0: - b i - 2J + 2k
10: - bl = 3
eR.S: VECTOR ALGEBRA 5.3
(iii) The vector AB = position vector of B - position vector of A = (9i + 2] +
k) - (Si + S] + k) = 4i - 3].
'. the distance between A and B is IABI = )16 + 9 = 5.
(iv) ii - b = (Si - 3] + 8k) - (>.i + 3] + 2k) = (5 - >.)i - 6] + 6k .
. '. Iii - bl = )(S - >.)2 + 36 + 36.
Given Iii - bl = 9 .. '. )(5 - >.)2 + 72 = 9 or, (5 - >.)2 + 72 = 81
or, (5 - >.)2 = 81 - 72 = 9 or, 5 - >. = ±3 or, >. = 5 ± 3
or, >. = 8,2.
(v) Here the vectors 5. = i + 0] - k and iJ = -i +] + k .
. '. 5. + iJ = (i - k) + ( -i + ] + k) = ].
Hence 15. + iJl = 1]1 = 1.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that the points A, B, C whose position vectors are respec-
tively -2i + 2] + 3k, 2i + 3] + 3k and -i - 2] + 3k form an isosceles
triangle.
(ii) Prove by vector method that the three points A(2, 3, 4), B(I, 2,3) and
C(4, 2,3) form a right-angled triangle.
(iii) Show that in a triangle ABC, AB + A.C = 2AM, where M is the mid-
point of BC .
• SOLUTION:
(i) AB=p.v. of B - p.v. of A = (2i + 3] + 3k) - (-2i+ 2] + 3k) = 4i +;.
Similarly, EG = (-i - 2] + 3k) - (2i +- 3] + 3k) = -3i - 5]
and eA = (-2i + 2] + 3k) - (-i - 2] + 3k) = -i + 4;'
Now, IABI = )16 + 1 = m, IEGI = )9 + 25 = J34,
leAl = Jf+16 = m.
As IABI = leAl, the triangle ABC is isosceles.
(ii) AB = p.v. of F1 - p.v. of A = (1,2,3) - (2,3,4) = (-1, -1, -l)i
BC = (4,2,3) - (1,2,3) = (3,0,0) and CA = (2,3,4) - (4,2,3) =
(-2,1,1).
Now, IABI = )1 + 1 + 1 = )3, IBCI = )9 + ° + 0= 3,
ICAI = )4 + 1 + 1 = )6.
Since IABI2 +'ICAI
2
= IBCI2, the triangle ABC is right angled.
\.
5.4 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Let the p.v. of A, B, C be respectively a, b, c. The p.v. of Mis (b+C)/2.
A
--;--:t A--;-± AM) b + c b + c - 2a
Now Ali = - a AU = c - a = -- - a = .
, , , 2 2
Exercise 1 Show that the points A, B, C whose position vectors are respec-
tively 2i + 4) - 3k, 4i + 5) + k and 3i + 6) - 3k form a right angled triangle.
Ex. 3 D, E, F are the mid points of the sides BC, CA, AB respectively of a
ABC. Show that AD + BE + CF = o.
• SOLUTION: Let the p.v. of A, B, C be respectively a, b, c. Now, p.v. of
. b+c a+c a+b
D,E,F are respectIvely -2-' -2-' -2-'
AD = b + c _ a = b + c - 2a BE = a + c _ b = a + c - 2b and
22' 2 2
cF = a + b _ c= a + b - 2c.
2 2
Th AD BE cF _ b + c - 2a a + c - 2b a + b - 2c _
en, + + - 2 + 2 + 2 - O.
Ex. 4 For what value of c, the length of the vector ex = c(3i - 6) + k) is of 3
unit?
• SOLUTION: lal = v'9c
2
+ 36c
2
+ c
2
= cv'46.
Since lal = 3,cv'46 = 3 or c = 3/v'46.
Ex. 5 (i) For what values of A and /-L, the vectors -3i + 4) + Ak, and /-Li +
8) + 6k are collinear?
(ii) Show that the three points -i - 2) + 7k, 3i + k and 5i + ) - 2k are
collinear.
• SOLUTION:
(i) If two vectors are collinear then the coefficients of i,) and k are propor-
tional.
-3 4 A -3 1
i.e., -;; = 8" = "6 or -;; = "2 or, /-L = -6 and
1 A
- = - or A = 3.
2 6
. :l.5: VECTOR ALGEBRA 5.5
(ii) Let p.v. of A, B, C be respectively -£ - 2J + 7k, 3£+ k and 5£ + J - 2k .
. '. AB = (3T + k) - (-T - 2J + 7k) = 4T + 2J - 6k and
.'. AC = (57 + J - 2k) - (-£ - 2J + if) = 67 + 3J - 9k.
- 2-
i.e., AB = 3AC.
Hence the vectors are collinear.
Ex. 6 (i) If oF = T + 3J - 7k and oQ = 5T - 2J + 4k, then find the unit
vector parallel to PQ.
(ii) Find a unit vector parallel to the vector -3T + 6J - 2k .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The vector PQ = oQ-oF = (57-2J+4k)-(T+3J-7k) = 4T-5J+11k,
and IPQI = V16 + 25 + 121 = JI62.
The unit vector parallel to PQ is
±PQ 4T - 5J + 11k
--=± .
IPQI v162
(ii) The unit vector parallel to -3£ + 6J - if is
-3T + 6J - 2k -3T + 6J - 2k -3T + 6J - 2k
± I - 3T + 67.- 2kl = ± V9 + 36 + 4 ± 7 .
5.2 Scalar Product or Dot Product
Def. 1 Scalar product: The scalar or dot product between two vectors a
and b is denoted by a.b and defined as a.b = lallbl cosO, where 0 is the angle
between a and b. The value of a.b is a scalar quantity.
Q. 1 Define dot product of two vectors.
Properties:
(i) a.b = b.a
(ii) a.a = lal
2
= a
2
(iii) The angle 0 between a and b is given by
-1 ( a.b)
o = cos ± I all bl .
(iv) Two vectors a and b are perpendicular if and only if a.b = o.
5.6 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 2 Give the geometrical interpretation of a.b = O.
Ex. 1 (i) Show that a.a = lal
2
.
(ii) Find the vector ii collinear with;3 = (4,2, -2) and satisfying ii.;3 = 6.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a = ali + a2] + a3k .
... a.a = (ali + a2] + a3k).(ali + a2] + a3k) = ar + a ~ + a ~ .
Again, lal = Jar + a ~ + a ~ .
Hence a.a = lal
2
.
(ii) The vector collinear with ;3 is c;3, for some constant c.
i.e., ii = c;3 = (4c, 2c, -2c).
Since 5..;3 = 6, or, (4c, 2c, -2c).(4, 2, -2) = 6
or, 16c + 4c + 4c = 6 or, 24c = 6 or c = 1/4.
H e ~ c e ii = (1,1/2, -1/2).
Def. 2 Coplanar vectors: Three vectors a, b, c are said to be coplanar, if
a.(b x C) = O.
Ex. 2 If ii,;3, 1 are three non-coplanar vectors and 8.ii = 8.;3 = 6.1 = 0 then
show that 6 is a null vector.
• SOLUTION: Since 8.ii = 6.;3 = 8.1 = 0, the vector ii,;3 and 1 are perpen-
dicular to 8. This indicates that the vectors ii,;3 and 1 are coplanar, but it is
given that they are non coplanar, hence 6 = 0, i.e., a null vector.
Ex. 3 (i) Find (b - a).(3a + b) where a = i - 2] + 5k, b = 2i +] - 3k and
find the angle between b - a and 3a + b.
(ii) If a = i + 2] - 3k and b = 3i - ] + 2k, .find the angle between 2a + band
a+2b.
(iii) Find the sine of the angle between the vectors - 2i - ] - k and 3i + 4] - k.
(iv) Find the value of A for which two vectors 2i +] - k and i + 4] + Ak are
perpendicular to each other.
• SOLUTION:
(i) b - a = (2i + ] - 3k) - (i - 2] + 5k) = i + 3] - 8k and
3a + b = 3(i - 2] + 5k) + (2i + ] - 3k) = 5i - 5] + 12k.
Now, (b - a).(3a + b)
= (i + 3] - 8k).(5i - 5] + 12k) = 5 - 15 - 96 = -106.
L'-"" 5: VECTOR J. LGEBRA
Ib - 51 = VI + 9 + 64 = J74 and
135 + bl = V25 + 25 + 144 = V194.
Then the angle
0= cos-
1
( ± f f i ~ ) = cos-
1
( ± ~ ~ )
(ii) 25 + b = 2(i + 2J - 3k) + (3i - J + 2k) = 5i + 3J - 4k and
5 + 2b = (i + 2; - 3k) + 2(3i - J + 2k) = 7i + k.
Now, (25 + b).(5 + 2b) = 35 - 4 = 31.
125 + bl = V25 + 9 + 16 = 5V2 and
15 + 2bl = V49 + 1 = 5V2.
Then the angle is
LI -1( (25+b).(5+2b)) _1(±31)
u = cos ± ~ ~ = cos - .
12a + blla + 2bl 50
(iii) (-2i - J - k).(3i + 4; - k) = -6 - 4 + 1 = -9.
I - 2i - J - kl = vi 4 + 1 + 1 = v'6 and
13i + 4J - kl = V9 + 16 + 1 = J26.
, -9
Then the cosine of angle is cos 0 = v'6J26'
6 26
.'. sinO = Vl- cos
2
0 = Jl- 18
5
1
6 = J 1:
5
6 = 2 ~ '
(iv) If the given vectors are perpendicular then
(27 + J - k).(i + 4; + >"k) = 0 or, 2 + 4 - >.. = 0 or, >.. = 6.
5.7
Exercise 1 (i) Find the angle between the vectors 5 = 2i + 2J - k and
b = 3i +4k.
(ii) Show that the vectors corresponding to the positions of the points (3, -2, 1)
and (2,3,0) are at right angle.
(iii) Show that the vect.ors 5i - 4; + 3k and 2i + ; - 2k are perpendicular to
each other.
(iv) Find the value of >.. for which two vectors '5 = >..i - 4; + 3k and t =
3i + >..; - if are perpendicular to each other.
(Ans. (i) cos-
1
1
2
5
, (iv) >.. = -6.J
5.8 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: Let a = ali + a2) + a3k and b = bli + b2) + b3k.
Then a
2
= lal
2
= ar + a§ + and b
2
= Ibl
2
= b.i:+ b§ +
Again a.b = (ali + a2) + a3k).(bli + b
2
) + b
3
k) alb
l
+ a2b2 + a3b3·
Also a.b = ab cos e.
Therefore, alb
l
+ a2b2 + a3b3 = abcos e or, (alb
l
+ a2b2 + a3b3)2 = a
2
b
2
cos
2
e
Since cos
2
e :S 1, we have
(albl + a2b2 + a3b3)2 :s a
2
b
2
i.e., (alb
l
+ a2b2 + a3b3)2 :S (ar + a§ + + b§ +
Ex. 5 Justify the following statements:
In case of three non-null vectors a, band e, a.b = a.e does not always imply
that b = e.
• SOLUTION: Let a = i + ), b = 2i + ) and e = -i + 4].
Then a.b = 2 + 1 = 3 and a.e= -1 + 4 = 3, i.e., a.b = a.ebut b i- e.
Thus the given statement is correct.
Ex. 6 (i) Show that the vector {(5.1)/J - (5./J)1} is perpendicular to the
vector 5.
(ii) If two vectors a and b be such that la + bl = la - bl find the angle between
them.
• SOLUTION:
(i) 5. {(5.1)/J - (5./J)1} = (5.1)(5./J) - (5./J)(5.1) = O.
Hence {(5.1)/J - (a:./3)1} is perpendicular to 5.
(ii) Given that la + bl = la - bl·
or, la + = la..:- bl
2
_ _
or, (a + b).(a + b) = (a - b).(a - b)
or, a.a + a.b + b.a + b.b = a.a - a.b - b.a + b.b
or, 4a.b = 0 [as a.b = b.a]
or, a.b = o.
... the angle between a and b is 7r /2.
5.3 Vector Product or Cross Product
Def. 1 Vector product: The vector product or cross product between two
vectors a and b is denoted by a x b and is defined by a x b = lallbl sin e ii, where
e is the angle (acute) between a and band ii is a unit vector perpendicular to
both a and b.
Q. 1 Define vector product of two vectors.
eR.5: VECTOR ALGEBRA
Properties:
(i) a x b = -b x a.
(ii) Ifax b = 0 then a and b are parallel.
(iii) a x a = O.
5.9
(iv) If a and b represent the adjacent sides of a parallelogram then its area
is la x bl·
(v) If a and b be any two sides of a triangle then its area is x bl.
(vi) Ifax b = c then c is perpendicular to both a and b.
(vii) a x (b xC) = (a.C)b - (a.b)c.
Ex. 1 Give the geometrical interpretation of ax b = O.
• SOLUTION: If the vector product of two vectors a, b is zero, i.e., a x b = 0
then the vectors a and b are collinear or parallel.
Ex. 2 (i) If a = ii - 2J - k and b = i + J + k find a x b.
(ii) If 5. and iJ are two vectors such that 15.1 = 8, liJl = 6 and &iJ = 0, find
the value of 15. x iJl.
(iii) If lal = 4, Ibl = 3 and a.b = 5, find la x bl·
• SOLUTION:
i J k
(i) a x b = 2 -2 -1
111
= i( -2 + 1) - J(2 + 1) + k(2 + 2)
= -i - 3J + 4k.
(ii) Since &iJ = 0, 5. and iJ are perpendicular, i.e., the angle e between them
. 7r
IS "2'
Now, 15. x iJl = 15.lliJl sin e = (8)(6) sin 7r /2 = 48.
(iii) Here a.b = 5 or, lallbl cos e = 5
or, (4)(3) cos e = 5 or, cos e = 5/12
or sine = VI - cos
2
e = )1- 25 = J119.
, 144 12
- -
la x bl = lallbl sine = = v 119.
5.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 1 (i) If 5 and jj are two vectors such that 151 = 4,ljjl = 5 and
&jj = 0, find the value of 15 x jjl.
(ii) If a and b be two vectors such that lal = 10, Ibl = 1 and a.b = 6, find the
value of la x bl·
(iii) If a = 2i - 2] - k and b = i + ] + k, find a x b.
(iv) If it = 2i - 2] - k and v = i +] + k, find lit x vi.
[Ans. (i) 20, (ii) 8, (iii) -i - 3] + 4k, (iv) vI26.]
Ex. 3 (i) Prove that a x (b + C) + b x (e + a) + e x (a + b) = O.
(ii) Prove that i x (a x i) +] x (a x ]) + k x (a x k) = 2a .
• SOLUTION:
(i) L.H.S.=ax (b+C)+bx (e+a)+ex (a+b)
=axb+axe+bxe+bxa+exa+exb
=axb-exa+bxe-axb+exa-bxe
= 0 = R.H.S. [since a x b = -b x a]
(ii) L.H.S.= i x (a x i) + ] x (a x ]) + k x (a x k)
= (i.i)a - (ta)i + (;'])a - (;'a)] + (k.k)a - (k.a)k
= (a + a + a) - (ali + a2] + a3k)
where a = ali + a2] + a3k
= 3a - a = 2a = R.H.S.
Ex. 4 (i) If a and b are two mutually perpendicular vectors, show that
I(a + b) x (a - b)1 = 2lallbl·
(ii) Show that (a - b) x (a + b) = 2(a x b) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) I(a + b) x (a - b)1 = la x a - a x b + b x a - b x bl
= I - a x b + b x al = I b x a + b x al = 21 b x al
= 21bllal sin 7r /2 [since the vectors are perpendicular]
= 2lallbl·
(ii) (a - b) x (a + b) = a x a + a x b - b x a - b x b = 2(a x b).
Ex. 5 Ifax b = eX J and a x e = b x d, then show that (a - d) is parallel to
(b - C).
eR.5: VECTOR ALGEBRA
• SOLUTION: We have a x b = 2 x land a x 2 = b x d ~
Subtracting we get
axb-ax2=2xl-bxl
or, a x (b - C) = (2 - b) x l
or, a x (€ - C) + (§ - 0 x l = 0
or, a x (b - C) - d x (b - C) = 0
or, (a - d) x (b - C) = O.
Hence the vectors a - land b - 2 are parallel.
5.11
Ex. 6 (i) If a, b, 2be respectively the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C
of the triangle ABC, then show that the area of the triangle ABC is
!lbx2+2xa+axbj.
(ii) Find the area of the triangle two of whose sides are given by the vectors
2i +] - 3k and 3i -] + 2k.
(iii) Find the area of the parallelogram formed by two vectors 3i + 2] and
2] - 4k.
• SOLUTION:
1- -
(i) The area of a triangle ABC is 2"IAB x ACI.
Now, AB = b - a and AC = 2 - a .
... !IAB x ACI = !I(b - a) x (2 - 0,)1
= ! I b x 2 - b x a - a x 2 + a x 0,1
= ! I a x b + b x 2 + 2 x 0,1.
(ii) The area of the triangle is !1(2i +; - 3k) x (37 -] + 2k)l.
Now, (2i +] - 3k) x (37 -] + 2k)
7 i k
= 2 1-3
3 -1 2
= 7( 2 - 3) - ;(4 + 9) + k ( - 2 - 3)
= -7 - 13] - 5k.
Its magnitude is VI + 169 + 25 = VI95.
Hence the required area is !VI95.
(iii) The area of parallelogram formed by the given vectors is
1(3i + 2]) x (2] - 4k)l.
Now, (37+2;) x (2J - 4k)
5.12 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
-
Z J
3 2
k
o
o 2 -4
= 7( -8 - 0) -)( -12 - 0) + k(6 - 0)
= -87 + 12) + 6k.
Its magnitude is )64 + 144 + 36 = )244 = 2J6I.
Hence the required area is 2J6I.
Ex. 7 (i) If ii x b = ii x c then b = C? Justify your answer.
(ii) It is given ii x b = ii x c and b #- c. What conclusion you can draw?
(iii) If ii #- 0 and ii x b = ii x c, does it imply that b = c? If it does not, what
does it imply?
• SOLUTION:
(i) If ii x b = ii x c then ii x b - ii x c = (5
or, ii x (b - C) = (5.
This implies either ii = (5 or b = c,
or ii and b - c are parallel.
(ii) If ii x b = ii x c then ii x (b - C) = (5.
If b #- c then either ii = (5 or ii and b - c are parallel.
(iii) If ii #- (5 and ii x b = ii x c then ii x (b - C) = (5 implies either b = c
or ii and b - c are parallel.
/
Ex. 8 If 5 + iJ + 1 = (5 show that 5 x iJ = iJ x 1 = 1 x a.
• SOLUTION: Given 5 + iJ + 1 = (5 .
. '. 5 x (5 + iJ + 1) = 0
or, 5 x 5 + 5 x iJ + 5 x 1 = (5
or, 5 x iJ = -5 x 1 [since 5 x 5 = 0]
or, 5 x iJ = 1 x 5
Again iJ x (5 + iJ + 1) = 0
or, iJ x 5 + iJ x iJ + iJ x 1 = 0
or, -5 x iJ + iJ x 1 = (5
or, iJ x 1 = 5 x iJ
From (1) and (2), 5 x iJ = iJ x 1 = 1 x 5
(1)
(2)
Ex. 9 (i) Find the unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors ii = 7-2)
and b =) + k.
(ii) Find a vector of magnitude 5 perpendicular to both the vectors 2i + ) - 3k
and i - 2) + k.
eR.5: VECTOR ALGEBRA
• SOLUTION:
(
.) Th' d' I - d --b • ii x b
1 e umt vector perpen lCU ar to a an IS ±--_ .
Iii x bl
i ; k
Now, ii x b = 1 -2 0
o 1 1
= -2i -; + k.
Iii x bl = y! 4 + 1 + 1 = V6.
1 - - -
. the required vector is ± V6 ( - 2i - j + k).
(ii) Let ii = 2i + J - 3k and h = i - 2J + k.
i J k
Now, ii x b = 2 1-3
1 -2 1
= -5i - 5J - 5k.
Iii x hi = y!25 + 25 + 25 = 5V3.
The vector perpendicular to ii and b of magnitude 5 is
± 5(ii x !) = ± 5( -5i - 5J - 5k) = ± -5(i +; + k)
Iii x bl 5V3 V3
5.13
Exercise 2 Find the unit vector perpendicular to each of ii = 6i + 2; + 3k
and b = 3i - 6J - 2k.
[Ans. ±(2i + 3J - 6k)/7.]
Ex. 10 If a, iJ and 1 be three mutually perpendicular vectors, show that
1i5..(iJ x 1)1 = lalliJlI11·
• SOLUTION: Since the vectors are mutually perpendicular, the angle between
any two vectors is 7r /2.
Now, 1i5..(iJ x 1)1 = 1i5..(liJI111 sin7r/2ii)1 where ii is a unit vector perpendic-
ular to both iJ and 1, i.e., ii is parallel to i5..
or, 1i5..(iJ x 1)1 = liJI111 (i5..ii) = liJl 111 lalliil cos 0 = lalliJl111·
Ex. 11 Show that la x iJI
2
+ (i5..iJ)2 = lal
2
liJl2 .
• SOLUTION:
1& x iJ12.+ (a.iJ)2 = 1&121iJ12 sin
2
(J + lal
2
1iJI
2
cos
2
(J
- = l<i1
2
1iJ1
2
(sin
2
(J + cos
2
(J) = 1<i1
2
IiJI
2
.
5.14 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 12 When does a x (b x Cj = (5 x b) x c hold?
• SOLUTION: Let a x (b x Cj = (a x b) x c
or, (a.Cjb - (a.b)c= (a.Cjb -Jc.b) a _
(
- -b)- (--b)- - c.b - k- h k c.b
or, 0,. C = c. 0, or, C = --:::;a = 'a, were" = --:::;.
a.b a.b
k is scalar as a.b and c.b are scalars.
Thus the given relation holds only when a and c are parallel.
Def. 2 Scalar triple pro_duct: The expression a.(b x Cj is the scalar triple
products of the vectors a, band c. It is a scalar and is numerically equal to
the volume of the parallelepiped whose three edges are a, band c.
This expression is denoted by [abg.
Q. 2 Define scalar triple product of three vectors.
Ex. 13 What can you say about the vectors 5, /1, 1 if &/1 x 1 = 0: Justified
your answer.
• SOLUTION: If &/1 x 1 = 0 then the vectors 5 and /1 x 1 are perpendicular
to each other. Again /1 and 1 are perpendicular to /1 x 1.
Thus either any two vectors are parallel or the vectors 5, /1, 1 are coplanar.
Ex. 14 (i) If a = if + 3;, b = i + ; - k, c = 3i - k, find [a, b, g.
(ii) Find the value of -5J.(k x i).
(iii) If 5 = i + ; - k, /1 = 2i + k and 1 = 2; - 3k then find [&(/1 x 1)]&

SOLUTION:
2 3 0
(i) [abg = a.(b x Cj = 1 1 -1 = -S.
3 0 -1
0 -5 0
( ii)
- - i)
-5j.(k xi = 0 0 1 = -5.
1 0 0
1 1 -1
(iii) &/1 x 1"= 2 0 1 =0.
0 2 -3
.'. [&/1 x 115 = O.
Ex. 15 (i) Show 'that the vectors 4i + 2; + k, 2i - ; + 3k and si + 7k are
coplanar.
eR.5: VECTOR ALGEBRA
5.15
(ii) Find the value of the constant d such that the vectors 2i ~ ) +k, i+2) -3k
and 3i + d) + 5k be coplanar.
(iii) By vector method prove that the four points 6i - 4) + 10k, -5i + 3) -
10k, 4i - 6) - 10k and 2) + 10k are coplanar.
(iv) Show that the vectors a-2b+c,2a+b-3cand 3a-b-2care coplanar .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a = 4i + 2) + k,b = 2i - ) + 3k and c = 8i + 7k. !
4 2 1
Now,a.(bxC)= 2 -1 3 =-28+20+8=0.
8 0 7
Hence the given vectors are coplanar.
(ii) Let a = 2i - ) + k,b = i + 2) - 3k and c = 3i + d) + 5k.
If they are coplanar then a.(b x C) = O.
2 -1 1
or, 1
3
2 -3 = 0
d 5
or, 20 + 6d + 14 + d - 6 = 0 or, 7d + 28 = 0 or, d = -4.
(iii) Let the p.v. of the points A, B, C, D be respectively
(iv)
6i - 4) + 10k, -5i + 3) - 10k, 4i - 6) - 10k and 2) + 10k.
Then AB = p.v. of B - p.v. of A
= (-5i + 3) -10k) - (6i - 4) + 10k)
= -l1i + 7) - 20k
AC = (4i - 6) - 10k) - (6i - 4) + 10k) = -2i - 2) - 20k and
AD = (2) + 10k) - (6i - 4) + 10k) = -5i + 6).
-11 7 -20
Now, AB.(AC x AD) = -2 -2 -20 = O.
-6 6 0
Hence the vectors AB, AC and AD are coplanar, i.e., the given points
are coplanar.
Let us consider the relation
:1:(a - 2b + C) + y(2a + b - 3C) + z(3a - b - 2C) = 0
or, a(x + 2y + 3z} + b( -2x + y - z) + c(x - 3y - 2z) = O.
This implies x + 2y + 3z = 0, -2x + y - z = 0 and x - 3y - 2z = O.
Solving these equations we get x = 1, y = 1, z = -1.
. '. the linear combination of given vectors is zero. Hence they are copla-
nar.
5.16 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 3 (i) Examine whether the vectors {2, -5, 1}, {1, 4, O}, {-3, 1, -1}
drawn from the origin are coplanar.
(ii) Find x so that the vectors 2i +] + 3k, 3i + 2] + k and i +] + xk may be
coplanar.
(iii) Find x so that the vectors 2i -] + k, i + 2] - k and xi - 4] + 5k may be
coplanar.
(iv) Examine whether the vectors 2i + 3] + k, 3i + 5] + 4k and i + 2] + 3k
are coplanar.
[Ans. (i) yes, (ii) x;:;= ~ 2 , (iii) x = 13, (iv) yes.]
5.4 Mechanical Problems·
Ex. 1 (i)- If a force given by F = .(2,4, -1) displaces a particle from the
position A to B whose position vectors are (1,1,2), and (3, -1, -1) re-
spectively, find the work done by the force.
(ii) A particle acted on by constant forces 4i + 3] and 3i + 2] is displaced
from the point i + 2J to 5i + 4]. Find the total work done by the forces.
• SQLUTIOl'j:
(i) The applied force F = 2i + 4J - k.
The displacement vector
AB = p.v. ,of B - p.v. of A
= (3, -1, -1) - (1,1,2) = (2, -2, -3).
Now, F.AB = (2i + 4] - ¥).(2i - 2J - 3k) = 4 - 8 + 3 = -l.
Hence the work done is 1 unit.
(ii) Here the total applied force F = (4i + 3]) + (3i + 2]) = 7i + 5].
The displacement d = (5i + 4]) - (i + 2J) = 4i + 2].
Hence the work done = P.d = (7i + 5J).(4i + 2J) = 28 + 10 = 38 units.
Exercise 1 (i) A 1>article acted on by constant forces 5i + 2] + k and 2i -
] - 3k is displaced from the point i + 3J + 2k to the point -4i + 5J - k.
Find the total work done by the forces.
( ii) If a force given by F = 2i + 4J - k displaced a particle from the position
A to B, where the position vectors of A and B are given by i +] + 2k
and 3i - ; - k respectively, find the work done by the force.
[Ans. (i) 29, (ii) 1.]
Ch.611 Differential Calculus
6.1 Number System
Def. 1 Rational number: A number of the form E, where p and q are
q
integers with q i= 0, is called a rational number. Without loss of generality we
assume that q is a positive integer and p, q in their lowest terms.
e.g., 5/2,0,3,0.3 etc. are rational numbers.
Q. 1 Define rational number.
Def. 2 Irrational number: A number which cannot be expressed in the
form E, where p, q are integers in their lowest terms and q i= 0, is called
q
irrational number.
e.g., 71", e, V3 etc. are irrational numbers.
Q. 2 Define irrational number.
Ex. 1 Show that v'2 is not a rational number .
• SOLUTION: If possible, let v'2 is a rational number, i.e., V2 = E, where p, q
q
are integers in their lowest terms and q i= 0 .
... p2 = 2q2
::>-.p2 is an even integer.
::>- p is an even integer (since the square of an odd integer cannot
be even)
Let p = 2m. Then 4m
2
= p2 = 2q2 or, q2 = 2m
2
.
. .. q2 is an even integer and consequently q is even, i.e., p and q have a common
factor 2, which is a contradiction to our assumption that p and q are in their
lowest terms.
Hence v'2 is not a rational number.
Q. 3 Define rational number. Is v'2 a rational number?
Ex. 2 (i) Show that the sum of rational numbers is a rational number.
(ii) Show that the product of rational numbers is a rational number.
(iii) Show that the division of rational numbers is a rational number.
6.2 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIO.NS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let rl = PI and r2 = P2 be two rational numbers, where PI, ql and P2, q2
ql q2
are in their lowest terms and ql -# 0 and q2 -# O.
PI P2 Plq2 + P2ql .. .
Now, rl + r2 = - + - = whIch IS a ratIOnal number be-
ql q2 qlq2
cause Plq2 + P2ql and qlq2 both are integers and qIq2 -# o. Hence sum
of two rational numbers is a rational number.
(ii) Let rl = PI and r2 = P2 be two rational numbers, where PI, ql and P2, q2
q1. q2
(iii)
are in their lowest terms and ql -# 0 and q2 =!= O.
PI P2 PIP2. .
Now, rl. r2 = -. - = --, IS a ratIOnal number as PIP2 and ql q2 are
qi q2 qIq2
integers and qlq2 ::f O. Hence product of two rational numbers is a
rational number.
PI P2 .
Let rl = - and r2 = - be two ratIOnal numbers, where PI, ql and P2, q2
ql q2
are in their lowest terms and qi -# 0 and q2 -# O. Also let r2 -# 0, i.e.,
P2 -# O.
rl pdql PIq2 .
Now, - = -/- = --. PI q2 and qIP2 are mtegers and qIP2 -# 0 as
r2 P2 q2 QIP2
QI -# 0 and P2 -# O. Hence rl is a rational number.
r2
Def. 3 Bounded above: A set A is said to be bounded above if there exists
an element K such that for all x E A, x ::; K, K is called the upper bound of
A.
e.g., the set {O, -1, -2, -3, ... } is bounded above and its upper bound is O.
Def. 4 Bounded below: A set A is said to be bounded below if there exists
an element l such that for all x E A, x 2 l, l is called the lower bound of A.
e.g., the set {O, 1,2,3, ... } is bounded below and its lower bound is O.
nef. 5 Bounded set: A set A is said to be bounded if it is bounded both
above and below, i.e., if there exists two numbers K and l such that x 2 land
x ::; K.
A set which is not bounded is called unbounded set.
e.g., the set {O, 1, ~ , ~ , ~ , ... } is bounded, upper bound is 1 and lower bound
is O.
The set { ... , -3, -2, -1,0,1,2,3, ... } is an unbounded set.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.3
6.1.1 Absolute value of a real number
The absolute value, the numerical value or the modulus of a real number x,
denoted by Ix/, is defined as
Ixl = {
x, if x :2: 0
-x, if x < O.
Thus Ixl :2: 0 and 1- xl = Ixl·
Ex. 3 Show that Ixl = max(x, -x) .
• SOLUTION: If x :2: 0, Ixl = x :2: -x.
Also, if x < 0, Ixl = -x > x.
Thus in both cases Ixl is greater of two numbers, x, -x,
i.e., Ixl = max(x, -x).
Ex. 4 If x, y E R, then show that
(i) Ixl
2
= x
2
= 1- x1
2
,
(ii) IxYI = Ixl . lyl,
(iii) I ~ I = I::' provided y '" O.
• SOLUTION: (i) If x :2: 0 then Ixl = x, i.e., Ixl
2
= x
2
.
If x < 0 then Ixl = -x, i.e., Ixl
2
= (_x)2 = x
2
.
Thus in both cases I x IQ = x
2
.
Similarly, I - xl
2
= (-x? = x
2
.
Hence Ixl
2
= (_x)2 = x
2
.
(ii) Ixyl2 = (xy)2 = x
2
y2 = Ixl
2
. lyl2 = (lxl'lyl)2
.'. Ixyl = ±Ixl' Iyl·
But since IxYI and Ixl . IYI are both non-negative, we take the positive sign .
. '. IxYI = Ixl·lyl·
(iii) 1 ~ 1 2 = ( ~ ) 2 = : ~ = I::: = (1::)2.
But since I ~ I and I:: are both non-negative, therefore, taking positive
square root of both sides, we get
I
XI Ixl
y = IYI' when y '" O.
Ex. 5 For all real numbers x, y show that
(i) Ix + yl ~ Ixl + Iyl,
(ii) Ix - yl :2: Ilxl-IYII·
6.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: (i) Ix + Yl2 = (x + y)2 = x
2
+ y2 + 2xy
~ Ixl
2
+ lyl2 + 21xllyl
[since xy ~ IxYI = Ixllyll
= (Ixl + lyl)2.
Since Ix + yl and Ixl + Iyl are both non-negative numbers, so we take only
positive square root of both sides.
Thus Ix + yl ~ Ixl + Iyl·
(ii) Ix - Yl2 = (x - y)2 = x
2
+ y2 - 2xy
~ Ixl
2
+ lyl2 - 21xl . Iyl
[since -(xy) ~ -lxYI = -Ixllyll
= (lxl-lyI)2 = Ilxl-lyI12.
Since Ix - yl and Ilxl-lyll are both non-negative, therefore, we take positive
square root of both sides.
Thus Ix - yl ~ Ilxl - Iyll·
Ex. 6 For any real numbers x, a and £ > 0 show that
(i) Ixl < 10 {:::> -£ < x < £,
(ii) Ix - al < £ ¢:> a - £ < X < a + £.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Ixl = max(x, -x) < £
¢:> X < £ and -x < £
¢:> X < £ and -£ < x
¢:> -£ < x < £.
(ii) Ix - al = max{(x - a), -(x - an < £
¢:> X - a < £ and - (x - a) < £
¢:> X < a + £ and a - £ < X
¢:> a-£ < x < a+£.
Ex. 7 For any two real numbers a, b, show that
(
.)' (b) (a+b)+la-bl d
I max a, = 2 an
C) . ( b) (a + b) - la - bl
11 mIn a, = 2 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a < b. Then max(a, b) = b.
Al
(a + b) + la - bl _ (a + b) - (a - b) _ b _ (b)
so, 2 - 2 - - max a, .
Again, if a > b then max( a, b) = a.
CH.6: DIFFERENTI! T CALCULUS
Also, (a + b) + la - bl = (a + b) + (a - b) = a = max(a b).
2 2 .,
Hence the result.
(ii) Similar to (i)
6.2 Sequence
6.5
Def. 1 Sequence: A sequence of real numbers is a function or a mapping
from N (set of natural numbers) to R (subset of real numbers), i.e., {xn} ==
x : N -+ R, where n E Nand Xn E R.
e.g., is a sequence.
Def. 2 Monotone increasing sequence: A sequence {xn} is said to be
monotone increasing (or non-decreasing) iff for all n, Xn+1 2: X
n
.
e.g., {n: I} is a monotone increasing sequence.
A sequence {xn} is said to be strictly monotone increasing iff for all n,
Xn+l > Xn ·
Def. 3 Monotone decreasing sequence: A sequence {xn} is said to be
monotone decreasing (or non-increasing) iff for all n, Xn+1 :S X
n
.
e.g., is a monotone decreasing sequence.
A sequence {xn} is said to be strictly monotone decreasing iff for all n,
Xn+l < Xn ·
Def. 4 Monotone sequence: A sequence {xn} is said to be monotone if it
is either monotone increasing or monotone decreasing.
Def. 5 Bounded above: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded above if
there exists a real number M such that Xn :S M for all n E N. M is called an
upper bound of {x
n
}.
Def. 6 Bounded below: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded if
there exists a real number m such that Xn 2: m for all n EN. m is an
lower bound of {x
n
}.
Def. 7 Bounded sequence: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded if it is
bounded both above and below, i.e., ifxn :S M and Xn 2: m for all n E N.
Def. 8 Convergent sequence: A sequence {xn} of real numbers is said to
be convergent if it has limit I, i.e., for any given positive number c, there exists
a positive integer m (which depends on c) such that for all n 2: m, IX
n
-II < c.
6.6 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 1 Define convergent sequence.
Def. 9 Divergent sequence: A sequence which has no limit is called diver-
gent sequence.
e.g., the sequence {n} is a divergence sequence.
Def. 10 Oscillatory sequence: A sequence which neither converges nor
diverges to +00 or -00 is called oscillatory.
e.g., the sequence {I, 0, 1,0, ... } is oscillatory.
Theorem 1 Theorems on sequence:
(i) A convergent sequence must be bounded, and the limit must lie between
the upper and the lower bounds.
(ii) A monotone increasing sequence which is bounded above is convergent.
(iii) A monotone decreasing sequence which is bounded below is convergent.
(iv) If {an} and {b
n
} be two convergent sequences having a and b as their
respective limits, then
(a) the sequence {an ± b
n
} is also convergent and converges at a± b.
(b) the sequence {an.b
n
} is also convergent and converges at a.b.
(c) the sequence } is also convergent and converges at provided
n ,
b =I 0.
Theorem 2 Cauchy's general principle of convergence: A
and sufficient condition for the convergence of a sequence {xn} of real Inumbers
is that, for any e > ° there must exists a positive integer no such tHat for all
m, n 2: no, IX
m
- xnl < E.
Q. 2 State Cauchy's general principle of convergence of a sequence III infinite
series.
Ex. 1 (i) Show that the sequence } is bounded.
(1
'1') If 3n + 1 h h { }' b d d
Xn = , S ow t at Xn IS oun e .
n+2
(iii) Is the sequence {2 + bounded? Give your argument .
• SOLUTION:
n + 1 1 1
(i) Here -- = 1 + - < 2 and 1 + - > 1.
n n - n-
Hence the sequence is bounded (upper bound is 2 and lower bound is 1).
CH.6: DIFFc;-;'ENTIAL CAT n'JLUS 6.7
(ii)
3n + 1 . {4 7 10 13} . .
Here Xn = . The sequence IS -, -, -, -, . .. . ObvIously It
n+2 3 4 5 6 .
is increasing sequence and lower bound is and upper bound is 3
3 + lin. .
(xn = I < 3, when n IS very large). Hence the sequence IS bounded
1 +2 n
(lower bound is and upper bound is 3).
(iii) The sequence {2 + is bounded as its lower bound 2 (when n --t
1 7
00) and upper bound 2 + 3 (when n = 1) = 3'
Exercise 1 (i) Show that the sequence {3n + 1} is bounded.
n+ 1 n
(ii) Show that the sequence { 1 + n is bounded.
(iii) Show that the n is bounded.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that the sequence {(: is convergent.
4n
2
- 5
(ii) Show that the sequence is not convergent.
6n
(iii) If an = .vn - 2, show that the sequence {an} is divergent.
(iv) Show that the seq':letlce { .!. } is convergent .
. n
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given sequence can be written as {O, ... }.
(ii)
(iii)
Clearly the sequence is monotone increasing and upper bound is 1
{(
n-1)2 (1-1/n)2. }
n + 1 = 1 + lin --t 1 as n --t 00 .
Hence the sequence is convergent.
4n
2
- 5 2 5 2 5
--- = -n - - > -n - -.
6n 3 6n 3 6
{
2 }. {2 4 6 8 }
The sequence 3
n
IS to 3' 3' 3' 3"" .
Clearly the sequence is divergent as the terms gradually tend to +00.
We have an = (n - 2)1/3.
.". the sequence is {(_1)1/3,0,11/3,21/3,31/3, .. ,}.
The terms gradually increas.ing and tend to +00, so the sequence is
divergent.
6.8 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
1
(iv) Let Xn = -.
n
. 1
x =--
.. n+1 n + 1·
Xn n + 1 1 .
Now, -- = -- = 1 + - > 1 l.e., Xn > X
n
+l.
Xn+l n n
Hence the sequence is monotone decreasing.
Also, the lower bound of the sequence is 0 (when n -+ 00).
Hence the sequence is convergent.
Ex. 3 (i) If the sequence {an}n converges, show that the sequence {Ianl}n
is also convergent.
(ii) If a sequence {xn}n converges to 1 show that the sequence {Ixnl}n con-
verges to Ill .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let c: be any given positive number.
Let the sequence {an} converges to the limit l .
... there exists m such that Ian - II < c: for all n > m.
Now Ilanl-llll ::;: Ian -ll < c: for all n > m.
Hence {Ianl} converges to Ill·
(ii) Let c: be any given positive number.
Since Xn -+ 1 as n -+ 00, there exists m such that IX
n
- II < c: for all
n>m.
Now, Ilxnl- Illl ::;: IX
n
-ll < c: for all n > m.
This shows that {Ixnl} converges to Ill.
Ex. 4 Find the value of lim {vn + 1- Vri}.
n-+oo
• SOLUTION: (vn + 1 - Vri) - 01
( vn+l - y'n) (V'n+l + y'n)
=
( v'n+T + y'n)
1 1
= <--
(Vn + 1 + v'n) 2y'n·
[since v'nTI > y'n)
-------------..
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Let c be any given positive number.
1
Then Iv'n + 1 - ylnl < c whenever 2y1n < c
. 1
l.e., n> 4c
2
= m (say)
Thus for all n > m, Ih/n -+ 1- y'n) - 01 < c
i.e., lim (vn+I - Vri) = O.
n-+oo
Alternative method (using L 'Hospital rule)
Putting = x. When n -+ 00 then x -+ O.
Now,
=
=
lim (v'n+ 1- Vri)
n-+oo
lim + 1 -
x-+o X Vx
1
. Vx+1 - 1 (0 £ )
1m r,; - orm
x-+o yX 0
l(x + 1)-1/2
lim
x-+o lx-
1
/
2
2
lim Vx = O.
x-+O v'x + 1
Ex. 5 (1
') Sh h h 3n - 1
ow t at t e sequence Xn = is monotone increasing.
n+2
(1
'1') S
how that the sequence Xn = 3n + 4 is increasing.
(iii) Show that the sequence Xn = n + 1 is monotone decreasing.
n
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have Xn = _3n_-_1
n+2
. 3 (n + 1) - 1 3n + 2
.. Xn+1 = (n + 1) + 2 = n + 3 .
3n + 2 3n-1
Now, Xn+1 - Xn = 3 2
n+ n+
(3n + 2)(n + 2) - (3n - l)(n + 3)
=
(n+3)(n+2)
7
(n + 3) (n + 2) > 0 for all n ;::: L
Thus xn+1 > X
n
, i.e., {xn} is monotone increasing.
6.9
6.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS 'AND ANSWERS)
(ii)
(iii)
2n-1
Here Xn = 3n + 4 .
. 2(n + 1) - 1 2n + 1
x - -
.. n+1 - 3(n + 1) + 4 - 3n + 7·
2n + 1 2n -1
Now, Xn+1 - Xn = 3n + 7 - 3n + 4
=
(2n + 1)(3n + 4) - (2n - 1)(3n + 7)
(3n + 4)(3n + 7)
(6n
2
+ 11n + 4) - (6n
2
+ 11n - 7)
(3n + 4)(3n + 7)
11
( ) ( )
> ° for all n > 1.
3n+4 3n+7 -
Thus Xn+1 > X
n
, i.e., {xn} is monotone increasing.
n+1
Let Xn = --.
n
. n+2
.. Xn+1 = n + l'
n+2 n+1
Now x +1 - X = -- - --
, n n n+1 n
n(n+2)-(n+1)2
n(n + 1)
(n
2
+ 2n) - (n
2
+ 2n + 1)
n(n + 1)
-1
( )
< ° for all n > 1.
n n+ 1 -
Thus Xn+1 < X
n
, i.e., {xn} is monotone decreasing.
Exercise 2 (i) Show that the sequence {2:: 1} is monotone increasing
and bounded.
(ii) Show that the sequence {n: 1} is monotone decreasing.
Ex. 6 Give an example of a sequence which is neither monotonic increasing
nor monotonic decreasing.
,
• SOLUTION: The sequence {(_1)n + 1} i.e., {O,2,O,2, ... } is neither mono-
tone increasing nor monotone decreasing. The sequence is oscillating.
E If
2n + 5 h . '" fi d hI·
x. 7 Xn = were n IS a pOSItive mteger, n t e east mteger m
6n -11
such that IX
n
- ~ I < 10-
3
whenever n > m.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALOULUS
I
11 1
2n
+ 5 11
• SOLUTION: Xn - 3" = 6n - 11 - 3"
= 1 1 8 n 2 ~ 331 < € where € = 10-
3
.
or, 26 < 18n€ - 33€ or, 18n€ > 26 + 33€
26 + 33€ 26 33 3
or, n > 18€ = 18€ + 18 = 1.4444 x 10 + 1.8333
or, n > 1446.2333
... the least positive integer m = 1447.
6.11
Theorem 3 If {xn} be a sequence such that lim I x
n
+
1
1 = l, where 0 :S l < 1,
n-+oo Xn
then lim Xn = O.
n-+oo
Xn
Ex. 8 Show that -, = 0 for any real x.
n.
Xn
• SOLUTION: Let an = -, .
n.
. x
n
+
1
.. an+! = (n + I)! .
I
an+I I I xn+! n! I
Now, -- = x-
an (n + I)! xn
= I n : 11 = n: 11 X I -+ 0 as n -+ 00 for all real x.
Hence lim an = 0
n-+oo
n'
or, lim ~ , = 0 for all real x.
n-+oo n .
. Theorem 4 (Sandwich Theorem): If {an}, {b
n
}, {en} are three sequences
such that
(i) an :S b
n
:S en for all n, and
(ii) lim an = lim en = l
n-+oo n-+oo
then lim b
n
= l.
n-+oo
Proof. Since {an} and {en} are converge to l, therefore,' there exists positive
integers mI, m2, such that
I an - II < € for all n ~ m I, (1)
and len -ll < € for all n ~ m2. (2)
Let m = max(mb m2)'
Then for n ~ m, we have by (1), (2) and an :S b
n
:S en
l - € < an :S b
n
:S en < 1 + €
6.12 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
¢:} 1 - € < b
n
< 1 + €, for all n 2: m,
¢:} Ibn - II < €, for all n 2: m.
Hence lim b
n
= l.
n-+oo
Ex. 9 Show that the sequence {b
n
}, where
[
1 1 1 ]
b
n
= (n+l)2 + (n+2)2 + ... + (n+n)2 '
converges to zero.
• SOLUTION: It is obvious that, for all k, 1 ~ k ~ n
_1_ < . 1 ~ \' for all n.
(2n)2 - (n + k)2 n
n n
Then ( 2 n ) 2 . ~ bn ~ n
2
' for all n.
1 1
Now, let an = - and C
n
= - be the nth terms of two sequences such that
4n n
(i) an ~ b
n
~ C
n
for all n, and
(ii) lim an = lim en = o.
n-+oo n-+oo
Then by Sandwich theorem lim b
n
= O.
n-+oo
Theorem 5 (Cauchy's first theorem on limits): If lim an = l, then
n-+oo
lim (a
1
+ a2 + ... + an) = l.
n-+oo n
Ex. 10 Show that
1m + + ... + =l. 1
. [1 1 1 ]
n-+oo v'n
2
+ 1 v'n
2
+ 2 v'n
2
+ n
n
• SOLUTION: Let ak = .J ' k = 1,2, ... , n.
n
2
+k
Therefore,
1
· 1· 1
1man = 1m p=l.
n-+oo n-+oo 1 + 1
n
Thus by Cauchy's first theorem on limits, we have
. al + al + ... + an
-hm =1
n-+oo n ..
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
or hm - + + ... + = 1
. 1[ n n n J
n vn
2
+ 1 vn
2
+ 2 vn
2
+ n
or hm + + ... + = 1.
. [1 1 1 ]
vn
2
+ 1 vn
2
+ 2 vn
2
+ n
Ex. 11 Find the limit of the sequence {an} defined by
• SOLUTION: Let lim an = l.

Now
lim an+! = lim (an +
2 an
or l = (l +
, 2 l
or, l2 = 9 or, l = ±3.
But, l i= -3 as an > 0 for all n.
Hence l = 3.
Exercise 3 Find the limits of the following sequences
(i) an+! = + :J,k > 1,a1 > 0,
(1
'1') 4 + 3a
n
an+1 =3 2
+ an
[Ans. (i) V k : l' (ii) J2.]
6.3 Infinite Series
6.13
Def. 1 Series: A series is the sum of the terms of a sequence. Thus if
aI, a2, a3,··· is a sequence then the sum a1 + a2 + a3 + ... of all the terms is
n
called an infinite series and is denoted by L an or simply by L: an·
n=l
Def. 2 Partial sum: Let 8
n
= a1 + a2 + ... + an for all n. Then 8
1
= aI,
8
2
= a1 + a2, 8
3
= a1 + a2 + a3, and so on.
The sequence {8
n
} is called the sequence of partial sums of the series.
lim 8
n
is said to be the sum of the series.

6.14 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND'ANSWERS)
Def. 3 Convergence of series: An infinite series is said to be converge,
diverge or oscillate according as its partial sums {Sn} converges, diverges or
oscillates.
Theorem 1 A necessary condition for convergence of an infinite series L an
is that lim an = O.
n---+oo
Ex. 1 Show that the series
is not convergent.
n
• SOLUTION: Let an = --1
n+
123
-+-+-+".
2 3 4
Now, lim an = lim ~ 1 = 1 =1= O.
n---+oo n---+oo n +
Since lim an =1= 0, therefore, the series is not convergent.
n---+oo
Cauchy's general principle of convergence for series
A necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of an infinite series
00
L an is that the sequence of its partial sums {Sn} is convergent. That is, a
n=l
series L an converges iff for each € > 0, there exists a positive integer m such
that
Ian+! + a
n
+2 + ... + an+pl < €, for all n ~ m and p ~ 1.
Ex. 2 Vse Cauchy's general principle to show that the series L.!. does not
n
converge .
• SOLUTION: If possible, let the series be convergent.
Then for any given € (say, 0.25), there exists a positive integer m, such that
I
1 1 1 I
--+ --+ " . + -- < € for all n > m and p > L
n+1 n+2 n+p' - -
In particular, if n = m and p = m we get
Thus there is a contradiction. Hence the given series does not converge.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.15
6.3.1 Series of positive terms
Theorem 2 The positive term geometric series 1 + r + r2 + r3 + .. " converges
for r < 1 and diverges to +00 for r ;::: 1.
Comparison test
1
Theorem 3 A positive term series L nP is convergent if and only if p > 1.
Theorem 4 A. If L: an and L: b
n
are two positive term series, and k is any
positive fixed real number (independent of n) and there exists a positive integer
m such that an :::; k b
n
for aU n ;::: m, then
(i) L: an is convergent, if L: b
n
is convergent, and
(ii) L: b
n
is divergent, if L: an is divergent.
B. (Limit form)
If E an and L: b
n
are two positive term series such that lim (a
bn
) = 1, where
n-too n
1 is a non-zero finite number, then the two series converge or diverge together.
1
Ex. 3 Show that the series L sin - is divergent.
n
. 1 1
• SOLUTION: Let an = sm - and b
n
= -.
n n
Now,
1
· an l' sin lin 1
1m-=lm =.
n-too b
n
n-too 1 I n
Therefore, two series either converge or diverge together ..
But, the series L: b
n
diverges, therefore, by comparison test L: sin lin also
diverges.
Ex. 4 Test the convergence of the series L nili/n'
1 1
• SOLUTION: Let an = n1+
1
/
n
and bn = ~ .
Now,
1
· an l' 1 1
1m -b = 1m -1/ = .
n-too n n-too n n
Hence the two series either converge or diverge together.
But, the series L: b
n
is a divergent series, therefore, by comparison test the
series E an is also divergent.
6.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Some standard tests for positive term series:
(i) Cauchy's root test: 1f:E Un be a series of positive terms, and let
If l < 1,
If l > 1,
If l = 1,
lim u
1
/
n
= l.
n-too n
then :E Un is convergent,
then :E' Un is divergent,
then the test fails.
(ii) D' Alembert's ratio test: 1f:E Un be a series of positive terms, and
let
If l < 1,
If l > 1,
If l = 1,
1
· Un+l l
Im--=.
n-+oo Un
then :E Un is convergent,
then :E Un is divergent,
then the test fails.
(iii) Raabe's test: 1f:E Un be a series of positive terms, and let
If l > 1,
If l < 1,
If l = 1,
lim { n ( ~ -I)} = l.
n-too Un+l
then :E Un is convergent,
then :E Un is divergent,
then the test fails.
(iv) Gauss's test: 1f:E Un be a series of positive terms, and ~ be ex-
Un+l
pressed in the form
then :E Un is convergent if f3 < 1, and divergent if f3 2: 1.
. 1 2 3 n .
Ex. 5 (i) Show that the senes - + - + - + ... + - + ... IS convergent
2 22 2
3
2
n
.
(1
'1') Sh h h 1 1 1
ow t at t e series - + - + - + ... is convergent.
1.3 3.5 5.7
(iii) Prove that the series
1 (2)2 (3)3 (n)n
3 + 5 + "7 + ... + 2n + 1 + ...
converges.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(iv) Prove that the series
+ ... + + ...
3 8 3 27 3 n
3
3
is convergent.
00 n
(v) Prove that L ; diverges.
n=l n.
(vi) Show that the series
(vii)
1 1 1
-+-+-+ ..... .
1.2 3.4 5.6
is convergent.
00 1
Test whether the series L - is convergent or divergent.
1 n
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here Un =
2
n
(ii)
. n+1
U =--
.. n+l 2
n
+
1
.
Now,
1
. Un+l
1m -- =
n-+oo Un
n + 1 2
n
1im--x-
n-+oo 2
n
+
1
n
1
. n + 1
1m --
n-+oo 2n
lim (1 + .!. )
2n-+00 n
1
-<1
2 .
Hence by D'A1embert's ratio test the series is convergent.
1
Let Un = (2n _ 1)(2n + 1)·
. 1
. . U
n
+ 1 = -:""( 2-n-+-1C-:) (:-2n-+-3-:-r
Now,
1
. Un+l
1m -- =
n-+oo Un
=
=
1
. (2n - 1)(2n + 1)
1m
n-+oo (2n + 1)(2n + 3)
1
. 2n - 1
1m
n-+oo 2n + 3
lim 2 - lin = 1.
n-+oo 2 + 31n
6.17
6.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Hence the D'Alembert's ratio test fails.
lim -I)} =
n-+oo U
n
+1
lim n((2n + 3) _ 1)
n-+oo (2n - 1)
1
. 4n
1m ---
n-+oo 2n - 1
1
. 4
1m---
n-+oo 2 - lin
= 2> 1.
Hence by Raabe's test the series is convergent.
(iii) Let Un = (2n: If·
Now, lim = lim ( n )
n-+oo n-+oo 2n + 1
1
. 1
= 1m
n-+oo 2 + lin
1
=-<l.
2
Hence by Cauchy's root test the series is convergent.
n+1(1)n
(iv) Let Un = 3' .
(v)
n + 2
, , Un+! = (n + 1) 3 3
Now,
1
. Un+l
1m -- =
n-+oo Un
n + 2 (l)n+l n
3
lim - x __ 3
n
n-+oo {n + 1)3 3 n + 1
r n+2( n )31
n+ 1 n+ 1 3'
1 li 1 + 21n ( 1 )3
3 1 + lin 1 + lin
1
3<l.
Hence by D'Alembert's ratio test the series is convergent.
nn
Let Un = -,'
n.
, {n + l)n+l
Un+! = (n + I)!
Now,
l
' Un+l
1m --
n-+oo Un
. {n + l)n+! n!
hm .-
n-+oo (n + I)! nn
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
1
. (n+1)n
1m -'-----'--
n-+oo nn
lim (1 + .!.)n
n-+oo n
e> 1.
Hence by D'Alembert's ratio test the series is divergent.
(vi) Let Un = (2n _11).2n·
. 1
. . U
n
+ 1 = -:-( 2-n-+-1:-:) (-2n-+-2"7"r
Now,
1
. Un+l
1m -- =
n-+oo Un
1
. 2n(2n - 1)
1m -;-::--'-:-:,---'-----:-
n-+oo (2n + 1)(2n + 2)
1
. 1.(1 - 1/2n)
1m - : - - - ~ - : - : ~ ~ ~
n-+oo (1 + 1/2n)(1 + l/n)
1.
The D'Alembert's ratio test fails.
Again
Un+! (2n - 1)(2n)
Un (2n + 1)(2n + 2)
(1 - 1/2n).1
(1 + 1/2n)(1 + l/n)
= (1 - 2 ~ ) (1 + 2 ~ ) -1 (1 + ~ ) - 1
= (
1
- 2 ~ ) (
1
- 2 ~ - ~ - ... )
= (
1
- 2 ~ ) (
1
- 2: - ... )
1 - ~ - 2 . - ...
2n 2n
= 1 - ~ - ...
n
Here /3 = -2 < 1. Hence by Gauss's test the series is convergent.
(vii) Let Un = .!..
n
. 1
.. U
n
+l = n + l'
6.19
6.20 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
U
n
+l n + 1 1
Now, -- = -- = 1 + -.
Un n n
Here f3 = 1. By Gauss's test the series is divergent.
Exercise 1 (1
') Sh h h . 1 1 1 .
ow t at t e senes 1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + ... IS convergent.
(
") Sh h h . ~ 4n + 3. d'
11 ow t at t e senes ~ IS Ivergent.
n 2 + 3n
6.3.2 Alternating Series
00
Theorem 5 Leibnitz Test: An alternating series 2:(-l)n
un
is convergent
n=O
if the sequence {un} ·is monotonic decreasing and lim Un = O.
n--+oo
E 6 (1
') P th h . 1 1 1 1 .
x. rove at t e senes - - + - - - + ... IS convergent.
234 .
(ii) Show that the series 1 - ~ + ~ - ~ + ... is convergent.
22 3
2
4
2
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here Un = ~ . .'. Un+! = n: 1 .
Un n+1 1
Now, -- = -- = 1 + - > 1,
U
n
+l n n
i.e., Un > U
n
+l.
Hence {un} is a monotonic decreasing sequence.
Also, lim Un = lim .! = O.
n--+oo n--+oo n
Hence by Leibnitz test the series is convergent.
(ii)
1 . 1
Here Un = n
2
' .. un+! = (n + 1)2'
Now, ~ = (n+ 1)2 = (1 + .!)2 > 1,
U
n
+l n n
i.e." Un > U
n
+l.
Hence {un} is a monotonic decreasing sequence.
A
. l' l' 1
gam, 1m Un = 1m "2' = O.
n--+oo n--+oo n
Hence by Leibnitz test the series is convergent .
. Def. 4 Absolutely convergent: An alternating series L: an is said to be
absolutely convergent if the series z:::: Ian I is convergent.
CH.6: 1..'. 'FERENTIAL ,'ALCULUS 6.21
Def. 5 Conditional convergent: An alternating series L an is said to be
conditional convergent if the series L an is convergent, but the series L Ian I
is not convergent.
Ex. 7 Show that the series
111
1--+---+······
22 3
2
4
2
is absolutely convergent.
• SOLUTION: The absolute series, which is obtained on taking every term of
the given series with a positive sign
111
1 + 22 + 32 + 4
2
+ ..... .
1
is convergent, because, the series is of the form L nP' where p = 2 > 1.
Hence the given series is absolutely convergent.
Ex. 8 Show that the series
111
1--+---+······
234
is conditional convergent.
1
• SOLUTION: Let an = -. The given series is convergent by Leibnitz test as
n
lim an = 0 and lan+ll < lanl for all n.
n ~ o o
But, the absolute series
111
1+-+-+-+ ......
234
1
is not convergent, because, this series is of the form L nP' where p = 1.
Hence the given series is conditional convergent.
Theorem 6 Every absolutely convergent series is convergent.
Proof. Let L an be an absolutely convergent series. So the series L lanl is
convergent.
Hence, for any c > 0, by Cauchy's general principle of convergence, there
exists a positive integer m such that
lan+ll + la
n
+21 + ... + lan+pl < c; for all n ~ m and p ~ 1.
Also for all nand p > 1,
Ian+! + an+2 + ... + an+pl < lan+ll + la
n
+21 + ... + lan+pl < c,
for all n ~ m and p ~ 1.
Hence, by Cauchy's general principle of convergence the series L an con-
verges.
6.22 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
6.4 Function
Def. 1 Function: Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A correspondence
which associates with each element x E A an unique element y E B, is called
a mapping or a function.
It is generally denoted by f : A -+ B.
Def. 2 Co-domain: Let f : A -+ B be a function. Then A is called domain
and B is called co-domain of the function f.
Def. 3 Range: Let f : A -+ B be a function. The subset of B containing
those y E B for which there exist x E 11 such that f(x) = y will be called the
range or image set of f, denoted by f (A). '
x-a x-b
Ex. 1 (i) If f(x) = b b _ a + a a _ b' then show that
f(a) + f(b) = f(a + b).
(ii) If f(x) = x
2
- 3x + 7, show that
{f(x + h) - f(x)}
h = 2x - 3 + h .
• SOLUTION:
x-a x-b
(i) Wehavef(x)=bb_a +aa_b .
... f(a) = a, f(b) = band
b a
f(a+b)=bb_a +aa_b
b
2
a
2
b
2
- a
2
-----
b-a b-a b-a
= b + a = f(b) + f(a).
Hence f(a) + f(b) = f(a + b).
(ii) f(x) = x
2
- 3x + 7,
... f(x + h) = (x + h)2 - 3(x + h) + 7
= x
2
+ 2hx + h
2
- 3x - 3h + 7
= x
2
+ (2h - 3)x + h
2
- 3h + 7.
N
f(x + h) - f(x)
ow, h
{x
2
+ (2h - 3)x + h
2
- 3h + 7} - (x
2
- 3x + 7)
=
h
2hx + h
2
- 3h
=
h
= 2x + h - 3 = 2x - 3 + h.
CH.6: D.:-}'ERENTIAL I' \LCULUS 6.23
Ex. 2 (i) Find the domain of definition of the function f(x) = JX=l +
V5=X.
(ii) Find the domain of definition of the function log(x
2
- 5x + 6).
(iii) Find the domain of definition of f where f(x) = VlOg 5x ~ x
2
.
(iv) Find the domain of definition of f where f(x) = J(3x - 1)(7 - x).
(v) Find the domain and range of the function f(x) = 1:.1.
x
(vi) Show that vx
2
- 5x + 6 is not defined for 2 < x < 3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The function is defined if x-I 2: 0 and 5 - x 2: 0 or, x 2: 1 and x ::; 5.
Combining we get 1 ::; x ::; 5. Which is the domain of definition of f(x).
(ii) The function is defined if x
2
- 5x + 6 > 0 or, (x - 2)(x - 3) > O.
Either x - 2> 0, x - 3> 0 or, x - 2 < 0, x - 3 < O.
The inequalities x - 2> 0 and x - 3> 0 imply x > 3 and the inequality
x - 2 < 0 and x - 3 < 0 imply x < 2.
Hence the domain is x < 2 and x > 3, i.e., (-00,2) and (3,00) .
. I 5x - x
2
5x - x
2
(iii) The function V log 4 is defined when 4 2: 1
(as log a < 0 when 0 < a < 1)
or, 5x - x
2
2: 4 or, x
2
- 5x + 4 ::; 0
or, (x - 1)(x - 4) ::; O.
i.e., when x-I < 0, x - 4 > 0 or x-I> 0, x - 4 < o.
But x < 1, x > 4 does not give any real value of x, so when x > 1, x < 4
the function is defined.
Hence 1 < x < 4 is the domain of definition.
(iv) The function is defined when (3x - 1)(7 - x) 2: 0,
i.e., when 3x - 1 2: 0,7 - x 2: 0 or 3x - 1 ::; 0,7- x ::; O. The relation
3x - 1 2: 0,7 - x 2: 0 imply x 2: ~ , x ::; 7 or, ~ ::; x ::; 7.
The relations 3x - 1 ::; 0,7 - x ::; 0, i.e., x ::; ~ , 7 ::; x does not give any
valid x.
Hence the domain of definition is ~ ::; x ::; 7.
(v) The function is defined for all real values of x except O. Therefore the
domain of definition is R - {O}, R is a set of real numbers.
6.24 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Also,
f(x) = {-I, x < 0
1, x> O.
Hence the range of f is {-I, I}.
(vi) When x
2
- 5x + 6 > 0 or, (x - 2)(x - 3) > 0 then the function is defined.
i.e., when x - 2 > 0, x - 3 > 0 and x - 2 < 0, x - 3 < O.
i.e., x > 2, x > 3 and x < 2, x < 3.
Combining these relations we get x > 3, x < 2 .
. '. the function is defined when x < 2, x > 3 and consequently f(x) is
not defined when 2 < x < 3.
Exercise 1 (i) Find the domain of definition of f(x) where
4x - x
2
f(x) = loge 3 ' x and f(x) are real numbers.
(ii) Find the domain of definition of the function f(x) = )x - 2 + )4 - x.
[Ans. (i) 1 :::; x :::; 3, (ii) 2 < x < 4.]
Ex. 3 (i) If f(x) = x + lxi, find whether f(2) and f( -2) are equal?
(ii) If f(x) = El and c ( ~ 0) be any real number show that
x
If(c) - f( -c)1 = 2 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x) = x -t-Ixl .
. '. f(2) = 2 + 121 = 2 + 2 = 4 and
f( -2) = -2 + 1- 21 = -2 + 2 = O.
f(2) and f( -2) are not equal.
(ii) Here f(x) = El.
x
.'. If(c) - f(-c)1 = I ~ - ~ I ·
When c > 0 then this is equal to I ~ - ~ c I = 2.
When c < 0 then this is equal to I ~ c - ~ I = 2.
Hence If(c) - f( -c)1 = 2.
Ex. 4 Draw the graphs of the following functions:
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.25
(i) f(x) = x - [x], where [xl denotes the greatest integer not greater than
x.
y ~ {
1, when x> 0
( ii) 0, when x = 0
-1, when x < o.
(iii) y ~ {
0, when Ixl > 1
1 +x, when - 1 :S x :S 0
1- x, when 0 < x :S 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The following figure is the graph of the given function.
y
_({j!;+x
Figure: 6.4.1
(ii) The graph of the function IS shown below.
y
1 CJ)-----
----+----- X
o
- - - ~ - 1
Figure: 6.4.2
(iii) The graph of this function is shown below.
y
1
--¥'---+---4--- X
-1 o
Figure: 6.4.3
1
6.26 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
6.5 Limit and Continuity
Def. 1 Limit: The limit of a function f(x) for a given value, a, of the inde-
pendent variable x is the constant I for which the function f(x) can be made as
small as we please by making x to approach sufficiently nearer to its assigned
value a (denoted as x -+ a). It may be expressed as
lim f(x) = I.
x-+a
That is, a function f(x) is said to have a limit I as x approaches a, if for
any positive number c, there exists a number 8 depending on c can be found
out, such that
If(x) -II < c for all values of x for which 0 < Ix - al < 8.
This definition is called Cauchy's definition of a limit of a function.
Ex. 1 Define the symbol: lim f(x) = I.
x-+a
• SOLUTION: lim f(x) = I means, given any pre-assigned positive number €,
x-+a
however small, we can determine another positive number 8, depending on c,
such that If(x) -II < c for all values of x satisfying 0 < Ix - al ::; 8.
Ex. 2 Define the statement 'lim f (x) = 00'
x-+a
• SOLUTION: If f(x) tends to infinity with the same sign when x tends to a
either from the right or left, then w(:) say that as x tends to a, f(x) tends to
infinity.
In other words, if corresponding to any pre-assigned number M,
we can determine a positive number 8, such that f(x) > M whenever 0 <
Ix - al ::; 8, we say lim f(x) = 00.
x-+a
Ex. 3 What are the differences between lim f (x) and f (a).
x-+a
• SOLUTION: f(a)isthevalueofthefunctionf(x)whenx=a. But limf(x)
x-+a
is the value of the function f(x) when x is very close to a but not equal to a.
This is called the limiting value of the function f(x).
Theorem 1 If lim f (x) = I and lim </J( x) = I', where I and I' are finite num-
x-+a x-+a
bers, then
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
lim{f(x) ± ¢(x)} = I ± I',
x-+a
lim{f(x) x </J(x)} = II',
x-+a
. {f(x)} I .
</J( x) = [i' prOVIded
lim F{f(x)} = F{lim f(x)},
x-+a x-+a
I' =I 0,
where F(x) is continuous for x = I.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.27
Some important limits
(i) lim sinx = 1,
x-+o X
(
") l' log(1 + x) 1
11 1m = ,
x-+o X
(
"') l' eX - 1 1
III 1m --= ,
x-+o X
Theorem 2 L' Hospital's Theorem: If f(x), g(x) and their derivatives
f'(x), g'(x) are continuous at x = a, and if f(a) = g(a) = 0 then
lim f(x) = lim f'(x) = f'(a)
x-+a g(x) x-+a g'(x) g'(a) ,
provided g' (a) =1= O.
Ex. 4
VI + 2x - VI - 3x
(i) Evaluate lim ,
x-;o X
. sinxo
(ii) Evaluate hm --,
x-+o x
.
tan-l x
(iii) Evaluate hm ,
x-+o x
(iv) Is lim { Vx + vT=X} exist? Give reasons,
x-+1
(v) Find lim (! __ ._1_),
x-+o X Slnx
(vi) Does the limit exist? lim [x], where [xl denotes the integral part of x.
x-+2
(vii) Given f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c, show that
(viii) Given f(x) = lxi, show that lim{f(h) - f(O)}/h does not exist,
h-+O
(ix) Find
xn -1
lim 1 when Ixl > 1,
n-+oo xn +
(x) Find lim {x - J x
2
+ x}, if exist,
x-+oo
(xi) Evaluate: lim (_._1 ___ 1_),
x-+o sm x tan x
sinx
(xii) Evaluate: lim --,
X-+1I" 7r - X
6.28 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
x - sinx
(xiii) Find the value of lim 3 '
x-+o X
(xiv) Find the value of
eX - e-
x
- 2x
lim . ,
x-+o X-Slnx
n n
(xv) Evaluate lim x - a ,n being a positive integer,
x-+a x - a
smx
(xvi) Prove that lim -- = 1.
x-+o X
• SOLUTION:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
1
. Jl + 2x - Jl - 3x
1m
x-+o X
1
. ( Jl + 2x - Jl - 3x) ( Jl + 2x + Jl - 3x)
1m
x-+o x(Jl + 2x + Jl- 3x)
1
. (1 + 2x) - (1 - 3x)

x-+O x(Jl + 2x + Jl- 3x)
1
. 5x
= 1m
x-+o x(Jl + 2x + Jl- 3x)
5 5
= lim
x-+o Jl + 2x + Jl - 3x
• 0
1
. smx
Im--
x-+o X
tan-
1
x (0 )
lim - form
x-+O x 0
• 7r
1
. sm180x 7r
1m (as 1
0
= 180)
x-+O x
• 7r
. sm 180x 7r
hm 7r .-
x-+O 180 x 180
7r 7r
1.
180
= 180·
1
lim 1+
1
X2
(by L'Hospital rule)
x-+o
. 1
hm--=1.
x-+o 1 + x
2
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.29
(iv) When x ~ 1+ then vr=x does not exist (becomes a complex number),
i.e., lim {Vx + V1=X} does not exist.
x..-+l+
(v)
Hence the given limit does not exist.
lim ( ~ - _.1_) (00 - 00 form)
x..-+O X Slnx
1
. SinX-X(O£ )
1m . - orm
x..-+O X smx 0
1
. cos x - 1 (0£ )
= 1m. - orm
x..-+O smx + xcosx 0
lim - sinx . (by L'Hospital rule)
x..-+O cos:t + cos x - x smx
= Q-
O
2 - .
(vi) lim [xl = 2 and lim [xl = 1.
x..-+2+. x..-+2-
So lim[x] does not exist.
x..-+2
(vii) We have f{x) = ax
2
+ bx + c.
Now,
1
. f{x + h) - f(x)
1m ~ - ~ - - - - ' - ~
h..-+O h
= lim {a(x
2
+ 2hx + h
2
) + bx + bh + c} - (ax
2
+ bx + c)
h..-+O h
.2ahx+ah
2
+bh .
= hm h = hm (2ax + ah + b) = 2ax + b
h..-+O h..-+O
(viii) We have f(x) = Ixl.
lim f{h) - f{O) = lim Ihl-IOI = lim 01.
.. h..-+O h h..-+O h h..-+O h
Now, lim Ihhl = lim' -hh = lim 1 = 1, and
h..-+O+ h..-+O+ h..-+O+
lim Ihhl = lim -h = lim -1 = -1.
h..-+O- h..-+O- h h..-+O+
Since lim 01 =1= lim 01
h..-+O+ h h..-+O- h '
the lim f{h) ~ f(O) does not exist.
h..-+O
"
6.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ix) Since Ixl > 1, < 1.
xn - 1 1 - ..L 1 - 0
Now, lim = lim xn = -- = l.
n-+oo xn + 1 n-+oo 1 + ..!.. 1 + 0
xn
(as -+ 0 as n -+ 00)
(x) Putting x = !. When x -+ 00 then y -+ O.
y
lim {x - .J x
2
+ x} = lim {! - J 1 +!}
x-+oo y-+o 'y y2 Y
lim {! _ vr+Y}
y-+O y y
1
· 1 - vT+Y (
0
fi )
= 1m - orm
y-+O y 0
-(1 + y)-1/2
= lim 2 1 (by L'Hospital rule)
y-+O X
.11
= hm- =
y-+o 2vr+Y 2
(xi)
lim (_._1 ___ 1_) (00 _ 00 form)
x-+o sm x tan x
1
· (1 cos X) l' 1 - cos x (
0
f, )
= 1m ----- = 1m - orm
x-+o sin x sin x x-+o sin x 0
= lim sinx (by L'Hospital rule) = O.
x-+o cos x
(xii) Applying L'Hospital rule.
lim sin x
X-+1I' 11" - X 0
I
. cos x
1m--
X-+1I' -1
= - cos 11" = 1.
-(xiii) Applying L'Hospital rule.
r x - sin x (
0
f, )
,x3 0 orm
. J ;....) cos x (0 )
- 3x2 0 form
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
=
=
=
xn - an (0
lim - form)
x--+o x - a 0
=
=
I
. sin x
1m--
x--+o 6x
1
6
I
. eX - e-
x
- 2x (0 £ )
lID . - orro
x--+o x - smx 0
Applying VHospital rule
1
. eX+e-X-2(0£ )
1m - orm
x--+o 1 - cos x 0
I
. eX - e-
x
,(.a £ )
1m. -orm
x--+O smx 0
eX + e-
x
2
lim = - = 2.
x--+o cos x 1
nx
n
-
l
= lim -1- (by L 'Hospital rule)
x--+o
= nan-I.
. sinx (0 )
hm -- -0 form
x--+o x
= lim co
1
s x (by VHospital rule)=1.
x--+o
x
2
a
2
x
2
- a
2
Ex. 5 Is lim -- - lim -- = lim ? Justify your answer.
x--+a X - a x--+a X - a x--+a X - a
6.31
2 2
• SOLUTION: The limits lim _x_ and lim _a_ do not exist, i.e., left hand
x--+a x - a x--+a X - a
side does not exist.
But right hand side is equal to
I
. x2 - a
2
l' (x + a)( x - a) I' ( ) 2
1m = 1m = 1m x + a = a.
x--+a X - a x--+a X - a x--+a '
x
2
a
2
x
2
- a
2
Hence lim ---, lim -- i= lim ---
x--+a X - a x--+a X - a x--+a X - a
E 6 If I
· a sin x - sin 2x . fi' fi d
x. 1m 2 IS mte, n a.
x--+O x
. a sin x - sin 2x (0 )
• SOLUTION: hm 2 -0 form
x--+O x
I
· a cos x - 2 cos 2x (b L;H ' . I I)
= 1m ' y osp1ta ru e
x--+O 2x
Here numerator is a - 2 and denominator is 0, i.e., the limit does not exist.
But it is given that the limit is finite, therefore, a - 2 = 0 or a = 2.
6.32 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
6.5.1 Continuity of a function
Def. 2 Continuity: A function I(x) is said to be continuous for x = a, if
lim I(x) exists, is finite, and is equal to I(a).
x--+a -
In other words, if I(x) is continuous at x = a, then
lim I(x) = lim I(x) = I(a) or I(a + 0) = I(a - 0) = I(a).
x--+a+O x--+a-O
This may also be written in the form
lim I(a + h) = I(a).
h--+O
,
Def. \ 3 c: - 6 definition of continuity: A function is said to be continuous
at a point x = a, if for any positive number c: however small, there exists a
number 6 depending on c, such that
II(x) - l(a)1 < c:
for all values of x for which 0 < Ix - al < 8.
This definition means that the difference between I (x) and f (a) be very
small in case if x approaches towards a.
Def. 4 Discontinuity: A function which is not continuous at a point is said
to be discontinuous at that point.
Q. 1 Explain what is meant by the statement: "A function is continuous at
x = a".
Ex. 7 (i) Is f(x) = Ixl continuous at x = 0 ? Justify it with diagram.
(ii) Sketch the graph of f(x) = 1:1. Is I(x) continuous at x = 0 ?
(iii) Show that the function f(x) = x4 + ~ x 3 + 2x, x :I 0 and f(O) = 0 is not
Slnx
continuous at x = o.
(iv) If I(x) = x
2
for x :I 1 and f(l) = 1.5, examine whether f(x) is contin-
uous at x = 1.
(v) A function f (x) is defined by
f(x) = {
cos x,
-cosx,
Examine if f(x) continuous at x = O.
for x ~ 0
for x < O.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.33
(vi) Show that the function f(x) defined by
f(x) = { x, 0 < x < 1
2 - x, x ~ 1
is continuous at x = 1.
(vii) If f(x) = (1+3x)1/x for x =J 0 and f(O) = e
3
for x = 0, examine whether
f(x) is continuous at x = O.
(viii) If [xl given the integral value of x not exceeding x, show graphically that
y = [xl is not continuous at x = 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) L.H.L.= lim Ixl = lim (-x) = O.
x--+o- x--+o-
R.H.L.= lim Ixl = lim (x) = O.
x--+o+ x--+o+
Also, f(O) = o .
... limo Ixl = f(O). Hence f(x) is continuous at x = O.
x--+
(ii) The graph of the given function is shown in the adjacent figure.
y
1 <D-----
--------+--------x
o
----<D-1
Figure: 6.5.1
From the graph is it easy to observe that the given function is not con-
tinuous at the origin.
(iii) Here
lim f(x)
x--+o
. x4 + 4x
3
+ 2x
= hm---.---
x--+O SlllX
. x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 2
= 11m s i n ~
x--+O -
=
x
lim(x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 2)
x-+o
1
. sin x
Im--
x--+O x
2
= i =2.
6.34 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
But f(O) = 0
i.e., lim f(x) '" f(O).
.
Hence f(x) is not continuous at x = O.
(iv) Here lim f(x) = lim x
2
= 1.

But f(1) = 1.5 '" lim f(x).
.
Hence f (x) is not continuous at x = 1.
(v) L.H.L.= lim f(x) = lim (-cosx) =-1.

RH.L.= lim f(x) = lim cos x = 1.

Since L.H.L4 RH,L, lim f(x) does not exist.

Hence f(x) is not continuous at x = O.
(vi) L.H.L.= lim f(x) = lim x = 1.

RH.L.= lim f(x) = lim (2 - x) = 1.
.
Also, f(1) = 1.
,', f(1) = L.H.L.=RH.L.
Hence f (x) is continuous at x = 1.
(vii) To find the limit, we the logarithm of f(x).
1 .;
log f(x) = -log(1 + 3:Q.).
x
Now, lim log f(x) = lim log(1 + 3x).3 = 1.3 = 3.
3x
or, log { lim f(x)} = 3.

or, lim f(x) = e
3
= f(O).

Hence f(x) is = O.
(viii) The graph of the function
f(x) = [x] is shown in adja-
cent figure. From figure, it is
observed that lim f(x) = 0,

lim f(x) = 1 and f(1) = 1.

Hence f(x) = [x] is not con-
tinuous at x = 1.
-1 o 1
Figure: 6.5.2
2
Ex. 8 Find the point at which f(x) = x
2
-3
9
is undefined. What value must
x-
be assigned to f(x) at that point to make it continuous there?
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
SOLUTION: The function is undefined at x = 3.
N 1
· f() 1· x
2
- 9 1· (x - 3)(x + 3)
ow, 1m x = 1m --= 1m
:1:--+3 :1:--+3 X - 3 :1:--+3 X - 3
= lim (x +3) =6.
:1:--+3
If lim f(x) = f(3) = 6 then f(x) is continuous at x = 3.
:1:--+3
Ex. 9 Using (c - 6) definition, examine whether the function
J(x) = {
is continuous at x = O .
. 1
XSlnX-,
0,
x#O
x=O
• SOLUTION: Let,c > 0 be any positive number.
Now, If(x) - J(O)I = - 01 =
= Ixll sin I :s; Ixl < €, whenever Ix - 01 < 6.
i.e., If(x) - f(O)1 < € when Ixl < 6 and c = 6.
Hence f(w) is continuous at x = O.
6.35
Exercise 1 (i) What should be the value of f(O) so that f defined by
2
f(x) = x - x for (x # 0) is continuous at x = O. ,'/;
X '
(ii) A function f(x) is defined as
{
2x-1
f(x) = 4 - 3x:
x -x
2
,
when 0 < x < 1
when 1 :s; x :s; 2
when x> 2.
Examine the continuity of f (x) at x = 1.
(iii) A function f ( x) is defined as
{
x2
f(x) = 2, ,
2x2 - X + 1,
for 0 :s; x < 1 '
for x = 1 .
for 1 < x :s; 2.
" .
Examine the continuity of f (x) at x = 1. '
6.36 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) A function f (x) is defined as
f (x) = { 3 + 2x, for - 1 < x :::; 0
3 - 2x, for 0 < x < ~ .
Examine the continuity of f(x) at x = O.
[Ans. (i) -1, (ii) Continuous, (iii) not continuous, (iv) Continuous.]
Ex. 10 If f'(a) exists, show that f(x) must be continuous at x = a. Is the
converse true?
• SOLUTION: We have
lim f(a + h) - f(a) - lim{f(a + h) - f(an
h ~ O h ~ O
l ~ {f(a + h ~ - f(a).h}
= lim f(a + h) - f(a). lim h
h ~ O h h ~ O
= f'(a).O = 0 (since f'(a) exists)
i.e., lim f(a + h) = f(a).
h ~ O
Hence f(x) is continuous at x =-a.
Converse ofthis result is not true. For example, f(x) = Ixl is continuous at
x = 0, but, f'(O) does not exist.
6.6 Uniform continuity
Def. 5 A function f defined on an interval [a, b) is said to be uniformly contin-
uous on [a, b) iff or every c > 0 there exists a 6 > 0 such that If(x2)- f(xdl < c,
for arbitrary points Xl, X2 of [a, b) for which IXI - x21 < 6.
Ex. 11 Show that the function f(x) = .!. is not uniformly continuous on (0, 1].
x
1
• SOLUTION: If c = 1/2 and 6 is any positive number. Let Xl = - and
n
X2 = ~ 1 be any two points on (0,1].
n+
1 11 1 I 1 1
Then for n > 6' IXI - x21 = ~ - n + 1 = n(n + 1) < ~ < a.
Now, If(xI) - f(x2)1 = In - (n + 1)1 = 1 > c, whenever IXI - X2L< a.
Hence the function f(x) is not uniformly continuous on (0,1].
CH.6: .clFFERENTIAT CALCULUS 6.37
Ex. 12 Prove that sinx is uniformly continuous on [0,00) .
• SOLUTION: Let c > 0 be given. Let XI,X2 E [0,00), then
IsinXI - sinx21 = 12sin (Xl; X2) cos (Xl; X2)1
Xl - X2
< 2. 2 = IXI - X21 < c, whenever IXI - x21 < o.
Therefore, I sinxi - sinx21 < c, whenever IXI - x21 < 0 and c = o.
Hence sinx is uniformly continuous on [0,00).
Theorem 3 If a function is uniformly continuous on an interval then it is
continuous on that interval.
Proof. Let a function f be uniformly continuous on an interval I, so that for
a given c > 0, there corresponds a 0 > 0 such that If(xd - f(X2)·1 ~ c, where
Xl,X2 are any two points of I for which IXI - x21 < o.
Let X E I and X2 = x. Then for c > 0 there exists 0 > 0 such that
If{x) - f{xdl < c whenever Ix - xII < o.
Hence the function is continuous at every point Xl E I. Thus the function
f (x) is continuous on I.
6.7 Differentiation
Def. 1 Derivative: The differential coefficient of y = f (x) with respect to X
is
f
'() dy 1· f(x + h) - f(x)
X or -d = 1m h
X h ~ O
provided this limit exists.
Ex. 1 Show by a diagram the difference between fl.y and dy.
• SOLUTION: fl.y is the increment of y as X is incremented by fl.x and dy is
the limiting value of fl.y as fl.x -+ O.
Figure: 6.7.1
6.38 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 2 State the geometrical interpretation of :: .
• SOLUTION: For the curve y = J(x), :: is the gradient of tangent at any
point (x, y).
Differential coefficient in some standard cases
d d
dx (c) = 0 dx (xn) = nx
n
-
1
= cos x
d
dx (sec x) = sec x tan x
d 1
-(log x) = -
dx x
d ( . -1) 1
- Sin x = '
dx v'f="P
l
d -1 1
-(tan x) =--
. dx 1 + x
2
d -1 1
-d (sec x) = JX2=1'
x x x -1
(sinh x) = cosh x
= seth 2x
d
dx (aX) = aX loge a
(cos x) = - sin x
d
dx (cot x) = -cosec 2x
d
dx (cosec x) = -cosec x cot x
_d (cos-
1
x) = _--==1=
dx v"f=X2
d 1 1
-(cot- x) = ---
dx 1 + x
2
d
d (coshx) ="'sinhx
x '
d" .
dx (cothx) = -cosech 2x
d d
dx (sechx) = -sechx tanh x dx (cosechx) = -cosechxcothx
Ex. 3 (i) sin-
1
J(x) w.r.t. x.
(ii) Differentiate
i
loglo x w.r.t. x
8
.
CH'c un Fi:RENTIAL CAl CULUS 6.39
(iii) Differentiate x cos-
1
x w.r.t. cos-
1
x.
IV IuerentIate tan- . w.r.to x (
. ) D'
Lr
' 1 [ COS X ]
1+smx
(V) Differentiate lOiogcou w.r.t. x.
(vi) Differentiate logsinx x w.r.t. x.
(vii) Differentiate log(.Jx - a + .Jx - b) w.r.t. x .
• SOLUTION:
. d { . -I} 1 d f'(x)
(1) dx sm f(x) = V1- {f(x)}2' dx {f(x)} = V1 - {f(x)}2'
(ii) Let y = log10 x and z = x
8
• The derivative of log10 x w.r.t. x
8
is
Now, y = loge x.:loglO e.
dy 1 -', dz 7
.. -d = - log10 e and -d = 8x .
- x x x
Hell,ce dy =' dy . dx = log10 e . _1_ = 1
dz dx dz X 8x
7
8x
8
log
e
10
(iii) Let y = x cos-
1
x and z = cos-
1
X.
dy -1 1 dz 1
.. -d = 1. cos x-x. and -d = - .J 2
X 1- x
2
X 1- X
-1 x
dy dy dx cos x - v'1-x2
Hence - = -.- = 1
dz dx dz - r.;===if
(iv) Let
vl-xM
= X - VI - x
2
cos-
1
x.
-1 [ cos X] -1 [COS
2
x/2 - sin
2
X/2]
Y = tan 1+sinx =tan (cosx/2+sinx/2)2
-1 [COSX/2 - sinx/2] _I [1- tanx/2]
= .
cosx/2 + smx/2 1 + tanx/2
= tan-
1
[tan =
dy 1
dx = -2'
( v) Let y = lOiog cou .
Taking logarithm (with base e) 'both sides we get,
loge Y = log cos x.log
e
10.
Differentiating w.r.t. x
1 dy 1.
--d = loge 10.--( - smx) = -loge 10. tanx.
'lL.!?- cos X
6.40 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vi)
dy 1
or, dx = -loge 1O.ytanx = -loge 10. tanx.lO ogcosx
loge x
Let y = logsinx X = loge x logsinx e = I .
oge smx
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get,
dy
dx
=
=
=
1 l' 1 I
x oge smx - SiiiZ cos X. oge X
(loge sin x)2
1 cot x.log
e
x
x loge sin x (loge sin x)2
1 cot x.logsinx X
x loge sin x loge sin x
1 - x cot x logsinx x
x loge sin x
(vii) Let y = loge vx - a + vx - b).
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get,
dy = 1 {!(x _ a)-1/2 + !(x _ b)-1/2}
dx rx=a + v'"X-=b 2 2
= 1 1{ 1 1}
rx=a + V x - b . 2 vx=a + v'"X-=b
1 1 vx=a + v'"X-=b
2' VX - a + Vx - b' vx - a.v'"X-=b
1 1
=
2' v(x - a)(x - b)'
Exercise 1 (i) Differentiate loglO x with respect to x
3

(ii) Find the differential coefficient of x
sin
-
1
x w.r.t sin-
1
x.
(iii) Differentiate 1010gsinx w.r.t. x.
(iv) Differentiate sec(tan-
1
x) w.r.t. x.
[A
(
.) lOglO e (") (1 V1 - x
2
sin X) ·-1
ns. 1 ~ , 1 1 ogx+ X xsm X,
(
"') 1 10 1010gsinx (. ) xsec(tan-
1
x) ]
111 oge . cot x. ,IV 1 + x
2

Ex. 4 (i) For the function J(x) = Ixl find 1'(0).
(ii) If
J(x) = {
examine whether 1'(0) exists.
1 + X, x> 0
1- x, X $ 0,
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(iii) Suppose
{
X2 when x is rational
f(x) = 0,' when x is irrational
Show 1'(0) = O.
(iv) If f(x,} = (x + 1)x+2, findJ'(O).
(v) If f(:f) = 21xl + Ix - 21 fikd f'(1) .

(i) L.H.D.= lim f(h) - = lim Ihl-IOI =' lim 1M
h h h
Ii
h !' 1
= m-=!,-lm =1.
h
RH.D.= lim f(O) = lim

Ihl-IOI
h
-h
= lim -..:..:J. = lim -1 = -1.
hi
lim 1M
h
Thus L.H.D.:;i: RH.D. Hence f'(O) does not exist.
(
") L H D - l' f(h) - f(O) _ l' 1 + h - 1 - l' h - 1
11 ...- 1m h - 1m h - 1m -h - .

RH.D.= lim f(h) - f(O) = lim 1 - h - 1
h h
-h
= lim -h =-1.

Thus L.H.D.:;i: RH.D. Hence f'(O) does not exist.
6.41
(iii) We know 1'(0) = lim f(h) f(O). When h tends to rational numbers

then f'(O) = lim h
2
h
- 0 = lim h = O.

(f(0) = 0
2
= 0, since 0 is a rational number)
Similarly, when h tends to irrational numbers then
1'(0) = lim 0 _h 0 = lim 0 = O.

In both cases, 1'(0) = O. Hence f'(O) = O.
(iv) Taking logarithm both sides we get
log f (x) = (x + 2) log (x + 1).
Differentiating w.r.t. x we obtain
1 x+2
f(x/'(x) = log(x + 1) + x + 1
6.42 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
{
x+2}
or, f'(x) = f(x) +x) + x + 1
{
0+2}
or, 1'(0) = f(O) log(l + 0) + 0 + 1 =12{0 + 2} = 2.
(v) 1'(1) = lim f(1 + h) - f(l)
h
lim (211 + hi + Ih - 11) - (2.1 + 11 - 21)
h
= lim {2(1 + h) - (h - In - 3 = lim!: = lim 1 = l.
. h h
Ex. 5 (i) If x = e
3t
+ 5 and y = sin
3
t find
(ii) Find when x = a cos ¢, y = bsin¢: .
(iii) Find if x = a(e - sine),y = a(1 + case).
. 2t. 2t dy
(IV) Iftany= I_t
2
,smx= l+t
2
,showthat dx =l.
(V) Find when x = a(2 cos t + cos 2t), Y = a(2 sin t - sin2t) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have x = e
3t
+ 5 and y = sin
3
t.
Differentiating w.r.t. t we get
= 3e
3t
, = 3 sin
2
t cos t.
, dy dy dt 3' 2 1. 2 3t
" dx = dt' dx = sm tcost x 3e
3t
= sm tcoste- .
(ii) Here x = acos¢,y = bsin¢.
Differentiating w.r.t. ¢ we get
dx . dy
d¢ = -asm¢, d¢ = bcos¢.
, dy dy d¢ 1 b
,. -d = d' A.·-d = bcos¢ . A. = --cot¢.
x 'I' x -asm'l' a
(iii) ,Given that x = a(e - sine), y = a(1 + cos e).
Differentiating w.r.t. e we get
dx dy.
dB = a(l- cos B), dB = -asme.
dy = dy. de = -asinB 1
dx dB dx a(1 - cos B)
2 . 8 8 B
= sm 2' cos 2 = _ cot _.
2si
n
2
!l. 2
2
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(iv) Putting t = tan8.
. 2 tan 8
.. tan y = 1 2 8 = tan 28.
-tan
or, y = 28.
A
.. 2 tan 8 . Ll
gam, smx = 1 + tan
2
8 = sm2u.
or, x = 28.
Thus y = x = 28. Differentiating y = x w.r.t x we get : ~ = 1.
(v) Here x = a(2 cos t + cos 2t), y = a(2 sint - sin2t).
Differentiating w.r.t. t we get
. ~ ~ = a( -2 sin t - 2 sin 2t) and ~ ~ = a(2 cos t - 2 cos 2t)
dy dy dt
=
dx dt ·dx
1
= a(2 cos t - 2cos2t) x ( 2 . 2. )
a - smt - sm2t
_ eos 2t - cos t _ 2 sin( -t/2) sin(3t/2)
- sin2t+sint - 2sin(3t/2)cos(t/2)
= -tant/2.
Exercise 2 (i) Find ~ ~ when x =' at
2
, y = 2at.
(ii) Find ~ ~ where x = acos
2
8,y = asin
2
8.
(iii) Find ~ ~ when x = a(cost + tsint),y = a(sint - teost).
[Ans. (i) l/t, (ii) -1, (iii) tan t.]
Ex. 6 (i) Find dd
y
when y = sin
2
2x.
x I .
(ii) Find ~ ~ when x
3
+ y3 = 3axy.
(iii) Find ~ ~ when x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 = a
2
/
3
.
(iv) Find ~ ~ if x = y log(xy).
(v) Find ~ : when xY.yX = 1.
(vi) Find ~ ~ when xY = yX.
6.43
6.44 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vii) Find dy when e
XY
- 4xy = 2.
dx
Y x-y dy log x
(viii) If x = e ,show that -d = ( 1 )2'
X 1 + ogx
dy y(2x2 -1)
(ix) If log(xy) = x
2
+ y2 prove that dx = x(1 _ 2
y
2)'
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have y = sin
2
2x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy = 2sin2xcos2x.2 = 2sin4x.
dx '
(ii) Give that x
3
+ y3 = 3axy.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
3x
2
+ 3y2 = 3a (y + x )
or, (3y2 - 3ax) = 3ay - 3x
2
dy ay - x
2
or, -= .
dx y2 - ax
(iii) Given that x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 = a
2
/
3
.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
+ dy = 0
3 3 dx
or, dy =_x-
1
/
3

dx y-l/3 x
(iv) Here x = ylog(xy) or, x = y(logx + logy) = ylogx + ylogy.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy 1 dy 1 dy
1 = -d log x + y.- + -d logy + y'-'-d
x x x y x
y dy
or, 1 - - = -d (log x + log y + 1)
x x
or, x - y = (log x + log y + log e)
x
dy x -y
or, dx = xlog(xye)'
(v) We have xY.yX = 1.
Taking logarithm both sides we get y log x + x log y = O.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dy 1 1 dy
-logx + y.- + logy + X.-.- = 0
dx x y dx
or, ( log x + = - (; + log y)
y
or, dy = _ ;- + log: = _ Y.. (y + x log y) .
dx log x + _ . x x + y log x
Y
(vi) Taking logarithm both sides we get y log x = x log y.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy 1 1 dy
-d log x + y.- = 1. logy + x'-'-
d x x y x
or, dy ( log x - =) = log y _ Y..
dx y x
dy y(xlogy-y)
or -=
'dx log x - x(ylogx - x)'
(vii) Given that e
XY
- 4xy = O.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
xy {d
y
} _ {d
y
} _
ex·
dx
+ y.1 4 x. dx + y.1 - 0
dy
or, dx (xe
xy
- 4x) = 4y - ye
xy
dy 4y - ye
xy
y(e
xy
- 4) Y
or - = = - =--
'dx xe
XY
- 4x x (e
xy
- 4) x .
(viii) Given that x
Y
= eX-Yo Taking logarithm both sides we get
6.45
ylogx=(x-y)loge=x-y (1)
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy 1 dy dy y
-. log x + y. - = 1 - - or, - (log x + 1) = 1 - -
dx x dx dx x
dy x - y ylogx
or - = =
'dx x(log x + 1) x(log x + 1)
y 1
From (1), y(logx + 1) = x or, - = 1 1
x ogx+
dy log x
.. dx = (1 + logx)2'
(ix) Given that logxy = x
2
+ y2 or, log x + logy = x
2
+ y2.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
.! + .! dy = 2x + 2y dy or, dy - 2y) = 2x _ .!
x y dx dx dx y x
6.46 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
dy 2x2 - 1 Y y(2x
2
- 1)
or - = --- ---"---;::-
. dx x'l - 2y2 - x(l - 2y2) .
Ex. 7 If I(x) is an even function and 1'(0) exists, show that /,(0) = O .
• SOLUTION: If I(x) is an even function then I(x) = I( -x).
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get /,(x) = - /'( -x).
At x = 0, /,(0) = -1'(0) or, 2/,(0) = 0 or, 1'(0) = O.
Exercise 3 (i) If x = sin
2
e, y = tan e find ~ ~ .
(ii) If x = cos
2
e, y = tan
2
e then find ~ ~ .
(iii) Find ~ ~ , where x = a + 2 cos e, y = b + 2 sin e.
(iv) Find ~ ~ when xY = yx.
(v) Find ~ ~ , when y = (sinx)logx.
[Ans. (i) ~ see
3
e.cosec e, (ii) - sec
4
e, (iii) - cot e,
. y(xlogy-y) (sinx ). 1
(IV) ,(v) -- +eosx.logx (smx)ogx.]
x(y log x - x) x
Ex. 8 (i) If the side of an equilateral triangle increases at the rate V3 ft/sec
and its area increases at the rate of 12 sq. ft./sec, find the sides of the
triangle.
(ii) If the area of a circle increases at a uniform rate, show that the rate of
increases of the perimeter varies inversely as the radius .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a be the side of the equilateral triangle.
Therefore its area A = V; a
2
Given that ~ ~ = V3
dA
and dt = 12
Differentiating (1) w.r.t. t we get
dA = V3
2a
da = V3 a.V3 = ~ a [by (2)]
dt 4 dt 2 2
or, 12 = ~ a [using (3)]
or, a = 8.
(1)
(2)
(3)
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.47
(ii) Let r be the radius of the circle.
Then its area A = 271"r2 (1)
. dA
GIVen that dt =constant = k (say).
dA dr
From (1), dt = 271"r dt
dr dr k
or,271"r-
d
= k or, -d = -2-·
t t 7I"r
Again perimeter P = 271"r.
dP dr k k
... dt = 271" dt = 271", 271"r = -:;:.
Hence the rate of increase of perimeter varies inversely as the radius.
Def. 2 Monotone increasing function: A function is said to be monotonic
increasing (non-decreasing) if f(XI) 2: nX2) for Xl > X2·
e.g., the function f(x) = x
3
is a monotonic increasing function.
Def. 3 Monotone decreasing function: A function is said to be monotonE
decreasing (non-increasing) if f(XI) S f(X2) for Xl > X2·
e.g., the function f (x) = 1 - X is a monotonic decreasing function.
Formula 1 If f'(x) > 0 in a S X S b then f(x) is monotone increasing in
a S X S b.
If f'(x) < 0 in a S x S b then f(x) is monotone decreasing in a S x S b.
Ex. 9 (i) Examine whether 2x
3
~ 12x2 + 24x + 6 is increasing or decreasing
on the real line.
(ii) Show that x
3
+ x
2
- 5x + 3 is monotonic increasing for x > 1.
(iii) Show that the function f(x) = -2x
3
+15x
2
-36x+6 is strictly increasing
in the interval 2 < x < 3.
(iv) For 0 < e < 71"/2, Si;e decreases as e increases. Is it true or false?
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let f(x) = 2x
3
- 12x2 + 24x + 6.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
f'(x) = 6x
2
:- 24x + 24 = 6(x
2
- 4x + 4) = 6(x - 2)2 > 0 for all real x.
Hence f (x) is increasing for all real x.
(ii) Let f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
- 5x + 3 .
... f'(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x - 5 = 3x
2
- 3x + 5x - 5 = 3x(x - 1) + 5(x - 1) =
(x - 1) (3x + 5) > 0 if x > l.
Hence f (x) is increasing for x > 1.
6..18 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Here J(x) = -2x
3
+ 15x
2
- 36x + 6 .
. '. J'(x) = -6x
2
+ 30x - 36 = -6(x
2
- 5 + 6) = -6(x - 2)(x - 3) ,=
6(x - 4(3 - x).
This snows that J'(x) > 0 if x > 2 and x < 3, i.e., if 2 < x < 3.
sinO
(iv) Let J(O) = -0-'
. J'(O) = OcosO -l.sinO.
. . 02
Let <1>(0) = OcosO - sinO .
. '. <1>(0) = O.
Now, ¢'(O) = -OcosO < 0 in 0 < 0 < 7r/2 .
. '. ¢(O) is monotonic decreasing in 0 < 0 < 7r/2.
So ¢(O) > ¢(O) or, OcosO - sinO < O.
Hence J'(O) < 0 in 0 < 0 < 7r/2.
sinO .
Thus -0- is decreasmg for 0 < 0 < 7r /2.
6.8 Successive Differentiation
Ex. 1 (i) If Y = xn then show that Yn = n!.
(ii) If Y = e
ax
then show that Yn = ane
ax
.
(1
'1'1') If 1 h h h (-1)nn!
Y = -- t en s ow t at Yn = ( ) +1'
x+a x+a
n
(iv) Find Y3, if Y = x
2
10gx.
3x +4
(v) If Y = ( )( )' find (Y5)O.
x - 2 2x + 1
(vi) If Y = sin
2
x show that YlO(O) = 29.
(vii) If Y = ~ 1 ' show that Y5(O) = 5!.
x+
(viii) Ify = 2cosx(sinx - cos x) show that (YlO)O = 210.
(ix) Prove that Y4 + 4y = 0 when Y = e-
x
cos x.
(x) If Y = x
2n
, where n is a positive integer, show that
Yn = 2
n
{1.3.5 ..... (2n -1)}xn.
(xi) If Y = A sin mx + B cos mx, then show that Y2 + m
2
y = O.
(xii) If Y = sin(msin-
1
x), then show that (1- X
2
)Y2 - XYI + m
2
y = O.
(xiii) If Y = easin-l x show that (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI - a
2
y = O.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(xiv) If y = (sin-
I
X)2, find the value of k so that
2 d
2
y dy
(1 - x ) dx
2
- x dx + k = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have y = xn.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get YI = nx
n
-
I
.
Again differentiating w.r.t. x we get Y2 = n(n - l)xn-2.
Similarly, Y3 = n(n - 1)(n - 2)xn-3.
In this way,
Yn = n(n - 1)(n - 2)···2· lx
n
-
n
= n!.x
o
= n!.
(ii) Here y = e
ax
.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get Yl = ae
ax
.
Again differentiating we get Y2 = a
2
e
ax
.
Similarly, Y3 = a
3
e
ax
, Y4 = a
4
e
ax
and so on.
In this way we get Yn = ane
ax
.
1
(iii) We have Y = -- = (x + a)-I.
x+a
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get YI = -(x + a)-2.
Again differentiating
Y2 = (-1)( -2)(x + a)-3 = (_1)2 .2!(x + a)-3.
Similarly, Y3 = (-1)3.3!(x + a)-4, Y4 = (-1)4.4!(x + a)-5.
_ (_)n I( )-(n+1) _ (-I)nn!
Hence Yn - 1 .n. x + a - (x + a)n+1 .
(iv) Given Y = x
2
10g x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
Yl = 2x log x + x
2
. ~ = 2x log x + x.
Again differentiating
Y2 = (2logx + 2 x . ~ ) + 1 = 210gx + 3.
2
Hence Y3 = -.
x
3x + 4 2 1
(v) We have Y = (x _ 2)(2x + 1) = x - 2 - 2x + 1
= 2(x - 2)-1 - (2x + 1)-1.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
Yl = 2(-I)(x - 2)-2 - (-I)(2x + 1)-2.2
Again differentiating we get
Y2 = 2( -1)( -2)(x - 2)-3 - (-1)( -2)(2x + 1)-3.2
2
= 2( -1)2.2!(x - 2)-3 - (-1)2.2!(2x + 1)-3.2
2
6.49
6.50 V.G. (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
_ (_ )2 ,[ 2 _ 22 ]
- 1 .2. (x _ 2)3 (2x + 1)3
. _ (_ )5 ,[ 2 _ 2
5
]
In thIS way, Y5 - 1 .5. (x _ 2)6 (2x + 1)6
[
1 16]
= -240 (x _ 2)6 - (2x + 1)6
[
1 16] 15345
(Y5)O = -240 26 -1 = -4-'
(vi) Here Y = sin
2
x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get Yl :...= 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x.
Again differentiating we get 'Y2 = 2 cos 2x = 2 sin + 2x)
and Y3 = 22 sin + 2x)
In this way YlO = 2
9
sin + 2x)
Hence YIO(O) = 2
9
sin
= 2
9
sin ( 47r + = 2
9
sin = 2
9
.
(
.. ) H x x + 1 - 1 1 () 1
Vll ere Y = -- = = 1 - -- = 1 - 1 + x - .
x+1 x+1 x+1
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get Yl = 0+ (1 +x)-2.
Again differentiating we get Y2 = -2(1 + X)-3.
Similarly, Y3 = 3!(1 + x)-4, Y4 = -4!(1 +.x)-5 and
Y5 = 5!(1 + x)-6.
Hence Y5(0) = 5!.
(viii) Given that Y = 2cosx(sinx - cos x)
= 2 cos x sinx - 2 cos
2
X = sin2x - 2 cos
2
x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
Yl = 2 cos 2x + 2.2 cos x sin x = 2 ( cos 2x + sin 2x).
Again differentiating we get
Y2 = 2(-2sin2x + 2 cos 2x) = 22(-sin2x + cos2x).
= 22 { cos + 2x) + sin + 2x) }.
Similarly, Y3 = 2
3
{ cos + 2x) + sin + 2x) }.
In this way, YIO = 2
10
{ cos + 2x) + sin + 2x)}.
Hence (YlO)O = 210{ cos + sin
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
=210.
(ix) Given that Y = e-
x
cos x.
Differentiating we get Yl = -e-
x
cos x - e-
x
sinx.
Again differentiating
Y2 = (e-
X
cos x + e-
X
sinx) - (_e-
X
sinx + e-
x
cos x)
= 2e-
x
sinx.
Y3 = 2(-e-
X
sinx + e-
x
cos x).
Y4 = 2{(e-
X
sinx - e-
x
cos x) + (-e-
X
cos x - e-
x
sinx)}
= 2( -2e-
x
cos x) = -4y.
Hence Y4 + 4y = O.
(x) Here y = x2n.
Differentiating we get Yl = 2nx2n-l.
Again differentiating Y2 = 2n(2n - 1)x2n-2.
Similarly, Y3 = 2n(2n - 1)(2n - 2)x
2n
-
3
,
Y4 = 2n(2n - 1)(2n - 2)(2n - 3)x
2n
-
4
.
In this way, Yn = 2n(2n - 1)(2n - 2)(2n - 3) ... (n + 1)x
2n
-
n
6.51
2n(2n - 1)(2n - 2)(2n - 3) ... (n + 1)n(n - 1) .. ·2· 1
=
n!
{1.3.5 .... (2n -1)}{2.4.6 .... (2n - 2)2n} n
= x
n!
= ___ {1_.3_.5_._ .. _. n = 2n{1 3 (_ 1)} n
- , X •• 5 .... 2n x .
n.
(xi) Given that Y = Asinmx + B cos mx .
... Yl = mAcosmx - Bmsinmx.
Again differentiating we obtain
Y2 = -m
2
Asinmx - m
2
B cos mx
= -m
2
(Asinmx + B cos mx) = _m
2
y.
or, Y2 + m
2
y = O.
(xii) We have y = sin(m sin-
1
x).
Differentiating we get Yl =.cos(msin-1.x).
v1- x-
or, V'f=X2Yl = m cos(msin-
1
x).
Squaring we get
(1 - = m
2
cos
2
(msin-
1
x)
= m
2
{1 - sin
2
(msin-
1
x)} = m
2
(1- y2).
6.52 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Again differentiating we get
(1 - x
2
)2YIY2 - 2xYr = m
2
( -2YYl)
or, (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI + m
2
y = O.
. -1
(xiii) Here Y = e
asm
x.
a . -1 ay
Differentiating we get Yl = Vf=X2e
asm
x = VI _ x
2
or, (1 - x
2
)yi = a
2
y2 (by squaring)
Again differentiating we get
(1 - x
2
)2YIY2 - 2xyi = a
2
2YYl
or, (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI = a
2
y.
(xiv) Given that Y = (sin-
1
x)2.
1
Differentiating we get Yl = 2(sin-
1
x) ~ .
vI- x
2
or, VI - X
2
Yl = 2 sin-
1
x
or, {I - x
2
)yr = 4(sin-
1
x)2 (by squaring)
or, (1 - x
2
)yi = 4y.
Again differentiating we get
(1 - x
2
)2YIY2 - 2xYt = 4Yl
(1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI - 2 = O.
Comparing with the given equation we get k = -2.
Exercise 1 (i) If Y = cos x( sin x - cos x), show that (YlO)O = 2
9
.
(ii) Prove that (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI = 2 when yY = cos-
1
x.
(iii) If x = acos(},y = bsin(}, then show that Y2 = - b2cosec3(}.
a
(iv) If Y = Ae
mx
+ Be-
mx
, then show that Y2 - m
2
y = O.
d
2
y
Ex. 2 If sinx + cos y = 1, then find dx
2
'
• SOLUTION: We have sin x + cos Y = 1.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
. dy dy cos x
cos x - sm
Y
-
d
= 0 or, -d = -.-.
x x smy
Again differentiating w.r.t. x
- sin x sin y - cos x cos y
sin
2
Y
=
cos(x -y)
sin
2
y
Theorem 1 Leibnitz's theorem: If U and v are two functions of x, then
the nth derivative of their product, that is,
(uv)n ;::= UnV +n C1Un-lVl +n C
2
U
n
-2V2 + ... +n Crun-rv
r
+ ... + UV
n
, where
the suffixes denote the order of differentiation with respect to x.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Q. 1 State Leibnitz's theorem.
Ex. 3 (i) Differentiate n times the equation
(1 + X
2
)Y2 + (2x - l)Yl = o.
(ii) If (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI + m
2
y = 0, then show that
(1 - x2)Yn+2 - (2n + l)xYn+1 + (m
2
- n
2
)Yn = o .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have (1 + X
2
)Y2 + (2x - 1)Yl = o.
Differentiating n times using Leibnitz's theorem we get
{(I + X
2
)Yn+2 +n Cl(2x)Yn+1 +n C
2
(2)Yn}
+{(2x - l)Yn+1 +n C
1
(2)Yn} = 0
(1 + X
2
)Yn+2 + 2nxYn+1 + n ( ~ - l ) .2Yn + (2x - l)Yn+1 + 2nYn = 0
(1 + X
2
)Yn+2 + (2nx + 2x - l)Yn+l + (n
2
-Tl- + 2n)Yn = 0
(1 + X
2
)Yn+2 + {2x(n + 1) -l}yn+1 + n(n + l)Yn = 0
(ii) Given that (1 - X
2
)Y2 - XYI + m
2
y = O.
Differentiating n times using Leibnitz's theorem we get
{(1- x2)Yn+2 +n C
1
(-2x)Yn+l +n C
2
(-2)Yn}
-{xYn+1 +n C
1
(1)Yn} + m
2
Yn = 0
. (1- X
2
)Yn+2 - 2nxYn+1 - n(n
2
-1).2Yn - XYn+1 - nYn + m
2
Yn = 0
(1- X
2
)Yn+2 - 2nxYn+1 - (n
2
- n)Yn - xYn+1 - nYn + m
2
Yn = 0
(1 - X
2
)Yn+2 - (2n + l)xYn+1 - (n
2
- n + n - m
2
)Yn = 0
(1 - X
2
)Yn+2 - (2n + l)xYn+1 + (m
2
- n
2
)Yn = 0
6.9 Partial Differentiation
6.53
au
The first order partial derivative of u = u(x, y) w.r.t. x is denoted by ax or U
x
·
a
2
u
The second order partial derivative of u = u(x, y) is denoted by ax
2
or U
xx
.
au
The first order partial derivative of u = u(x, y) w.r.t. Y is ay or u
y
.
Th d d
. I d· . . a
2
u
e secon or er partla envatlve IS ay2 or U
yy
.
Th
. I d· . f . a
2
u
e partla envatlve 0 U
x
w.r.t. Y IS ayax or uyx ·
The partial derivative of u
y
w.r.t. x is ::;Y or u
xy
·
6.54 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 1 If x = r eos 0, y = r sin 0, does
8x __ 1_7
80 - 80 .
8x
• SOLUTION: We have x = reosO, y = rsinO.
Div-iding we get tan 0 = JL or 0 = tan -1 JL.
x x
Differentiating x = reosO partially w.r.t. 0 we get = -rsinO.
Differentiating 0 = tan-
1
JL partially w.r.t. x we get
x
80
8x
1 r 8x
80 = - sin 0 =1= 80·
8x
Ex. 2 (i) Find fx, fy if f(x, y) = sin-
1

8
2
u 8
2
u
(ii) If u = JXY, find the value of 8x
2
+ 8
y
2.
(iii) Let U = x
Y
, prove that U
xy
= U
yx
at any point (x, y).
(iv) If u = x log y, (y > 0) show that u
xy
= u
yx
.
( ) If f( )
3 xy2 h h 8
2
f 8
2
f
v x, y = x y + e ,s ow t at 8x8y = 8y8x·
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x, y) = sin-1(y/x).
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x we get
fx = J1- ( - :2)
x I ( Y) Y
= J x2 - y2 - x
2
= - x J x2 _ y2 .
Again differentiating partially w.r.t. y we get
1 (1) 1
fy = J1- (y/x)2 -; = Jx2 _ y2·
Ch.O: DIFFERE"'''T'IAL CALCULUS
Hence
8
2
u 8
2
u __ ! ( -3/2 1/2 1/2 -3/2) __ ! x
2
+ y2
8x2 + 8y2 - 4 x Y + x Y - 4 (xy)3/2'
(iii) Given that U = xY.
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x we have
U
x
= yx
y
-
1
.
Again differentiating partially w.r.t. y we get
U
yx
= x
y
-
1
+ y.xy-1logx = xy-1(1 + ylogx).
Similarly, U
y
= x
Y
log x.
U
xy
= yxy-1logx + x y ~ = xy-1(1 + ylogx).
Hence U
xy
= U
yx
,
(iv) We have u = x log y.
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x we get u
x
= log y.
1
Again differentiating partially w.r.t. y we get u
yx
= -.
y
Similarly, u
y
= ~ and u
xy
= !'.
y y
Hence u
xy
= u
yx
.
(v) Here f(x, y) = x
3
y + e
xy2
.
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x and y we get
8f 2 2 2
8x = 3x y + e
XY
.y
~ f 2 2
8y8x = 3x
2
+ (e
xy
.2xy)y2 + e
XY
.2y
= 3x
2
+ e
xy2
(2xy3 + 2y).
Similarly, : ~ = x
3
+ e
xy2
.2xy
8
2
f 2 2 2 2
8x8y = 3x + (e
xy
.y )2xy + e
XY
.2y
= 3x
2
+ e
xy2
(2xy3 + 2y).
6.55
6.56 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 1 Homogeneous function: A function u = f(x, y) is said to be ho-
mogeneous function in x and y if it can be expressed as one of H J following
form:
(i) f(x, y) = xn</J(y/x),
(ii) f(x, y) = yn</J(x/y),
(iii) f(tx, ty) = t
n
f(x, y) for any t,
where n is any number called the degree of the homogeneous function.
Q. 1 Define homogeneous
Ex. 3 (i) Show that 'f(x, y) = tan-
1
J!.. + sin-
1
is a homogeneous func-
x y
tion of x, y. Determine the degree of homogeneity.
(ii) Examine whether f(x, y) = tan J!.. is a function of x, y.
x
If so, find its degree .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Put.ting x = tx and y = ty in f(x, y) = tan-
1
J!.. + sin-
1
we get
x y
f ( )
1 ty . 1 tx 1 Y . 1 X
tx, ty = tan - - + sm - - = tan- - + sm - -
tx ty x Y
= to f(x, y).
Hence fex, y) is a homogeneous function in x and y of degree O.
(ii) Putting x = tx and y = ty we get
f(tx, ty) = (tx)1/3(ty)4/3 tan ty = tl/2t4/3xl/2y4/3 tan J!..
tx x
= t
5
/
3
!(x, y).
Hence f (x, y) is a homogeneous function in x and y of degree
Theorem 1 Euler's theorem on homogeneous functions (for two vari-
abIes): If f (x, y) be a homogeneous function of x and y of degree n and if
af af.
ax and ay eXIst then
af af
x ax + y ay = nf (x, y).
Q. 2 State Euler's theorem on homogeneous functions.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Ex. 4 Verify Euler's theorem for u = ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2.
(
y y2)
• SOLUTION: Here u = ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = x
2
a + 2h; + b x
2
.
i.e., u is a homogeneous function of degree 2.
au au
.. ax = 2ax + 2hy and ay = 2hx + 2by.
au au
Now, x ax + y ay = x(2ax + 2hy) + y(2hx + 2by)
= 2(ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2) = 2u = degree x u.
Hence Euler's theorem is verified
Ex. 5 (i) If f(x, y) = ¥. + ::, show that xfx + yfy = O.
x Y
(ii) If u = rp(y/x), show that xrpx + yrpy = O.
(iii) If u = :: sin(y/x), prove that xaau + y aa
u
= O.
y x Y
(iv) If z = xsin-
1
(y/x) + ytan-
1
(x/y) calculate x ;; + y ~ ; at (1, 1).
x
3
+ 3x
2
y - y3 a f a f
(v) If f(x, y) = 2 2 2 find x-a + y-a .
x + y x y
6.57
. x2 + y2
(VI) If u = JX+Y' (x, y) i= (0,0). What should be the value of k so that
x+y
au au
x- +y- = ku?
ax ay
.. y z x au au au
(vu) If u = - + - + -, prove that x-a + y-a + z-a = O.
z x y x y z
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x, y) = ¥. + ::.
x y
ty tx Y x
Now, f(tx,ty) = - + - = - + - = f(x,y).
tx ty x y
.". f(x,y) is a homogeneous function of degree O. Hence by Euler's
theorem xfx + yfy = O.
(ii) In this problem, u = rp(y/x) = xOrp(y/x) .
(iii)
... u is a homogeneous function of degree O. Hence by Euler's theorem
xU
x
+ YUy = 0 or xrpx + yrpy = O.
We have u(x, y) = :: sin ¥..
y x
( )
tx. ty x. y ( ) ° ( )
... u tx, ty = - sm - = - sm - = u x, y = tux, Y .
ty tx Y x
6.58 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
8u 8u
Hence by Euler's theorem x 8x + y 8y = O.
(iv) Let z(x, y) = x sin-l(y/x) + y tan-l(x/y) .
.". z(tx,ty) = txsin---:l(ty/tx) +tytan-l(tx/ty)
= tx sin-l (y/x) + ty tan-l(x/y) = tlz(x, y).
· '. z is a homogeneous function of degree 1.
Hence by Euler's theorem
8z 8z· . 1 1
X 8x + y 8y = 1.z = xsm- (y/x) + ytan- (x/y)
= 1. sin-
l
(l/l) + 1. tan-
1
(1/1) at (1,1)
1r 1r 31r
="2 + 4 = 4'
(v) Putting x = tx, Y = ty.
t
3
x
3
+ t
3
3x
2
y _ t
3
y3
f (tx, ty) = 2 2 2 2 2
t x + t Y
_ t
l
x
3
+ 3x
2
y - y3 _ tl f( )
- x
2
+ 2y2 - x, y .
.". f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree 1.
· 8 f 8 f .• x
3
+ 3x
2
Y - y3 ,
· . x-
8
+ y-8 = 1.f = 2 2 2 . (by Euler s theorem)
x y x + y
x2 + y2
(vi) Let u(x, y) = ;;;-::c-;;.
yx+y
· u(tx t ) = t
2
x
2
+ t
2
y2 = t
2
(x
2
+ y2) = t3/2u(x ).
· . , y Jtx + ty v'iJx + y ,y
u is a homogeneous function of degree ~ .
· 8u 8u 3
· . x 8x + y 8y = 2
u
(by Euler's theorem)
3
Hence k = 2'
y z z
(vii) Let u(x, y, z) = - + - + -.
z x y
· u(tx ty tz) = ty + tz + tz = ~ + ~ + ~ = tOu(x y z).
· . " tz tx ty z x y , ,
.'. u is a homogeneous function of degree O.
8u 8u 8u
.'. x 8x + y 8y + z 8z = O.u = 0 (by Euler's theorem)
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.59
Exercise 1
. 8f 8f
(1) If U = tan-
1
(y/x) show that x 8x + y 8y = o.
. . 1 X 1 Y 8u 8u
(Ii) If u = sm- - + tan- -, show that x-
8
+ y-8 = o.
y x x Y
(iii) If V = x
2
+ y2 + z2 then show that xVx + yVy + zVz = 2V.
(iv) If u = x
2
y + y2z + z2x , show that U
x
+ u y + U
z
= (x + y + z)2.
-1 Y 8
2
u 8
2
u
Ex. 6 (i) If u = tan -, prove that 8
2
+ 8
2
= O.
X x Y
(ii) If V = (ax+by)2 - (x
2
+y2), where a
2
+b
2
= 2, show that Vxx + Vyy = o.
(iii) If y = f(x + ct) + ¢(x - ct), show that
• SOLUTION:
(i) u = tan-
1
¥...
x
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x twice we get
8u 1 ( y ) y 2 2-1
8x = 1 + (y/x)2 - x2 = - x2 + y2 = -y(x + y )
2 .
8 u 2 2 -2 2xy
8
2 = y(x + y) (2x) = (2 2)2·
X X +y
Again differentiating partially w.r.t. y twice we get
8u 1 ( 1 ) X 2 2 -1
8y = 1 + (y/x)2 ;- = x2 + y2 = x ~ x + y )
8
2
u 2 2 -2 2xy
8
2 = -x(x + y) (2y) = - (2 2)2·
Y x +y
8
2
u 8
2
u
Hence 8y2 + 8y2 = O.
(ii) Given that V = (ax + by)2 - (x
2
+ y2).
Differentiating w.r.t. x twice we get
Vx = 2(ax + by)a - 2x and Vxx = 2a.a - 2 = 2(a
2
- 1).
Similarly, Vy = 2(ax + by)b - 2y and Vyy = 2b.b - 2 = 2(b
2
- 1).
Now, Vxx + Vyy = 2(a
2
- 1) + 2(b
2
- 1)
= 2{(a
2
+ b
2
) - 2} = 2(2 - 2) = O.
6.60 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) We have y = f(x + ct) + ¢(x - ct).
Differentiating partially w.r.t. t we get
8y
8t = cf'(x + ct) - c¢'(x - ct) and
8
2
y
8t
2
= c
2
f"(x + ct) + C
2
¢"(X - ct).
Again differentiating partially w.r.t. x we get
= f'(x + ct) + ¢'(x - ct) and
8
2
y
8x
2
= f"(x + ct) + ¢"(X - ct).
8
2
y 28
2
y
Hence 8t
2
= c 8x
2
'
Theorem 2 Schwarz Theorem: If exists in some neig}lbourhood of
(a, b) and ::;y is continuous at the point (a, b) then :;£x exists at (a, b)
and
at (a, b).
Q. 3 State theorem on partial derivative.
Theorem 3 Young's Theorem: If fx and fy exist in some neighbourhood
Q{ (a, b) and if they are differentiable at (a, b), then
fxy(a, b) = fyx(q" b).
Q. 4 State Young's theorem on partial derivative.
dy fx
Formula 1 If f(x, y) = 0 then'dx = - fy'
Ex. 7 Find in the following cases: (i) x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 = a
2
/
3
,
2 2
(ii) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 = 0, (iii) :2 + :2 = 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let f(x, y) = x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 - a
2
/
3
.
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x and y we get
f
= and f =
x 3 y 3 .
Hence dd
y
= -ffx = - fx=:;: =
x y 3
Y
x
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.61
(ii) Let f(x, y) = ax
2
+ 2hxy + y2.
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x and y we get
fx = 2ax + 2hy and fy = 2hx + 2by.
Hence dy = _ fx = _ 2ax + 2hy = _ ax + hy.
dx fy 2hx + 2by hx + by
2 2
(iii) Let f(x, y) = :2 + ~ - 1.
Differentiating partially w.r. t. x and y we get
2x 2y
fx = a
2
and fy = b
2
'
dy f x 2x b
2
X b
2
Hence - = -- = --.- = --.-
dx fy a
2
2y y a
2
6.10 Mean Value Theorem
Theorem 1 Rolle's Theorem: Let a function f be defined in a :=:; x :=:; b.
Suppose that
(i) f is continuous on a :=:; x :=:; b,
(ii) f is derivable in a < x < b, and
(iii) f(a) = f(b).
Then there exists at least one value of x say c, a < c < b such that j'(c) = O.
Q. 1 State Rolle's theorem.
Ex. 1 Give the geometrical meaning of Rolle's theorem.
• SOLUTION: In any continuous curve which gives same value at x = a and
x = b then at least one point in (a, b) say c has tangent parallel to x-axis. In
the figure the tangents at x = Cl, C2, C3 are parallel to the x-axis.
C3 x=b
Figure: 6.10.1
Theorem 2 Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem (MVT): (First mean
value theorem of differential calculus): Let a function f be defined in a :=:;
x :=:; b. Suppose that
6.62 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(i) f is continuous on a ::; x ::; b, and
(ii) f is derivable in a < x < b.
Then there exists at least one value of x say c, a < c < b such that
f(b) - na) = f'(c) for a < c < b.
b-a
Q. 2 State Lagrange's mean value theorem.
Ex. 2 What is the geometrical interpretation of mean value theorem?
• SOLUTION:
Let us consider the function y = f (x)
shown in the adjacent figure. From the
figure we have
f (b) - f (a) = B M and b - a = AM.
h £
f(b) - f(a) BM
T ere are b _ a = AM·
But by mean value theorem,
f(b) - f(a) = f'(c).
b-a
Hence f'(c) = tan LBAM.
y
(b, f(b))
B
A
x
o
c
Thus we see that at some point c within (a, b), the tangent to the curve
y = f(x) is parallel to the chord AB, which is also obvious from the figure.
Therefore we can say that this theorem asserts that there is some point C
between A and B where the tangent is parallel to the chord AB, provided that
the curve y = f (x) has tangent at every point between A and B and this is
geometrically obvious.
Theorem 3 Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem: If two functions f and 9
(i) be both continuous on a ::; x ::; b,
(ii) are derivable in a < x < b, and
(iii) g'(x) i= 0 for any value of x in a < x < b.
Then there exists at least one value of x say c, a < c < b such that
f(b) - f(a) f'(c)
g(b) _ g(a) = g'(c) for a < c < b.
Q. 3 State Cauchy's mean value theorem.
Note 1 Lagrange' MVT may be deduced as a particular case for g(x) = x.
Note 2 Cauchy's MVT cannot be deduced by applying Lagrange's MVT sep-
arately to the two functions and then dividing them. That is, by applying
Lagrange's MVT to f(x) and g(x) we get
f(b) - f(a)
g(b) - g(a)
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.63
where el and e2 may not be equaL
Ex. 3 What is the geometrical (physical) interpretation of Cauchy's MVT ?
• SOLUTION: The Cauchy's MVT may be written as
feb) - f(a)
b-a fl(e)
g(b) - g(a) = gl(e)'
b-a
Hence, the ratio of the mean rates of increases of two functions in an interval
is equal to the ratio of the actual rates of increases of the functions at some
point within the interval.
Ex. 4 Deduce Lagrange's mean value theorem from the Cauchy's mean value
theorem.
• SOLUTION: The Cauchy's MVT for the functions f(x) and g(x), in the
interval [a, b], is
feb) - f(a) fl(e)
g(b) _ g(a) = gl(e) , a < e < b.
Substitute g(x) = x to the above relation we obtain,
feb) - f(a) = J'(e), a < e < b,
b-a
. which is the required Lagrange's MVT.
Ex. 5 Deduce from Cauchy's MVT
b
feb) - f(a) = eJ'(e) log -, a < e < b,
a
where f(x) is continuous and differentiable in (a,b).
• SOLUTION: The Cauchy's MVT for the function f(x) and g(x) in the
interval ( a, b) is
feb) - f(a) f'(e)
g(b) _ g(a) = gl(e) , a < e < b.
Let g(x) = logx. Then gl(X) = .!.
x
The above relation becomes
i.e.,
where a < e < b.
feb) - f(a) = f'(e) , a < e < b,
logb-loga lie
feb) - f(a) = eJ'(e) log!:,
a
'j{)·i U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
TIH'nrem 4 Second mean value theorem: If f'(x) is continuous in the
, 1U;-I" \ lnt(')'vrtl [a, a + h] and f"(x) exists in the open interval (a, a + h), then
h
2
f«1 -+- h) = f(a) + hf'(a) + 2 f"(a + Oh), 0 < 0 < 1.
Q. 4 State second mean value theorem.
Ex. 6 (i) Is Rolle's theorem applicable to the function f(x) = Ixl in the
interval -1 ::; x ::; 1 ?
(ii) Verify Rolle's theorem for f(x) = sin:r; cos x in 0::; x::; 7r/2 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The function f(x) = Ixl is continuous' on -1 ::; x ::; 1 but is not derivable
in -1 < x < 1 (f'(O) does not eXIst). Hence Rolle's theorem is not
applicable on -1 :'S x ::; 1.
(ii) Here f(x) = sin x cos x = ~ sin2x.
Obviously, f (x) is continuous on 0 ::; x ::; 7r /2 and derivable in 0 < x <
7r/2 (f'(x) = cos2x).
Also f(O) = 0 = f(7r/2).
Hence Rolle's theorem is applicable on 0 ::; x ::; 7r /2.
7r 7r
Now, f'(e) = cos 2e. By Rolle's theorem, cos 2e = 0 or, 2e = '2 or, e = 4'
lies between 0 ::; x ::; fr /2. Hence the Rolle's theorem is verified.
':x. 7 (i) Is the mean value theorem applicable to f(x) = x
2
+ 3x + 2 in
1::;x::;2?
(ii) VArify Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem for f(x) = x
2
in -1 ::; x ::; 1.
L.rION:
(i') Obvionsly, the function f(x) is continuous on 1 ::; x ::; 2 and derivable
in 1 < :I: <: :2 (as f'(x) = 2x + 3).
Hence MVT is applicable to f(x).
(ii) The function f (x) = x
2
is continuous on -1 ::; x ::; 1 and derivable (as
f'ex) = 2x) in -1 < x < 1. Thus MVT is applicable on -1 ::; x ::; 1.
Now, f(l) - f( -1) = {I - (-I)} f'(e), -1 < c < 1.
or, 1 - 1 = 2f'(e) or, f'ee) = 0 or, 2e = 0 or, C = 0, which lies in
-1 < x < 1.
Hence MVT is verified.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.65
Ex. 8 (i) Find the value of 0 in the Mean Value Theorem
f(a + h) = f(a) + hf'(a + Oh), if a = 1, h = 3 and f(x) = .Jr.
(ii) In the mean value theorem f(x + h) = f(x) + hf'(x + eh), show that if
f(x) = Ax
2
+ Bx + C, A =I- 0, then 0 = ~ .
(iii) If f(x) = x
2
, cjJ(x) = x then find 1, value of c in terms of a and b ill
Cauchy's Mean Value theorem .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x) = ..jX. J'(x) = 1;;;;.
2yx
Since f(a + h) = f(a) + hf'(a + Oh)
thenVa+h=va+h. 1
2Va +Oh
1 1
or, J4 = VI + 3. VI+3B or, 1 = 3. vIf+3O
2 1 + 30 2 1 + 30
395
or, VI + 30 = 2" or, 1 + 30 = 4 or, 0 = 12'
(ii) We have f(x) = Ax
2
+ Bx + C .
. '. f'(x) = 2Ax + B.
From MVT we have, f(x + h) = f(x) + hf'(x + Oh)
or, A( x + h)2 + B (x + h) + C
= Ax
2
+ Bx + C + h{2A(x + Oh) + B}
or, Ax
2
+ 2Axh + Ah2 + Bx + Bh + C
= Ax
2
+ Bx + C + 2hAx + 2AOh
2
+ Bh
1
or, Ah2 = 2AOh
2
or, 20 = 1 or, 0 = -.
2
(iii) Here f(x) = x
2
, cjJ(x) = x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get f'(x) = 2x and cjJ'(x) = l.
, f(b) - f(a) f'(c)
By Cauchy s MVT, cjJ(b) _ cjJ(a) = cjJ'(c)' a < c < b.
b
2
- a
2
2c b + a
or, b _ a = T or c = -2 -.
Ex. 9 Show that x < tanx in 0 < x < 7r/2 .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = tanx. J'(x) = sec
2
x.
By Lagrange's MVT, f(x) = f(O) + xf'(Ox), 0 < 0 < l.
tanx
or, tan x = 0 + x sec
2
Ox or, -- = sec
2
Ox
x
or cos
2
Ox = _x_.
tanx
x
Since cos Ox < 1 in 0 < x < 7r/2, -- < 1 01", X < tanx.
tanx
6.66 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 10 If i + + e = ° then show that e is a root of the equation ax
2
-t bx +
e = 0, where 0< e < 1.
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = jx3 + + ex.
Then f'(x) = ax
2
+ bx + e.
The function f(x) is a polynomial of degree 3, so it is continuous and
differentiable every where and also in (0, 1). Also, f(O) = f(l) = 0 by the
given condition.
Thus f(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem, therefore, by Rolle's
theorem there exists at least one value of x, say, e, 0 < e < 1, f'(e) = o.
Thus, ae + be + e = 0, i.e., e is a root of the equation ax
2
+ bx + e = 0,
O<e<1.
Ex. 11 Use Lagrange's MVT to prove that
b - a -1 -1 b - a
1 + b2 < tan b - tan a < 1 + a
2
' if 0 < a < b .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = tan-
1
x. Then for 0 < a < x < b,
') 1
f (x = 1 + x2
'
Applying the MVT to f(x), in the interval (a, b), we get
= = f'(e), for a < e < b
tan-
1
b - tan-
1
a 1
or, b = -1 2' for a < e < b.
-a +e
But, a < e < b or, 1 + a
2
< 1 + e
2
< 1 + b
2
,
. 1 1 1
I.e., -1 2 > -1 2 > -1 b2'
+a +c +
Therefore,
1 tan-
1
b - tan-
1
a 1
--< <--
I + b
2
b - a 1 + a
2
'
i.e.,
b - a '-1 -1 b - a
1 + b2 < tan b - tan a < 1 + a
2

CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.67
Theorem 5 General mean value theorem: Taylor's theorem:
If f(x) is a real valued function of x such that its derivatives up to r-1(x)
are all continuous in a :::; x :::; a + hand fn(x) exists in a < x < a + h, then
. h
2
h
n
-
1
h
n
f(a + h) = f(a) + hj'(a) + 2f fl/(a) + ... + (n _ 1)! r-l(a) + n! fn(a + (}h),
where 0 < (}"< 1.
Q. 5 State Taylor's theorem.
Note 3 The Taylor's theorem can be written in the interval [0, xl as
x
2
x
n
-
1
xn
f(x) = f(O)+xj'(O)+2f 1"(0)+·· .+ (n _ 1)! r-1(0)+ n! r((}x), 0 < () < 1.
This finite series is obtain by sUbstituting a = 0 and h = x. This series is
also known as Maclaurin's finite series and the last term is ca:led remainder
term (due to Lagrange).
Note 4 If the remainder term vanishes for a particular values of x E I then
the above series becomes
x
2
x
n
-
1
f(x) = f(O) + x!,(O) + 2f 1"(0) + ... + (n _ 1)! r-l(O) + . ", 0 < () < 1.
This infinite series is known as Maclaurin's infinite series and it is valid for
the values of x E I. This series is also used to expand a function as an infinite
series in powers of x.
Ex. 12 Find an infinite series for the function eX.
• SOLUTION:
f(x) = eX
I'(x) = eX
I"'(x) = eX
fiv(x) = eX
Let f(x) = eX. Then
1'(0) = 1
1"(0) = 1
f,I/(O) = 1
fiv(O) = 1 and so on.
Then by Maclaurin's infinite series we have
2 3 4
/(x) = /(0) + x/'(O) + ~ ! 1"(0) + ~ ! /111(0) + ~ ! /iv(O) + ...
x
2
x
3
x4
= 1 + x.l + 21.
1
+ 31.
1
+ 4!.1 + ".
x
2
x
3
x4
= l+x+2f+3!+4f+'"
Exercise 1 Find the infinite series for the functions (i) log(1 + x), (ii) sinx
and (iii) cos x.
6.68 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
6.11 Maximum and Minimum
Formula 1 If c be a point within the domain of definition of f (x), and if
f'{c) = 0 and 1"{c) i= 0, then f{c) is a maximum if 1"{c) < 0 and a minimum
if 1"{c) > o.
Ex. 1 (i) Show that the function 2x
3
- 21x2 + 36x + 125 is maximum at
x=1.
(ii) Show that the function x
3
- 3x
2
+ 6x + 3 does not possess any maximum
or minimum value.
(iii) Show that f(x) = x
3
- 6x
2
+ 24x + 4 has neither a maximum nor a
minimum.
(iv) Show that f(x) = Ixl has minimum at x = o.
(v) Show that the maximum value of x + .!. is less than its minimum value.
x
(vi) Show that the largest rectangle with a given perimeter is a square.
(vii) Show that the maximum rectangle inscribable in a circle is a square .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let f(x) = 2x
3
- 21x2 + 36x + 125 .
... f'{x) = 6x
2
- 42x + 36 = 6{x
2
- 7x + 6).
At extrema f'{x) = 0, giving 6{x
2
- 7x + 6) = 0
or, x
2
- 7x + 6 = 0 or, (x - 6)(x - 1) = 0 or, x = 1,6.
Again 1"{x) = 6{2x - 7) .
... 1"(1) = 6{ -5) = -30 < o.
Hence f (x) is maximum at x = 1.
(ii) Let f{x) = x
3
- 3x
2
+ 6x + 3 .
.. f'{x) = 3x
2
- 6x + 6 = 3{x
2
- 2x + 2).
At extrema f'{x) = 0, giving 3{x
2
- 2x + 2) = 0
_ 2 ± v'4=8 _ 2 ± 2i _ 1 .
or, x - 2 - 2 - ± t.
This shows that l' (x) i= 0 for any real x. Hence f (x) does not possess
any maximum or minimum value.
(iii) Let f{x) = x
3
- 6x
2
+ 24x + 4 .
... 1'{x) = 3x
2
- 12x + 24 = 3{x
2
- 4x + 8).
At extrema f'{x) = 0, giving 3{x
2
- 4x + 8) = 0
4 ± }16 - 32
or, x = 2 = 2 ± 2i.
Thus x has no real value. Hence f{x) has neither maximum value nor
minimum value.
CH.6: DIFFERKFTIAL CALCULUS 6.69
(iv) The function f(x) = Ixl is always positive for all real values of x. The
minimum value of Ixl is 0 when x = o.
Hence f(x) is minimum at x = o.
(v) Let f(x) = x +! .. '. J'(x) = 1 - ~ .
x x
At extrema J'(x) = 0
1
or, 1 - 2 = 0 or, x = ± l.
x
I/() 2
Now, f x = 3.
x
1"(1) = 2 > o .
... f(x) is minimum at x = 1 and minimum value is f(l) = 2.
1"( -1) = -2 < O.
Thus f(x) is maximum at x = -1 and maximum value is f( -1) = -2.
Hence the maximum value is less than its minimum value.
(vi) Let a, b be the sides of a rectangle. Then its perimeter is 2(a + b) = 2k
(say), k is constant, and its area is A = abo
A = ab = a(k - a) = ak - a
2
.
dA
Now, da = k - 2a.
At maxima dA = 0 or, k - 2a = 0 or, a = k/2.
da
d
2
A
Also, da
2
= -2 < O.
Hence A is maximum at a = k /2 and b = k /2.
As a = b = k/2, the largest rectangle is a square.
(vii) Let a, b be the sides of a rectangle which is inscribed in a circle of radius r.
The diagonal of the rectangle is J a
2
+ b
2
which is equal to the diameter.
Ja
2
+ b
2
= 2r or, a
2
+ b
2
= 4r2.
Area of rectangle is A = abo
or A2 = a
2
b
2
= a
2
(4r2 _ a
2
) = 4r
2
a
2
- a
4
.
dA2
Now, da = 8r
2
a - 4a
3
.
dA
At extrema - = 0 or, 8r
2
a - 4a
3
= 0
da
or, a
2
= 2r2 or, a = r..j2 .
.. b
2
= 4r2 - a
2
= 4r2 - 2r2 = 2r2 or, b = rV2.
That is, a = b = r..j2. Henr.:e the largest rectangle is a square.
6.70 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 2 Let 1 be defined in the closed interval [a, b] and a < c < b. Does
I'(c) = 0 always imply the existence of an extrema of 1 at x = c? Justify your
answer .
• SOLUTION: f'(c) = 0 does not always imply,. is an extreme point.
For example, if I(x) = x
3
- 6x
2
+ 12x - 3, then I'(x) = 3x
2
-12x + 12 = 0
at x = 2.
But I"(x) = 6x - 12 = 0 at x = 2 and 1"(2) = 0, 1"'(2) = 6 -=I O.
Hence 1'(2) = 0 but x = 2 is not an extreme point.
Ex. 3 Show by an example that a maximum value of a function at a point
may be even less than the minimum value at another point .
• SOLUTION: Let I(x) = x +.!. .... J'(x) = 1 - -\-.
x x
At extrema f'(x) = 0
1
or 1 - "2 = 0 or, x = ± l.
x
" 2
Now, 1 (x) = 3'
x
... 1"(1) = 2 > O.
Thus I(x) is minimum at x = 1 and minimum value is 1(1) = 2.
1"( -1) = -2 < O.
So I(x) is maximum at x = -1 and maximum value is 1(-1) = -2.
Hence the maximum value is less than its minimum value.
6.12 Tangent and Normal
Formula 1 (i) Equation of the tangent of the curve I(x, Y) = 0 at the
point (Xl> YI) is
(ii) Equation of the normal of the curve I(x, Y) = 0 at the point (Xl, YI) is
Ex. 1 (i) Find the equation of the tangent at the point (J = 1r /3 of the curve
X = .J3 sin (J, y = 2 cos (J ,
(ii) Find the equation of tangent at (J = ~ to the curve X = 5 sin (J, y =
6 cos (J,
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
6.71
(iii) Show that the abscissae of the points on the curve y = x(x - 2)(x - 4}
2
where tangents are parallel to the axis of x are given by x = 2 ± v'3'
(iv) Find the equation of the tangents at origin of the curve (x
2
+ y2)2 =
4(x2 _ y2) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given curve is x = v'3sinO,y = 2cosO .
. dx r.; dy .
. . dO = v 3 cos 0 and dO = =2 8m O.
Thus dy = dy. dO = _ . 2 sin
0
= _ tan O.
dx dO dx v'3 cos 0 v'3
7r r.; . 7r r.; v'3 3
At 0 = 3'x = V3S1U
3
= v3'
2
= 2'
7r 1
Y = 2 cos 3' = 2. 2 = 1 and
dy = = = = -2.
dx v'3 v'3 3 v'3
Hence the equation of the tangent at 0 = i is
y -1 = -2(x - 3/2) or, y - 1 = -2x + 3 or, y + 2x = 4.
(ii) Here x = 5 sin 0, y = 6 cos O.
w.r.t. 0 we get
dx dy
dO = 5cosO and dO = -6sinO.
. dy = _ 6 sin 0 = _ tan O .
. . dx 5cosO 5
7r 7r 7r
At 0 = -2' x = 5 sin - = 5, y = 6 cos - = 0 and
2 2
dy dx
dx = 00 or dy = O.
The equation of tangent at is
or, x - 5 = O.
(iii) We have y = x(x - 2)(x - 4) .
.'. = (x - 2)(x - 4) + x(x - 4) + x(x - 2).
6.72 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
If the tangents are parallel to x-axis, ~ ~ = 0 giving
(x - 2)(x - 4) + x(x - 4) + x(x - 2) = 0,
or, x
2
- 6x + 8 + x
2
- 4x + x
2
- 2x = 0 or, 3x
2
- 12x + 8 = 0
12 ± )144 - 4.3.8 12 ± 4V3 2
or, x = 6 = 6 = 2 ± V3'
(iv) Let Y = mx be the tangents at the origin. Putting Y = mx to the given
curve we get
(x
2
+ m
2
x
2
)2 = 4(x
2
- m
2
x
2
) or, x
2
(1 + m
2
)2 = 4(1 - m
2
).
Since y = mx touches the curve, the values of x should be equal.
Hence 1 - m
2
= 0 or, m = ±1.
Thus the required equation of the tangents are y = ±x.
y
Figure: 6.12.1
Formula 2 (i) Cartesian subtangent= TM = ycot1/J = Y/Yl'
(ii) Cartesian subnormal= M N = Y tan 1/J = Y.Yl.
(iii) Length of normal = PN = ysec1/J ~ yJ1 + Yr.
(iv) Length of tangent = PT = ycosec 1/J = (Y J 1 + yi) / Yl·
de
(v) Polar subtangent = r2 dr'
dr
(vi) Polar subnormal = de'
Ex. 2 (i) For the curve r = eO, show that the polar subtangent=the polar
subnormal.
(ii) Find the length of the polar subtangent for the curve r = a(1 + cos e) at
e=7r/2.
(iii) Show that the length of the cartesian subtangent of the curve Y = e-
x
/
2
is 2 units.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.73
• SOLUTION:
(1
·)"D h (J dr (J
ror t e curve r = e , dO = e = r.
dO 1 dr
polar subtangent = r2 dr = r
2
.;: = r and polar subnormal = dO = r.
Hence they are equal.
(ii) Here r = a(l + cos 0) .. ·. = -a sin O.
The polar subtangent
dO 1 a
2
(1 + 0)2
= r2 - = a
2
(1 +- cos 0)2 = --''-----'--
dr ' -asinO -a.1
(at 0 = 7r/2)
= -a.
(
iii) Given that y = e-
x
/
2
. . dy = .
. . dx 2
y e-
x
/
2
The cartesian subtangent = - = 1 _ /2 = -2.
Yl -2e x
Hence the length of cartesian subtangent is 2 units.
Ex. 3 Write the condition that the two curve, f(x, y) = 0 and ¢(x, y) = 0 cut
orthogonally .
• SOLUTION· The gradient of the curve I(x, y) = 0 is
dy Ix f h ().
ml = dx = - Iy and that 0 t e curve ¢ x, y = 0 IS
dy ¢x
m2= _. =--.
dx ¢y
If they cut orthogonally, mlm2 = -1 or, - - :: = -1
or, Ix¢x + Iy¢y = 0, which is the required condition.
Formula 3 If ¢ be the angle between the tangent and radius vector at any
point on the curve r = I (0). then
(i) p=rsin¢.
1 dr
(ii) cot ¢ = ;: dO.
o
x
Figure: 6.12.2
6.74 U.G: MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 4 With usual notations prove that p = r sin ¢.
• SOLUTION: From the above figure we see that ~ ~ = sin¢ or, ~ = sin¢ or,
p = rsin¢.
Ex. 5 Show that for log r = aO + b, p ex r.
• SOLUTION: Differentiating log r = aO + b w.r.t. 0 we get
I dr [ . I dr ]
_;: dO = a or, cot ¢ = a smce;: dO = cot ¢
I
. P = r sin <p = r .
. . VI + a
2
. '" 1
or, sln¥,= v'1+a
2
.
Hence p ex r.
Ex. 6 (i) Obtain the pedal equation of the curve r = ae
8
.
(ii) Find the pedal equation of the curve r2 = cos 20.
(iii) Find the pedal equation of r = a(1 + cos 0).
(iv) Find the pedal equation of the curve r = aO.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Taking logarithm both sides we get log r = log a + O.
Differentiating w.r.t. 0 we get
I dr
;: dO = I or, cot ¢ = I
7r 7r
or, cot¢ = cot 4 or, ¢ = 4·
N
.",.7r r
ow, p = r sln ¥' = r Sln 4 = v'2
or, 2p2 = r2, which is the required pedal equation.
(ii) Taking logarithm on r2 = cos 20, we have 2 log r = log cos 20.
D
.
cc
.. 21 dr 2sin20
11.lerentlatmg we get - dO = - 0 '
r COS 2
or, cot ¢ = - tan 20 = cot ( ~ + 20 )
7r
or, ¢ ="2 + 20.
Now, P = rsin ( ~ + 20) = rcos20
or, p = r.r2 or, p = r3.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(iii) Given curve is r = a(l + cos (9),
or, logr = Jog a + log(l + cos(9).
Differentiating we get
1 dr = sin /9 = _ 2 sin /9 /2 cos /9 /2 = _ tan /9/2,
r d/9 1 + cos /9 2 cos
2
/9 /2
or, cot <p = cot ( ~ + ~ )
7T /9
or, <p = 2" + 2·
N
. (7T (9) /9
ow, p = r sm 2" +"2 = r cos "2
From the given curve, r = a(l + cos (9) = 2a cos
2
/9 /2
or, .!..- = cos
2
19/2.
2a
(iv) Here r = a/9 .
. dr 1 dr a
. . d/9 = a or, ;: d/9 = ;:. .
,J.. a .,J.. r
or, cot '(J = - or, sln '(J = -_-;::::;; ,;===;<,
r va
2
+ r2
The pedal equation is p = r sin <p = r. _ / r
va
2
+ r2
Exercise 1 (i) Find the pedal equation of the curve r = eO.
(ii) Find the pedal equation of the curve r = ae
Ocot
0:.
(iii) Find the pedal equation of r(l - cos (9) = 8.
(iv) Find the pedal equation of the curve r = a/e.
6.13 Asymptotes
6.75
Def. 1 Asymptotes: If a point P on a branch of a curve extending beyond
the finite region, and a straight line exists at a finite distance from the origin
from which the distance of P gradually decreases and ultimately tends to zero
as P -+ 00 (along the curve), then such a straight line is called an asymptotes
of the curve.
6.76 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 1 Define asymptotes.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the asymptotes of the curve xy = 1.
(ii) Find the asymptotes of the curve x
2
y2 = a
2
(x
2
+ y2).
(iii) Find the asymptotes of the curve xy - 3x - 4y = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The possible asymptotes are parallel to x = 0, y = O. The asymptote
parallel to x = 0 is obtain by equating the coefficient of highest available
power of y to zero.
i.e., x = o.
Similarly, the asymptote parallel to y = 0 is y = O.
Hence the asymptotes are x = 0, y = O.
(ii) The highest degree term is x
2
y2.
The possible asymptotes are :
two parallei to x = 0 and two parallel to y = 0 (since the power of x and
yare 2).
Asymptotes parallel to x = 0 is obtain by equating the coefficient of
highest available power of y to zero, i.e., x
2
- a
2
= 0 or, x = ±a.
Similarly, the asymptotes parallel to y = 0 are y = ±a.
Hence the asymptotes are x = ±a, y = ±a.
(iii) Here the highest degree term is xy.
The possible asymptotes are :
one parallel to x = 0 and one parallel to y = O.
Asymptotes parallel to x = 0 is given by equating the coefficient of
highest available power of y to zero, i.e., x - 4 = O.
Similarly, the other asymptotes is y - 3 = O .
. '. the asymptotes are x - 4 = 0, y - 3 = O.
Formula 1 If an algebraic curve is of the form Fn + F
n
-
2
= 0 and there is no
repeated factor in Fn then the asymptotes of the curve is given by Fn = O.
Ex. 2 (i) Find the asym'ptotes of the curve x
2
- y2 = 16.
(ii) Find the asymptotes of the curve xy2 - yx
2
= X + y + 1.
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.77
• SOLUTION:
(i) The curve is of the form F2 + Fo = 0 where F2 = x
2
- y2 = (x - y)(x +
y), Fo = -16 and there is no repeated factors in F
2
.
Hence the asymptotes are given by F2 = 0
or, (x - y) (x + y) = 0 or, y = ±x.
(ii) The highest degree terms are xy2 - yx
2
= xy(y - x). The curve is of the
form F3 +Fl = 0 where F3 = xy2 - yx
2
= xy(y - x),F
1
= -(x +y + 1)
and there is no repeated factor in F3.
Hence the asymptotes are given by F3 = 0 or, xy(y - x) = 0 or, x =
O,y = O,y = x.
Ex. 3 x + y = c is an asymptote of the curve y = I (x). Explain the statement.
• SOLUTION: The straight line x + y = c will be an asymptote of the curve
y = I(x) if the distance of the point P(x, y) from the straight x + y = c tends
to zero as x -; 00.
Exercise 1 (i) Find the asymptotes of the hyperbola x
2
- 4y2 = l.
x2 y2
(ii) Find the asymptotes of 16 - 9" = l.
(iii) Find the asymptotes of the curve xy - 3x - 2y = o.
[AIlS. (i) x = ±2y, (ii) ~ = ± ~ , (iii) x - 2 = 0, y - 3 = 0.]
6.14 Envelope
Formula 1 If the curve I (x, y, a) = 0 is a quadratic equation of the parameter
a then its envelope is given by discriminant = O.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the envelope of the family of straight lines x = my + aim,
where m is the parameter.
(ii) Find the envelope of the family of straight lines y = mx + va
2
m
2
+ b
2
-,
where m is the parameter.
(iii) Find the envelope of x cos a + y sina = a, where a is the parameter.
(iv) Find the envelope of (x - a)2 + y2 - 4a = 0, where a is the parameter.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given equation can be written as mx = m
2
y+a or, m
2
y-mx+a = 0,
which is a quadratic equation of the parameter m. Hence its envelope is
x
2
- 4ya = 0 or, x
2
= 4ay.
6.78 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) We have y = mx + va
2
m
2
+ b
2
.
01. (y - mx)2 = a
2
m
2
+ b
2
or, y2 + m
2
x
2
- 2mxy = a
2
m
2
+ b
2
or, m
2
(x
2
- a
2
) - 2mxy + (y2 - b
2
) = O.
This is a quadratic equation of the parameter m and its envelope is
4x
2
y2 - 4(x
2
- a
2
)(y2 - b
2
) = 0
or, x
2
y2 - (x
2
y2 - a
2
y2 - b
2
x
2
+ a
2
b
2
) = 0
or, a
2
y2 + b
2
x
2
= a
2
b
2
x2 y2
or, a
2
+ b
2
= 1.
(iii) Given that x cos 0: + Y sin 0: = a.
or, x cos 0: = a - y SIn 0:.
Squaring we get x
2
cos
2
0: = a
2
- 2ay sin 0: + y2 sin
2
0:
or, y2 sin
2
0: - 2aysino: - x
2
(1 - sin
2
0:) + a
2
= 0
or, (y2 + x
2
) sin
2
0: - 2ay sin 0: + (a
2
- x
2
) = 0,
which is a quadratic equation of sin 0: and it is the parameter .
. '. the envelope is 4a
2
y2 - 4(x
2
+ y2)(a
2
- x
2
) = 0
or, a
2
y2 - (a
2
x
2
+ a
2
y2 - x4 - x
2
y2) = 0
or, x4 + x
2
y2 - a
2
x
2
= 0
or, x
2
+ y2 = a
2
.
(iv) We have (x - a)2 + y2 - 4a = O.
or, x
2
- 2ax + a
2
+ y2 - 4a = O.
or, a
2
- a(2x + 4) + (x
2
+ y2) = O.
This is a quadratic equation of the parameter a and its envelope is (2x +
4)2 - 4.1.(x
2
+ y2) = 0
or, (x + 2)2 - (x
2
+ y2) = 0
or, x
2
+ 4x + 4 - x
2
- y2 = 0 or, y2 = 4 ( ~ + 1).
Exercise 1 (i) Find the envelope of y = mx + aim, where m is the param-
eter.
(ii) Find the envelope of A0:2 + Bo: + C = 0, where 0: is the parameter, and
A, Band C are constants.
(iii) Find the envelope of the system of parabolas Ax2 + A2y = 1, A being the
parameter.
[Ans. (i) y2 = 4ax, (ii) B2 = 4AC, (iii) x4 + 4y = 0.]
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 6.79
,
6.15 Radius of Curvature
Def. 1 Curvature: The curvature is the rate of change of direction of the
curve with respect to the arc.
Def. 2 Radius of curvature: The reciprocal of the curvature is the radius
of curvature. Generally it is denoted by p.
Q. 1 (i) Define curvature.
(ii) Define radius of curvature.
Formula 1 (i) For the intrinsic curve s = f('IjJ), the radius of curvature
. ds
IS P = d'IjJ'
(ii) The radius of curvature of the cartesian equation y = f(x) is
(1 + yi)3/2
-'----'-=---, provided Y2 =I O.
Y2
(iii) The radius of curvature of the parametric equation x = </J(t), y = 'IjJ(t)
IS
(
12+ 1 2 ) ~
X Y 2 'd d ( '" I ").../..
P = '" I " provl e x y - y X ;- 0,
x y - y X
I dx I dy
where x = dt' y = dt'
(iv) The radius of curvature of the polar equation r = f(B) is
(r2 + r 2 ) ~
p _ 1
- r2 + 2rr - rr2 '
dr d
2
r
where rl = dB' r2 = dB2'
(v) The radius of curvature of the pedal equation p = f(r) is
dr
p = r dp'
Ex. 1 (i) Find the radius of curvature at any point (s, 'IjJ) on the curve
s = 4a sin 'IjJ.
(ii) Find the radius of curvature of s = a sec 'IjJ + a log(sec 'IjJ + tan 'IjJ) at any
position 'IjJ.
6.80 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Find the radius of curvature at the origin on the curve Y = x
3
- 2x2 + 7x.
(iv) Show that the radius of curvature at the point (3, 4) on the curve xy = 4.
(v) Show that the radius of curvature at the point (1, 1) on the curve x4 +
Y
4 = 2 is J2
, 3·
(vi) Prove that the radius of curvature at any point of a circle is constant.
(vii) Find the radius of curvature at any point of the curve x = a cos 0, y =
asinO.
(viii) Find the radius of curvature at any point (r,O) for the curve r = a cos O.
(ix) Find the radius of curvature at any point (p, r) for the curve r2 = 2ap.
(x) Find the radius of curvature of the curve whose pedal equation is p2 = 5r .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given curve is s = 4a sin,p.
Differentiating w.r.t. ,p, we have
ds
d,p = 4a cos,p.
. the radius of curvature is p = : ~ = 4a cos,p.
(ii) Given curve is s = a sec,p + a log (sec ,p + tan,p).
ds 1
d

l
• = a sec,p. tan,p +a.,p ,p. sec ,p(sec,p + tan,p)
'I' sec + tan
= asec,p(1 + tan,p).
ds
Hence p = d,p = asec,p(1 + tan,p).
(iii) Here y = x
3
- 2x2 + 7x.
Differentiating twice w.r.t. x.
Yl = 3x
2
- 4x + 7 and Y2 = 6x - 4.
At the origin, Yl = 7, Y2 = -4.
(1 + yn
3
/
2
(1 + 49)3/2
p=
Y2 -4
(5J2)3 125.2J2
= =---
-4
125
Hence p = J2.
-4
CH.6: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(iv) We have xy = 4 Of, Y = 4/x.
.48
.. YI = - - and Y2 = -3'
x
2
x
At (3, 4),
4 8
YI = - 9" and Y2 = 27'
· = (1 + 16/81)3/2 = (97)3/2 X 27 = 97V97
.. P 8/27 81 8 216'
(v) Here x4 + y4 = 2. Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
x
3
4x
3
+ 4
y
3
YI
= 0 Of, YI = -3"
Y
Again differentiating we get,
3x
2
y3 - x
3
.3y2YI
Y2=- y6
3x
2
y
3 _ x
3
.3
y
2( -x3 /y3)
=
y6
=
At (1, 1), YI = -I, Y2 = -6.
· (1 + (1 + 1)3/2 2J2
p- - --
.. - Y2 - -6 - -6'
S
. . J2
mce p never negative, P = 3'
(vi) Let the equation of a circle be x
2
+ y2 = a
2
.
Differentiating we get 2x + 2YYI = 0 or, YI = -x/V.
Again differentiating we get
1.y - X.YI Y - x( -x/V)
Y2 = - y2 y2 =
· (1 + (1 + x
2
/y2)3/2
p- -
.. - Y2 - _a
2
/y3
(x2 + y2)3/2 y3 (a2)3/2
x - = - = -a,
y3 a2 a2
where a is constant.
Hence the radius of curvature of a circle is constant.
(vii) Here x = a cos e, y = a sin e.
Differentiating x and y w.r.t. e we get
x' = -asine,y' = acose.
Again differentiating, x" = -a cos e, y" = -a sin O.
6.81
6.82 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
. (X/2 + y/2)3/2
.. P = X'y" - y'x"
(a
2
sin
2
B + a
2
cos
2
B)3/2
- (-a sin B) ( -a sin B) - (a cos B) ( -a cos B)
(a
2
)3/2 a
3
- - --a
- a
2
(sin
2
B + cos
2
B) - a
2
- .
(viii) Given that r = acosB.
Differentiating twice w.r.t. B, we get
rl = -asinB,r2 = -acosB.
(r2 + r
2
)3/2
Hence p = 1
r2 + 2rr - rr2
(a
2
cos
2
B + a
2
sin
2
B)3/2 a
3
a
= a
2
cos
2
B + 2a
2
sin
2
B + a
2
cos
2
B - 2a
2
= 2'
(ix) The given equation is r2 = 2ap.
Differentiating w.r.t. p we get
dr dr
2r dp = 2a or, r dp = a.
dr
Hence p = r dp = a.
(x) Here p2 = 5r or, r = p2/5.
D
'
a
.. dr 2p
luerentlatmg w.r.t. p we get dp = S'
dr 2p p2 2p 2
p
3
Hence p= r- = r.- = -.- =-.
dp 5 5 5 25
Exercise 1 (i) Find the radius of curvature at any point (s, 'l/J) on the curve
s = a'l/J.
(ii) Find the radius of curvature at the point (3, 4) on the curve xy = 12.
(iii) Find the radius of curvature at x = 7r /2 on the curve y = 4 sin x - sin 2x.
(iv) Find the radius of curvature at any point of the curve x = a cos ¢, y =
bsin¢.
(v) Find the radius of curvature at any point of the curve x = at
2
, y = 2at.
(vi) Find the radius of curvature at any point (r, B) for the curve r = aB.
(vii) Find the radius of curvature at any point (p, r) for the curve p = r sin o.
[A (
.) (") 125 ("') ~ (. ) (a
2
sin
2
1jJ+b
2
cos
2
1jJ)3/2 ( ) 2 (1 + t
2
)3/2
ns. 1 a, 11 24' III 4' IV ab ,va,
a(1+6
2
\3/2
(vi) 2+62 ,( vii) s i n ~ Q.J
Ch. 711 Integral Calculus
7.1 Integration
7.1.1 Indefinite integration
Some standard integrals
f
xn+l ( )
xn dx = n+l n -=1= -1
f emX,- dx = e::z;
f
ax dx = (a > 0)
log a
f sin mx dx = - c0"mmx
f cos mx dx = sin:x
f sec
2
mx dx = tanmmx
f cosec 2mx dx = _
f sec mx tan mx dx =
f cosec mx cot mx dx = _ mx
f sinh mx dx = mx
f cosh mx dx = mx
f sech 2mx dx =
f cosech 2mx dx = _ mx
f sech mx tanh mx dx = - mx
fsecx dx = logltan(i +
f dx = log Ix I
f sin x dx = - cos x
f cos x dx = sin x
f sec
2
x dx = tan x
f cosec 2 x dx = - cot x
J sec x tan x dx = sec x
f cosec x cot x dx = -cosec x
f sinh x dx = cosh x
f cosh x dx = sinhx
f sech 2x dx = tanh x
f cosech 2x dx = - cothx
f sech x tanh x dx = -sech x
f cosec x dx = log I tan
/
cosechmx
cosech mx coth mx dx = - m
/ cosech x coth x dx = -cosech x
/
dx = sin-
1
x or - cos-
1
x, Ixl < 1
V1-x2
7.2 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

= tan-Ix or -cot-Ix
1 +x
2
!
= sinh-Ix
1 +x
2
!
= COSh-lx, Ixl > 1
± x
2
-1
!
= tanh-
1
x, Ixl < 1 or coth-
1
x, Ixl > 1
I-x
!
= sec-
1
:1' or - cosec -lx, Ixl > 1
x x
2
-1
!
dx 1 -1 ;c
x 2 + a2 = t.an
!
2dx
x - a 2a x + a a a
!
2dx 2
a - x 2a a - x a a
!
vi dx = log Ix + Jx2 + a
2
1 = sinh-
l
::
x
2
+ a
2
a
!
vi dx 2 = log Ix + Jx2 - a
2
1 = cosh-
l
::, Ixl > lal
x
2
- a a
!
dx 2 = sin-
l
::, Ixl > lal
vla
2
- x a
!
x a
2
Jx
2
+a
2
dx= -Jx2+a
2
+-loglx+Jx2+a
2
1
2 2
2
x./2 a. IX
=-yx +a
2
+-smh--
2 2 a
!
x a
2
Jx2 - a
2
dx = -Jx
2
- a
2
- -log Ix + Jx
2
- a
2
1
2 2
x a
2
x
= -J.r2 - a
2
- - cosh-
l
-
2 2 a
!
x a
2
x
Ja
2
- x
2
dx = -Ja
2
- x
2
+ -sin-
l
-
2 2 a
f
ax b d ax a cos bx + b sin bx
e cos x x = e. a
2
+ b
2
f
ax . b d ax a sin bx - b cos bx
e 8m x x = e. a
2
+ b
2
Ex. 1 Obtain the formula for J uv dx, where u, v are both differential func-
tions of x.
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS 7.3
• SOLUTION: We know ~ ( u V ) = du V + u dd
V
' Multiplying both sides by
dx dx x
dx and integrating we get,
I
I
d' I dV
or, d(uV) = d:V dx + u dx dx
or, UV=ldUVdx+ludV dx
dx dx
Putting V = J v dx, the above equation becomes
u I v dx = I (:: I v dX) dx + I uv dx
[As V = J v dx or, v = ~ ~ J
or, I uvdx = u I vdx - J ( ~ : J vdx) dx.
Ex. 2 Integrate the following:
C) J dx d
I J3x + 4 + J3x + 10 x,
(
.. ) I cos x d
11. x,
smx + cos x
(
... ) I x
2
+ 1
III (x
2
_ 1)2 dx,
. I dx
(IV) x(x + 1)'
(v) 11 + ~ sin x cos x dx .
smx + cos x
• SOLUTION:
(i)
I
dx
J3x + 4 + J3x + 10
= I J3x + 4 - J3x + 10 d
(J3x + 4 + J3x + 10)( J3x + 4 - J3x + 10) x
= I J3x + 4 - J3x + 10 d
(3:r + 4) - (3x + 10) x
= - ~ I {(3x + 4)1/2 - (3x + 1O)1/2} dx
= _! [! (3x + 4)3/2 _! (3x + 10)3/2] C
6 3 3/2 3 3/2 +
= - ~ ~ [(3x + 4)3/2 - (3x + 10)3/2] + C
= - 2
1
7 [(3x + 4)3/2 - (3x + 10)3/2] + c,
7.4 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
c is constant of integration.
(ii)
/
cos x d
. x
smx + cos:!'
= ! / (sinx + cos x) + (cos x - sinx) dx
2 sinx + cos x
= ! / (1 + x - sin X) dx
2 smx + cos x
= ! [/ dx + / x + cos x)]
2 smx + cos x
+ log(sinx + cos x)] + c,
c is constant of integration.
... / x
2
+ 1 / x
2
+ 1
(m) (x2 _ 1)2 dx = (x _ 1):l(x + 1)2 dx
_! / { 1 + 1 } dx
- 2 (x - 1)2 (x + 1)2
= / {(x - 1)-2 + (x + 1)-2} dx
_!{(X-1)-1 (X+1)-1}
- 2 -1 + -1 + c
= _!{_1_'+ _1_} +c
2 x-I x+1
x
= -1--
2
+c,
-x
c is constant of integration.
(iv) / X(X
d
:1) = /[t- X:1]dX=logX-lo
g
(1+X)+C
x
= log--1 +c,
x+
c is constant of integration.
(v) / 1 2 sin x cos x dx = / + cosx)2 dx
smx + cos x smx + cos x
= J(sinx + cos x) dx
= - cos x + sin x + c,
c is constant of integration.
Ex. 3 Integrate the following:
(i) J x
2
e
x3
dx,
(iii) J sin
3
x cos
2
x dx,
(v) J xa
x2
dx,
(ii) J cos
3
B dB,
(iv) J sin 2x cos
2
2x dx,
(vi) ! 2 cos x dx,
cos2x
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
(
")! dx
VB (;;,
X+yX
(
... ) ! tan log x d
VB} x,
. / dx
(u) ,
(1 + x
2
)vtan-
1
x + c
X
(x) ! 1 + c ~ s x dx,
x+smx /
e2x
(xi) --1 dx,
eX +
(
.. ) / dx
XB ,
eX + e-
X
... ! e
X
(1 +x)
(XlII) 2() dx.
cos xe
X
• SOLUTION:
(i) Putting x
3
= z. 3x
2
dx = dz.
2
3 d 1 1 13
J x eX dx = J e
Z
3
z
= - J e
Z
dz = - e
Z
+ c = - eX + c,
333
c is constant of integration.
(ii) J cos
3
0 dO = J cos
2
0 cos 0 dO = J(1 - sin
2
0) cos 0 dO
= J(1- z2) dz
[where z = sin 0 and dz = cos 0 dO]
z3 sin
3
0
= z - - + c = sin 0 - --+ c,
·33
c is constant of integration.
(iii) J sin
3
x cos
2
x dx = J sin
2
x cos
2
x sin x dx
= J (1 - cos
2
x) cos
2
x sin x dx
Putting cos x = z, ,', sinxdx = dz.
Then the given integrand becomes
z5 z3
J(1 - z2)z2( -dz) = J(z4 - z2) dz = 5" - 3 + c
cos
5
x sin
3
x
= -5- - -3-+
c
,
c is constant of integration.
(iv) Putting cos2x = z, Then -2 sin2x dx = dz.
1 1 z3
J sin 2x cos
2
2x dx = J - - z2 dz = - - - + c
2 2 3
1
= - 6" cos
3
2x + c,
c is constant of integration.
(v) Putting x
2
= Z • . '. 2xdx = dz.
2
1 1 a
Z
1 aX
. J xa
x2
dx = - J a
Z
dz = - -- + c = - -- + c,
2 2 log a 2 log a
c is constant of integration.
7.5
7.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(vi) J 2 cos x dx = J 2 cos x dx
cos 2x 1 - 2 sin
2
x
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
Putting sinx = z. '. cosxdx = dz.
Then the given integral becomes
J
2dz J (1 1) d
1 - 2z2 = 1 - J2z + 1 + J2z z
1 1
- J2
log
11 - v'2zl + J2log 11 + v'2zl + C
1 1 11 + J2zl
- og +C
J2 1- J2z
1 1 \1 + J2sinxl
= - og +C
J2 1- J2sinx
C is constant of integration.
Putting 1 + vx = z. Then 1;;;;- dx = dz.
. 2yx
. I dx J dx J 2 dz
. . x + vx = vx(1 + vx) = -z-
= 2 log Izl + C = 2log(1 + vx) +.c,
C is constant of integration.
Putting log x = z. Then .!.dx = dz.
x
J
tan log x
x dx = I tanz dz = log sec z + c = log sec (log x) + c,
c is constant of integration.
Putting tan-
1
x + c = z2. . _1_2 dx = 2z dz.
.. l+x
!
dx = ! 2z dz = 2 I dz = 2z + Cl
(1 + x
2
)vtan-
f
.r + c z
= 2vtan-
1
x + c + CI,
Cl is constant of integration.
(x) Putting x + sinx = z . . '. (1 + cos x) dx = dz.
!
1 + cos x ! dz .
--.-dx = - = log Izl + C = log Ix + slllxl + c,
x + SlllX Z
C is constant of integration.
(xi) Putting eX + 1 = z . . '. eX dx = dz.
!
~ dx = ! eo" .e
x
dx = ! (z - 1) dz
eX + 1 eX + 1 z
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
= ! (1 - ~ ) dz = z - log Iz I + c
= (eX + 1) - log( eX + 1) + c,
c is constant of integration.
7.7
(xii)
!
dx =! 2 eX 1 dx (multiplying numerator and denominator by
eX + e-
X
e X +
eX)
Putting eX = z . . '. eX dx = dz.
Then! dx =! _2
dz
= tan-
1
z + c = tan-
1
(e
X
) + c,
eX + e-
X
z + 1
c is constant of integration.
(xiii) Putting xe
x
= z. Then (eX + xe
X
) dx = dz
or, eX(x + 1) dx = dz.
. ! eX (1 + x) dx = ! ~ = f sec
2
z dz
.. cos
2
(xe
X
) cos
2
z
= tanz + c = tan(xe
X
) + c,
c is constant of integration.
Ex. 4 Integrate the following:
(i) f log x dx, (ii) f x log x dx,
(iii) f xe
x
dx, (iv) f tan-
1
x dx .
• SOLUTION:
( i) f log x dx = f 1. log x dx = log x f 1.dx - f{ 1x (log x). f 1.dx }dx
= logx.x - f ~ . x d x = xlogx - f dx = xlogx - x + c,
c is constant of integration.
(ii) f x log x dx = log x f x dx - f {1x (log x) f x} dx
I
x2 f 1 x2 d x2 I f X d
= og x. 2" - x' 2" x = 2" og x - 2" x
= ~ 2 log x - x4
2
+ c, c is constant of integration.
(iii) f xe
x
dx = x f eX dx - f{1. f eX dx} dx
= xe
x
- f eX dx = :re
x
- eX + c, c is constant of integration.
(iv) f tan-
1
x dx = f 1. tan-
1
xdx
= tan·-
1
x ! 1.dx - ! {:x (tan-
1
x) ! 1.dx }dx
= x tan -1 x - / _1_x dx = x tan -1 x _ ~ ! 2x dx
1 + x
2
2 1 + x
2
= x tan-
1
x _ ~ ! d(1 + x
2
)
2 1 + x
2
7.8 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
1
= x tan-l x - "2log(1 + x
2
) + c,
c is constant of integration.
Ex. 5 If f'(x) = 0 for every point in the closed interval [a, bJ then show that
f (x) is constant throughout the interval.
• SOLUTION: Integrating f'(x) = 0 we get I f'(x)dx = IO.dx within [a,b].
or, f(x) = c within [a, b].
7.1.2 Definite integration
Theorem 1 Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus:
If (i) I: f(x) dx exists and
(ii) there exists a function 4>( x) such that 4>' (x) = f (x) in a ::; x ::; b, then
I: f(x) dx = 4>(b) - 4>(a).
Q. 1 State the fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus.
Ex. 1 Give the geometrical meaning of I: f(x) dx ..
• SOLUTION: I: f(x) dx is the area of the region bounded by x-axis, the curve
Y = f (x) and the straight lines x = a, x = b.
Ex. 2 Does Ii f(x) dx = Ii g(x) dx always imply f(x) = g(x) ? Justify your
answer.
• SOLUTION: I: f(x) dx = I: g(x) dx does not always imply f(x) = g(x).
For example, let a = 0, b = 1, f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 3x
2

Now, Il f(x) dx = 10
1
2xdx = 1 and 10
1
g(x) dx = Il3x
2
dx = 1.
i.e., 10
1
f(x) dx = 10
1
g(x) dx but f(x) = 2x -:F 3x
2
= g(x).
Some usefull formulae on definite integrals
I. I: f(x) dx = I: f(z) d;;.
II. I: f (x) dx = - Ib
a
f (x) dx.
III. I: f(x) dx = O.
IV. loa f(x) dx = I; f(a - x) dx.
V. loa f(x)dx = 2 Io
a
/
2
f(a - x)dx, if f(a - x) = f(x).
VI. Ii
a
f(x) dx = 2 loa f(x) dx, if f(a + x) = f(x).
CR. 7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
VII. f(x) dx = 2 I; f(x) dx, if f( -x) = f(x)
i.e., f(x) is even function.
VIII. f(x) dx = 0, if f( -x) = - f(x) i.e., f(x) is odd function.
7.9
Ex. 3 (i) What do you mean by an odd function of x ? If f(x) is an odd
function of x, prove that ra f(x) dx = O.
(ii) Prove that = 2 loa f(x)dx, if f(x) = f(-x).
(iii) If f(x) = f(a + x) then prove that
f3a fa
10 f(x) dx = 3 10 f(x) dx .
• SOLUTION:
(i) A function f(x) is called odd function if f( -x) = - f(x).
Now, f(x) dx = f(x) dx + I; f(x) dx
Putting x. = -y in the first integral.
.'. dx = -dy and when x = 0 then y = 0 and when x = -a then y = a .
.". = f(-y) (-dy) + loa f(x)dx
= - I; f(y) dy + loa f(x) dx (since f(x) is odd function)
= - I; f(x) dx + I; f(x) dx (changing the variable y to x)
= O.
(ii) f(x) dx = f(x) dx + I; f(x) dx.
Putting x = -y in the first integral.
.'. dx = -dy and when x = 0 then y = 0 and when x = -a then y = a.
f(x) dx = f( -y) (-dy) + loa f(x) dx
= I; f( -y) dy + I; f(x) dx
= loa f( -x) dx + loa f(x) dx (changing the variable y to x)
= I; f(x) dx + I; f(x) dx [since f( -x) = f(x)]
= 2 loa f (x) dx.
(iii) L.H.S. = f(x) dx = loa f(x) dx + I;a f(x) dx + 12
3
a
a
f(x) dx.
Now we consider the integral I;a f (x) dx.
Putting x = a + y. Then dx = dy and when x = a then y = 0 and when
x = 2a then y = a .
. '. I;a f(x) dx = I; f(a + y) dy = I; f(y) dy
[since f (x) = f (a + x)]
Similarly, Iiaa f(x) dx = loa f(y + 2a) dy = loa f(y) dy
7.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
= It f(x) dx
[since f(y + 2a) = f(y + a + a) = f(a + y) = f(y)}
Hence I;a f(x) dx = It f(x) dx + It f(x) dx + loa f(x) dx
= 3 loa f(x) dx.
Ex. 4 Prove that
(i) loa f(x) dx = loa f(a - x) dx,
(ii) I: f(a + b - x) dx = I: f(x) dx,
(iii) I ~ a ¢(x
2
) dx = 2 loa ¢(x
2
) dx,
(iv) I ~ a x¢(x
2
) dx = 0,
(v) 1;/2 sin
2
x dx = 1;/2 cos
2
X dx .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Putting x = a - y. Then dx = -dy and when x = a, y = 0 and when
x = O,y = a .
... loa f(x) dx = I ~ f(a - y)( -dy) = It f(a - y) dy
= It f(a - x) dx (changing y to x)
(ii) Putting a + b - x = z. Then -dx = dz and when x = a then z = band
when x = b then z = a .
... I: f(a+b-x) dx = fb f(z)( -dz) = I: f(z) dz = I: f(x) dx (changing
z to x).
(iii) Here ¢( x
2
) is an even function as ¢{( - x )
2
} = ¢( x
2
).
Hence I ~ a ¢( x
2
) dx = 2 It ¢( x
2
) dx.
(iv) The integrand x¢(x
2
) is an odd function as
(-x)¢{( -x)2} = -x¢(x
2
).
Hence I ~ a x¢(x
2
) dx = O.
(v) 1;/2 sin
2
xdx = 1011"/2 sin
2
(7r/2 - x) dx
[Using the prperty It f(x) dx = It f(a - x) dx]
= 1011"/2 cos
2
X dx
Ex. 5 Show that
(i) I; x¢(sinx) dx = ~ 1; ¢(sinx) dx,
(
... ) 11/2 1 I-x d 0
III -1/2 cos X og l+x x = ,
(v) J ~ l l e
1xl
dx = 2(e - 1),
(ii) I01l"/21ogtanx dx = 0,
(iv) I : ~ ~ 2 sinx dx = 0,
CR,7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let 1 = 10'11" x¢(sinx) dx = Io'll"(7r - x)¢(sin(7r - x)) dx
[using I; f(x) dx = loa f(a - x) dx]
= Io'll"(7r - x)¢(sinx) dx
= 7r 10'11" ¢(sin.T)dx - I; x¢(sinx)dx
= 7r I; ¢( sin ;r) dx - 1
or, 2I = 7r I; ¢(sin x) dx
or, 1 = ~ I; ¢(sinx) dx.
(ii) Let 1 = 1;/2 log tan x dx = 1;/2 log tan(7r /2 - x) dx
[using I; f(x) dx = loa f(a - x) dx]
= I; /2 log cot x dx = - 10'11"/2 log tan x dx = -1
or, 21 = 0 or, 1 = 0 or, 10'11"/2 log tan x dx = O.
(iii) Let f(x) = cos'X log 1- x.
, l+x
, () ) l+x
Now, f -x = cos( - ~ ;log 1 _ x
(
I-x) I-x
= cos.r - log ;--1 = - cos x log --
, +x l+x
= - f(x).
i.e., f(x, is an odd function.
/
1/2 . 1- x
Hence 'cos x log --dx = O.
-1/2 1 + x
(iv) Let f(x) = sinx .
. '. f(-x) = sin(-x) = -sinx = -f(x).
i.e., f(x) is an odd function.
Hence /'11"/2 sin x dx = O.
-'11"/2
(v) Here the function e
lxl
is an even function .
. '. I ~ l e
lxl
dx = 2 Ii e
1xl
dx = 2 Ii eX dx = 2[e
X
]fi = 2(e - 1).
(vi) Io'll"/2(a
2
cos
2
x + b
2
sin
2
x) dx = Io'll"/2(a
2
- a
2
sin
2
x + b
2
sin
2
x) dx
= 10'11"/2 {a
2
+ (b
2
- a
2
) sin
2
x} dx
= 10'11"/2 {a
2
+ (b
2
- a
2
H(1- cos 2x)} dx
= 10'11"/2 {a
2
+ !(b
2
- a
2
) - !(b
2
- a
2
) cos 2x} dx
7.11
7.12 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
= + a2)x _ _ a
2
)Sin22X ]:/2
= + a
2
)I - - = i(a
2
+ b
2
).
Ex. 6 Evaluate the following:
(i) fo271" I cos xl dx,
10
71" /2 sin x - cos x
(ii) . dx,
o 1 + SIll X cos X
10
71"/2 sinx
(iii) . ax,
o SIll X + cos x
r/
4
(iv) 10 loge(1 + tanO) dO,
(v) r
b
loge x dx,
la X f
a 4
(vi) -a xe
x
dx.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The function cos x is positive in 0 to 7r /2 and 37r /2 to 27r and negative
in 7r /2 to 37r /2.
r
2
71"
, " 10 I cos x I dx
10
71"/2 1371"/2 1271"
= I cos x I dx + I cos x I dx + I cos x I dx
o 71"/2 371"/2
1
IT /2 1
3
71" /2 1271"
= cos x dx + ( - cos x) dx + cos x dx
o 71"/2 371"/2
= [sin x] 71" /2 _ [sin x] 371" /2 + [sin x] 271"
o 71"/2 371"/2
= sin 7r /2 - (sin 37r /2 - sin 7r /2) + (sin 27r - sin 37r /2)
= 1 - (-1 - 1) + (0 - (-1)) = 4.
In
71" /2 sin x - cos x
(ii) Let 1 = dx
o 1 + sin x cos x
1
71"/2 sin(7r/2 - x) - cos(7r/2 - x)
= dx
o 1 + sin(7r/2 - x) cos(7r/2 - x)
1
71" /2 cos.r - sin x
= dx
o 1 + sin x cos x
10
71" /2 sin x - cos x
= - dx =-1
o 1 + sin x cos x
or, 21 = 0 or 1 = 0,
1
71"/2 sinx
(iii) Let 1 = , dx
o SIll X + cos x
1
71" /2 s'in( 7r /2 - x)
= dx
o sin( 7r /2 - x) + cos( 7r /2 - x)
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS 7.13
1n
7r/2 cos x
= dx
o sinx + cos x
1n
7r /2 sin x 1n7r /2 cos x
21=1+1= . dx+ . dx
. . 0 sm x + cos x 0 sm x' + cos X
1n
7r /2 sin x + cos X 1n7r /2 7r
= dx = dx =-
o sin x + cos x 0 2
7r
or, 1 = 4'
r/4
(iv) Let 1 = 10 log(l + tanB)dB
r/
4
= 10 log{1+tan(7r/4-0)}dB
r/
4
( 1 - tanB)
= 10 log 1 + 1 + tan B dB
= r/
4
10
{(I + tan B) + (1 - tan B)} dB
10 g 1 + tanB
10
7r
/
4
2
= log ( ) dB
o 1 + tanB
r/
4
r/4
= log 2 10 dB - 10 log(l + tan B) dB
7r
= log2'
4
- 1
7r 7r
or, 21 = 4 log 2 or, 1 = 8" log 2.
(v) Putting log x = z. .'. ~ dx = dz and when x = a, z = log a and when
x = b, Z = log b .
. lb log x 1
10gb
[Z2]IOgb
--dx= zdz=-
.. a x. loga 2 loga
1 1
= 2'(log2 b -log2 a) = 2'(log b - log a) (log b + log a)
= ~ log ( ~ ) log(a.b)
(vi) Let f(x) = xe
x4
• Then f(-x) = _xe
x4
= -f(x).
Hence f(x) is an odd function. Thus I:a xe
x4
dx = O.
Ex. 7 (i) Evaluate J ~ l f(x) dx where f(x) = x + lxi,
(ii) If f(x) = Ix - 11, evaluate Kf f(x) dx,
(iii) Evaluate J2
4
f(x) dx where f(x) = Ix - 21 + Ix - 31,
7.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Find the value of Ii 11 - xl dx .
• SOLUTION:
(i) f(x) dx = (;r + Ixl) dx = X dx + Ixl dx.
Here x is an odd function and Ixl is an even function.
I 1 f (x) dx = 0 + 2 IOI I x I dx = 2 Ii x dx
X2] 1 1
=2[20=2'2=1.
(ii) I02 f{x) dx = Ii Ix - 11 dx = I011x - 11 dx + I121x - 11 dx
= Ii -(.r - 1) dx + I12(x - 1) dx
= [- x
2
2
+x]: + [x22 -x]:
= [-! + 1] + [(! - 2) - (! - 1)]
= ! + (0 + !) = 1.
(iii) I24 f(x) dx = I24(lx - 21 + Ix - 31) dx
= I24 I x - 21 dx + I24 I x - 31 dx
= I24(x - 2) dx + Ii Ix - 31 dx + I3
4
1x - 31 dx
= I24(x - 2) dx + I
2
3
-(x - 3) dx + I3
4
(X - 3) dx
[
x2 ] 4 [X2 ] 3, x
2
4
= 2" - 2x 2 + - 2" + 3x 2 + [2" - 3x] 3
= 2 + 4) - (4 - = 3.
(iv) Ii 11 - xl dx = IOI 11 - xl dx + I1211 - xl dx
= Ii(1- x) dx + If -(1- x) dx
x
2
1 x
2
2
=[x-
2
]0+[-x+
2
L
= + [(-2 + 2) - ( -1 + = 1.
Ex. 8 (i) Evaluate lim [_1_+_1_+ ...
n--+oo n + 1 n + 2 2n
[
1
5
+ 2
5
+ 3
5
+ ... + n
5
]
(ii) Evaluate lim 6 .
n-+oo n
(iii) Evaluate lim _1_ + ...
n--+oo n n + 1 2n
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
• SOLUTION:
(i) lim [_1_ + _1_ + ... +
n-+oo n + 1 n + 2 2n
n 1
= lim '"'--
n + r
r=1
1
· 1 n l' 1 L:
n
1
= 1m Im-
n-+oo n r=1 n + r n-+oo n r=11 + rln
00 1 10
1
1
= limh --= --dx
h-+O ?; 1 + rh 0 1 + x
= [log(l + x)16 = log 2.
lim [1
5
+2
5
+3
5
+ ... +n
5
] = lim = lim
n-+oo n
6
n-+oo n
6
n-+oo n n
r=1 r=1
(ii)
00 101 x
6
1 1
= lim h L:(rhl = x
5
dx = [-] =-.
h-+O r=1 0 6 0 6
(1
'1'1') l' [1 1· 1 ] l' L:
n
1
1m -+--+ ... +- =, 1m --
n-+oo n n + 1 2n n-+oo n + r
r=O
1
· 1 n l' 1 1 l' h 1

n-+oo n r=O n + r n-+oo n r=O 1 + r In h-+O r=O 1 + rh
= [1 _1_ dx = [log(l + x)16 = log 2.
io 1 + x
Ex. 9 (i) If f'(x) = e·r(sinx - cosx) and f(O) = 1, find f(x),
(ii) If f'(x) = eX (sin x + cos x) and f(O) = 0 then find f(x) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have f'(x) = eX(sinx - cos x).
Integrating we get
f (x) = f eX (sin x - cos x) dx
= f eX sinxdx - f eX cosxdx
= eX f sin x dx - f (eX f sin x dx) dx - f eX cos x dx
= _ex cos x + f eX cos x dx - f eX cos x dx
= _ex cos x + c,
where c is arbitrary constant.
Given that f(O) = 1. .'. 1 = -eo cos 0 + c
or, 1 = -1 + c or, c = 2.
Hence f(x) = 2 - eX cos x.
7.15
7.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Here f'ex) = eX(sinx + cos x).
Integrating we get
f (x) = J eX (sin x + cos x) dx = J eX sin x dx + J eX cos x dx
= eX J sin x dx - J (eX J sin x dx) dx + J eX cos x dx
= - eX cos x + 2 J eX cos x dx
X X cos x + sin x
= -e cos x + 2.e . 2 + c,
= _ex cos x + eX (cos x + sinx) + c = eX sinx + c,
where c is constant.
Given that f(O) = O .... 0 = 0 + cor, c = O.
Thus f(x) = eX sinx.
Exercise 1 Evaluate the following integrals:
(i) [21 Ixl dx, (ii) [11 Ixl dx,
(iii) joo (iv) [11 e
1xI
dx,
-00 1 + x
(v) j7r/2 sin
7
0dO, (vi) f0211- xl dx,
-7r/2 io
(
.. ) j7r /2 X cos x d
Vll 2 x,
-7r/2 2 sin x + 3 cos
2
X
(
... ) ysmx d
10
7r / 2
Vlll x,
o Jsinx + Jcosx
(
.) x smx d
j
2 2·
IX 6 12 x,
-2 x +
(X) If f(x) is an odd function show that f(x) dx = O.
[Ans. (i) 5/2, (ii) 1, (iii) 71", (iv) 2(e - 1), (v) 0, (vi) 1, (vii) 0, (viii) 71"/4,
(ix) 0.]
Exercise 2
. . 1k + 2k + 3
k
+ ... + n
k
(1) Evaluate: hm k+l ,k > O.
n
1
10
+ 2
10
+ 3
10
+ ... + n
lO
(ii) Evaluate: lim 11
n
[Ans. (i) (ii) A·]
CR.7: INTEGRAL CALCUI,US 7.17
7.2 Beta and Gamma Functions
Def. 1 Gamma Function: The gamma function is denoted by r(n) and is
defined as r(n) = Io
oo
e-
x
x
n
-
1
dx, n > O.
Q. 1 Define gamma function.
Def. 2 Beta Function: The beta function is denoted by B(m, n) and is
defined as B(m, n) = Io1 xm-1(1 - x)n-1 dx, m, n > O.
Q. 2 Define beta function.
Some usefull properties:
I. r(n + 1) = nr(n), n > 0
II. r(l) = 1
III. r(n + 1) = n!, n being a positive integer
IV. B(m,n) = B(n,m), m,n > 0
V. B(m, n) = 2 I
0
1l'/2 sin
2m
-
1
e cos
2
n-
1
e de, m, n > 0
r/2. 1 (p+1 q+1) 1 r ( ~ ) r ( ~ )
VI. io smPBcos
q
Bde="2
B
-2-' -2- ="2 r(p+i+
2
) ,p,q >-1
VII. B(1/2, 1/2) = 7r
VIII. B(m, n) = ~ ~ : ) : ( : j
IX. r(1/2) = .fi
7r
X. r(n)r(l - n) = -. -, 0 < n < 1.
smn7r
Ex. 1 (i) Prove that r(1) = 1.
(ii) Prove that r(n + 1) = nr(n).
(iii) If n is a positive integer then prove that r(n + 1) = n!.
7r
(iv) Find r(1/2) from the relation r(n)r(l - n) = -.-.
smn7r
(v) Assuming r(1/2) = .fi find the value of r(5/2).
. 2
(VI) Prove that r(1/3)r(2/3) = y'37r.
(vii) If B(m, n) = Ii x
m
-
1
(1- x)n-1 dx, (m, n > 0), show that B(1/2, 1/2) =
7r.
(viii) Assuming r(1/2) = .fi, find the value of Io
oo
e-
x2
dx .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We know r(n) = 10
00
e-
x
x
n
-
1
dx .
... r(l) = 10
00
e-
x
dx = [-e-X]o = 0 + eO = 1.
7.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) f(n + 1) = 10
00
e-xx
n
dx
= [Xn! - 10
00
n(-e-
X
)x
n
-
1
dx
= [-xne-X]OO + n 10
00
e-
x
x
n
-
1
dx
= 0 + nr(n) = nf(n).
(iii) We know f(n + 1) = nf(n) = n(n - 1)f(n - 1)
= n(n - 1)(n - 2)f(n - 2).
In this way, if n is an integer then
r(n + 1) = n(n - l)(n - 2)··· f(1) = n! as f(1) = 1.
(iv) We have r(n)r(1 - n) =
smn7r
Putting n = ! f(!)f(!) = 7r = = 7r
2' 2 2 sin 7r /2 1
or, 2 = 7r or, = y'1T.
(v) r(5/2) = r(3/2 + 1) = !r(3/2)
= !f(1/2 + 1)'= = iV1i.
[as r(1/2) = V1i.]
(vi) We know r(n)f(1 - n) =
smn7r
Putting n = 1/3.
7r
Then f(1/3)r(1 - 1/3) = sin 7r /3
7r 27r
or, r(1/3)r(2/3) = fr) = fr)'
v 3/2 v 3
(vii) Given that B(m, n) = 10
1
x
m
-
1
(1 - x)n-1 dx.
Putting m = n = 1/2, we get
B(1/2, 1/2) = 10
1
x-
1
/
2
(1 - X)-1/2 dx.
Putting x = sin
2
O. Then dx = 2 sin 0 cos 0 dO.
When x = 0 then 0 = 0 and when x = 1 then 0 = 7r/2.
1
7r/2 1
.'. B(1/2, 1/2) = . 0 0. 2 sin 0 cos 0 dO
o sm cos
r/
2
7r
= 2 io dO = 2'2 = 7r.
(viii) Putting x
2
= z or, x = Vz· Then dx = 2Jz dz.
When x = 0 then:; = 0 and when x --+ 00 then z --+ 00.
CR.7: INTEGRA 0ALCULUS
10
00 2 10
00
1
.'. e-
x
dx = r:;e-
z
dz
o 0 2yZ
= - e-
z
z
1
/
2
-
1
dz = -r(1/2) = -.Jii,
11
00
1 1
2 0 2 2
Ex. 2 Show that B(m, n) = B(n, m) .
• SOLUTION: We know B(m, n) = fol x
m
-
1
(1- xt-
1
dx.
Putting x = 1 - y. Then dx = -dy.
When x = 0 then y = 1 and when x::;:: 1 then y = o .
. '. B(m, n) = 1
0
(1 - y)m-l(l - 1 + yt-
1
(-dy)
= fol yn-l(l - y)m-l dy = B(n, m).
Ex. 3 Evaluate the following integrals:
(i), fOI x
2
(1 - x)3/2 dx,
(ii) fOI x
3
(1 - x)3 dx,
(iii) fo
oo
e-
5x2
dx. [assuming that r(1/2) = yIi]
(iv) f01r/2 cos
P
0 dO, p> -1,
(v) f01r/2 sin
2
x cos
4
x dx,
(vi) f01r/2 sin4 x dx,
(vii) f01r/2 vtanx dx = = .
• SOLUTION:
(i) fol x
2
(1 - x)3/2 dx = fOI x
3
-
1
(1 - x)5/2-1 dx
= B(3 5/2) = r(3)r(5/2) = r(3)r(5/2)
, r(3 + 5/2) r(1l/2)
2! r(5/2) 8 16
= 9 1 5 = 2 x -- = -.
2'2'2r(5/2) 9.7.5 315
(ii) fOI xJ(l - x)3 dx = fi x
4
-
1
(1- x)4-1 dx = B(4, 4)
31.3! 6.6 1 r(4)r(4)
r(8)
= =
7! 7.6.5.4.3.2.1 140'
7.19
7.20 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Putting 5x
2
= z or, x = Jz/5. Then dx = .ft2ftdz.
Thus,
(Xl e-5x2 dx = roo e-z 1 dz = _1_ roo e
Z
zl/2-1 dz
10 10 2V5v'z 2V5 10
1 .,fo
= = .
2v 5 2v 5
(iv) Io
7r
/
2
cos
p
e de = I
o
7r/2 cos
P
e sino e de
_ 0+1) _ _
-2 2' 2 -2 -2
( )
r7r/2 . 2 4 _
v JO sm xcos xdx - - (2+4+2)
2 r -2-
_ r(3/2)r(5/2) _
2 r(4) - 2 3!
1 3 1r 1r
- - - -- ==-
2 6 166 32
(vi) Io
7r
/2 sin
4
x dx = Io
7r
/2 sin
4
x cosO x dx
1 r(4+1 )r( 0+1) 1 r(5/2)r(1/2)
_ _ 2 2 _ _ ----'-"'--'--,-'--'---'-
- 2 - 2 r(3)
_ 1 _ 3 .,fo . .,fo _ 31r
2 2! - 8" 2 - 16
(
vii) r7r /2 Jtan x dx = f7r /2 v'sin x dx
JO JO v'cosx
_ r
7r
/
2
. 1/2 -1/2 d _
- JO sm x cos x x - 2 r( 1/2+( -;1/2)+2)
= r(3/4)r(1/4) = = 1r
2 r ( 1 ) 2 2 sin 1r /4
1 1r 1r
= 21/J2 = J2'
Exercise 1 Prove that
(i) Io
oo
e-
x2
dx =
(
•.. ) r7r/2 4 d 31r
111 JO cos x x = 16'
(ii) IoOO e-
x
x
5
dx = 120,
(iv) Iooo x
2
e-
x
dx = 2.
Cil.7: INTEGR' . CALCULUS
7.3 Multiple Integral
Ex. 1 (i) Evaluate: Jo
1
{ Jd--
Y
ydx }dy,
(ii) Evaluate: fo7r/2 fo7r cos{x + y) dxdy,
(iii) Evaluate: fo7r/2 fo7r sin{x + y) dxdy,
(iv) Evaluate: r
27r
r r dr dB,
io iasinB
(v) Evaluate: III xyz.dx.dy.dz over R[O, 1; 0,1; 0,1],
7.21
(vi) Evaluate: ! k. x
3
ydxdy, where R : {O ::::; x ::::; 1,0 ::::; y ::::; 2} is a
rectangle,
(vii) Evaluate: J Jxsin(x+y)dxdy, where R: {O::::; x::::; 7r,0::::; y::::; 7r/2} is
a rectangle,
(viii) Evaluate J J xy dx dy over the region in the positive quadrant for which
x+y:S;1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) 10
1
{fol-
Y
ydx}dy = 10
1
dy = 10
1
y{l-y)dy
= [;2 _ = _ =
(ii) fo7r /2 fo7r cos (x + y) dx dy = fo7r /2 [ sin{ x + y) ]: dy
r/
2
r/2
= i
o
' [sin{7r + y) - siny] dy = - io 2 siny dy
= -2 [ - cOSy]:/2 = 2[cos7r/2 - cosO] = -2.
(iii) fo7r/2 fo7r sin{x + y) dx dy = fo7r/2 [- cos{x + y)]r; dy
r/
2
r/
2
= io [-cos(7r+y)+cosy]dy= io 2cosydy
= 2 [siny]:/2 = 2[sin7r/2 - sinO] = 2.
(iv)
10
27r
fa 10
27r
[r2] a
r dr dB = - dB
o asinB 0 2 asinB
7.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
a
2
r
27r
a
2
[ sin 20] 27r
= 4 io (1 + cos 20) dO = 4 0 + -2- 0
a
2
7ra
2
= 4[27r+0] = 2'
(v) ! ! k xyz dx dy dz = 10
1
10
1
10
1
xyz dx dy dz
= 10
1
xdx 10
1
ydy 10
1
zdz
= = =
(vi) ! k x
3
ydxdy = 10
2
10
1
x
3
ydxdy = 10
2

= r
2
dy = [y2] 2
io 4 4 2 0
1 1
= 4[2 - 0] ="2'
(vii) ! k x sin(x + y) dx dy = 10
7r
10
7r
/
2
x sin(x + y) dy dx
= 10
7r
x[ - cos(x + y)]:/2 dx
= 10
7r
x[-cos(7r/2+x)+cosx]dx
= 10
7r
x[sinx+cosx]dx
= [x( - cos x + sinx)]g - 10
7r
1.(- cos x + sinx) dx
= [7r( - cos 7r + sin 7r) - 0]- [- sinx - cos x]g
= 7r.1 + [(sin7r + COS7r) - (sinO + cosO)]
= 7r + [( -1) - 1] = 7r - 2.
(viii) Integrating firstly w.r.t. y.
The limits of y ranges from 0
to 1 - x. Thus the limits of x
ranges from 0 to 1.
o
y
Figure: 7.3.1
CR.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
... // xydxdy = 10
1
10
1
-
X
xydydx
= fl X [y2] I-x dx
io 2 0
= fl =(1- x)2dx = f\x - 2x2 + x
3
)dx
io 2 2 io
= _ 2;3 + = - =
Exercise 1 (i) Find the value of l2 10
1
(X + y) dy dx.
(1
'1') F' d r/
2
r/
2
. ( )d d
m i 0 J 0 sm X + Y X y.
(iii) Evaluate 10
4
10
1
xy(x - y) dy dx.
7.23
(iv) Find / k cos(x + y) dxdy, where R = {O 5: X 5: 7rj2, 05: y 5: 7rj2}.
(v) Evaluate // x
2
y dx dy over the region in the positive ,quadrant for
which X + y 5: 1.
[Ans. (i) 2, (ii) 2, (iii) 8, (iv) 2, (v)
7.4 Area, Surface and Volume
Formula 1 Length of an arc:
(i) The length of the arc of the curve y = f (x) between x = a and x = b,
when f'(x) continuous in [a,b] is
fa
b
(d
Y
)2
in 1 + dx dx.
(ii) If the curve is given in the form x = f(y), then the arc length between
y = c and y = d, when f'(y) continuous is
fed (dx)2
if' 1 + dy dy.
(iii) If the curve be r = f((}) then the length of the arc included between two
points whose vectorial angles (}1 and (}2 is given by
7.24 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Formula 2 Area of a bounded region:
(i) The area bounded by the curve y = f(x), x-axis and the lines x = a and
x = b is f: y dx.
(ii) Similarly, the area bounded by the curve x = f(y), y-axis and the lines
y = c and y = d is fed X dy.
(iii) If the equation of the curve be r = f(O), the area included between the
curve and two radii vectors 0 = a and 0 = f3 is given by ~ f! r2 dO.
Formula 3 Volume generated by surface:
(i) The volume generated by revolving about the x-axis an area bounded
by the curve y = f (x), the x-axis and the two ordinates x = a and x = b
is expressed by the integral V = 7C f: y2 dx.
(ii) If the curve x = ¢(y) bounded by y = c and y = d be revolved abqut
the y-axis, the volume is given by V = 7C fed x
2
dy.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the length of the curve y = log sec x, between x 0 to
x = 7C/3.
(ii) Show that the circumference of a circle of radius r is 27Cr.
(iii) Evaluate the perimeter of the cardioide r = a(1 - cos 0) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here y = log sec x.
dy 1
Now, -d = --(secxtanx) = tanx.
x secx
The length of the curve between x = 0 and x = 7C /3 is
r/
3
(dY)2 r/
3
r/
3
10 1 + dx dx = 10 VI + tan
2
xdx = 10 secxdx
= [10gltan(7C/4+x/2)1]:/3 =10gltan(7C/4+7C/6)1
= 10 \1 + tan 7C / 61 = 10 \1 + 1/ J3j = 10 (J3 + 1)
g 1 - tan 7C /6 g 1 - 1/ J3 g J3 - 1
= log (J3 + 1)2 = 10g(2 + V3).
3-1
(ii) Let the equation of the circle be x
2
+ y2 = r2.
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get 2x + 2YYl = 0 or, Yl = -x/Yo
the length in the first quadrant is
CR.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS 7.25
l
r
l
r
R2 l
r
Jx2+y2
y 1 + yt dx = 1 + 2: dx = dx
o 0 Y 0 Y
= r dx = r v' 2
r
2 dx = [rsin-
1
::.]r
10 y 10 r - x r 0
. 1 r 1r
= rSln - = r.-.
r 2
Hence the circumference of the circle is 4. r; = 21rr.
(iii) The arc of the upper half of the curve r = a(l - cos B) is ranges from
B = 0 to 1r.
H
dr . B
ere dB = asm .
the total arc length is
2 fo7r r2 + 2 dB = 2 fo7r va
2
(1 - cos B)2 + a
2
sin
2
B dB
= 2 fo7r av'2 - 2cosBdB = 2V2a fo7r v'1- cosBdB
= 2V2a fo7r V 2 sin
2
B /2 dB = 4a fo7r sin B /2 dB
[
-cos B /2] 7r
= 4a 1/2 0 = 8a[-cos1r/2 + cosO] = 8a.
Ex. 2 (i) Find the area of the first quadrant of the circle x
2
+ y2 = a
2
.
(ii) Find the area of the region bounded by the parabola y2 = 8x and its
latus rectum.
(iii) Prove that the area of the circle x
2
+ y2 = a
2
is 1ra
2
.
(iv) Find the area bounded by x = 4y2, Y = 2 and y = 4.
(v) Find the area enclosed by the ellipse x = a cos ¢, y = b sin ¢ and the axes
in the first quadrant.
(vi) Find the area of the hyperbola xy = 4 bounded by the x-axis and the
ordinates x = 2 and x = 4.
(vii) Show that the area bounded by the astroid x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 = is
(viii) Find by integration the area of a triangle whose vertices are (1,3), (0,0), (1,0:
(ix) A point P{x, y) moves in xy-plane satisfying 0 x 1r /2, 0 y
sin x. Find the area of the region traced out by P.
(x) Find by integration the area bounded by the x axis, the y axis and the
line x + y = 2.
7.26 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) The equation of the circle is x
2
+ y2 = a
2
or, y = ±va
2
- x
2
.
The area of the first quadrant
of the circle is
loa y dx = loa J a
2
- x
2
dx
= _ x2 + a
2
sin-1
2 2 a 0
(a,O)
a a
2
a
2
7r 7ra
2
= 2.
0
+ 2 sin -1 1 - 0 = 2' 2 = 4'
Figure: 7.4.1
(ii) The area of the region bounded by the parabola y2 = 8x and its latus
rectum x = 2 is
210
2
ydx = 210
2
.vrs;dx
= 4J2[X3/2]2
3/2 0
latus rectum
o
= = 32.
3 3
Figure: 7.4.2
(iii) The equation of the circle is x
2
+ y2 = a
2
or, y = ±va
2
- x
2
.
The area of the circle is
4 faa y dx = 4 faa J a
2
- x
2
dx
[
X a
2
. 1 X] a
= 4 - va
2
- X
2
+ - sm - - .
2 2 a 0
2 2
(
a a. -1 ) a 7r 2
= 4 2.0 + 2 sm 1-:- 0 = 4
2
'2 = tra .
(iv) The area of the regio1't' bounded by X = 4y2, Y = 2 and y = 4 is
14 X dy = 14 4y2 dy
= [y3] 4 = x 56 = 224,
323 3
(v) Here the equation of the ellipse is x = a cos ¢, y = b sin ¢. In the first
quadrant x varies from 0 to a.
,', the area is
r y dx = fa bV 1 - x
2
dx = fa J a
2
- x
2
dx
10 10 a
2
a 10
= _ x2 + a
2
sin-1
a 2 2 a 0
CR.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS
b [ a
2
. -1 a ] b a
2
1r 1rab
= ° + 2 sm - ° - = 4'
(vi) We have xy = 4 or, y = 4/x .
. '. the area is
h4 ydx = h4 4/xdx = 4[logx]i
4
= 4[log4 -log2] = 4 log "2 = 4log 2 = log 16.
(vii) We have x
2
/
3
+ y2/3 = a
2
/
3
/or, y2/3 = a
2
/
3
_ x
2
/
3
or, y = (a
2
/
3
_ x
2
/
3
)3/2.
The values of x ranges from °
to a.
. '. the area in first quadrant
is
(-a,O)
(O,-a)
(a,O)
loa y dx = loa (a
2
/
3
- x
2
/
3
)3/2 dx.
Figure: 7.4.3
Putting x = a sin
3
e. Then dx = 3a sin
2
() cos e de.
When x = a then e = 1r/2 and when x = ° then e = 0.
Then loa y dx = fo7r /2 (a
2
/
3
_ a
2
/
3
sin
2
())3/2 .3a sin
2
e COS e de
r/
2
= 3a
2
10 cos
3
e sin
2
e cos e de
r/
2
= 3a
2
10 cos
4
e sin
2
e de
_ 21 r(¥ )r(¥) _ 21
- 3a"2 - 3a"2 r(4)
21 !.!.y'1r.!.y'1r 3a
2
1r
= 3a "2 3.2.1 = ---a2'
3a
2
1r 31ra
2
Hence the total area is 4. ---a2 = -8 -.
7.27
(viii) The triangle whose vertices (1, 3), (0, 0) and (1, 0) is shown in the ad-
jacent figure. The equation of the line OBis
x-o y-O
0-1 = 0-3 or, y = 3x.
the area is 10
1
y dx
r
1
x
2
1 3
= 10 3x dx = 3 [ 2 ] 0 = "2'

A(l,O)
o (0,0)
Figure: 7.4.4
7.28 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ix) Here the region is bounded by x = O,x = 7r/2,y = 0 and y = sinx.
The required area is
!o7r /2 Y dx = 17r /2 sin x dx = [ _ cos x] :/2
= - cos 7f /2 + cos 0 = l.
(x) The area bounded by x and y-axes and the line x + y = 2 is
r
2
r
2
x
2
2
10 ydx= 10 (2-.r)dx= [2x-
2
L=4-2=2.
Ex. 3 (i) Find the area of the cardioid, r = a(l - cos e).
(ii) Find by the method of integration, the area of the circle r = a sin e .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The upper half of the cardioid r = a(1- cos e) covered by e = 0 to e = 7r.
The area of the upper half is
! r r
2
de =! r a
2
(1- cose)2de
210 210
= a
2
r (1 + cos
2
e - 2 cos e) de
2 Jo
a2107r - 1
= - {I - 2 cos e + -(1 + cos 2e)} de
2 0 2
a
2
r 3 1
= 2 Jo {2" - 2 cos e + 2" cos 2e} de
a
2
[3 sin 2e] 7r
= - -e - 2 sin e + --
2 2 4 0
= ~ 2 [3
2
7f _ 0 + 0] = 3:a
2
.
37ra
2
37ra
2
Hence the total area is 2'-4- = -2-'
(ii) The circle r = asin8 is shown in the adjacent figure.
Area of the circle is
o
Figure: 7.4.5
(O,a/2)
CH.7: INTEGRAL CALCULUS 7.29
Exercise 1 (i) Find the area of the circle r = 2a sin B.
(ii) Find the area of the region bounded by the parabola y2 = 4x and its
latus rectum.
2 2
(iii) Find the area in the first quadrant bounded by the ellipse ~ 6 + ~ = 1.
[Ans. (i) 7ra
2
, (ii) 8/3, (iii) 37r.]
Ex. 4 (i) Find the volume generated by revolving about OX, the area
bounded by y = x
3
between x = 0 and x = 2.
(ii) The part of the parabola y2 = 8x bounded by the latus rectum revolves
about the x-axis. Find the volume thus generated .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The volume generated by the area y = x
3
between x = 0 and x = 2 is
2 2 2 6 [x7]2 1287r
7r fo y dx = 7r fo x dx = 7r - = --.
7 0 7
(ii) Here 4a = 8 or, a = 2.
The equation of latus rectum is x = a = 2.
The volume generated by y2 = 8x between x = 0 and x = 2 is
2
2 2 2 [X ] 2
7r fo y dx = 7r fo 8x dx = 87r 2 0 = 167r.
(h.8/1 Differential Equation
8.1 Introduction
Def. 1 Order of differential equation: The order of a differential equation
is the order of the highest derivative or differential coefficient occurring in the
equation.
d
2
y (d
Y
)2
The equation dx
2
+ dx + y = 5x
2
is of second order.
An equation which involves or its powers but no higher differential
coefficient is said to be of second order.
Def. 2 Degree of differential equation: The degree of a differential equa-
tion is the highest power of the highest differential coefficient which occurs in
it when the equation is free from radicals and fractions.
[
dy]3 (d
2Y
)2
The equation y + dx = dx
2
is of second degree.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the degree and order of the differential equation
d
2
y (d
y
)5
dx
2
+ 3 dx + 9y = O.
(ii) Determine degree and order of
{
(
d3y)2}1/2 = dy (d
2y
)2
, 1 + dx3 3 dx dx2 .
(iii)
Determin{e degre: of
y + = 1 - x.
(iv) Find the order and degree of the equation given by
[
_!_ (d
y
)2]2/3 = d
2
y
1, dx dx2·
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here the highest order derivative is two and the power of it is one. Hence
order is 2 and degree is 1.
(il) We have {1+ =
8.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
or, 1 + 2 = 9 2 ( 4.
Here d
3Y
3
is the highest order differential so order is 3.
dx
d
3
y
The power of dx
3
is two, hence the degree is 2.
(iii) The given equation can be written as
y + = (1 _ x)2.
The order is 1 and degree is 3, as power of is 3.
(iv) Cubing the given equation we get
[ 1 + 2] 2 = r .
The highest order differential coefficient is and its power is 3. Hence
the order of this equation is 2 and degree is 3.
Exercise 1 (i) Find the order and degree of the differential equation
d
2
y (d
y
)5
dx
2
+ 4 dx + lOy = O.
(ii) Find the order and degree of the differential equation
d
2
y (d
y
)
dx
2
+ 3 dx + 9y = O.
(iii) Find the order and degree of the equation given by
1 + r = 1 + x.
(iv) Find the order and degree of the equation given by
+ -y = o.
[Ans. (i) order=2, degree=l, (ii) order=2, degree=l, (iii) order=l, degree=2,
(iv) order=l, degree=2.]
Ex. 2 (i) Eliminate a and b from y = a + blog
e
x and find the order of the
D.E.
(ii) Obtain the differential equation from y = Ae
2x
+ Be-
2x
(A, B being
parameters) .
(iii) Find the differential equation of the family of curves y = eX (A cos x
+B sinx), where A and B are arbitrary constants.
CR.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 8.3
(iv) Construct a differential equation by the elimination of the constants a
and b from the equation ax
2
+ by2 = 1.
(v) If v = A + B, where A, B are arbitrary constants, prove that
r
d
2
v 2 dv
d
2 + --d = 0.
r r r
(vi) Obtain the differential equation whose general solution is ax+by+c = 0,
a, b, c are arbitrary constants.
(vii) Find the differential equation of the curve y = A cos(px - B) where A
and B are parameters and p is a constant.
(viii) Find the differential equations whose primitive is y = kx + k - k
3
, by
eliminating k.
(ix) Form a differential equation by eliminating the parameters A and B from
the equation y = Acosx + Bsinx + xsinx .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here y = a + blog x. Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy b dy
- = - or, x- = b.
dx x dx
Again differentiating we get
x d
2Y
2
+ dd
y
= 0, which is the required differential equation.
dx x
The order of the differential equation is 2.
(ii) Differentiating y = Ae
2x
+ Be-
2x
w.r.t. x we get
dy = 2Ae2x _ 2Be-
2x
.
dx
Again differentiating we obtain
d
2
y = 4Ae
2x
+ 4Be-
2x
= 4y.
dx
2
d
2
y
or, dx
2
= 4y.
(iii) Here y = eX(Acosx + Bsinx).
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
dy = eX (A cos x + B sin x) + eX ( - A sin x + B cos x)
dx
= y - eX (A sin .r - B cos x).
8.4 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Again differentiating we have
d
2Y
2
= dy _ eX(Asinx _ Bcosx) - eX(A cos x + Bsinx)
dx dx
= dy + (d
y
_ y) _ y.
dx dx
d
2
y dy
or, dx
2
- 2 dx + 2y = O.
(iv) Differentiating ax
2
+ by2 = 1 w.r.t. x, 2ax + 2bYYl = O.
or, ax + byYl = 0
Again differentiating we get a + + bYY2 = O.
or, a + + YY2) = 0 or, a = + YY2).
Putting this value in (1) we get
+ YY2)X + bYYl = 0 or, xYY2 + - YYl = O.
B
(v) Differentiating v = A + - w.r.t. r twice we get,
r
dv B 2B
-d = - 2' and d 2 = -3 .
r r r r
d
2
v 2 dv 2B 2B
Now, d 2 + --d = -3 - -3 = O.
r r r r r
(vi) Differentiating ax + by + c = 0 w.r.t. x we get
dy dy a
a + b dx = 0 or, dx b'
A
. d' er .• d
2
y 0
gam lllerentlatmg w.r.t. x, dx
2
= .
Thus the required differential equation is = O.
(vii) Differentiating Y = Acos(px - B) twice we get
Yl = -Asin(px - B).p and
Y2 = _Ap2 cos(px - B) = -p2{Acos(px - Bn = _p2y.
or, Y2 + p2y = O.
(viii) Differentiating the given equation we get Yl = k.
Putting k = Yl in Y = kx + k - k
3
we get
Y = XYl + Yl - yf·
(ix) Differentiating given equation twice w.r.t. x we get
Yl = - A sin x + B cos x + sin x + x cos x and
Y2 = - A cos x - B sin x + cos x + cos x - x sin x
= - (A cos x + B sin x + x sin x) + 2 cos x = -Y + 2 cos x
or, Y2 + Y = 2 cos a; .
(1)
CH.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
8.5
Exercise 2 (i) Obtain the differential equation from y = Ae
x
+ Be-
X
(A, B
being parameters).
(ii) Form a differential equation by eliminating the parameters Cl and C2
from the equation y = (Cl + c2x)e
kx
, k is a constant.
(iii) Form a differential equation by eliminating the parameters a and b from
the equation y = a cos 2x + b sin 2x.
(iv) Eliminate a and b from y = a tan-
1
x + b.
(v) Find the differential equation of the curves: y = a sin x + b cos x, where
a and b are arbitrary constants.
[Ans. (i) Y2 - y = 0, (ii) Y2 - 2kYl + k
2
y = 0, (iii) Y2 + 4y = 0,
(iv) (1 + X
2
)Y2 + 2XYI = 0, (v) Y2 + Y = 0.]
Ex. 3 (i) Find the differential equation of all straight lines passing through
the origin.
(ii) Find the differential equation of all the straight lines passing through
the point (-2,3).
(iii) Find the differential equation of all circles having constant radius a.
(iv) Find the differential equation of all circles touching x-axis at the origin.
(v) Find the differential equation of the system of circles having a constant
radius and whose centres lie on x-axis.
(vi) Find the differential equation of all parabolas having their axes parallel
to y-axis .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The equation of straight lines passing through the origin are y = ma:,
where m is a parameter.
Differentiating we get Yl = m .
. '. the required differential equation is XYI = y.
(ii) The equation of straight lines passing through (-2,3) are
Y - 3 = m(x + 2)
(1)
Differentiating we get Yl = m. Putting the value of m in (1) we have
Y - 3 = Yl(X + 2).
(iii) Let the equation of the circle of constant radius a be
x
2
+ y2 </= a2,
Differentiating we get 2x + 2YYl = 0 or x + YYl = 0 which is the required
differential equation,
8.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Since the circles touch x-axis at the origin, so its centre lie on the y-axis.
Let the centre be (0, a).
Then its equation is
x
2
+ (y - a)2 = a
2
or, x
2
+ y2 - 2ay = 0 (1)
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
2x + 2YYl - 2aYl = 0 or, a = (x + yyt}/Yl'
Putting in (1) we have
x
2
+ y2 - 2y(x + yyt}/Yl = 0 or, Yl(X
2
+ y2) - 2y(x + yyt} = 0.
(v) Let the center of the circles be (a,O) with constant radius r.
Then the equations are (x - a)2 + y2 = r2 (1)
Differentiating w.r.t. x we get
2(x - a) + 2YYl = 0 or, (x - a) = -YYl.
Putting the value of (x - a) in (1) we get
y2Yf + y2 = r2 or, y2(1 + Yf) = r2.
(vi) The equations of the parabolas whose axes parallel to y-axis are Y =
ax
2
+ bx + e.
Differentiating twice we get Yl = 2ax + band Y2 = 2a. Again differenti-
ating we finally have Y3 = 0. This is the required differential equation.
Ex. 4 (i) Find the curve which passes through (0,0) and whose differential
. . dy (1 + y2)x
equatIOn IS -d = ( 2)'
x 1 + x Y
(ii) Find the equation to the curves whose normals always pass through the
origin.
(iii) Find the equation of the curve passing through the point (1,0) and sat-
isfying the differential equation (1 + y2) dx = xy dy.
(iv) Find the equation of the curve whose slope at any point (x, y) on it is
xy and which passes through (0,1) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Given dy = (1 + y2)x or, 2y dy = 2x dx .
dx (1 + x
2
)y 1 + y2 1 + x
2
Integrating we get
log(I + y2) = log(I + x
2
) + loge or, log(I + y2) = log{(1 + x
2
)c}
or, (1 + y2) = (1 + x
2
)c.
Since it passes through the point (0,0), c = 1.
Hence the required curve is 1 + y2 = 1 + x
2
or, y2 = x
2
or, y = ±x.
CH.8: DIFFERENTIAL 8QUATION
(ii) The equation of normal at (a, b) is
dx
y - b = - dy (x - a)
If it pass through the origin then
dx dx
-b = - - ( -a) or, a- + b = °
dy dy
dx dx dx .
From (1), y = -x-
d
+ a-
d
+ b or, y = -x-
d
[usmg (2)J
y ,y y
or, ydy = -xdx.
Integrating we get
y2 x2 e2
- = -- + - or y2 = _x
2
+ e
2
or x
2
+ y2 = e
2
.
2 2 2 ' ,
(iii) The given equation is (1 + y2) dx = xy dy
2dx 2ydy
or, -;- = 1 + y2 .
Integrating we get 2 log x = 2log(1 + y2) + 2 log e
or, logx
2
= log{(1 + y2)eF or, x
2
= {e(1 + y2)}2
or, x = ±e(1 + y2),
Since it passes through (1,0), 1 = ±e.
Hence the required curve is x = 1 + y2.
(iv) The slope at any point (x, y) is ~ ~ .
. dy dy
Accordmg to the problem - = xy or, - = x dx.
dx y
Integrating we get logy = x; + loge or, log(y/e) = x
2
/2
or, y = ee
x2
/2 .
Since it passes through (0,1), 1 = e. Hence y = e
x2
/
2
.
QT
Figure: 8.1.1
(i) Cartesian sub-normal = MG = yYl.
(ii) Cartesian sub-tangent = TM = y/Yl'
'(iii) Polar sub-normal = MG = ~ ~ .
(iv) Polar sub-tangent = TM = r 2 ~ ~ .
8.7
(1)
(2)
8.8 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 5 (i) The normal PG to a curve meets the qxis in G. If the distance
of G from the origin is twice the abscissa of P, prove that the curve is a
rectangular hyperbola.
(ii) Find the curve whose cartesian subnormal is constant.
(iii) Find the curve whose cartesian subnormal is constant.
(iv) Show that the curve in which the polar subtangent is proportional to
the length of radius vector is cr = e
8
/
k
, where k is constant and c is
arbitrary .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let PT and PG are respectively tangent and normal at P .
. "" OG = 2x or, OM + MG = 2x or, x + MG = 2x
or, MG = x. But MG is sub-normal = y dy.
dx
dy
y dx = x or, y dy = x dx.
Integrating we get
which is a rectangular hyper-
bola.
Figure: 8.1.2
(ii) The cartesian sub-normal is yYl = constant = a (say)
or, ydy = adx. Integrating we get y2 = 2ax + k, which represents a
parabola.
(iii) We know that the cartesian sub-tangent is y/Yl = constant = a (say)
dy dx dy
or, y = a dx or, ~ = y'
After integration we have log y = ~ + log c or, y = ce
x
/ a .
(iv) The polar sub-normal is ~ ~ ex: r
dr r k' . 1
or, dfJ = k' IS proportl0na constant.
dr dfJ
or, -; = k'
Integrating we have log r = fJ / k - log c or, log( rc) = fJ / k
or, rc = e
Olk
, where c is arbitrary constant.
CH.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 8.9
Exercise 3 (i) Find the differential equation of all circles touching y-axis
at the origin.
(ii) Find the equation of the curve for which cartesian sub-tangent is varies
as the abscissa.
(iii) Find the equation of the curve for which cartesian sub-normal is equal
to abscissa.
(iv) Find the equation of the curve for which polar sub-tangent is constant.
[Ans. (i) y2 - x
2
- 2XYYl = 0, (ii) ex = yk, (iii) x
2
_ y2 = a
2
,
(iv) r((} + e) + a = 0.]
Ex. 6 (i) Solve x dy - y dx = cos.!. dx.
x
(ii) Solve (x + y)(dx - dy) = dx + dy.
(iii) Solve + 1 = e
X
+
Y
.
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have xdy - ydx = cos dx.
xdy - ydx cos dx
or, 2 = 2
X X
cos 1
or, d(y/x) = -t- dx
x
Integrating, J d(y / x) = J dx
or, y/x = - J cos z dz = - sinz + e where z = l/x.
'or, y/x = - sin + e or, y = ex - x where e is arbitrary constant.
(ii) (x + y)(dx - dy) = dx + dy.
or, dx _ dy = dx + dy = d(x + y)
x+y x+y
Integrating we get
x - y = log(x + y) + loge or, e(x + y) = e
X
-
Y
, e is arbitrary constant.
(iii) Putting x + y = z. Then 1 + =
dz dz
The given equation becomes -d = e
Z
or, - = dx
x e
Z
or, e-
z
dz = dx.
Integrating we get, -e-
z
= x - e or, x + e-(x+y) = e, where e is arbitrary
constant.
8.10 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
8.2 Homogeneous Equation
Ex. 1 Convert (6x - 5y + 4)dy + (y - 2x - 1)dx = 0 into a homogeneous
equation.
• SOLUTION: Putting x = x' + hand y = y' + k.
Then dx = dx' and dy = dy'. The given equation becomes
{6(x' + h) - 5(y' + k) + 4}dy' + {(y' + k) - 2(x' + h) -1}dx' = 0
or, (6x' - 5y' + 6h - 5k + 4) dy' + (y' - 2x' + k - 2h - 1) dx' = O.
If 6h - 5k + 4 = 0 and k - 2h - 1 = 0 then the equation becomes homogeneous.
Solving these equations we get h = -1/4, k = 1/2.
Hence the required homogeneous differential equation is
(6x' - 5y') dy' + (y' - 2x') dx' = 0,
where x' = x - h = x + 1/4 and y' = y - k = y - 1/2.
Ex. 2 (i) Solve y dx - x dy = xy dx.
dy x - Y
(ii) Solve - = --.
dx x+y
(iii) Solve the differential equation:
(x
2
- yx
2
) dy + (y2 + xy2) dx = O.
(iv) Solve xdy - ydx - 2Jx
2
- y
2
dx = O.
(v) Solve dy = x+y+1 .
dx 3x + 3y + 1
(vi) If f'(x) + f(x) = 0 and 1(0) = 2, find f(x).
(vii) If f'(x) = f(x) for all real x and f(O) = 1 find f(x) .
• SOLUTION:
(1
') ~ X T h d d d dy
vve ave y x - x y = xy x or, y - x dx = xy.
P
. D'Ir' . dy dv
uttmg y = vx. lUerentIatmg w.r.t. x we get -d = v + X-.
x dx
(
dv) 2dv 2 dv
vx - x v + x dx = x.vx or, -x dx = vx or, --:; = dx.
Integrating we get,
-logv = x + loge or, log(ve) = -x or, ve = e-
x
or, ye/x = e-
X
or, ye = xe-
x
, e is arbitrary constant.
(1
'1') P . Th dy dv
uttmg y = vx. en -d = v + X-.
x dx
Th
' . b dv x - vx
e gIven equatIOn ecomes v + x- = ---
dx x + vx
CH.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
dv 1- v
or, v + x-
d
= -I--
x + v
dv 1 - v 1 - 2v - v
2
or, x- = -- - v =
dx l+v l+v
or, l+v dv=_dx or, 2(I+v) dv=_2dx
v
2
+ 2v - 1 X v
2
+ 2v - 1 x
After integration we get log( v
2
+ 2v - 1) = - 2 log x + log c
or, v
2
+ 2v - 1 = cjx
2
or, (yjx)2 + 2(yjx) - 1 = cjx
2
or, y2 + 2xy - x
2
= c, c is arbitrary constant.
(iii) The given equation can be written as
dy y2 + xy2 y2(1 + x)
dx x
2
- yx
2
x
2
(y - 1)
y-l l+x
or, --2- dy = --2- dx
y x
Integrating we get
J (t -:2) dy = J (:2 + ~ ) dx
1 1 1 1
or, logy + - = -- + log x + cor, log(yjx) + - + - = c,
y x x y
c is arbitrary constant.
(iv) xdy - ydx = 2JX2 - y2 dx
dy J dy y+2Jx2_y2
or, x- - y = 2 x
2
- y2 or, - = ------
dx dx x
dy dv
Putting y = vx. Then dx = v + x dx'
dv vx + 2Jx2 - v
2
x
2
Then v +x-
d
=
x x
dv_ ~ dv rdx
or, xdx - 2v 1- ' V ~ or, ~ = 2-
vl- v
2
x
Integrating we get sin-
1
v = 2 log x + log c
or, sin-1(yjx) = log(x
2
c), where c is arbitrary constant.
dy dv
(v) Putting x + y = v. Then 1 + dx = dx'
The given equation becomes
dv _ 1 = v + 1 or, dv = v + 1 + 1
dx 3v + 1 dx 3v + 1
or, dv = 4v+2 or, 3v+l
dv
=2dx
dx 3v + 1 2v + 1
8.11
8.12 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
6v + 3 - 1 (1 )
or, dv = 4 dx or, 3 - -2 1 dv = 4 dx
2v + 1 v +
Integrating we get 3v - log(2v + 1) = 4x + c/2
or, 6v = 8x + log(2v + 1) + cor, 6y/x = 8x + log(2y/x + 1) + c, where c
is arbitrary constant.
df df
(vi) We have f'ex) + f(x) = a or, dx + f = a or, f + dx = O.
On integration we have log f + x = log c or, log f / c = - x
or f = ce-
x
or, f(x) = ce-
x
.
Given that f(O) = 2. Then f(O) = c = 2 or, c = 2.
Hence f(x) = 2e-
x
.
(vii) Here f'ex) = f(x) or, = f
or, ; = dx or, log f = x + log c or, f / c = eX or, f = ce
x
.
Given f(O) = 1. " f(O) = c = 1.
Hence f(x) = eX,
8.3 Linear Equation
Def. 1 Linear Differential Equation: The differential equation
dy
dx +Py = Q,
where P and Q are functions of x only, is called linear differential equation of
y.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the integrating factor of + Py = Q (P, Q being constants
or functions of x).
(ii) Find the integrating factor of cos
2
x + y = tan x.
(1
'1'1') F' d h . . £ dy 1 - 2x 1
m t e mtegratmg actor dx + = .
(iv) Find the factor: (x + y + 1) = 1.
(v) Find the integrating factor of x
2
+ (1 + 2x)y = x
2
.
eH.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
• SOLUTION:
(i) MUltiplying the given equation by I(x) we get
I(x) + Pyl(x) = QI(x).
8.13
We choose I(x) in such a way that L.H.S. becomes a perfect differential
coefficient of y I ( x) .
· d dy dl(x)
I.e., dx (YI(x)) = f(x) dx + y---a:;-'
. I(x) + Pyl(x) = I(x) + y
dl(x) dl(x)
or, pYI(x) = or, = PI(x)
dl(x)
or, I(x) = P dx.
Integrating we get
log I (x) = I P dx or, I (x) = ei P dx .
· '. the integrating factor is ei P dx .
(ii) The equation can be written as
+ ysec
2
x = tanx sec
2
x
· '. integrating factor is ei sec
2
x dx = e
tan
x.
(iii) Here the integrating factor is
I
I dx _1-21ogx _1 logx-
2
e = e '" = e '" = e '" e
1 1
= "2
e
-;.
x
. dy dx
(IV) We have (x + y + 1) dx = lor, dy = x + y + 1
dx
or, dy - x = y + 1.
In this case integrating factor is ei -1.dy = e-
Y

(v) Given equation can be written as
dy 1 + 2x _ 1
d
+ 2 y- .
X x
The integrating factor is
e
i
dx = eI(1/x
2
+2/x)dx = e-l/x+21ogx
= e-l/xelogx2 = x
2
e-
1
/
x
.
8.14 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 2 (i) Show that a:y2 is an integrating factor of the differential equation
2ydx + 3xdy = O.
(ii) Examine whether ~ is an integrating factor of the differential equation
y
y(1 + xy)dx - xdy = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Multiplying the given equation by xy2 we get
2xy3 dx + 3x
2
y2 dy = 0 or, d(x
2
y3) = 0
i.e., the equation can be expressed as an exact form.
Hence xy2 is an I.F.
(ii) Multiplying the given equation by 1/y2 we get
1 + xy x (1 X)
---=- dx - - dy = 0 or, - dx - - dy + x dx = 0
Y y2 Y y2
1 (X X2)
or, d(x/y) + 2"d(X2) = 0 or, d y + 2 = 0, which is an exact.
Hence 1/y2 is an I.F.
Ex. 3 (i) Solve (1 - x
2
) ~ ~ - 2xy = x - x
3
.
(ii) Solve the differential equation y(1 - 2xy)dx = xdy .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The given equation can be written as
dy 2x x - x
3
----y=--=x
dx 1- x
2
1 - x
2
The LF. = ef 1-=-2","'2 dx = e
1og
(1-x2) = 1- x
2
.
Multiplying both sides by LF. we get
2 dy 2 d
(1 - x ) dx - 2xy = x(1 - x ) or, dx {y(1 - x
2
)} = X - x
3
.
Integrating we get y(1 - x
2
) = f(x - x
3
) dx = x
2
2
- x
4
4
+ ~
or, 4y(1 - x
2
) = x
2
(2 - x
2
) + c, c is an arbitrary constant.
(ii) We have y(1 - 2xy) dx = x dy or, x dy - y(1 - 2xy) = 0
dx
dy 2 1 dy. 1
or x- - y = - 2a'lI or - - - - = -2
, dx " y2 dx xy
. -1 1 dy dz
Puttmg - = z. Then 2' - = -.
y y dx dx
(1)
eR.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
The equation (1) becomes ddZ + :. = -2
x x
I.F.= eJljxdx = e
10gx
= x.
Multiplying (2) by x we get d ~ (zx) = -2x.
Integrating this equation zx = J -2x dx = _x
2
+ c
8.15
(2)
or, -x/y = _x
2
+c or, y( _x
2
+c) +x = 0, where c is arbitrary constant.
Def. 2 The differential equation M dx+ N dy = 0 is called exact if 88
M
= 8N.
y 8x
Q. 1 When a differential equation is said to be exact?
Ex. 4 (i) Test whether (cos y + y cos x) dx + (sin x - x sin y) dy = 0 is exact
or not.
(ii) Examine if the following differential equation is exact or not:
xdy - ydx
x dx + ydy + 2 2 = O.
x +y
(iii) Examine if the following differential equation is exact or not (x
2
- 2xy -
y2)dx - (x + y)2dy = O.
(iv) Verify that (x
2
+ y2 + 2x) dx + 2y dy = 0 becomes an exact differential
equation when both sides of it are multiplied by eX .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here M = cos y + Y cos x, N = sin x - x sin y.
8M. 8N .
8y =-smy+cosx, 8x =cosx-smy.
Th
8M 8N H h' ..
us 8y = 8x' ence t e gIven equatIOn IS exact.
(ii) Given equation is
xdy - ydx
x dx + y dy + 2 2 = 0
x +y
or, (x - 2 Y 2) dx + (y + 2 X 2 ) dy = 0
x +y x +y
or, M dx + N dy = 0,
y x
where M = x - 2 2 and N = y + 2 2 .
X +y x +y
8M 1.(x
2
+ y2) - y(2y) x
2
_ y2
Now, 8y = 0 - (x2 + y2)2 = - (x2 + y2)2 and
8.16 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
8N 1.{x
2
+ y2) _ x{2x) x
2
_ y2
8x = 0 + {x2 + y2)2 = - {x2 + y2)2'
H
8M 8N Th h' ..
ence 8y = 8x' us t e gIven equatIon IS exact.
(iii) Here M = x
2
- 2xy - y2 and N = -(x + y)2.
8M ' 2 8N H h' ..
- = -2x - Y = -. ence t e gIven equation IS exact.
8y 8x
(iv) Multiplying the given equation by ell: we get
{x
2
+ y2 + 2x)ell: dx + 2yell: dy = 0 or, M dx + N dy = 0
where M = {x
2
+ y2 + 2x)ell: and N = 2yell:.
8M Il: 8N
Now, 8y = 2ye = 8x'
Hence the given equation is exact when it is multiplied by ell:.
Ex. 5 (i) Solve: (y + x)dx + xdy = O.
(ii) Solve (ax + hy + g) dx + (hx + by + j) dy = O.
(iii) Solve (e
Y
+ 1) cos x dx + eYsinxdy = O .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have (y + x)da: + xdy = O.
Here M = y + x and N = x.
8M 1 8N. h' ..
- = = - I.e., t e gIven equatlOn IS exact.
8y 8x
Integrating the given equation
f(y+x)dx + fxdy =0.
y is constant only the terms free from x
or, yx + x
2
/2 + 0 = c/2 or, 2xy + x
2
= c, where c is arbitrary constants.
(ii) Here M = ax + hy + 9 and N = hx + by + f.
N
8M h aN. h' ..
ow, 8y = = ax I.e., t e gIven equatlOn IS exact.
Integrating the given equation
f(ax+hy+g)dx+ f(hx+by+j)dy =0.
y is constant only the terms free from x
or, ax
2
/2 + hxy + gx + by2/2 + fy = c/2
or, ax
2
+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy = c, where c is arbitrary constants.
eR.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 8.17
(iii) Let M = (e
Y
+ 1) cos x and N = e
Y
sinx.
N
8M Y 8N. h· ..
ow, - = e cos x = - I.e., t e given equation is exact.
8y 8x
Integrating the given equation
f (e
Y
+ 1) cos x dx + feY sin x dy = o.
y is constant only the terms free from x
or, (e
Y
+ 1) sinx + 0 = cor, (e
Y
+ 1) sinx = c, where c is arbitrary
constants.
Exercise 1 (i) Show that the following differential equation is exact differ-
ential equation y dx + (x + cos y) dy = O.
(ii) Show that the differential equation (y3 + 3x
2
y) dx +(x
3
+3xy2) dy = 0
is exact.
8.4 First Order Higher Degree
Ex. 1 (i) Solve p2 + P - 6 = 0 where p = ~ ~ .
(ii) Solve: p2 - p(x + y) + xy = Ojp == : ~ .
(iii) . Solve ( : ~ ) 2 + : ~ - 12 = O.
(iv) Solve x
2
p2 + 3xyp + 2y2 = o.
(v) Solve yp2 + (x - y)p - x = o.
. a
(Vi) Solve y = px + -.
p
(vii) Find the general solution of y = px - e
P

• SOLUTION:
(i) p2 + p - 6 = 0 or, (p - 2)(p + 3) = O.
Either p - 2 = 0 or p + 3 = O.
dy
Now, p - 2 = 0 or, dx - 2 = o. or, dy - 2dx = O.
Integrating we get y - 2x = Cl.
Again from p + 3 = 0 we have : ~ + 3 = O.
or, dy + 3 dx = 0 or, y + 3x = C2, where CI, C2 are arbitrary constants.
The general solution is (y - 2x - c)(y + 3x - c) = 0, where c is arbitrary,
constant.
8.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) We havep2-p(x+y)+xy = 0 or, p2_px-py+xy = 0 or, (p-x)(p-y) =
O.
Either p - x = 0 or p - y = O.
dy
Now p - x = 0 or - - x = 0 0 dy - x dx = O.
, , dx
Integrating y - x
2
/2 = cr/2 or, 2y - x
2
= Cl.
. dy dy
Agam p - y = 0 or, -d - Y = 0 or, - - dx = O.
x y
Integrating log y - x = C2. .
The general solution is (2y - x
2
- C) (log y - x - c) = 0,
Cl, C2, C are arbitrary constants.
(iii) Putting ~ ~ = p, the given equation becomes p2 + p - 12 = O.
or, (p - 3)(p + 4) = O.
Now, p - 3 = 0 given dy - 3 dx = 0 or, y - 3x = Cl and p + 4 = 0 gives
dy + 4dx = 0 or, y + 4x = C2.
Hence the general solution is (y - 3x - c)(y + 4x - c). = 0, where Cl, C2
and C are arbitrary constants.
(iv) x
2
p2 + 3xyp + 2y2 = 0 or, x
2
p2 + xyp + 2xyp + 2y2 = 0
or, (xp + y)(xp + 2y) = O.
. dy dy dx
Now, xp + y = 0 gIVes x-
d
+ y = 0 or, - + - = O.
x y x
Integrating we get log y + log x = log Cl or, xy = cr.
The equation xp + 2y = 0 gives x ~ ~ + 2y = 0
dy 2dx
or, -+ -- =0.
Y x
Integrating we get log y + 2 log x = log C2 or, yx
2
= C2'
Hence general solution is (xy - c)(yx
2
- c) = 0, where Cl, C2 and care
arbitrary constants.
(v) yp2 + (x - y)p - x = 0 or, yp(p - 1) + x(p - 1) = 0
or, (yp + x)(p - 1) = O.
Now, yp+x = 0 or, ydy+xdx = O.
y2 :1'2 Cl
Integrating 2" + 2" = 2" or, x
2
+ y2 = Cl·
Also, p -1 = 0 or, dy - dx = 0.
Integrating we get y - x = C2.
Hence general solution is (x
2
+ y2 - c)(y - x - c) = 0, where Cl, C2, care
arbitrary constants.
eR.8: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
(vi) Differentiating \v.r.t. x we get
dy dp a dp
dx = p + x dx - p2 dx
or, p = p + (x _ ~ ) dp
p2 dx
dp ( a) dp
or, dx x - p2 = 0 or, dx = 0
or, p =constant = c (say).
Hence general solution is y = cx + a/c.
(vii) Differentiating w.r.t. x and putting p for ~ ~ we get,
dp dp dp
p=p+x--e?-or, -(x-e?)=O
dx dx dx
dp
or, dx = 0 or, p = constant = c.
Hence general solution is y = cx - e
C

Exercise 1 (i) Solve p2 + 5p + 6 = 0 where p = ~ ~ .
(ii) Find'the general solution of y = px - 1
2
,
P
(iii) Find the general solution of y = px _ p2.
8.19
[Ans. (i) (y + 2x - c)(y + 3x - e) = 0, (ii) y = ex - 1/e
2
, (iii) y = ex - e
2
.]
8.5 Orthogonal Trajectories
Def. 1 Orthogonal trajectories: A curve which cuts every member of a
given family of curves at right angle is called a orthogonal trajectories of the
given family.
Q. 1 Define orthogonal trajectories.
Note 1 To find the orthogonal trajectories follow the following steps:
Find the differential equation of the given curve by eliminating the parameter.
Then replace ~ ~ by - ~ ~ . This new differential equation is the differential
equation of the orthogonal trajectories. Finally solve this differential equation
to obtain the orthogonal trajectories.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of straight lines
y=mx.
8.20 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Find the orthogonal trajectories of the hyperbola xy = a
2

(iii) Find the orthogonal trajectories of y2 = 4ax, (a is a parameter) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have y = mx. . Yl = m.
Eliminating m we get Y = XYl, which is the differential equation of the
given curve.
The differential equation of orthogonal trajectories is
Y = x( -l/Yl) or, YYl = -x
dy
or, Y dx = -x or, ydy = -x dx.
Integrating we get
y2 x
2
c2
- = _ - + - or x
2
+ y2 = c
2
2 2 2 ' ,
which is the required orthogonal trajectories.
(ii) Differentiating w.r.t. x we get XYI + y = 0, which is the differential
equation of the given curve.
The differential equation of orthogonal trajectories is
X(-l/Yl) + Y = 0 or, -x + YYl = 0 or, ydy - xdx = O.
Integrating we get
y2 x
2
c2
2 - 2 2' which is the required orthogonal trajectories.
(iii) Differentiating w.r.t. x we get 2YYl = 4a.
Eliminating a we have
y2 = X(2YYl) or, 2XYl = y.
The differential equation of orthogonal trajectories is
2x(-1/Yl) = Y or, -2x = YYl or, -2xdx = ydy.
2 2
Integrating we get _x
2
= ~ - c
2
or, 2x2 + y2 = c
2
, c is arbitrary con-
stant.
8.6 Higher Order First Degree
Ex. 1 If u(x) and vex) are two solutions of the differential equation
d
2
y dy
dx
2
+ 3 dx + 4y = 0,
then without solving the equation, show that 2u(x) + vex) is another solution
of the equation.
CH.8: Dlf<'FERENTIAL T'QUATION
• SOLUTION: Since u(x) and v(x) be two solutions of
d
2
y dy
dx
2
+ 3 dx + 4y = 0 then
d
2
u du
dx
2
+ 3 dx + 4u = 0
d
2
v ,dv
and dx
2
+ 3 dx + 4v = O.
Multiplying (1) by 2 and adding with (2) we get
d
2
u d
2
v du dv
2 dx
2
+ dx
2
+ 6 dx + 3 dx + 8u + 4v = 0
d
2
d
or, dx
2
(2u+v)+3
dx
(2u+v)+4(2u+v) =0.
This shows that y = 2u(x) + v(x) is a solution of the given equation.
Ex. 2 (i) Find the complementary factor of (D - 2)2y = sinx.
, d
2
(ii) Find the particular integral of the equation dx; - y = xe
2
:r; .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let y = em:r; be a solution of (D - 2)2y = O .
. ', A.E. is (m - 2)2 = 0 or, m = 2,2.
8.21
(1)
(2)
,', C.F. is y = (Cl + c2x)e2:r;, where Cl and C2 are arbitrary constants.
(
.. ) PI. 1 2:r;
11 .• IS D2 _ 1 xe
2:r; 1 2:r; 1
=e (D+2)2_1
x
=e D2+4D+3x
= e
2
:r; 1 x = e2:r;! (1 _ D2 + 4D + ... ) x
3(1 + D2t4D) 3 3
= e
2
:r; (x _ ~ ) = e
2
:r;(3x - 4)
3 3 9·
E 3 (1
·) S I d
2
y dy
x. 0 ve d ') + - + y = O.
X
M
dx
(
ii) S 1 d
2
y dy
o ve dx
2
- 8 dx + 15y = O.
(
iii) S 1 d
2
y dy
o:ye dx
2
- 16 dx + 64y = O.
8.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
. d
(1V) Solve (D2 - 2D + 5)y = 0, D = dx'
d
2
y dy
(v) Solve dx
2
- 3 dx + 2y = O.
d
2
y dy 2 •
(vi) Solve dx
2
- 2c dx + C Y = 0, C 1S a constant.
(vii) S 1
d2y 2x
o ve dx
2
+ y = e .
( viii)
d
4
y 4
Solve dx
4
- m y = O.
(ix)
d
2
x dx
Solve 2 dt
2
+ 5 dt - 12x = O.
d
2
y
(x) Solve the equation dx
2
= 4 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution. The A.E. is m
2
+ m + 1 = 0
-1 ± iV3
or, m'=
2
.'. general solution is y = (Cl cos Yf-x + C2 sin Yf-x )e-
x
/
2
, where Cl, C2
are arbitrary constants.
(ii) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution. The A.E. is m
2
- 8m + 15 = 0
or, m
2
- 3m - 5m + 15 = 0 or, (m - 3)(m - 5) = 0 or, m = 3,5.
, '. general solution is y = Cl e
3x
+ C2e5x, where Cl, C2 are arbitrary con-
stants.
(iii) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution.
The A.E. is m
2
- 16m + 64 = 0 or, (m - 8)2 = 0 or, m = 8,8.
,'. general solution is y = (Cl + C2X )e
8x
, where Cl, C2 are arbitrary con-
stants.
(iv) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution. The A.E. is m
2
- 2m + 5 = 0
2 ±4i .
or, m= -2- = 1±2t.
Hence general solution is y = (Cl cos 2x + C2 sin 2x )e
X
, where Cl, C2 are
arbitrary constants.
(v) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution. The A.E. is m
2
-'3m + 2 = 0
or, m
2
- m - 2m + 2 = 0 or, (m -l)(m - 2) = 0 or, m = 1,2.
,', general solution is y = Cl eX + C2e2x, where Cl, C2 are arbitrary con-
stants.
CH.C. DIFFEREN'f'IAL EQUATION 8.23
(vi) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution.
The A.E. is m
2
- 2cm + c
2
= 0 or, (m - c)2 = 0 or, m = c, c.
Hence general solution is y = (Cl + C2X )e
CX
, where Cll C2 are arbitrary
constants.
(vii) Let y = e
mx
be a trial solution of (D2 + l)y = O.
( viii)
(ix)
(x)
The A.E. is m
2
+ 1 = 0 or, m = ±i .
. '. C.F. is C! cos x + C2 sinx.
Now P.1. = 1 e
2x
= _1_e
2x
= ~ e 2 X
, D2 + 1 22 + 1 5
e
2x
Hence general solution is y = Cl cos X + C2 sinx + 5' where Cl, C2 are·
arbitrary constants.
Let y = e
nx
be a trial solution.
The A.E. is n
4
-m
4
= 0 or, (n
2
':""m
2
)(n
2
+m
2
) = 0 or, n = ±m, n = ±im.
Hence general solution is
y = cle
mx
+ C2e-mx + C3 cos mx + C4 sin mx, where CI, C2, C3, C4 are arbi-
trary constants.
Let y = e
mt
be a trial solution. The A.E. is -2m
2
+ 5m - 12 = 0
or, 2m
2
+ 8m - 3m - 12 =;= 0 or, (m + 4)(2m - 3) = 0
or, m = -4,3/2 .
. '. general solution is y = C! e-
4t
+ C2e(3/2)t, where Cl, C2 are arbitrary
constants.
. d
2
y d (d
y
)
GlVen that dx
2
= 4 or, dx dx = 4.
Integrating we get ~ ~ = 4x + C or, dy = 4x dx + C dx
x
2
Again integrating we get y = 4"2 + cx + d = 2x2 + ex + d, where e, d
are arbitrary constants.
Exercise 1 (i) Find a particular integral of the differential equation
d
2
y dy -x
dx
2
+ 2 dx + y = xe .
(ii) Find a particular integral of the differential equation
d
2
y
dx
2
'+ 2y = x
2
e-
2x
.
(iii) Find a particular integral of the differential equation
d
2
y dy 2x
dx
2
- dx + 2y = e .
8.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
. d
2
y dy
(IV) Solve dx
2
+ 4 dx + 4y = O.
d
2
y dy'
(v) Solve dx
2
+ ~ d x + y = x.
x'3
e
-z -2x 4 5 2z
[Ans. (i) -6-' (ii) T(x2 - ; + 9)' (iii) T' (iv) y = (Cl +c2
x
)e-
2z
,
(v) y = (Cl + c2x)e-Z + x - 2.]
Ch.gll Linear Programming Problem
9.1 Graphical Method
Def. 1 Linear Programming Problem (LPP): The mathematical form
of the general linear programming problem is given below:
Optimize Z = CIXI + C2X2 + ... + CnXn
where Xl, X2, ... ,X
n
are the n decision variables and Cll C2," • ,en are the n
price parameters of the problem. z is the objective function which is a linear
function of the variables. The set of feasible solutions is obtained from the
following constraints:
anXl + al2
x
2 + ... +
a21xI + a22
X
2 + ... +
The set of constraints will involve anyone of or 2::. The coefficients aij,
(i = 1,2, ... ,mj j = 1,2, ... ,n) are called the activity parameters and the con-
stant quantities bi(i = 1,2, ... ,m) are known as the requirement parameters
of the problem.
All the constrains are linear function of the decision variables.
Depending on the physical properties of the situation, the decision variables
may be non-negative, i.e., Xj 2:: O,j = 1,2, ... ,n.
Q. 1 (i) What you mean by an L.P.P in En. Indicate the objective function
and decision variables in the L.P.P.
(ii) Give a mathematical statement of a general LPP in n variables indicating
the objective functions and the decision variables.
Def. 2 Feasible Solution: A set of yalues of the decision variables Xl, X2,
... , Xn which satisfies the set of constraints and Xj 2:: 0, j = 1,2, ... , n is called
a feasible solution.
Def. 3 Optimal Solution: A feasible solution which optimizes the objective
function is called the optimal solution.
Q. 2 When is a feasible solution of an L.P.P. called an optimal solution?
9.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 1 (i) Find graphically the feasible region, if any, for the following in-
equations:
3XI + 5X2 < 10
5XI + 3X2 < 15
Xl, X2 > o.
(ii) Determine the feasible space of the following LPP
Maximize z = 2XI + X2
Subject to
Xl <
X2 <
Xl + X2 >
XI,X2 >
2
3
1
O.
(iii) Determine the feasible region of the following LPP
Minimize z = 8XI + 5X2
Subject to Xl + 5X2 < 15
2Xl + X2 < 8
Xl, X2 > O.
(iv) Find graphically the feasible space, if any, for the following:
Xl + 2X2 < 7
Xl - X2 < 4
XI,X2 > O.
(v) Prove that the constraints Xl - X2 0, -2XI + X2 2, Xl 0, X2 0
corresponding feasible space .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The constraints are treated as
equations along with the non-
negativity relations. Then
3XI + 5X2 = 10, 5XI + 3X2 =
15, Xl = 0,X2 = O.
or, +¥ = 1, = 1,
Xl = 0,X2 = O.

o
Figure: 9.1.1
The shaded portion is the required feasible region.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
(ii) The
constraints are treated
as equations along with
the non-negativity rela-
tions. Then Xl 2,
X2 = 3, Xl + X2 = 1,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
X2 = 3
-1---"*""-+--- Xl
o Xl +xi= 1
Figure: 9.1.2
The shaded portion is the required feasible region.
(iii) The constraints are treated as
equations along with the non-
negativity relations. Then
Xl + 5X2 = 15, 2Xl + X2 = 8,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
or ~ + ~ - 1 ~ + ~ - 1
'15 3 - '4 8 - ,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
Figure: 9.1.3
The shaded portion is the required feasible region.
(iv) The constraints are treated as
equations along with the non-
negativity relations. Then
Xl + 2X2 = 7, Xl - X2 = 4,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
or ~ + ~ - 1 ~ + ~ - 1
'7 3.5 - '4 -4 - ,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
X2
X + 2x -7
.. Xl - X2 = 4
~ ~ ~ ~ + - - X l
Figure: 9.1.4
The shaded portion is the required feasible region.
(v) The constraints are treated as
equations along with the non-
negativity relations. Then
Xl - X2 = 0, - 2XI + X2 = 2,
'VI = 0, X2 = 0.
or, Xl - X2 = 0, ~ + ¥ = 1,
Xl = 0,X2 = 0.
X2
-2Xl +X2 = 2
1 - X2 = °
- + - - + ~ ~ - ' X l
Figure: 9.1.5
The shaded portion is the required feasible region.
9.3
Exercise 1 (i) Find graphically the feasible space, if any, for the following
system of equation and inequations:
Xl + 2X2 < 3
9.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
4XI + 3X2 = 6
3XI + X2 > 3
Xl,X2 > o.
(ii) Determine the feasible space of the following LPP
Maximize z = 3Xl + 2X2
Subject to Xl - X2 < 1
Xl + X2 > 3
Xl, X2 > o.
(iii) Determine the feasible space of the following LPP
Minimize z = 9Xl + 7X2
when Xl + 2X2 < 7
Xl - X2 < 4
Xl,X2 > o.
(iv) Find graphically the feasible space for the following LPP:
Maximize Z = Xl + 3X2
3Xl + 6X2 < 8
5Xl + 2X2 < 10
XI,X2 >
o.
(v) Find graphically the feasible space, if any, for the
2.1:1 + 3X2 .::; 6
2Xl + 3X2 > 6
Xl,X2 > o.
(vi) Find graphically the feasible space, if any, for the following:
2Xl + X2 < 6
5Xl + 3X2 > 15
Xl, X2 > o.
(vii) Find graphically the feasible space, if any, for the following:
Xl + 2X2 < 4
Xl + 3X2 > 6
Xl,X2 > o.
CR.g: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
(viii) Sketch graphically the feasible region, if any, for the following:
Xl - x2 > 0
2XI + 3X2 < 6
Xl,X2 > O.
(ix) Find graphically the feasible space for the following LPP:
Maximize Z = Xl + 2X2
Xl + X2 < 2
Xl + X2 > 1
XI,X2 > O.
9.2 Mathematical Preliminaries
9.5
Ex. 1 (i) Express (7, 11) as a linear combination of 0 = (2,3) and /3 =
(3,5).
(ii) Express (5, 2, 1) as a linear combination of (1, 1,0) and (3, 0, 1).
(iii) Express the vector (1, 1, 1) as a linear combination of the vectors (1, 2,
3), (4,2, 1), (2,4,2) in E3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let (7,11) = a(2, 3) + b(3, 5) where a, b are scalers.
or, (7,11) = (2a + 3b, 3a + 5b)
Comparing we get 2a + 3b = 7, 3a + 5b = II.
Solving we get a = 2, b = I.
.'. the required relation is (7,11) = 2(2,3) + (3,5) = 20 + /3.
(ii) Let (5,2,1) = a(l, 1,0) + b(3, 0,1) = (a + 3b, a, b) where a, b are scalers.
Comparing we get a + 3b = 5, a = 2, b = I.
Solving we get a = 2, b = I.
.'. the required relation is'f, 1) = 2(1,1,0) + (3,0,1).
(iii) Let (1,1,1) = a(l, 2, 3) + b(4, 2,1) + c(2, 4, 2) = (a + 4b + 2c, 2a + 2b +
4c, 3a + b + 2c) where a, b, c are scalers.
Comparing we get
a + 4b + 2c = 1 (1)
2a + 2b + 4c = 1
3a + b + 2c = 1
(2)
(3)
9.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Using (1) x2 - (2) we get 6b = 1 or, b = 1/6 .
. '. (2) and (3) become
2a + 4c = 1 - 2/6 = 2/3 and 3a + 2c = 1 - 1/6 = 5/6.
Sl
' Ib 1 1
o vmg we get a = 4' = 6' c = 24'
. '. the required relation is
1 1 1
(1,1,1) = 4(1,2,3) + 6(4,2,1) + 24 (2, 4, 2).
Exercise 1 (i) Express b = (5,4) as a linear combination of al = (3,2),
ail = (2,1).
(ii) In the Euclidean space E2, show that the vector (1,3) can be expressed
as a linear combination of (1,2) and (2,3).
(iii) Express the vectors x = (5,9) as a linear combination of the vectors
a = (1,2),b = (3,5).
(iv) Express x = (4,5) as a linear combination of a = (1,3), b = (2,2).
(v) In Euclidean space E2, show that the vector (10,8) can be expressed as
a linear combination of the vectors (2,3) and (4,-1).
(vi) Express (5, 2, 1) as a linear combination of (1, 1, 0) and (3,0,1).
(vii) In three Euclidean space E3 express the vector (2,1, -8) as
linear combination of the vectors (3,0,2), (7,0,9) and (4,1,2).
[Ans. (i) b = 3al - 2a2, (ii) (1,3) = 3(1,2) - (2,3), (iii) x = 2a + b, (iv)
x = + (v) (10,8) = 3(2,3) + (4, -1), (vi) (5,2,1) = 2(1,1,0) + (3,0, 1),
(vii) (2,1, -8) = 4(3,0,2) - 2(7,0,9) + (4, 1,2).]
Def. 1 Linearly Dependent: A set of vectors {Xl, X2, ... , xn} of En is said
to be linearly dependent if there exists a set of scalars Ci, i = 1,2, ... , n not
all of which are zero, such that
where 0 is the null vector in En.
Def. 2 Linearly Independent: A set of vectors {Xl, X2, ... , xn} of En is
said to be linearly independent if the only set of Ci for which
holds, be Ci = 0, i = 1,2, ... , n.
Q. 1 Define linearly dependent and linearly independent set of vectors.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
ai b
i
Ci
Formula 1 Let ~ = a2 ~ C2
a3 b
3
C3
9.7
If ~ = ° then the vectors (ai, b
i
, Ci), (a2, b
2
, C2) and (a3, 03) C3) are linearly
dependent and if ~ i= ° then they are linearly independent.
Ex. 2 (i) Examine whether the set of vectors (1, 1, 0), (1, 1, 1) and (2, 1,
3) is linearly independent in E3.
(ii) Prove that vectors (2,2,8), (1,0,4) and (1,2,4) are linearly dependent.
(iii) Examine if the vectors (1,2, -3), (2, -3, 1) and (-3,1,2) are linearly
independent or not.
(iv) Show that the vectors (2, 1, 2), (8, 4, 8) are linearly dependent .
• SOLUTION:
110
(i) Here 1 1 1 = 1(3 - 1) - 1(3 - 2) + ° = 1 i= 0. Hence the given
213
vectors are linearly independent.
228
(ii) Here 1 ° 4 = 2(0 - 8) - 2(4 - 4) + 8(2 - 0) = 0. Hence the given
124
vectors are linearly dependent.
1 2-3
(iii) Here 2 -3 1 = 1(-6 -1) - 2(4 + 3) - 3(2 - 9) = 0. Hence the
-3 1 2
given vectors are linearly dependent.
(iv) Let a = (2,1,2), b = (8,4,8).
Let us consider the relation cia + C2b = 0.
or, Ci (2,1,2) + c2(8, 4, 8) = (0,0,0)
Comparing we get
2Ci +8C2 = O,Ci +4C2 = ° and 2Ci +8C2 = 0. Solving we get Ci = -4C2 =
k (say)
... Ci = k, C2 = -k/4 for any real k. As Ci i= 0, C2 i= ° the given vectors
are linearly dependent.
Exercise 2 (i) Prove that vectors a = (3,0, -3), b = (-1,1,2) and C =
(4,2, -2) are linearly dependent.
(ii) Prove that vectors (-1,2,1), (3,0,-1) and (-5,4,3) are linearly dependent.
(iii) Prove that vectors (1,1,0), (3,0,1) and (5,2,1) are linearly independent.
9.8 V.C. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Prove_that vectors (1, 2, ~ 4 ) , (3,2, -1) and (6,8, -13) are linearly de-
pendent.
(v) Show that (1, 2, 0), (0, 3, 1), (1, 0, 1) are linearly independent.
(vi) Show that the vectors (4, 3, 2), (2, 1, 4) and (2, 3, -8) are linearly
dependent.
Ex. 3 Does a set of vectors containing the null vector is linearly independent
? Give reason.
• SOLUTION: Let Xl, X2, ... ,X
r
be a set of vectors, they may be linearly
dependent or independent. Then for the scalars Cl, C2, •.• , Cr,
CIXI + C2X2 + ... + CrX
r
= 0 (1)
Now let () be the null vector .
. '. CIXI + C2
X
2 + ... + CrXr + Cr+l() = 0
or, c
r
+!() = 0 [using (1)]
This is true for any non zero value of Cr+!.
Hence a set of vectors containing null vector is linearly dependent.
Def. 3 Spanning set: A finite set of vectors SeEn (Euclidean space) is
said to span En if every vector of En can be expressed as a linear combination
of the vectors of the set S.
Q. 2 Define spanning set.
Def. 4 Basis: Any linearly independent set of vectors SeEn which spans
En is called a basis of En.
Q. 3 Define a basis in En.
Def. 5 Orthogonal Basis: A basis {Ol' 02, ... , a
r
} is said to be an orthog-
onal basis if for all i, j, i f. j, 0i.Oj = O.
Q. 4 Define orthogonal basis in En.
Ex. 4 Prove that S = {(I, 0, 0), (1, 1,0), (1, 1, I)} spans E3 .
• SOLUTION: Let (aI, a2, a3) E E3 be any vector. If the given vectors span
E3 then we can find a, b, C such that
(aI, a2, a3) = a(l, 0, 0) + b(l, 1,0) + c(l, 1, 1).
or, al = a + b + c, a2 = b + c, a3 = c.
i.e., C = a3,b = a2 - a3,a = al - a2 - a3.
From these equations, real value of a, b, C can be found uniquely. Hence the
given vectors span E3.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.9
Ex. 5 (i) Prove that the set of vectors (1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1) and (1, 0, 1) from
a basis of E3.
(ii) Show that the vectors a = (1,2,1), b = (2,3,0) and- c = (1,2,2) form a
basis in E3.
(iii) Can (1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (1,1,1) form an orthogonal basis in E3 ?
(iv) Show that the vectors (1,0,0), (0,2,0) and (0,0,3) form an orthogonal
basis .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The determinant formed by the given vectors is
110
° 1 1 which is equal to 1(1 - 0) - 1(0 - 1) = 2 -=I 0.
101
Thus the given vectors are linearly independent.
If the given vectors span E
3
, then for any vectors (aI, a2, a3) we can find
a, b, c such that
(aI, a2, a3) = a(l, 1,0) + b(O, 1, 1) + c(l, 0,1).
or, al = a + c, a2 = a + b, a3 = b + c. From these equations, real values
of a, b, c can be found. Hence the given vectors form a basis for E3.
(ii) The determinant formed by the given vectors is
1 2 1
2 3 ° =1(6 - 0) - 2(4 - 0) + 1(4 - 3) = -1 -=I 0.
122
Thus the given vectors are linearly independent.
Since the number of vectors is equal to the number of components of
each vector and they also linearly independent so the given vectors span
E3.
Hence the given vectors is a basis for E3.
(iii) The determinant formed by the given vectors is
1 ° °
o 1 ° = 1 -=I 0.
111
Thus the given vectors are linearly independent.
Since the number of vectors is equal to the number of components of
each vector and they also linearly independent so the given vectors span
E3.
Hence the given vectors form a basis for E3.
9.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Now, {(I, 0, 0).(0,1, On = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0,
but {(I, 0, 0).(1,1, In= 1 i= O .
. '. the vectors (1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (1,1,1) are not orthogonal.
Hence the given vectors does not form an orthogonal basis.
(iv) The determinant formed by the given vectors is
100
o 2 0 = 6 i= o.
003
Thus the given vectors are linearly independent.
If the given vectors span E
3
, then for any vectors (aI,a2,a3) we can find
a, b, c such that
(aI, a2, a3) = a(l, 0, 0) + b(O, 2, 0) + c(O, 0, 3).
or, al = a, a2 = 2b, a3 = 3c. From these equations, real values of a, b, c
can be found. Hence the given vectors span E3.
Again, {(I, 0, 0).(0, 2, On = 0, {(I, 0, 0).(0, 0, 3n = 0 and
{(O, 2, 0).(0, 0, 3)} = O.
Hence the given vectors form an orthogonal basis.
Exercise 3 (i) Prove that (1, 1,0), (1, -1, 0), (0,0,1) span E3.
(ii) Prove that the set of vectors (1, 1, 0), (1, -1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) from a
basis of E3. .
(iii) Do the vectors 01 = (1,0,7),02 = (4,0,6) and 03 = (1,0,0) from a basis
for E3 ? .
(iv) Do the vectors (1,1,0), (0,1,1) and (1,0,1) form a basis for E3 ?
(v) Examine whether the following vectors a = (1,2,3), b = (3, -2, 1) and
c = (4,2,1) form a basis for three dimensional space E3 ?
(vi) Show that the vectors (-1,1,0), (1, 1,0) and (0,0,1) form a basis in E3.
(vii) Does the vectors (1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6), (3, 6, 9) form a basis in E3 ?
[Ans. (iii) no, (iv) yes, (v) yes, (vi) yes, (vii) no.]
Def. 6 Feasible Solution (F.S.): In a linear programming problem a solu-
tion satisfying the constraints and non-negativity conditions is called a feasible
solution.
Q. 5 Define feasible solution.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.11
Def. 7 Basic Solution (B.S.): Let Ax = b be a m linear simultaneous
equations of n (n > m) variables. We assume that rank of A and rank of the
augmented matrix are equal to m.
If any m x m non-singular sub-matrix be chosen from A and if all the
remaing (n - m) varibales those are not associated with this sub-matrix be
set equal to zero, the solution to the reducing system of equations is a basic
solution.
Q. 6 Define basic solution.
Def. 8 Basic Feasible Solution (B.F.S.): In a linear programming prob-
lem a solution satisfying the constraints, non-negativity conditions and basic
is called a 'basic feasible solution.
Q. 7 DeHne basic feasible solution.
Def. 9 Degenerate Basic Solution: In a basic solution, at least (n - m)
variables must be zero. If the number of non-zero basic variables be less than
m or if anyone of the basic variables be zero, the solution is called degenerate
basic solution.
Q. 8 Define degenerate basic solution.
Ex. 6 Explain the difference between a basic solution and a degenerate basic
solution .
• SOLUTION: In the basic solution, the values of the basic variables are non-
zero, on the other hand, in degenerate basic solution the values of at least one
basic variable is zero.
Ex. 7 How many basic solutions are possible in a system of m-equations and
n-unknowns?
• SOLUTION: The maximum number of basic solutions in a system of m
equations in n unknowns is
nc _ n!
m - m!(n - m)!'
Ex. 8 (i) Find a basic solution of 2Xl + X2 + 4:t3 = 11, 3XI + X2 + 5X3 = 14.
(ii) In the given equations find the basic solutions with X3 as the non-basic
variable:
Xl + 4X2 - X3 = 3, 5Xl + 2X2 + 3X3 = 4.
9.12 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Show that Xl = 5, X2 = 0, X3 = -1 is a basic solution of the system of
equations
• SOLUTION:
Xl + 2X2 + X3 = 4
2XI + X2 + 5X3 = 5 .
(i) Let Xl = 0. Then the equations become
X2 + 4X3 = 11 and X2 + 5X3 = 14.
or, BX = b, where B = :], X = [ :: ] ,b = [ ].
Now, IBI = : = 1 ¥ 0, adj.(B) = .
. "" B-
1
= =
Hence X = B-Ib = [ ] = [ -! ].
""" (0, -1,3) is a basic solution.
(ii) Since X3 is a non-basic variable, we put X3 = 0 .
. "" the equations become BX = b, where
B = [! X = [ ] ,b = [ ! l
Now, IBI = I! I = -18 ¥ 0, adj.(B) = [
" B-1 = adj.B = [ 2 -4].
" " " IBI 18 -5 1
-4]
1 .
_ [ 2
HenceX=B lb=-ls -5
] [ ! ] = [ l
Hence a, 0) is a basic solution with X3 as a non-basic variable.
(iii) When X2 = 0, then the equations become
Xl + X3 = 4 and 2XI + 5X3 = 5.
or, BX = b, where B = !], X = [ :: ] ,b = [ : ].
Now, IBI = I ! 1= 5 - 2 = 3 ¥ 0.
Xl = 5, X2 = 0, X3 = -1 satisfy the given equations and the matrix B is
non-singular so it is a B.S.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.13
Ex. 9 (i) Find a basic feasible solution of the system:
1
(ii) Find a basic feasible solution of the following equations:
Xl + 3X2 + 2X3 + 4X4 10
2XI - X2 + 4X3 + 6X4 16.
(iii) Find two basic feasible solutions of the following equations:
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let X3 = 0. Then the equations become Xl = 1, X2 = 4.
Hence (1, 4, 0) is a basic feasible solution.
(ii) Let Xl and X2 be the non-basic variables. Setting Xl = X2 = 0. Then the
equations become 2X3 + 4X4 = 10, 4X3 + 6X4 = 16.
Solving we get X3 = 1, X4 = 2, both are positive.
Hence (0,0,1,2) is a basic feasible
(iii) Let X3 = 0. Then Xl = 1, X2 = 4 .
... (1,4,0) is a basic feasible solution.
Again, let Xl = O. Then X3 = 1/2 and X2 = 4 - 1/2 = 7/2.
So (0,7/2,1/2) is another basic feasible solution.
Exercise 4 (i) Find the basic solutions of the following system of equa-
tions:
Xl + X2 + X3 = 4, 2XI + 2X2 + 3X3 = 10.
(ii) Find a basic solution of the following system of equations:
Xl + X2 + X3 = 4
2XI + 5X2 - 2X3 = 3.
(iii) Find a basic feasible solution of the following equations:
2XI - 3X2 + X3 = 4
-2XI + X2 + 2X3 = 5.
9.14 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) Find a basic feasible solution of the system
Xl + 2X3 = 1
X2 + X3 4
Xl, X2, X3 > 0.
(v) Find the basic solutions of the following system of equations:
Xl + X2 + X3 8
3XI + 2X2 18
XI,X2,X3 > 0.
[Ans. (i) (0,2,2),(2,0,2), (ii) (\1,0, i), (iii) (!,0,3), (iv) (1,4,0), (v) (6,0,2),
(0,9,-1), (2,6,0).]
Def. 10 Point Sets: The point sets are the sets whose elements are points
or vectors in n-dimensional Euclidean space En.
The set X = {(XI, X2) : x ~ + x ~ < 4}, i.e., the set of all points lying inside
a circle of radius 2 with centre at the origin, is a point set in E2.
Q. 9 Define point sets.
Def. 11 Hyperplane: A set of points in n-dimensional space whose coordi-
nates satisfy the linear equation of the form
qXI + C2X2 + ... + CnXn = Z
is called a hyperplane for fixed values of z and Ci, i = 1,2, ... , n.
2XI - X2 + X3 + 8X4 = 5 is a hyperplane in 4-dimension.
Q. 10 Define hyperplane.
Def. 12 Open Half Spaces: The sets Xl = {x: ex < z} and
X2 = {x : ex > z} are- called open half spaces.
Q. 11 Define open half spaces.
Def. 13 Closed Half Spaces: The sets Xl
{x : ex 2': z} are called closed half spaces.
Q. 12 Define closed half spaces.
{x : ex ::; z} and X 2 =
Def. 14 Line: Let Xl a.nd X2 be two points in Euclidean space En. A line
in En passing through the points XI, X2 is defined to be the set of points
X = {x : X = >'X2 + (1 - >')Xl, >. is real}
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.15
Q. 13 Define line.
Def. 15 Interior Point: A point x is said to be an interior point of the set
X if an c:-neighbourhood about x contain only points of the set X.
Q. 14 Define interior point.
Def. 16 Boundary Point: A point x is said to be a boundary point if every
c:-neighbourhood about x contains points of the set and also points outside
the set.
Q. 15 Define boundary point.
Def. 17 Convex Combination: Let {Xl, x2, ... , xr} be a set of points in
, ,
En. The linear combination
x = AIXI + A2X2 + ... + ArXr
is said to be convex a combination if Ai 2': 0, i = 1,2, ... , r and Al + A2 + ... +
Ar = 1.
Q. 16 Define convex combinat:on.
Def. 18 Convex set: A set X is said to be convex set if for any two points
Xl, x2 in the set, all the points on the line segment joining these two points
are the member of the set X.
In other words, a set X is said to be a convex set if any convex combination
of any two points of the set X belongs to the set X.
The set X = {(Xl, X2) : xi + X ~ ::; 1} is a convex set.
Q. 17 Define a convex set.
Def. 19 Extreme Point: A point x in a convex set is said to be an extreme
point, if it does not lie on the line segment joining any two points other than
I
X in the set.
In other words, a point x in a convex set is said to be an extreme point if
x cannot be expressed as a convex combination of two other points.
Every point on the circumference of the circle xr + x ~ ::; 1 is an extreme point.
Q. 18 Define extreme point of a convex set.
Def. 20 Convex hull: Let X be a given set of points. The set of all convex
combinations of the set of points from X constitutes a convex hull of the given
set X.
9.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
If X be the set of points lying on the boundary of a circle then the circle with
its interior is the convex hull of the circle.
Q. 19 Define convex hull.
Def. 21 Convex Polyhedron: The set of all convex combinations of a finite
number of points is called the convex polyhedron generated by these points.
The convex hull of the eight vertices of a cube is a convex polyhedron.
Q. 20 Define polyhedron.
Def. 22 Simplex: An n dimensional convex polyhedron having exactly (n +
1) vertices is called a simplex.
A tetrahedron is a simplex in three dimensions.
Q. 21 Define simplex.
Ex. 10 Give examples of (i) convex hull in E2 and E3, (ii) convex polyhedron
in E
2
, (iii) simplex in E2 .
• SOLUTION: (i) The points lying on the boundary of a circle with its interior
is its convex hull in E
2
.
The whole cube is the convex hull of the set of points consisting of only the
eight vertices of the cube in E3.
(ii) The convex hull of the three vertices of a triangle is a convex polyhedron
in E
2
.
(iii) A triangle is a simplex in two dimensions.
Ex. 11 (i) Is the set of points (0,0), (0,1), (1,0) and (1,1) on the xy-plane
a convex set ?
(ii) Show that the set S = {(Xl, X2) : Xl + X2 ;::: 2} is convex.
(iii) Discuss whether the following set is convex or not
X = {x: Ixl::; 2}.
(iv) Examine whether the following set is convex
S = {(Xl, X2) : X2 ::; 4, Xl ;::: 2}.
(v) Examine whether the set
X = {(Xl. x2)12xI + X2 ::; 14,2xI + 3X2 ::; 22, Xl. X2 ;::: a} is a convex.
(vi) Discuss whether the following set is convex or not
X = {(Xl, X2) : X ~ + X ~ = 25}.
(vii) Show that the set of points on the line y = mx + c is convex.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.17
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here the number of points of the set is four, a finite number. A finite set
can not be a convex set. Hence the given points does not form a convex
set.
(ii) Let YI = (XI, X2) and Y2 = (X3, X4) be any two points of X.
Then Xl + X2 ~ 2 and X3 + X4 ~ 2.
Now, Y = )..YI + (1- )..)Y2,0:S)..:S 1
= )"(XI, X2) + (1 - )..)(X3, X4)
= ()..XI + (1 - )..)X3, )..X2 + (1 - )..)X4).
Let us consider
{>'XI + (1 - )..)X3} + {>.X2 + (1 - )..)xd
= )..(XI + X2) + (1 - >')(X3 + X4) ~ 2>' + 2(1 - )..) = 2.
Hence the given set is a convex set.
(iii) Let Xl, X2 EX. The we have IXII :S 2, IX21 :S 2.
Let us consider the convex combination of Xl and X2 which is
>'XI + (1- )..)X2,0:S)..:S 1.
Then I)..XI + (1 - )..)x21 :S )..IXII + (1 - )..)IX21 :S ),,2 + (1 ~ )..)2 = 2.
Thus the point determined by the convex combination of Xl, x2 is also
in X. Hence the given set is a convex set.
(iv) Let YI = (Xl, X2) and Y2 = (X3, X4) be two points in S.
Then Xl ~ 2, X2 :S 4, X3 ~ 2, X4 :S 4
Let Y = >'YI + (1 - )..)Y2, 0 :S ).. :S 1
= >'(XI,X2) + (1- )..)(Xa,X4)
= (>'XI + (1 - )..)xa, )..X2 + (1 - )..)X4).
Now, >'XI + (1 - )..)xa ~ 2)" + 2(1 - )..) = 2
and )..X2 + (1 - )..)X4 :S 4).. + 4(1 - )..) = 4 [using (1)]
... yES. Hence S is a convex set.
(v) Let YI = (XI,X2) and Y2 = (X3,X4) be two points in X.
Then 2XI + X2 :S 14,2xI + 3X2 :S 22, Xl ~ 0, X2 ~ 0
and 2X3 + X4 :S 14, 2xa + 3X4 :S 22, Xa ~ 0, X4 ~ 0
Let Y = )..YI + (1 - )..)Y2, 0 :S >. :S 1
= )..(XI, X2) + (1 - )..)(xa, X4)
= (>'XI + (1 - )..)xa, )..X2 + (1 - )..)X4).
(1)
(1)
9.18 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
2{'\Xl +(1-'\)x3}+{Ax2+(1-'\)xd = '\(2Xl +x2)+(1-,\)(2x3+x4) ~
14,\ + 14(1 - ,\) = 14.
Similarly, 2{AXl + (1 - '\)X3} + {AX2 + (1 - '\)xd ~ 22 .
. '. Y EX. Hence X is a convex set.
(vi) The set X, i.e., the points on the perimeter of a circle is not a convex
set, because, the line segment joining any two points on the perimeter,
does not lie on the boundary. Hence X is not a convex set.
(vii) Let X be the set of points on the line y = mx + c.
Let Yl = (Xl, mXl + c) and Y2 = (X2' mX2 + c) (since Y = mx + c) be two
points in X.
Let Y = )..Yl + (1 - )..)Y2, a ~ ).. ~ 1
= )..(Xl' mXl + c) + (1 - )..)(X2' mX2 + c)
= ()..Xl + (1 - )..)X2' )..(mxl + c) + (1 - )..)(mx2 + c))
= ()..Xl + (1 - )..)X2' m{)..xl + (1 - ,\)X2} + c) EX.
Hence X is a convex set.
(viii) In the figure, the
shaded region repre-
sents the set X. A
portion of the line
segment AB lies out-
side the shaded re-
gion. Hence the set
X is not a convex set.
o
Figure: 9.2.1
Exercise 5 (i) Prove that the set X = {(x, y)!x + 2y ~ 5} is a convex set.
(ii) If Xl, X2 be real, show that the set X = {(Xl, X2)!Xl +X2 ~ 50, Xl +2X2 ~
80, 2Xl + X2 ~ 20, Xl, X2 ~ a} is convex set.
(iii) Examine whether the following set is convex
S = {(Xl,X2)!Xl ~ 2,X2 ~ 3}
(iv) Examine whether the following set is convex
X = {(Xl, X2)!2xl + X2 ~ 20, Xl + 2X2 ~ 80, Xl + X2 ~ 50, Xl, X2 ~ a}.
[Ans. (iii) yes, (iv) yes.]
Ex. 12 (i) Find the extreme points, if any, of the following sets:
(a) S = {(x,y) : x2 + y2 ~ 25}
(b) S = {(x, y) : !xl ~ 1, !Y! ~ 1}
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.19
(ii) Does the set X = {(x, y)lx2 + y2 :::; 9} contain any extreme point?
• SOLUTION:
(i) (a) All the points on the circumference of the circle x
2
+ y2 = 25 are the
extreme points.
(b) We have S = {(x,y) : Ixl :::; 1, Iyl :::; I}
or, S = {(x, y) : -1 :::; x :::; 1, -1 :::; y :::; I}.
The four corner points (-1, -1), (-1,1), (1, -1), (1, 1) are extreme points.
(ii) All the points on the circumference of the circle x
2
+ y2 = 9 are the
extreme points of the set X.
Ex. 13 (i) In which of the half spaces determined by the hyperplane 3XI +
2X2 + 4X3 + 6X4 = 7, does the point (-6,1,7,2) lie?
(ii) A hyperplane is given by the equation 3XI + 2X2 + 4X3 + 7X4 = 8. Find
in which half space divided by the hyperplane the points (-6,1,7,2) and
(1,2,-4,1) lie.
(iii) Determine the position of the point (1, -2,3,4) relative to the hyper-
plane 4XI + 6X2 + 2X3 + X4 = 2 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We have P == 3XI + 2X2 + 4X3 + 6X4 - 7 = 0
At the origin, Po = -7 < O.
At (-6,1,7,2), PI = -18 + 2 + 28 + 12 - 7 = 17> O.
Since Po and PI are in opposite in sign, so the given point lies in the
open half space not containing the origin.
(ii) The given hyperplane P == 3XI + 2X2 + 4X3 + 7X4 - 8 = 0
At the origin, Po = -8 < O.
At (-6,1,7,2), PI = -18 + 2 + 28 + 14 - 8 ~ 18 > O.
Since Po and PI are in opposite in sign, so the given point lies in the open
half space not containing the origin, i.e., in 3XI + 2X2 + 4X3 + 7X4 > 8.
Again, at (1,2, -4, 1), P
2
= 3 + 4 - 16 + 7 - 8 = -10 < O.
Since Po and P2 have same sign, so the given point lies in the open half
space containing the origin, i.e., in 3XI + 2X2 + 4X3 + 7X4 < 8.
(iii) Here 4(1) + 6( -2) + 2(3) + 4 - 2 = O.
Hence the point (1, -2,3,4) lies on the hyperplane.
Exercise 6 A hyperplane is given by the equation 2XI + 3X2 + 4X3 + 5X4 = 7.
Find in which half space defined by the hyperplane the points (1,2,3,4) and
(1,2,3,-4) lie.
9.20 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 14 (i) Show that a hyperplane is a convex set.
(ii) Show that the intersection of two convex sets is also a convex set.
(iii) Show that the union of two convex sets is not necessary a convex set .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let us consider the hyperplane X = {x: ex = z}.
Let Xl and X2 be two points in X. Then eXI = z and eX2 = z.
Let Xa = AXI + (1 - A}X2, 0 ~ A ~ 1.
Then eXa = Aexi + (1 - A)ex2 = AZ + (1 - A}Z = z .
. '. Xa, a convex combination of Xl and X2, is in X. Hence, X is a convex
set.
(ii) Let Xl and X2 be two convex sets and X = Xl n X2.
Let Xl, X2 E Xl n X2· Implies XI,X2 E Xl and XI,X2 E X
2
.
Then AXI + (1 - A)X2 E Xl. 0 ~ A ~ 1 and
AXI + (1 - A}X2 E X
2
, 0 ~ A ~ 1.
Hence AXI + (1 - A}X2 E Xl n X
2
= X .
. '. the convex combination of Xl, x2 E X belongs to X.
Hence X is a convex set.
(iii) The triangular regions Figure (a) and Figure (b) are convex sets. But,
their union, shown in Figure (c) is not a convex set, as the line segment
AB does not lie wholly in the set.
(a) (b)
Figure: 9.2.2
·9.3 Simplex Method
~ B
(c)
Theorem 1 Fundamental theorem of linear programming: If the L.P.P.
has an optimal solution, then the optimal solution will coincide with at least
one basic feasible solution of the problem.
Q. 1 State the fundamental theorem of linear programming.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
Ex. 1 (i) Reduce the L.P.P.:
Maximize Z = 2Xl + X2 6X3
Subject to 3Xl
<
25
Xl + X2 + X3 = 20
4Xl + 6X3 > 5
2 ~ 2Xl + 3X3 < 30
Xl, X2, X3 >
0
into standard form.
(ii) Reduce the following L.P.P. to its standard form:
Maximize Z = 3Xl
+
3X2
Subject to 3Xl + 2X2
<
6
Xl - X2 >
-1
Xl + 2X2 <
1
Xl,X2 >
O.
(iii) Rewrite the following inequations in the form of equations:
(iv)
Xl - 2X2 + 5X3 > 6
2Xl + X2 - 7 X3 < 5
Xl, X3 > 0, X2 is unrestrict ion in sign.
Express the following LPP in the matrix form:
Maximize Z = 2Xl + 3X2
+
4X3
Subject to Xl + X2 + X3 >
5
Xl + 2X2
=
4
5Xl - 2X2 + X3 <
9
Xl, X2, X3 >
O.
9.21
(v) Write down the following LPP in its standard form introducing slack
and surplus variables.
Minimize Z = -3Xl + 2X2
Subject to Xl - 4X2 < -14
-3Xl + 2X2 < 6
Xl, X2 > O.
9.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) The constraint 2 ~ 2XI + 3X3 < 30 can be written as 2XI + 3X3 <
30,2xI + 3X3 ~ 2.
(ii)
Then the L.P.P. reduces to
Maximize Z = 2XI + X2 6
X
3
Subject to 3XI
<
25
Xl + X2 + X3 = 20
4XI + 6X3' > 5
2XI + 3X3 <
30
2XI + 3X3 >
2
Xl, X2, X3 >
O.
Introducing slack variables X4, Xs to the first and forth constraints and
surplus variables X6, X7 to the third and fifth constraints respectively.
The standard form of the given L.P.P. is
Maximize Z = 2XI + X2 6X3 + 0.X4 + O.xs + 0.X6 + 0,X7
Subject to 3XI + X4
=
25
Xl + X2 + X3
=
20
4XI + 6X3 - X6
=
5
2XI + 3X3 + Xs
=
30
2XI + 3X3 - X7
=
2
Xl, X2, X3, X4, XS, X6·, X7 > O.
The given problem can be rewritten as
Maximize Z = 3XI
+
3X2
Subject to 3XI + 2X2
<
6
-Xl + X2 <
1
Xl + 2X2 <
1
XI,X2 >
O.
Introducing slack variables X3, X4, Xs to the first, second and third con-
straints respectively.
The standard form of the given L.P.P. is
Maximize Z = 3XI + 3X2 + 0,X3 + 0.X4 + O.xs
Subject to 3Xl + 2X2 + X3 = 6
CR.g: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
-Xl + X2 + X4 = 1
Xl + 2X2 + x5 = 1
Xl,X2,Xa,X4,X5 > o.
9.23
(iii) Putting X2 = x ~ - x ~ . Introducing surplus variables X4 to the first
constraint and slack variable X5 to the second constraint respectively.
The standard form of the given constraints is
2' 2" 5 .
Xl - x2 + x2 + Xa - X4 - 6
2 ' "7 Xl + X2 - x2 - Xa + X5
5
, "
Xl,x2,x2,xa,X4,X5 >
o.
(iv) Introducing surplus variable X4 to the first constraint and b.ack variable
X5 to the third constraint respectively.
The standard form of the given L.P.P. is
Maximize Z = 2Xl + 3X2
+
4xa + 0.X4 + 0.X5
Subj'ect to Xl + X2 + Xa - X4
=
5
Xl + 2X2 -
4
5Xl - 2X2 + Xa + X5
=
9
Xl,X2,Xa,X4,X5 >
o.
The matrix form is AX = b, where A = [ ~ ~
5 -2
1 -1
00
1 0
Xl
X2
X= Xa
X4
X5
(v) We first rewritten the given problem as
Maximize Z* = 3Xl - 2X2
Subject to - Xl + 4X2 > 14
-3Xl + 2X2 < 6
Xl,X2 > o.
Introducing surplus variable Xa to the first constraint and slack variable
X4 to the second constraint respectively.
9.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
The standard form of the given L.P.P. is
Maximize Z· = 3XI - 2X2
+
0.X3 + 0.X4
Subject to - Xl + 4X2 - X3
=
14
-3XI + 2X2 + X4
=
6
Xl, X2, X3, X4 >
O.
Exercise 1 (i) Reduce the following L.P.P. to its standard form:
Maximize Z = 3XI 2X2
Subject to 2XI + X2
<
1
-Xl + 3X2 >
4
XI,X2 >
O.
(ii) Rewrite the following problem in equality form by introducing slack and
surplus variables and identify them:
Maximize Z = 2XI
+
3X2
Subject to Xl + 2X2
<
5
-3XI + 5X2 >
8
XI,X2 >
O.
(iii) Introduce slack and surplus variables convert system into standard form
Maximize Z = 2XI + X2
Subject to Xl
<
4
2XI + X2 >
1
XI,X2 >
O.
(iv) Express the following LPP in standard form with the help of slack and
surplus variables:
Maximize Z = 9XI + 2X2
Subject to 4XI - X2
<
120
Xl > 10
X2
<:
15
Xl,X2 >
O.
CH.9: ~ I N E A R PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
(v) Convert the following LPP:
Maximize Z = 6X1 + 7X2
Subject to 2X1 + 3X2 < 6
Xl + 7X2 > 4
X1,X2 > O.
into standard form by introducing slack and surplus variables.
9.25
(vi) Express the following LPP in normal (standard) form with the help of
slack and surplus variables:
Maximize Z = 4X1 - 5X2
Subject to Xl + X2 < 13
X2 >
10
X1,X2 >
O.
(vii) Express the following LPP in normal (standard) form with the help of
slack and surplus variables:
Maximize Z = 7X1 + 2X2
SUbject to - 2X1 + 3X2
<
5
-Xl + 8X2 >
6
Xl <
3
X2 <
4
X1,X2 >
O.
(viii) Introduce slack and surplus variables to convert the system into standard
form:
Zmax = 3X1 - 2X2
Subject to Xl ~ -5
3X1 - 5X2 ~ 3 and Xl, X2 ~ O.
[Ans. (i)
Max Z = 3X1 - 2X2 '
Subject to 2X1 + X2 + X3 = 1
-Xl + 3X2 - X4 = 4
Xl, X2, X3, X4 >
O.
(ii) Max Z = 2X1 + 3X2
Subject to Xl + 2X2 + X3 =
5
-3X1 + 5X2 - X4 =
8
X1,X2,X3,X4 > 0
9.26 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
X3 is slack variable and X4 is surplus variable.
(iii) Max Z = 2XI + X2
(iv)
Subject to Xl + X3 4
2XI + X2 - X4 = 1
Xl, X2, X3, X4 > o.
Max Z = 9XI + 2X2
Subject to 4XI - X2 + X3
=
120
Xl - X4
=
10
X2 +xs
=
15
Xl, X2, X3, X4, Xs >
o.
(v) Max Z = 6XI + 7 X2
Subject to 2XI + 3X2 + X3
=
6
Xl + 7X2 - X4
=
4
Xl, X2, X3, X4 > o.
(vi) Max Z = 4XI - 5X2
Subject to Xl + X2 + X3
=
13
X2 -X4
=
10
Xl, X2, X3, X4 >
o.
(vii) Max Z = 7XI + 2X2
Subject to
- 2XI + 3X2 + X3
=
5
-Xl + 8X2 - X4
-
6
Xl + Xs
=
3
X2 +X6
=
4
XI,X2,X3,X4,XS,X6 >
o.
( viii) Max Z = 3XI - 2X2
Subject to - Xl + X3
=
5
3XI - 5X2 - X4
=
3
Xl, X2, X3, X4 >
o.
9.4 Duality
Ex. 1 (i) Construct the dual problem from a given standard linear pro-
gramming problem.
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
(ii) Find the dual of the L.P.P
(iii)
Maximize Z = 3Xl
+
2X2
Subject to 3Xl + 4X2 < 22
3Xl + 2X3 < 16
The dual of the problem is
XI,X2 > O.
Minimize z = 7Xl + 13x2
Subject to 3XI + 7X2 > 4
4Xl - 2X2 > 4
XI,X2 > O.
Find the primal problem.
(iv) Write down the dual of the following L.P.P:
Maximize Z = 6XI + 8X2 10X3
Subject to Xl + X2 - X3 > 2
2XI - X3 >
1
xl,X2, X3 > O.
(v) Find the dual of the following L.P.P:
Maximize Z = Xl + X2
Subject to 2Xl + X2 < 10
Xl + 3X2 = 3
Xl, X2 > O •
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let us consider the L.P.P.
Maximize z = ex
subject to Ax ~ b
x ~ O
9.27
Here A is an m x n matrix, x and e are n-component column and rm"
matrices ann b is an m-component column matrix.
The dual problem of this primal problem is
Minimize w = btv
subject to A tv ~ e
t
v ~ O
where v is an m-component column matrix.
9.28 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Note 1 If the primal problem be
Minimize z = ex
subject to Ax ~ b
x ~ o
then its dual problem is
Maximize w = btv
subject to A tv ~ e
t
v ~ o.
(ii) It is a maximization problem and the constraints are of ' ~ ' type. So its
dual problem is
Minimize w = 22vI + 16v2
Subject to 3VI + 3V2
>
3
4VI + 2V2 >
2
VI, V2 > 0
or,
Minimize w = 22vI + 16v2
Subject to VI + V2 >
1
2VI + V2 >
1
VI,V2 >
o.
(iii) It is a minimization problem and the constraints are of ' ~ ' type. So its
dual problem is
Maximize w = 4VI + 4V2
Subject to 3VI + 4V2 < 7
7VI - 2V2 <
13
VI,V2 > o.
(iv) We first rewrite the problem in the following form
lOxg
-2
Maximize Z = 6XI + 8X2
Subject to - Xl - X2 + Xg <
-2XI + Xg ~ -1
> o.
(v)
CH.9: LINEAl. .?ROGRAMMTNG PROBLEM
It is a maximization problem and the constraints are of ':::;' type.
dual problem is
Minimize w = -2VI - V2
Subject to - VI - 2V2
>
6
-VI
>
8
VI + V2 >
-10
VI,V2 >
0
or,
Maximize w* = 2VI + V2
Subject to - VI - 2V2
>
6
-VI
>
8
-VI - V2 <
10
V!, V2 >
O.
The given problem is rewrite as
Maximize Z = Xl + X2
Subject to 2XI + X2 <
10
Xl + 3X2 <
3
-Xl - 3X2 < -3
XI,X2 >
O.
It is a maximization problem and the constraints are of ':::;' type.
dual problem is
or,
Minimize w = 10VI + 3V2
Subject to 2Vl + V2 - V3
VI + 3V2 - 3V3
Minimize w = 10VI + 3 v ~
Subject to 2VI + v ~ > 1
VI + 3 v ~ > 1
v!, V2, V3
3V3
>
1
>
1
>
0
9.29
So its
So its
VI > 0, v ~ = V2 - V3 unrestricted in sign.
9.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 1 (i) Find the dual of the L.P.P
Zmaz = 4XI + 2X2
Subject to 3XI + 4X2 < 7
7XI - 2X2 < 13
Xl, X2 > O.
(ii) Write down the dual of the following primal problem:
Maximize Z = 2XI
+
3X2
Subject to Xl + 2X2 < 3
Xl + X2 < 5
XI,X2 > O.
(iii) Write down the dual of the following L.P.P:
Maximize Z = lOXI + 15x2
Subject to Xl + 4X2 < 20
4XI + X2 <
·35
XI,X2 >
(iv) Find the dual of the L.P.P
Zmaz = 3XI - 7X2
Subject to xl - 7X3 > 1
Xl + 3X3 < 5
XbX2,X3 > O.
(v) Find the dual of the following problem:
Minimize Z = Xl + 5X2
Subject to 3XI + 4X2 < 6
Xl + 3X2 :::; 2
Xl, X2 ~ O.
(vi) Find the dual of the primal L.P.P
O.
Maximize Z = 2XI + 3XI 4X3
Subject to 5XI - 2X2 + X3 :::; 4
Xl + X2 + 4X3 < 7
Xl! X2, X3 > O.
CH.9: LINEAl\, PROBLEM 9.31
[Ans. (i)
Min w = 7Vl + 13v2
Subject to 3Vl + 7V2 > 4
4VI - 2V2
:> 2
Vl,V2 > O.
(ii)
Min w = 3Vl +5V2
Subject to VI + V2 >
2
2VI + v2 > 3
VI,V2 >
O.
(iii)
Min w = 20VI + 35v2
Subject to VI + 4V2 >
10
4Vl + V2 >
15
Vl,V2 >
O.
(iv)
Min w = -VI + 5V2
Subject to - VI + V2 >
3
-7Vl - 3V2
<
7
Vl,V2 >
O.
(v)
Min w = -6Vl - 2V2
Subject to - 3Vl - V2
<
1
-4VI - 3V2
<
5
Vl,V2 >
O.
(vi)
Min w = 4VI + 7V2
Subject to 5Vl + V2 >
2
-2Vl + V2 >
3
VI + 4V2 >
-4
Vb
V
2 >
O.
9.5 Transportation Problem
Def. 1 Transportation Problem: A transportation problem is a particular
type of linear programming problem. Here a particular commodity which
stored at different origins is to be transported to different destinations in such
a way that the transportation cost is minimum.
Let there be m origins 0
1
, 02, ... , Om and the quantity available at origin
Oi be ai, i = 1,2, ... , m and let there be n destinations Db D2,"" Dn and
the demand at the destination Dj be bj, j = 1,2, ... , n.
·9 .. 32 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHoaT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
m --.............. n
Now, if L ai '= L b
j
then the transportation problem is called a balanced
i=l j=l
transportation problem.
Q. 1 (i) What do you mean by a transportation problem?
(ii) Define a balanced transportation problem.
Ex. 1 Express a general transportation problem in mathematical form.
or
Write down the general transportation problem involving m origins and n
destinations as a linear programming problem .
• SOLUTION: A general transportation problem involving m origins and n
destination is stated as below:
Minimize z = ex
Subject to Ax = h, x 2: O.
Where e = (CU,CI2, ... ,Cij, ... ,Cmn) is an mn-components row vector,
x = [xu, X12,··., Xij, ... ,xmnl is an mn-components column vector,
h = [aI, a2,"" am, b
l
, b
2
,· .. , bnfis an (m+n)-components column vector and
A = [an, aI2, ... , aij, .. · , amnl is the coefficient matrix in which aij is the
column vector associated with the variable Xij.
Ex. 2 (i) Using north west corner method find the initial basic feasible
solution to the following transportation problem:
8
9
3
(ii) Find the initial basic feasible solution of the following transportation
problem by matrix minima method:
I ~
5
5
10
4
(iii) Find the initial basic feasible solution by row minima method for the
following transportation problem:
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.33
D1 D2-' D3
0
1
14 6 8 4
O
2
12 4 9 3
0
3
5 1 2 6
6 10 15
(iv) Find the initial basic solution by column minima method for the
following transportation problem:
I
II
III
A
50
90
270
4
B
30
45
200
2
c
220
170
50
2
1
3
4
(v) Find a feasible solution of the following transportation problem by VAM
2
3
20
D3
1 130
2 40
30
(vi) Using north west corner method find the initial basic feasible solution
to the following problem:
D1 D2 D3 D4
0
1
3 7 2 1 11
O
2
9 4 7 3 20
03 10 2 8 3 35
10 5 21 30
Is this solution non-degenerate ?
• SOLUTION:
(i) Applying north-west corner method to find initial B.F.S.
D1
8 5
3 6
9.34 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
The initial B.F.S. is Xu = 6, XI2 = 3, XI3 = 1, X23 = 5.
(ii) Minimum'value among all elements is 5. Selecting this value firstly.
DI D2 D3
..!J
6 5 8 8
5
~
6 7
5 4 6
The next minimum element among the elements offirst and third columns
is 5. The reduce matrix is
4
7
5 6
The initial B.F.S. is X12 = 4, Xl3 = 4, X21 = 5, X23 = 2.
(iii) Applying row minima method to find an initial B.F.S.
Dl D D
14
12
03
5
The initial B.F.S. is XI3 = 14, X21 = 6, X22 = 5, X23 = 1, X32 = 5.
(iv) Applying column minima method to find an initial B.F.S.
ABC
I
1
3
II
4
2
CH.9:, LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
The initial B.F.S. is Xu = 1, X21 = 3, X32 = 2, X33 = 2.
(v) Applying VAM to find an initial B.F.S.
D2
01
1--.::...r-r=-t--r=--l30 (0) 10 (1) x
IC..--_..I....-_..l...-_..J
40(1) 40 (1) 40
x
20 20
The initial B.F.S. is Xu = 20, X13 = 10, X22 = 20, X23 = 20.
(vi) Applying north-west corner method to find an initial B.F.S.
11
20
35
9.35
The initial B.F.S. is Xu = 10, Xu = 1, X22 = 4, X23= 16, X33 = 5, X34 =
30.
All the values are non-zero, so the solution is non-degenerate.
Exercise 1 (i) Using north west corner method find the initial basic feasi-
ble solution to the following transportation problem:
Dl D2 D3 ai
0
1
3 2 5 6
0
2
9 1 2 10
03
4 3 1 12
bj 9 16 3
(ii) Using north west corner method find the initial basic feasible solution
to the following transportation problem:
9.36 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
8
9
3
(iii) Find the initial basic feasible solution of the following transportation
problem by North-West corner
1
4 6
(iv) Using North-West corner method, find the initial basic feasible solution
to the following transportation problem:
20
15
300
10 1500.
25 500
400
(v) Using North-West corner method, find the initial basic feasible solution
to the following transportation problem:
8
9
3
(vi) Using north west corner method find the initial basic feasible solution
to the following transportation problem:
8
5
5
(vii) Find the initial basic feasible solution by North-West corner method for
the following transportation problem:
6 8 4
4 9 3
1 2 6
6 10 15
14
12
5
CR.!): LTNEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.37
(viii) Find an initial B.F.S. of the following T.P. by North-'West corner rule:
8 7 3 60
3 8 9 70
11 3 5 80
50 80 80
[Ans. (i) Xu = 6, X21 = 3, X22 = 7, X32 = 9, X33 = 3, (ii) Xu == 5, X12 =
3, X13 = 2, X23 = 5, (iii) Xu = 5, X12 = 3, X22 = 1, X23 = 6, (iv) Xu =
300, X12 = 200, X22 = 100, X23 = 400, (v) Xu = 6, X12 = 3, X13 = 1, X23 = 5,
(vi) Xu = 6, X12 = 4, X22 = 1, X23 = 4, (vii) Xu = 6, X12 = 8, X22 = 2, X23 =
10, X33 = 5, (viii) Xu = 50, X12 = 10, X22 = 70, X33 = 80.]
9.6 Assignment Problem
Def. 1 Assignment Problem: The assignment problem is a particular type
of transportation problem where all the origins (or jobs) are to be assigned to
an equal number of destinations (or machines) in one-to-one basis such that
the assignment cost is minimum (or maximum).
Q. 1 Define an assignment problem.
Ex. 1 State why an assignment problem is not a LPP ?
• SOLUTION: Let Cij is the cost of assigning the ith job to the jth facility.
The assignment problem is
Determine Xij ~ 0; i, j = 1,2, ... ,m which optimizes the total cost
m m m m
Z = L L CijXij subject to L Xij = 1, i = 1,2, ... , m and L Xij = 1, j =
i=l j=l j=l i=l
1,2, ... ,m. The required Xij ~ 0 in the problem has explicit form
X,. = {I, if the ith job be assigned to the jth facility
~ J 0, otherwise
and as such the assignment problem is not a L.P.P. as the variables Xij can
assume only 0 and 1.
Ex. 2 (i) The following assignment problem is a maximization problem
9.38 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
convert it to a minimization problem.
(ii) Solve the following assignment problem:
Salesman I II III IV territory
A 0 14 9 3
B 9 20 0 22
C 23 0 3 0
D 9 12 14 0
(iii) Solve the following assignment problem:
I II III
A 6 14 17
B 16 2 12
C 19 10 9
(iv) Solve the following assignment problem:
I II III
A 11 23 16
B 22 25 19
C 29 13 27
• SOLUTION:
(i) To convert the given problem a minimization problem we subtract all
the elements from a large number 9. The reduce problem is:
(ii) Here each row and each column contains at least one zero. Now, we
draw minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines to cover all the
zeros.
A
B
C
D
I II III IV
,
1 ~
q
~
~
~
29
q
22
2 ~
q
3
q
~
1 ~ 1 ~
q
Cf-I.!): LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.39
Here the number of lines is equal to the order of the mn.trix. For optimal
assignment we consider only the zero elements.
I II III IV
A
B ~ - - + - - - - r - - ~ - - ~
C
D r - - - ~ - - r - - - 4 - ~ ~
Hence the optimal assignment is A --+ I, B --+ II I, C --+ I I, D --+ IV
and the minimum cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 units.
(iii) We subtract the minimum element of each row from all elements of the
corresponding row. The reduce cost matrix becomes:
I II III
A 0
B 14
C 10
8
o
1
11
10
o
We draw the minimum number of lines to cover all the zeros.
ABC
I ..... (} .......... -8.. . ···11·· ..
II ···14···· ·····0 ..... ··-lB····
III ···10···· ·····1····· ·····0······
Here the number of lines is equal to the order of the matrix. For optimal
assignment we consider only the zero elements.
I II III
~ ~
Hence the optimal assignment is A --+ I, B --+ I I, C --+ I I I and the
minimum cost is 6+2+9=17 units.
(iv) We subtract the minimum element of each row from all elements of the
corresponding row. The reduce cost matrix becomes:
9.40 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
I II III
A 0 12 5
B 3 6 0
C 16 0 14
We draw the minimum number of lines to cover all the zeros.
ABC
I ····0···· ····12········-5······
II ·····3···········6··· .. ······0······
III ···t6····· ·····0······ ···14····
Here the number of lines is equal to the order of the matrix. For optimal
assignment we consider only the zero elements.
I II III
H ~
Hence the optimal assignment is A -+ I, B -+ Ill, C -+ I I and the
minimum cost is 11+19+13=43 units.
Exercise 1 (i) The following assignment problem is a maximization prob-
lem
I II III
A 16 25 35
B 6 22 2
C 11 22 19
convert it to a minimization problem.
(ii) Solve the following assignment problem:
I II III IV
A 0 1 3 2
B 9 6 0 3
C 3 0 2 1
D 5 2 1 0
(iii) Solve the following assignment problem:
CH.9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM 9.41
I II III
A 16 22 7
B 26 2 23
C 1 19 19
(iv) Solve the following assignment problem:
I II III
A 1 3 1
B 2 5 11
C 2 3 10
(h.lD II Dynamics of Particles
10.1 Principle of Dynamics
Formula 1 (i) If x is the displacement of a particle at time t then its
velocity (v)= ~ : .
(ii) If v be the velocity of a particle at time t then its acceleration
dv d
2
x dv
(f) = dt = dt2 = v dx '
where x is the displacement of the particle at time t.
(iii) If a particle is moving in a plane with displacement in x and y directions
are respectively x and y then its velocity is
(
dX)2 (dY)2
dt + dt and its acceleration is
Ex. 1 (i) The law of motion of a body moving along a straight line is
x = !vt; prove that its acceleration is constant.
(ii) The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line is given by the relation
v
2
= ax
2
+ c, (a i- 0). Prove that its acceleration varies as the distance
from the origin in the line.
(iii) If a particle moves in a straight line according to the law x = 4 sin( 2t + a),
prove that v
2
= 4(16 - x
2
), where v and x are respectively the velocity
and distance traversed in time t.
(iv) A particle moves along a straight line so that after t sees, its distance 8
from fixed point 0 on the line is given by 8 = (t - 1)2(t - 2). Find its
distance from 0 when its velocity is zero.
(v) A particle moves along a straight line according to the law 8
2
= 6t
2
+
4t + 3. Prove that the' acceleration varies as 1/8
3
.
(vi) The displacement x at time t of a particle moving along the x-axis is
given by t = ax
2
+ bx, where a, b are constants .. Express the velocity
v of the particle at any moment as a function of x and prove that the
retardation of the particle is 2av
3
.
(vii) A particle moves in a straight line according to the law v
2
= 6a(xsinx+
cos x), where x is the distance from a fixed point on the line at any
instant and v is the velocity there. Find its acceleration.
10.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(viii) If a particle moves in a straight line according to the law x = a sin(j.£t + c),
prove that v
2
= (a
2
- x
2
)j.£2, where v and x are respectively the velocity
and distance traversed in time t.
(ix) The coordinates of moving point at time t are x = a(2t + sin2t), y =
a (1 - cos 2t). Prove that its acceleration is constant.
(x) The acceleration of a particle starting from rest and moving along a line
is given by the relation f = 15 - 0.4t
2
. Determine the velocity and
distance described after time t.
(xi) The acceleration of a particle t secs. after it starts from rest is ~ e - 2 a t
ftj(sec)2. Find the maximum velocity.
(xii) If the position of a moving point is given by x = acost and y = bsin2t,
find the path.
(xiii) A wheel makes 400 revolution per hour. What is its angular velocity per
second?
• SOLUTION:
(
i) H 1
ere x = '2vt.
Differentiating w.r.t t, we have
dx 1 dv
dt = '2 [v + t dt 1 or,
1 1 dv
-v = -t-
2 2 dt
dv dv dt
or, v = t dt or, -; = t'
Integrating we get log v = log t + log c
or, log(vjc) = logt or, v = ct
. dv
dt = c =constant.
Thus the acceleration is constant.
(ii) Here v
2
= ax
2
+ c.
Differentiating w.r.t x we get
dv dv
2v dx = 2ax or, v dx <X X.
the acceleratioll is proportional to distance.
CIi.!o: OF PARTICLES
(iii) We have x = 4sin(2t + a).
. dx
.. dt = 8cos(2t + a)
or, v
2
= 64cos
2
(2t + a) = 64{1 - sin2(2t + a)}
or, v
2
= 64(1 - x
2
/16) = 4(16 - x
2
).
(iv) Here s = (t - 1)2(t - 2).
ds 2
... dt = 2(t - 1)(t - 2) + (t - 1) = (t - 1)(3t - 5).
ds
Hence dt = 0 when t = 1 and t = 5/3.
When t = 5/3,
s = (5/3 - 1)2(5/3 - 2) = 4/9( -1/3) = -4/27.
When t = 1, s = o.
Hence the required distances from 0 are 4/27 and O.
(v) Given s2 = 6t
2
+ 4t + 3.
Differentiating w.r.t t we get
ds ds 6t + 2 2 1/2
2s-
d
=12t+4,or,-=--=(6t+2)(6t +4t+3)- .
t dt s
Again differentiating w.r.t t, we obtain
d
2
s
- = 6(6t
2
+ 4t + 3)-1/2
dt
2
+(6t + 2)( -1/2)(6t
2
+ 4t + 3)-3/2(12t + 4)
6(6t
2
+ 4t + 3) - (6t + 2)2 18 - 4 14
(6t
2
+ 4t + 3)3/2 = (s2)3/2 - -,;3.
H I
··· 1
ence acce eratlOn IS vanes as "3'
s
(vi) Here t = ax
2
+ bx.
D
'a .. dt 2 b
Illerentlatmg w.r.t x we get - = ax +
dx
dx 1 . d'
or, v = - = , is the velocIty at any Istance x.
dt 2ax + b
Again differentiating w.r.t x we get
dv 2a dv 2a 3
- = - or v- = - = -2av .
dx (2ax + b)2 , dx (2ax + b)3
Hence the retardation of the particle is 2av
3
.
(vii) Given v
2
= 6a(xsinx + cos x).
Differentiating w.r.t x we obtain
2v = 6a(sinx + xcosx - sinx) = 6axcosx.
Hence the acceleration is v = 3ax cos x.
10.3
10.4 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(viii) We have x = asinC{Lt+e).
Differentiating w.r.t t we get
dx
v = dt = a{Lcos({Lt + e).
or, v
2
= a
2
{L2 cos
2
({Lt + e) = a
2
{L2{1 - sin
2
({Lt + e)}
= a
2
{L2(1 - x
2
1a
2
) = {L2(a
2
- x
2
).
(ix) Here x = a(2t + sin2t), y = a(l - cos 2t).
Differentiating w.r.t t, we obtain
x = a(2 + 2 cos 2t) and iJ = 2a sin 2t.
Again differentiating w.r.t t we get
fi = -4a sin 2t and jj = 4a cos 2t.
Hence the acceleration is
Vfi
2
+ jj2 = V16a
2
sin
2
2t + 16a
2
cos
2
2t = 4a, which is constant.
d
2
x 2
(x) Here f = -2 = 15 - O.4t .
dt
Integrating w.r. t t we get
dx = 15t _ 0.4 t
3
+ c
dt 3
Since v = 0, t = 0, c = O.
. . 0.4 3
the velocIty IS 11 = 15t - Tt .
Again integrating we get
t
2
0.4 4
x = 15- - -t +d
2 12
Initially, x = 0, t = 0, so d = O.
H h . d d' 15 2 0.4 4
ence t e reqmre Istance x = 2"t - 12t .
d
2
x 1
(xi) Given - = _e-
2at
.
dt
2
2
Integrating = + c.
I
.. 11 0 dx O' 1
mba y, t = 'dt =. c = 4"
dx 1 2 t
Hence dt = 4'(1 - e- a ) ftjsec.
will be maximum when e-
2at
is zero.
When t -+ 00, e-
2af
-+ O.
Hence the maximum velocity is i ft/sec.
(xii) We have x = a cos t, y = b sin 2t.
Now, y = bsin2t = 2bcos tsint = 2b(xja)V1- cos
2
t
CH.10 :)YNAMICS OF PARTICLES
2xb./
= -;;:v 1- x
2
/a
2
or, y2 = 4b
2
;2 (1 _ x
2
/a
2
) which is the required path.
a
10,5
(xiii) The wheel moves 400 x 211" radian per hour. So its angular velocity is
400 x 211"
60 x 60 rad/sec= 2; rad/sec=40 degree/sec.
Exercise 1 (i) The distance of a particle moving along a straight line from
a fixed point at time t is given by 8
2
= at
2
+ 2bt + c, where a, b, care
constants, prove that the acceleration ex: ~ .
(ii) The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line is given by the relation
v
2
= ax
2
+ 2bx + c. Prove that its acceleration varies as the distance
from a fixed point in the plane.
(iii) A particle moves along a straight line according to the law 8
2
= t
2
+2t+3.
Show that its acceleration varies inversely as s3.
(iv) The velocity v of a particle moving along a straight line given by the
relation v
2
= as
2
+ b where 8 is the distance travelled from a fixed point
on the line and a, b are constants. Prove that its acceleration varies as
the distance from the fixed point on the line.
(v) A wheel makes 200 revolution per hour. What is its angular velocity in
radians per second?
(vi) The distance in ems. described by a particle in t sees., is given by
8 = at
2
+ bt + c. Find the velocity at the end of 3 sees. and acceleration
at the end of 8 sees.
[Ans. (v) 11"/9 rad/sec., (vi) (6a + b) em/sec, 2a cm/sec
2
.]
10.2 Work, Power and Energy
Def. 1 Work: If the force is constant, the work done by it is defined as the
product of the magnitude of the force and the distance through which the
point of application of the force moves in the direction of the force.
That is, Work = Force x displacement along the action of the force.
Q, 1 Define work.
Def. 2 Power: Power is the rate of work done.
That is, Power= ~ s = Fv, where F is the force, s is displacement, t is the
time duration and v is the uniform velocity.
10.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 2 Define power.
Def. 3 Energy: Energy is defined as the capacity of doing work by a man
or machine. The energy are mainly classified as kinetic energy (K.E.) and
potential energy (P.E.).
Kinetic Energy: Kinetic energy of a body is the capacity of its doing work
by virtue of its motion and is measured by the amount of work that the applied
force will do in bringing the body to rest.
The K.E. of a particle of mass m moving with velocity v at time t is
Potential Energy: Potential energy of a body is its capacity for doing work
by virtue of its position and is measured by the amount of work that the forces
acting on the body will do when the body moves from its present position to
some fixed position.
The P.E. of a particle of mass m placed at a height h above the ground is
mgh.
Q. 3 Define energy, kinetic energy and potential energy.
Ex. 1 State the principle of conservation of energy .
• SOLUTION: The change in kinetic energy of a body is equal to the work
done by the acting force.
Ex. 2 (i) How much work is done in rising a mass of 2 kg. to a height of 5
meters?
(ii) The velocities of a particle of mass m moving with uniform acceleration
at two instances are VI ft/sec and V2 ft/sec. Find the work done by the
force during this period.
(iii) For uniform acceleration motion of a particle of unit mass its velocities
at two instances are 3ft/sec and 5ft/sec. Find the work done by its force
during this interval time.
(iv) What is the work by gravity of mass mlb during the t-th
second of its fall ?
(v) What is the work by gravity on a stone of mass 70 gms, during the 10
th second of its fall ?
• SOLUTION:
(i) Weight of the mass = 2 x 1000 x 980 dynes and displacement = 5 x 100
c.m .
... work done = 2 x 1000 x 980 x 5 x 100 ergs = 98 x 10
7
ergs = 98
joules.
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.7
(ii) Let VI and V2 be the velocities of a particle at the points A (at a distance
a) and B (at a distance b). The work done by the force F is
r
b
r
b
dv r
2
1 1
J a F ds = J a mv ds ds = J VI mv dv = - poundals.
(iii) Here m = 1, VI = 3 ft/sec and V2 = 5 ft/sec.
. the work done
(iv)
1212122
= "2mV2 - "2mVl = "2
m
(V2 - VI)
= !.1.(25 - 9) = 8 poundals = 3
8
2 ft-Ibs
= i ft-Ibs.
1
The displacement after t second is s = "2gt2 and the work done at this
time = =
The velocity at (t - 1 )th and tth secs are respectively
1 1
"2mg2 (t - 1)2 and "2m
g2
t
2
.
. the work done at tth sec is
1 1
"2m
g2
{t
2
- (t - 1)2} = "2mg2(2t - 1) poundals.
(v) We know that the work done by a mass m at tth sec. is - 1).
Here m = 70 gm, 9 = 980 cm/sec
2
, t = 10 sec.
the work done is ! x 70 x 980
2
(2.10 - 1) = 6.39 X 10
8
erg.
Ex. 3 (i) Prove that the K.E. of a body of mass m and moving with velocity
v is
(ii) Prove that the change in kinetic energy of a body of mass m is equal to
the work done by acting forces.
(iii) A particle is falling freely under gravity, show that the sum of K.E. and
the P.E. is constant during the motion.
(iv) Show that the rate of change of K.E. of a particle is equal to its power.
(v) At what height would the K.E. of a body falling from a height h be equal
to half its P.E. ?
10.8 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let a particle of mass m moving along the line OX. Also let V be the
velocity at A (OA = a) on OX.,
A force F acting along X 0 a
opposite to the direction of
1__---_+
motion brings the particle to X
rest at B (0 B = b). Let P be 0 A B
any point on OX (OP = x). Figure: 10.2.1
The velocity of the particle at P be v. Then F = -mv dv,
dx
Hence the total work done by the force to brings the particle from A to
B is
rb Fdx = _ r
b
mv
d
dv
dx = _ rO mvdv = !mV
2
.
Ja J
a
x J
v
2
Thus the KE. is !mV
2
.
(ii) Let u and v be the velocities of a particle of mass m at A (at a distance
a) and at B (at a distance b). The total work done by the force F is
l
b
lb dv l
v
1 1
Fds = mV-
d
ds = mvdv = -mv
2
- -mu
2
.
a a S u 2 2
Thus the change in KE. is equal to the work done by the force.
(iii) Let a particle of mass m falling freely under gravity from a
(iv)
point A at a height h above the earth's surface.
Let P be a point at height x from A. If v be
the velocity at P then v
2
= 2gx. The KE. at
P = ~ m v 2 = ~ m . 2 g x = mgx.
The P.E. at P = mg(h - x).
The sum of KE. and P.E. is mgx + mg( h - x) =
mgh, which is independent of x.
Hence sum of KE. and P.E. is constant through-
out the motion.
x
h
Figure: 10.2.2
If the acting force force be constant then the rate of change of KE. is
~ (!mv2) = ~ (!mv2) ds
dt 2 ds 2 dt
dv dv
= mv ds v = Fv (since mv ds = F)
= Power
Hence the rate of change of KE. is equal to its power.
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.9
(v) Let h be the total height and v be the velocity at a height x (from
bottom) where the KE. is equal to half the P.E.
... v
2
= 2g( h - x).
121
The KE. is "2mv = "2m.2g(h - x) = mg(h - x) and the P.E. is mgx.
. 1 1
Smce KE.= "2 P.E., mg(h - x) = "2 mgx
3 2
or, h = "2 x or, x = "3 h.
Ex. 4 (i) Show that the H.P. of an engine which can project vertically
upwards 10,000 lb of water per minute with a velocity of 80 ftjsec is
.
(ii) Find the horse power of an engine which draws a train at a uniform rate
of v ftjsec against a resistance of P Ib-wt .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Work done per minute = = x 10000 X (80)2 poundals
= 10000 x 80 x 80 ft.-lbs.
2 x 32
10000 x 80 x 80
Power = 2 x 32 x 60 ft.-lbsjsec.
. 10000 x 80 x 80 1000 10
H.P. of the eng me = 2 x 32 x 60 x 550 = = 30
33
.
(ii) Resistance = P lb-wt.
Power = Pv ft.-lbs.
H.P. of the engine is
Exercise 1 (i) Find the H.P of an engine which draws a train at a uniform
rate of 45 milesjhr. against a resistance of 900 lb-wt.
(ii) Find the horse power of an engine which draws a train at a uniform rate
of 60 mjh against a resistance of 4480 lb-wt.
(iii) What is the work by gravity on a stone of mass 80 gms, during the 8 th
second of its fall ?
(iv) Find the horse power of a pumping machine which can project 10,000
lbs. of water per minute with the speed of 44 ft. per sec.
[Ans. (i) 108, (ii) 716.8, (iii) 5.76 r lOB erg, (iv) 91.]
10.10 _ U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
10.3 Impulse and Impulsive Forces
Def. 1 Impulse: If the force be constant in magnitude and in direction then
the impulse of the force is the product of the force and the time during which
it acts.
Impulse=Ft = mft = m(v - u) [since v = u + ft]
. '. Impulse=change in momentum.
Q. 1 Define impulse.
Q. 2 From the definition of impulse, show that impulse is equal to the change
of momentum.
Def. 2 Impulsive Forces: An impulsive force is a very large force which
acting on a body for an infinitesimal small time produces in it a finite change
of momentum but the displacement of the body during this time is
small.
The momentum equation in this case can be written as
(Pr)T-+o = m(v - U)
Here r is infinitesimally small while the force P is very large and they can-
not be measured separately but the change of momentum can be measured
experimentally.
Q. 3 Define an impulsive force and explain how it is measured.
Ex. 1 State the principle of conservation of linear momentum.
• SOLUTION: If the sum of the external forces acting on a system of parti-
cles be zero in any direction then the total momentum of the system in that
direction remains constant during the motion.
Ex. 2 (i) A force acting on a body of mass 10lb changes its velocity from
45 miles/hr. to 60 miles/hr. Find the impulse of the force.
(ii) A cricket ball moving with a velocity 25 m/s is struck by a bat which
causes it to move in the same straight line but in opposite direction
with a velocity of 15 m/s. If the impulse generated by the bat be 600
dyne-sec, find the mass of the ball.
(iii) A cricket ball of oz. has a vel<;>city 60 ft./sec., before the batman
strikes it. It is hit back in the same direction with a velocity of 80
ft./sec. What impulse has the ball received?
(iv) Two spheres of masses 6 and 4 oz. collide in the line joining their centres
with velocities 25 and 35 ft./sec. respectively in the same sense; if they
do not separate after collision, find their common velocity.
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.11
(v) An inelastic particle of mass 20 lbs. impinges on another particle of mass
2 lbs. coming from the opposite direction with an equal veloclty. If the
common velocity after impact be 9 ft./sec., find their velocities before
impact.
(vi) A gun fires a shot weighing 800 lbs with a muzzle velocity of 2,000 ft/sec.
The recoil of the gun is checked by a constant .force in ~ th of a second.
Find the force.
(vii) For rectilinear motion of a particle if an impulse I change its velocity
from u to v and E is the change in K.E., show that E = I(ut
V
) •
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here m = 10 lbs., u = 45 miles/hr., v = 60 miles/hr.
. 1760 x 3
lmpulse = m(v - u) = 10 x (60 - 45) x -6-0 -x-6-0
(ii)
(iii)
= 220 poundals sec.
Here u = 15 m/s = 1500 c.m./s, v = 25 m/s = 2500 c.m./s.
Impulse I = 600 dyne-sec.
Since 1= m(v - u), 600 = m(2500 + 1500)
600 3
or, m = 4000 = 20 gm.
51 11
Here m = 1 ~ = 32 lbs.
u = 60 ft/sec, v = 80 ft/sec.
impulse = m(v - u) = ~ ~ (80 + 60)
11 .
= 32 x 140 = 14.13 poundals-sec.
(iv) Let V be the common velocity of the two spheres after impact. From
conservation of linear momentum, we know
momentum before impact = momentum after impact
or, 6 x 25 + 4 x 35 = (6 + 4) V
or, 10V = 290 or, V = 29 ft/sec.
(v) Let v be the velocity before impact.
From conservation of linear momentum,
momentum before impact = momentum after impact
or, 20v - 2v = (20 + 2) x 9
or, 18v = 22 x 9 or, v = 11 ft/sec.
(vi) Let m be the mass of the gun and the recoil velocity of the gun be v.
Then Mv = 800 x 2000.
10.12 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Since the recoil is checked in ~ t h sec
. 1
.. 0 = v - 5 x f or, f = 5v,
where f is the retardation induced by the force P .
. '. P = mf = 5vm = 5 x 800 x 2000 poundals=111.6 tons-wt.
(vii) Impulse 1= m(v - u) and change in K.E. (E) is
1 2 1 2 1 1
E = 2mv - 2mu = 2m(v - u)(v + u) = 2I(v + u).
Exercise 1 (i) A force acting on a body of mass 5lb changes its velocity
from 30 miles/hr. to 45 miles/hr. Find the impulse of the force.
(ii) A force acting on a body of mass 10lb changes its velocity from 60
miles/hr. to 90 miles/hr. Find the impulse of the force.
(iii) A force acting on a body of mass 5lb changes its velocity from 60
miles/hr. to 90 miles/hr. Find the impulse of the force.
[Ans. (i) 110 poundal, (ii) 440 poundal, (iii) 220 poundal.]
10.4 Collision of Elastic Bodies
Note 1 (i) The impact is said to be direct for two bodies if the relative
direction of motion of each other, just before impact, be along the com-
mon normal called the line of impact, at the point of contact. Otherwise
the impact is said to be oblique.
(ii) Newton's Experimental Law: If UI and U2 be the component veloc-
ities of two bodies of mass mI and m2 respectively before impact along
their common normal and VI and V2 be the velocities in the same direc-
tion after impact, then
VI - V2 = -e(ul - U2).
The constant e is called the coefficient of elasticity or restitution.
(iii) If e = 0 the bodies are said to be inelastic.
(iv) If e = 1 the bodies are said to be perfectly elastic.
(v) If u and v be the velocities before and after direct impact of a particle
on a fixed horizontal plane then
v = eu.
(vi) If u is the initial velocity of a particle then the velocities after second, .
third, fourth etc. direct impact on a fixed horizontal plane are respec-
tively e
2
u, e
3
u, e
4
u.
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.13
(vii) If a particle falls from a height h above the plane then the height H to
which the particle moves up after first rebound is given by
v
2
H = - = e
2
h.
2g
(viii) If a particle falls from a height h above the plane then the height after
second, third, fourth etc. impact are respectively e
4
h, e
6
h, e
8
h.
Ex. 1 (i) A sphere falling from a height h impinges directly on a floor and
rises to a height hI' Show that hI = e
2
h where e is the coefficient of
restitution.
(ii) A ball is dropped vertically on a fixed horizontal plane from a height of
100 ft. If the coefficient of restitution be 0.4, find the height of the first
rebound.
(iii) From what height must a heavy elastic ball be dropped on a floor so that
after rebounding once it will reach a height of 25 metres? (e = 0.5).
(iv) A heavy elastic ball is dropped on a smooth floor from a height hand
after rebounding thrice, it rises to a height of 64 cm. Find, h if e = 0.5.
(v) A ball falls from a height of 64 ft on a fixed horizontal floor and rises 4
ft after two rebounds. Find the coefficient of elasticity.
(vi) A perfectly elastic sphere falling from a height h impinges on a fixed
horizontal plane and rebo.unds to a height hI after impact. Show that
hI = h.
(vii) When two equal perfectly elastic balls come into collision, prove, that
their velocities are interchanged after collision. '
(viii) A sphere of mass 1 lb. moving with a velocity of 2 ft./sec. impinges
directly on a sphere of mass 2 lbs. at rest. If the first sphere comes
to rest after the impact, find the velocity of the second sphere and the
coefficient of restitution.
(ix) Two balls of masses 2 lbs. and 3 lbs. are moving with velocities 6 ft./sec.
and 3 ft.fsec. respectively in the same direction along the same straight
line and collide with one another. Find the K.E. lost by impact if the
coefficient of restitution be 2/3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let u be the velocity of the sphere with which it strikes the plane.
,', u
2
= 2gh.
The velocity after first rebound = eu = ev'29h .
. '. the height of the first rebound
10.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
hI = (eu)2 = e
2
(2gh) = e2h.
2g 2g
(ii) Here e = 0.4 and initial height h = 100 ft.
Then the height of the first rebound is
e
2
h = (0.4)2 X 100 ft.=16 ft.
(iii) Here e = 0.5 and height after first rebound is H = 25 meters. Let h be
the initial height. Then H = e
2
h.
25
or, 25 = (0.5)2h or h = -( )2 = 100 metres.
0.5
(iv) The height of the third rebound is e
6
h = 64 c.m. (given) and e = 0.5.
64 64
. h = 6 = -( )6 = 64 x 64 c.m.= 4096 c.m.
e 0.5
(v) Here h = 64 ft, H = 4 ft.
We know H = e
4
h or e
4
= H = ..! = ~ or e = ~
, h 64 16' 2
(vi) Let u be the velocity of the sphere with which it strikes the plane .
... u
2
= 2gh.
Since the sphere is perfectly elastic, e = 1. The velocity after first
rebound = eu = u = y'2gh.
u
2
2gh
the height of the first rebound hI = 2g = 2g = h.
(vii) Let UI, U2 be the velocities before impact and VI, v2 that of after impact.
The balls are perfectly elastic, e = 1.
Then by Newton's experimental law
V2 - VI = -e(u2 - UI) (1)
From the principle of conservation of linear momentum,
mV2 + mVI = mU2 + mUI
where m is the mass of the balls.
or,
Solving (1) and (2) we get V2 = UI and VI = U2.
Hence the velocities are interchanged.
(viii) Let V be the velocity' of the second sphere after impact.
By principle of conservation of momentum we have
1 x 2 + 2 x 0 = 1 x 0 + 2v or, 2v = 2 or, V = 1 ft/sec.
Again, from Newton's experimental law,
V - 0 = -e(O - 2) or, 2e = V or, 2e = lor, e = 1/2.
(2)
(ix) Let VI and V2 be the velocities of the two balls after impact then by the
principle of conservation of momentum,
2VI + 3V2 = 2 x 6 + 3 x 3 or, 2VI + 3V2 = 21 (1)
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES
From Newton's experimental law,
2
V2 - VI = "3 (6 - 3) or, V2 - VI = 2
Solving (1) and (2), we have VI = 3 ftlsec and V2 = 5 ft/sec.
. . . 1 1 99
Imtlal KE. = 2' x 2 X 6
2
+ 2' x 3 X 32 = 2 ft. poundals.
. 1 1 . 93
Fmal KE. = 2' x 2 X 32 + 2' x 3 X 52 = 2 ft. poundals
99 93
loss of KE. = 2 - 2 = 3 ft. poundals.
10.15
(2)
Exercise 1 (i) From what height must a heavy elastic ball be dropped on
a floor so that after rebounding once it will reach a height of 16 metres?
(e = 0.5).
(ii) A heavy elastic sphere falls from a height h on a smooth ground and
after rebounding three times on the floor it comes to a height 49 cm. If
e = 0.5 determine the height h.
(iii) An elastic ball falls from a height of 27ft on a fixed horizontal floor and
rises 3ft after two rebounds. Find the coefficient of elasticity.
(iv) A. ball is dropped vertically on a fixed horizontal plane from a height
of 100 ft. If the coefficient of restitution be 0.4, find the height of the
second rebound.
[Ans. (i) 64 m, (ii) 3136 cm, (iii) 1/-13, (iv) 2.56 ft.]
Ex. 2 A nonelastic particle of mass M kg moving with a velocity of V metres
per sec impinges, on another particle of mass m kg at rest. Find the subsequent
velocity .
• SOLUTION: Since the bodies are inelastic, so, after impact the bodies adhere
together. This single body of mass (M + m) moves with a velocity V (say)
after impact. As there is no loss of momentum,
(M + m)V = Mv, or, V = M V which gives the common velocity of the
M+m
bodies after impact.
10.5 Motion in a Straight Line
Ex. 1 (i) Write done the equations of motion of a particle moving under
gravity in a plane. Hence show that horizontal velocity is con-
stant.
10.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) A stone is dropped from a certain height and is observed to fall the last
h cm in t sec. Show that the total time of fall is
(
! + ~ ) secs.
2 gt
(iii) A motor car driven with a constant force at all speeds meets with air re-
sistance proportional to the square of the velocity. If u be the maximum
speed of the car, show that its acceleration when running at a speed v
varies as (u
2
- v
2
) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let m be the mass of the particle. The equations of motion in vertical
and horizontal directions are
my = mg and x = O.
Integrating x = 0 we get x = constant.
Hence the horizontal velocity is constant.
(ii) Let A be the starting position and B be the point at height h from the
ground (0).
Let AB = Hand BO = h.
The velocity v at B is v
2
= 2gH or v = J2gH.
Let T be the time taken by the stone to reach at B .
. H = ~ g T 2 or T'= J2H.
. . 2 ' 9
Again during the motion from B to 0, h = vt + !gt
2
1 1
or, h = J2gHt + 29t2 or, J2gH = (h - 29t2)/t.
total time = t + T = t + - = t + 2
J2H h _lgt
2
9 gt
h 1 t h
= t + - - -t=:; - + - sec.
gt 2 2 gt
(iii) The equation of motion is
dv = F _ kv2
dt 1
where F is the constant force.
For maximum speed, ~ : = 0 and v = u. Then F = ku
2

Thus (1) becomes ~ ~ = k(u
2
- v
2
).
Hence the acceleration varies as u
2
- v
2
.
(1)
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES
10.6 Simple Harmonic Motion
Note 1 The general equation of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) is
x +w
2
x = O.
Its general solution is
10.17
x = acos(wt + c) or x = asin(wt + c).
271"
Where amplitude = a, periodic time = -, epoch=c, frequency of oscillation
w
(the number of complete oscillations per unit time) = .!:!....
271"
Ex. 1 (i) The displacement of a particle at any time t of its motion in a
straight line is given by x = a cos kt + b sin kt. Show that the motion is
simple harmonic and find its time period.
(ii) The speed v of a point moving along the x-axis is given by v
2
= b
2
- x
2
.
Prove that the motion is simple harmonic and find its amplitude.
(iii) The speed v of a particle moving along the axis of x is given by v
2
=
64(8mx - x
2
- 12m
2
). Show that the motion is simple harmonic with
centre at x,= 4m and that the period of oscillation is ~ .
(iv) A particle describe a simple harmonic motion in a line with 2cms as its
amplitude. Its velocity when passing through the centre of oscillation is
12 ems/sec. Find its period .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Given x = acoskt + bsinkt.
Differentiating w.r.t t, x = -ak sin kt + bkcoskt
Again differentiating w.r.t t,
x = -ak
2
cos kt - bk
2
sin kt = -k
2
x.
or x + k
2
x = 0
This shows that the motion is simple harmonic with periodic time 271"/k.
(ii) Given v
2
= b
2
- x
2
.
D
·er .. 2 dv 2
l11erentlatmg w.r.t x, we get v dx = - x
or, x + x = O. This shows that the motion is simple harmonic.
When v = 0 then x == ±b. Therefore the amplitude is b.
(iii) We have v
2
= 64(8xm - x
2
- 12m2) = 64{4m
2
- (x - 4m)2}.
Differentiating w.r.t x, 2v ~ ~ = -128(x - 4m)
or, x = -64(x - 4m).
This shows that the motion is simple harmonic about the line x = 4m.
Th
.' . d· 271" 71"
e tlme peno IS 8 = '4.
10.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iv) If a be the amplitude then v
2
= w
2
(a
2
- x
2
).
Here a = 2 .. '. v
2
= w
2
(4 - x
2
).
It is given that, when the particle passes through the centre of oscillation
(x = 0) then its velocity is 12 cm/sec.
. 144 = 4w
2
or 'U'2 = 36.
. . ,
. ... 27r 27r 7r
Hence the perIod of oscIllatIOn IS - = - = -.
w 6 3
Ex. 2 Write down the equation of motion for damped simple harmonic motion
where the damping force is proportional to the velocity.
• SOLUTION: The component of the damped force in the positive direction
of the x-axis may be written as -2mj1x, where j1 is a positive constant.
Then equation of motion is
mx = -mw
2
x - 2mf.Lx, w is proportional constant,
or, x + 2f.Lx + w
2
x = O.
Ex. 3 A particle moving in a straight line is executing S.H.M. what is the
effect of supper-imposition of another S.H.M. of equal time period on it?
• SOLUTION: Let the displacement of the two motions be given by
Xl = al cos( wt + cd and X2 = a2 cos( wt + c2).
Then the resultant displacement is
x = Xl + X2 = al cos(wt + cl) + a2 cos(wt + c2)
= cos wt(al cos Cl + a2 cos c2) - sin wt(al sin Cl + a2 sin c2)
= A{coswtcosE - sinwtsinE) = Acos(wt + E),
where A cos E = al cos C1 + a2 cos C2 and A sin E = al sin Cl + a2 sin C2.
Thus the resultant of two S.H.M of the same period is a similar motion of
same period whose amplitude and epoch are given by A and E respectively.
Exercise 1 (i) The speed v of a point moving along the x-axis is given by
v = J 4 - x
2
. Prove that the motion is simple harmonic and find its
amplitude.
(ii) The displacement of a particle at any time t of its motion in a straight
line is given by, x = cos kt + sin kt. Show that the motion is simple
harmonic and find its amplitude.
(iii) The distance x of a particle moving in a straight line from a point in time
t is given by x = 3 sin t + 4 cos t. Show that the motion of the particle is
simple harmonic.
(iv) The speed v of a point moving along the x-axis is given by v
2
= 16 -- x
2
.
Prove that the motion is simple harmonic.
CILLO: DYNAM" j OF PARTICLES 10.19
(v) If a particle moves in a straight line and its velocity v at a distance x
from the origin is given 1)2 = 2 - x - x
2
, show that the motion is an
S.H.M.
[Ans. (i) 2, (ii) v'2.]
10.7 Motion in a Plane
Motion in Cartesian Coordinates
Note 1 (1
') Th . 1 1 . . dv
e tangentla acce eratIOn IS dt'
2
(ii) The normal acceleration is ~ , where p is the radius of curvature.
p
Ex. 1 (i) If the tangential and normal acceleration of a particle moving in
a plane curve are equal, find the expression for velocity.
(ii) A particle describes a circle of radius a with unifor' speed v. Show
that at any instant the tangential acceleration is zero and the normal
, .. v
2
acceleratIOn IS -.
a
(iii) The position of a moving particle at time t is given by x = a cos nt, y =
a sin nt. Find the path of the particle, its velocity and acceleration.
(iv) The velocities of a point parallel to the axes of x and yare (u + wy) and
(v + w' x) respectively where u, v, wand w' are constant. Show that the
path is a conic section.
(v) A particle is moving with a constant velocity parallel to Y-axis and a
velocity proportional to y parallel to X -axis. Prove that it will describe
a parabola.
(vi) A particle starts from the origin and the components of its velocity
parallel to the x and y axes at time tare 2t + 3 and 4t respectively. Fi:p.d
the path .
• SOLUTION:
(1
') A d' dv v
2
2d'IjJ
ccor mg to the problem v - = - = v -d
ds p s
dv
or, - =d'IjJ
v
Integrating we get, log v = logA + 'IjJ
ds
[as p=-]
d'IjJ
or, log(v/A) = 'IjJ Of, V = Ae-rP, where A is arbitrary constant.
10.20 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Since the velocity is constant, i; = O. The tangential acceleration is
dv = 0
dt .
We know that the radius of curvature (p) at any point on the circle is
equal to its radius (a).
v
2
v
2
the normal acceleration is - = -.
p a
(iii) Here x = a cos nt, y = a sin nt
x = -an sin nt, iJ = an cos nt
x = -an
2
cos nt, ii = -an
2
sin nt
Eliminating t in (1) we get
x
2
+ y2 = a
2
, which is the path of the particle.
Velocity = J x
2
+ y2 = Va
2
n
2
= an.
Acceleration = "/;;2 + i? = Va
2
n
4
= an
2
.
(iv) We have x = u + wyand iJ = v + w'x
Dividing we get
dy v+w'x
=
dx u + wy
or, (v + w'x)dx = (u + wy)dy
Integrating we get
,x
2
y2 e
vx + w '2 = uy + w'2 + 2
or, x
2
w' - y
2
w + 2vx - 2uy = e
which is the required path and it represents a conic.
(v) Let iJ = e and x = ky, where e and k are constants.
Dividing we get
dy e a
- = - = - or, ydy = adx, where a = elk.
dx ky y
Integrating we get
y2 A
- = ax + - or, y2 = 2ax + A,
2 2
which is the path of the particle and it represents a parabola.
(vi) Here x = 2t + 3 and iJ = 4t
Integrating we get
(1)
(2)
(3)
x=t
2
+3t+a (1)

CH.10: DYNAMICf r'F PARTICLES
y-b
and y = 2t2 + b or, t
2
= --.
2
2 y-b
From (1), 3t = x - t - a = x - a - -2-
(
2x - 2a - y + b) 2
Squaring we get 9t
2
= 2
9(Y - b) _ (2x - y - 2a + b)2
or, 2 - 4
or, 18(y - b) = (2x - Y - 2a + b)2 which is the required path.
10.21
Ex. 2 (i) Show that there are two different angles of projections for the
same range of a projection when the velocity of projection is constant.
(ii) The maximum height attained by a particle is equal to the range. Find
the direction of the projection .
• SOLUTION:
u
2
sin 20: .
(i) The range of a projectile is R = , where u and 0: are the veloclty
9
and angle of projection respectively. If u is constant, the value of R
remains unchanged if we write i -0: for 0:. From this it follows that
the same range can be acquired with two angles of projection which are
complementary to each other.
(ii) If u and 0: are respectively the velocity and angle of projection then
maximum height attained by the particle is
u
2
sin
2
0: u
2
sin 20:
H = and range is R = ---
29 9
u
2
sin
2
0: u
2
sin 20:
If they are equal ---
29 9
or, sin
2
0: = 2.2sinacoso: or, sina = 4cosa
or, tana = 4 or, a = tan-
1
4 which is the angle of projection.
Exercise 1 (i) The coordinates of a moving point on a plane are given by
x = a(t + sin 2t), Y = a(l + cos 2t), prove that its acceleration is constant
in magnitude.
(ii) The velocities of a particle at a point (x, y) parallel to the axes of x and
yare (2 - 3y) and (3 + 4x) respectively. Find the path of the particle.
(iii) The velocities of a particle at a point (x, y) parallel to the axes x and y
are - ILY and AX respectively. Find the path of the particle.
[Ans. (ii) 4x
2
+ 3y2 + 6x - 4y"= c, (ii) Ax2 + ILy2 = c.]
10.22 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Motion in Polar Coordinates
Note 2 (1
') R d' 1 l' dr .
a 1a ve OC1ty = dt = r.
(ii) Transverse (cross radial) velocity = r ~ ~ = reo
(iii) Radial acceleration = r - re
2

(iv) Transverse (cross radial) acceleration
. .. 1 d 2'
= 2r(J + r(J = - -d (r (J).
r t
Ex. 3 (i) If the angular velocity of a moving point about a fixed origin
be constant, show that the transverse acceleration varies as its radial
velocity.
(ii) A particle describes a curve r = ail with constant angular velocity. Show
that its transverse acceleration varies as the distance from the pole.
(iii) A particle describes a curve r = ae
9
with constant angular velocity.
Show that the radial acceleration is zero.
(iv) If the radial velocity is proportional to transverse velocity, find the path
of the particle in polar coordinates.
(v) If the path of a particle be a circle find its radial and cross radial accel-
eration.
(vi) If the radial velocity is n times the transverse velocity find the equation
of the path of the particle in plane coordinates.
(vii) A particle describe a parabola r = a sec
2
~ such that cross-radial velocity
d
2
r
is constant. Show that dt
2
is constant .
• SOLUTION:
(i) If the angular velocity is constant then e = constant = c (say).
. 1 d . 1 d
Now transverse acceleratIOn = --d (r2(J) = --d (r
2
c)
r t r t
= c!2r ddr = 2cx radial velocity.
r t
transverse acceleration varies as its radial velocity.
(ii) Here r = ae
9
. Given that angular velocity e = constant = c (say).
1 d 2'
Now transverse acceleration --d (r (J)
r t
= !dd (r
2
c) = 2c
d
d
r
= 2c(ae
9
.e) [as r = ae
9
]
r t t
CR.I0: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES
2 .
= 2c r [as {} = c].
Hence the transverse acceleration varies as distance from the pole.
(iii) Given that the angular velocity iJ is constant. Let iJ = c.
We have r = aeo .
. r = aeo.iJ = rc.
Again differentiating we get
r = rc = (rc)c = re
2
.
Thus radial acceleration = r - riJ
2
= re
2
- re
2
= o.
(iv) Given that radial velocity is proportional to transverse velocity .
... rex riJ or, r = kriJ, where k is the proportional constant.
dr d{) dr
or, -d = kr-
d
or, - = kd{}.
t t r
Integrating log r = k{} + log e
or, log( r / c) = k{} or, r = ee
kO
, which is the path of the particle.
(v) Let the equation of the circle be r = a .
... r = O,r = o.
Hence radial acceleration
= r - riJ
2
= -riJ
2
= -aiJ
2
and cross radial acceleration
= 2riJ + rO = rO = aO.
(vi) The radial velocity = r, transverse velocity = riJ.
According to the problem r = nriJ
dr d{} dr
or, -d = nr-
d
or, - = nd{}
t t r
Integrating we get
10.23
logr = n{} + loge or, log(r/e) = n{} or, r = ce
nO
, where c is arbitrary
constant.
(vii) Here r = asec
2
({}/2). As cross radial velocity constant, i.e., riJ = con-
stant = e (say).
1 .
Now, r = 2a sec( {} /2).2" sec( {} /2) tan( {} /2).{}
= asec
2
({}/2)tan({}/2).9 = riJtan({}/2) = etan({}/2).
Again differentiating we get
e 2 . er· 2
r = 2" sec ({}/2).{) = 2"-;;{} [r = asec ({}/2)]
10.24
c
2
2a
V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
. r is constant.
Exercise 2 (i) If the radial velocity is four times the transverse velocity
find the equation of the path of the particle in plane coordinates.
(ii) Find in polar coordinates the path of the particle whose radial velocity
is equal to its transverse velocity.
[Ans. (i) r = ce
40
, (ii) r = ceo.J
10.8 Central Orbit
Def. 1 Central Force: A force F is called a central force if
(i) it is always directed towards or away from a fixed point.
(ii) the magnitude of the force F is a function of the distance r of the particle
from the fixed point.
Q. 1 Define central force.
Def. 2 Areal Velocity: When a particle moves along a plane curve, the rate
of change of areas traced out by the radius vector joining the particle to a fixed
point is called the areal velocity.
The magnitude of areal velocity is !r
2
0 = !vp.
Q. 2 Define areal velocity.
Def. 3 Apse: An apse is a point on a central orbit at which the radius vector
drawn from the centre of force is a maximum or a minimum.
Apsidal Distance: The length of the radius vector corresponding to apse
is known as the apsidal distance.
Q. 3 Define ..apse and apsidal distance.
Note 1 (i) The differential equation of the path of a particle moving in a
plane under a central force is
where F is the force per unit mass and u = ~ .
CR.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.25
(ii) The law of force F of a particle moving under central force is given by
(in polar curve)
h
2
dp
or F = 3-d (in pedal curve)
p r
Ex. 1 (i) A particle describes a curve whose equation is
a 2 .
- = () + b, under a force to the pole. Fmd the law of force.
r
(ii) Find the law of force of the particle which describes the curve r()2 = 2
under a force to the pole.
(iii) A particle describes the parabola p2 = ar under a force which is always
directed towards its focus. Find the law of force.
(iv) Find the law of force towards the pole under which a particle describes
the curve r = ae
li
cot 0:, a being a constant.
(v) The central orbit described by a particle moving under a central force is
the conic ~ = 1 + e cos (). Find the law of force.
r
(vi) A particle describes an equiangular spiral whose pedal equation is p =
r sin a under a force F to the pole, find the law of force .
• SOLUTION:
a ()2 + b
(i) Here - = ()2 + b or, u = --
r a
. du _ 2() d d
2
u _ ~
. . d() - a an d()2 - a'
Then law of force
F
- h
2
2 [d
2
U ] _ h2 2 [2 ] _ h
2
[2 1] _ h
22r
+ a
- u - + u - u - + u - - - + - - --.
d()2 a r2 a r ar
3
(ii) Here r()2 = 2 or u = ()2/2.
Differentiating w.r.t () we get
du d
2
u
d() = () and d()2 = 1.
10.26 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) We have p2 = ar.
1 1
.. p2 ar
Differentiating w.r. t r we get
2 dp 1
- p3 dr ar2
h
2
dp h
2
1
F=--=--
p3 dr 2a' r2
1
or, F ex: 2'
r
(iv) Here we have r = aeOcoto:
or, - log u = log a + 8 cot a
Differentiating w.r.t 8 we get
1 du du
--- = cot a or - = -u cot a
u d8 ' d8
Again differentiating w.r.t 8, we get
d
2
u du 2
- = --cota = ucot a
d8
2
d8
h
2 2
h
2
3 2 cosec a
= u cosec a = --::---
r3
1
F ex: 3'
r
(v) Here the equation of the path is ~ = 1 + e cos 8
r
or, lu = 1 + e cos 8. Differentiating w.r.t 8 we get
du .
I d8 = -esm8.
Again differentiating we get
d
2
u
I d8
2
= -e cos ()
d
2
u] [e ]
.'. F = h
2
u
2
[d(}2 + u = h
2
u
2
- 1 cos 8 + u
2 2 [lu - e cos ()] h
2
u
2
= h u 1 = -1- [as I u - e cos 8 = 1]
. 1
.. F ex: 2'
r
(vi)
CH.I0: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES
H
. 1 1
ere p = rsma or, - = -.-
p rsma
Differentiating w.r. t r we get
1 dp 1
- p2 dr = - r2 sin
2
a
1 dp 1
or, -- =
p2 dr r2 sin a
F _ h
2
dp _ h
2
1 _ h
2
- p3 dr - p r2 sin a - r3 sin
2
a'
. F 1
oc 3'
r
10.27
Ex. 2 Prove that pv = h in a central orbit where symbols have their usual
significance.
• SOLUTION:
2 . 2 dO 2 dO ds
We know h = r 0 = r - = r --
dt ds dt
2dO . ",.. dO . "']
= vr ds = vrsm,/-, lsmce r ds = sm,/-,
= vp [since p = r sin cPl.
Ex. 3 Prove that for a particle moving in a central orbit the angular momen-
tum about the centre of force remains constant.
• SOLUTION: If m be the mass of the moving with a velocity v at
any instant of its motion then the magnitude of the moment of momentum of
the particle about a point is mvp, where p is the length of the perpendicular
from the fixed point upon the tangent.
Hence the angular momentum mvp = mh [since h = vp]
which is constant (since h is constant).
. 1 1 1 (dr)2
Ex. 4 Assummg the formula p2 = r2 + r
4
dO ,prcve that at an apse of
the central orbit of a particle p = r.
• SOLUTION: Let p be the length of the perpendicular from the centre of
force on the tangent.
1 1 1 (dr)2 2 (dU)2
Then p2 = r2 + r4 dO = U + dO
At an apse, where U is a maximum or a minimum,
du
dO = O.
. 1 2 1
- = u = - or p = r .
. . p2 r2'
10.28 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 1 (i) A particle describe a curve whose equation is ~ = e
mB
under
r
a force to the pole. Find the law of force.
(ii) The central orbit is defined by 2a = 1 + cos 0, find the law of force.
r
(iii) The central orbit is rectangular hyperbola defined by r2 = a
2
sec 20, find
the law of force.
[Ans. (i) F oc r-
3
, (ii) F oc r-
2
, (iii) F oc r.]
Ex. 5 Show that the central orbit is a plane curve.
• SOLUTION: In central orbit, the force vector and hence the acceleration,
are parallel to the radius vector and so velocity, acceleration and radius vector
lie in a plane. The particle describing the motion can never leave this plane
since there is no component of the velocity out of this plane.
10.9 Planetary Motion
Theorem 1 Kepler's laws of planetary motion:
(i) Each planet describes an elliptic orbit with the sun situated at one of its
foci.
(ii) The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet describe equal areas
in equal times in the same orbit.
(iii) The squares of the periodic times of various planets are proportional to
the cubes of the respective semi-major axes of their orbits.
Q. 1 State Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
Ex. 1 (i) Find the velocity of an observer on the equator, taking the radius
of the earth to be 4000 miles.
(ii) Prove that a planet has only radial acceleration towards the sun (use
Kepler's laws).
(iii) If VI and V2 be the respective velocities of a planet when it is nearest·
and farthest from the sun, prove that
(1 - e)VI = (1 + e)V2'
where e is the eccentricity of the orbit.
CH.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.29
• SOLUTION:
(i) If the observer at the equator then, the distance from the centre of the
earth to the orbit of observer = a, a is the radius of the earth. If v
be the velocity of the observer in its orbit, we have mv
2
= G M ~ but
a a
mv
2
ga
2
.m
GM = ga
2
, so that -- = --2- or, v
2
= ga
a a
or, v = J9ii = v'32 x 4000 x 1760 x 3 ft/sec = 2.5997 x'10
4
ft/sec.
(ii) From the second law of Kepler's, we see that the rate of description of
sectorial area by the planet about the sun is constant. Hence r
2
0 = h
(say), is constant. The cross-radial acceleration of the central orbit which
IS
!!£(r
2
0) = ! dh = O.
r dt r dt
Thus the- planet has only radial acceleration towards the sun.
(iii) Let S be the position of the sun and C be the centre of the
elliptic path. Also let A and A' be the
nearest and fartheHt points from the sun .
... SA = AC - CS = a - ae = a(l - e)
and SA' = A'C+C'S = a+ae = a(l+e).
Now from the relation h = vp, for the
nearest planet we have h = VI.SA =
VIa(l - e) and for the farthest planet
h = V2.SA' = V2a(1 + e).
Figure: 10.9.1
Thus V
I
a(l - e) = V
2
a(1 + e) or, (1 - e)VI = (1 + e)V2.
10.10 Artificial Satellites
Def. 1 Artificial Satellite: An artificial satellite is an object which is placed
in an orbit round the earth outside the earth's atmosphere.
Q. 1 Define Artificial satellite.
Def. 2 Parking Orbit: If the period of the satellite on an orbit be equal to
the period of the earth's rotation, the satellite will be seen to be stationary
over the same place on the earth while the earth rotates. This is known as the
parking orbit.
Q. 2 Define parking orbit.
10.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 1 (i) Define escape velocity. What is escape velocity for the earth?
(ii) Show that the velocity of escape from earth's gravitational field is y'2'ia,
a being the radius of the earth and 9 is the acceleration due to gravity
on earth's surface.
or
What is 'escape velocity for earth' ?
or
Write a short note on 'escape velocity from earth' .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Escape velocity: The velocity required to allow escape of a body from
the gravitational attraction of the earth is called the escape velocity.
The escape for earth v = y'2g(i.
If 9 = 9.8 m/sec'? and a = radius of the earth 6.4 x 10
6
m then
v = J2 x 9.8 x 6.4 x 10
6
m/sec = 11.2 x 10
3
m/sec .
. '. escape velocity = 11.2 k.m/sec.
Thus when a body projected with a velocity of 11.2 k.m/sec then it will
completely escape from the gravitational attraction of the earth.
(ii) Let us assume that a body of mass m be thrown with a velocity v from
the earth surface so that it just escapes from the gravitational attraction
of the earth. Then
work done by the force = m x potential difference between infinity and
h
. f GM
t e pomt 0 escape = m x --.
a
The K.E. of the body is
Since the K.E. is equal to work done by the force,
!mv
2
= m x GM or v = .j2GM.
2 a a
. GM
Agam, -2- = g.
a
Hence v = J2ga, which is the escape velocity.
Ex. 2 (i) The radius of the earth is ).2g, where 9 is the acceleration due to
gravity at the earth's surface. Show that the velocity of a satellite of the
earth moving in a circular orbit whose radius is approximately equal to
that of the earth is ).g.
CI-l.10: DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 10.31
(ii) An artificial satellite is circling round the earth at a height 700 km. from
its surface. Find the horizontal velocity of the satellite. Radius of the
earth is 6.4 x 10
3
km. and the acceleration due to gravity on the earth's
surface = 980 cm. / sec
2
.
(iii) Assuming the moon to describe a circular orbit of radius 4 x 10
5
km.
round the earth in 27.3 days, cQ.lculate the periodic time of an artificial
satellite of the earth near the earth's surface. [radius of the earth = 6400
km.]
(iv) Prove that a body projected from the earth's surface with speed exceed-
ing 7 miles per second will not in general return to the earth (variation
of gravity being taken into account) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) If v be the velocity of the satellite then v
2
= ga, where a is the radius
of the earth.
... v = vga = vf>.292 = >.g.
(ii) Here a = radius of the earth = 6.4 x 10
3
k.m, the distance of the satellite
from the earth surface (h) = 700 k.m and 9 = 980 c.m/sec
2
. If v be the
velocity of the satellite then
ga
2
v2 = __
a+h
or, v = aJ a! h = 6400 X 10
5
980
(6400 + 700) x 10
5
980
7100 x 10
5
= 751906.5 c.m/sec = 7.52 k.m/sec.
(iii) LetTI and T2 be the periodic time of the moon and the satellite respec-
tively. Let rl and r2 be the radii of the orbit of the moon and the satellite
so that rl = 4 x 10
5
k.m and r2 = 6400 k.m. Tl = 27.3 days.
T2 r3
From Kepler's third law, we have T , ~ = -i
2 r2
(27.3)2 (4 x 10
5
)a
or, T1 = (6400)3
T,2 _ (27.3)2 X (6400)3 = (273)2 642 10-9
or, 2 - 64 X 10
15
. X X .
. '. T2 = 27.3 x 64 x 10-
5
x JIO = 0.055 days = 1.32 hours.
(iv) The escape velocity on the earth surface is
J"2gO, = .../2 x 32 x 4000 x 1760 x 3 ft/sec
10.32 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
8 x 200 x 4v'33 . .
= 1760 x 3 mlles/sec = 6.96 mIles/sec.
Hence if the velocity of projection exceeds 7 miles/sec the particle will
never return to the earth again.
Ex. 3 Define a Geo-synchronous satellite. Mention one advantage of such a
satellite.
• SOLUTION: Geo-Synchronous Satellite: A satellite with circular orbit
round the earth in the equatorial plane with the same period time of the earth
about its axis is called a Geo-Synchronous satellite.
These satellites are used, as communication satellites, to transmit radio,
television etc. signals.
Ch.IIII Probability and Statistics
11.1 Measure of Central Tendency
A sample (univariate) can be classified into three types:
(i) Simple distribution:
A sample of size n is represented as Xb X2, . .. ,X
n
.
(ii) Ungrouped frequency distribution:
The sample of n observations can be represented as:
value (x) frequency (I)
Xl h
X2 h
In
(iii) Grouped frequency distribution:
The sample of n observations can be represented as:
lower limit /
boundary (l)
h
upper limit /
boundary (u)
Ul
frequency (I)
l2 U2
n
The sum of frequency L: Ii is denoted by N.
i=l
Arithmetic mean
Generally denoted by x.
(i) Simple distribution:
(ii) Ungrouped frequency distribution:
h
h
In
11.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Grouped frequency distribution:
1 n
X = - L,xdi'
N i=1
x·-A
If Yi = 'd then x = A + dY·
Ii + Ui
Xi= --.
2
,
Ex. 1 (i) Find the mean of the following numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 21.
(ii) Calculate the arithmetic mean of family size from the following frequency
distribution:
Family size
No. of families
123
4 8 12
(iii) Find the mean of the following distribution:
Class boundary
10-20
20-30
30-40
Frequency
3
5
6
(iv) Calculate the mean of first n natural numbers .
• SOLUTION:
. 1 1 53
(1) Mean x = ;; L, Xi = 6(4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 10 + 21) = 6'
(ii) Sum of frequencies N = 4 + 8 + 12 = 24.
1 1 '56 7
Mean x = N L, xdi = 24 (1 x 4 + 2 x 8 + 3 x 12) = 24 = 3'
(iii) Calculation is shown below:
Class boundary Middle value (Xi) Frequency (Ii)
xdi
10-20 15 3 45
20-30 25 5 125
30-40 35 6 210
Total 14 380
1 380 190
Therefore, mean x = N L, xdi = 14 = 7'
(iv) The mean of first n natural numbers is
1...... '1 1 n(n+1) n+l
x = ;; LXi = ;;(1 + 2 + ... + n) = ;;. 2 = -2-'
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.3
Ex. 2 (i) Prove that the arithmetic mean of any sampling distribution is
dependent on change of origin and change of scale.
(ii) A sample of size nl has the mean Xl and a sample of size n2 has mean
X2. Find the arithmetic mean of their combined sample .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let the sample values Xi and Yi are connected by Yi = aXi + b.
1 1 1
or, - L:Yi = a- L:Xi + - L:b
n n n
or, y = ax + b
This relation shows that the mean (y) of Yi is depend on a and b, i.e.,
depend on scale (a) and origin (b).
(ii) The sample size of combined group is nl + n2.
The sum of sample values of combined group is nixi + n2X2.
. . nlXI + n2
x
2
Hence the reqUlred mean IS
nl +n2
Median
Simple distribution: Let the given sample be Xl, X2, ... , Xn and the correspond-
ing sorted list be xi, ... , Then
{
x((n+l)/2) , if n is odd
Median = I I
x(n/2) +2
X
(n/2+l)
--'--'-"_:-'--'---'- , if n is even
Ex. 3 (i) Find the median of 10, 12, 32, 11, 2, 45, 50, 11, 10.
(ii) Find the median of 3.1, 2.6, 5.0, 4.7, 2.4, 3.9, 5.1 and 3.6.
(iii) Find the median of 88, 72, 33, 29, 70, 54, 86, 91, 57, 61.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The sorted form of the given sample is 2, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 32, 45, 50.
Sample size is 9.
Therefore the median is the 9; 1 = 5th value, i.e., 11.
(ii) The sorted list is 2.4,2.6,3.1,3.6, 3.9,4.7, 5.0, 5.1 and the sample size
is 8.
Therefore the median is the average of = 4th and + 1) = 5th values
= 3.6 + 3.9 = 3.75.
2
11.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) The sorted list is 29, 33, 54, 57, 61, 70, 72, 86, 88, 91 and the sample
size is 10.
Therefore the median is the average of 5th and 6th values = 61 ; 70 = 65.5
Quartiles
Grouped frequency distribution
The kth quartile Qk is given by
where
h = lower boundary of the kth quartile class,
F = cumulative frequency preceding of kth quartile class,
f m = frequency of kth quartile class,
c = width of the kth quartile class.
k = 1,2,3 gives the first quartile Qb second quartile Q2 (median) and third
quartile Q3 respectively.
Mode
The mode of a sample is it sample value whose frequency is maximum among
the frequency of other values.
(i) Simple distribution
Working principle:
Sort the sample valUt'i-i and count the frequency of each of them. If the
frequency of a1l items an- equal then there is no mode.
If Ii is the maximum frequency of Xi then Xi is the mode.
(ii) Ungrouped frequency distribution
Find the maximum frequency. If Ii is the maximum then Xi is the mode.
Ex. 4 (i) Find the mode of the distribution 10, 10, 20, 11, 12, 10.
(ii) Find the mode of the distribution 1, 1, 2, 11, 2.
(iii) Find the mode of the distribution .3, 4, 5, 3, 5, 4.
(iv) Find the mode of the distribution
10 20
4 5
30 40
7 6
50
3
(v) Find the mode of the following ungrouped frequency distribution
• SOLUTION:
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTiCS
Xi 1 2 3 4 5
Ji45663
11.5
(i) Here the frequency of 10 is three, which is maximum. So mode is 10.
(ii) Here the frequency of 1 is 2, 2 is 2 and 11 is 1. The maximum frequency
is 2, occur at 1 and 2. So the modes are 1 and 2.
(The is bimodal)
(iii) Here the frequency of all sample values are equal, i.e., 2. Hence the
distribution has no mode.
(iv) Here the frequency of 30 is 7 (maximum). So the mode is 30.
(v) Here the frequency of 3 and 4 is 6. So modes are 3 and 4.
Relation between mean, median and mode
Mean - Mode = 3 (Meau - Median).
Ex. 5 (i) Find the mean of a distribution where mode is 64.2 and median
is 70.5.
(ii) Find the mode of a. distribution whose mean is 64.1 and median is 65.5.
(iii) Give one simple example in each case to show that
(a) mode of a distribution does not always exist,
(b) mode of a distribution is not always unique .
• SOLUTION:
(i) We know mean - mode= 3 (mean - median)
3 x mt'dian - mode 3 x 70.5 - 64.2 7365
or, mean = 2 = 2 =..
(ii) We know mean - mode= 3 (mean - median)
or, mode = 3 x median - 2 x mean = 3 x 65.5 - 2 x 64.1 = 68.3.
(iii) (a) Let the distribution be 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4. All the sample values have
equal frequency, so mode of this distribution does not exist.
(b) Let the distribution be 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5. The frequency of 2 and 4 are
2 (maximum). So, 2 and 4 both the mode, i.e., the mode is not unique.
11.2 Measure of Dispersion
Moments
Moments about origin
11.6 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(i) Simple distribution
The kth order moment about origin is
1 n
ak=-Lxf, ao=1,a1=x.
n i=1
(ii) Vngrouped frequency distribution
The kth order moment about origin.is
1 n n
ak = N L xf Ii, N = L k
i=1 i=1
Central moments
(i) Simple distribution
The kth order central moment is
1 n
IJk = - L(Xi - x)k .
. n i=1
(ii) Vngrouped frequency distribution
The kth order central moment is
1 n
IJk = N L(Xi - x)k Ii,
i=1
Note that lJo = 1, 1J1 = O.
Q. 1 Define moments of a distribution.
n
N=Lk
i=1
Ex. 1 (i) Find the first four central moments from the following data: 4,
8, 11, 13, 9.
(ii) Find the first two central moments of the observations 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10.
(iii) Distinguish between moment about an arbitrary constant A and central
moment .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Sample mean x = g(4 + 8 + 11 + 13 + 9) = 9.
Xi
Xi -X (Xi - x?
(Xi - X)3 (Xi - X)4
4 -5 25 -125 625
8 -1 1 -1 1
11 2 4 8 16
13 4 16 64 256
9 0 0 0 0
Total 0 46 -54 898
CH.11: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
The four central moments are
1" 2 46
J.Ll = 0, J.L2 = ;; L)Xi - x) ="5 = 9.2
1" 3 -54
J.L3 = ;; L,..,(Xi - x) = -5- = -10.8
1 " _ 4 898
J.L4 = ;; L,..,(Xi - x) = 5 = 179.6.
(ii) Mean x = ~ ( 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10) = 7.
Xi Xi - x
4 -3
5 -2
6
-1
7 0
8 1
9 2
10 3
Total 0
The first two central moments are
1
J.Ll = - L(Xi - x) = O.
n
1 L 2 28
J.L2 = - (Xi - x) = - = 4.
n 7
(Xi - X)2
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
28
11.7
(iii) The kth order moment about A is Ok = .!.. L(Xi - A)k and the kth order
n
central moment is J.Lk = .!.. 2)Xi - x)k.
n
The e two moments are equal if x = A otherwise they are different.
Exercise 1 Find the first four central moments from the following data : 2,
3, 11,6,9.
[Ans. J.Ll = 0, J.L2 = 11.76, J.L3 = 5.1368, J.L4 = 201.6672.]
Quartile deviation
Q
'1 d . t' Q3 - Ql
uartI e eVla lOn= 2 .
Mean deviation
(i) Simple distribution
11.8 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Mean deviation =
about mean
1 n
- L IXi - medianl, about median
n i=1
(ii) V ngrouped frequency distribution
1 n
N L IXi - xiii, about mean
i=l
Mean deviation =
n
where N = Lk
i=1
1 n
N L IXi - medianlli, about median
i=l
Ex. 2 (i) If 45.5 and 40.3 be the third and first quartiles of a distribution
then find quartile deviation of this distribution.
(ii) Find the mean deviation about mean of the following distribution 4, 5,
6, 9.
(iii) Find the mean deviation of 7, 9, 14, 24, 26 measured from their Arith-
metic Mean.
(iv) Find the mean deviation about mean of the following distribution
(v) Find the mean deviation about median of the following distribution 4,
5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 16 .
• SOLUTION:
(
.) . .. Q3 - Ql 45.5 - 40.3
1 Quartlle devlatlOn = 2 = 2 = 2.6.
(ii)
Mean deviation
1 1
= ;;; L IXi - xl = 4(1
4
- 61 + 15 - 61 + 16 - 61 + 19 - 61)
1 3
= 4(2+ 1 +0+3) = 2'
CH.U: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.9
(iii) Arithmetic mean = ~ ( 7 + 9 + 14 + 24 + 26) = 16.
Mean deviation about mean
1
= 5(17 - 161 + 19 - 161 + 114 - 161 + 124 - 161 + 126 - 161)
1 36
= 5(9 + 7 + 2 + 8 + 10) = 5 = 7.2.
(iv) Mean x = ~ L x,fi = ~ ( 6 + 12 + 10) = 4.
Mean deviation about mean
1
= N L IXi - xlii
1
= 7(13 - 41 x 2 + 14 - 41 x 3 + 15 - 41 x 2)
1 4
= 7(2+0+2) = 7'
(v) The median of this distribution is the 4th value, i.e., 9.
Therefore, mean deviation about median
= .!. L IXi - median I
n
1
= 7(14 - 91 + 15 - 91 + 16 - 91 + 19 - 91
+110 - ~ I + 114 - 91 + 116 - 91)
1 25
= 7(5+4+3+0+1+5+7) = 7'
Exercise 2 (i) Find the mean deviation from the mean or the following
numbers 31, 35, 29. 63, 55, 72, 37.
(ii) Find the mean deviation from the median of the following numbers:
8, 15, 53, 49, 19, 62, 7, 15, 95, 77.
(iii) Find the Mean deviation of 7, 9, 14, 26 measured from t.heir A.M.
[Ans. (i) 104/7, (ii) 27.2. (iii) 6.]
Standard deviation (s.d)
(i) Simple distribution
The standard deviation is generally denoted by (J" and is defined as
11.10 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Vngrouped frequency distribution
Variance
Variance=q2.
q=
1 n
-" - x
2
NL..-J , ,
i=1
Ex. 3 (i) Find the standard deviation of the six numbers 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6.
(ii) Find the standard deviation of the seven numbers 5,7,9, 11, 13, 15, 17.
(iii) Find the standard deviation of first f!, natural numbers .
• SOLUTION:
1
(i) Mean (x) = "6(4 + 4 + 5 + 5 + 6 + 6) = 5.
Standard deviation = J L(Xi - x)2
= - 5)2 + (4 - 5)2 + (5 - 5)2 + (5 - 5)2 + (6 - 5)2
+(6 - 5)2]1/2 = Ii = 1[.
1
(ii) Mean (x) = 7(5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17) = 11.
Standard deviation = J L xr - x
2
= + 7
2
+ 9
2
+ 112 + 13
2
+ 15
2
+ 172) - 112
= -121 = 4.
(iii) The mean of first n natural numbers
(x)=.!.(1+2+"'+n)=.!..n(n+l) = n+l.
n n 2 2
Standard deviation = J L xr - x
2
CH.11: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
(n + 1)2
4
= /n+l n-l_ ~
Y-2-'-6- - V:12'
11.11
x-a
Note 1 If y = -d- then O':r; = IdlO'y, where O':r;, O'y are respectively the stan-
dard deviation of x and y.
Ex. 4 (i) When does the standard deviation vanish?
(ii) Two variables x and yare related by y = 10 - 3x. If the s.d. of x is 4,
what will be the s.d. of y ?
(iii) The s.d. of y is 6, find s.d. of x, if the two variables x and yare related
by y - 5x = 7 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) If the standard deviation vanish then J ~ I)Xi - x)2 = 0
or, 2:(Xi - x)2 = 0, or, Xi - X = 0 for all i.
or, Xi = X for all i.
That is, if all the values are equal then their standard deviation vanish.
(ii) Given relation is y = 10 - 3x.
Therefore, O'y = 1 - 310':r; = 3 x 4 = 12,
i.e., the standard deviation of y is 12.
(iii) Given relation is y - 5x = 7 or, y = 5x + 7.
0' 6
Therefore, O'y = 1510':r;, or, O':r; = ; = 5'
which is the standard deviation of x.
Exercise 3 (i) Determine the standard deviation of the six numbers 5, 5,
5,7,7,7.
(ii) Find the standard deviation of the five numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
(iii) Two variables x and yare given by y = 11-5x. If the standard deviation
of x is 4, calculate the standard deviation of y.
[Ans. (i) 1, (ii) y'2, (iii) 20.]
Def. 1 Standard error: If Xl, X2, . .• , Xn are the samples drawn from the pol-
lution with mean JL and variance 0'2 then the standard error is E{ (:/Jnf}.
11.12 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 2 Define standard error. What is the expression for standard error of
sample mean ?
Ex. 5 (i) The first two moments of a distribution about the value 5 of the
variables are 2 and 28. Find their mean and variance.
(ii) In a certain distribution with 50 observations mean and standard devi-
ation are found to be 40 and 3 respectively. Find the sum of squares of
the observations .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The first and second moments about 5 are
1
- ~ ) X i - 5) = 2
n
.!:. ~ ) X i - 5)2 = 28
n
1 '
From (1), - L Xi - 5 = 2 or, x = 7.
n
1 1
From (2), - L ( x ~ - 5)2 = 28, or, - L(Xi - 7 + 2)2 = 28
n n
1
or, - L {(Xi - 7)2 + 4 + 4(Xi - 7)} = 28,
n
1
or, - L(Xi - 7)2 + 4 + 0 = 28
n
or, variance = 28 - 4 = 24.
(ii) Here n = 50, x = 40, s.d.=3.
Therefore, J ~ L x ~ - x
2
= 3
or .!:. '" x ~ - x
2
= 9
, n L...t ~
or, Lx; = n(9 + x
2
) = 50(9 + 40
2
) = 80450.
Therefore, the sum of squares is 80450.
Coefficient of variation
. .. standa.rd deviation
CoeffiCIent of vanatlOn= x 100
mean
Coefficient of quartile deviation
. ... quartile deviation
CoeffiCIent of quartIle devlatIon= d' x 100
Coefficient of mean deviation
Coefficient of mean deviation
me Ian
(1)
(2)
CH.l1: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
mean deviation about mean (or median)
= . x 100
mean (or medlan)
Skewness
(i) Moment measure
Skewness (1'1) = ~ ~ 2 '
11-2
(ii) Pearson's first measure
mean- mode
Skewness (1'1) = -------
standard deviation
(iii) Pearson's second measure
Sk ()
3(mean - median)
ewness 1'1 = .
standard devlation
(iv) Bowley's measure
Kurtosis
Q3 - 2Q2 - Ql
Skewness (1'1) = QQ'
3 - 1
Kurtosis (')'2) = 1 1 - ~ - 3.
11-2
11.13
Ex. 6 (i) Find the coefficient of variation when variance =4 and mean=40.
(ii) Find the coefficient of mean deviation when mean deviation about mean
is 5 and mean is 2.
(iii) Find the skewness of the distribution 4, 4, 5, 5.
(iv) Find the skewness when mean=4, mode=3 and standard deviation = 2.
(v) Find the skewness when mean=4, median=5 and standard deviation =
3.
(vi) Find the skewness when mean=4, median=4 and standard deviation =
3. Also explain its significance.
(vii) Find the kurtosis of the distribution 2, 2, 4, 4 .
• SOLUTION:
( )
. . s.d. 2
i CoefficIent of vanation = -- x 100 = 40 x 100 = 5.
mean
(ii) Coefficient of mean deviation
= mean deviation about mean x 100 = ~ = 250.
mean 2
11.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) Mean + 4 + 5 + 5) = 4.5.
Median = 4.5
Therefore, skewness
= 3(mean - median) = 3(4.5 - 4.5) = 0
standard deviation standard deviation .
mean - mode 4 - 3 1
(iv) Skewness = .. - -- - -
standard devIatIOn - 2 - 2·
S
3(mean - median) 3(4 - 5)
(v) kewness = = = -l.
standard deviation 3
(vi) Skewness = 3(mean - median) = 4 - 4 = o.
standard deviation 3
(vii)
This value indicates that the distribution is symmetric about mean.
2+2+4+4
Mean of given sample is (x) = 4 = 3.
Then
/-l2 = .!. L(Xi - X)2
n
1 2+2
= "4[2 x (2 - 3)2 + 2 x (4 - 3)2] = -4- = l.
/-l4 = .!. "(Xi - x)4 = x (2 - 3)4 + 2 x (4 - 3)4J
4
=2+2=l.
4
Therefore, kurtosis = - 3 = 1 - 3 = -2.
/-l2
Ex. 7 (i) Find the mode of a distribution whose mean, s.d. and skewness
are 29.6, 6.5 and 0.32 respectively.
(ii) If coefficient of skewness =-0.375, mean=62 and median=65, find the
value of standard deviation.
(iii) The first four central moments of distribution are 0,6,12,120. Find the
coefficient of skewness and kurtosis.
(iv) For a distribution, mean=25.45, standard deviation=9.035 and mode=26.72.
Calculate the value of skewness. What is the physical significance of neg-
ative value of skewness ?
• SOLUTION:
mean - mode
(i) We know skewness = d d d . .
stan ar eVIatIOn
CR.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
O 32
= 29.6 - mode
or, .
6.5
or, mode = 29.6 - 6.5 x 0.32 = 27.52.
(1
'1') "'IXT k k 3(mean - median)
vve now s ewness = d d d . . .
stan ar eVIat!on
(iii)
(iv)
.. 3(mean - median) 3(62 - 65)
or, standard devIatIOn = ---'---=-k-------'- = = 24.
s ewness -0.375
Here f-tl = 0, f-t2 = 6, f-t3 = 12, f-t4 = 120.
. f-t3 12 2
skewness = "2" = 3/2 = . Ili and
f-t2 6 v6
. f-t4 120 1
kurtosIs = f - t ~ - 3 = 36 - 3 = 3'
mean- mode
We know skewness = --------
standard deviation
_ 25.45 - 26.72 _ _ 4
- 9.035 - 0.1.
11.15
The negative value indicates the distribution is left sided about mean.
11.3 Theory of Probability
Def. 1 Random Experiment: Random experiments are those experiments
for which we know a priori the set of all different possible results or outcomes
and which are such that it is impossible to predict which one of the set will
occur at any particular performance of the experiment.
In rolling of a die, the number of outcomes is known to be six, but one
cannot predict which face will occur at any particular rolling of the die.
Def. 2 Events: The results or outcomes of an experiment are called events.
Def. 3 Simple or elementary event: An event which cannot be decom-
posed is called a simple event.
In rolling of a die face 'one', 'two', ... , 'six' are all simple events.
Def. 4 Compound event: An event which can be decomposed into some
other events is called a compound event. ,
In rolling of a die, 'even face', 'multiple of three' are compound events. The
event 'even face' can be decomposed into simple events 'two', 'four' and 'six'.
Def. 5 Certain event: An event which is sure to occur at every performance
of the experiment is called a certain event.
In rolling of a die the event 'one' or 'two' or 'three' or 'four' or 'five' or 'six'
is a certain event.
11.16 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 6 Impossible event: An event which cannot occur at any particular
performance of the experiment is called an impossible event.
In rolling of a die the event 'seven' never occur and is then an impossible
event.
Def. 7 Mutually exclusive events: If two events are such that they can-
not occur simultaneously for any random experiment are said to be mutually
exclusive events.
In rolling of a die events 'even face' and 'odd face' are mutually exclusive
events.
Def. 8 Complementary event: An event which consists with the negation
of another event is called the complementary event to the latter event.
The complement event of any event A is generally denoted by A or A C or
A'.
In rolling of a die the complementary event of 'multiple of three' is 'no
multiple of three'.
Def. 9 Event points: The simple events connected with an experiment E
are called event points or simply points.
The event points in rolling of a die are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Def. 10 Event space: The set of all possible simple events connected with
a random experiment E is called the event space S connected with E.
The event space in experiment 'rolling of a die' consists of six points 1, 2,
3,4,5,6.
Ex. 1 Define the following terms with example.
(i) random experiment, (ii) event, (iii) simple event, (iv) compound event,
(v) certain event, (vi) impossible event, (vii) mutually exclusive events, (viii)
complementary event, (ix) event space, (x) event points.
Def. 11 Classical Definition of Probability: Let E pe a random exper-
iment contains n (finite) event points, all of which are known to be equally
likely or mutually symmetrical and exhaustive. If any event A connected with
E contains m of these event points then the probability of A is denoted by
P(A) and is defined as
m
P(A) =-.
n
Def. 12 Frequency definition of probability: The frequency ratio
f(A) = N(A)
N
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.17
of an event A connected with an experiment E tends to a definite limit as
N -+ 00 and this limit is called probability of the event A to be denot'ed by
P(A) that is
P(A) = lim f(A).
N-'fOO
Q. 1 (i) Give the classical definition of probability.
(ii) Give the frequency definition of probability.
Def. 13 Axioms of probability: Let E be a random experiment described
by the event space S and A be any event connected with E. The probability
of A denoted by P(A) such that the following axioms are satisfied:
I. P(A) 2:: O.
II. The probability of certain event S is 1, i.e., P(S) = 1.
III. If A!, A
2
, .. ... , be a set of pairwise mutually exclusive events, that is,
Ai Aj = cP (i i= j) then
P(A
1
+ A2 + ... ) = P(A
1
) + P(A
2
) + ....
The axiom III is called the axiom of complete additivity.
Q. 2 State axioms of probability.
Def. 14 Stochastically impossible event: If an event A is such that
P(A) = 0 then the event A is called stochastically impossible event.
If P(A) = 0, we cannot conclude A = cP or A is impossible, in this case, we
say A is stochastically impossible event.
Def. 15 Stochastically certain event: If an event A is such that P(A) = 1
then the event A is called stochastically certain event.
Q. 3 (i) Define stochastically certain event.
(ii) Define stochastically impossible event.
Ex. 2 (i) Show that for any event A, P(.A) = 1 - P(A).
(ii) Prove that probability of any event lies between a and 1.
(iii) Assuming that the probability of a certain event is 1, find the probability
of an impossible event using the axioms of additivity.
(iv) If A ~ B then show that P(A) :::; P(B).
(v) Prove that P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(AB).
(vi) Using the relation P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(AB) prove that P(A +
B + C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) - P(AB) - P(BC) - P(CA) + P(ABC).
(vii) If A and B are two mutually exclusive events then show that P(A+B) =
P(A) + P(B).
11.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(viii) Prove that for any two events A and B, P(A + B) :::; P{A) + P(B).
(ix) For any two events A and B. Prove that peA) :::; P(A + B).
(x) For any two events A and B. Prove that P(AB) :::; P{A + B).
(xi) Prove that the relation p(A + fJ) = 1 - P{AB).
(xii) Prove that P(A.B) = P(B) - P(AB).
(xiii) Prove that the relation p(A.fJ) = 1 - P(A) - P{B) + P(AB).
(xiv) Prove that p(A + B) = 1- P{A) + P{AB).
(xv) If A, Band C are three events such that P{A) = P{B) = P{C) =
1/4; p(AnB) = p{CnB) = 0, p(AnC) = 1/8 and p{AnBnC) = 1/8.
Evaluate P(A U B U C).
(xvi) Al and A2 are two events related to an experiment E. Given P(Ad =
1/3,P(A
2
) = 1/3 and P(A
I
n A
2
) = 1/4, determine P ( A ~ n A ~ ) and
P { A ~ U A ~ ) .
(xvii) Write down the sample space when a coin is tossed three times.
(xviii) What is the probability that a card drawn at random from the pack of
playing cards may be either a queen or an acc ?
(xix) Two unbiased dice are thrown simultaneously. What is the probability
that the sum of the numbers on the faces is 8 ?
(xx) Two dice are thrown. Find the probability of obtaining a total of more
than 10 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let A be any event and S be the certain event .
. A+A=s.
or, P(A + A) = P(S)
or, P{A) + p(A) = 1 (by axioms II and III)
(the events A and A are mutually exclusive)
or, p{A) = 1 - P(A).
(ii) Let A be any event and S be the certain event .
. A+A=s.
or, P(A + A) = P(S)
Since A and A are mutually exclusive events,
P(A) + P(A) = 1
or, p{A) = 1 - P(A).
Since p{A) :2: 0 (by Axiom I),
1 - P{A) :2: 0 Of, P{A) ::; 1
Again by Axiom I, P{A) :2: 0
.'. 0:::; P(A) :::; 1.
CH.U: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
(iii) Let Sand ¢ be certain and impossible events respectively.
Since S = ¢, P{¢) = P{S) = 1 - P(S) = 0 (as P(S) = 1).
or, P(¢) = 0, i.e., probability of an impossible event is zero.
(iv) Since A ~ B, B = (B - A) + A.
Since B - A and A are mutually exclusive,
P(B) = P(B - A) + P(A)
or, P(B) - P{A) = P(B - A) 2: 0 or, P(B) 2: P{A).
11.19
(v) The events A - AB, AB and B - AB are pairwise mutually exclusive
and we have A = (A - AB) + AB, B = AB + (B - AB) and A + B =
(A - AB) + AB + (B - AB).
Then P{A) = P{A - AB) + P{AB)
or, P(A - AB) = P{A) - P{AB).
Similarly, P(B - AB) = P{B) - P{AB).
Also, P{A + B) = P{A - AB) + P{AB) + P{B - AB)
= P(A) - P{AB) + P{AB) + P{B) - P{AB)
= P{A) + P{B) - P{AB).
(vi) P{A + B + C) = P{A + B) + P(C) - P({A + B)C)
= P(A + B) + P(C) - P{AC + BC)
= P{A) + P{B) - P{AB) - {P(AC) + P(BC) - P{ABC)} + P(C)
[since AB.AC = ABC]
= P{A) + P(B) + P{C) - P(AB) - P(BC) - P{CA) + P{ABC)
(vii) Let E be a random experiment and N(A) be the number of frequenl:Y
of the event A in E. Since A and B are mutually exclusive, then
N{A + B) = N(A) + N{B)
N(A + B) N(A) N(B)
or, N = ~ + ~ .
Taking limit N -+ 00, we get P{A + B) = P(A) + P{B).
(viii) We know for any events A and B,
P(A + B) = P{A) + P(B) - P{AB)
Since P{AB) 2: 0, P(A + B) ~ P(A) + P(B).
(ix) Since A + B = A + (B - AB)
.'. P{A + B) = P(A) + P{B - AB)
[As A and B - AB are mutually exclusive.]
or, P{A + B) - P{A) = P{B - AB) 2: 0
or, P{A + B) 2: P(A).
(x) We have A + B = (A - AB) + AB + (B - AB).
Since A - AB, AB, B - AB are mutually exclusive.
P{A + B) = P{A - AB) + P(AB) + P(B - AB)
or, P{A + B) - P(AB) = P(A - AB) + P{B - AB) 2: 0
or, P{AB) ~ P{A + B).
11.20 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(xi) P(A + B) = P(AB) (by De Morgan's law)
= 1- P(AB).
(xii) We know B = AB + AB
Since AB and AB are mutually exclusive,
P(B) = P(AB) + P(AB)
or, P(AB) = P(A) - P(AB).
(xiii) P(A.B) = P(A + B) (by De Morgan's law)
= 1 - P(A + B) = 1 - P(A) - P(B) + P(AB).
(xiv) Since (A + B) + AB = S
.'. P(A + B) + P(AB) = P{S)
(As A + Band AB are mutually exclusive)
or, P(A + B) = 1 - P(AB)
Again A = AB + AB
.'. P(A) = P(AB) + P{AB)
or, P{AB) = P{A) - P{AB)
Hence P{A + B) = 1 - P(A) + P(AB).
(xv) For three A, B, C,
P(AUBUC)
= P{A) + P(B) + P(C) - P{AB) - P(BC) - P(CA) + P(ABC)
1 1 1 1 1 3
= 4 + 4 + 4 - 0 - 8' - 0 + 8' = 4'
(xvi) P { A ~ n A ~ ) = 1 - P(A
1
U A
2
)
= 1- P(A
1
) - P(A2) + P{AI n A
2
)
1 1 1 7
= 1 - '3 - '3 - 4 = 12'
P { A ~ U A ~ ) = P{(AI n A
2
)C) = 1 - P{AI n A
2
)
1 3
= 1- 4 = 4'
(xvii) The sample space is
{HHH,HHT,HTH,HTT,THH,THT,TTH,TTT}.
(xviii) Total number of cards is 52. Total number of queens is 4 + 4 = 8.
h
. d b b'l' . 8 2
t e requlIe pro a Ilty IS 52 = 13'
(xix) Total number of possible cases when two coins are tossed is 6
2
= 36.
The cases when the sum of the faces 8 are
{(2,6),{3,5),{4,4),{5,3),{6,2)}.
Total number of favarable cases is 5, Hence the required probability is
5
36'
CR.l1: PROBABJLITY AND STATISTICS 11.21
(xx) The total possible cases is 6
2
= 36. The cases where the sum of total
more than 10 are (5,6), (6, 5), (6, 6)}, i.e., total three cases.
the required probability = 33
6
= 11
2
,
Def. 16 Conditional probability: The conditional probability of an event
B on the hypothesis that another event A has occured is denoted by P{BjA)
and defined by,
P{AB) .
P(B j A) = P(A) , provldedP(A) =I o.
Q. 4 Define conditional probability for two events.
Ex. 3 Give the frequency interpretation of conditional probability .
• SOLUTION: For a long sequence of repetitions of the random experiment
under the uniform conditions, the conditional frequency ratio, f{B j A) is taken
to be an approximate value of the conditional probability P{BjA).
Def. 17 Stochastically independent or independent events: Two events
A and B are defined to be stochatically independent or simply independent if
P(AB) = P{A).P{B) even if P{A) = 0 or P{B) = O.
Q. 5 Define independent events.
Q. 6 Explain the significance of "stochastic independence" of tW()olevents.
Def. 18 Mutually Independence: A set of n events AI, A
2
, •.. ,An con-
nected with an experiment E are said to be mutually independent if the fol-
lowing relations will hold
P{AiAj) = P{AdP{Aj), for all i,j = 1,2,3, ... , nand i =I j
P{AiAjAk) = P{Ai)P{Aj )P{A
k
) for all i, j, k = 1,2,3, ... ,n and i =I j =I k
Theorem 1 Bayes' theorem: If AI, A
2
, .•• , An be a set of pairwise mu-
tually exclusive events, one of which certainly occurs, then for any arbitrary
event X, such that
provided P{X) =I o.
P(AdX) = nP{Ai)P{XjA
i
)
2: P(Ai)P{XjAi)
i=l
11.22 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Q. 7 State Bayes' theorem.
Ex. 4 (i) Using the definition of conditional probability prove that P(ABC) =
P(A)P(B/A)P(C/AB).
(ii) If for two events A and B, P(A) = ~ , P { B ) = land P{A U B) = ~ ,
then find P{A/ B).
(iii) If A and B are two independent events then show that A and iJ are also
independent.
(iv) If A and B are independent events prove that A and B are also inde-
pendent.
(v) If A and B are independent events, with P{A) = 0.5 and P{B) = 0.3,
find P{A U B).
(vi) Given P{A) = ~ , P { B ) = l, P{AB) = l, find P{A+B) and state whether
the events A and B are independent ?
(vii) For two events A and B, P{B) = 1/4,P{A/B) = 1/2, P{B/A) = 1/4,
find P{A).
(viii) If P(A) = 0.'37, P{B) = 0.48 and P{A U B) = 0.85, find the relation
between A and B .
• SOLUTION:
...
(i) From the definition of conditional probability we have for two events A
and B, P{AB) = P{B)P{A/ B) .
... P{ABC) = P{AB)P{C/AB) = P{A)P{A/B)P(C/AB).
(ii) We have P{A U B) = P{A) + P{B) - P{A n B)
or, P{A n B) = P(A) + P{B) - P{A U B)
1 1 2 1
= 2" + 3" - 3" = 6·
P(A n B) 1/6 1
Now, P(A/ B) = P{B) = 1/3 = 2".
(iii) Since A and B are independent, P{AB) = P{A)P{B).
P(A.iJ) = P(A + B) = 1 - P(A + B)
= 1 - P(A) - P(B) + P{AB)
= 1 - P{A) - P(B) + P{A)P(B)
= 1 - P(A) - P(B)(1 - P(A))
= (1 - P(A))(1 - P(B))
=P(A)P{B)
A and B are independent events.
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
(iv) We know A +.A = S
or, .AB + AB = SB = B
or, P(.AB) + P(AB) = P(B)
(since .AB and AB are mutually exclusive)
or, P(.AB) = P(B) - P(AB) = P(B) - P(A)P(B)
(A and B are independent)
= P(B)(l- P(A)) = P{.A)P{B) .
... .A and B are independent.
(v) P(A U B) = P{A) + P{B) - P{A n B)
= P(A) + P(B) - P(A)P{B)
= 0.5 + 0.3 - 0.5 x 0.3 = 0.65.
. 1 1 1 7
(VI) P{A + B) = P{A) + P{B) - P{AB) = 2" + 3" - 4 = 12·
Again P{AB) = ~ 1= P{A)P{B).
Thus A and B are not independent.
(vii) From the definition of conditional probability
1 1 1
P{AB) = P{B)P{A/ B) = 4 x 2 = s·
Again P{AB) = P{A)P{B/A)
P{AB) 1/8 1
or, P{A) = P{B/A) = 1/4 = 2·
(viii) P{A U B) = P{A) + P{B) - P(AB)
or, 0.85 = 0.37 + 0.48 - P(AB)
or, P(AB) = 0
. .. A and B are mutually exclusive events.
11.23
Exercise 1 (i) If for two events A and B, P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.6, P{A U
B) = 0.7, find P(A/ B).
(ii) If A and B are two independent events, calculate P(A+B) when P(A) =
0.37 and P{B} = 0.48.
(iii) If for two events A and B, P(A) = ~ , P ( B ) = ! and P(A + B) = 1
7
2'
then find P(A/ B).
(iv) If for two events A and B, P(A) = ~ , P ( B ) = i and P(AUB) = ~ , then
find P(A/ B).
(v) If A and B are two independent events then show that A and B are also
independent.
[Ans. (i) 2/3, (ii) 0.6724, (iii) 3/4, (iv) 1/3.]
11.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
-11.4 Distribution Function
Def. 1 Random variable: By a random variable (r.v.) we mean a real
number X connected with the outcome of a random experiment.
Random variables are of two types: discrete random variable and continuous
random variable.
Q. 1 Define random variable.
Def. 2 Discrete random variable: If a random variable takes at most a
countable number of values, it is called a discrete random variable.
Q. 2 Define discrete random variable.
Def. 3 Continuous random variable: A random variable X is said to be
continuous if it can take all possible real values between certain limits.
Q. 3 Define continuous random variable.
Def. 4 Probability distribution function: The distribution function of a
random variable X is a function of a real variable x, to be denoted by Fx(x)
or F(x) defined in (-00,00) by
F{x) = P{ -00 < X :s; x).
Q. 4 Define probability distribution function.
Important properties of distribution function:
(i) The distribution function is monotonic non-decreasing everywhere.
i.e., F(x) :::; F(y) whenever x < y.
(ii) F(-oo) = 0 and F(oo) = 1.
(iii) The distribution function F(x) has a jump discontinuity on the left at
X = x, provided P(X = x) '# o. i.e.,
P(X = x) = F(x) - lim F(y).
y-tx-O
(iv) The distribution function is continuous on the right at all points. i.e.,
F(x) = lim F(y).
y-tx+O
Q. 5 Write down two important properties of distribution function.
CH.l1: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.25
Def. 5 Probability density function: Consider the small interval (x -
dx/2, x + dx/2) of length dx round the point x. Let f(x) be any continuous
function of x so that f (x) dx represents the probability that X falls in the
interval (x - dx/2, x + dx/2). That is,
(
dx dX)
P x - 2 ~ X ~ x + 2 =f(x)dx.
The function f(x) is known as probability density function of the random
variable X and is usually abbreviated as p.d.f.
The probability density function f(x) must satisfy the following conditions:
(i) f(x) ~ 0, for all x, and
(ii) i: f(x) dx = 1.
Q. 6 Define probability density function.
Def. 6 Probability mass function: Suppose X is a random variable taking
at most a countable infinite number of values Xl, X2, .... With each possible
outcome Xi, we associate a number P(X = Xi) = Ii, called the probability
of Xi. The function f is called the probability mass function of the random
variable X and is generally abbreviated as p.m.f.
The probability mass function Ii must satisfy the following conditions:
(i) Ii ~ 0 for all i and (ii) L fi = 1.
i
Q. 7 Define probability mass function.
Note 1 The probability of the event a < X ~ b may be computed as
P(a < X ~ b) = lab f(x) dx = F(b) - F(a),
where f(x) and F(x) are respectively the probability density function and the
distribution function of the random variable X.
Ex. 1 (i) A random variable X has the following probability distribution:
X: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
f: 0 k 2k 2k 3k k
2
2k2
Find k.
11.26 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Find the value of the constant k such that
f(x) = { kx(l- x), ° < x < 1
0, elsewhere
is a probability density function.
(iii) The probability density function of a continuous random variable is given
by
y = k(x - 1)(2 - x), 1::; x::; 2.
Determine the value of the constant k.
(iv) Examine for what value of the constant k, the function f(x) defined as
follows, may be the density function of a random variate
f(x) = :6 (3 + 2x), 2::; x ::; 4
1
0, x < 2
0, x> 4.
(v) If f(x) = kxe-:&, (0::; x < 00) be a continuous distribution, find k.
(vi) If f(x) = xe-:&, (0 ::; x < 00) be a p.d.f of a continuous distribution,
then find P(2 ::; X ::; 3) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) For a probability mass function we know L: fi = 1.
... 0 + k + 2k + 2k + 3k + k
2
+ 2k2 + (7k
2
+ k) = 1
or, 10k
2
+ 9k = 1 or, 10k
2
+ 10k - k - 1 = °
or, (10k - l)(k + 1) = °
or, k = 1/10, -1.
Since Ii ~ 0 for all i, therefore, k = 1/10.
(ii) If f(x) is a p.d.f then i: f(x) dx = 1
or, fO f(x) dx + (1 f(x) dx + (00 f(x) dx = 1
-00 10 11
or, 0 + 10
1
kx(l - x) dx + 0 = 1
[
X2 X3]1
or k - - - = 1
, 2 3 0
or k [ ~ - ~ ' J = 1
, 2 3
or, k = 6, which is the required value of k.
CR.11: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
(iii) If y is a p.d.f then i: f(x) dx = 1
or, 12 k(x -1)(2 - x)dx = 1
or, 12 k( _x
2
+ 3x - 2) dx = 1
[
x3 3x
2
] 2
or k - - + - - 2x = 1
, 3 2 1
or, k [( - ~ + 6 - 4) - ( - ~ + ~ - 2)] = 1
k
or, '6 = 1 or, k = 6.
(iv) If f(x) is a p.d.f then i: f{x) dx = 1
or, ~ 4 :6 (3 + 2x) dx = 1
k [ ]4 k
or, 36 3x + x
2
2 = lor, 36 [(12 + 16) - (6 + 4)] = 1
k
or, 36 x 18 = 1 or, k = 2.
(v) If f(x) is a p.d.f then i: f(x) dx = 1
or, 10
00
kxe-
x
dx = 1
or, k{ [ - xe-
x
]: - 10
00
1.( _e-
X
) dX} = 1
or, k[O+ 10
00
e-xdx] = 1
or, k [ - e -x ]: = 1 or, k = 1.
(vi) P{2 S; X S; 3) = ~ 3 f(x) dx = ~ 3 xe-
x
dx
= [ - xe-
x
]: - h
3
1.(-e-
X
)dx
= -3e-
3
1t 2e-
2
+ h
3
e-
x
dx
= -3e-
3
+ 2e-
2
+ [ - e-
x
]:
= -3e-
3
+ 2e-
2
- e-
3
+ e-
2
= 3e-
2
- 4e-
3

11.27
11.28 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exercise 1 (i) The probability density function of a continuous random
variable x is given by
f(x) = { kx(2 - x),
0,
Find k.
0<x<2
elsewhere
(ii) A continuous random variable X follows the probability law f (x) = Ax2,
o ~ x ~ 10. Determine A.
(iii) A random variable X has density function
f (x) = { 30x4 (1 - x), 0 ~ x ~ 1
0, otherwise
Find P(X ~ 3/4).
[Ans. (i) 3/4, (ii) 3/1000, (iii) 1909/4096.J
Ex. 2 Draw the distribution curve for the following function
1
0, -00 < x < a
x-a
F(x) = b _ a' a ~ x ~ b
1, b < x < 00
• SOLUTION: The graph of the given distribution is shown below.
F{x)
1
- - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - x
o a b 00
-00
Figure: 11.4.1
Def. 7 Binomial distribution: The probability mass function is
where n, a positive integer and p (0 < p < 1) are two parameters of the
distribution.
· CH.11: AND STATISTICS
Def. 8 Poisson distribution: The probability mass function is
e-
IJ
j.ti •
Ii = -.-, - z = 0,1,2, ...
z.
where j.t, a positive number is the only parameter of the distribution.
11.29
Def. 9 Uniform or Rectangular distribution: The probability density
function of this distribution is
!
0, -00 < x < a
f(x) = b a' a < x < b
0, b < x < 00
where a, b(> a) are two parameters.
Def. 10 Normal distribution: The probability density function of this dis-
tribution is
1 1 (x-m)2
f(x) = --e-
2
-17- , -00 < x < 00
V2i0'
m and 0'(> 0) being two parameters. The random variable of the normal
distribution is some times referred as N(m, 0').
Def. 11 Standard Normal distribution: A particular case of normal dis-
tribution is standard normal distribution. The probability density function of
this distribution is
1 1 2
f(x) = -00 < x < 00
y21l'
The standard normal distribution or the random variable of this distribution
is referred as N(O, 1).
Def. 12 Gamma distribution: The probability density function of this dis-
tribution is
O<x<oo
elsewhere
1(> 0) being the only parameter. The random variable is often referred as ,(I)
variate.
11.30 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Def. 13 Beta distribution of first kind: The probability density function
of this distribution is
f(x) = {
Xl-1(1 _ x)m-1
B(l, m) ,0 < x < 1
0, elsewhere.
The parameters are l(> 0), m(> 0) and the random variable is called a /31(l, m)
variate.
Def. 14 Beta distribution of second kind: The probability density func-
tion of this distribution is
{
xl-1
O<x<oo
f(x) = B(l, m)(l + x)l-m'
0, elsewhere.
The parameters are l(> 0), m(> 0) and the random variable is called a /32(l, m)
variate.
Q. 8 (i) Define Binomial distribution.
(ii) Define Poisson distribution.
(iii) Define uniform (or rectangular) distribution.
(iv) Define Normal distribution.
(v) Write down the probability density function of a standard normal dis-
tribution.
(vi) Define gamma distribution.
(vii) Define beta distribution of first kind.
(viii) Define beta distribution of second kind.
Ex. 3 (i) If X is a Poisson /-l-variate and P(X = 0) = P(X = 1), then find
/-l.
(ii) If X is a Poisson variate with parameter /-l and P(X = 0) = P(X =
1) = k, prove that /-l = 1 and k = e-
1
.
(iii) If the random variate X has a Poisson's distribution such that P(X =
2) = P(X = 3), find P(X = 4). [Given e-
3
= 0.0498]
(iv) For a binomial (6,p) variate P(X = 2) = 9P(X = 4), find p.
CR.II: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
• SOLUTION:
-/A i
(i) We know P(X = i) = ~ .
2.
Given P(X = 0) = P(X = 1).
or, e-/A = J.L.e-/A, or, J.L = 1.
(ii) Since X is a Poisson variate with parameter J.L,
e-/A l
P(X = i) =-+.
2.
Given P(X = 0) = P(X = 1) = k
or, e-/A = J.L.e-/A = k, or, e-/A(I - J.L) = 0
or, J.L = 1.
Also k = e-/A.J.L = l.e-
1
= e-
1
.
-/A i
(iii) For Poisson's distribution P(X = i) = ~ .
2.
Since P(X = 2) = P(X = 3),
1 J.L
or, 2 = '6' or, J.L = 3.
-I-' 4 -334
Now P(X = 4)= e .J.L = _e _. _
, 4! 24
= 0.0498 x 81 = 0.168.
24
(iv) For binomial (n,p) variate, P(X = i) = nCi pi(l_ p)(n-i).
Here n = 6. We have P(X = 2) = 9P(X = 4).
or,6C2 p2(1 - p)6-2 = 9.
6
C4 p4(1 _ p)6-4
or, 6C
2
p2(1- p)4 = 9.
6
C
2
p4(1 - p)2 [since nCr = nc
n
_
r
]
or, (1- p)2 = 9p2, or, 9p2 = p2 - 2p + 1,
or, 8p2 + 4p - 2p - 1 = 0, or, 4p(2p + 1) - 1(2p 7-1) = 0
1 1
or, (4p - 1)(2p + 1) = 0, or, p = 4' -2'
. Since p > 0, so the required value of p is l.
11.31
Def. 15 Distribution function in two dimensions: Let X and Y be two
random variables. The joint distribution function Fx,y(x, y) or simple F(x, y)
of X and Y is defined by
F(x,y) = P(-oo < X ~ x, -00 < Y ~ y),
11.32 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
where the events (-00 < X :::; x, -00 < Y :::; y) means the joint occurence of
the events -00 < X :::; x and -00 < Y :::; y.
Q. 9 Define distribution function in two dimensions.
Def. 16 Density function in two dimensions: The probability that the
point (x, y) will lie in the infinitesimal rectangular region, of area dx dy is given
by
P(x - dx/2 :::; X :::; x + dx/2, y - dy/2 :::; Y :::; dy/2) = dFx,y(x, y)
and is denoted by f x ,y (x, y) dx dy, where the function f x ,y (x, y) is called the
joint probability density function of X and Y.
Q. 10 Define density function in two dimensions.
Note 2 If a function f(:c, y) is a p.d.f then
(i) f(x, y) ~ 0 for all .r and y and
(ii) i: i: f(x, y) &1' dy = 1.
Independent random variables
If the events -00 < X :::; x and -00 < Y :::; yare independent for all x, y,
then
P(-oo < X:::; x,-oo < Y:::; y) = P(-oo < X:::; x)P(-oo < Y:::; y)
or, F(x, y) = Fx(x).Fy(Y) and f(x, y) = fx(x).fy(y).
The functions Fx (x) and Fy (y) are called the marginal probability distribution
functions.
The function f(x, y) is called joint probability density function and fx(x)
and fy(y) are called marginal density function.
If X and Yare independent discrete random variables then lij = li.J.j,
where lij is called joint probability mass function and Ii. and J.j are called
marginal probability mass functions.
Def. 17 (i) Rectangular or Uniform distribution: The joint probabil-
ity density function of this distribution is
{
(b )l(d )' a < x < b, c < y < d
f(x,y) = -a-c
0, otherwise
where a, b(> a), c, d(> c) are four parameters.
CH.U: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.33
(ii) Normal distribution: The joint probability density function is
1 {(x - m
x
)2 (x - mx)(y - my) (y - my)2}
- 2(1 - p2) 0"2 - 2p 0" 0" + -'-"--0"-'2,--"-'--
e x x y y
f(x,y) = ---------.;-;:==-------
27f"O"xO"y 1 - p2
(-00 < x < 00, -00 < y < 00) where m
x
, my, O"x(> 0), O"y(> 0) and
p( -1 < p < 1) are the parameters of the distribution.
Q. 11 (i) Define rectangular or uniform distribution in two dimensions.
(ii) Define Normal distribution in two dimensions.
Ex. 4 (i) Determine the value of the constant k which makes
f(x, y) = kx
2
y, 0 < X < 1,0 < y < 1 a joint probability density
function.
(ii) Determine the value of the constant k which makes
f(x, y) = kxy2, 0 < x < 1,0 < y < 1 a joint probability density
function.
(iii) Determine the value of the constant k which makes
f(x, y) = kxy, (0 < x < 1, 0 < y < x)
a joint probability density function .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Here f(x,y) = kx
2
y, 0 < X < 1,0 < y < 1.
Since f(x, y) is a p.d.f then
i: i: f(x, y) dx dy = 1.
or, 10
1
10
1
kx
2
y dx dy = 1.
or, k 10
1
y [ ~ 3 ] ~ dy = 1
k r
1
or, "310 ydy = 1
k [y2] 1 k 1
or, "3 "2 0 = 1 or, "3' '2 = 1 or, k = 6.
(ii) Here f(x,y) = kxy2, 0 < X < 1,0 < y < 1.
Since f(x, y) is a p.d.f then
11.34 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
i: i: f(x, y) dx dy = 1.
or, fo1 fo1 kxy2 dx dy = 1.
or, k fo1 [ ~ 2 ] ~ y 2 dy = 1
or, ~ r
1
y2 dy = 1
2 10
k [y3] 1 k 1
or, 2 "3 0 = 1 or, 2·"3 = 1 or, k = 6.
(iii) Here f(x,y) = kxy, 0 < x < 1,0 < y < x.
Since f(x, y) is a p.d.f then
i: i: f(x, y) dx dy = 1.
From figure, y ranging from 0
to x and x ranging from 0 to
1.
or, fo1 foX kxydydx = 1.
r1 [y2] x
or, k lox 2 0 dx = 1
or - x
3
dx = 1 kln
1
, 2 0
k [X
4
Jl k 1
or, 2 4 0 = 1 or, 2·4 = 1 or, k = 8.
f(x)
11.5 Mathematical Expectation
Figure: 11.4.2
Def. 1 Mathematical expectation: If g(x) is a continuous function, then
the mathematical expectation or mean value of the function g(X) of the ran-
dom variable X, to be denoted by E{g(X)} and is defined as
1
f= g(Xi) fi, . for a discrete distribution
E{g(X)} = i=-oo
i: g(x) f(x) dx, for a continuous distribution
provided the series or the infinite integral converges absolutely.
Q. 1 Define mathematical expectation of a random variable X.
CH.II: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.35
Some properties of Expectation:
(i) Show that E(a) = a, where a is a constant.
(ii) Show that E(aX) ::: aE(X), where a is a constant.
(iii) Prove that E(91(X) + 92(X)) = E(91(X)) + E(92(X)) .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let X be a discrete random variable.
00 00
.'. E(a) = L a fi = a L fi = a.I = a.
i=-oo i=-oo
(ii) Let X be a discrete random variable.
00 00
.'. E(aX) = L aXi fi = a L Xi fi = aE(X).
i=-oo i=-oo
(iii) Let X be a discrete random variable.
00
E(91(X) + 92(X)) = L (91(xd + g2(Xi)) Ii
i=-oo
00 00
= L 91 (Xi) fi + 2: 92 (Xi) Ii = E(91(X)) + E(92(X)).
i=-oo i=-oo
Def. 2 Mean: The mean of X or that of the corresponding distribution is
denoted by E(X) and is denoted by mx or simply m, i.e.,
m = E(X).
The mean represents the centre of mass of the probability mass distribution.
It gives a rough position of the bulk of the distribution and is called a measure
of location.
Q. 2 (i) Define mean of a random variable.
or
Define mathematical expectation E(X) of a random variable X.
(ii) What is the physical significance of the mean of a random variable X?
Mean of some standard distributions:
Distribution Parameters Mean
Binomial n,p np
Poisson
JL JL
Normal m,(J m
Ex. 1 (i) Calculate the mean of Poisson distribution.
(ii) If y = ax + b, where a, b are constants, prove that E(y) = aE(x) + b.
11.36 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(iii) x is a discrete random variable which takes values 1, 2, 3, ... ,n. If the
probability mass function of x be ax, find the value of a and the mean
value of x.
(iv) A random variable X has density function
f(x) = { 30x4(1 - x). 0:::; x ~ 1
0, otherwIse .
• SOLUTION:
(i) The p.m.f of Poisson distribution is
e-I-'.J.l
i
.
Ii = -.-, -, z = 0, 1,2, ..... .
z.
The mean (m) = E(X)
00. 00 • e-J1. .J.li
L Zli = L
Z
'-"-
i=-oo i=O Z.
= e-J1. (0 + 1 !!:. + 2 J.l2 + 3 J.l3 + ... )
'1 . 2! . 3!
(
J.l2 J.l3 )
= J.le-I-' 1 + J.l + - + - + ...
2! 3!
(ii) Let X be the discrete random variable.
00 00
E(Y) = L yi/i = L (axi + b)1i
i=-oo i=-oo
00 00
a LXiii + b L Ii
i=-oo i=-oo
aE(X) + b.l = aE(X) + b (as L Ii = 1).
(iii) Let Ix = ax. Since Ix is a p.m.f then
00 n
L Ix = 1, or, Lax = 1
x=-oo ;1'=1
n(n + 1)
or, a(1 + 2 + 3 + . , . + n) = 1, or, a. 2 = 1.
2
or,a=n(n+l)'
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.37
00 n
Now, mean (m) = E(X) = Lxix = L x.ax
x=-oo x=l
n
= a L x
2
= a(12 + 22 + 3
2
+ ... + n
2
)
x=l
2 n(n+1)(2n+1) 2n+1
= =--
n(n + 1)' 6 3
Def.3 Moments:
(i) The kth moments of a random variable X about a fixed point 'a' is
defined to be the mean value E{(X - a)k}.
(ii) The kth moments about origin of the distribution ofthe random variable
X denoted by ak(X) or ak is defined by ak = E(Xk).
Obviously ao = 1, al = m.
(iii) The kth order central moment J.Lk(X) or J.Lk which is the kth moment of
X about the mean is given by
J.Lk = E{(x - m)k}.
We have J.Lo = 1, J.Ll = 0 for all distribution.
Q. 3 (i) Define moment about origin.
(ii) Define central moment.
Def. 4 Variance: The variance of a random variable X denoted by Var(X)
is the second central moment J.L2 of the distribution, i.e.,
Var{X) = J.L2 = E{(X - m)2} where m = E{X) = mean of X.
Def. 5 Standard Deviation: The positive square root of the variance is
called the standard deviation of X to be denoted by O'(X) or O'x or 0', i.e.,
0' = +VVar(X).
Q. 4 (i) Define variance.
(ii) Define standard deviation.
11.38 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Standard deviation of some standard distributions:
Distribution Parameters Standard Deviation
Binomial n,p Jnp(l- p)
Poisson
J.L
VJi
Normal m,u U
Ex. 2 (i) Show that Var(aX + b) = a
2
Var(X).
(ii) Show, for a probability distribution, that
Var(X) = E(X2) - m
2
.
or
Prove that the variance of a random variable can be put in the form
Var(X) = E(X2) - {E(X)}2.
(iii) The mean and variance of binomial (n,p) distribution are 20 and 16
respectively. Find the values of nand p.
(iv) Find the mean and variance of rectangular distribution.
(v) A random variable X has density function
{
3+2x
f(x) = -18
0, otherwise.
Calculate mean .
• SOLUTION:
(i) E(aX + b) = aE(X) + b = am
x
+ b where mx = E(X).
Var(aX + b) = E(aX + b - am
x
- b)2 = E{a(X - m
x
)}2
= a
2
E(X - m
x
)2 = a
2
Var(X).
(ii) Var(X) = E(X - m)2
= E(X2 - 2mX + m
2
) = E(X2) - 2mE(X) + m
2
= E(X2) - 2m.m + m
2
= E(X2) - m
2
.
or, Var(X) = E(X2) - {E(X)}2 (as m = E(X)),
(iii) The mean and variance of binomial (n, p) variate are respectively np and
np(l - p),
.'. np = 20 and np(1- p) = 16
16 4 1
or, 20(1 - p) = 16 01',1- P = 20' or, p = 1- S = S'
CR.11: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
A
. 20 2
gam, np = 20 or, n = - = 0 x 5 = 100.
P
Therefore the value of nand p are respectively 100 and
, 5
(iv) The p.d,f of uniform distribution is
1
f (x) = -b -, a < x < b.
-a
Mean (m) = E(X) = r
b
x f(x) dx = r
b
x-
b
1 dx
J
a
J
a
- a
1 X2]b
= b-a[T a
1 b
2
- a
2
b + a
= =
b - a 2 2
E(X2) = r
b
x
2
f(x)dx = r
b
x
2
_
b
1 dx
Ja Ja - a
1 [X
3
]b 1 b
3
-a
3
=b-a3a=b-a' 3
= _ a)(b2 + ab + a2) = a
2
+ ab + b
2
.
b- a3 3
,', Var{X) = E(X2) _ m2 = a
2
+ +b
2
_ (a; b)2
4(a
2
+ ab + b
2
) - 3{a
2
+ b
2
+ 2ab)
=
12
a
2
+b
2
-2ab (b-a)2
= =
12 12
r
4
3 + 2x
(v) The mean (m) = J
2
dx
= 2.. r
4
(3x + 2x2) dx = 2.. [3 x
2
+ 2 X
3
] 4
18 J2 18 2 3 2
= 2.. _ 4) + _ 8)] = 1 + 56 = 83.
18 2 3 27 27
11.39
Def. 6 Standardised Variate: The variable X* = X - m has mean zero
(T
and standard deviation unity is called the standardised or normalised random
variable corresponding to the random variable X.
Q. 5 Define standardised variate.
Ex. 3 (i) Show that mean of a standardised variate is O.
11.40 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Show that standard deviation of a standardised variate is 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) The standardised variate X* = X - m where m and (J' are respectively
(J'
mean and standard deviation of the variate X.
Now, mean of X* is
E(X*) = E(X - 1n)
(J'
111
= -E(X - m) = -(E(X) - E(m)) = -(m - m) = O.
(J' (J' (J'
(ii) The mean of standardised variate X* = X - m is
(J'
E(X*) = E(X - 111) = .!.E(X - m)
(J' (J'
11,
= -(E(X) - E(m)) = -(m - m) = O.
(J' (J'
(
X - m )2 1 1
Var(X*) = E - 0 = "2E(X - m)2 = "2(J'2 = 1.
(T (J' (J'
Exercise 1 (i) If the random variable X has mean m and variance (J'2 and
X-m
if X* = , calculate E(X*) and E(X*2).
(J' .
(ii) If the random variable X has mean m and variance (J'2 find E (X ~ m)
and E(X ~ m)2.
[Ans. (i) 0, 1, (ii) 0, 1.]
Def. 7 Expectation for a bivariate distribution: Let X and Y be two
random variables. The expectation or mean value of a continuous function
g(X, Y) of X, Y is defined by
I
f: f: g(Xi' Yj)!ij,
E{g(X, Y)} = i=-oo i=-oo
i: i ~ ( x , y)f(x, y) dx dy,
for discrete case
for continuous case
provided the series or integral are absolutely convergent.
Q. 6 Define expectation for a bivariate distribution.
CH.U: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
Ex. 4 (i) If X and Y are random variables, then show that
E(X + Y) = E(X) + E(Y).
11.41
(ii) If X and Yare independent variate then show that E(XY) = E(X)E(Y).
(iii) If X and Y be two independent variates then prove that Var(aX +bY)
= a
2
Var(X) + b
2
Var(Y), where a and b are constants.
(iv) If independent random variates Xl, X2, X3 have mean m, find mean of the
. Xl + X2 + X3 .
variate z = 3 .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let X and Y be two continuous random variables.
Now, E(X + Y)
i: i: (x + y) f (x, y) dx dy
= i: i'!f(x,y)dXd
y
+ i: i'if(x,Y)dXdY
= i: x fz(x) dx + i: y fy(y) dy
= E(X) + E(Y)
where fz(x) = i:f(x, y)dy and fy(y) = i:f(x, y)dx.
(ii) Let X and Y be two independent continuous variates.
Then f(x,y) = fz(x).fy(y). Now,
E(XY) = i:i: xyf(x,y)dxdy
= i: i: xyfz(x)fy(y) dxdy
= i: xfz(x) dx i: yfy(y) dy = E(X)E(Y).
(iii) Let Z = aX + bY.
Then m
z
= am
z
+ bmy.
Now, Var(aX + bY) = Var(Z) = E(Z - m
z
)2
= E(aX + bY - am
z
- bmy)2
= E{a(X - m
z
) + b(Y - my)F
= a
2
E(X - m
x
)2 + b
2
E(Y - m
y
)2 + 2abE{(X - mz)(Y - my)}
= a
2
Var(X) + b
2
Var(Y) + 2abE{(X - mx)(Y - my)}
11.42 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT (,JUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
= a
2
Var(X) + b
2
Var(Y).
(since X and Yare independent, so
E{(X - mx)(Y - my)} = E(X - mx)E(Y - my) = 0).
(iv) Here given that E(Xl) = E(X2) = E(X3) = m.
Mean of Z is
1 1
E(Z) = "3E(X1 + X
2
+ Xa) = "3{E(Xl) + E(X2) + E(Xa)}
1
= "3(m+m+m) = m.
11.6 Correlation and Regression
Def. 1 Covariance: The covariance betweeJ:l_ two random variables X and
Y is denoted by Cov(X, Y) and is defined by
Cov(X, Y) = E{(X - mx)(Y - my)}.
Q. 1 Define covariance.
Der. 2 Correlation Coefficient: The correlation coefficient between two
random variables X and Y is generally denoted by r or by p and defined by
Cov(X, Y)
p= ,
(1x·(1y
where (1x and (1y are respectively the standard deviations of X and Y.
Q. 2 Define correlation coefficient of a bivariate statistical data.
Ex. 1 (i) Show that for two independent variables, their correlation coeffi-
cient is zero.
(ii) Interpret the cases when p = 0 and p = 1.
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let X and Y be two independent random variables. Then
Cov(X, Y) = E{(X - mx)(Y - my)}
= E(X - mx).E(Y - my) = O .
. '. p = Cov(X, Y) = O.
(1x·(1y
(ii) When p = 0 then the random variables X and Yare uncorrected. When
p = 1 then the random variables X and Yare connected by a linear
relation.
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.43
Ex. 2 (i) Define regression coefficients on y on x and x on y.
(ii) Write down the regression equations of y on x and x on y.
(iii) Write down the regression equations of x on y and y on x and prove
that correlation coefficient is the geometric mean of the two regression
coefficients.
or
Show that p = ±Jbxy.b
yx
, where b
xy
and b
yx
are regression coefficients .
• SOLUTION:
(i) b
yx
= p a
y
is the regression coefficient of y on x and b
xy
=:P ax is the
~ ~
regression coefficient of x on y, where p, ax, a
y
are the correlation coeffi-
cient, standard deviation of x and standard deviation of y respectively.
(ii) The regression equation of yon x is
y - fi = b
yx
(x - x).
The regression equation of x on y is
x - x = bxy(y - fi).
b
xy
and b
yx
are called the regression coefficients of x on y and y on x
respectively.
(iii) The regression equation of yon x is
y - fi = b
yx
(x - x).
The regression equation of x on y is
x - x = bxy(y - fi),
where b
yx
= p a
y
and b
xy
= P ax, called the regression coefficients.
ax ay
Now, bxy.b
yx
= p2 or, p = ±Jbxy.b
yx
,
i.e., the correlation coefficient is the geometric mean of regression coef-
ficients.
Note 1 P = +Jbxy.b
yx
when both b
xy
and b
yx
are positive and p = -Jbxy.b
yx
when both b
xy
and b
yx
are negative.
Ex. 3 (i) Find the correlation coefficient of the following bivariate sample
(ii) Find the regression coefficient of y on x of the following distribution
11.44 V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION:
(i) The correlation coefficient
x
Y
xy
x:.G y:.G
1 4 4 1 16
2 5 10 4 25
3 6 18 9 36
Total 6 15 32 14 77
6 15
Here n = 3. x = 3 = 2, Y = "3 = 5.
E XiYi = 32, E X[ = 14, E Yl = 77.
32 _ 2 x 5 ~
. r= 3 = 3 =1
. . J(14/3 - 4).J{77/3 - 25) J2/3.J2/3 .
(ii) Regression coefficient of Y on x is
b
_ Sy _ Cov(.r, y) Sy _ Cov{x, y) _ ~ E XiYi - x.y
yx - r- - - - 1
Sx Sx.Sy Sx S; n Ex; - x
2
Total
5
Here n = 3, x = 0, y = 3.
O-Ox£
·b - 3-0
.. yx - ~ _ 0 - .
3
x
-1
0
1
0
Y
X2
xy
2 1 -2
1 0 0
2 1 2
5 2 0
Ex. 4 (i) Find the regression equation of Y on x from the following data
x = 10, i} = 15 and b
yx
= 2.50.
(ii) If 4u = 2x + 7 and 6v = 2y - 15 and the regression coefficient of Y on x
is 3 then find the regression coefficient of v on u.
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.45
(iii) If two random variables are linearly related, then show that p = ±1.
(iv) If the correlation coefficient p between two variables be 1, find the rela-
tion between the variables by which tht-y are related.
(v) If u = 2x and v = 3y then show that correlation coefficient between u, v
is equal to the correlation coefficient between x and y.
(vi) If the regression equation of y on x be y = 0.57x + 6.93 and x on y be
x = 1.12y - 2.46, find the correlatio'1 coefficient between x and y.
(vii) Two regression lines are given by 3X = 4Y +9, 1.5Y = 6X +7. Determine
the variance of X and Y.
(viii) Out of two lines ofregression given by X+2Y-5 = Oand2X+3Y-8 = 0,
which one is the regression line of X on Y ?
• SOLUTION:
(i) The regression equation of yon x is
y - y = b
yx
(x - x)
or, y - 15 = 2.5(x - 10) or, y = 2.5x - 10.
(
ii) b Sv 2/6.S
y
vu = rvu Su = ryx 2/4.S
x
(if y = ax + b then Sy = lalS
x
)
_ Sy 2 _ 2 _ 2 _
or, bvu - ryx Sx·
3
- 3·byx - 3.
3
- 2.
(iii) Let Y = aX + e be the relation between the variates X and Y.
(iv)
Now, my = E(Y) = aE(X) + e = amx + e
... S; = E(Y - m
y
)2 = E(aX + e - amx - e)2
= E{a(X - m
x
)}2 = a
2
E(X - m
x
)2 = a
2
S;.
Again,
Cov(X, Y)= E{(X - mx)(Y - my)}
= E{(X - mx)(aX + e - amx - e)}
= E{(X - mx)a(X - m
x
)}
= aE(X - m
x
)2 = as; .
. p = Cov(x, y) = a.s; = ~ =.±1.
. . Sx.sy Sx·lalS
x
lal
L X
... X - mx d Y'" Y - my
et = an = .
Sx Sy
Suppose (X* - y*)2 = 0
(
*)2 1 ( )2 S; d
Now, E X = S2·
E
X - mx = S2 = 1 an
x x
11.46 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
E(X*Y*) = E{(X
x x
E(X - mx)(Y - mU)
= 5
2
8
2
= p.
x' y
Also E(X'" - y*)2 = E(X*)2 - 2E(X*Y"') + E(y*)2
= 1 - 2p + 1 = 2 - 2p .
. '. E(X· - y*)2 = 0 or, 2 - 2p = 0 or, p = 1.
Thus when p = 1 then (X'" - Y"')2 = 0 or, X* = Y·
X-m
x
Y-my
or, Sx = 5
y

Which is the equation of a straight line passing through the point (mx, my).
(v) mu = E(U) = E(2X) = 2m
x
.
Similarly, mv = 3m
y
.
= E(U - mu)2 = E(2X - 2mx)2 = 4E(X - m
x
)2 = 48;.
Similarly, S; =
Cov(U, V) = E{(U - mu)(V - mv)}
= E{(2X - 2mx)(3Y - 3my)}
= 6E{(X - mx)(Y - my)}
= 6Cov(X, Y).
. Cov(U, V) 6 Cov(X, Y) Cov(X, Y)
Puv = = = = Pxy'
. . Su.Sv 2S
x
.3S
y
Sx.Sy
i.e., the correlation coefficient between u, v is equal to the correlation
coefficient between x, y.
( vi) The regression equation of y on x and x on yare respectively
y = 0.57x + 6.93 and x = 1.12y - 2.46 .
. '. b
yx
= 0.57 and b
xy
= 1.12.
The correlation coefficient is
p = +Jbxy.b
yx
= )0.57 x 1.12 = 0.80.
(vii) We know, if aX = bY + c then a
2
Var(X) = b
2
Var(Y).
Therefore from the given relations we have 9Var(X) = 16Var(Y) and
2.25 Var(Y) = 36 Var(X).
Solving we get Va7'(X) = 0 and Var(Y) = O.
CH.U: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11.47
(viii) Let Y = _!X + ~ and X = - ~ Y + 4.
2 2 2
.l 3
Here by:z; = -"2 and bxy = -"2'
Since bxy.byx = - ~ . - ~ = ~ < 1,
the line X = - ~ Y + 4 is the regression line of X on Y.
11.7 Sampling Distribution
Def. 1 Population: The collection or the aggregate of objects or the set of
results of an operation is called population.
In theory of sampling the population means the larger group from which
samples are drawn.
Def. 2 Sample: A part of the population selected from it with the object of
investigating its properties is called a sample.
The number of individuals taken in the sample is called sample size.
Def. 3 Population Parameters: The constants with a probability distri-
bution such that for different values of those constants one gets different distri-
butions of same kind are called parameters of characteristic of the probability
distribution.
For example, nand p are the parameters of the binomial (n, p) distribution
of X given by
P(X = i) = nCi pi(1 - p)n-i, i = 0,1, ... , n.
Def. 4 Sample Characteristic: Let X be a random variable associated
with an experiment E and X be the random variable for the mean of sample
objects corresponding to the distribution of the sample values Xl, X2,'" ,X
n
.
The characteristic such as mean, variance, moments etc. of the empirical
distribution of X are called sample characteristics.
Def. 5 Statistic: Any function of the sample values Xl, X2, ••. , Xn of a ample
'of size n drawn from a population of a random variable X, is called a statistic.
I I
1 ~ . . .
For examp e, samp e mean x = - L.J Xi, IS a statlstlc.
n i=l
Def. 6 Estimate or Estimator: A statistic a = a(xl' X2, .•. ,x
n
) will be
called an estimator of the population parameter a of the probability mass in
the sampling distributioll if the statistic a is concentrated near the point a.
11.48 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Defo 7 Consistent Estimate: A statistic a = a(xl, X2, . .. , xn) is said to be
a consistent estimate of a population parameter 0: if A ~ a as n ---+ 00, where
A is the random variable corresponding to the statistic a.
For example, sample mean is a consistent estimate of the population mean.
Defo 8 Unbiased Estimate: A statistic a = a(xl, X2, ... , xn) is said to be
an unbiased estimate of a population parameter 0: if E(A) = 0:, where A is
the random variable corresponding to a.
For example, sample mean is an unbiased estimate of the population mean.
Qo 1 Define the following terms:
(i) Population, (ii) Sample, (iii) Parameters, (iv) Sample characteristics, (v)
Statistic, (vi) Estimate or estimator, (vii) Consistent estimate, (viii) Unbiased
estimate.
Exo 1 Show that the sample mean is unbiased estimate of population mean .
• SOLUTION: Let Xl, X2,"" Xn be a sample of size n drawn from a population
whose mean m.
The sample mean is i' = .!. t Xi. We have E(X
i
) = m for all i, where Xi
n i=l
is the random variable corresponding to the sample value Xi. Now,
1 n 1 n
E(X) = - 2:E(Xd = - 2:m = m.
n i=l n i=l
Hence the sample mean is unbiased estimate of population mean.
11.8 Testing of Hypothesis
Defo 1 Statistical Hypothesis: Any statement or assertion about a statisti-
cal population or the values of its parameters is called a statistical hypothesis.
Hypothesis are of two types: simple and composite.
Defo 2 Simple Hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis which specifies the
probability distribution and all parameters of the population is called a simple
hypothesis.
Defo 3 Composite Hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis which does not
specify the population completely, i.e., either the probability distribution or
some parameters are unknown is called composite hypothesis.
CH.ll: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 11049
Defo 4 Null Hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis which is set-up depending
of the given hypothesis and whose validity is tested for possible rejection 011
the basis of sample observations is called a null-hypothesis.
It is denoted by Ho and tested against alternative hypothesis. Tests of
hypothesis actually deal with rejection or acceptance of null-hypothesis (not
with the given hypothesis) only.
Defo 5 Alternative Hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis which differs from
the null-hypothesis is called an alternative hypothesis and is denoted by HI.
The alternative hypothesis is not tested, but its acceptance or rejection de-
pends on the rejection or acceptance of the null-hypothesis.
Defo 6 Test Statistic: A function of sample observations whose computed
value determine the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of the
null-hypothesis is called a test statistic.
Defo 7 Critical Region: The set of values of the test statistic which lead to
rejection of the null-hypothesis is called critical region of the test.
Defo 8 Level of Significance: The maximum probability with which a true
null-hypothesis is rejected is known as level of significance of the test and is
denoted by a.
Defo 9 Type-I ~ r r o r : This is the error committed in rejecting a null-
hypothesis by the test when it is really true. The critical region is so de-
termined that the probability of Type-I error does not exceed the level of
significance of the test.
Def. 10 Type-II Error: This is the error committed in accepting a null-
hypothesis by the test when it is really false. The probability of Type-II error
depends on the specified value of the alternative hypothesis and is used in
evaluating the efficiency of a test.
Q. 1 Define the following terms:
(i) Statistical hypothesis, (ii) Simple hypothesis, (iii) Composite hypothesis,
(iv) Null hypothesis, (v) Alternative hypothesis, (vi) Test statistic, (vii) Crit-
ical region, (viii) Level of significance, (ix) Type-I error, (x) Type-II error.
Ch.12 II Numerical Methods
12.1 Errors
12.1.1 Sources of error
In numerical computation, error can be classified as two types:
(i) Truncation error: The error which is inherent in a numerical method
itself is called truncation error.
The truncation error arises due to the replacement of an infinite process
by a finite process.
(ii) Computational error: This error arises during arithmetic calculation
due to the finite representation of numerical numbers.
For example, t is represented by 0.333333, which is not equal to i, but
it is correct up to six decimal places.
The computational error again can be classified into two types - round
off error and significant error.
Significant figures
The figures (digits) which are used in representing a number are called sig-
nificant figure or significant digits.
The digits 1, 2, 3, ... , 9, 0 are significant figures or digits. The numbers
1.235, 2.0235, 378 contain respectively 4, 5 and 3 significant figures. But, in
the number 0.000587 has 3 significant figures, the leading zeros after decimal
point are not significant, they are used to fix the position of the decimal point.
Rule for rounding-off a number to n significant digits
Discard all the digits to t.he right of the nth digit and if the discarded number
is greater than half a unit in the nth place, add 1 to the nth digit, if the
discarded number is less than half a unit in the nth place, leave the nth digit
unchanged, if the discarded number is exactly half a unit in the nth place,
leave the nth digit unaltered if the digit is even, but add 1 with nth digit if it
is odd.
If a number is rounded using the above rule then the number is called
correct up to n significant figures.
The following numbers are rounded-off correctly to five significant figures:
12.2 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Exact number Round-off number
25.368
28.353215 28.253
3.7853Q3 3.7854
5.R354Q3 3.8354
6.7354Q 6.7354
4.8327Q 4.8328
0.005834518 0.0058346
38567Q4 38568x 10
2
2.37 2.3700
8.99991 9.0000
10.000
Round-off error
The error committing due to the rounding-off a number is called round-off
error.
Significant error
The error committing during arithmetic computation due to the loss of signif-
icant digits.
This type of error generally occurs (i) when two almost equal numbers
are subtracted, and (ii) when a number is divided by a very small number
compared to the dividend.
12.1.2 Absolute, relative and percentage error
Suppose XT and XA denotes the true value and approximate value of x respec-
tively.
Absolute error:
The absolute error (Ea) of a number is the difference between true value and
approximate value, i.e.,
Ea = XT - XA or XA - XT·
Relative error:
The relative error (Er) of a number is equal to absolute error divided true or
approximate value, i.e.,
E
_ Ea Ea
r - or
XT XA
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12.3
In other words, relative error is the absolute error in unit measurement.
Percentage error:
The percentage error (Ep) of a number is the relative error multiplied by 100,
i.e.,
XT-XA
Ep = Er x 100 = x 100.
XT
Percentage error is thE' absolute error committed to measure 100 unit. When
Er is very small then Ep is used. .
Theorem 1 If a number is correct up to n significant figures and k is the first
1
significant digit then the maximum relative error is k 1 .
X lO
n
-
12.1.3 Generation of round-off errors
Ex. 1 (i) Show that the absolute error in summing two numbers is the sum
of individual absolute errors.
(ii) Show that the relative error in product of two numbers is equal to the
sum if individual relative errors.
(iii) Show that the relative. error in division between two numbers is equal to
the difference of individual relative errors .
• SOLUTION:
(i) Let XT and YT be two exact numbers whose approximate representations
be XA and YA respectively.
Let f1 and f2 be the absolute errors in XT and YT respectively.
Then XT = XA + f1 and YT = YA + f2·
The sum XT + YT = (XA + YA) + (f1 + f2)
or, (XT + YT) - (XA + YA) = (f1 + f2).
Here, (XT + YT) - (XA + YA) is the absolute error of added numbers and
which is equal to (101 + f2), i.e., sum of two individual absolute errors.
(ii) Let XT and YT be the true value and XA, YA be the corresponding ap-
proximate values. Also, let f1 and f2 be the absolute errors in XT and
YT respectively.
Then XTYT - XAYA = (XA + f1)(YA + f2) - XAYA = f1YA + f2
X
A
(neglecting f1f2 as small number)
. XTYT -XAYA = ~ + ~ .
1.e.,
XAYA XA YA
12.4 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Thus, the relative error in product of two numbers is equal to the sum
of individual relative errors.
(iii) Let XT and YT be the true value and XA, YA be the corresponding ap-
proximate values. Also, let Cl and C2 be the absolute errors in XT and
YT respectively.
'rhen XT = XA + C1 and YT = YA + C2·
XA YA
(as relative error ~ is much less th.m 1).
Thus the relative error in division is equal to the difference of their
individual relative errors.
Ex. 2 Write down the approximate representation of ~ correct up to four
significant figures and find (i) absolute error, (ii) relative error, (iii) percentage
error .
• SOLUTION: ~ = 0.3333 (up to foul' significant figures).
(i) absolute error Ea = ~ - 0.3333 = 0.000033.
(ii) relative error Er = ~ ~ = 0.000099 ::= 0.00010.
(iii) percentage error Ep = Er x 100 = 0.01 %.
Ex. 3 Find the sum of the following approximate numbers, if the numbers
are correct to the last digit.
3.58, 4.835673, 1.5673, 1.05534, 8.36.
• SOLUTION: Here the least correct numbers are 2.58 and 8.36. Rounding-
off the other numbers up to 4 decimal places (more than two decimal places
relative to 2.58, 8.36) and adding them, we get,
3.58 + 4.8357 + 1.5673 + 1.0553 + 8.36 = 19.3983 ::= 19.40.
Ex. 4 Find the relative error in computing Y = 3x
7
- Sa: at a: = 1, if the error
in x is 0.005.
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12.5
• SOLUTION: Let f:l.y and f:l.x be the absolute error in y and x respectively.
Then, f:l.y ~ ~ ~ f:l.x = {21x
6
- 5)f:l.x.
At x = 1, f:l.y = (21 - 5) x 0.005 = 0.08.
Again, at x = 1,y = 3 X 17 - 5 x 1 = -2 (true value).
The relative error in y is I ~ y I = I 0 . ~ 8 1 = 0.04.
Ex. 5 Find the number of significant figures in x A with respect to XT where
XA = 3.56737, XT = 3.56738.
• SOLUTION: Here Ea = XT - XA = 3.56738 - 3.56736 = 0.2 x 10-
4
<
0.5 X 10-
4
.
. '. XA is correct to four decimal places and XA is correct up to five significant
figures.
Ex. 6 Find the number of significant figures in 13.3651 given its absolute error
0.25 x 10-
2
.
• SOLUTION: Here Ea ::::: 0.25 X 10-
2
< 0.5 x 10-
2
.
. '. XA = 13.3651 i:' correct to two decimal places.
Hence x A is corree': t \. four significant figures.
Ex. 7 Find the.· relatiw error in computation of x + y for x = 15.23 and
y = 8.58 having absoluh' error f:l.x = 0.002 and f:l.y = 0.004 respectively.
• SOLUTION: Let:; = J: + y. Then, f:l.z = f:l.x + f:l.y, where f:l.x is the error in
x.
. f:l.z = 0.002 + 0.004 = 0.006.
Z = x + Y == 15.23 + 8.58 = 23.81.
The relative error in J' + Y is ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ = 0.00025.
12.2 Interpolation
12.2.1 Lagrange Interpolation
Let Yi = !(Xi), i = 0,1,2, ' .. ,n. Then the Lagrange interpolation polynomial
IS
¢(X)
(x - xt}(x - X2) ... (x - xn)
= (xo - Xl )(XO - X2) , .. (XO - Xn) Yo
{x - Xo)(X - X2).·· . (x - Xn)
+ Yl + ...
(Xl - XO)(XI - X2)'" (Xl - Xn)
12.6 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(x - xo)(x - Xl) ... (X - Xn-l)
+ (xn - XO)(xn - Xl) ... (xn - Xn-l) Yn
n
= LLi(x)Yi,
i=O
where
(X - xo)(x - Xl) ... (X - Xi-I)(X - Xi+!) ... (X - Xn)
(Xi - XO)(Xi - Xl) ... (Xi - Xi-I)(Xi - Xi+d ... (Xi - X
n

Lagrange interpolation formula for equal points
Substituting X = Xo + uh and Xi = Xo + ih.
u(u - 1)(u - 2) .. · (u - n)
Then Li(X) = ( 1) _. "( ')'( .)
- n ~ z . n - z . u - z
. n (-I)n-
i
u(u - 1)(u - 2)· .. (u - n)
In thIS case, ¢(x) = L ( _.) "( _ ')' Yi·
i=O u Z z. n z.
Ex. 1 Calculate f(1.2) using the following table
X 1 2 3
Y 0.0175 0.0349 0.0523
• SOLUTION: From Lagrange interpolation formula we have
¢(x) = Lo(x)yo + LI(x)Yl + L
2
(x)Y2.
Here Yo = 0.0175, YI = 0.0349, Y2 = 0.0523 and X = 1.2.
Lo(x) =
(X - xd(x - X2) = (1.2 - 2)(1.2 - 3) = 0.72,
(xo - XI)(XO - X2) (1 - 2)(1 - 3)
(x - xo)(x - X2) = (1.2 - 1)(1.2 - 3) = 0.36,
(Xl - XO)(XI - X2) (2 - 1)(2 - 3)
(x - xo)(x - Xl) = (1.2 - 1)(1.2 - 2) = -008
(X2 - XI)(X2 - xt) (3 - 1)(3 - 2) ..
f(1.2) :: ¢(1.2) = 0.72 x 0.0175
+0.36 x 0.0349 + (-0.08) x 0.0523 = 0.0210.
Ex. 2 For the following table find a polynomial by Lagrange interpolation
formula and hence find the value of Y when X = 1.5.
X 0 1 2 3
Y : 3 5 9 15
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
12.7
• SOLUTION: Here Xo = O,Xl = 1,X2 = 2,X3 = 3 and Yo = 3,Yl = 5,Y2 = 9
and Y3 = 15.
n
The Lagrange interpolating polynomial is y(x) = I: Li(X )Yi.
i=O
Now,
Lo(x)
(x - Xl)(X - X2)(X - X3) (x - 1)(x - 2)(x - 3)

(xo - ;VI)(XO - X2)(XO - X3) (0 - 1)(0 - 2)(0 - 3)
x3 - 6x2 + llx - 6
-6
LI(X) =
(x - O)(x - 2)(x - 3) x3 - 5x2 + 6x

(1 -0)(1 - 2)(1 - 3) 2
L
2
(x)
(x - 0) (x - 1) (x - 3) x3 - 4x
2
+ 3x
-':-( 2---0-'-) (:-2 )'-:'-( 2---3-:-:'-) = - 2
L3(X)
(x - 0) (x - 1) (x - 2) x
3
- 3x
2
+ 2x
= ------
(3 -0)(3 - 1)(3 -2) 6
Therefore,
Vex)
x
3
- 6x
2
+ llx - 6 x
3
- 5x
2
+ 6x
x3+ 2 x5
-6
+
x
3
- 4x
2
+ 3x x
3
- 3x
2
+ 2x
----- x 9 + x 15 = x
2
+ X + 3,
-2 6
which is the required polynomial.
y(1.5) = (1.5)2 + 1.5 + 3 = 6.75.
12.2.2 Finite differences
Forward differences
The forward difference operator is denoted by. and defined as
= f(x + h) - f(x),
h is the spacing.
Substituting, x = Xo and letting
f(xo) = Yo, f(xo + h) = f(XI) = YI·
Then = YI - Yo·
Similarly, = Y2 - YI, = Y3 - Y2 and so on.
These differences are called first order differences.
The second order difff'rences are
= = - Yo) = - = (Y2 - YI) - (YI - Yo)
12.8 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS A N ~ ANSWERS)
= Y2 - 2YI + YO·
Similarly, 6.
2
YI = 4-(6.YI) = 6.(Y2 - YI) = (Y3 - Y2) - (Y2 - YI)
= Y3 - 2Y2 + YI and so on.
In general,
Forward difference table (Diagonal difference table)
x
Y
6.y
6.'ly fj. ?'Y
6.
4
y
Xo
Yo
6. Yo
Xl
YI
6.
2
yO
6.YI 6.
3
Yo
X2
Y2
6.
2
YI
6.
4
yO
6.Y2 6.
3
YI
X3
Y3 6.
2
Y2
6.Y3
X4
Y4
Ex. 3 Find a forward difference table for the following data.
X 2 3 4 5 6
Y
10 18 22 35 48
• SOLUTION: The forward difference table is
X
Y
6.y
6.'ly
!:l. ?'Y
!:l. 4y
2 10
8
3 18 -4
4 13
4 22 9 -22
13 -9
5 35 0
13
6 48
Backward differences
The backward difference operator is denoted by \l and is defined as
\1 f(x) = f(x) - f(x - h),
h is the spacing.
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
Denoting f(XI) = Yb Xl - h = XO, f(XI - h) = f(Xn) = Yo.
Then \/ f(XI) = f(xt) - f(XI - h) or, \/YI = YI - Yo·
. Similarly, \/Y2 = Y2 - YI, \/Y3 = Y3 - Y2 and so on.
These differences are the first order backward differences.'
The second order backward differences are
\/2Y2 = \/(\/Y2) = \/(Y2 - yd = \/Y2 - \/YI = (Y2 - YI) - (YI - Yo)
= Y2 - 2YI + Yo = t::..
2
yo.
Similarly, \/2Y3 = Y3 - 2Y2 + YI = t::..
2
YI, and so on.
In general, \/2Yk = Yk - 2Yk-1 + Yk-2 = t::..
2
Yk_2'
12.9
For any k, \/kYi = Yi - kCIYi_1 + kC
2
Yi_2 - ... + (-I)k
Yi
_k = t::..kYi_k.
Thus,
Backward difference table (Horizontal difference table)
X
Y
\/y
'\i
2
y
\/3
y
\/4
y
Xo
Yo
Xl
YI \/YI
X2
Y2 \/Y2
\/2Y2
X3
Y3 \/Y3
\/2Y3
\/3
Y3
X4
Y4 \/Y4
\/2Y4
\/3
Y4
\/4Y4
Ex. 4 For the following data write a backward difference table:
X 0 2 4 6 8
Y 20 15 12 7 3

SOLUTION: The backward difference table is
X
Y
\/y
\/'ly
\/3
y
\/4
y
0 20
2 15 -5
4 12 -3 2
6 7 -5 -2 -4
8 3 -4 1 3 7
12.2.3 Properties of ~ and \/
(i) t::..e = 0 and \/e = 0, e is a constant.
Let f(x) = e.
Then t::..e = t::..f(x) = f(x + h) - f(x) = c - e = O.
Similarly, \/ e = O.
12.10 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Ll{kf(x)} = kLlf(x) and V{kf(x)} = kVf(x).
Let g(x) = kf(x).
Ll{kf(x)} = Llg(x) = g(x + h) - g(x)
= kf(x + h) - kf(x) = k{f(x + h) - f(x)}
= kLlf(x).
Similarly, V{kf(x)} = kVf(x).
(iii) Ll{cdl(X) + c2h(x) + ... + ckfk(X)}
= ctLlit(x) + c2Llh(x) + ... + ckLlfk(X) and
V{Clit(X) + c2h(x) + ... + ckfk(X)}
= Cl V it (x) + C2 V h (x) + ... + Ck V fk (x).
(iv) Ll{J(x)g(x)} = f(x + h)g(x + h) - f(x)g(x)
= f(x + h)g(x + h) - f(x + h)g(x)
+ f(x + h)g(x) - f(x)g(x)
= f(x + h){g(x + h) - g(x)} + g(x){J(x + h) - f(x)}
= f(x + h)b.g(x) + g(x)Llf(x).
(v) b..V = Ll- V.
Ll.Vf(x) = Ll{J(x) - f(x - h)} = Llf(x) - b.f(x - h)
= .{f(x + h) - f(x)} - {J(x) - f(x - h)}
= Llf(x) - V f(x) = (Ll- V)f(x)
or, Ll.V = Ll- V.
Ex. 5 If f(x) = x
3
then show that Ll3f(x) = 3! h
3
.
• SOLUTION: Llf(x) = f(x + h) - f(x) = (x + h)3 - x
3
= x
3
+ 3x
2
h + 3xh
2
+ h
3
- x
3
= 3x
2
h + 3xh
2
+ h
3
= g(x) (say).
Ll
2
f(x) = b.{Llf(x)} = Llg(x) = g(x + h) - g(x)
= 3h(x + h)2 + 3(x + h)h
2
+ h
3
- 3x
2
h - 3xh
2
- h
3
= 3h(2hx + h
2
) + 3h
3
= h(x).
Ll3 f(x) = Ll{b.
2
f(x)} = Llh(x) = h(x + h) - h(x)
= 3h
2
{2(x + h) + h} + 3h
3
- 3h2(2x + h) - 3h
3
= 9h
3
- 3h
3
= 3!h
3
.
12.2.4 Shift operator E
. The shift operator E is defined as
Ef(x) = f(x + h)
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
tl.f(x) = f(x + h) - f(x) = Ef(x) - f(x) = (E - 1)f(x)
or, tl. == E - 1
or, tl. + 1 == E.
E2 f(x) = E{f(x + h)} = f(x + 2h).
E3 f(x) = f(x + 3h).
In general, Ek f{x) = f(x + kh).
Similarly, E-
k
f(x) = f(x - kh).
Properties of operator E
(i) Ec = c.
(ii) E{cf(x)} = cEf(x).
(iii) EP Eq{f(x)} = Ep+q f(x) = EqEP{f(x)}.
(iv) E{cdl(X) + c'4h(x) + ... + ckfk(X)}
= c1E{h(x)} + C2 E{h(x)} + ... + CkE{fk(X)}.'
(v) Etl. == tl.E
Proof. Etl.f(x) = E{f(x + h) - f(x)} = f(x + 2h) - f(x + h)
= tl.f(x + h) = tl.Ef(x).
. Etl. == tl.E.
(vi) 1 + tl. == e
hD
,.0 == tx'
Proof. By Taylor's series,
h
2
h
3
f(x+h)
=
f(x) + hJ'(x) + 2f r(x) + aT flll(X) + ...
h
2
h
3
or Ef(x)
=
f(x) + hDf(x) + 2fD2f(x) + aTD3f(x) + ...
h
2
h
3
=
(1 + hD + _D2 + _D3 + .. ·)f(x)
2! 3!
=
e
hD
f(x)
Thus E
-
e
hD
.
Ex. 6 Find the missing term in the table:
x 0 1 2 3 4
f(x) : 0 3 8 15 -
12.11
12.12 U .G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + ex + d.
f(O) = d = 0
f(l) = a + b + e + d = 3
f (2) = 8a + 4b + 2e + d = 8
f(3) = 27a + 9b + 3e + d = 15
Using (i), (ii) to (iv) become,
a+b+e=3
4a+ 2b+e = 4
9a + 3b + e = 5
Subtracting (v) from (vi) we get 3a + b = 1
and from (vii) and (vi), 5a + b = 1
Solving, we get a = 0, b = 1. From (v), e = 2, d = O .
. '. f(x) = x
2
+ 2x.
Hence, f(4) = 16 + 8 = 24.
12.2.5 Newton interpolation formulae
Newton forward interpolation formula
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
The Newton forward interpolation formula for equispace points xo, Xl, ... ,X
n
IS
¢(X)
u(u - 1) 2
= Yo + ullyo + 2! Il Yo
+
u(u - 1)(u - 3) 11
3
3! Yo + ...
u(u-l)(u-2)···(u-n-l) n
+ , Il Yo,
n.
h
X - Xo 'h' 0 1 2
were u = h ,Xi = Xo + z ,z = , , , ... , n.
Newton backward interpolation formula
The Newton backward interpolation formula for equispace points xo, Xl, ... , Xn
IS
¢(X)
v(v+l) 2
Yn + vVYn + 2! V Yn
v(v + l)(v + 2)V3Yn + ...
+ 3!
+
v(v + 1)(v + 2)··· (v + n = 1 ) ~ - m
, v Yn,
n.
h
X - Xn 'h' 0 1 2
were v = h ,Xi = Xo + z ,z = , , , ... , n.
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
Ex. 7 Given
x : -1 0 1 2
Y: 1 3 10 18
find (i) y( -0.5) and (ii) y(1.8)1
• SOLUTION: The difference table is
2
035
7 -4
1 10 1
8
2 18
(
·)H X-Xo -0.5-(-1) 05
1 ereu= h = 1 = ..
Therefore,
y(
-0.5) f).. u(u - 1) f)..2 u(u - l)(u - 2) f)..3
= Yo + u Yo + 2! Yo + 3! Yo
12.13
_ 1 + 0.5 x 2 + 0 . 5 ( 0 . ~ - 1) x 5 + 0.5(0.5 - 1/(0.5 - 2) (-4)
2. 3.
= 1 + 1 - 0.625 - 0.25 = 1.125.
(
.. ) x - Xn 1.8 - 2
11 Here v = h = 1 = -0.2.
Therefore,
y(
1.8) \1 + v(v + 1) \12 v(v + l)(v + 2) r73
= Y3 + v Y3 .2! Y3 + 3! v Y3
_ 18 + (-0.2) x 8 + - 0 . 2 ( - ~ . 2 + 1) x 1
2.
-0.2( -0.2 + 1)( -0.2 + 2) (-4)
+ 3!
= 18 - 1.6 - 0.08 + 0.192 = 16.512.
Ex. 8 Calculate f(1.1) from the following table:
x 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
f{x) : 0.22245 0.25031 0.27799 0.30546
• SOLUTION: The forward difference table is
12.14 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
x f(x) b..f (;r) b..
2
f(x)
0.5 0.22245
0.02786
1.0 0.25031 -0.00018
0.02768
1.5 0.27799 -0.00021
0.02747
2.0 0.30546
Since x = 1.1 which is near to 1.0. We take Xo = 1.0.
T
h = x - Xo = 1.1 - 1.0 = 0 2
en u h 0.5 ..
The Newton forward interpolation formula is
f(x)
u(u- 1) 2
= f(xo) + ub..f(xo) + 2! b.. f(xo) + ...
or, f(1.1)
0.2(0.2 - 1) ( )
= 0.25031 + 0.2 x 0.02768 + 2! x -0.00021
= 0.25031 + 0.005536 + 0.0000168 = 0.2558628.
Ex. 9 Find the value of y(2.5) using Newton forward interpolation formula.
Given that
x 0 1 2 3
y 5 15 30 35
• SOLUTION: The given table can be written as
X : 3 2 1 0
y : 35 30 15 5
The forward difference table is
-5
2 30 -10
-15 15
·1 15 5
-10
o 5
x-xo 2.5-3
Here u = --= = -0.5.
h 1
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12.15
Then from Newton forward formula we have
A u(u - 1) A2 u(u - 1)(u - 2) A
3
y(x) = Yo + u Yo + 2! Yo + 3! Yo + ., .
or, y(3.5) = 35 + (-0.5) x (-5) + -0.5( - 2 ~ · 5 - 1) x (-10)
-0.5( -0.5 - 1)( -0.5 - 2)
+ 3! x 15
= 35 + 2.5 - 3.75 - 4.6875 = 29.0625.
12.3 Numerical Differentiation
12.3.1 Differentiation based on Newton forward interpolation
f
'(x) : 1 [A 2u - 1 A2 3u
2
- 6u + 2 A3
h Yo + 2 Yo + 6 Yo
4u
3
- 18u
2
+ 22u - 64 A 4 ]
+ 24 Yo + ...
f
"(X) 1 [A2 6u - 6 A3 12u
2
- 36u + 22 A4 ]
= h2 Yo + 6 Yo + 24 Yo + ...
1 [ 2 3 6u
2
- 18u + 11 4 ]
= h
2
A Yo + (u -1)A Yo + 12 A Yo + ...
and so on.
d
. b x - Xo 'h' 0 1 2
u an Xi are gIven y u = h ,Xi = Xo + z ,z = , , , ... , n.
At x = Xo, u = O. Then.
f'(xo)
!"(xo)
When the point x (at which derivative is to be computed) at the beginning of
the table then the above formulae are used.
12.3.2 Differentiation based on Newton backward interpola-
tion
L
x - Xn 'h' 0 1
et v = h ,Xi = Xo + z ,z = , , ... , n.
f
'() - ! [t"7 2v + 1 t"72 3v
2
+ 6v + 2 t"73
X - h v Yn + 2 v Yn + 6 v Yn
12.16 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
4v
3
+ 18v
2
+ 22v + 64
n4
]
+ v Yn + ...
24
J"{x)
1 [V2 6v + 6 V3 12v
2
+ 36v + 22 V4 ]
h2 Yn+-
6
- Yn+ 24 Yn+'"
1 [ 2 3 6v
2
+ 18v + 11 4 ]
h
2
V Yn + (V + l)V Yn + 12 V Yn + ...
and so on.
At x = X
n
, V = O.
Then
These formulae are used when the point at which the derivatives to be deter-
mined at the end of the table.
Ex. 1 Find the values of and at x = 1 for the function Y = f{x) given
in the table:

x 1 2 3 4
Y 3 19 25 32
SOLUTION: The forward difference table is
x
Y
Ay
A'ly
A
3
y
1 3
16
2 19 -10
6 11
3 25 1
7
4 32
Here h = 1,x = Xo = 1,u = X,il!Q = O.
Then
dy
dx
/'(1) = [AYO - + - !A4yO + ... ]
h 2 3 4
1 [1 1]
= i 16 - 2( -10) + "3 x 11 = 24.6667.
CH.12: l';UMERICAL 12.17
Ex. 2 Find and at x = 8 for the function Y = J(x) given in the table:
x 2 4 6 8
f(x) 5 20 30 50
• SOLUTION: The backward difference table is
x
Y
Vy V
2
y V
3
y
2 5
4 20 15
6 30 10 -5
8 50 20 10 15
Here h = 2,x = Xn = 8,v = z-h
Zn
= O.
Then
dy
=
dx
I 1[ 1 2 1 3 ]
J (8) = h 'V Yn + 2" 'V Yn + 3" V Yn + ...
=
1 [1 1]
2" 20 + 2" x 10 + 3" x 15 = 15.
d
2
y
dx
2
J"(8) = :2 [V2Yn + V
3
Yn + ... ] = ;2 [10 + 15] = 6.25.
Ex. 3 A rod is rotated about a fixed point. The angles of rotation f) (in ra-
dian) at different time t (in sec.) are given below:
t : 0 1 2 3
f) 1 5 10 17
Find the angular velocity of the rod at t = 3 sec.
• SOLUTION: The backward difference table is
t
f) Vf) V2f)
V
3
f)
0 1
1 5 4
2 10 5 1
3 17
1. 2.
1
The angular velocity
12.18 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Ex. 4 A particle is moving along a straight line. The displacement x at some
time instances t are given below:
t 0 1 2 3 4
x 5 8 12 17 26
Find the velocity and acceleration of the particle at t = 4 .
• SOLUTION: The backward difference table is
t x '\1 X '\1
2
X
'\13 X
0 5
1 8 3
2 12 4 1
3 17 5 1 0
4 26
f! i a a
The acceleration
d
2
x 1 [ 2 3 11 4 ] 1 [ 11]
dt
2
= h
2
'\1 Xn + '\1 Xn + 12'\1 Xn + ... = 12 4 + 3 + 12 x 3 = 9.75.
12.4 Numerical Integration
Trapezoidal rule
(b h
la f{x) dx = 2 [yo + 2{YI + Y2 + ... + Yn-l) + Yn],
where h = n is the number of subintervals, Yi = f{Xi),
Xi = Xo + ih, i = 0,1,2, ... , nand Xo = a, Xn = b.
Geometrical interpretation of Trapezoidal rule
Y
Yo
Y = f{x)
B
YI
In this method, the curve Y = f{x) is replaced
by the straight line joining the points A{xo, YO)
and B{xI, yt} where a = Xo, b = Xl. Thus, the
val ue of the integration .f: f (x) dx is the area of
the trapezium form by the lines x = Xo = a, x =
Xl = b, x-axis and AB, shown in the Figure
12.4.1.
o Xo Xl
Figure 12.4.1
X
CH.12: l":-MERICAL MF'':HODS 12.19
Simpson's rule
r
b
h
ia f(x) dx = '3 [Yo +4(Yl + Y3 +Y5 + ... +Yn-l) + 2(Y2 + Y4 + ... + Yn-2) +Yn],
where h = n is the number of subintervals which is an even integer,
Yi = f(Xi), Xi = Xo + ih, i = 0,1,2, ... , nand Xo = a, Xn = b.
Geometrical interpretation of Simpson's 1/3 rule
In Simpson's 1/3 rule, the curve
Y = f (x) is replaced by the
parabola passing through the points
A(xo, Yo), B(XI, YI) and C(X2' Y2),
where a = Xo, b = X2. Thus, the
value of the integral J: f (x) dx is the
area bounded by x = Xo = a, x =
X2 = b, x-axis and the parabola
ABC. The shaded region ofthe Fig-
ure 12.4.2 represents the integration
obtained by Simpson's 1/3 rule.
Weddle's rule
Y
o Xo Xl x2
Figure 12.4.2
r
b
3h
ia f(x) dx = 10 [Yo + 5YI + Y2 + 6Y3 + Y4 + 5Y5 + Y6],
where Xo = a, X6 = b, h = b
6
a,
Yi = f(Xi), Xi = Xo + ih, i = 0,1,2, ... ,6.
x
Note 1 (i) The error in Trapezoidal rule is - (e), Xo < e < Xl and that
of Simpson's 1/3 rule is - < e < X2.
(ii) The error terms show that the Simpson's 1/3 rule gives exact result if
the function f(x) is a polynomial of degree at most three, while the
Trapezoidal rule gives exact result if f(x) is a linear function.
Ex. 1 Evaluate - x
2
) dx, taking 6 intervals, by (i) Trapezoidal rule, (ii)
Simpson's rule and (iii) Weddle's rule .
• SOLUTION: Here n = 6-, a = O,b = 3,y = f(x) = 2x - x
2
.
b-a 3-0
So h = -n- = -6- = 0.5.
12.20 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Xo Xl X2 X3 X4 XS- X6
Xi
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Yi
0.0 0.75 1.0 0.75 0.0 -1.25 -3.0
Yo YI Y2 . Y3 Y4 Ys Y6
(i) By Trapezoidal rule:
3 2 h
fo (2x - X ) dx = 2"[YO + 2(YI + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 + YS) + Y6]
= 0 ~ 5 [0 + 2(0.75 + 1.0 + 0.75 + 0 - 1.25) - 3.0]
= -0.125.
(ii) By Simpson's rule:
3 2 h
fo (2x - X ) dx = 3[YO + 4(YI + Y3 + YS) + 2(Y2 + Y4) + Y6]
= 0 ~ 5 [0 + 4(0.75 + 0.75 - 1.25) + 2(1.0 + 0.0) - 3.0]
0.5 [ ]
= "3 0 + 1 + ~ - 3 = o.
(iii) By Weddle's rule:
3 . 2 3h
fo (2x - X ) dx = 10 [YO + 5YI + Y2 + 6Y3 + Y4 + 5ys + Y6]
3 x 0.5 [
= 10 0+5xO.75+1.0+6xO.75+0
+5 x (-1.25) - 3.0] = O.
Ex. 2 Evaluate r
l
-1 1 dx, taking n = 4, by (i) Trapezoidal rule, (ii) Simp-
10 + X
son's rule .
• SOLUTION: Here n = 4,a = O,b = l,y = f(x) = 1!:Z:'
b-a 1-0
h = -- = -- = 0.25.
n 4
Xo Xl X2 X3 X4
Xi
0.0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
Yi
1.0 0.8000 0.6667 0.5714 0.5000
Yo YI Y2 Y3 Y4
(i) By Trapezoidal rule:
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
r
1
1 h
10 1 + x dx = 2"[YO + 2(Yl + Y2 + Y3) + Y4J
= [1 + 2(0.8000 + 0.6667 + 0.5714) + 0.5000J
= 0.6970.
(ii) By Simpson's rule:
r
1
1 h
10 1 + x dx = a [Yo + 4(Yl + Y3) + 2(Y2) + Y4]
= 0.:5 [1 + 4(0.8000 + 0.5714) + 2 x 0.6667 + 0.5000J
0.25 [ J
= -3- 1 + 5.4856 + 1.3334 + 0.5000 = 0.6933.
12.4.1 Euler-Maclaurin sum formula
The sum of the series
IS
n
f(xo) + f(Xl) + f(X2) + ... + f(xn) = L f(Xi)
;=0
1:
1
f(x) dx + [f(xn) + f(xo)] + [/'(xn) - f'(xo)]
- [/,II(Xn) - f"'(xo)] + ... ,
where Xi = Xo + ih.
Ex. 3 Find the sum of the series using Euler-Maclaurin sum formula.
(i) 1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
+ ... + k
3
(
") 1 1 1 1
11 12 + 22 + 32 + ... + 102'
12.21
• SOLUTION: (i) Here f(x) = x
3
,f'(x) = 3x
2
,!,,(x) = 6x,f"'(x) = 6,xo =
l,x
n
= k,h = 1.
= t lk x
3
dx + + f(I)J + :2 [f'(k) - /,(I)J
--I-[f"'(k) - f"'(I)]
720
k4 1 1 3 1 2 1
4 - 4 + 2'[k + 1] + 12 [3k - 3] - 720 [6 - 6]
= [k
2
+ 2k + 1] = {k(k : 1) }
2
.
12.22 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
(ii) Here f(x) = 1
2
, f'(x) = - 2
3
, f"(x) = 6
4
,
x x X
III ( ) 24
f x = -s'xo = l,xn = 10,h = 1.
x
n
L.f(xd
i=O
1 r
lO
1 1 1
1 il x2 dx + 2[f(10) + f(I)] + 12 [f'(lO) - f'(I)]
.:...2-[flll(10) - flll(I)] + ...
720
[
1 ] 10 1 [1 1 ] 1 [ 2 2 ]
-:; 1 + 2 102 + 12 + 12 - 10
3
+ 13
__ 1 [_ ~ + 24] + . . . '
720 10
5
1
5
= 0.9 + 0.505 + 0.1665 - 0.033333 = 1.538167.
12.5 Solution of Algebraic and Transcedental Equa-
tions
Theorem 1 If f(x) is continuous in the interval (a, b) and if f(a) and f(b)
are of opposite signs, then there is at least one real root of f(x) = 0 between a
~ n d b.
12.5.1 Bisection method
We know, if f(a).f(b) < 0 then there exists a root between a and b of f(x) = O.
Let Xl = a; b, the middle point of [a, b]. If f(Xl) = 0 then Xl is a root of
f(x) = o. If f(Xl) i= 0 then either f(a).f(xl) < 0 or f(a).f(xl) > O. If
f(a).f(xt) < 0, then a root l i ~ s between (a, Xl) and if f(b).f(xt) < 0 then a
root lies between (Xl, b). Thus we reduce the interval from (a, b) to (a, Xl) or
(Xl, b). The same method is repeated for the new reduced interval until the
root is obtained" to the desired accuracy.
Ex. 1 Find a root of the equation x
2
+ X - 7 ::;:::: 0 by bisection method, correct
up to 3 decimal places .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x
2
+ X - 7.
f(2) = -1 < 0 and f(3) = 5 > O. So, a root lies between 2 and 3.
Now we calculate the root by the formula
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12'.23
n an (- ve) b
n
(+ve)
Xn+l
f(x
n
+1}
0 2 3 2.5 1.750
1 2 2.5 2.250 0.313
2 2 2.250 2.125 -0.359
3 2.125 2.250 2.188 -0.027
4 2.188 2.250 2.219 0.143
5 2.188 2.219 2.204 0.062
6 2.188 2.204 2.196 0.018
7 2.188 2.196 2.192 -0.003
8 2.192 2.196 2.194 0.008
(
9 2.192 2.194 2.193 0.002
10 2.192 2.193 2.193 0.002
.'. the root is 2.193 correct up to three decimal places.
12.5.2 Regula-Falsi method or Method of false position
This method is closely related to the bisection method. It is the oldest method
for finding a real root of an equation. We choose two points Xo and Xl such
that f(xo) and f(XI} are of opposite signs. The equation of the chord joining
the points (xo,f(xo}) and (xI,f(xd) is
'y - f(xo} X - Xo
=
f(xo} - f(xd Xo - Xl
This method replace thE' curve y = f(x} by the above chord. The point of
intersection of the chord with the x-axis is the approximation to ·the root. To, .
find the point of intersection, putting y = 0 to the above equation and let
...... (X2, O) be such point. Thus,
f(xo}
X2 = Xo - f(xd _ f(xo} (a:
l
- xo).
Which is the second approximation of the root. If now f(X2} and f(xo} are of
opposite signs then the root lies between Xo and X2 and we replace Xl by X2
to the above equation. The next approximation is obtain as
f(xo}
X3 = Xo - f(X2} _ f(xo} (X2 - xo).
If f (X2) and f (Xl) are of opposite signs then the root lies between Xl and X2
and the new approximation X3 is obtain as
f(X2}
X3 = X2 - f(XI} _ f(X2} (Xl - X2).
The procedure is repeatE'd till the root is obtained to the desired accuracy.
I
12.24 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Note 1 If the nth approximate root (Xn) lies between an and b
n
then
Ex. 2 Find a root of the equation x3 + 2x - 2 = 0 using Regula-Falsi method,
correct up to three decimal places .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x
3
+2x-2. f(O) = -2 < 0 and f(l) = 1> O. Thus,
one root lies between 0 and 1.
n an (- ve) b
n
(+ve) f(a
n
) f(b
n
)
Xn+l
f{xn+l)
0 0.0 1.0 -2.0 1.0 0.67 -0.36
1 0.67 1.0 -0.36 1.0 0.757 -0.052
2 0.757 1.0 -0.052 1.0 0.769 -0.00724
3 0.769 1.0 -0.00724 1.0 0.77066 -0.00097
4 0.77066 1.0 -0.00097 1.0 0.770882 -0.00013
a root of the equation is 0.771 correct up to three decimal places.
12.5.3 Iteration method
To find a root of the equation f(x) = 0, we rewrite this equation in the form
x = ¢(x).
Let Xo be an approximate value to the desired root e. Putting x = Xo to the
above equation, we obtain the first approximation Xl = ¢(xo).
Similarly, X = Xl gives X2 = ¢(XI).
The successive approximations are given by
This successive iteration repeated till the root is obtained to the desired ac-
curacy.
Note 2 There is no guarantee that this sequence Xo, Xl, X2, ... will converge.
The function f{x) = 0 can be written as X = ¢(x) in different ways. Among
them we choose a ¢(x) such that 1¢'{x)1 < 1 within the interval where the root
lies. This is the sufficient condition. For example, the equation x
3
+ x
2
- 1 = 0
has a root lies between 0 and 1. This equation can be rewritten in the following
ways:
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12.25
_ 1 - x2 _ 2 1/3 _ H-x2 _ ~ - 3 _ 1
X---
2
-,x-(I-x) ,x- --,x-V
1
- x ,x- .Jl+x'
x . x l+x
etc.
Ex. 3 Find a root of the equation x
3
+ 2x2 - 1 = 0 by iteration method,
correct up to four decimal places .
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x
3
+ 2x2 - 1. f(O) = -1 < 0 and f(l) = 2 > O. A
root lies between 0 and 1.
The given equation can be written in the form x
2
(x + 2) = 1
1 .
or, x = JX+2 = ¢(x) say.
Now, 1¢'(x)1 = 1- ~ (.t: +12)3/21 = 2(X: 2)3/2 < 1 for 0 < x < 1.
Here the iteration scheme is xn+1 = ¢(x
n
) = vi 1 , Xo = O.
Xn + 2
The iterations are shown below:
n
Xn
¢(x
n
)
0 0 0.7071
1 0.7071 0.6078
2 0.6078 0.6192
3 0.6192 0.6179
4 0.6179 0.6180
5 0.6180 0.6180
a root is 0.6180, correct up to four decimal places.
12.5,4 Newton-Raphson method
Let Xo be an approximate root and Xl be the exact root of the equation
f(x) = O. Then Xl = Xo + h, where h is the error. Since Xl is an exact root,
f(Xl) = O.
Expanding f(Xl) or f(xo + h) by Taylor's series, we obtain
'( h
2
"(
f(xo) + hf xo) + 2iJ xo) + ... = o.
Neglecting the second and higher order derivatives, we have
f(xo) + hf'(xo) = 0 or h = _ f(xo) .
f'(xo)
12.26
Then
V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
f(xo}
Xl = Xo - f'(xo}'
To compute the value of h, we neglect second and higher powers of h, so
h I f h
f(xo}. t 't . . I S
t e va ue 0 = - !'(xo) IS no correct, 1 IS an approXImate va ue. 0, Xl
obtained from the above equation is better approximation of x.
Note 3 If the derivative of the function f(x} is either zero or tends to zero
a ~ any point in the neighbourhood of the root then the method fails to give
the root.
Note 4 This method converges rapidly than other methods. The order of
convergence of this method is quadratic.
Theorem 2 The rate of convergence of Newton-Raphson method is quadratic.
Proof. If e is an exact root then f(e} = O.
or, f(e - Xn + xn) = 0
1
or, f(xn) + (e - xn)f'(x
n
) + 2(e - xn}2 f"(xn) + ... = 0
f(xn) 1}2 f"(xn}
or, - f'(x
n
} = (e - xn) + 2(e - Xn f'(xn} '
(neglecting third and higher order derivatives).
1 2 f(xn)
en+! = 2
cn
f'(x
n
) .
So that the Newton-Raphson process has a second order or quadratic con-
vergence.
Ex. 4 V se N ewton-Raphson method to find a -root of the equation x3 + X -1 =
O.
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS 12.27
• SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x3 + X - 1. Then f(O) = -1 < 0 and f(1) = 1 > O.
So one root lies between 0 and 1. Let Xo = 0 be the initial root.
The iteration scheme is
n
0
1
2
3
4
f(xn) x ~ +x
n
-1
Xn+1 = Xn - f'(x
n
) = Xn - 3x; + 1
Xn
Xn+l
0 1
1 0.7500
0.7500 0.6861
0.6861 0.6823
0.6823 0.6823
2 x ~ + 1
3x; + l'
a root of the equation is 0.6823 correct up to four decimal places.
Ex. 5 Find an iteration scheme to find the kth root of the number a.
• SOLUTION: Let x be the kth root of a. That is, x = a
1
/
k
or xk - a = O.
Let f(x) = xk - a. The iteration scheme is
f(x
n
)
X
n
+1 = Xn - !'(x
n
)
k k k .
_ ·J:: n - a _ k xn - xn + a _ ! [(k _ 1) _a_]
or, Xn+l = Xn k-l - k-l - k Xn + k-l .
k Xn kXn Xn .
Ex. 6 Find the square root of the number 2.
• SOLUTION: Let x = y'2 or, x2-2 = O. Let f(x) = x
2
-2. Then f'(x) = 2x.
The Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is
x2 - 2 x2 + 2
n n
Xn+l = Xn - 2 = ~ -
Xn 2x
n
Let Xo = 1.
n
Xn
Xn+l
0 1 1.5000
1 1.5000 1.4167
2 1.4167 1.4142
3 1.4142 1.4142
the value of y'2 is 1.4142, correct up to five significant figures.
Ex. 7 The following expression xn+1 = 3 X ~ 8 + 2 is an iteration scheme to find
a root of the equation f(x) = O. Find the function f(x).
12.28 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
• SOLUTION: Let a be the root obtain by performing the iteration scheme
3 x ~ + 2
Xn+l = 8
lim Xn = a.
n-+oo
Then from the given iteration scheme we have
lim X
n
+1 = ~ [3 lim x; + 2]
n-+oo 8 n-+oo
1
or, a = S[3a
2
+ 2J or, 3a
2
+ 2 = 8a or, 3a
2
- 8a + 2 = O .
. "" the required equation is 3x2 -8x+2 = 0 and hence f(x) = 3x2 -8x+2.
12.6 Solution of System of Linear Equations
12.6.1 Gauss-Elimination method
Suppose there are n linear equations with n unknowns Xl, X2, ... ,X
n
. In
,
this method, remove Xl from second equation to last equation by elimina-
tion method. Then remove X2 from third equation to last equation. Remove
~
X3 from forth equation to last equation and so on. The variable Xn will present
only on tne last equation. That is, last equation contain only X
n
, (n - l)th
equation contain Xn and Xn-l, (n - 2)th equation contain Xn,Xn-I,Xn-2 and
so on. The first equation contain all the variables. Now, by back substitution
we can determine the values of all the variables.
Ex. 1 Solve the following system of equations by Gauss-EliminatlOn method:
2XI + X2 + X3 = 4
Xl - X2 + 2X3 = 2
2XI + 2X2 - X3 3 .
• SOLUTION: The augmented matrix
A= [ ~
1
1 4]
-1 2 2
2 -1 3
[ ~
1 1
~ ] ~ = R, - !R,
--+ -3/2 3/2
1. -2
-1 R3 = R3 - RI
~ [ ~
1 1
~ ]
-3/2 3/2
R3 = R3 + ~ R 2
0 -1 -1
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
The equivalent equations are
2XI + X2 + X3
=
4
3 3
0 --X2 + -X3
=
2 2
-X3
=
-1.
From the last equation, we get X3 = 1.
. 3 3 .
From the equation -'2X2 + '2X3 = 0 or, X2 = X3 = 1.
From first equation 2XI = 4 - X2 - X3 = 4 - 1 - 1 = 2 or, Xl = 1.
Hence the required solution is Xl = 1, X2 = 1, x3 = 1.
12.6.2 Gauss-Seidal iteration method
For simplicity, W{; c0
n
o;ider the following system of equations:
an Xl + al2
x
2 + al3
X
3 = bl
a2l
x
I + a22
x
2 + a23
x
3 = ~
a3l
X
I + a32
x
2 + a33x3 = b
3
·
12.29
We assume that one of the following conditions is satisfied by the above system
of equations:
n
L \aij\ < \ajj\, j = 1,2,3
I=lj;i:i
or
n
L \aij\ < \aii\, i = 1,2,3.
J=lj;i:i
The above conditions are sufficient to converge the iteration process to the
solution.
The above equations can be written as
1
Xl = -(bl - al2
X
2 - a13
x
3)
au
1
X2 = -(b
2
- a2l Xl - a23 x 3)
a22
1
X3 = -(b3 - a31
X
I - a32
x
2).
a33
12.30 V.G. MATHEMATICS (pHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
Let be the initial solution. The first approximate solution
is obtained as
(1) 1 ( (0) (0)
xl
= - bi - aI2
x
2 - a13
x
3 )
all
(1) 1 (1) (0)
x
2
= -(b
2
- a2I x i - a23x 3 )
a22
(1) 1 (1) (1)
x3
= -(b3 - aSlxI- - aS2x
2
).
ass
The (k + 1 )th approximate solution is obtained by the following equations
(HI)
X3
= - -
all
1 (HI) (k)
-(b
2
- a2I
x
i - a2S
x
s )
a22
1 (HI) (HI)
-(b
s
- aSIxi - aS2x 2 ).
aS3
The iteration process will terminate when the consecutive two values of Xl, X2, X3
will be very close.
Ex. 2 Find the Gauss-Seidal iteration scheme to solve the following equations.
Xl + 5X2 + Xs = 8
Xl - X2 + 3xs 2
-8XI + 3X2 + X3 = 5.
• SOLUTION: The coefficient of Xl. X2, Xs are maximum in third, first and
second equation respectively. So we arrange the equation in the following
order.
-8XI + 3X2 + X3 = 5
Xl + 5X2 + Xs = 8
Xl - X2 + 3xs = 2.
Here, 131 + 111 < 1- 81, 111 + 111 < 151, 111 + 1-11 < 131·
Thus the sufficient condition for convergence is satisfied. Then
1
Xl = --(5 - 3X2 - xs)
8
1
X2 = -(8-XI-XS)
5
1
Xs = '3(2 - Xl + X2).
.'
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
Thus for (k + 1)th iteration scheme is
(k+l} -L(5 _ 3x(k) _ x(k»)
xl 8 2 3
(k+I) __ 1 (8 (k+I) (k»)
X2 5 - Xl - X3
(k+I) = _ (k+l) + (k+1»)
x3 3 xl X
2

Ex. 3 Solve the following equation by Gauss-Seidal iteration method.
3XI + X2 = 3, 2XI - 5X2 = 5.
• SOLUTION: The given equation can be written as
1
Xl -(3 - X2)
3
1
X2 = -5(5 - 2XI).
The iteration scheme is
(HI)
xl
= -
(HI)
X2
=
-
Let = 0, = 0 be the initial solution.
k
Xl X2
0 0 0
1 1.0000 -0.6000
2 1.2000 -0.5200
3 1.1733 -0.5307
4 1.1769 -0.5292
5 1.1764 -0.5294
6 1.1765 -0.5294
7 1.1765 -0.5294
12.31
the required solution is Xl = 1.1765, X2 = -0.5294, correct up to four
decimal places.
12.7 Solution of Differential Equation
12.7.1 Taylor's series method
We consider the differential equation
dy .
y' = - = J(x,y)
dx
12.32 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
with initial condition y(xo) = Yo, i.e., when x = Xo then y = Yo.
Let y(x) be the exact solution of the above equation. The Taylor's series
for y(x) about x = Xo is given by
( ) ( )
' (x - x ~ ) "
y x = Yo + x - Xo Yo + 2! Yo + ...
Therefore, determine y(x) we have to compute the value of y", y"', etc.
" , a f a f dy ,
Y = f = ax + ay dx = 1:1: + fyy = 1:1: + fyf.
y'" = (fxx + fxy}) + f(fyx + fyyf) + fy(fx + fyf)
= fxx + 2ffxy + f2fyy + fxfy + ff;.
Similarly, we obtain the higher order derivatives of y.
Ex. 1 Use Taylor's series method to solve the equation
y' = x - y, y(O) = 1
at x and at 0.1.
• SOLUTION: The Taylor's series for y(x) is
2 3 4
( )
, x " x ", X iv
Y X = Yo + xYo + 2TYo + 3fYo + 4! Yo + ...
We have
y'(x) = x - Y
y"(x) = 1 - y'
y'" (x) = -y"
yiv (x) = -y'"
and so on.
Yo =-1
yg=1-Yo=2
yg' =-2
yb
V
= 2
The Taylor's series becomes
y(x)
x
2
x
3
x4
= 1- x + 2.
2
+ 6·(-2) + 24.
2
+ ...
2 x
3
x4
= 1 - x + x - 3 + 12 - ...
which is the Taylor's series solution of the given differential equation.
y(O.l)
2 (0.1)3 (0.1)4
= 1 - (0.1) + (0.1) - -3- + 12 - ...
= 1 - 0.1 + 0.01 - 0.0003333 + 0.000008333
0.909675,
correct up to six decimal places.
CH.l·/ NUMERICAL METHODS 12.33
12.7.2 Euler method
Let Y' = f(x, y) be the given differential equation with initial condition y(xo) =
Yo, i.e., when x = Xo then y = Yo.
The value of y at x = Xl is given by
YI = Y(XI) = Yo + hf(xo, Yo), where Xl = Xo + h.
Y2 = Y(X2) = YI + hf(XI, YI).
In general, Yn+1 = Yn + hf(xn, Yn), where Xn = Xo + nh.
Ex. 2 Find y(O.Ol), y(O.O;2) from the following equation
Y' = x2 + y2, y(O) = 1.
• SOLUTION: Here Xo = 0, Xl = 0.01, X2 = 0.02, h = 0.01, Yo - 1 and
f(x, y) = x2 + y2.
YI = y(O.Ol) = Yo + hf(xo, Yo) = 1 + 0.01(0
2
+ 12) = 1.0100.
Y2 = y(0.02) = YI + hf(XI, YI) = 1.0100 + 0.01(0.01
2
+ 1.01
2
) = 1.0202.
12.7.3 Modified Euler method
In this method, the solution of the differential equation of the form Y' = f (x, y)
with y(xo) = Yo is given by
(HI) _ h. (k)_
YI - Yo + 2"[f(xo, Yo) + f(XI, Yl )], k - 0,1,2, ...
where yi
O
) = Yo + hf(:co, yo), yi
k
) is the kth approximation to Yl·
In general,
(HI)
Yi+1
(0)
and Yi+1
h (k) _
- Yt + Z[f(Xi' Yi) + f(Xi+l, Yi+1)]' k - 0,1,2, ...
Yt + hf(Xi, Yi).
Ex. 3 Determine the value of Y when X = 0.1 and 0.2 given that
y(O) = 1 and Y' = x2 - y .
• SOLUTION: Let h = 0.1, Xo = 0, Yo = 1, Xl = 0.1, X2 = 0.2 and f(x, y) =
x2 _ y.
Then
Y
eO) =
1
Yo + hf(xo, Yo) = 1 + O.lf(O, 1) = 1 + 0.1 x (0 - 1) = 0.9000.
(1)
Yl
(2)
Yl
h (0)
= Yo + 2"[f(xo, yo) + f(xl, Yl )]
= 1 + [(0
2
-1) + (0.1
2
- 0.9)] = 0.9055.
= Yo + Yo) + f(Xl, yP))]
12.34 D.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
= 1 + [(0
2
_ 1) + (0.1
2
- 0.9055)] = 0.9052.
(3) h (2)
Y1 = Yo + 2[f(xo, YO) + f(X1, Yl )]
_ 1 + [(0
2
- 1) + (0.1
2
- 0.9052)] = 0.9052.
Y1 = y(O.l) = 0.9052.
(0)
Y2
(1)
Y2
-
=
Y1 + hf(xl, Y1) = 0.9052 + O.lf(O.l, 0.9052)
0.9052 + 0.1 x (0.1
2
- 0.9052) = 0.8157.
Yl + Y1) + f(X2,
.-.
=
0.9052 + 0;1 [(0.1
2
_ 0.9052) + (0.2
2
- 0.8157)] = 0.8217.
(2)
Y2 =
h (1)
Y1 + 2[f(Xl, yt} + f(X2, Y2 )]
-
0.9052 + 0;1 [(0.1
2
_ 0.9052) + (0.2
2
- 0.8217)] = 0.8214.
(3)
Y2 =
h (2)
Y1 + 2[J(Xl, Yl) + f(X2, Y2 )]
=
0.9052 + 0;1 [(0.1
2
- 0.9052) + (0.2
2
- 0.8214)] = 0.8214.
Y2= y(0.2) = 0.8214.
12.7.4 Runge-Kutta methods
Second order Runge-Kutta method
Let Y' = f (x, y) be the given differential .equation and initial condition be
y(xo) = Yo·
Then the value of y at Xl = Xo + h is given by
1
Y1 = Yo + 2(k1 + k2),
where kl = hf(xo, YO) and k2 = hf(xo + h, Yo + k
1
).
Ex. 4 Given y' = y2 - x
2
, where yeO) = 2. Find y(O.l) and y(0.2) by second
order Runge-Kutta method .
• SOLUTION: Here h = O.l,xo = 0, Yo = 2,f(x,y) = y2 - x
2
.
Then
k1 = hf(xo, YO) = 0.1(2
2
- 0
2
) = 0.4000.
k2 = hf(xo + h, Yo + kd = 0.1 x f(O + 0.1,2 + 0.4000)
= 0.1 x (2.4
2
- 0.1
2
) = 0.5750.
CH.12: METHODS·
Yl = Yo + + k2) = 2 + + 0.5750) = 2.4875,
Thus, y(O.l) = 2.4875.
Second part:··
To determine Y2 = y(0.2), we take Xl = 0.1 and Yl = 2.4875.
12.35
kl = hf(x},yt) =0.1 x f(0.1,2.4875) =0.1 x (2.4875
2
-0.1
2
) =0.6178.
k2 = hf(Xl + h, Yl + kl) = 0.1 x f(0.2, 2.4875 + 0.6178)
= 0.1 x f(0.2,3.1053) = 0.1 x (3.1053
2
- 0.2
2
) = 0.9603.
... Y2 = YI + + k2) = 2.4875 + !(0.6178 + 0.9603) = 3.2766.
Hence, y(0.2) = 3.2766.
Fourth order Runge-Kutta method
Let y' = f(x, y) be the differential equation with initial condition y(xo) = Yo.
Then the YI at X = Xl is given by
1
Yl = Yo + 6(kl + 2k2 + 2k
g
+ k4), where
kl = hf(xo, Yo),
k2 = hf(xo + h/2, Yo + kl/2),
kg = hf(xo + h/2, Yo + k2/2),
k4 = hf(xo + h, Yo + kg).
Ex. 5 Given y' = x
2
+ y2 with X = 0, y = 1. Find y(O.l) by fourth order
Runge-Kutta method .
• SOLUTION: Here h = O.l,xo = O,yo = 1,f(x,y) = x
2
+y2.
Therefore,
kl = hf(xo, Yo) = 0.1 x (0
2
+ 12) = 0.1000.
k2 = hf(xo + h/2, Yo + kl/2) = 0.1 x f(0.05, 1.05)
= 0.1 x (0.05
2
+ 1.05
2
) = 0.1105.
kg - hf(xo + h/2, Yo + k2/2) = 0.1 x f(0.05, 1.0553)
= 0.1 x (0.05
2
+ 1.0553
2
) = 0.1116.
k4 = hf(xo + h, Yo + kg) = 0.1 x f(O.l, 1.1116)
= 0.1 x (0.1
2
+ 1.1116
2
) = 0.1246.
1
Yl = Yo + 6(k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4)
1
= 1 + 6(0.1000 + 2 x 0.1105 + 2 x 0.1116 + 0.1246) = 1.1115.
12.36 U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)
'Exercise 1 (i) Use Lagrange interpolation to solve the following problems:
(a) Compute (1.015)-49 from the given table of u(x) = (1.015)-x.
x 48 50 52
u(x) 0.4893617 0.4750047 0.4610689.
(b) Estimate the population in the year 1936 by. appropriate interpola-
tion formula from the following data.
Year 1921 1931 1941 1951
Population 20 27 39 52.
(in crores)
(c) Find the value of v'5.5, given that V5 = 2.236, V6 = 2.449,.j7 =
2.646.
(d) Find from the following table the value of y when x = 1.05.
x 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
y 0.24197 0.21785 0.19419 0.17137.
(ii) Use Newton's interpolation formula to solve the following problems.
(a) Find from the following table find the value of y when x = 1.11
x 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
y 2.7183 3.3210 4.0552 4.9530.
(8) The following table gives the values of x and corresponding f(x).
Determine f(0.27)
x 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26
f(x) 1.6596 1.6698 1.6804 1.6912.
(c) Find from the following table find the value of y when x = 4.05.
x 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6
y 1.3863 1.4351 1.4861 1.5261.
(iii) Use Trapezoidal and Simpson's 1/3 rule to evaluate the following inte-
grals.
(a) (b) fOI + x2)dx, (d)
(e) f01l'0cdx, (f) fOI (1+:;)3/2' (g) f0
1
1
:jx, (h) liS
(i) fl1+J;dx, (j) fol VI + x + x
2
dx, (k) fOl(y'x + 1)3/2dx,
(1) fl sinx
2
dx, (m) fo1r/2 )1- 0.162sin
2
rp drp, (n)
( )
rO,5 - dx ( ) r
1r
/
2
cosxd () r·5'. /1-0.25:r:
2
d
o JO V(I-:r: 2 )(1-0,75:r:2 )' p JO 1+:r: x, q JO V 1-:r:2 x,
( )
r3 dx ( ) r
1r
/2 d:r: ( ) J2 d:r:
r J2 1+\Iiii"i' s JO :r:+v'cosx' t 1 3+2:r:-:r:
2
'
(iv) Find a root of the following equations by (a) bisection, (b) iteration, (c)
Newton-Rapson and (d) Regula-falsi methods.
(a) sinx - x + 1 = 0, correct upto three decimal places.
(b) x
3
- 5.2x
2
+ 3 = 0, correct upto five significant digits.
CH.12: NUMERICAL METHODS
(c) X
3
- 5 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(d) x
3
- 8x - 4 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(e) x
3
+ 2x - 1 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(f) tan x + x = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(g) x
3
- 5x + 4 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
12.37
(h) x
2
= sinx, (between 1/2 and 1) correct upto five significant figures.
(i) x = tan x, correct upto five significant figures.
(j) xe
x
- 1 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(k) x
2
- 5 = 0, correct upto five significant figures.
(1) sin
2
x = x
2
, (m) x
3
+ 2x - 1 = 0, (n) 2x -loglO x - 7 = 0,
( 0) cos x = xe
x
.
(v) Find the solution of the following differential equation by (1) Euler's
method and (2) Modified Euler's method
(a) Find y(l) taking h = 0.2,.where ~ = xy,y(O) = l.
(b) Find y at x = 0.01, when y satisfies ~ = x+y, with initial condition
Yo = 1 at Xo = 1 (choose h = 0.01).
(c) Find y(O.l), where y' = x
2
+ y2, y(O) = O.
(d) Evaluate y(O.04), given y' + y = 0, y(O) = l.
(e) Compute y(O.02), y(0.04) and y(0.06), given y' ..:. y = 0, y(O) = l.
(f) Evaluate y(4.4), given 5xy' = 2 - y2,y(4) = l.
(g) Find the values of y(l.l), y(l.2) and y(l.3), given y' + ~ = ~ , Y ( l ) =
O.
(h) Compute y(2.5), given y' = x
2
- y2, y(O) = 5.

U.G. Mathematics
(Short Questions and Answers)

Dr. Madhumanial Pal
Department of Applied Mathematics with Oceanology and Computer Programming Vidyasagar University Midnapore - 721 102 West Bengal

,Asian "B""ks 7JJ'itJatt. t..iHlitt.~
7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House, Ansari Road,
Darya Ganj, New Delhi-11 0002

~

Corporate and Editorial office 7/28, MahavirLane, Vardan House, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-IIO 002. E-Mail: asian@nda.vsnl.netin;purobi@asianbooksindia.com World Wide Web: http://www.asianbooksindia.com Phones: 23287577,23282098,23271887,23259161 Fax: 91-11-23262021
Sales Offices Bangalore

103, Swiss Complex No. 33, Race Course Road, Bangalore-560 001 Phones: 22200438, Fax: 91-80-22256583, Email: asianblr@airtelbroadband.in Palani Murugan Building No.21, West Cott Road, Royapettah, Chennai-600 014, Phones: 28486927,28486928, Emai1: asianmds@vsnl.net 7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-I 10 002, Phones: 23287577, 23282098, 23271887, 23259161; Fax: 91-11-23262021 E-Mail: asian@nda.vsnl.netin 6, GN.B. Road, Panbazar, Guwahati, Assam-78I 001 Phones: 0361-2513020, 2635729 Email: asianghyl@sancharnetin 3-5-1101/I/B Hnd Floor, Opp. Blood Bank, Narayanguda, Hyderabad-500 029 Phones: 24754941, 24750951, Fax: 91-40-24751152 EmaiI: hydasian@hd2.vsnl.netin.hydasian@eth.net lOA, Hospital Street, Calcutta-700 072 Phones: 22153040, Fax: 91-33-22159899 EmaiI: calasian@vsnl.com Showroom: 3 & 4, Ground Floor, Shilpin Centre, 40, GD. Ambekar Marg, Wadala, Mumbai-400 031; Phones: 22619322, 22623572, Fax: 24159899 G-20, Sector 18, Aatta Market, Noida Ph: 9312234916, Email: asiannoida@asianbooksindia.com Shop No. 5-8, GF. Shaan Brahma Corn., Near Ratan Theatre, Budhwar Peth Pune-02; Phones: 24497208, Fax: 91-20-24497207 Emai1: asianpune@asianbookindiaco1l1

Chennai

Delhi

Guwahuti Hyderabad

Kolkala Mumbai

Noida Pune

©Author I st Edition 2004 1st Reprint-2007 ISBN: 978-81-8629-962-3 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published by Kamal Jagasia for Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 7/28, Mahavir Lane, Vardan House, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-I I 0 002
Printed at Yash Prinlographs

Dedicated to my beloved son

Aniket

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

Preface
This book titled U. C. Mathematics (Short Questions and Answers) has been written for the students of B.A., B.Sc. general course for all Indian Universities. All the efforts have been made to make this book useful for other competitive examinations. Though the book is of general nature but an effort has been made to cover up most of the topics prescribed for B.A., B.Sc. general courses. It is a short answer type book which includes the topics classical algebra, linear algebra, abstract algebra, differential calculus, integral calculus, differential equation, LPP, dynamics, probability, statistics and numerical methods. Necessary theorems and formulae have been outlined in the beginning of each chapter which may be almost essential in specific problems. While writing this book, the works of several authors have been frequently consulted. So I am really indebted to those authors and express my gratitude to all such persons. This book could not have been completed without the extreme support and encouragement of my wife Anita and indirect support of my son Aniket. I would like to thank my teachers and colleagues for their invaluable suggestions and support. I would also like to thank the publisher of Asian Books Private Limited for bringing out the book in such a good shape in such a short time. It is earnestly hoped that the book will be liked by the students and teachers alike. Comments and suggestions for the further improvement of the book shall be gratefully accepted.

January 2004

Madhumangal Pal

Contents

Preface
Classical Algebra
1.1

(v)

I.l 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.10 1.12 1.13 1.13 1.17 1.20 1.22 2.1

Complex Number 1.1.1 Geometrical representation (,f a complex number: Argand diagram 1.1.2 Representation of complex numbers 1.1.3 De Moiver's theorem and its use 1.1.4 Euler's definition of exponential and trigonometrical functions .... 1.2 Theory of Equation. 1.2.1 Remainder theorem and synthetic division 1.2.2 Descartes' rule of signs 1.2.3 Relation between roots and coefficients 1.2.4 Transformation of equation

2

Linear Algebra
Determinant 2.1.1 Some properties of determinants 2.1.2 Minor, cofactor and adjoint of determinant 2.1.3 Cramer's rule 2.3 Matrices 2.2.1 Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices 2.2.2 Adjoint and inverse of a matrix 2.2.3 Orthogonal matrix 2.2.4 Rank of a matrix 2.2.5 Solution of equations by matrix inverse method 2.3 Vector Space 2.3.1 Linearly dependence and independence of vectors 2.3.2 Basis of a vector space 2.3.3 Eigen values

2.1

2.1 2.1 2.4 2.8 2.9 2.15 2.17 2.19 2.20 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.26 2.27
3.1

3

Abstract Algebra

3.1

3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Set Theory 3.1.1 Basic set operations 3.1.2 Laws of algebra of sets 3.1.3 Cartesian product of sets Relation 3.2.1 Types of relations Mapping Permutation Group

3.1 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.9 3.11 3.15 3.18

3.5.1 Cyclic group, sub-group 3.6 Ring, Integral Domain and Field 4 Geometry 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5 Transformation of Axes Pair of Straight Lines Polar Equation General Equation of Second Degree Direction Cosines and Ratios Plane Straight Lines Sphere Cylinder Cone

3.22 3.24 4.1 4.1 4.7 4.16 4.24 4.27 4.31-4.39 4.46 4.49 4.50 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.8 5.16 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.13 6.15 6.20 6.22 6.26 6.32 6.36 6.37 6.48 6.53 6.61 6.68 6.70 6.75 6.77 6.79 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.8 7.17

Vector Algebra 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Elementary Operations Scalar Product or Dot Product Vector Product or Cross Product Mechanical Problems

6

Differential Calculus 6.1 6.2 6.3 Number System 6.1.1 Absolute value of a real number Sequence Infinite Series 6.3.1 Series of positive terms 6.3.2 Alternating Series Function Limit and Continuity 6.5.1 Continuity of a function Uniform continuity Differentiation Successive Differentiation Partial Differentiation Mean Value Theorem Maximum and Minimum Tangent and Normal Asymptotes Envelope Radius of Curvature

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 7

Integral Calculus Integration 7.1.1 Indefinite integration 7.1.2 Definite integration 7.2 Beta and Gamma Functions 7.1

12 10.1 9.5 9..7 10.3 8.28 10.4 11.1..9 10. .8 Measure of Central Tendency Measure of Dispersion Theory of Probabil ity Distribution Function Mathematical Expectation Correlation and Regression Sampling Distribution Testing of Hypothesis 11.31 9..4 9.19 10.5 10. ..19 8.1 12.5 10. relative and percentage error 12.15 10.3 ..8 10... I 8.17 ..3 I 1.1 8..1 Sources of error 12.1 11..42 1.47 1. .10 10.1 11.1 8.1 10.1..1 11.17 10.5 ...1 10.48 12 Numerical Methods 12. .6 Graphical Method Mathematical Preliminaries Simplex Method Duality Transportation Problem Assignment Problem to Dynamics of Particles 10...37 Differential Equation 8..3 9.20 9. .29 .1 9.1 10.1.6 Introduction Homogeneous Equation Linear Equation First Order Higher Degree Orthogonal Trajectories • Higher Order First Degree 9 Linear Programming Problem 9.1 Errors 12.2 Absolute..2 10.4 10.5 9..12.2 ..15 1.23 8.10 11 Principle of Dynamics Work.3 10.24 10..4 8 Multiple Integral Area...1 12.6 11.2 8.2 11.5 1. .5 8.1 9.3 Generation of round-off errors 12...1 12.20 9. 1. Power and Energy Impulse and Impulsive Forces Collision of Elastic Bodies Motion in a Straight Line Simple Harmonic Motion Motion in a Plane Central Orbit Planetary Motion Artificial Satellites 10..2 9.21 7.10 8.34 1. 8..12 .. Surface and Volume 7.24 1.. .6 10.4 8.7 11...26 9.7. Probability and Statistics 11.. 8..3 7.

22 12.1 Lagrange Interpolation 12.7.12 12.2 Euler method 12.2.9 12.5 12.5 12.3 Iteration method 12.2.4 Runge-Kutter methods 12.2 Gauss-Seidal iteration method 12.1 Bisection method 12.7 12.12.7 Solution of Differential Equation 12.5.22 12.18 12.24 12.6.1 Gauss-Elimination method 12.2.29 12.33 12.3.4 Numerical Integration 12.3 Modified Euler method 12.10 12.4.2 Finite differences 12.7.6.21 12.3 Properties of Ll and V 12.3.15 12.1 Euler-Maclaurin sum formula 12.34 .6 Solution of System of Linear Equations 12.1 Taylor's series method 12.5.25 12.5 Solution of Algebraic and Transcedental Equations 12.4 Newton-Raphson method 12.2 Interpolation 12.3 Numerical Differentiation 12.5.28 12.23 12.7.33 12.4 Shift operator E 12.2.2 Regula-Falsi method or Method offalse position 12.2 Differentiation based on Newton backward interpolation 12.5 Newton interpolation formulae 12.2.1 Differentiation based on Newton forward interpolation 12.31 12.15 12.5.15 12.28 12.7.31 12.

::: 0 may be calculated using the formulae tan. imaginary axis P y o x real axis Figure: 1. 7rJ is known as the principal value of the amplitude and it is unique. The value of 0 which lies within (-7r.1 Then x = rcosB.ib.1.. a .1 Complex Number Geometrical representation of a complex number: Argand diagram Let z = x + iy be a complex number.1 respectively.1 ~.Ch. i. (ii) Find the principal amplitude of the complex number -1 + iV3. y). -a . '. 1 1 7r . z = x + iy = r( cos B+ i sin B) is called the polar form or normal form or modulus amplitude form of the complex number. £ £ Ex. y = rsinO.1. £. -a + ib. .ib. sinO = ~. Let (r.1 II Classical Algebra 1. 1 (i) Represent '-i' in the Argand plane and find its amplitude. . There are infinite number of values of B for which cos B = ~. Hence r = vx2 +y2 and B = tan-l~ . B) be the polar coordinat~!i of P whose cartesian coordinates be (x.e. jzl = x2 + y2.1 1. But there is one and only one value a of 0 such that -7r < a ~ 7r.tan. called the amplitude or argument of the complex number z and is denoted by amp z = B = tan. where a. v Note 1 The principal amplitude of the complex numbers a + ib. b . r = length of OP.tan-7r + tanaIlcl . called the modulus or magnitude of the complex number z and denoted by jzj or by mod z.1 ~. The angle B is the angle between the line segment 0 P and the positive direction of x-axis.

tan.. 1 = 1-i (1 .G. (iii) The principal amplitude of 1 is tan.8i in the Argand plane are collinear. 5) .1 iV3 is (~) = 11" 1-i i 1 = 2./3.2 U.i)(1 + i) = -2. (v) (a) Modulus of sin/3 + i cos /3 is JSin2 /3 + cos 2 /3 = 1 and amplitude is 1 (cos/3) 1 1 11" 11" tan sin /3 = tan-cot /3 = tan .tan. • SOLUTION: (i) Representation of -i in Argand plane is shown below: Imaginary axis + I Origin I I I Real axis t-i Figure: 1.l 1 (iv) We have 1 + i (i) = o.1 (*) = -tan-l 1 = -~.{tan( 2" . (b) 1+itan!1I". (b) Modulus is 1 + tan 2i1l" = sec 3.l tan 5= -5' 3. -3 + 4i and 6 . (vi) Show that the points 3 .itan is .1 ~ = -~. The principal amplitude is -tan.= i . The modulus is J~ + ~ = ~.i . 2 The principal amplitude of -i is . (v) Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the following complex numbers (a) sin/3 + i cos /3./3)} = 2" .1.4i. 1( J 2.tan. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iii) Find the principle amplitude of the complex number l.ii.1. (ii) The principal amplitude of the complex number -1 + 11" . (vii) Find the principal amplitude of -1. (iv) Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the complex number 1/(1 + i). and principal amplitude of 1 + itan = 1 .tan 211' 211" 211" tan1 = .

(ii) 4 . so t he prmClpaI ampr d 'IS -71" + 4' = Itu e Exercise 1 Find the modulus and the principal amplitude of the following complex numbers (i) 3 + 4i. if the points representing the numbers ±2 ± 3i in Argand plane are joined.2i. 2 (i) Show that the points -2 + i. (iv) Show that the points -1. (iv) 3 + iv's.i. t. tan.e.CH. 3 (vii) We have tan. ~.2i). B(5 + i). Ex.3 (vi) The adjacent figure shows that the given points are collinear. 1 + 4i are the vertices of a parallelogram. (iii) 1 . (ii) Show that the points 2 .l (=~) = tan-II = ~..(1 + 2i)1 = I . 2 + 4i. The middle points of the diagonal AC and BD are respectively 1 + 3i. (v) V5. D( -1 + i) be the vertices of a square. (ii) Let A(2 .il = J9TI = v'iO and ICDI =:.(1+4i)1 = 13+il = J9TI = v'iO.8i. i.3il = J9+9 = 3V2 . (v) -2 + i.1. 5 + i. Hence the given points represent the vertices of a parallelogram. i. (vi) i. 71" rant.1I'. (vii) -1. . both are equal. (i) Let A( -2+i).tan-l 2. two opposite sides are equal. The middle points of the diagonal AC and BD are respectively 2+i.3 . C(2 + 4i). -~.l (ii) 4V5. -i. (iv) 2v's. Also IABI = 1(2 . 4 + 5i.(5 + i)1 = 1. B(1 + 2i). but the point is in the third quad371" -4"' .3 . (i) 5. D(l +4i) be the vertices of a parallelogram. (iii) Name the nature of the figure you get. (iii) V2. both are equal. -3+4i· Imaginary axis 4 ~I-:--'Ir-+-+--+- Real axis -4 -6 -S 6-Si Figure 1. ~.2i) .11'l tan(vi) 1. -1 + i are the vertices of a square. 1{4+5i) . • SOLUTION: !( V2 +iV2) are concyclic .l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.J !. [Ans. C(4+5i). 1 + 2i.. (vii) 1. Also IABI = 1(-2 + i) .

G. Iz + il = 1. Imaginary axis -2+3i 2+3i Real axis -2-3i 2-3i Figure: 1.1.~ -i~1 = J!+! = 1. (ii) Same as above. Ex. From figure it is obvious that the given points represent a rectangle whose sides are 4 and 6 units. . AB2 + BC2 = 18 + 18 = 36 = AG2. Hence the given points represent the vertices of a square.2i) . .4 U.!(V2+iV2)1 = 1. -a + ib. Thus one angle is right angle.3i l = V9 + 9 = 3V2. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) and IBGI = 1(5 + i) . 23i. Now.11 = 1. (iii) Representation of the complex numbers ±2 ± 3i or. -2 . i.1.4 (iv) Let z = 0 be the centre of the circle. Iz . Hence the area of the rectangle is 2a x 2b = 4ab square units. Iz. Put a = 3. (ii) Find the area of the rectangle whose four vertices are ±3 ± 2i . 3 (i) Find the area of the rectangle whose four vertices are ±a ± bi. a + ib.2 + 3i in Argand plane is shown in the adjacent figure.il = 1.6il = J36 = 6. the distances between z = 0 afid the given points are 1.. The length along the real axis is 2a and that of along the imaginary axis is 2b. • SOLUTION: (i) The vertices of the rectangle are -a .e.ib.(2 + 4i)1 = 1.(2 + 4i)1 = 13 . -2 + 3i. Hence the given points are concyclic. a . b = 2. IAGI = 1(2 . two adjacent sides are equal. 2 v'2 V2 2 2 That is.ib.3i. Iz .

-1 = r sin8. 3 -z.i = y'2{cos( .iv'3. 8 = -11" + tan-II = -11" + 1 = = y'2 _3. r and tan 8 = . . (ii) 1 . Hence -1.tan i = tan(1I" .1.) + i sine _3. 8 = + (v'3)2 = 4 or. (v) Let 1 = r cos 9. but the point is in the third quadrant.5 1.2 9 .i. The point is in the fourth quadrant. v'3 = r sin8.. r = y'2 and tan 9 = 11 =.= '2 . but the point is in the fourth quadrant. (v) 1 .) 111 --1' z- IV 1 ' ( ) z5 ' 9 + z + z '14 (1 -z')3' v z + z + z '6 '11 '13 1 1 (i) 1 + i = (1 - l-i i)(l + i) 2 = 1- l-i 1-i 1 i 2 = -2. r and tan 8 = =~ = 1. (iii) 1 + iv'3.)} = y'2(cos 3. Then r2 = (1)2 + (-v'3)2 = 4 or. 1 3. -1. (. • SOLUTION: (i) Let -1 = r cos 8. ) z + 1 (. 8 = i· Hence 1 + iV3 = 2(cos i =2 = (1)2 + (y'3)2 = 4 or.). -V3 = r sin8. Then r2 tan8 = v'3 = tan i or.. r = 2 2. Then r2 = (_1)2 + (_1)2 = 2 or.i) = tan(31f ) or. 4 Express the following complex numbers into polar form (i) -1 + iv'3.2 Representation of complex numbers Ex.isin ~).i = y'2{ cos( -i) + i sine -1)}ii\ y'2(cos 1 .v'3. 5 Express the following expressions in the form A + iB .i .. (iv) -1 . V3 = rsin8.3. (iv) Let -1 = r cos 8.CH.iV3 = 2{cos(-i) + iSin(-i)} = 2(cos i . Then r2 = (1)2 + (_1)2 = 2 or.i sin i)· Ex. Hence 1 . Hence -1 + iV3 = 2(cos 2.. 8 = -i (as tan i = v'3) Hence 1.'2 i . (ii) (1 + i)2 3-i 2i + = 1 +3-i i = 1 + 2i 3-i = (3 - 2i(3 + i) i)(3 + i) = 1= ~ 3-i 6i + 2i2 6i . so 9 = . (ii) Let 1 = rcos8.) 1 . . .1. Then r2 = (_1)2 and tan 8 = -V3 = . • SOLUTION: ')2 (1 + . -1 = r sin9. + i sin 2.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.isin i)· (iii) Let 1 = rcos8.i 2 = 10 = -5 + 5z. r = 2 and + i sin i).. (1 1 + z (11) ..

i 3 1 .2i)( -2 + 2i) + (2)2 -2 + 2i 1 1. i 6 = (i 2 )3 = (-1)3 = -1.i = i. i +i .3.. . .= ----::---(1 . 4ab . Hence y'5 . z + 1 = (x + iy) + 1 = (x + 1) + iy z..1 i 5 + i 9 + i14 Hence' 6 '11 '13 = . = 8 = -4 + 4z.2.i = (_1)2.{(x -1) + iy}{(x .i = i.G. IV 7 (v) 25 + ~: i. .] Ex.12i = 9 .6 U. ) a + ib a .1 + 2ai .1) + iy _ {(x + 1) + iy}{(x .i = -i.i = (-1)5.(x + 1)} (x_1)2+y2 _ (x 2 +y2 -1) .2i). 6 Find the square root of the following complex numbers (i) 5 . 11l -2-" IV --'b .. (iv) We know -i 3 = -i 2.3i + 3i 2 .i = i. i 13 = (i 2)6.1 (x . i14 = (i 2 )7 = (_1)7 = -1. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iii) Let z = x Then + iy.) a ..i = i.i = (-1)6. = .12i.. [A ns. z +z +z -1-z+z -1 Exercise 2 Express in the form A + iB 1 ( . (vi) 4abi. • SOLUTION: (i) 5 . 1 1 1 -:----:--::.ib .1)2 + y2 + (x _ 1)2 + y2 z.1. 1 1.) a2+b2z.i = -(-1).1) .= -2i + 1. (1 a2 +b2 +za 2 +b2' (11 ) -2"+2"z.1)(x + 1) + y2 + iy{(x = 1) .2xy . (x ...1 .1 2i . ill = (i 2)5. (III ) 5+5 Z' (.) 1 ( .1) .-+ 'b' a-z z -z -z a-z a z (v) (12:~i)2. 1 8.12i = ±(3 . (vi) (a+ib)2+(b+ia)2.3 + i -2 + 2i -2 = -2 1 2i = -:-------:--:------.1 (x + iy) .3i .2i + 4i 2 = (3 .i)3 1 . ~ (v) i 5 = (i 2)2.iy} . ) (1 --'b' 11 ~. = (x .1)2 + y2 x 2 + y2 . ..2ixy . b . ) 2 + 3i (. (ii) i. (iii) a2 .2i)2. i 9 = (i 2)4.= (_2)2 + 2i (-2 .iy} (x .i = (_1)4.

prove that the points z lie on the circle whose centre is (0. (w + w2 )x + 1 [since w + w2 = -1] X Iz-il = Izl ::. (iv) x 6 _ y6. using w. (ii) Factorise x 6 • SOLUTION: (i) Asw 2 +w+1=Oor.w2ab + b2 = a(a .1)(x + 1)(x .1 = (x 3 )2 .7 (ii) i = ~(2i) = ~(1 + 2i + i 2 ) = ~(1 + i)2. what are the points representing + 1).1 + 2ai = ±(a + i).1)(x 2 + X + 1)(x + 1)(x2 Now. [Ans. Hence.] Ex. a cube root of unity.xw 2 + w3 = x(x . (iii) (x .CH. (ii) In argand plane. (ii) -4i.] (i) Factorise a 2 + ab + b2. (iii) x4 .a)(x + a)(x ia)(x + ia). 1 ? (iii) On the complex plane. (ii) (x .w2 a). Hence v'a 2 . 8 (i) If P(z) is a variable point in the complex plane.a4. find the locus of P.i).w2 )(x + w)(x + w2 ) .wb)(a . . let p(z) be a variable point. (iii) a 2 . x 6 . (ii) x 6 .12 = (x 3 -1)(x 3 + 1) = (x .2) and radius 3. Exercise 3 Find the square root of the following complex numbers (i) 16i. [Ans.xw .1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.wb) = (a . a 2 + ab + b2 = a2 .w)(x . - (ii) ±J2(1 .w)(x .a3 . such that Iz . (ii) x 3 .w2 ). on the complex plane.w2 b(a .1 + 2ai = a2 + 2ai + i 2 = (a + i)2.wa)(x .wy)(x + wy)(x .i). _1=w+w2. Hence Vi = ±*(1 + i).wb) . Similarly.w2 b).(w + w2)ab + b2 = a2 .Exercise 4 Factorise into linear factors (i) x 2 + 1. (i) (x + i)(x .w) = (x .a)(x .wab . (i) ±2J2(1 Ex. x 2 + x + 1 = x 2 = x 2 . 1 into linear factors .x + 1 = (x + w)(x + w2 ).w) . x 2 . 7 + i).y)(x + y)(x . .1 = (x . such that 2.w2 (x . Now.w2 y)(x + w2 y).2il = 3. (iv) (x .

Ix + i(y .4x ° + 13) + 1 = 2 x. x 2 + (y . if 21z . • SOLUTION: (i) Given x = 2 + 3i or.z2z1 = 2(lz112 + IZ212).2 = 3i.1.Z2)(z1 . x 2 + (y .i = 2. (ii) Find the value of x 2 + xy + y2 for x = 1 + i. 1.4x 2 + 13x + 1. Jx2 + y2 ::. Which is the locus of the point P. find the value of x 3 .2)2 = 9. Then Izl ::.2)1 = 3 or. Z2 prove that IZ1 + z21 2 + IZ1 .2xy + xy = (x + y)2 .S. Jx 2 + (y .2il = 3 we get Ix + iy .G. if Iz + 31 = 2. (ii) x + y = 2 and xy = (1 + i)(1 .Z1 Z2 .0).2il = 3. 1 becomes Ix + iYI ::. x 2 . or.21. x . Then Iz .4x 2 + 13x + 1 = x(x 2 . Exercise 5 If z = x + Z2 Z2) + iy.z21 2.81 Ex.8 V.O + 1 = 1. Ex. 1~ + Iz + 81 = ° represents an ellipse. . 1.= 1:::1 + z21 2 + IZ1 .4x + 13 = Now.il = 2 becomes Ix + iy . MATHEMATIC~ (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) • SOLUTION: (i) Let z = x + iy.1)2 = 4. 9 For two complex numbers Z1. x 3 . (ii) Let z = x + iy.il represents a circle.0) and radius is 2.= 2(lzll2 + IZ212). then prove that (i) 3(x 2 + y2) = 4x.z21 2 = (Z1 + Z2)(Z1 + Z2) + (Z1 . • SOLUTION: L. x 2 .il or. (i) If x = 2 + 3i.1)2 = 2 or. (iii) Let z = x + iy.xy = 4 . (ii) Iz .i) = 1 . Putting this value in Iz . 2) and radius is 3. Which represents a circular disc of radius unity and centre at (0. (iv) Iz .Z2) = (Z1 Z1 + Z1 Z2 + z2 i i + z2zd + (Z1 Z1 .11 = 2fz . x 2 + xy + y2 = (x + y)2 .2)2 = (3i)2 or.H.2 = 2.4x + 4 = -9 or. Then. Squaring both sides we get (x .11 = Iz . x 2 + y2 ::. (iii) the point z lies on the circle whose centre is at (-3.i.2)2 = 3 or. which represents a circle centre at (0. = 2. y = 1 . or. Jx 2 + (y . 1 or.

H. .CH.w 4 z = wz] 2 + wy + w Z = ~ = ~ = w=R. y+wz +w 2x n + w2n + 1 = 0 where w is an imaginary cube root of urtity and n (iii) If w an integer. i. Hence n is not divisible by 3.w)(1 .. Ex. (iv) (k + kw .w2)(1 . 12 If x = a + b.w)(I.O. xyz = (a + b)(aw + bw2~(aw2 + bw) = (a + b)(a2w3 + ab(w + w2) + b2w3) = (a + b)(a 2 . (ii) If w be an imaginary cube root of unity.S. (ii) x 2 + y2 + z2 = 6ab.w 2) = 4. n = 3p.w2)F = {I . Exercise 6 Prove that (i) (1 + w4 )4 = w2. (ii) (1 . show that x +wy +w 2z =w .H S w2(x + wy + w2z) w2 w3 • (iii) If possible let.w2) = {(I . so w3 y = y. . 2 x + wy + w2Z X + wy + w Z (ii) L.(w + w2) + w3 } = (1 + 1 + 1)2 = 9.w 8) = 9.w)(1 . y = aw + bw 2 and z = aw 2 + bw.w)3.w)(l .• • SOLUTION: (i) Since w is a cube root of unity. • SOLUTION: (i) Given x = a + b. + w .w4)(1 .w2)(1 . (1 . p is any positive integer. n is divisible by 3.. wn + w2n + 1 = w3p + w6p + 1 = (w 3 )P + (w 3 )2p + 1 = (I)P + (1)2 p + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 i. . w3 = 1 and 1 + w + w2 = Now.e.9 Ex.w3 .w8 ) = (1. is n divisible by 3? .w2)3 = (k + kw 2 . = = 3 w y+w 4 z+w 2x y+wz+w 2x [since w3 X o. y = aw + bw 2 and z = aw 2 + bw.w4 )(1 .w)(1 . show that (1 .w3 .w)(1 .w3. 11 (i) If wi-I be a cube root of unity.w2)(1 . show that (i) xyz = a3 + b3. = 1.w 2) = (1 .w2)(1 .w)(I.w + w 2)(1 (iii) (1 + w)(1 + w2)(1 + w4 )(1 + w8 ) = 1.ab + b2) (since w 3 = 1 and w + w2 = -1) = a 3 + b3 .l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.

1 = r sin 8.'3 51l'..x=cos 3 +2sm 3. 1. 13 (i) Find the cube root of (1 + i). y = aw + bw 2 and z = aw 2 + bw. 51l'. 1l' + 2k1l' .'3 ) + 2sm 1l' .1.3 De Moiver's theorem and its use Theorem 1 De Moiver's theorem: The value of (cos 8+i sin 8)n is (cos n8+ i sin n8) when n is integer and (cos n8 + i sin n8) is one of the value of (cos 8 + i sin8)n. .51l' 1l' "(2 1l') = cos '3 . -1. Q. r = v'2 and tan 8 = 1 or.10 V. 2' ± -2-' 1 iv'3 x = . 'f(1+i)n =. cos 3 + 2sm 3 = cos (2 1l' . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) We have x = a + b. cos 3 + 2sm 3' Now. ' "'t 1 (l I'I')F'dhe smalIt posItIve 10 eger n..2sm '3' '600 or.1l' .2 1l' . x = cos '3 + 2sm '3' cos 1l' + 2sm 1l'. '.O + 6ab -f' b2. .1.2".1l' . Ex. . 1. x 2 + y2 + z2 = (a + b)2 + (aw + bw 2)2 + (aw 2 + bw)2 = (a 2 + 2ab + b2) + (a 2w2 + 2abw 3 + b2w4 ) + (a 2w4 + 2abw3 + b2w2) = a2(1 + w + w4 ) + 2ab(1 + w3 + w3 ) + b2(1 + w4 + w2) = a2(1 + w + w2) + 2ab(1 + 1 + 1) + b2(1 + w + w2) = a 2 . . 51l' or...1. when n is fraction. 8 = l Then 1 + i = rcos 8 + irsin8 = v'2(cos ~ + i.2 • SOLUTION: (i) Let 1 = r cos 8.1.G.O = 6ab. Hence one cube root of 1 + i is {v'2(cos ~ + i sin ~ )}1/3 = 21/6(cos ~ + i sin ~) [by DeMoivre's theorem] (ii) x 3 = -1 = cos 1l' + i sin 1l' = cos( 1l' + 2k1l') + i sin( 1l' + 2k1l') k = 0.sin ~).1.1l' + 2k1l' or.cos 600 ± sm 1l' . (ii) Solve x 3 + 1 = 0 by DeMoivre's theorem. 1 State De Moiver's theorem. r2 = 1 + 1 = 2 or. 10 t es I --.k=0.

(sin nf) + i cos nO) ? (n > 1) Explain.1 + or.i sin 60° = 1{ cos( -60°) + i sin( -60°)}. (ii) Find the modulus and principal value of the complex number (cos 50° + i sin 50°)6. in = 1 We know i 2 = -1. 15 Show that (1 + V3i)30 = 230 . 1 = r sin f). f) Hence (1 + iV3)30 = (r cos f) + ir sin f)) 30 = r 30 (cos 30f) + i sin 30f)) = 230{cos(30. f) = l' . • SOLUTION: Let 1 = rcosf). Hence the modulus is 1 and principal amplitude is -60°.) = (y'2)5{cos(271' .3. Then r2 or. i 3 = -i. Ex. 16 (i) (sin f) = j.J) + isin(30. ( 1 + 1 or.0). • SOLUTION: (i) Let 1 = r cos f).) + i sin( _ 3. r = 2 and tan f) = V3 = tan j or. Ex. where n is an integer. + i sin 5. (sinf) + icosf))n = cosn(7I'/2 .) + isin(271' _ 3.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA (iii) We have 1. = Hence the modulus is (y'2)5 = 25/ 2 and principal amplitude is _ 3: . 14 (i) Find the modulus and the principle amplitude of the complex number (1 + i)5. i4 = 1.. 1 _ i 2 = 1 2 1 + i + 2i) n = 1 (1 . r2 = 1 + 3 = 4 or..0) + i sin n(7I'/2 .)}. V3 = rsinf).11 l+i)n (1+i)2)n ( 1 _ i = lor. (1 = 1 + 1 = 2 or. 2 or. (ii) (cos 50° + i sin 50°)6 = cos 300° + i sin 300° = cos(3600 .j)} = 230{cos(107l') + isin(107I')} = 230. + i cos f))n =f:. Here r = 1 and f) = -60°. [since cos 1071' = 1 and sin 1071' = OJ Ex. r = y'2 and tan f) = 1 + i)5 = (rcos f) + i sinf))5 (y'2)5(cos 1 + i sin 1)5 = (y'2) 5(cos 5.)} = (y'2)5{cos( _3. ..CH. (ii) Show that. · '.60°) = cos 60° .600) + i sin(3600 . 2i) n = 1 Hence the required smallest positive integer n is 4.

1. prove that cos2 z . Hence (sine + i cos e) ¥= (sinne + i cos n8) for n = 2.G. i. 1. + e.. for n > 1. .4 Euler's definition of exponential and trigonometrical functions z2 z3 (i) eZ = 1 + z + - (ii) eix = cosx+isinx (iii) cos x 2! 2 + - 3! + . .sin2 z = cos 2z.e) + isin(I ..2iz 2 . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (i) When n = 2 then (sine + i cos e)2 = sin2 e .cos 2e + i sin 2e ¥= (sin 2e + i cos 2e).1.ix 2i Ex. 211" or. .e) [by DeMoivre'~ theorem] • SOLUTION: 11/ 3 = (cosO + isinO)1/3 = (cos2k71' + isin2k1r)1/3 k = 0.1. 1.. • SOLUTION: (i) cos 2 z _ sin2 z = (e tZ ~ e.iZ )2 _ 4 (e iZ ~t-iZ) 2 - = e2iz + e. 1. = eix + e.2 sin2z. establish that cos 2z = 1 .e)}n = cosn(I . the required values are cos 0 + i sin 0'cos 211" + i sin 211" 'cos 411" + i sin 411" . 18 (i) By Euler's definition of sinz and cosz. -~ ± i{}.e.. 17 Find the values 11/ 3.. (ii) By Euler's exponential values of sinz and cosz. 1.2iz 2 .cos 3 ± Z SIll 3' [since cos 4.2.ix ' sinx = eix _ e.2..) + i sin(271' _ 2. (ii) (sine + i cos e)n = {cos(I .12 • SOLUTION: D.e) + Ex. + i sin 4311" = cos(271' .2iz + 2 e2iz +-----4 e2iz + e. where z is a complex quantity.. where z is a complex number.) = cos 2.= cos2z.. isinn(I . cos 1200 ± i sin 1200 or. 3 3 3 3 211" ...] or..cos 2 e + 2isinecose = . = cos 2k7r + i sin 2k7r k = 0 1 2 3 3 ' ".i sin 2..

3)(x + 4) = (x 2 + X . (i) !(2x 3 -llx 2 + 4x + 5).5x 2 + 6x = O.2iz 2 - 2 = 1. 5. and -4 the polynomial is (x .3(1 + i)x + 2 + 3i. 5. .h. -1/2. (ii) Since the zeros of the polynomial are 1. -4 .5x + 6) = 0 or.1)(x + 2)(x . • SOLUTION: (i) Since the roots of the equation are 0. 2. (iv) 2 ± J3.h). (ii) 0. Exercise 1 Form the equation whose roots are (i) 1. when f(x) is divided by (x .h)Q + R.iZ 2i )2 = 1 - 1. Putting x = h we have f(h) = O.l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.9x 2 + 21x . x(x 2 .2iz 4i 2 _ 2 2 Sin2 z.2 Ex.2)(x .12) = x4 + 2x 3 - 13x 2 - 14x + 24. 2. = 1 . x 3 . (iii) x 2 .6x 3 + 9x 2 .13x + 2 is divided by x + 2. 3. Ex. and 3 the cubic equation is (x . Thus f (h) is the remainder. 2 If the polynomial is f(h) .2( eiZ e.O)(x .2. 1 Theory of Equation (i) Form the cubic equation whose roots are 0. (ii) Form the polynomial whose zeros are 1. -2. 0. (iii) 2 + 3i.13 (ii) Cos 2z = e2iz + e. 3. Then f(x) = (x . 3. (ii) x4 .Q + R = R. show that the remainder • SOLUTION: Let Q be the quotient and R be the remainder independent of x. 3. 1. 3 (i) Use the method of synthetic division to determine the quotient and remainder when 6x 4 + 5x 3 .CR.1 Remainder theorem and synthetic division Ex.2iz 2 e2iz = 1+ e2iz + e. 3.3) = 0 or. f (x) be divided by x .2)(x 2 + X .5] 1. (iv) x 3 .2 + e. [Ans. -2.

9x + 1 is divided by 2x + 1. 2x 3 .7x 3 + 8ax 2 . p = -4.4p '-2-=-----4c-----. -12 14 -28 82 "-6-0------::----:-.I:-:4-+-:O-=2p'"----=2-=-8---:7-=-pp For complete divisibility the remainder must be zero. when the polynomial 3x 4 4x 3 + 2x2 . (vii) Find the remainder. (ii) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have -21 1 1 The quotient is x 3 - 0 -2 -2 0 4 4 1 -8 -11 14 3 -7 2x2 + 4x - 7 and the remainder is 3.2 when 32a .-----4-:-:1-8-4:-7 14 The quotient is 6i 3 - 7x 2 + 14x . -4 8 + 2p . (iv) Here the multiplier is 3 31 2 2 -7 6 -1 0 p2 15 -3 -9 3p2 .3bx + 17 = 0 is divisible by x .7p = 0 or. Therefore.1.41 and the remainder \s 84. -28 .27 -3 p2 _ 9 3p2 -12 .. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Find the remainder and quotient by synthetic division where x4 + x-11 is divisible by x + 2.3x 2 + 2ax + b is divisible by x + 2? (vi) Show that 2x4 . by synthetic division.6b .7 = O.G. (v) Find the relation between a and b if 4x 3 .3.3p is completely divisible by x + 2? (iv) Apply the method of synthetic division to find p in order that 2x4 7x 3 + p 2x + 15 may be exactly divisible by x . • SOLUTION: - (i) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have -216 5 0 -13 2 .28 .px 2 + 6x . (iii) Here the multiplier is (-2) and we have -212 -p 6 -3p .14 V. (iii) For what values of p.

] + 7. f(2) must be zero for exact divisibility. (vi) Here f(x) == 2x4 . -7 + 32a . then (_I)n + 1 = -1 .56 + 32a . divided by (iii) Find the quotient and remainder when x 3 x-I.3bx + 17. (vii) Here we first divide by (x + 1/2) -4 3 2 11 2 as shown below 2 11 4 19 4 -9 19 -8 91 8 1 91 16 107 16 an t e remam er IS d h . then f( -2) must 3x 2 + 2ax + b. + 1. (v) If the given expression be exactly divisible by (x be zero where f(x) = 4x 3 - + 2). d .15 In order to have exact divisibility the remainder must be zero. 4 Show that if n is odd. x+2? (i) Find the remainder when x 5 4x4 + 8x 2 - 1 is divided by (ii) Find the relation between a and b if x 3 + 2x2 + 2ax + b is divisible by + 3x 2 + 3x + 2 is + 3. 3p2 -12 = o or.6b . (ii) b .7x 3 + 8ax 2 . This gives -32 .2 x 2 + 4 x ..6b + 17 = 0 or.. (v) -4. +1= .CH.8 - 16' Exercise 2 x . (iii) Quotient is x 2 + 4x (iv) 19. Ex. p2 = 4 or. (x + 1) is a factor of xn + 1 when n is odd. (iv) Find the remainder when x 3 + 5x 2 + 1 is divisible by x (v) Find the remainder and quotient when 3x 2 +4x -11 is divided by x-I. The quobent IS -- -- 1 11 19 91) -"2 ( 3x 3 . p = ±2.4a = 0.12 .. [Ans.3.7 = O. (i) -4. then x + 1 is a factor of xn O.6b = 0 or. 32a . -44 . • SOLUTION: If n is odd. remainder is 9.4a + b = 0 or. this gives 32 . -4a + b = 44 which is the required relation. by synthetic division.4a + b = 0 or. 107 -2 1 3 3 .1: CLASSICAL AI fiEBRA 1.

-2 1 1 0 5 1 1 -2 -2 -2 -4 4 9 -3 -18 2 42 44 1 Hence f(x) = x4 = (x + 5x 2 + 2)4 - 3x 8(x 2x2 +2 + 2)3 + 29(x + 2)2 55(x + 2) + 44. (ii) Let us divide 2x4 .3 by synthetic method in 3 2 -2 5 39 -1 132 131 2 Hence f(x + 3) = 2x4 + 23x 3 + 97x 2 + 182x + 131. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Ex. 2x2 + 5x . 2x2 + X +2 = 0 as a (ii) Express 3x 3 .G. 5 (i) Express x4 3 + 5x 2 - (ii) If f(x) = 2x4 - x3 - 23x + 97x 2 + 182x • SOLUTION: + 2 as a polynomial in x + 2.1. + 4x 3 - Exercise 3 (i) Express the polynomial x4 polynomial in x + 2. then show that f(x + 3) 3x = 2x4 + + 131.2x2 + 4x + 6 as a polynomial in x . (iii) Express 3x 4 + 5x 3 .4x 2 + 5x + 6 as a polynomial in x .1. + 5x -1 6 1 by x .1~16 D.x 3 succession. (i) Let us divide x 4 +5x 2 -3x+2 by x+2 by synthetic method in succession.1. .

2 State Descartes' rule of signs..3) + 64] Theorem 1 Fundamental theorem of classical algebra: Every algebraic equation has at least one root real or imaginary.2 = O.4(x + 2)3 .1 = O.1)4 +17(x .11 3 + 5(x ..X + 1 = O. . (ii) 3(x .1)2 + 27(x .1)3 + 31(x .2. (iii) Find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation 3x 5 .3)3 + 47(x .2(x + 2)2 + 25(x + 2) . + x4 + 1 = 0 (vi) How many positive roots an algebraic equation can have if the sign of the terms of the equation be all positive? • SOLUTION: (i) Let f(x) = x 6 . Q.2x2 + X .24.1)2 + 6(x . (iii) 3(x . 1. Hence there cannot be more than two negative real roots.1) + 16.3)2 + 90(x .3x 2 .3. then it will be by an even number.1) + 10. If the number of real roots be less than the number of changes of sign.X + 1. ALGEBRA 1. Ex. Hence there cannot be more than two positive real roots.2 Descartes' rule of signs Theorem 2 Descartes' rule of signs: An equation f (x) = 0 with real coefficients cannot have more positive real roots than there are changes of sign in f (x) and cannot have more negative real roots than there are changes of sign in f (.17 (iv) Express x4 .CH.4x 2 + 8 = o. (i) (x + 2)4 . (v) Use Descartes' rule of sign to show that the equation x 8 has no real roots. (ii) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation x 5 + x 3 . 1 State the fundamental theorem of classical algebra. [Ans.3x 2 .x ). Again f( -x) = x 6 . Q. 6 (i) Use Descartes' rule of signs to determine the nature of the roots of the equation x 6 .3)4 +l1(x .l: CLASSICA .. (iv) Use Descartes' rule of signs to determine the nature of the roots of the equation x 8 . There are two changes of sign in f (x). (iv) (x .x 3 + 2x2 - 3x + 1 as a polynomial in x .3x 2 + X + 1 There are two changes of sign in f( -x).

Exercise 4 (i) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of complex roots of the equation x 6 . As the degree of the equation is 8.e. f(x) = 0 has no real roots.x 3 . there cannot be more than 3 positive real roots. .2 The equation has no negative real roots as there are no changes of sign in f( -x). there is no change of sign between the terms. Again fe-x) = -3x 5 .2x2 . Here also number of changes of sign is one. (ii) Letf(x)=x 5 +x 3 -2x 2 +x-2. the least number of imaginary roots is 2. As change of sign in positive real root. As the equation is of degree 5. Also f( -x) = x 8 + x4 + 1 has no changes of sign. hence the other two roots must be imaginary.1.then the equation cannot have any positive real root. Again fe-x) = _x 5 . Therefore the least number of imaginary roots is two. Hence the given equation has no negative real roots .x + 1 = O.4x 2 + 8.18 U. . . Since number of changes of sign in f (x) is 2. hence the other six roots are imaginary. The equation has one negative teal root. (iv) Let f(x) = x 8 . so the given equation has no positive real roots. '.1. hence there can be maximum two positive real roots. hence there cannot be more than one Again f( -x) = x 8 . As number of changes of sign in f(x) is 3. (v) Let f(x) = x 8 + x4 + 1.. As the degree of the equation is 5.4x 2 + 8 Here number of changes of sign is one. (vi) If the sign of the terms of the equation be all positive i. Thus the given equation has one negative real root.3x 2 .X . f (x) is one. the other two roots must be imaginary. (iii) Let f(x) = 3x 5 .G. As there is no change of sign. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) As the equation is of degree 6.1.

. - llx 2 + 28x - 24 = 0 (v) Find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation 3x 5 .4x 2+ 8 = O.. (ii) x4 -12x2 + 12x .(3)(1 . = n. Exercise 5 Show that the equation (i) lOx 3 -17x2 + X + 6 = 0 has a root between 0 and -1. Since f{l) and f(2) are of opposite signs.o:)(x .o:)(x .1') . there must have at least one real root lying between 1 and 2. (v) 2.0:.CR.(3)(x .] Theorem 3 If two real numbers a and b be substituted for x in any polynomial f(x) and if they have opposite signs. (vi) Show that the equation 2x7 . 7 Show that a root of x 3 - 4x + 2 = 0 lies between 1 and 2. f(l) = 1. a.(3)(1 .4x + 2... . ..0:)(1 . + x + 1 = (x ..(3)(x . (viii) Prove that x4 + x 2 + x-I = 0 has one positive.. hence xn . (iii) Apply Descartes' rule of signs to find the number of imaginary roots of 3x 4 + 4x 2 ... Ex. then the equation f(x) = 0 must have at least one real root lies between a and b.2 + . (3..0:)(1 .2x + 1 = O. (ii) 2.. (iv) Is it true that all the roots of the equation 2x 3 are non real.24 = 0 be complex? Justify your answer. are the roots of the equation xn . Ex. 8 If 1.1') .1') .12 = O. (vii) Is it possible that all the roots of the equation 2x 3 -llx 2 + 28x .19 (ii) Using Descartes' rule signs find the least number of imaginary roots of the equation x 6 .. • SOLUTION: Let f(x) = x 3 .1 + x n . 1'.3x .4 + 2 = -1 < 0 and f(2) = 8 . 1'. • SOLUTION: Since 1.1 = (x .l: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.x 5 + 4x 3 .. then show that (1 .5 = 0 has at least two imaginary roots. [Ans. (i) 2.l)(x . Then n = (1. (3. Putting x = 1 to this relation.5x 2 . one negative and two imaginary roots.1 = 0. Dividing both sides by x-I we have x n. (iii) 2.. (iv) No. be the roots of the equation xn -1 = 0..8 + 2 = 2> O. (vii) No.1') ..3 = 0 has a root between -3 and -4 and another between 2 and 3.

6x + 8 = 0.3x 2 + 4 = 0. a.2. 2 or 2. (ii) The sum of two roots of the equation x 3 + alx 2 + a2x + a3 = 0 is zero.6 = cia or. a. af3 + a.20 D. Then 2a + 13 = 3 and a 2 + 2af3 = O. 13. the roots are -2. -1. . +.13 2 = -6 or. af3 + 13. (iii) Solve the equation x 3 . given that the roots are in A.lUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) 1.a = cia. the roots are 2. Also 3a2 . 13". (iii) Let the roots of the equation be (a . (a + 13). 1 Then a ( -g + 1 + 13 ) = 21 2 and a 3 = 8.13). a. + J = -bfa.a3 = O.16 = 0 the roots being in G. show that al a2 . SOLUTION: • (i) Let the roots of the equation be a.21x2 + 42x . + 136 +.P. ~. af3.1.6 = cia af3. 9 =0 (i) Solve the equation x 3 .13 = -1.2. a = 1.13 2 = -6 or. af3(T + J) + .3x2+ ax + b = 0 be in arithmetic progression. 13" be the roots of the equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 then a + 13 +. Ex.1. af3.6 + a.G. Note 2 If a.3x 2 . These give a = 2.6 = e/a.P. two of its roots being equal. 1 1 the roots are 8. MATHEMATICS (SHORT (. -2. Ex.8. 13 2 = 9 or. = -d/a.J(a + 13) = -d/a. 13 = ±3. prove that a + b = 2. 10 (i) If the roots of the equation x 3 . + aJ + 13.4 or 4.6 = -d/a or. + af3J + 13. = -bfa. (ii) Let the roots of the cubic be a/f3. Solving these we get a = 2 and 13 = 4. af3. (a + f3)(T + J) + af3 +. 3 . J be the roots of the equation ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e then a + 13 +.'.1.2.P. (iii) Find the condition that the roots of the equation x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 are in A.2. (ii) Solve the equation 2x 3 . Then we have 3a = 3 or.3 Relation between roots and coefficients Note 1 If a. .

3 . we get b -a. Then 13 = -aI. Also 3a 2 . a = Again 3a2 p2 -3"' p 13 2 = q or. (iv) Let the roots be ~. 13 2 = 3 .13 2 = q 13 2) = -r p2 or.3 + a) = -b or.13 2 = a or.2p 3 = 27r. 13. _a 2 = a2 and _a 2 j3 = -a3' Substituting the values of 13 and a 2 we get -a2al = -a3 or.13). Then 3a = -p or.13 2) = -b or. (iii) Let the roots be (a - 13). a = --. 13 2 = 3 - q and a(a 2 -r _~(~2 _ P: + q) = -g+q= 2p2 p 3r or.a = b or. a. Then 3a = 3 or a = 1.13 2 = a or.2 or. = -b (ii) Let the roots be a.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.CH. or.P. prove that a 3 c = b3 . -a.a3 = 0. • SOLUTION: (i) Let the roots be (a . a + b = 2 which is the required relation. -2p 3 + 9pq = 27r or.21 (iv) If the roots of the equation x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are in G.a. (a + 13). which is the required relation. Thena(~+1+j3) =-a+ a2(~+1+j3) =b a 3 =-c Substituting (1) in (2). 3 . a..a and a(a 2 . 9pq . a . a (1) (2) (3) . or. (1 . ala2 . aj3. (a + 13).

4 Transformation of equation Ex.P. + 36 = 0 one of the root being double the (iv) Determine r so that one root of the equation x 3 . -2] 1. • SOLUTION: (i) Let us transform the equation by putting x = y .6 = 0 or. 2. -1.P. 11 (i) Transform the equation x 3 . (iii) 3.1.] Exercise 7 (i) Solve the equation x 3 .rx 2 + rx . 5.3x 2 + 4 = 0.8 = 0 whose roots are in G.4 be reciprocal of another. two roots being equal. -1 or.2. (ii) Solve the equation 4x 3 . 2. (i) 2.G.6x 2 + 3x + 10 = 0. the roots being in A. (y + h)3 .4x 3 + 5x 2 8x + 7 = O. (iv) r = 5. (i) pq .2.. the equation x4 1 = O. y3 -7y + 2 = O.24x2 roots are in A. -2.. y3 + h.24 + 5)y + (8 . h = 2.7x 2 + 2x + 1 = O.24 + 10 + 8) = 0 or. [Ans. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Exercise 6 (i) Find the condition that the equation x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 may have two roots equal but of opposite signs.9/2.P. + 5x + 8 = 0 into another in (ii) Find the equation each of whose roots is greater by 2 than the roots of + 8x 3 + X - 5 = O. + 8) = 0 + (3h - 6)y2 + (3h 2 - 12h + 5)y + (h 3 - 6h 2 + 5h To remove the second term we put 3h .2x cos 0 + (iv) Obtain an equation whose roots are twice the roots of the equation x 3 + 3x 2 + 4x + 5 = O. having given that the (iii) Solve the equation 27x 3 + 42x2 . (ii) Solve the equation x 3 . (iii) -2/9.6x 2 which the second term is missing.22 U. (ii) -1/2. thus the transformed equation is y3 + (12 . = 0 shall [Ans. 6. 2.r = 0. (iii) Find the equation whose roots are squares of the roots of x 3 . (vi) Find the equation whose roots are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the roots of the equation x4 + 3x 3 . (v) Form the equation whose roots are reciprocal to those of x4 . (iii) Solve the equation x 3 . -1. .28x .7x 2 other. 2/3.6(y + h)2 + 5(y + h) + 8 = 0 or. + 23x + 18 = 0. (ii) 5.

4x determine the value of "L.4x 3 + 5x 2 . x 3 . (ii) If a. y(y . 7y4 . a 2 (3. '. 0: 2 (3. (3. Putting this value in (1) we get (y . .4y (vi) Putting (_y)4 + or.2 cos 0)2 = 1 or.2)3 + (y . (v) The given equation is x4 .2 cos 0) = -1 Squaring both sides we get a2(a 2 .5x 2 . Ex.24y2 + 65y . we get y 1 4 5 8 ---+---+7=0 y4 y3 y2 Y or.2) .4y2 cos 0 + 4y cos 2 0 = 1.5 = 0 Let y = a + 2 or. Since a is a root of the equation . (1) (iii) Let a.8y3 + 5y2 . y3 . (3. 0: + 3a + 4a + 5 = 0 Let y = 2a or.8x +7= 0 ·· 1 Su b stltutmg x = -. y4 - +1= 0 which is the required equation.. a = y/2 Substituting in (1) we get (1) y3 8 + 3y2 + 4!£ + 5 = 4 2 0 or.r = 0 find the value of "L. 12 (i) If a.23 (ii) Let a be a root of the given equation. y3 + 6y2 + 16y + 40 = O.'. . (iv) Let a.2y + 1 = O.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1.px 2 + qx .5 = 0 or.55 = O.2a cos 0 + 1 = 0 or. Let y = a 2.2cosO)2 = 1. (iii) If a.CR. b. c be the roots of the given equation. 'Y ~e the roots of the given equation 3 2 . The transformed equation is 3( _y)3 . x = -y in the given equation. 0: = Y . 'Y be the roots of the equation + 20 = 0.. find the value of . y4 . a3 . a (a 2 . 'Yare the roots of the equation x 3 . (3. (3.2)4 + 8(y .7( _y)2 + 2( -y) + 1 = 0 3y 3 .2. 'Y be the roots of the equation x 3 + px 1 L(3+'Y' +q= 0.7y2 . a 4 + 8a 3 + a .

= -4. + a +. + qx - r = 0. = -1. a/3. (a + (3)(/3 + .)(a/3 + /3. a(3 + /3. . = -20. Now.2.·are the roots of x 3 + px + q = 0. a(3. a/3 + /3.) . + a. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) be the roots of x 3 - px 2 .3r.24 (iv) If a. -t a. 13 x4 b2 a e 2a = ----::--2 a b2 - 2ae (i) Find the equation whose roots are the roots of the equation + 5x 3 .2 = (a + (3 + . Here a + /3 +. (3" a + /3 + . -a a = ~ + _1_ + ~ = _ (.!.3 x (-20) = 40.) = 0 . = q. + a(3 = a/3. = !!. We have a + /3 +. +x +1 = 0 find the value of 0. = pq - r.) (v) Since a. = p. + a. a/3 + /3.) -. + . = 5. a/3.6x 2 + 8x . (3" ap. + a.5x 2 . = a + /3 + (3 + . a(3 + (3.)(a/3 + /3. a/3. find the value of (/3 + (v) If a.) . We know E a 2 /3 = (a + /3 + . + a)(a + (3). a a a Now E a 2 = a 2 + /3 2 + . + a.1 = -2.)(. = -~. /3" V.2 = (a + /3 + . + a. -/3 (3.!. = q. = p. L 1 1 1 1 /3 + .)(a/3 + /3. = p -q 2 = p q (iv) Since a. /3" be the roots of the equation ax 3 value of E a 2 • • SOLUTION: + bx 2 + ex + d = (i) The given equation is x 3 . = r. (3. = r. + a. /3" be the roots of the equation x 3 a 2 + /3 2 + .)2 .)2 . Here a + /3 +.2(a/3 + /3. + a. We know E a 2 /3 = (a + /3 + . a(3 + /3.3a/3.3a/3.) are the roots of x 3 a = -2 Ex.. (vi) + x + 1 = 0.)(. (3 .2. we have a + (3 +.G.r = 0. + a) = (a + (3 + . we have = p.2(a/3 + /3. pq .. = -~. find the (vi) If a. + a. = -q. = 1. . = 0. + . = 0. are the roots of x 3 . a(3. + a.1. + a. + /3 + . Now. We have a 2 + (32 + .4x + 20 = O.9 = 0 with their sign changed. a/3.px + qx . + a. = Since a. (ii) (iii) = 5 x (-4) .!. a/3 + (3.

25 x - 3 2x + aX = o.5x 3 + x 2 its leading coefficient. • SOLUTION: (i) Putting x = -y in the given equation. find the (vi) If a. /3" .6y2 .7x 3 + 8x 2 + 9x + 1 = O. (ii) Putting x = y/a.8y . /3" be the roots of the equation x 3 the equation whose roots are a/3. (v) If a.6{ _y)2 + 8{ -y) . then form r = 0. (iii) Dividing the given equation by 3.1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA (ii) Remove the fractional coefficients of the equation 1.. of 2..)2 + ~'!!.9 = 0 or. .1 -1. a + /3. + qx - (viii) Form the equation whose roots are reciprocal to those of x 5 + 6x 4 . + a. 2 1 2 (iii) Transform the equation 3x 4 .px 2 equation whose roots are /3 +". (~t . Thus y3 . If we take a = 6 (which is the l.m. = 0 2 a 3a or. -a X - 1 ~'O. x4 - ~x3 + !x 2 3 3 !x + ! = 0 3 3 .CH. find the (vii) If a. /3" be the roots of the equation 2x 3 + 3x 2 . /3' . X +1= 0 to one with unity as (iv) Diminish the roots of the equation x 3 + x .2 = 0 by 2.9 = O.)3 _ !('!!. (_y)4 + 5{ _y)3 .3y2 + 24y = O.9y + 27 = O.~(~)3 + ~(~)2 _ ~(~) + ~ = 0 5 1 1 1 or.a.5y 3 . y4 . 2x2 +X - 3 = 0. Putting x = y / a. y4 _ _ ay 3 + _a 2y2 _ _ ya 3 + _a 4 = 0 3 3 3 3 Choosing a = 3 the equation becomes y4 _ 5y 3 + 3y3 .c. 3) then the fractional coefficients become integral. 1 1 1 equation wh ose roots are -1--' . /3" be the roots of the equation x 3 . ! ('a!. y 3 1 2 2Y2 a + aya 2 = O.

(p~y)3_p(p_y)2+q(p-y)_r=0 or.1)2y ..y2 (vii) Let y = a + 6y . (~)3 _ 2(~)2 + (~) _ 3 = 0 y y Y +.= .2 3 · -a-1 =0. Y = a + ~ + "( . "(3 - p"(2 + q"( _ r = 0 or.r) = O. y3 .y3 = 0 - + 9y - 2 = O. a = --.. 1 y-1 (v) Let y = . + ~ or.26 V. we get . in the given equation. 3 a a or.2py2 + (p2 +q)y . Since "( is a root of the given equation.1) _ 1 = 0 y or. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iv) Applying successive synthetic division by 2.'.Y 1 1= 0 9 6 or . 3 3 or. (viii) Putting x = ~ ~.1)3 + 3(y .3 = 0 .G."( = p - "( or.or.1.2"(2 or.(pq . 2 1 0 1 -2 10 8 The transformed equation is y3 + 6y2 + 13y + 8 = O..or.'y3 y2 or. 3y 3 (vi) Let y = lly2 a~ a~"( _ (y . y = . y3 . 1-a y Since a is a root of the given equation. "( = -.9 = O.1) 3 + 3 (y .1)y2 . so 2 -+ . + "( .(y . "(3 . 2(y .1) 2 y y or. "( =p - y. "( "( Y Also "( is a root of the given equation . 2 (y .

(iii) 4y3 .] . + 3. (i) Diminish the roots of the equation 2x 5 .:. (3. 1 + !. y5 + 9y4 + 8y3 . find the _(31 .. each increased by 5. (3.2(3 + 3. equation whose roots are 1 + !. (iii) If 01.5 (iv) If 01. 9y2 + By . 01.27 1 6 7 8 9 -+---+-+-+1=0 y5 y4 y3 y2 Y or.CR.53 y3 + 330y2 .3x 2 + 8x .15y2 + 95y ..8 = a (ii) Find the equation whose roots are the roots of 3x 4+7x 3-15x 2+x-2 = 0. "I be the roots of the equation x an equation whose roots are 201. 1 + = 0. (ii) 3y4 .x 3 + lax .824y + 618 = 0..1: CLASSICAL ALGEBRA 1..2 = 0. "I 3 . Exercise 8 by 3. then form [Ans..7y2 + 6y + 1 = a which is the required equation. "I be the roots of the equation x 3 + 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0. (iv) y3 .217 = 0. (i) 2y5 + 30y4 + 179y3 + 531 y2 + 793y + 481 = 0.2"1 + 3.

therefore relation between fl. • SOLUTION: (i) As we know. (iv) If the elements of a determinant a be rational integral functions of x and two rows or two columns become identical when x = a.a) is a factor of a. then the determinant is multiplied by the same factor.Ch. then the value of the determinant is zero.a)r-l is a factor of a. In general..l? (ii) Justify the statement 'if two rows of a determinant are identical then the determinant vanishes'. be a determinant of order 3 and fl. by interchanging first row and second row.1 2. 1 (i) If fl. = . (iii) If two rows or two columns of a detecminant be identical. (v) If every element of any row (or column) of a determinant be· multiplied by a factor. and fl. what is the relation between fl.determinants (i) A determinant remains unaltered by chl:l. then (x . (iv) Prove that if every element of a third order determinant be multiplied by the same constant p then the determinant is multiplied by p3 . (ii) The interchange of two rows or columns of a determinant changes the sign of the determinant without changing its numerical value. and fl.1 be the determinant obtained from fl. -fl.1. Ex.1 is fl.nging its rows into columns and its columns into rows.211 Linear Algebra 2. if r rows (or r columns) become identical when x = a. then (x .l. interchange of two rows of a determinant changes the sign of the determinant.1 Determinant Some properties of . (iii) Find the value of a determinant of order 3 when two columns are identical. (vi) A determinant remains unchanged by adding (or subtracting) k times the elements of any row (or column) to (from) the corresponding elements of any other row (or column). where k is any given number.

• SOLUTION: abc .b3 + abc + abc .).6. 2. (iv) Let the third order determinant be . i.a3 . = O.6.G.3abc) . becomes (-. ..6..2. 0 w2 1 = 0 [Since 1 + w + w2 = 0] w2 0 w Ex.c2) = abc . or.b(b2 . w w2 w w2 w2 1 1 w = w2 1 + w + w2 w2 1 1 + w + w2 1 w 1 + w + w2 w (Adding second and third columns with the first column) o w w2 =. = al bl Cl a2 a3 b2 b3 C2 C3 Multiplying each element by p w~ get pal pa2 pa3 pbl pb2 pb3 PCl PC PC 2 3 Taking common p from all rows pal pa2 pa3 al a2 pbl pb2 pb3 = p3 bl b2 PCl PC PC3. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) If we interchange the two identical rows then the determinant .c3 = -(a 3 + b3 + c3 .e. = -.2 V. (iii) Same as (ii).ac) + c(ab . if two rows of a determinant are identical then the determinant vanishes. C3 • Hence the determinant is multiplied by p3.6.6. = 0 or.. 2 Simplify w w2 1 w2 1 w 1 1 • SOLUTION: where w is an imaginary cube root of unity. Hence . 3 Show that abc b C a cab = -(a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc).6. w w2 Ex.6.b c a cab O cab b a =a a b c b + b c c c a = a(bc .6.a2) . 2 Cl C2 we get a3 b3 = p3.

(v) Prove that x = 1 is a root of the equation = O.. if r columns becomes identical when x = a then (x . a a a since all the three columns are identical.3 a+1 2 3 a+2 4 4 3 4 a+3 (ii) Show that (x .a)2 is a factor of the determinant x a x a x a a a a (iii) Show that (3 . . .a)2 is a factor of the given determinant.x a cab .a)r-l is a factor of A .x = O.2 = a + b + c is a solution of the equation b c c. . a 2 (32 .. (a ..x b 3 5 a. (x .CH.. We know..1) is a factor of the given determinant. 4 (i) Prove that (a . is a factor of the determinant A= (iv) Show that x 111 a (3 .2: LINEAR ALGEBRA Ex.1) is a factor of the determinant 2. 3 5 x +2 3 3 x +4 • SOLUTION: x +4 (i) Putting a 223 3 3 4 = 1 in the given determinant we get = 0. 444 since two columns are identical. (ii) Putting x = a in the given determinant we get a a a a a a = 0.

(iv) The given determinant is a-a.Cl + C2 + cs) Putting a. b c c-a."'12 "'12 (Ci f."'I (3 . Note 1 If Mi. in the determinant ~ then Aij = (-1) i+ j Mij . (v) Putting a. = a + b + c we get o b c o -a . ."'I) 1 1 "'I a + "'I (3 + "'I "'12 .b a = 0 o a -a . in a determinant ~ is a determinant obtained by omitting from ~ the ith row and jth column with a proper sign."'I "'I a 2 . = a + b + c is a solution of the equation.'.C~ f- o C2 - CS) 0 1 = (a ."'1)((3 . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iii) ~ = 1 1 1 a (3 "'I a 2 (32 "'12 = 0 0 1 a . cofactor and adjoint of determinant ~ Def.'. = 1 in the given determinant we get 3 3 3 3 5 5 = 0. and Aij be the minor and cofactor of the element ai. . b C a+b+c-a. a b cab-a.G. 1 a. is (-1)i+j. hence.2 Minor. The sign of the cofactor of the element ai. (ci f.Cs. a. c-a. a b-a. 2 Cofac~orl The cofactor of any element ai. w 1 ."'I) is a factor of the determinant.1) is a factor. Exercise 1 Show that (w .2."'12 (32 . ((3 . a+b+c-a. '. Def.1. (w . a = a+b+c-a.Cl .c . IX = 1 is a root of the given equation.4 V. 1 111 2. 1 Minor: The minor of any element aij in a determinant minant obtained by omitting from ~ is a deter- the ith row and jth column. 3 5 5 since second and third columns are identical.1)2 is a factor of the determinant a.

without expanding. 1 e a +b (iv) Prove.CH.ea = O.be 1 b b2 . Ex. that 1 a a2 . minor of x = cofactor of x.ab . xz 3. that 5 2 3 7 3 4 = o. without expanding. 5 (i) Find the cofactors of the elements a and b in 3 -4 a 2 7 b 5 -9 2 (ii) Prove that the minor and co-factor of x in the following determinant are the same x 'II x 2 '112 'liZ zx • SOLUTION: Z z2 xy (i) Cofactor of a = (_1)1+3 Cofactor of b = (_1)2+3 (ii) Minor of x 2 7 5 -9 = -18 . 6 (i) Prove. 3 -4 5 -9 = 2 2 'II zx z xy = xy3 '112 zx z2 xy Cofactor of x = (_1)1+1 = xy3 . 945 (ii) Without expanding find the value of the determinant 7 12 -3 9 14 -1 8 13 -2 (iii) Prove. without expanding.5 Ex.35 = -53.xz 3.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2. = -(-27+20) = 7. 1 e e2 . that 1 a b+ e 1 b e + a = O.

that a d 3a . 1 a b+e 1 b a+e = 1 e a+b 1 a a+b+e 1 b a+b+e 1 e a+b+e (O~ f- 02 t' Oa) 1 =(a+b+e) 1 1 since first and third columns are (iv) a 1 b 1 =0. 2 .R2 . e 1 identical.] R~ f.6 V. (v) a a2 abc = -b b b2 abc 1 e ab aCe e2 abc 1 a be 1 b ea 1 (multiplying first.4/ • SOLUTION: = O.be 1 b b2 .ab 0 e .ae .Ra . 12 -3 14 -1 13 -2 7 12 -3 7 (ii) 9 8 = 0. (iii) = 1 1 1 1 1 1 [ R\ +-R. R~ f.a)(a + b + c) 1 a+b+e =(b-a)(e-a) 1 a+b+e =0 (since first and second rows are identical).ab .4e e / 3c . without expanding. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (v) Prove.-R.2.G.ae = 0 b .a2 + be (R~ f.4d b e 3b .a e2 .a)(a + b + c) e . 2 3 5 5 3 3 4 = 7 7 4 (O~ f.a b2 .a (b . that 1 a be 1 a a2 1bea= 1bb2 1 e ab (vi) Prove.R1 ) = b .a (e .02 + Oa) 4 5 9 9 5 since first and second columns are identical.be 1 a a 1 a a2 .Rl. without expanding.Ra .a2 + be 1 e e2 . (i) 5 7 9 = 0. second and third rows .Rl since second and third rows are identical.

(i) -7.] Der. Theorem 1 Jacobi's Theorem If ~(# 0) b~ a determinant of order n and ~' be its adjoint then ~' = ~n-l.(iii) w2 1 w w2 w 1 [Ans.41 adO b e 0 c 1 0 [C~ +-. 3 Adjoint or adjugate determinant: The adjoint or adjugate of a determinant ~ is the determinant ~' whose elements are the cofactors of the corresponding elements of ~. 530 480 438 480 450 396 438 396 362 Exercise 3 (i) Find 3 2 5 the minor and cofactor of x in -4 -3 7 x -9 2 (ii) Show that (x + a + b + c) is a factor of the determinant x+ a b c b x +c a c a x +b 1 1 1 abc a 2 b2 c 2 (iii) Show that a .] determinant without expanding.CH. Q.(ii) w3 1 w .b and a . (ii) 3.4e c 1 3c . c respectively) a a2 1 b b2 1 (taking common abc from third columns) c c2 1 = 1 a a2 1 b b2 1 C c2 (interchanging columns) (vi) a d 3a .2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2. (iii) 0.c are two factors of [Ans. . (i) 0. 1 State Jacobi's theorem.7 by a.C 3 - 3C1 + 4C2 ] =0 Exercise 2 Find the values of the following 1 w w2 1 w3 w2 (i) W w 2 1 . b. 7.4d b e 3b .

solve. is said to be skew-symmetric if aij = i and j in fj. .'. = fj.' be the determinant obtained by changing rows of fj.- we have by Cramer's rule x y 1 1 -1 2 or. for all o The determinant -a b -c fj. for all i and j Def... into columns. (i) Here"'~1 ~ -. 2b.Y = 1. 2 -1 1 1 x y 1 333 x=y=1.. 8 Cramer's rule (i) Solve by Cramers rule 2x . fj. 4 A determinant fj.G... 5 A determinant in b. 3y = 1. y Ex. x + y - 5 = O. = O.. then fj. a The determinant x is said to be symmetric if aij = x y b z z c aji is a symmetric. Again. Hence fj. or.. 7 Prove that the value of every skew-symmetric determinant of odd order is zero. 2x • SOLUTION: + y = 2.1.2. since n is odd .' is also obtained by multiplying each row of fj. by (-1). a-b 0 c 0 is a skew-symmetric. . = -fj. fj. 1~2+1~3"'O .3 Ex. Thus every skew-symmetric determinant of odd order is zero. be a skew-symmetric determinant of odd order. fj. x (ii) Using Cramers rule. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) -aji Def. • SOLUTION: Let fj. 1 2 1 1 2 or. = -fj. = 0 or.-------.. if possible. Exercise 4 Give an example of a third order skew-symmetric determinant and find its value. 2.8 U. Let fj.-=.' = (-1)nfj..----'----.

we have by Cramer's rule or. .'. 1 If A = [~1 =~ l' then find the value of IAI2. IAI = 1 -1 2 -1 -2 • SOLUTION: = 2 + 2 = 4. y = 1. IAI or det(A) Def. 1 Singular matrix: A matrix A is said to be singular if is equal to zero.CH. y = 3. Theorem 1 Let A and B be two matrices. IAI2 = 16. 1and [~ : lone is sin. Exercise 5 Solve the following equations by Cramers rule (i) x (ii) (iii) + y = 5. Def. 2 Non-singular matrix: A matrix A is said to be non-singular if or det(A) is not equal to zero. Q. (i) x = 2. (ii) x = 0.~ (ii) Here ~ = I ~ -~ I = 2 + 3 = 5 i O. [Ans. -x + y = 1. IAI Ex. . gular and the other is non-singular.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2. 3x + 2y = 12. 4x + 3y = 3. y = O. 6x + 8y = O. 1 Define singular and non-singular matrices. x + y = 0. or.2 Matrices Ex.J 2. 2 (i) Show that of the two matrices [~ . (iii) x = 0. Then IABI = IAIIBI.

the matrix [ 3.2. 3 (i) If A = [_~ ~] and I be the 2 x 2 unit matrix. ° ° Ex.4B where A = [~ ~4 ~] and B=[~ ~ (iii) !].20 = .3 then the matrix is singular.4 = 6 # 0 and I ~ : 1= 20 .x)(x 2 . fina HIe value of A .G.x)(x 2 . or. 3.x = O.10 V.3.3x) + 4x .x 2 -2 2 4-x -4 -1. x = 3.3.3x) = 0 or. (iv) .2[-2(1 + x) + 2] +2[-8 + 2(4 .x)(l + x) + 4]. the first matrix is non-singular and second matrix is singular. when x = 0. x = 0.x -4 1 -1.3. (ii) Evaluate 3A . (3 .4x = or.x)[-(4 . x (3 .x) = or.21. (3 . O . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) For what values of x.x 2 2 (ii) If the matrix is singular then 2 -2 4. '.x)] = 0 or.x ~ 1is singular? • SOLUTION: (i) Here I ~ ~ I= 10 . (3 .

2b = -6 or. a = 2 3b = 6 + a + b or.y = 1 (since z = 2). y = 3.1 or.4] = [5 -12 149] 15 . x . = 3 [~ = [ -~ ~]. 2a = 4 or. Solving x . y = 3.c = I. b = 4 3d = 2d + 3 or. A .z. Thus we get x = 4. x .2y + 2 = 0. Generally. d = 3 3c = c + d .z + t = 0.[ 4 (ii) 3A .11 (i) We have A = [_~ ~]. z = 2. 2c = d .2y + z = 0.1 or. 3 Transpose of a matrix: The transpose of a matrix A is the matrix obtained from A by changing its rows into columns or columns into rows. y . a .[_~ _~]. Def.y [ z+t y-t]=[y-Z x+z 2+t Comparing we get x .2y (iv) We have = -2 and x - y = 1 we obtain x = 4. 3[~ ~] = [ _ ~ 2~] + [ c! d 6+a+b] 2d + 3 a 1b ] = [ 4+a c + d -1 Comparing we get 3a = 4 + a or. x . z = 2 and t = l.CH.y .2I = [ _~ ~].4B ~ ] . 2 Define the transpose of a matrix. 2c = 2 or. it is denoted by A' or AT.b = 4.y = y .2 [~ ~] ~~ 1- .4 [~ ~ !] X+. x + z = 3 + y or.t = x . c = 1 Hence a = 2.4 -12 18 .8 3 21 .z. Q. z + t = 2 + t.12 7 3 (iii) For equality of two matrices x.d = 3. x .Z] 3 y 9 . .2: LINEAR ALGEBRA • SOLUTION: 2. x + z = 3 + y or.

2.12

V.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

Ex. 4

3] 5 7 and B matrix C such that A + B = C. Then verify that (CTf = C.
(i) If A

= [

!2

=

1 [ -3 5 -3 _

~ ],

then find the

3 (ii) Find A, when [ !5 1 3
• SOLUTION:

2] + 5A = [ -1 5

3
6

~l
3 5] 2 6

(i) C

=

A +B
[1 2 3] 3 5 7

=

+ [-3

1 2] 5 -3 -1

= [ -2 8

Now aT = [ - : Hence (CT)T

!]

3 and ((/T)T = [ -; 2

~] = C.

= C. =
[-5 0 10 5

(ii) The given equation can be written as

5A

=

[-1 3 7] [ 4 3 2] 5 6 3 -5 1 3
1 = 5"

~]
=

or, A

[-5 0 5] 10 5 0

=

[-1 0 0 . 2 1 1]

Ex. 5

(i) Find (A + B)', where A

=

[~

n

and B

[!

~]

(ii) Find two non-zero matrices whose product is a zero matrix. (iii) Cite one example to show that matrix multiplication is, in general, not commutative.
(iv) Given A

: and B = are two matrices. 360 789 ine if they satisfy the commutative law of multiplication.

=

[~

~]

[~ ~ ~]

Exa~-

(v) Write

[x

y

z]

[~a

fhb

f9 ] c

[X;]

as a single matrix.

(vi) If A =

[~1 ~1]' show that A2 + 1= O.

(I and 0 being identity and null matrices of order 2).

CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA .. [ cos 0 - sin 0 ] . 0 0 ' then show that sm cos A(O)A(¢)= A(¢)A(O)= A(O + ¢).

2.13

(VU) If A(O) =
(viii) If

A= [ _
show that A2
• SOLUTION:

~ = ~]
+ B)2 .

and B =

[~ - ~ ]

+ B2 =

(A

(i) A + B =

[~ ~] + [! ~] = [1~ 1~]
=

(A+B? = (A+B)(A+B)

[1~ 1~] [1~ 1~] = [~~~ ~~~].
and B

(ii) Let A::::

[~ ~]
~]

=

[~ ~]
[~ ~]

be two non-zero matrices. is a null matrix.

Bm AB =

[~ ~] [~ ~] = [~ ~]
and B =

(iii) Let A = [ ;

be any two matrices.'

~.] [~ ~] = [1~ ;~] and BA = [~ ~ 1[; ~] = [1~ ;~]
Now AB

= [;

... AB-#BA.

Hence matrix multiplication is, in general, not commutative.

(iv) AB

~[~

4 5 6

BA~
.'. AB

P

0 0 7 8

-# BA.

~][ ~ ~ 1~ [ ~ ~ 1 o o 1 [0 0 ~][ ~ o ~1
0 0 8 0 0 0 4 5 6

=

0 0 40 122

Thus the matrices A and B does not satisfy the commutative law of matrix multiplication.

2.14

U.G.

MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

(vl[ x

y

z

1[~ ;

~][ ~ 1
hx + by + ! z gx + !y + cz

= [ ax + hy + gz

1[ ~ 1

= [ax 2 + by2 + cz 2 + 2hxy + 2gxz + 2Jyz].
(vi) A = [ -

~ -~ ] A2 = [_~ _~] [_~ _~] = [-~ _~] .'. A2 + 1= [-~ _~] + [~ ~] = [~ ~].
=
[C?S8 -sin8] and A(¢) sm8 cos 8

(vii) A(8)

=

[C?S¢ -sin¢] sm¢ cos ¢

A(8)A(¢) = [

c~s ()

sm ()

- sin8]. [ c~s ¢ - sin¢ ] cos 8 sm ¢ cos ¢

= [ cos ¢ cos 8 - sin ¢ sin 8 = [C?S(8+¢)

- sin ¢ cos 8 - cos ¢ sin 8] cos ¢ sin 8 + sin ¢ cos 8 - sin ¢ sin 8 + cos ¢ cos 8 sm(8 + ¢)
y,

-Sin(8+¢)] =A(8+¢). cos(8 + ¢)

Similarl

A(A.)A(8) = [ C?s( 8 + ¢) - sin( 8 + ¢) ] 'f' sm(8 + ¢) cos(8 + ¢)

.'. A(8).A(¢) = A(¢).A(8) = A(8 + ¢).
(viii) A2 =

[_~ =~] [_~ =~] = [~ ~] B2 = [~ _~] [~ _~] = [~ ~]
... A2 + B2 =

[~ ~] + [~ ~] = [~ ~] A + B = [_~ =~] + [~ _~] = [~ _~]
... (A

+ B)2 =

[~ _~] [~ _~] = [~ ~]

Hence A2 + B2 = (A + B)2.

CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA

2.15

Exercise 1

(i) If n be a positive integer and A = [ _

2 = [ cos 2() sin 2() sh ow t h a t A . -sm 2() cos 2()·

1

~~=: ;~:: l' then

(ii) If A =

[~ ~ l' then find (A2 -

3A - 131).

[Ans. (ii) 0]

2.2.1

Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices

Def. 4 Symmetric matrix: A matrix A = [Aij] is said to be symmetric if aij = aji for all i,j. Alternative: A matrix is said to be symmetric if AT = A. Def. 5 Skew-symmetric matrix: A matrix A = [Aij] is said to be skewsymmetric if aij = -aji for all i,j. Alternative: A matrix is said to be skew-symmetric if AT = -A.

Q. 3 Define symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and give examples.

Ex. 6

(i) If A =

(-l

~), then show that A2 is symmetric.
+ AT is a symmetric matrix and

(ii) If A be a square matrix, prove that A A - AT is skew-symmetric.

(iii) Show that for any matrix A, AAT is symmetric.

(iv) If both A and Bare 2 x 2 real skew symmetric matrices, show that AB=BA. (v) Express the matrix A =

(

-~1

073

:1)

as the sum of two matrices of

which one is symmetrical and the other is skew-symmetrical.
• SOLUTION:

(i) A2 = A.A =

(-Js

~) (-Js ~) = (-~ _~) .

.... A 2 is a symmetric matrix.

2.16

U.G. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

(ii) We have (A + AT)T = AT + (ATf = AT Thus (A + AT) is symmetric matrix.

+ A.

Again (A - AT)T = AT - (AT)T = AT - A = -,(A - AT) . . '. (A - AT) is skew-symmetric matrix. (iii) Let A be an m x n matrix, then AT is an n x m matrix . . AAT is an m x m matrix. Now (AAT)T = (AT)T AT = AAT. Hence A4.T is a symmetric matrix. (iv) Let A =

(~ -~), B = (~ -~).

Then AB =,
BA .

(~ - ~ ) (~ -~) = (~ -~) and

=

(~ -~) (~ -~) = (~ -~)

AB = BA.

(v) If A be a square matrix then ~(A + AT) is symmetric and ~(A - AT) is skew-symmetric. 1 1 Then A = 2(A + AT) + 2(A - AT) . •

~ o
-2

-2)
2

.

0

Ex. 7 If A, B, C are matrices of appropriate orders with AB = AC, then does it imply that B = C? Give an example in support of your conclusion.

CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA

2.17

• SOLUTION: Let A = C

[~ ~], B = [_~ ~]
and AC

and

[_~ ~]. Now AB = [~ ~]
=

=

[~ ~].

Thus AB = AC but B i= C. Hence, AB = AC does not imply B = C.

2.2.2

Adjoint and inverse of a matrix

Def. 6 Adjoint of a matrix: If A = [aij]nxn be a square matrix, then the transpose of the matrix [Aij]nxn whose elements are the cofactors of the corresponding elements in IAI is called the adjoint or adjugate matrix of A. It is generally denoted by adj.A. Def. 7 Inverse of a matrix: Let A be a square matrix of order n x nand there exists another square matrix B of the same order such that A.B = B.A = I where I is the unit matrix of order n x n, then B is called the inverse of A and is denoted by A -1. Q. 4 Define adjoint and inverse of a matrix. Ex. 8 Find the adjoint of the matrix cosa sina ] [ -sina cos a • SOLUTION: Let an = cos a, a12 = sin a, a21 = - sin a, a22 = cos a. The cofactors of an, a12, a21, a22 are respectively An = (_1)1+1 cos a = cos a, A12 = (-1)1+2(-sina) = sina, A21 = (-1?+1(sina) = - sina, A22 = (_1)2+2 cos a = cos a . . '. the adjoint of A is

AdjA

= (An

A21) A12 A22

= (c~sa

sma

-sina). cos a

Ex. 9

(i) Show that the inverse of the matrix

[~ ~]

is equal to its trans-

pose.

(ii) Write down the inverse of the matrix A =

[~

!].

2.18

U.G.

MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

(iii) Find A, if A (iv) If A =

[~ ~] = [~ ~

l
4A + 31 = O.

[_~ -~], then show that A2 -

(v) Let A, B be two matrices such that AB = 0, where 0 is the null matrix. Does it imply that A = 0 or B = O? Give an example in support of your answer. (vi) If A be a non-singular square matrix and B, C are square matrices of the same order such that AB = AC, show that B = C .
• SOLUTION:

(i) Let A

[~ ~]. adj.A = [_~ -~]
=
A-I

and

IAI = 0 -

1 = -1.

= a~: = -

[_~ -~] = [~ ~] .

Agam A =

. T [Ol]T = 1 0

[01]
1 0

.

Hence AT = A-I. (ii) Here A =

[~
3

!l
adjA

IAI = 8 . A-I ..
(iii) Let B

= 5.
IAI

=

= adj A = ! [
5

-3

[_! -~]. 4-1].
2

= [;
3

~].
adjB

IBI

=81

= 5.

=

[_~

. '. B-

= al~f = ~

[_~
1

-!] . -!].'

We have A [ :

or, A =

~] = [~ ~ lor, AB = [~ ~ 1 [~ ~] B- = [~ ~] ~ [_~ -!]

CH.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA

2.19

=

~ [~~ ~~] =
-1 2 -1

(iv)

A2 =
=

[

2-1] [ 2-1]
2
5 - 4

[-!

-~
= [

l

-4

5-4].
5

A2[_ 4t +_!I]
-4

[2 -1] + 3 [1.0]= [0 ~ ]. -1 2 0 1 0
and B

... A2 - 4A + 31 = O.

(v) Let A

=

[-1 1]
-1 1

= _2

[-2 2]
2

.

AB

= [

= ~] [ = ~] = [~ ~]. ~ ~

Thus AB = 0 does not imply A = 0 or B = O. (vi) We have AB = AG. Given that A is non-singular. So A-I exists . ... A-I(AB) = A-1(AC) or, (A- 1A)B = (A- 1A)C or, I B = IC or, B = G.

2.2.3

Orthogonal matrix

Def. 8 Orthogonal matrix: A matrix A is said to be orthogonal if AAT = I, AT is the transpose of A.

Q. 5 Define orthogonal matrix.
Ex. 10 ] is orthogonal. Y2 72 . Prove that the inverse of an orthogonal matrix is orthogonal. Show that the product of two orthogonal matrices is orthogonal. Show that the unit matrices are orthogonal. Show that the value of the determinant of an orthogonal matrix is either 1 or -1. (i) Show that the matrix

[~

~

(ii)
(iii) (iv) (v)

(vi) Show that the transpose of an orthogonal matrix is orthogonal.
• SOLUTION:

(i) Let A = [

Y2

~

~]
1

.

Y2

~]
Hence A is an orthogonal matrix.

= I.

2.20

V.G.

MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

(ii) Let A be an orthogonal matrix. We know for an orthogonal matrix A, AT = A- 1 and AT A = I.

Now (A-1)(A-1)T = (AT)(AT)T = AT A = I. Hence A -1 is orthogonal. (iii) Let A and B be two orthogonal matrices. Then AT A = I and BT B = I. Now (ABf(AB) = (BT AT)(AB) . '. AB is an orthogonal matrix. (iv) Since IT 1= 1.1

= BT(AT A)B = BTIB =

BTB = I .

= I, therefore unit matrices are orthogonal.

(v) Let A be an orthogonal matrix, then AT A = I . . '. IAT AI = III or, IATIIAI = III = 1 or, IAI2 = 1 (since IATI = IAI) or, IAI = ±l. (vi) Let A be an orthogonal matrix then AAT = I. Now (AT)T AT = AAT = I . . '. AT is an orthogonal matrix. Exercise 2 (i) Show that the matrix

[~ ~ 1is orthogonal.

(ii) Show that the matrix (iii) Show that the matrIX

[~ ~1 1is orthogonal.
sma

. [cosa .
[ -1 -~

- sin a cos a
1

l'

IS

orthogonal.

(iv) Show that the matrix ~

2 ':-2] 2
1

is orthogonal.

2

(v) Find k, such that [

:~~~

- sinO cos 0 0 o k

0] is an orthogonal matrix.

[Ans. (v) k = ±l.]

2.2.4

Rank of a matrix

Def. 9 Rank of a Matrix: The rank of a non-null matrix A is the order of the largest square sub-matrix in A whose determinant does not vanish. Ex. 11 (i) Find the rank of

[!! ~].
4 3 16

Hence the rank of a unit matrix of order two is 2.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2.(Rl 3R. Hence the rank of the given matrix is 2. (iv) What is the rank of unit matrix of order two? Justify your answer.2Rl R3 .CH.) Here all the elements of lower triangular part are zero and the number of non-zero rows is 3 so the rank of the given matrix is 3.R. [~ (iii) Find the rank of [ J ~].[~ -Iq [ NP -I. (iii) Let A Now IAI ~ v'3 0 = -V6 ~ O.21 (ti) Find the rank of the matrix (~ : !). (iv) Let 1= Now [~ ~ 1be a unit matrix of order two. That is . (v) If the rank of the given matrix is 2 then its determinant value should be equal to zero. - R~ f.(Rl + R2) 1 Here all the elements of lower triangular part are zero and the number of non-zero rows is 2 so the rank of the given matrix is 2. (ii) (~3 ~6 6 '" (~0 0 -~) [ R3 ~) ~ 0 R~ ~ [J ~ 1 = v~ ff- R2 .R3 . • SOLUTION: (i) [1'2 3 4 4 3 16 ~]. - . (v) Find the value of xlor which the rank of the matrix !~] ] is two . 0 18 ~R. + R2) 2 -2 0 (112 +. = III 1 0 0 1 = 1 ~ O. ] 2 -2 0 -3 o 112 +.R.

6x + 6 = 0 or.0) . x + 6y . • SOLUTION: (i) The given equations can be written as AX=B where A (1) = [~ . rank(B)}. • SOLUTION: (i) The equations are written in matrix notation as AX = B.2.1) = 0 or.2) + 2(0 . min{rank(A).22 2 4 2 1 V. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) 2 2 '- = 0 lOx or. rank(A) + Theorem 3 If A and B be two matrices then rank(AB) :c::. 2x .4(2x . x + y = 2. x = 1. Theorem 2 If A and B be two matrices then rank(A rank(B).5 Ex. 2. . + B) :c::.2y = 4.G.4x + 2y + z = 7. (ii) Given the matrices A ~ [! -~ n X ~ ~ 1and C ~ [ [n write down the three linear equations given by AX = C .4x . 13 (ii) Solve by matrix inverse method 3x .~ 1 =[: ' X land B =[~ l . where A = (il) :Tf~n ][ ~ ]~ [~ 3x . 12 x Solution of equations by matrix inverse method +y+z (i) Write the matrix equation for the system of equations: = 3. (i) Solve by matrix method 2x .2.3y = 5.y Ex. + z = 2.2y [~-!6 -1 1.z = -8. The three linear equations are x + 2y + 3z = 6. 2(x . ! 1 1 1 = 1.3y + 4z = 17.X = [ :z ] and B = [ -8~ ].

~ ~] [ ~ ] = ~ [ ~ ] (1) Hence x = 1. (ii) The given equations can be written in the form AX=B where A IAI = [! IAI =~]. 1 E V (iv) There exists a unique vector (j E V such that a+ (j = a = (j + a for all a E V (v) For any vector a E V there exists a unique vector -a E V such that a + (-a) = (j (vi) aa E V for all a E F and a E V (vii) a(a + (3) = aa + b(3 for all a E F and a. :a . X = A-I B or.. A-I ..b E F and a E V (x) la = a. (3 E V (iii) a + ((3 + 1) = (a + (3) + 1 for all a.CH. for all a. 1 Vector space: Let V be a non-empty set whose elements are called vectors and F be a scalar field. A-I .2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2. Y = 1. = adj A = ! [ IAI 1 1]. for all a. X = A-I B or.y = 1. The set V is called a vector space or a linear space over the field F if the following axioms are satisfied: . = adjA = -1 [-3 2] = [3 -2]. 4-3 =!. [ : ] = ~ [ . (3. =[ = ! =~ = and adjA .(3 E V (viii) (a + b)a = aa + ba. 1 E F and a E V. 2 From (1). (i) a + (3 E V for all a. [ : ] [! =~] [: ] = [ ~ ] Hence x ="2. (3 E V (ii) a + = (3 + a for all a. ~ l From (1).3 Vector Space Def. X = [ : = -9 + 8 = -1 --4 3 ] and B = [ : ]. bE F and a E V (ix) (ab)a = a(ba). 2.23 IAI = 1 2 1 -1 1 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 and adj A = 3 -1 [ 1 -1 .

. xn} of En is said to be linearly dependent if there exists a set of scalars ei.. such that where 0 is the null vector in En. z) : x .4.z) : x2 then prove that W is not a subspace of V . Z) : x.24 V. zI) and Then Xl .2. y. Hence W is a subspace of V. Def. yl.3) be two vectors ofW as (_3)2+4 2 = 52 and 32 + 02 = 32.5) + (3.3.y. addition and scalar multiplication.3Y2 + 4Z2 = o. Yl + + Z2) = O.G. y. (1) Adding these equations. .1 Linearly dependence and independence of vectors Def. z E R} and if W = {(x. 3 Linearly dependent: A set of vectors {Xl.3) = (0. j3 E W =} a + j3 EE Wand (ii) a E W.3(yl + Y2) + 4(Zl This impl~s a + 7J = (Xl + X2.4. + 4Zl = 0 and X2 .. 2.n not all of which are zero.3eYl + 4ezl = 0 [by (1)]. • SOLUTION: + y2 = z2} (i) Let a = (Xl. z E R} is a vector space over the field R. .3y + 4z = O} then prove t~at W is a subspace of V. . Y/' z) : x.r. Ex.z) : i. (ii) Let a = (-3.5) and 7J = (3. Hence W is not a subspace of V. .3Yl 7J = (X2' Y2. 2 Subspace: A non-empty subset W of a vector space V over a field F is called a vector subspace or a linear subspace or simply a subspace of V if W is a vector space over F w. Zl + Z2) E V. Y2. y. Again ea = (exl' eYl.2. I (ii) Let V = {(x.0. X2. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUb:::HIONS AND ANSWERS) The set {(x. y. 1 (i) Let V = {(x.8) ¢ W as 02 + 42 # 82.4.t.0. (Xl + X2) . Z2) be two vectors of W. eZl) E W as eXl . But a + 7J = (-3. Theorem_1 A non-emp~ ~ubset W of V is a subspace of V iff (i) a.z E R} and if W = {(x..y. . e E F =} cal E W. i = 1.y.

. . (a2. 3) and (-1.. X2.0)' (0.C3 - 2G1 ] or.3) are linearly dependent.. bl CJ a2 b2 C2 . 2 (i) Show that the vectors (1. i = 1. (iii) Show that the vectors (2.1.c2) and (a3.. xn} of En is said to be linearly independent if the only set of Ci for which CIXI + C2X2 + .1..1.b3. (0. Formula 2 Let Ll = Ex.2.1) in the real vector space ll3 are linearly dependent.3 = 0 or. 1. -1. (1. (ii) Determine k so that the vectors (1. k. ° k 3 2 3 = ° 1 0 0 k 3 -1 1 5 ° =0 = [C~ +. 2).G2 + Gl ..bl.0). a3 b3 C3 If Ll = 0 then the vectors (al.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA 2. n. + CnXn = 0 holds.c3) are linearly dependent and if Ll =f. be Ci = 0.0. 5k .0) of R3 are not linearly independent . k = 3/5. therefore the given vectors are linearly dependent.2.2. 1 1 The determinant value is zero. Hence the vectors are not linearly independent. 4 Linearly independent: A set of vectors {Xl.cl).0). 0 then they are linearly independent. k 3 1 5 = 0 or. .CH.b 2. (1. (iii) Here 210 1 1 0 420 °(since all the elements of third column are zero).25 Def. al Q. . • SOLUTION: (i) The value of the determinant form by the given vectors is ° ° 11 1 1 1 1 0 = 1 1 = 1-1 = O. 1 Define linearly dependent and independent vectors.. (4. . G3+. (ii) Since the vectors are linearly dependent 1 -1 2 -1 or.1).

4) + c2(3.2) are linearly independent in the real vector space R3. L(W) is said to be generated or spanned by the set Wand W is said to be the set of generators of L(W).G. (0. {(1. -2) and (0. Solving we get c! = 3. -5) linearly independent in the real vector space R3 ? (ii) Show that the vectors (2.3) = 11. Def. 4Cl + 3C2) Comparing both sides we get 3Cl + 3C2 = 15 and 4Cl + 3C2 = 18.26 V. Solving we get Cl = 2.18) = 3(3. Let (15.3) . 1. 5 Linear span: Let V be a vector space over the field F and W be any non-empty sub-set of V.11) as a linear combination of the vectors (2. -2. 3 (i) Express the vector (7. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Exercise 1 (i) Are the vectors (1.1. Hence the linear combination is (7. 4) and (3.0) and (2. 3Cl + 5C2) Comparing both sides we get 2Cl + 3C2 = 7 and 3Cl + 5C2 2(2.3) and (3. 3) = (3Cl + 3C2. .3). (0. 1)} is the standard basis of R3.0. • SOLUTION: (i) Let (7.2 Basis of a vector space Def. 3) + c2(3. Hence the linear combination is (15. Def.0). C2 = 1. For example. 6 Basis: Let V be a vector space over the field F and W be a sub-set of V such that (i) W is a set of linearly independent vectors in V and (ii) W generates V. 18) as a linear combination of the vectors (3.3.11) = (ii) + (3.4. 7 The number of vectors in any basis of a finite dimensional vector space V is called the dimension of the vector space and it is denoted by dim V.6.4) + 2(3. 5) = (2Cl + 3C2. Note 1 The basis of a vector space is not unique but the dimension is unique. -1.2. 0). (0. 0). then W is called a basis set or simply basis of V. [Ans. (i) Yes. (3.11) = cl(2.18) = Cl (3.0).5).] Ex.0. C2 = 2. 2. 0. (ii) Express the vector (15. Then the linear span L(W) of W is the set of all linear combination of finite sets of elements of W.5).

7 or. z) Find a basis and the dimension of S . -3). 1. = [! ~ J. This equation is known as characteristic equation. (il) Find the eigen values of the matrix • SOLUTION: (i) Let A [~ ~ ~] .3 Eigen values Def.4). then dim(WI U W2) = dim WI Ex.AI = Then [! ~]_ A [~ ~] 5 = [ 1 ~A IA - All = 11 ~ A ~ A I= A2 . 0. y. • SOLUTION: Let a = (x. the dimension of W is 2. Ex. Now. 7 ° = ° . Theorem 3 If WI and W2 be two sub-spaces of a finite dimensional vector space V. -3) and (0. Also. \ 2. E R3 : 3x . a = (x. the eigen values are -1. i. A . then W is finite dimensional and dim W :S dim V.1..CH. The eigen values are given by A2 .. (0. The number of vectors of W is two.4y + z = o} is a sub-space in R3.. 1. z) be a vector of S. 0.2: LINEAR ALGEBRA :' . + dim W2 . 4)} generates S.1. the vectors (1.7) = or. 8 Eigen values: The eigen values of.0.e. 5 (i) Find the eigen values of the matrix [! ~]. the values of the variable A. 4 Given that S = {(x. W = {(I. -3x + 4y) = x(l.dim(WI n'W2). z = -3x +4y.e. '2.6A . Then 3x .0. Hence W is a basis of S.27 Theorem 2 If W be a proper sub-space of a finite dimensional vector-space V. Thus the vector a is a linear combination of the vectors (1. a square matrix A are the roots of the equation IA .3. Therefore. y.. -3) + y(O. .7. i. (A + 1) (A . -3) and (0.7.All = 0.4y + z = 0.4). y.4) are linear independent. A = -1.6A . Now.

) = 0 or.>.28 B. = 0.2 . (ii) Find the eigen values of the matrix [~ ~ ~].)(>.).2.>. (3 . Now.3(3 .)2 . (ii) 1.6. = (3 . 3 30 33 0 3- =[3~>' 3~>' ~ >. (3 . >.>'){(3 .9) = 0 or. 1 1 1 [Ans. Then >. o >. >'(3 . -1. (iii) The eigen values of an orthogonal matrix are of unit modulus. The eigen values are given by (3 . .)3 .0 0 ~] ~]. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Let A = [~3 0 3 ~ ~]. 1. Exercise 2 (i) Find the eigen values of the matrix [! ~].9} = 0 or.6>' + >.3. (i) 4. IA - >'11 = o 3 0 3 .>. the eigen values are 0.6 .3(3 .>.)3 . Some properties of eigen values: (i) The eigen values of a real symmetric matrix are real.>.3. (ii) The eigen values of a real skew-symmetric matrix are zero or purely imaginary.>. 3.>'1 = [~3~0 3>. .3. '.[~ ~ 1 ].>. .3. A .>')(9 .] Theorem 4 Caley-Hamilton theorem: Every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation.G.6) = 0 or.

Ch. }. 4. 3 Singleton set or unit set: A set having only one element is called a unit set or a singleton. . 2 Null set or empty set: A set having no element is called null set or empty set. . class.25. Def.16. (ii) B = {I. otherwise a set is called infinite. (iii) B = {x : x is a real number satisfying x(x 2 - 4) = O}. (ii) All good students of a college. (vii) All students of B.. 4 Finite set and infinite set: A set is called finite if it be empty or contains a finite number of elements. (ii) Collection of Indian Presidents of age more than 150 years.1 Set Theory Def. The following are the examples of null sets.. 5. The following collecticms are not the examples of set: (i) All tall men of a class. (v) Collection of all Indian cricketers.. while the set of all odd integers is an infinite set.99}. . Def. The set containing all even integers between 2 and 10 including 2 and 10 is a finite set. (iv) Collection of all chairs and tables of a class room. 1 Set: A collection of well defined objects are called set. It is generally denoted by the symbol cp. Upper case letters are used to denote a set. (vi) All books of class X.. (i) A = {x : x is real number satisfying x 2 + 4 = O}. Def. 3. Some examples of set are (i) A = {I.Sc.3\\ Abstract Algebra 3. 9. . 7.

7}. Def. For example. 1. A = {I. if they have the same elements. A denotes that the element x does not belong to the set A. then A c B.5. 4. 8 Universal set: A universal set is the set of all elements from which elements may be chosen to form sets for a particular problem. 5. Le. A = {I. 4. 2. Symbolically. 5 Sub-set and super set: If every element of a set A be also an element of another set B.1 Basic set operations Let S = {I.5. 2. For the above sets S.2 V. If B contains some elements which are not the elements of A. 4. 6. 3. 6 Disjoint sets: Two sets A and B are called disjoint if they have no element in common. 7 Equal or identical sets: Two sets A and B are said to be equal or identical. (iii) The null set <P is a proper sub-set of every set except <p itself.4. It is generally denoted by S or U. we use the symbols a sub-set and use C or ::::> to denote a proper sub-set. 9. 11. (ii) If A ~ Band B ~ A. 12} are disjoint. lO} be two of its subsets. 3. 5. B. if A ~ Band B ~ C. 3. Def.1. 10} be the universal set and A = {2. 2. 3. then A = B..8. while the notation x rt. (i) Union: The union of two sets A and B is defined as AU B = {x : x E A or x E B}.4. all elements of A are also the elements of B.3..2 to denote Def. i. (i) If A be a sub-set of Band B be a sub-set of C. then A is a proper sub-set of B. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Note 1 The notation x E A is used to denote the statement that the element x belongs to the set A.G. Some properties on sub-set are listed below. then A ~ C. .e. 7. A = B. 3} and B = {1O. A c B or B ::::> A. 5} and B = {I. 3. Def.7. 2. 3. AU B = {I. 8. 7. ~ or :. A. Note 2 To distinguish these two cases. 3} and B == {3. 2. 10}. then A is a sub-set of C. In this case. For example. 8} and B = {I. For example.7. if A = {I. 2} are equal.5. then A is called a sub-set of Band B is called super set of A.

3. 3. 2. 4. 3}. Ex. 5}.9. .3}i find (A U B) . 6}. (ii) Define the intersection of two sets and illustrate it with an example. 6}. B = {1.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.3 (ii) Intersection: The intersection of two sets A and B is defined as AnB = {x: x E A and x E B}. B. 4. 1 (i) Define the union of two sets and illustrate it with an example.4. 7. (iii) Difference: The difference between two sets A and B is defined as A . 6} are three subsets of a universal set S = {1. For the above sets. (iv) Complement: The complement of a set A is denoted by A' or AC or and is defined as A' = {x : T E S but x tt A}. B = {3. then verify that AU (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C). 5. 4} and C = {2. 2. the complement of A is {1.B = {x : x E A but x tt B}. For the above sets S.1. (ii) If A = {1.CH. 1O}. (iii) Define the difference between two sets and illustrate it with an example. find Au (B - (iii) If A = {2. 7}. (iv) Define the complement of a set and illustrate it with an example. 5. 4. 3. 1 (i) If A = {3.1 Q. 6. 3. 7} and B = {O. 2.B = {2. A AUB (a) V~nn AnB (b) diagram of A U B (a) and An B (b) A A A-B (c) A' (d) Venn diagram of A U B (c) and An B (d) Figure: 3.8}. C). 5.6. 5}. A . 2.(A n B). A. C = {1. For the above sets An B = {5. 3.

3. B = {x E Z/5 :S x :S 15}. (v) Verify that A . (A U BY = {5. 8}. 2. 3.B = {1. 8}. (A n B)' = {I.. = {6. 6. 7}. 7} AI = {3. 5.C = {3. 2. 5}. Hence A . 6.6}. A (A U B)I = AI n BI and (A complement of A in S. (iv) Here S = {I. 5. 3.4. 8} and A = {I. 5.6. A . 9} be the universal set and B {2. B . 2. 4. 7. 3.C).7.G. 5. 5. (iii) Here B n C = {2. 6. 7}.4 U.. AU (B . (v) Here A = {I. A .. 5}. 4. D are sub-sets of Z defined by A = {x E Z/O :S x :S IO}. 2. 6}.4. 2. A n B. 4. 2. Hence (A U BY = AI n B'. 3. 3. 4. Then AI n BI = {5.4. B = {3. 5. 5. C = {x E Z/x ~ 5}. 2.C = {1. 6}.5. 5}. 8}.5}.(B U C) = {I. where AI denotes the B) = (A - n (A - C) where A = {I.(A n B) = {O.6. 2.2} .4. . 7}. 8}. AU B = {O.3. B = {3. Au B = {I.B) n (A . 3. D = {x E Z / x :S 15} find A U B. 4. 5}.. 5}. 6.(B U C) = (A .'. 2. 3. 2. Hence (A U B) . 9}. 2. 5. C = {5. B = {O. 3. 3.2. 6}.C) = {I. 2. 5. 2.cy. 5}. 2. 6. 4.6. 7. 7.4. C = {5.A .8} .7. 6}. 7}. . 3. A' U B' = {I. B = {3. (A .8. verify that n B)I = AI UBI.5. . 7}.4.3}. 8}. 5. Au C = {2. 4. 5. 5}. 6. Find (B . (ix) Let Z be the set of all integers and A. C = (viii) If A = {x E Z/l :S x :S 1O} and B = {x E Z/6 :S x :S 15} then find the value of A n B and AU B. 8}. 6}. • SOLUTION: (i) A = {3.D . 3} and AU (B n C) = {2. 7}. An B = {3}. 6}. 6. 7}. (vi) If P = {I.7. B U C = {2. B. 6. 3}. B = find (P {2. 6} Thus (A U B) n (A U C) = {2. 3. where Z is the set of all integers. 4. 5. 6}. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iv) If S = {I. Hence (A n BY = AI UBI. B = {2. 4. (ii) A = {I. 8. 3.C) = {I}. 4}. C. 3. BI = {I. AU B = {I. C = {I. 7}. 7} and R (P n R). 3. 7.(B U C) = {I}. Then B . 4. Again An B = {4.B) n (A . 4. 2. = {I. 5. Q = {3. 4.4. Hence Au (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C). n Q) U (vii) If U = {I. 7}. 7. 4.C and A .

. 7. 14.I5}. 8}.5 = {I~ 7} . Q = {3.9. C = {x E Z/x ~ 5} = {5. 1O} and A= {x E Z/o B = {x E"Z/5 ~ x x ~ Exercise 1 (i) If S = {I. 6}.8.. 7. 4.. C = {2. 8} and B = {-I. Then P n Q = {3. 1.9.9.12.4. 3.14.5. . D = {x E Z/x ~ 15} = {I5.8. ". P n R = ¢. (iii) {-I.3.C)' (viii) Here A = {x E Z/I ~ x ~ B = {x E Z/6 ~ x ~ 15} = {6.9. . 11. 3.6.. 15} = {x/O ~ x ~ 15} An B = {5. 6. 7. 6. 7}and A and B are its sub-sets givenby A = {I. 4. 6. 7}. 6. = {2. 13. 5. . • SOLUTION: (A n B)' U (A' n B)' == (B' U A') U (A U B') = B' U (A' U A) U B' = B' U SUB' [since A' U A = Sj =B'UB'=B'.5. 8} be the universal set and A = {I.9.C 3.4..8. 4. R = {6. 7}. 5. 8} be subsets of S. 8.6. 10..(A n B). (vii) B . (ix) 10} = {O. 10} = {x/5 ~ x ~ 10} B-C=¢. 3. 0. C be any three finite sets. 7. ' '---- (B . (iii) If A = {2. then (i) Commutative laws (a) AUB=BuA (b) AnB = BnA . 4.. then verify that AU (B n C) = (AUB)n(AUC).2. 13. Hence (P n Q) U (P n R) = {3. 2 If A and B are two subsets of a set S. 3.CH. find (A n B)' U (A' n B)' in the simplest form .6. 2. 6.I4. 6. 7. Then An B = {6.II.5. find (A U B) ... 14. 6.I5}. 7. Then AU B = {O. 7}. 1O} = {x E Z/6 ~ x ~ 10} and AU B = {I.4.. 3.2 Laws of algebra of sets If A.I3. 7. 1. 5.IO. 7. 6}.8. }. . (ii) If S = {I. 9}. 6.6. 4. 3. 2. B = {5.. 4}. 9}. verify that (A n B)' = A' U B'. . 2. [Ans.] Ex.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA (vi) Here P = {I.I2. 1O}. 5. . }.6.4. B = {I. 2. 2}. 15} = {x E Z/I ~ x ~ 15}. 9. ". 8.7.4}. 3.2. 14. A-D=¢. ~ ~ 15} = {5. . 2. B. 3. 10} = {I. .5.1. 4}. 0.

(x is the cartesian product). verify that find (A x B) U (A x C). = {a. a). = {4. B = {I. 5} and C (B n C) = (A x B) n (A x C). 4. Q.4}. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Associative laws (a) AU (B U C) = (A U B) U C (b) An (B n C) = (A n B) n C (iii) Idempotent laws (a) AUA=A (b) A nA = A (iv) Distributive laws (a) An (B U C) = (A n B) U (A n C) (b) AU (B n C) = (A U B) n (A U C).2}. then find AU B.2} = {2. a).3 Cartesian product of sets Def. 5.1. 3} and B = {3. An B. (B x A).b. For example.3.b} then A x B = {(I. then Au B = B (v) AnS=A n 4> = 4> A n AI = 4> ~ (viii) If A B. y) : x E A and y E B}.c} and B and C = {1. (A x B) and (iii) For the sets A = {a. 2} .G. b). 3 (i) A = {1. let A = {1. 6} then show that A x (ii) If A = {I. 3}. b}. b)}. then An B = A. 2. 2 Define cartesian product of sets and give one example of it. (i) AU S = S (ii) AU 4> = A (iii) A U AI = S (iv) If A (vi ) A (vii) ~ B. A xB (iv) If A =1= B x A. (1.2} and B = {a. (2. 3. Ex. (2. 9 Cartesian product: The cartesian product between two sets A and B is defined as A x B = {(x.6 V. B = {3. More results on set operations.

(b.4}. (b. (b.4}.1).r}.{y}.4). (2.5). (1.(2. (1.3.{q}. (2. 2). 10 Power set: The collection of all sub-sets of a set A including A.3). (1. (b. 3).3). 3). (a.4). (ii) A = {I. (5.4). 2n and B x A = {(I. (ii) If A = {I. AUB = {1.(4.{r.x} arid {x. . q. {z. 1).4}. 3).5). p}. 4n and B x A= {(3. (2. (2. (1.6). 5}.5).1 (i) B n C = {4.CH.4) }. B = {2.4). 3n. 4).4).{p. then its power set has 2n elements. 4~.p} and {p. 2). 2). (3. r} }. 2). (2.y. {r. (iii) A x B = {(a. (1. 4 (i) Write down the sub-sets of the set {x.1).] Def. Find A x (B U C). The power set of S is {1>. Exercise 2 (i) Find the cartesian product A x B of the sets A and B where A = {1.(2. 3} and B = {3.{y. 5). (3. (2.{p}. (1.2. (b. (2. {q. (a.(2. 3}. (2.2).z}. (e. en . (b. b). b). '. 3). 3n.4). (2.6n . 5n A x B = {(I. [Ans.q}.4).(1. 2). 2n and A x C = {(a.3: ABS'fRACT ALGELRA • SOLUTION: 3. 3). {x. 2).3.(1.(3. (1. 2). 2).(4. (a.{x}.(3. 2). z}. '.3).(4. Hence A x (B n C) = (A x B) n (A x C). (a.4}. 4n. is called power set of A and it is. . (e. 1). (2. 1). (2. {p.AnB = {3} A x B = {(I. y. (b.3). r}.3n. 1). generally. 2). Note 3 If a finite set has n elements. (2.r}. (3. 4).(3. e). (1. (2. (2. C = {3. (b. 4). . 1). (5. 2). (iv) A x B = {(a. 1). {r }.2). (ii) {(I. r}.5} and B = {2. A x B of B x A.q. (1. (b. (ii) The subsets of S are 1>.y}.4). 2.2). {p. what is the power set of the set S? • SOLUTION: (i) The subsets of {:r. (i) {(I. 5n A x C = {(1. {q}.y. 2}.{r}. A x (B n C) = {(I. q.z}. {p}. (A x B) n (A x C) = {(I.z} are 1>. 1). 5n.3).{z}. q}.5). a). a).4). (a. (2. (A x B) u (A x C) = {(a. Ex. (ii) Write down all the subsets of the set S = {p. denoted by P(A).{q. (1.

The region shaded only by horizontal lines represent the set A . The double shaded region represents the set An (B n C). B (i) (A U BY = A' (ii) (A n B' n B)' = A' U B'. . (ii) Proof is similar to (i).C).G. the horizontal lines represent the set (A . Hence (A U BY = A' n B'.(B U C) = (A .1. Ex.2 (b) (ii) In figure (a). hence A .(B U C) = (A . The double shaded region represents the set (A .C). 5 (i) By Venn diagram prove that A . where 'A" denotes the complement of the set A.8 V. • SOLUTION: (i) In 'figure (a).B) and vertical lines represent the set (A . the vertical lines represent the set (B U C) and horizontal lines represent the set A.B) n (A .3. Proof: (i) Let x be any element of (A U B)' <=>x E (AUB)' <=>x¢(AUB) <=> x ¢ A and x ¢ B <=> x E A' and x E B' <=> x E (A' n B').B) (ii) Show by Venn diagram that An (B n C) = (A n B) n C . the vertical lines represents the set A and horizontal lines represents the set B n C. n (A C). MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Theorem 1 DeMorgan's laws For any two sets A. In figure (b).(B U C). Both the regions are identical. A (a) Figure: 3.B) n (A - C).

then we say that R is a relation in the set A. The double shaded region represents the set (A n B) n C. a). R is said to be reflexive. aRb::::} bRa for all (a. hence An (B n C) = (A n B) n C. the vertical lines represents the set (AnB) and horizontal lines represent the set C. if (a. 1 A relation between two sets A and B is a sub-set of Ax B and is denoted by R. If A = B. a) rt R. Thus RcA x B. 4 Symmetric relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined in it.1.e. 3 Reflexive relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined in it. R is said to be symmetric. A relation R in a set A is not reflexive if there be at least one element a E A such that (a. b) E R does not imply (b. if A = {a. Def.e. b. A C B of B Figure: 3.3 3.2 For the set A the relation R = {(x. A relation R in a set A is not symmetric if (a. b).x = y} is called the identity relation in A and is denoted by fA.y) : x E A. b) E R ::::} (b. (b.a)ER. Both the regions are identical.CH.2 Relation Def. if (a. a) E R i.3: ABSTRACT _\LGEBRA 3. a) E R for all a E A i.1 Types of relations Def. (e. y) E R. Def.. en· 3. b) E R.2. every element of A is related to itself. .y E A.9 In figure (b). For example.. The notation xRy is used to represent (x. e} then fA = {(a. xRy is read as 'x is related to y'.

(ii) R is symmetric.. (x . Hence R is symmetric.e.x = 0 which is divisible by 5. defined in A is said to be an equivalence relation if and only if (i) R is reflexive.c) E R.b. Then x . Hence R is transitive. if (a. (iii) Let xRy and yRz.10 U.a. y) : x.y is divisible by 5 =? -(y . yEN. A relation R in A is not anti-symmetric. Hence R is reflexive. 7 Equivalence relation: A relation R. if there exist elements a. Def. i- Def.. • SOLUTION: (i) Let x E N..e. 6 Transitive relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined in it. Thus R is an equivalence relation. xRx for all x E N.G.e.x) is divisible by 5 =? yRx. a) E R. x .x) is divisible by 5 =? (y . c) E R do not imply (a..y) is divisible by 5}. i. b) E Rand (b. Therefore. R is said to be anti-symmetric. i.c) E R.c E A. 5 Anti-symmetric relation: Let A be a set and R be the relation defined in it. A relation R is not transitive if (a.e.z) is divisible by 5 =? xRz. a) E R =? a = b.b) E Rand (b.y) + (y . 1 If R be a relation in the set of natural numbers N defined by the expression' (x . (x . b E A. =? (iii) R is transitive. Ex. (ii) Let xRy hold.. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Def. i. R = {(x.c) E R =? (a. i.z) are divisible by 5 ::} [(x .y) is divisible by 5'. prove that R is an equivalence relation ..3. aRa for all a E A.z)] is divisible: by 5 =? (x . b) E Rand (b.y) and (y .e. b) E Rand (b.e. . if (a. a b such that (a. aRb =? bRa. R is said to be transitive. i. aRb and bRc aRc. i.

4 Onto mapping: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. the mapping f : R -+ R where f(x) = x i'l onto mapping.e.CH. 2 Let A be the set of integers. i. a ~ b. 1 Mapping: Let A and B be two non-empty sets.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. R = {(a. The mapping of A into B will be denoted by f : A -+ B. that is.. 2 Range: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. . Def. 3. The mapping f (x) = x for all x E A is an identity mapping. Def. e. Thus R is not an equivalence relation. =B then Def.g.11 Ex. The range of f consists of those elements in B which appear as the image of at least one element of A. i. Then a ~ a holds. the mapping f : R -+ R where f(x) = x is one-to-one mapping..b E A. Hence R is reflexive.g. If for Xl i= X2 =} f(XI) i= j(X2) then the mapping f is called one-to-one or one-one or 1-1 mapping. The element y is denoted by f(x) and called the f image of x or the value of the function for x. b) : a..a ~ b}. This does not imply b ~ a. Hence R is not symmetric. then we say that f is a mapping of A into B. If f(A) the mapping f is called onto mapping. denoted by f. aRa holds. which associates to each element x of A a unique element y of B.e. e. 3 One-to-one mapping: Let f : A -+ B be a mapping. (ii) Let aRb holds. If there exists ·a correspondence. The set A and B are called respectively domain and codomain (or range) of the mapping f. • SOLUTION: (i) Let a E A. is not an equivalence relation . Show that the relation R defined by 'a ~ b'.3 Mapping Def.. Def. 5 Identity mapping: If each element of a set is mapped on itself then it is called the identity mapping.

Q. 1 (i) Show that the 'sets A = {I. 7 Injection. onto mapping.G. A a f B b c Figure: 3.12 U. The one-to-one and onto mapping is calle~ bijection . 4} and B = {I. (iii) Let -a E R (domain) where a > But log( -a) ~ R (codomain) .g. . surjection. 3. 2. Hence f is a one-toone mapping. 9.2 o.3. the mapping f : R --+ R where f(x) = x 2 is many-to-one mapping. De£<. (iii) Is f : R --+ R. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Def... one-to-one mapping. f B 3 4 Figure: 3.x set of all real numbers? (iv) Show that whether the mapping f : Z --+ Z. 6 Many-to-one mapping: If two or more elements of A correspond to the same elements of B through the mapping f then it is. • Q. 4. The onto mapping is called surjection. and Z is the set of all integers is onto or not? Justify your answer .e element of the codomain B remains unmapped. 16} is one-one mapping. • SOLUTION: E R. many-to-one mapping and identity mapping.. defined by f(x) = lxi. f : R --+ R is not a mapping. 1 Define mapping. Hence f is one-toone but not onto mapping.3.3. a mapping where R is the (i) The diagrammatic representation of the given mapping is shown below: A Here all the elements of A are mapped with the elements of B and also all the images are unique.1 16 (ii) Consider the following example. x E Z. e. bijection: The one-to-one mapping is called injection. Here all the elements of A are uniquely mapped with the elements of B but or.. given byJ(x) = log~). 2 When is a mapping f : A --+ B said to be one-to-one and onto? Ex. (ii) Give an example of a mapping f w:hich is one-to-one but not onto. called many-to-one m~pping. .

(iii) Let the function f : R -+ R be defined by f(x) = 2.jfJ. if x is irrational R is the set of all real numbers. So all the negative elements of Z (codomain) remains unmapped. f-l(y) = ±.Ao-one onto mapping and 9 : B -+ A.13 (iv) Since f(x) = lxi. 1. The inverse . find f-l . (R is the set of all real numbers). 2}.OR. all the elements of Z (domain) positive or negative is mapped with only the positive elements of Z (codomain). _'. .. 8 Inverse mapping: Let f : A -+ B be an on. What is the value of f(V7).3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.O :::. 2 A mapping f is not onto. Hence the mapping Ex. where R+ is the set of all = 28} = {x E R: x 2 + 3 = 28} E R: x 2 = 25} = {x E R: x = ±5} = x.jfJ. The value of f( V7) is . mapping of f is denoted by f. determine f-l(y) where 0 :::. y E Band f(x) = y f-l(y) = {x : x E A and f(x) = y}. f-l(x 2 ) Let y = x 2 or.5}. x = ±. 3 (i) If f : R -+ R be defined by f(x) = x 2 + 3.1 . show that f-l(28) = {-5. + 3. x :::. f : R -+ R is defined as follows: 1. • SOLUTION: Range of the mapping f is {-1. If A = {x : 1 :::. Find the range of f. The mapping 9 is called the inverse mapping of f if x E A. Def. (iv) If f : R+ -+ R+ be defined by f(x) = x 2 positive real numbers. x E R. find f(A).. if x is rational f(x) = { :-1. 3 Define inverse mapping. 1}. 1. 5}. y :::. Ex. (ii) Given f(x) = x 2 or. • SOLUTION: (i) We have f-l(28) = {x E R: f(x) = {x = {-5. + 3.L since V7 is irrational. (ii) If a function f is defined by f(x) = x 2 . '* Q. x :::. where R is the set of real numbers.

13. Find go 1 and log and show that go 1 i. (iv) Here f(x) = x 2 + 3 or. [Ans. g(x) = 3x . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iii) We have 1 ~ x ~ 2 or 2 ~ 2x ~ 4 or. 9 : x --+ x 2 and h : x --+ x + 1. (fog)(q) = fo[g(q)] = f(2) = q.18x + 5. f(A) = {y : 5 ~ y ~ 7}. then find ho(gof) and (hog)of. (ii) Let A = {I. • SOLUTION: (i) Here f(x) (ii) = x 2 + 2x .4) . 9 : B --+ A defined by g(p) = 3. r} and let J : A --+ B defined by 1(1) = p. 4 Define composition of two mappings.14 U. x E A is called the product or composite of 1 and g.r}.2. 3}. 4 (i) If S is the set of real numbers and f : S --+ S.13 and (fog)(x) = 9x 2 . (fog)(p) = Jo[g(p)] = f(3) = r. x = ±y'y"=3. g(r) = 1. g(q) = 2. 1(2) = q.4) = (3x .] + 1. . Q. prove that (gof)(x) = 3x 2 + 6x . 9 : S --+ S are defined by I(x) = x 2 + 2x .'. f-l(y) = ±y'y"=3.3) .4 = 3x 2 + 6x . where R+ is Exercise 1 (i) If f : R+ --+ R+ be defined by f(x) = x 2 the set of all positive real numbers.3 = 9x 2 (gof)(x) = go(f(x)) = g(x 2 + 2x . 9 Composite mapping: Let 1 : A --+ Band 9 : C --+ D be two mappings. (gof)(3) = go[f(3)] = g(r) = 1. 5 ~ f (x) ~ 7 . The mapping h : A --+ D where h(x) = g{f(x)}.3. f-l(x 2 + 3) Let x 2 + 3 = y or.G. 2. (gof)(1) = go[l(1)] = g(P) = 3. Ex. q.(fog){p. y ~ O. (gof)(2) = go[f(2)] = g(q) = 2. (iii) If 1 : x --+ x. + 3. '. find f-l(7).3. It is denoted by gof or gf.q. . 1(3) = r.3.1 (10). i.3) = 3(x 2 + 2x . . where R is the set of all real Def. '.3} 18x + 5. g(x) = 3x . (fog)(x) = fo(g(x)) = f(3x .4. find 1.log. 2}. (ii) If f : R --+ R be defined by f(x) = x 2 numbers. B = {p. 3}. (gof){1. = x.4)2 + 2(3x . (i) {-2.4 . (fog)(r) = fo[g(r)] = f(1) = p . (ii) {-3. '. 2 + 3 ~ 2x + 3 ~ 4 + 3 or. .

4 Permutation Def. . (i) (fog)(x) = x 2 + 1. cyclic permutation. (ii) If f and 9 be two mapping from R to R given by f(x) = x 2 + 3x + 1 and g(x) = 2x . 4 Transposition: A cycle of length two is called a transposition.alk be k elements of a finite set S. Q.CH. . = (hog)(f(x)) = (hog)(x) = ho(g(x)) = h(x 2 ) = x 2 + 1. Def.alk then f is called a cyclic permutation or a cycle of length k...9. (R is the set of all real numbers). transposition.15 (iii) (ho(gof))(X) ((hog)of)(X) = ho{go(f(X))} = ho{g(x)} = h(x 2 ) = x 2 + 1. Def. 1 Permutation: A one-to-one mapping of a finite set onto itself is called a permutation.3 then show that fog = 4x 2 . (gof)(x) = x 2 + 1. Ex. 1 Define permutation. [Ans. 2 Identity Permutation: The permutation is called identity permutation. 1 For two permutations A = (~ ~ ~) and B = (! ~ ~) show that AB = BA = I.] 3. Def." . even permutation. a12. i = 1. 5 Odd and Even Permutations: If a permutation can be expressed as a product of odd number of transpositions then the permutation is called odd permutation otherwise is called even permutation. Def.6x + 1 and gog = 4x . and gof. If the permutation f on S of degree n such that f(ali) = ali+1. . f : R -+ Rand 9 : R -+ R are defined as Exercise 2 follows: (i) Two mappings f(x) = x 2 + 1.. . odd permutation. Determine the composite mappings fog.. f(alk) = all and f(ai) = ai where ai E S but ai ¢ {all.k-1. g(x) = x. . . 3 Cyclic Permutation: Let all. a12.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.2.

BA = (! ~ ~) (~ ~ ~) = (~ ~ ~) = I. is an odd permutation while (ii) Show that a = (~ ~ ~ ~ ~) f3 = 123456). f3 is Ex. .3. (ii) a = (1325)(6) = (13)(12)(15)(6). Ex. • SOLUTION: (i) The cyclic representation of the given permutation is (123) (4) = (1 2)(1 3) (4). • SOLUTION: The cycle representation of the given permutation is (15)(2463) = (1 5)(24)(26)(23). = = BA = I . f3 = (15)(2463) = (15)(24)(26)(23). hence the permutation even. Here the number of permutations is four. Here the number of transpositions is two. Ex. Hence AB . Thus the given permutation can be expressed as the product of an even number of transpositions and hence the permutation is ·even. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) • SOLUTION: AB (~ ~ ~) (! ~ . Here the number of permutations is three. the permutation a is odd. so the given permutation is even. (~ ~ !:~ ~). 4 Find the inverse of the permutation . 3 (i) Is the permutation (~ ~ ~ : : ) even or odd? Give reasons.16 V.) = (~ ~ ~) = f. • SOLUTION: The inverse of the given permutation is 534612) (123456) ( 123456 562314· . ( 5 4 2 6 1 3 IS an even permutatIon. Here the transpositions are (15)(24)(26)(23).G. 2 Express the permutatlOn ( 1 2 3 4 5 6 ) as a product of trans5 4 2 6 1 3 positions and find whether it is odd or even.

4}.CH. Ex.. an 0 dd permutatlon. ~ ~ :) = (1 3)(2 5 4). 3.) • SOLUTION: = (! . The number of transpositions is 0 and therefore it is an even permutation. IS an even permuta- . (TTr: . (ii) Show that the product (1 245 3) (3 2 1 54) is (2 3 5). pq = ~ ~ ~) (~ ~ ! i) = (~ ~ ~ !) qp=(~ ~! i)(! ~ ~ ~)=(~ ~ ~ !) . (! . . Now.4}. (iii) Express the permutation given below as a product of transpositions and hence find whether it is odd or even: 1 2 3 4 5 6) ( 542613· (iv) Write down the permutation (! ~ ! ~ ~ ~ ~) as a product of disjoint cycles and then express it as a product of transpositions. prove that pq qp. Exercise 1 (i) Show that Q = ( 4 3 1 2 6 5 IS 1 2 3 4 5 6). 2. We consider an identity permutation of five symbols 1 2 3 45) ( 1 2 3 4 5 = (1)(2)(3)(4)(5).. . 3. q be two permutations of the set S = {1. 6 Show that the inverse of (1 3) (2 4 5) is (1 3)(2 54). • SOLUTION: i= Let p = (! ~ ~ ~) and q = (~ ~ ! i) be two permutations on the set S = {1. 2. tlon w h·le (3 = 1 (14 2 3 4 5 6 5 3 1 2 6 7 7).17 Ex. 7 Show that the identity permutation is an even permutation. Ex.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. • SOLUTION: The p~rmutation (1 3)(2 4 5) can be written in the standard 1 2 3 4 5) form as ( 3 4 1 5 2 . 5 If p. pq i= qp.

Def. e + 1 = 0 or. bE I. . a. such that eoa = a . 1 (i) If the binary operation 0 be defined on I. (b) Associative axiom: For all a. a' is called the inverse of a. by aob = a + b + 1.e.3. e. [Ans. Hence (-1) is the identity element of I. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (v) Show that the inverse of the permutation (1 2) of degree four is (2 1). for all a. (iii) (1 5) (24) (2 6) (2 3). b. (c) Identity axiom: There exists an identity element e (left or right) in G. e = -1 E I.. 2 Define group and semi-group with examples. a. Examine if 0 is commutative and 0 is associative. bEG =} aob E G. eoa = aoe = a for all a E G.18 V. 0 is called Q. b. Ex. 2 Semi-group: A non-empty set G with a binary operation a semi-group if the following axioms satisfied: (a) Closure axiom: For all a.t. c E G =} (aob)oc = ao(boc). bE I. (d) Inverse axiom: For each element a E G there corresponding an unique element a' such that a' oa = aoa' = e.. even permutation.r. (b) Associative axiom: For all a.G. find the identity element with respect to o. bEG =} aob E G. the set of all integers. '. (ii) If the binary operation 0 be defined on I. c E G =} (aob)oc = ao(boc). e + a + 1 = a or. Q. find the inverse of a with respect to o. . (iii) A binary composition 0 is defined on the set Z (the set of all integers) by aob = 2a + b. bin Z. the transpositions are (1 5) (2 7) (2 4) (3 6). bin Q.5 Group Def.] 3. the set of all integers. • SOLUTION: * is defined on the set Q (the set of all rational ~b for all a. 1 Group: A non-empty set G with a binary operation 0 is called a group if the following axioms satisfied: (a) Closure axiom: For all a. (iv) Disjoint cycles are (1 5) (2 74) (3 6). by aob = a + b + 1. i. 1 Define a group. (iv) A binary composition numbers) by a * b = tative and associative . addition.g. Examine whether * is commu- (i) Let e be the element of I. the set of integers is a group w.

2. Then aoa' = e or. = b * a. abc abc abc Let a. +) a group? Give reasons in support of your conclusion. Ex.y. -1} does not form a group under usual addition . (iii) We have aob = 2a + b = b + 2a . W. 3}. -1 is the identity element (see previous problem). when w is an imaginary cube root of unity. (iv) Examine whether the set of all rational numbers forms a group under multiplication. aoa' = -lor. form a group under multiplication ? Give reasons to your answer. b. For the elements a. 2 (i) Does the set 8 = {1. 0. (iii) Does the set of all odd integers form a group under addition? Give reasons in support of your answer.1. = boa.2) E I is the inverse of a. (ii) Does the set of all integers form a group under usual multiplication? Justify your answer. cEQ. . (v) If 8 = {-3. c E Z.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. (aob)oc = (2a + b)oc = 2(2a -I. a' = -2 .a. 0 is commutative. * (b * c) = a * ( 2 = 22 = 4' Since (a * b) * c = a * (b * c). 0 is not associative. for every x. • SOLUTION: (i) The composition table is shown below: . -1. y E Z. b. then ab (a * b) * c = (-) * c 2 and a = _2_ = -4 2 bC) aQf. -2. a + a' + 1 = -1 or. ab ba (iv) GIven a * b = 2 = 2 * is commutative. w2 }. Thus (-a .eR.b) + c = 4a + 2b + c and ao(boc) = ao(2b + c) = 2~ + 2b + c. * is associative. (vii) Show that the set {1. (vi) Show that the set Z of all integers does not form a group under the operation defined as x * y = x . is (8. Since (aob)oc i= ao(boc).19 (ii) Let a E I and a' be its inverse.0.

(iv) The set of all rational numbers Q does not form a group under multiplication because the inverse of 0 E Q does not exist. For example. 3 + 2 = 5 ~ S.r. Hence S is not a group w.t.. on the set of real numbers R. z E Z.(y . b E Rj show that 0 is commutative. . (d) Each element has a unique inverse. associative property does not hold. (c) 1 E S is the identity element. (x * y) * z -:f:. i.z and x * (y * z) = x * (y .. i. a. (vi) Let x. (vii) The set S is not closed w. (iii) Show that the set of all real numbers is a semi-group over 0 defined as aob = b for all a. inverse of 1.3. (v) The set S does not form a group as closure property does not hold.G.y .r. Hence the set S does not form a group. b E R.t. multiplication. Hence S is a group under multiplication.z) = x . defined as aob = ab + 1. w 2 .g. (ii) "Identity element of the set of all integers under multiplication is 1. addition.y + z. I} forms a group w.e.t.y) * z = x . w.20 V. Then (x * y) * z = (x . addition as 1 + 1 = 2 ~ S. w 2 are respectively 1. 0. w. (ii) Let 0 be a binary operation. x * (y * z). since sum of two odd integers is not an odd integer (e. I} does not form a group under multiplication. y. (b) The operation is associative. (v) Show that the set {-I. The set· of all integers does not form a group under multiplication as inverses of the elements except 1 do not exist. ..e. (iv) Show that the set {-I. The closure property does not hold for S.. Exercise 1 (i) Show that the set of all real numbers is not a semi-group under the operation 0 defined by aob = a + 2b for all a. 5+7=12). MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) x 1 w w2 1 1 W W w2 w w w2 w2 1 1 w We see from the composition table: (a) The closure property holds.. b E R. Hence Z does not form a group.z) = x . (iii) Let S be the set of all od~ integers.r.

22.. (ii) Let (G. c are in the group G. 3 In the group G = {I. (viii) Show that the set of integers form an additive group. where a.o). . e * a = e' * a :::} e = e' (by right cancellation law). a * a' = a' * a = e and a * a" = a" * a = e Now. -i} under multiplication..24.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. -i are respectively -1. e * (x * a) = e (by inv:erse property). bEG. then show that ab = ac :::} b = c (iv) In a group (G. *) be a group and a E G. a" = e * a" = (a' * a) * a" = a' * (a * a") = a' * e = a'. -i. (i)( -i) = -i 2 = -(-1) = 1 and (-i)(i) Hence inverse of -1. (x * a) * a -1 = e * a-I (operating by a-I from right) or. prove that e. x = a-I. 5 (i) If a be a fixed element of a group (G.2-3. Now. (-1)(-1) = 1. . Then e * a = a and e' * a = a . e being the identity element. • SOLUTION: (i) We have a * (x * a) = a. *) then solve the equation a*(x*a)=a.. a"-be two inverses of a.2-1. (ii) Prove that the inverse of an element of a group is unique. Hence the identity element of a group is unique. x * a = e or. Ex. -1. then show that it forms a group w. Also let e be the identity element.21 (vi) If S= {O} be a singleton set with 0 as its unity element. show that (a ~ b)-l = b. t addition. • SOLUTION: (i) Let e and e' be two identity elements of (G. find out the inverses of -1. . (ii) In a group (G. '.r. } forms a multiplicative group. . *). b. Thus the inverse of an element in a group is unique: Ex.2-2. or.1 = e. Operating from left by a-I (the inverse of a) we get a-l{a * (x * an = a-I * a or.23. i and -i.2-4.l * a-I. 4 (i) Prove that identity of a group is unique. i. (vii) Show that the set { . i. Let a'. = 1. i.2. x * e = a -lor. *). Let a E G. Ex.1.. • SOLUTION: Clearly 1 EGis the identity element of G. .CH. (iii) If a.

e. -1. (iii) Define subgroup of a group. Ex. Def. For example. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Since e is the identity element of a group then by identity property eoe = e.5. The element a is called the generator of the cyclic group.1 * (a.e. the group {1.G. (ii) Is the multiplicative group formed by the roots of x4 = 1 cyclic? . (iii) Let a' be the inverse of a E G. 4 Cyc~ic group: If all the elements of a group are generated from a single element a by composition then the group is said to be cyclic.1 * a-I) * (a * b) = b. a'(ab) = a'(ac) =? (a'a)b = (a'a)c (by associative law) =? (e)b = (e)c (by inverse axiom. Hence (a * b)-1 = b. (b. (ii) Define cyclic group.22 V. Def. 3.r. -i} is a group with respect to usual multiplication. bEG.g.e. 3 (i) Define abelian group. e . 6 (i) S = {1.1 Cyclic group. w.1 * e * b (by inverse axiom) = b. Show that it is a cyclic group. addition.1 * a-I.1 * b (by identity axiom) = e (by inverse axiom).3. 3 Abelian or commutative group: A group G is said to be an abelian group or commutative group if aob = boa for all a.. 0) is said to be a subgroup of G..1 * a) * b (by associative law) = b. e be the identity element) =? b = c (by identity axiom) (iv) Let us consider the relation. w2 } is a cyclic group with generators wand w2 . i. Now. if H forms a group under the binary composition 0 of G. the set of integers is an abelian group w.t. -I_ e' l. sub-group Def. For example. 5 Sub-group: A non-empty subset H of a group (G. Q. the set of even integers is a subgroup of the group of integers under addition composition. This follows that (from definition of inverse) e is the inverse of .

. (_i)4 = 1. all the elements of S are generated by i and -i. q be two elements of a cyclic group G whose generator is a. (ii) If (ab)2 = a 2b2 the show that the group is abelian.ax = qp + . Hence the group is abelian. or. pq = aX. . (iii) Show that every cyclic group is abelian.23 • SOLUTION: (i) Here i 1 = i. bEG::} ba E G and (ba)-l = ba. Now. -i. or. (ii) [Hints: Roots of problem] x4 = 1 are 1.eR.i 4 = 1. q E G. Hence every t:yclic group is abelian. -1.i 2 = -1. (ii) We have (ab)2 = a2b2 or. (_i)2 = -1.1 Since a.i 3 = -i. 7 (i) Give an example of a finite cyclic group indicating its generator.aY = a X Y = aY+x = aY. a = a-I. That is. (-i)3 = i. • SOLUTION: (i) The group G = {I. -i and then same as previous Ex. i. i. (iv) Let a.b = b. Also (_i)l = -i. Hence i and -i are the generators of S and consequently S is a cyclic group. Then there exist integers x and y such that p = aX and q = aY.1 = (ba)-l = ba. -i} is finite and its two generators are i. (iii) Let p. ab = a-1b.. Ex. bEG. (iv) If every element of a group be its own inverse then show that the group is abelian . Now. or. (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) a(ba)b = a(ab)b (by associative law) (ba)b = (ab)b (by left cancellation law) ba = ab (by right cancellation law) Hence the group is abelian. Since every element is its own inverse.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. pq = qp for all p. 8 Give one example to show that union of two sllbgroups of a group may not be a subgroup of the same group. -1.

b.{b + c) = a.. Under addition composition: (i) Closure axiom: a + b E R for all a. o E R be the additive identity element.{b. Since iw ¢ HI U H2. (iv) Inverse axiom: a + (-a) = (-a) + a = 0 for all a E R. 4 Divisors of zero: Let R be a ring with the additive identity O.c and (b + c). W. Integral Domain and Field Def.g. HI U H2 is not closed. Def. (v) Commutative: a + b = b + a for all a. b E R.c = a.3.a e.b + a. 2 Ring with unity: If a ring R contains a multiplicative identity element for every a E R then R is called a ring with unity.b E R for all a. w 2}.b =0 or b. 1 Ring: A non-empty set with two binary compositions addition (+) and multiplication (. the set of integers is a ring with unity. i. the set of integers is a ring.. b E R be such that a. bE R.g. c E R. e.a + c. w2} and H2 = {I. 1 is the unit element. if the following postulates are satisfied. w.b = b. a. (iii) Identity axiom: a + 0 = 0 + a = a for all a E R.G.a. (ii) Associative axiom: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) for all a. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) • SOLUTION: Let HI = {I.c) for all a. (vii) Associative axiom: (a. then a and b are called divisors of zero. If the non-zero elements a. (-a) E R is the inverse of a. the set of integers is a commutative ring. b.a for all a. -i. c E R. c E R. III. -1.g. . bE R.a = 0. Def. Then HI U H2 = {I.6 Ring. Distributive: (viii) a. Def. -1.24 U..b). b E R. -i} be two subgroups of the multiplicative group C (the set of complex numbers other than zero).) is called a ring. . = b. e. b. I. Hence HI U H2 is not a subgroup of C. II. 3 Commutative ring: A ring R is said to be commutative ring if for all a. Under multiplication composition: (vi) Closure axiom: a. i. 3.

the set of rational number is a field. (-c) is the additive inverse of c. Q.CH.. (iii) has multiplicative inverse for every non-zero element.. (a + c) + (-c) = (b + c) + (-c) => a + (c + (-c)) = b + (c + (-c)) (by associative) => a + 0 = b + 0 (by inverse) => a = b (by identity). Is it a commutative ring? Justify your answer .) show that a. e. • SOLUTION: (i) Let R be a ring. Give an example of a ring without unity. (iii) Define commutative ring. y. where x. Z are integers forms a ring with respective to matrix addition and matrix multiplication. (iv) Define an integral domain. (ii) In a ring (R. • SOLUTION: Let A:. the set of ra~ional numbers is an integral domain. (ii) has unity.25 Def. 1 Given that the set of all 2 x 2 matri~es of the form (~ ~). the ring is not commutative.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. AB = (~l ~~) and B:. +. Def. e. 2 i= BA.:: Now.O = O . (ii) Define a ring with unity element. (v) Define a field. if it has at least two elements and it (i) is commutative. o Z2 0 0 Z2Z1 Zl Zl Since AB Ex.g. 5 Integral domain: A ring is called an integral domain if (i) it is commutative.. (ii) it has unity and (iii) it is without zero-divisors. If c E R then -c E R. (i) Show that in a ring a + c = b + c implies a = b.:: (~ ~:) Zl be two matrices. . Adding (-c) to the relation a + c = b + c from right. -1 (i) Define ring. Ex. 6 Field: A ring is called a filed.g. and BA = (Xl YI) (X2 Y2) = (XIX2 XIY2 + YIZ2 ) o 0 Z2 0 Z2 (X2 Y2) (Xl YI) = (X2Xl X2YI + Y2 Z1 ).

Ex.O (by distributive) Adding -a. is M2 a field ? • SOLUTION: The mUltiplicative identity of M2 is Inverse of ( : ~) where (~ ~).. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) We have by additive identity property 0+0=0 Operating both sides by a E R a. Ex. therefore.G. c.O) + (-a. }. c. Hence M2 is not a field.O) = a. hence field is an integral domain. ad .O) = a.3. we get (a. (ii) Give an example of a ring which is not a field.O) (by associative) ::} a.O + (-a.O ::} a. . 4 Show that the set of all even integers does not form a field. ~) is equal to ad ~ bc (!c ~b) .O) a.(O + 0) = a. b. . We can prove that the field is without zero divisors. d are all rational numbers. b. • SOLUTION: (i) The set F = {O.O . d are rational numbers. inverse does not exist. (ii) The set of integers is a ring but not a field as multiplicative inverse of the elements do not exist. Ex.O + 0 = 0 (by additive inverse) ::} a.bc may be equal to zero..O = 0 (by additive identity). 2} forms a field under addition and multiplication molulo 3.O = a. 1. 6 Is every field an integral domain ? • SOLUTION: Yes.O from right side.O + a. i.a.. 3 Why is the set of natural numbers not an integral domain? • SOLUTION: The set of natural numbers N = {1. • SOLUTION: ~et of all even integers does not form a field as multiplicative identity 1 does not exist.O + (-a.O + a. 7 If M2 denotes the ring of all 2 x 2 matrices of the form ( : a. 5 (i) Give an example of a field with three elements. Ex. Ex. N is not an integral domain as additive identity element 0 ¢ N.26 D. 3.e. But as a. 2. every field is an integral domain.O + (a.

(-a). for all a. bE F (iii) Show that (a. (a -1) -1 = a (by right cancellation law). (iii) Let e be the multiplicative identity of F.b + a.a.b = -(a.a' = e and a". 10 (i) In a field F. Now a" = e.b).1 )-1 = a . a 2 + 2ab + b2 for all (iii) If a.b => (-a).a = a. Ex.CH. b E F (a field) and a =I 0 then show that there exists a unique element x such that a. Thus inverse of an element in a field is unique. Also we have (a.1 = a.a = a.I )-1.a. (ii) Show that in a field F.a" = e.. 9 (i) Prove that in a field (-x)-l = -x-I.b = O.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3. a.'. (-x + x)-l = 0 or.b E F. • SOLUTION: Let e be the multiplicative identity of the field F.e = a'.1 or. Hence (-a). (0 is the identity element) or.b). a'. .a") (by associative) = a'. Let a' and a" be two inverses of a E F .a.b.1 = e.. Then a.a).x = b. prove that a2 = b2 => either Po (ii) Prove that a ring R is commutative if (a a. . (a.1 = e where a-I E F is the inverse of a.bE R + b)2' = = b or a = -b.a" = (a'.b is the additive inverse of a.a" = a'. (-x)-l + x-I = 0 or.b = 0 (by right distributive law) .I )-1. (-x)-l = -x-I.b = -(a. '.27 Ex. Ex. 8 Show that the multiplicative inverse of a non-zero element in a field is unique. (-a + a).a. (-a). (ii) We have -a + a = 0 (by additive inverse) Operating b from right we get. • SOLUTION: (i) -x + x = 0.(a. .

b + b. bE F. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (i) Given a 2 = b2 . (ii) We have (a+b)2 = a2 +2ab+b2 or. (iii) If a. a. By additive closure a+a = (a+a)2 = (a+a)(a+a) .28 • SOLUTION: V.b.a + b. i.a + a. a.b (by left cancellation law) or.a .(a + b) = a. (iv) If a. F is a field and b =f.b + b.b. prove that a+b = 0 for all a. d are the members of a ~eld then show that ~ = ~ if ad = be . then prove that x = 0 or 1. Hence R is commutative.a + 2a.b + 0 = 0 =} a. e..(a + b) + b. (iii) Since a =f.b + a.b + b.b. • SOLUTION: (i) Let a E R.b = 0 or a + b = 0.3.a = a. e.b. when (ab)2 = ab2 + bab .. Left multiplying ax = b by a -1 we get a-l.. Adding (_b 2 ) on both sides we get. 11 (i) If in a ring R. O.a + 2a.b + b.x = a-l. b.b (left identity) or.a + a. a2 = a for all a E R.b = a.a = a.a + 2a. a.. either a .b (by distributive law) or.a. either a = b or a == -b.(a + b) . b.b = 0 =} a.b or.b = 2a.G.b .e. (a + b).(a + b) = 0 (by additive commutative) =} (a + b).(a + b) = a. then prove that a = 1. a. therefore. a-I exists and a-I E F.b . a 2 + (-b 2) = b2 + (_b 2) (_b 2 is the inverse of b2) 2 2 =} a + (_b ) = 0 =} a.b (by left cancellation law).(a .a + b.b (by right cancellation law) or.b + b. 0. =} a= b (ii) If D be an integral domain and x be an element of D such that x 2 = x. Ex.b2.b (by distributive law) or. b E R.ax = a-l.(a + b). x = a-l.b + b.b or.b = 0 (by distributive) =} a.b) = 0 (by distributive) Since field is without zero divisor.b + b.(a + b) .

a = b. 12 Prove that every field is without zero divisor. x = 0 or l. (ii) Let us consider the relation x(x .1 = ed.b (as ab = ba for a field) aab = (2a .x (by distributive law) = 0 (since x 2 = x) Since D is an integral domain.1 = bed.1 a = bed.bb (aba)b = (ab)b + bab . 0 = a + a (by left cancellation) i.CH.29 = (a 2 + a 2)(a 2 + a2) (by distributive law) = (a + a)(a + a) (since a2 = a) or. (iii) Given (ab)2 = ab2 + bab . Again ad = be add. so it is without zero divisor. '* '* '* '* '* '* '* '* (iv) We have ~ = :.b (by right cancellation) aab = 2ab . Now.e.bb aba = (ab) + ba .1 b d b-1a = ed.1) (by right cancellation) .1 '* '* '* '* '* '* '* '* b-1a = b-1bed'* b-1a = ed. ab. (a + a) + 0 = (a + a) + (a + a) (by additive identity) or.1) = x 2 .1 ad = bed-1d ad = bc.l)(a . we have a + b = O.3: ABSTRACT ALGEBRA 3.1 b(b-1a) = bed.*aa-a-a+1=O (a .1 a = bed.*a=l. a + a = a + b. . a + a = O. Thus.1 '* ab. ..1 a e '* b = "d' '* 1 Ex..1 = ed.1) = 0 a-I = 0 . By left cancellation.b2 (ab)(ab) = (ab)b + bab .l)b aa = (2a .

Now.b = O.3. Suppose a.O => (a-Ia).b = 0 then either a = 0 or b = 0 for all a. MATHEMATICS (~HORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) • SOLUTION: Let F be a field and a. if a.30 U. so a-I exists. Similarly. Thus F has no zero-divisor. . We shall prove that. Note 1 A field is an integral domain. Let a ¥= 0.G. a-l(a. if b ¥= 0 then a = O. bE F.b) = a-I. bE F.b = 0 => b = O.

4 II Geometry Two Dimensions 4. ~+b ~ ~ + b + 2 = 2 or. y = x' sin 0 + y' cos 0. y = (3 + x' sinO + y'cosO. where 0 is given by 2h tan 20 = --b' aCombination of translation and rotation: If the origin is shifted to (a. y) of a point P are given by x = a + x'cosO . (3) and the axes are rotated through an angle 0 in the anticlock wise direction (positive) then the changes the coordinates (x. Equation of the curve after rotation at an angle 0: If the axes are rotated at an angle 0 then the curve ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 becomes in the form ax. Transformation of Axes Change of origin without change of direction of axes (translation): If (x.2 + 2g'x' + 2f'y' + c' = 0. y') be the old and new coordinates respectively of a point P then x = x' + a.Ch.= 2 or.1 ".y') are the coordinates of P in new system of axes. • +~ = 2. where 0 is the angle of rotation. y) and (x'. when the origin is transformed Putting x = x' + a and y = y' The transformed equation is SOLUTION: + b. ~ + b = O. Ex.(3) is the new origin w. 2 (i) Find the transformed from of the equation x 2 . y) and (x'. 1 Find the equation of the line ~ to the point (a.y'sinO. where (x'. ~ Ex. y') be the coordinates of the same point P in old and new coordinates system then x = x' cos 0 . Rotation of rectangular axes without changing the origin (Rotation): If (x.2 + by. to the old coordinates system.y2 = 4 when the axes are turned through an angle of 45° keeping the origin fixed. .r.y = y' + (3 where (a.y' sin 0. b). ~ ~ -a- ~+a + -b.t.

y2 = a 2 will reduce to xy = c2 .y2 = 4. (ax + by + c)2 = a 2 + b2 and (ax + by + c)(bx . the equation 5x 2 . Find the new coordinates of P . taking the lines 12x .3x 2 = 1 is transformed to x. If the axes are turned through an angle of 30° keeping the position of the origin unchanged.10y .2 = 1 by rotating the axes through an angle tan. if the coordinates axes are rotated through an angle - 2"' 7r (ix) Find the angle of rotation of the axes for which the equation x 2 .4.2 V.2 . -6).y')2 _ (X' ( + y')2 = 4 V2 vI2 +2 = O.1) and the axes are rotated through 45°. -4x'y' = 8 or. If the transformed coordinates of a point are (2V3. find its original coordinates.2(5x + 12y .4).2x + 14y + 20 = 0 into X.y' cos 0 = x' /V2 + y' /V2. (iv) The coordinates axes are rotated through an angle 60°. (xi) Show that if the origin is transferred to (0.7 = 0 referred to new axes becomes 3 + ""2 = x.2 + y. The transformed equation is X' . (xii) P is the point (2.5y + 39 = 0 and 5x + 12y . (iii) Find the angle through which the axes are to be rotated. :r'y' .4y.ay + d) = a 2 + b2 .5y + 39)2 .2 y. • SOLUTION: (i) For rotation x = x' cosO-y' sinO = x' cos 45°-y' sin 45° = x' /V2-y' /V2 and y = x' sinO .G.26 = 0 as the new axes of x and y respectively.2 = 30. Determine c2 .26)2 = 169.1 2. so that the equation 17x 2 + 18xy -7y2 = 1 may be reduced to the form AX2 + By2 = 1. (vi) To what point the origin is to be transferred to get rid of the first degree terms from the equation 8x 2 + 10xy + 3y2 + 26x + 16y + 21 = O? (vii) Transform the equation 3(12x . or. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Find the translation which transforms the equation x 2 + y2 . (v) Show that the equation 4xy .2xy + 5y2 + 2x . (x) Find the equations of the following when ax+by+c = 0 and bx-ay+d = o are considered as axes of x and y respectively.2 1. (viii) What will be the form of the equation x 2 .

2 .y' sine and y = x' sine + 60°. y' = -6 and Then e= . x = x' cose .4x'y' or.3 (ii) Given equation is x 2 + y2 . = x-I. n = J5' cos u = J5' . Slnu . tane = 2. y) and (x'.2 + y.- 2y' J5' y = x' sin 0 + y' cos 0 = J5 + J5' Substituting the values of x and y to the equation 4xy .2 . '. '.3(x. . y') be respectively the old and new coordinates after transformation . (x _1)2 + (y + 7)2 = 30. 4(2x. Substitute x-I = x' and y + 7 = y' we get x. e = tan.20y.2h = 18. . y' cose.2 .b = -7. y' = y + 7.2 = 30 . = 17 _ (-7) = 4" or. e is given by = --b where a = 17. the translation is x' (iii) The angle of rotation tan2e .2 .y sm e = 2x' J5 . Here x' = 2V3.2y. e = "2 tan 18 3 1 -1 2h a- tan 2e 4"' 3 (iv) Let (x.1 2 or. . (v) Let .CH. 5x. Then 8(x' +0')2+ lO(x' +O')(y' + (3)+3(y' +(3)2 +26(x' +0') + 16(y' + (3) +21 =0 . x' y' 2 {) 1 Then x = x cos e.2 . x. . '. 0).2x + 14y + 20 = 0 or. + 4y'2) = 5 (vi) Putting x = x' + 0' and y = y' + (3.3x 2 = 1 we get ~(x' - J5 2y').2 = 5 or. (2x' J5 + y') - ~(x' 5 2y')2 = 1 or.2 = 1.3x'y') .4: GEOMETRY 4. the original coordinates are (4V3.4y.

The given equations reduce to (a 2 + b2)X2 = a2 + b2 and (a 2 + b2)XY = 2 a + b2.2(13y)2 = 169 or.ay J~+~ + d.26 _ 5x + 12y . '. tane = ±1 or. X 2 = 1 and XY = 1 where X = 0 and Y = 0 are the equations of the new axes. Here the angle of rotation Then x e= -11'/2. = yl and = Xl cos( -11' /2) . =r=4x y . The equation reduces to y/2 . 3X2 .cos1l'/4) = a2 I I 1 1 2 I I 2/ or.2y 2 = 1.5y + 39 12x . ~ . The equation reduces to =r=4x'y'(sin1l'/4. X/2 (cos 2 e . To remove the first degree terms. we get (Xl cos e yl sine)2 . or.4.cos 2 e) + xlyl (-4 sin e cos e) = a 2. -1). /3 = -1. the required point is (-1. x y = ±a 2. where X = 0 and Y = 0 are new axes.x/2 = 4.26 Y .yl ~in e and y = Xl sin e + yl cos e. Obviously c2 = ±a2 /2. tan 2 e = 1 or. To reduce to the form xy = c2. . y = Xl sine + yl cose. () = ±11'/4. Solving we get a = -1.sin2 e = 0 or.yl sin( -11' /2) y = Xl sin( -11' /2) + yl cos( -11' /2) = _Xl. (x) Let >X Y = ax + by + c and Y ~2+~ = bx . J2' J2 = a or. yl) be the new coordinates of a point (x.sin 2 e) + y/2(sin 2 e .4 V. which is the angle of rotation. (viii) If (Xl. putting cos 2 e . J25 +144 13 d The given equation reduces to 3(13X)2 .G. (vii) L~X= 12x . 8x /2 + 10x'y' + 3y/2 + x'(16a + 10/3 + 26) + y'(10a + 6/3 + 16) + 8a 2 + 10a/3 + 3/32 + 26a + 16/3 + 21 = O. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) or. y) then x = Xl cos e yl sine. (ix) Putting x = Xl cos e .5y + 39 = J144 + 25 13 _ 5x + 12y . putting 16a + 10/3 + 26 = 0 and lOa + 6/3 + 16 = O.(Xl sine + yl cose)2 = a2 or.

V3 + y . V3x' x' y' = 4 and = x' + V3y' .y')2 - 2( x' ~y' ) . y = x' sinO + y' cos O.2 = 12 or . 2"" = S. Then x = x' cos 0 .2 12 = 0 + 6y.v'2 ~ and y = 13 + x' sin 0 + y' cos 0 = 1 + v'2 + v'2 ~ ~ Putting these values to the given equation we obtain 5 or. (0. y') be the new coordinates of the point (x. y). Here x = 2.1 - y .(x' - y')(x' + y') + 5 +5(X'~Y')2 + lO(x'~Y') + 2(X'~Y') 5 +_(X'2 2 or . y = 4 and 0 = 30°.CH.2 (xii) Let (x'. 2" and 4 = x .3 + -2 = 1. or 2 = x ..V3.j3) i. 2" . y. .y' sinO. 4x.4: GEOMETRY 4.y' sin 45° = v'2 .1) and the axes are rotated through 45° then x= a + x' cos 0 ~ y' sin 0 = 0 + x' cos 45° . 2"" . .2 + 2x'y' + y'2) X. 2"(x' .e.I. or. S + 4V3 1 =--4 + SV3 3 + 1 y' .5 (xi) If the origin is transferred to (a.

/3 + 3) = 0 and 2x' . -1 + 2V3).(y' + /3) + 1 = 0 or.y' + (a . . the new coordinates are (2 + V3.y2 = 4 to xV = 2. a = 2. (ii) Find the coordinates of the point (-2.G. = a( x' cos 8 .4. (ii) By shifting the origin to the point (a.y' + (2a .y'sinB. a.y + 1 = 0 is reduced to the form ax' + by' = O. or . /3) without changing the directions of axes. (ii) (V2. Determine a. -1). Then the given equation becomes (x' + a) . /3 = 5. • SOLUTION: (i) Let the transformation be x y = x' sinB + y' cos B. (iv) (3./3 + 1) = O.8x + 25 = 0 will turn out to be y2 = 4ax.2 = (a cos B + bsinB)2 + (-asinB + bcosB)2 = a2(cos 2 B + sin2 B) + b2(cos 2 B + sin2 B) + 0 = a 2 + b2 • Putting x = x' + a.(y' + /3) + 3 = 0 and 2(x' + a) . x' .4) referred to new axes obtained by rotating the old axes through an angle of 45° in the positive direction.2 + b. Solving we get a = 2. '.y' sin 8) + b( x' sin 8 + y' cos 8) = x' (a cos 8 + b sin B) = a'x' + y' ( -a sin B + b cos B) (ii) + b'y' where a' = acosB + bsinB and b' = -asinB + bcosB. (iii) y' = 0. y = y' + /3.2 + b'2. 3V2).y + 3 = 0 and 2x . Then ax + by = x' cos B . Now. 8 + 4V3 In. According to the problem a .6 U. 3 (i) If the expression ax + by changes to a' x' + b' y' by a rotation of the rectangular axes about the origin. each of the equation x ./3 + 1 = O. when the axes are rotated through an angle in the positive sense. Find a and /3 . x = MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) . i (iv) Find a new origin without rotating the axes in order that the equation y2 + 2y . prove that a2 + b2 = a. [Ans.] Ex. Exercise 1 (i) Find the angle of rotation of the coordinates axes about origin which will transform the equation x 2 . 4 . -4 + 8V3 In = 2 + y 3' 4 y = = -1 + 2y 3. (iii) Find the transformed equation of the line y = V3x. (i) 37rj4./3 + 3 = 0 and 2a .

Hence the given equation is inv>triant w. y = x' sinO + y' cos O.y' sinO)2 + (x' sinO + y' cos 0)2 = a 2 or. 2 x + 2y x and y. (v) The equation of bisectors of the angles between the lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are (vi) The equation ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c straight lines if a h 9 h b f = O.4: GEOMETRY 4. cos 0 + cos O.y' sinO.t. 1 Find the equation of the pair of straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the line x + 2y = 5 and the parabola y2 = 8x.. Then x 2 + y2 = a2 becomes (x' cos 0 . sinO) = a2 or. = rr/2 then a +b = 0 i.e. rotation of axes. (iii) Condition of coincidence: If 0 hence h 2 = abo = 0 then the lines are coincident and (iv) Condition of perpendicularity: If 0 coefficient of x 2+coefficient of y2 = O. so it is a homogeneous equation of .2 Pair of Straight Lines =0 Some useful formulae on pair of straight lines: (i) A second degree homogeneous equation of the form ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 represents a pair of straight lines through the origin iff h 2 ~ abo (ii) The angle between the lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are 0= tan.2 + y. x. which is the required pair of the straight lines. 5y2 = 8x 2 + 16xy. x'2(cos 2 0 + sin2 0) + y'2(sin 2 0 + cos 2 0) +2x'y'( .sinO. 9 f c = 0 represents a pair of Ex. • SOLUTION: Putting x = x' cos 0 . To make homogeneous we wnte y = 8x = 1. 4.1 ( ± 2):: ~ ab). 4 Show that the equation of the circle x 2 + y2 = a2 is invariant under the rotation of axes .r. .8x or.eR.8x = --5-.2 = a2.7 Ex. • SOLUTION: Since the pair of lines passing through the origin and the intersection of x + 2y = 5 and y2 = 8x.

(x) Prove that the equation y3. b = 0. does the equation xy a pair of straight lines? + 5x + AY + 15 = 0 represent (iii) Show that 6x 2 . 1( -k .5 = 0 represent pair of parallel lines and find the distance between them.G.24y + 16 a pair of coincident straight lines. 1= A/2 and c = 15.4) 1 0 1 0 -1 2 1 2 k =0 -k .10xy + 3y2 = O. (ii) Here a = 0.6y2 + 14x + 5y + 4 = 0 represents a pair of straight lines which are perpendicular to each other. If the curve represents a pair of straight lines then a h 9 h b I 9 I c or. 2 (i) Find the value of k for which the equation x2_y2_2x+4y+k = 0 may represent a pair of lines.3x .3 + 1(0 + 1) = 0 or. by factorising the left hand side. h = 1/2. If the given curve represents a pair of straight lines then o 1/2 5/2 1/2 0 A/2 5/2 A/2 15 = 0 . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Ex.8 V.5x -15y + 6 = 0 represents a pair of parallel straight lines.b = -1. k = -3. • SOLUTION: (i) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 29X + 21Y + c = 0 we have a = l.4 = 0 represents a pair of parallel lines.h = O. (ix) Find the angle between the pair of straight lines represented by the equation 3x 2 . 3x 2 + AXY . k) are equal to d.9 = 1. = 0 represents (v) Show that the equation x 2 + 2V3xy + 3y2 .x 3+3xy(y-x) = 0 represent"s three straight lines.1 = 2. (iv) Show that the equation 4x 2 + 12xy + 9y2 -16x . (vi) Test whether the equation x 2 + 6xy + 9y2 . (xi) Find the equation of the lines which pass through the origin and whose distance from (h. (ii) For what value of A.c = k.4.9 = 5/2. = 0 or.5xy .5y2 straight lines ? + 2x + 2y = 0 will be a pair of (viii) Show that the equation x 2 + 6xy + 9y2 + 4x + 12y .3V3y . (vii) For what value of A.

15y + 6) = 0 or. Hence the given equation represents a pair of parallel straight lines. (v) The given equation can be written as x 2 + x(2V3y . Hence the given curve represents a pair of coincident straight lines.5) + (9y2 . a Now.4 = 0. + V3y = 4 and x + V3y = -2.15y + 6) 2 -(6y .eH. -(2V3y . b = -6.12V3y + 9) . h = -5/2.16) 2 -(2V3y .l.1.16x .12V3y .3) + (3y2 .3) 2 ± = V(12 y2 ..24y + 16 = 0 or. .4.5) ± v'(6y . x = = -(6y .4) or x = 0 = -(2V3y .(3y2 .3) ± 5 2 or. (2x + 3y . = 15 or ).(12y2 . f = 5/2 and c = 4. Here the coefficient of x 2 + coefficient of y2 = 6 . 2x + 3y .4.3V3y . they are perpendicular to each other.9 or _!(15 _ 5).(9y2 .) +~(~-O) =Oor 5). .4)2 = 0 or. h 9 h b 9 6 = f c f -5/2 7 -5/2 7 -6 5/2 5/2 4 = O.3V3y . 2x = -2V3y + 3 ± 5 or. x + 2V3y = -2.5) ± 1 2 .6 = o. Hence the given curve represents a pair of straight lines. 9 = 7. '22424 '44' (iii) Here a = 6.4) 2 = . 2x + 3y .=3.4: GEOMET'lY 4. (iv) The given equation is 4x 2 + 12xy + 9y2 .4 = O. (vi) The given equation can be written as x 2 + x(6y .5)2 .3) ± V(2V3Y .3)2 . 2x + 2V3y = 8 and 2x or.

D. x + 3y = 3 and x + 3y = 2. x . a = 3. y = 3x and y = ix./2 1 >...n' yl0 Hence the distance between the lines is Iyl0 . = 0 or.ylO I= yl0 ~ -. 2x = -6y + 5 ± 1 or. c = O.. If the equation represents a pair of straight lines then D. - (viii) The given equation can be written as x 2 + x(6y + 4) + (9y2 + 12y . 2h = -10.4. = -2.. + 6y = 4 Hence the given equation represents a pair of parallel straight lines. f = 1. 3x . 9 = 1. (3x .5) = 0 or. Hence the angle (9) between these lines is tan 9 = 3 _1 1 + 3'3 31 = -3 or. (ix) We have 3x 2 . x = -(6y + 4) ± V(6y + 4)2 2 4(9y2 + 12y . >. !n. Distance from (0.. = 0 or./2 -5 1 1 1 0 = 2 + >.3y = 0 or. = = 3 >..lOxy + 3y2 = 0 or. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) or.. 2x + 6y = 6 and 2x or. 2 + >. .. the straight lines are x + 3y = -5 and x + 3y = 1.0) to the first line is ~= ~ 1+9 yl0 and that of from · .!J = 0.3y) = 0 or.y)(x . 9 = tan -1 -3' 4 4 Alternative method: The equation is of the form ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 = O. The angle between these lines is ... b = 3. h = >"/2.G.10 V. a h 9 h 9 b f f c Now. -1 second 1me IS r. (vii) Here a'= 3. b = -5.5) = -(6y ~ 4) ±6 = -(3y + 2) ± 3.

(k . m = ----'-----2-'-----'-'----'= kh 2kh ± J4k 2h 2 .x)(y + 2x ± .y = (-. z2 + kxy + y2 .d 2) . 4 (x) Given that y3 ./3 - 2)x.d 2 ) ± Jk 2h 2 . (ii) Examine whether the equation 2x 2+5xy+3y2+5x+6y+3 = 0 represents a pair of straight lines..4: GEO~1ETRY 4..x)(y2 + 4xy + x 2) = 0 or.7y + 6 = 0 (iv) Test whether the equation 4x 2 ./3x) = 0 or.5x . m 2(h 2 . (y .9 3+3 =- 4 3 or.2khm + (k 2 . (y ./h 2 .x) = 0 or. () = tan 3. (iii) Find a value of k so that the equation may represent a pair of straight lines. k) to the line is k .mh IJl+m2 1= d (given) or.4xy + y2 -12x + 6y + 8 = 0 represents a pair of parallel straight lines.x 3 + 3xy(y . (v) Find the lines represented by the equation x 2 + 2xy sec () + y2 = O./3 - 2)x.d 2)(k 2 .d 2) = 0 or.(h 2 . Distance from (h.mh)2 = d2 (1 + m 2) or.11 tan() = 2. y + 2x ± .ab a+b _1 = 2J25 ..x) = 0 or. . y = (.CH..x)(y2 + xy + x 2 ) + 3xy(y ./3x = o.4(h 2 . The three straight lines are y = x. (y ..x = 0. y .d 2 )(k 2 . (vi) Find the angle between the pair of lines x 2 + 2xycosec a + y2 = O. Exercise 1 (i) Find the value of k for which the equation x 2 -y2+2x+k = o may represent a pair of straight lines. (xi) Let y = mx be the equation of the line passing through the origin.d 2) Hence the required lines are y = (kh ± dJh2 + k 2 - d 2)x.

(ii) Let (a.G. (vii) 0.16a . -2) lie on opposite sides of the line 3x . .4. show that 2 a 1 = 2. According to the problem a = 2J(a .4a . (iii) -5/2. Distance from (a. (3) and (2. (viii) Show that the equation of the lines passing through the origin and perpendicular to 5x 2 . 2 a + b2 = p 2· 1 1 Ex..10/3.4(3 + 8) or.16y + 32 = o.4y . 3a2 + 4(32 .txy .2)2.16x .4. Also distance between (a. Hence the locus of the point is 3x 2 + 4y2 .16(3 + 32 = O. (iv) yes. x t h e 1me IS . (ii) Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the axis of y is double the distance from the point (2. -2) 5> .2)2 + ((3 . 3 If p be the perpendicular drawn from the origin upon a line whose mtercepts on the axes are a and b. 2) is J(a .5 = O.12 U.Since d1 and d2 have opposite signs then the origin anq the point (1. Ex. + b = . 4 (i) Show that origin and the point (1. [Ans. (v) x (vi) 7r/2 . (i) k = 1. -2) are in opposite side of the given line.1 . p • SOLUTION: Since the intercepts on the axis are a.( -2) V9 + 16 =~ O. Distance from the origin to this line is IJ~+b -1 I = p (given) . (ii) yes.] · 1 1 + b2 = (-secO±tanO)y.2)2 + ((3 .3y2 = 0 is 3x 2 . 2 (d ) = 3. a 2 = 4(a 2 + (32 . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (vii) Show that the equation 4x 2 + 4xy + y2 + 4x + 2y + 1 = 0 represent pair of parallel lines and find the distance between them.a. 2).5y2 = o. 1 or.txy . • SOLUTION: (i) Distance from the origin to the given line (d1 ) = J9+16 = 9 + 16 -5 -1 < 0 and that from 5 (1. (3) be the point. b then the equation of Y 1 · .2)2 or.(3) to y-axis is a.

ltm2 = 212ml ml m2 (1) Now.h'b) (ii) Let = 12m 2(m112 -11m2)2 = (a'b (llx + mly)(l2x + m2Y) = ax 2 + 2hxy + by2. +4 = iy + 4 .h'b) = m2(ltm2 .a'h)(hb' . (i) Let the common line be Ix + my = O. 2(hb' .a'h)(hb' . Comparing we have lh = a. where 112 = a'.mI12). (ii) The gradient of one of the straight lines represented byax 2+2hxy+by2 = o is twice that of the other.a'h) = lh(lm2 + 12m) -1l2(lml + 11m) = 12(hm2 -12ml). 2(ah' . The lines are itx + mlY = 0 and 12x + m2Y = 0 ml m2 11 12 or. ab = 1112mlm2 = (212ml)(l2mt} = 2(l2mt)2 [using (1)] and 2h = ltm2 + 12ml = 312ml· Ex. Hence 4(ah' . y = . mm2 = b' and 1m2 + 12m = 2h'. • SOLUTION: Show that 8h 2 = 9ab . On comparison we have lt12 = a. 5 (i) Show that the condition for one of the straight lines given by 2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 may coincide with one of the straight lines giyen ax by a'x 2 + 2h'xy + b'y2 = 0 is 4(ah' .13 Ex.h'b) = (ba' . According to the problem .8y = 0 or. Let (lx + my)(llx + mlY) = ax 2 + 2hxy + by2. mml = band lml + 11m = 2h. a'b . Now. x 2 + 4x = O.4: GEOMETRY 4. 6 Find the vertex and latus-rectum of the curve 3x 2 + 12x .. Similarly. mlm2 = b and 11m2 + 12m 1 = 2h.8y • SOLUTION: We have 3x2 + 12x . b'a)2.212 or.CR.b'a = 112mml - mm21lt = lm(ml12 -11m2).11 = .b'a)2. Again let (Ix + my)(l2x + m2Y) = a'x 2 + 2h'xy + b'y2.x and y = --x. Again.

2yiJ + 5a = O. iJ = 3. • Let (a. (ii) The equation of the chord passing through the focus (a.r. -3/2) and latus rectum is 8/3 (as 4a = 8/3). 7 (i) Find the pole ofthe line 5x-6y = 10 with respect to the parabola y2 = 5x. k = -9.6a) .2). -5a Comparing it with the given line. 0) and (9a. Then iJ 4 -k . 8a = 4 or. 8a/3). 8 Is the line 2x + 4y = 9 normal to y2 = 8x ? Find the foot of the normal. (x + 2) 2 = 3 y + 2" or. 5x . a = -a. 2 4 9 From (1). iJ) is yiJ = 2a(x + a) or. iJ) be a point on the parabola y2 = 8x . iJ) is yiJ = 4(x + a) or. (2) The equation of normal at (a. The polar of it w. '. (1) a-a Let (a.3). The curve represents a parabola with vertex at (-2. iJ) is a line perpendicular to (2) . 3x . iJ2 = 8a (1) The equation of tangent at (a.G. .or. • SOLUTION: = 4ax.. (ii) Find the pole of the focal chord of the parabola y2 through (9a. Comparing we get 2a iJ 2aa 8a .iJ) be the pole.= . the required pole is (-a.t.. passing (i) Let (a.or.yiJ + 4a = O.4y . 2ax . .3a = O.4. It is identical with the given line. 3 4 -3a 3 .= . It is identical with (1). we have.iJ =-. theparabolaisyiJ= ~(a+x) or. iJ) be the pole. a = 1/2 . . '. SOLUTION: ..= . '. X 2 = 3Y. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) or..14 U. The equation of the polar of (a. a = -2 . the pole is (-2.= . 4x . its equation is iJx + 4y + k = O.iJy + 2aa = O. the given line is normal to the parabola and the foot of the normal is (1/2. -55 = -2iJ -6 10' or.a) or.( x .. iJ = 2. Ex.'. where X = x + 2 and Y = y + 3/2. 8(3) 8 Ex. 6a) is 6a y = -9.

the point of intersection between the line and the circle is (-I. x = {4 . the required tangent is y = 5.y + 5 .5 = m(x . SOLUTION: = • (1·) "tliT h ave 3x vve + 4 y + 7 = 0 or. Now.2x2 . (4y + 7)2 + 9y2 + 12{4y + 7) .3 + 5 .r.14 = 2. (-4~ - 7) 2 + y2 _ 4(-4 Y . (ii) Find the tangent to x 2 + y2 .7) _ 6y 3 12 = 0 or. {y + 1)2 = 0 or.5 = 0.54y .5m I = 2 1 or.2m = 1 + m 2 or. .5m = 0 to the point (". . .7)/3 = -l. (ii) x + 4y + 3 = 0 and 4x - y .6 = O. y2 + 2y + 1 = 0 or. [Ans. . y = -1.4: GEOMETRY 4. x + 2y + 3 = 0 w.15 Ex.7 3 Putting this value to the equation of the circle.3) is 3m .2x + 5 = O.5) which is a tangent of the given circle. Since the number of point of intersection is one so the line touches the circle. Exercise 2 (i) Find the pole of the line x 2 + y2 .-l.108 = O. (i) (2. 2).t the circle (ii) Find the equation of the tangent and the normal at (1.5) .3) and V9 + 9 . 9 (i) Show that 3x+4y+7 = otouches the circle'x 2+ y 2-4x-6y-12 o and find the point of contact. x = -4y . m = O.6x . 5) are y . Now the distance from mx . 1 + m 2 . The center and radius of the circle are respectively (3. .5y + x .] . 25y2 + 50y + 25 = 0 or. -1) to the conic y2 _ xy . or. (ii) The equation of straight lines passes through (5.3. (1.6y + 14 = 0 from (5.CH. -1). 1 2 Vl+m 2 VI +m2 I = 2 - 2m or.m)2 = 1 + m 2 or..

O) is the centre. 8 = tan -1 Jt. The slop of the line is -AlB. (b) If the circle passes through the pole with centre at (c. where 1 and e are respectively semi-latus rectum and eccentricity.2cr cos(8 . ( 1 ). a) and radius a (in this case c = a) then the equation ofthe circle is r = 2a cos(8a). C(r3.16 U.3 Polar Equation (i) Relation between cartesian and polar coordinates: If (x. conic is an ellipse If e = 1. ( 3 ) be the vertices of a triangle AB C then the area is (iv) Polar equation of a straight line: The general form of a straight line is ~ r = A cos 0 + B sin 0.a 2 = O.G. (iii) Area of a triangle: Let A(rl. (c) If the pole is on the circle and the initial line passes through the centre then the equation of the circle is r = 2a cos 8.a) + c2 . a) be the polar coordinates of the centre and a be the radius then the equation of the circle is r2 .4.( 1 ). y = r sin 8 and r = J x 2 + y2. This equation is of the form r = A cos 0 + B sin O. e < 1. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) 4. ( 1 ) and B(r2' ( 2) be two points then the distance between A and B is AB = Jr~ + r~ - 2r1r2 COS(82 .8) are respectively cartesian and polar coordinates of a point P then x = r cos 8. B(r2' ( 2). conic is a parabola { e> 1. x (ii) Distance between two points: If A(rl. I (vii) folar equation of a conic with the focus as the pole: If the focus and the pole of the conic are same then the equation of the conic is e cos 0. where A and B are constants. y) and (r. where a is the radius and (a. (v) Polar equation of the line }:Jassing through two points: If the line passing through the points (rl' 8d and (r2' ( 2) then its equation is (vi) Polar equation of a circle: (a) Let (c. conic is a hyperbola ~ = 1r .

-y'3). . 57r/4) or (v2.7r/2). Ex. -1) to the polar coordinates. J( -12)2 + 92 - Ex. r = J2 and tanO = =~ = 1.~ = 1. Then 0 = 7r/4 + 7r = 57r/4 . Ex. . • SOLUTION: (i) Let -1 = r cos 0. 2 (i) Find the cartesian coordinates of the point whose polar coordinates is (2. • SOLUTION: The distance between the points (-12.7r/4) and (6. -7r /6) is 2( -12)(9) cos( 7r /3 + 7r /6) = J225 + 216 cos 7r /2 = J225 = 15. the required polar coordinates is (2. 1 (i) 'Transform the cartesian coordinates (-1. r2 = 1 + 3 = 4 or. Since the point is on the third quadrant and tan 0 = 1. -1 = r sin O. '. 0 = -7r/3.-7r/6).CH.. • SOLUTION: (i) Here r = 2 and 0 = 7r/2. = rcosO = 2cos7r/2 = 0 and y = Hence the corresponding cartesian coordinates is (0. (ii) Let 1 = r cos 0. -7r /3).4: GEOMETRY 4. Also. -y'3 = r sinO. .150°). tan 0 = -y'3 or..-7r/12) are the polar coordinates of two adjacent vertices of a square. (ii) Here r = 2 and 0 = 150°.7r/3) and (9. Then x = r cos 0 = 2 cos 150° = 2 cos (90° + 60°) = -2 sin 60° = -2yt = -y'3 and y = rsinO = 2sin1500 = 2 cos 60° = 2. 1).2). . '. Hence the required cartesian coordinates is (-y'3.17 Ex. find its area. r = 2. r2 = 1 + 1 = 2 or. (ii) Find the polar coordinators of the point whose cartesian coordinates are (1.1 = 2. the required polar coordinates is (v2. -37r /4). 4 If (8.7r/3) and (9. Then x rsin7r/2 = 2. 3 Find the distance between the points whose polar coordinates are (-12. (ii) Find the cartesian coordinates of the point whose polar coordinates is (2.

which is the cartesian equation.x)2 or.2cos . xcosa+ . • SOLUTION: (i) We have r 1/ 2 cos r~ cos ~ = at.96/2 = v'52. 6 . = a or.18 U.4ax + 4a 2 or.. 8 1 8 or. r2 = (2a . i(1 + cos 8) =a or. Ex. 2r 4 = a(r + rcos8) or. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) • SOLUTION: The distance between the given points is y'(8)2 + 62 . . x 2 + y2 = x 2 .6 cos(1I"/4 + 7r /12) = y'100 .r cos 8)2 or. 7r /2) and (2. (i) Transform to cartesian coordinates the equation (iii) Transform polar to cartesian equation r3 = a cos2 ~. 5 Find the polar equation of the straight line joining the points whose polar coordinated are (1. r(cos8cosa+sin8sina) y sin a = p. r + r cos 8 = 2a or. which is the required equation. 7r).96.8.G. r = 2a . (iii) The equation can be written as r3 = ~(1 + cos 8) or. Ex. or. • SOLUTION: The equation of line joining the given points is ~ sin(7r or.a) = p to cartesian equation. = p or. x 2 + y2 = (2a .ax}2 = a2(x 2 + y2) (as x 2 + y2 = r2) 4(x 2 + y2)4 + a 2x 2 _ 4ax(x 2 + y2)2 = (l2X 2 + a2y2 4(x 2 + y2)4 _ 4ax(x 2 + y2)2 = a 2y2. or. 7r /2) + ~ sin(7r /2 =0 8) + l sin(8 .4. 2(x 2 + y2)2 = ar + ax {2(x 2 + y2)2 . (ii) Given that rcos(8-a) = p or. the area of the square is (v'52)2 = 52.4a 2 = 0.2. or. cos 7r /3 = y'100 . Squaring both sides r cos2 8/2 ~= 2 a 1/ 2.7r) = 0 ~ sin 7r /2 + ~ cos 8 - sin 8 1 .r cos 8 or.= sm . y2 + 4ax . (ii) Transform the polar equation r cos(8 .

r = 2a cos 0. y = r sinO) or.x) to polar equation.19 r2 Exercise 1 (i) What is the cartesian equation of the polar equation 2 cos 20 ? a = '1') [ .y2). (iii) r2 sin2 0 = 4r cos 0 + 3.] Ex. r2 = 2ar cos 0 or. r (i) We have 3r(1 . r = 3( 1 0)' 1.cos 0) = 1 or. y = r sinO to the given equation.4: GEOMETRY 4. x(x 2 + y2) = 2ay2 or. • SOLUTION: (i) Putting x = r cos 0.2ax = 0 to the polar form. (ii) r2 sin 20 = 2a 2. (ii) Transform the cartesian equation xy = a 2 to polar equation. (ii) Find a point on the conic ~= r 1 . (i) r2 = a cos 2 0. r 4 = a2r2 cos 20 or. r2 == a2 cos 20.2ar cos 0 = 0 or.COS7r The .cos The radius vector r will be minimum when cos 0 is minimum. (ii) y2 + 21x _[2 = 0.r2 = 2ar 2 sin2 0 (since x = r cos 0.CH.= 1 + cos 0 to a cartesian equation. minimum value of cos 0 is -1 at 0 = 71'. (ii) We have x 3 + xy2 = 2ay2 or. (iii) Putting x = r cos 0. 7 (i) Transform the cartesian equation x 2 + y2 . 1 1 1 Hence the minimum value of r is ( ) = 3. (ii) Transforms the cartesian equation x 3 = y2(2a . (1 Trans£ orm the poI ar equation . y = r sin 0 to the given equation we get r2 cos 2 0 + r2 sin2 0 . r cos 0 = 2a sin2 O. Then (r2)2 = a2(r2 cos 2 0 .2 = -6' 3 1 .r2 sin2 0) or. 8 (i) On the parabola 3r(1. (iii) Change the cartesian equation y2 = 4x + 3 to polar equation. [Ans. which is the required polar equation. r cos O.. (iii) Find the points on the conic • SOLUTION: ~ = 1 + 2 cos 0 whose radius vector is 5. (iii) Transform to polar coordinates the equation (x 2 + y2)2 = a 2(x 2 _ y2) .cos 0 having the least radius vector. Exercise 2 (i) Transform the equation (x 2 + y2)2 = ax 2 to polar equation.] Ex.cos 0) = 1 find the point with the smallest radius vector. (i) (x 2 + y2)2 = a2(x 2 . r [Ans.

(iv) (4. (ii) (3.cos 0 is maxI . 9 i). cos. ~= r 3 . (i) (3. [Ans. (iii) Find the point on the conic ~ = 1r r cos 0 whose radius vector is 4.cos 6 0' find the point with the smallest radius vector.11').20 V.5 cos 0 (i) Find the nature of the conic ~= (iii) Find the nature of the conic r =4 1 0 . r (ii) Determine the nature and latus rectum of the conic whose polar equation .11'/2) and 5. 8 IS r = .e cos u.. r . (ii) On the conic r = 1 . (iv) Find the point on the conic 12 = 1 . Hence the least value of r is ~. 'h i II Comparmg It WIt . cos 0 = 0 or.11').4 cos 0 whose radius vector is 4.cosO imum.4 cos O.G.4.= 1 . Since e r = 1.311'/2). (v) Find the latus rectum and eccentricity of the conic • SOLUTION: (i) The given equation can be written as 2/3 = 1 .1 Ex. Exercise 3 (i) On the curve r = 21 0 find the point with the small5 . Its maximum value is 2 at 0 = 11'.] 3 .cos O. 0 = 2"' 2 11' 311' Hence the required points are (5.120°).11'). (iii) When radius vector r = 5 then we have from the curve "5 5 = 1 + 2 cos 0 or.5 cos (iv) Determine the nature of the conic ~ r = 3- v'3 cos 0.2 cos est radius vector. we have 1 = 2/3 and e = 1. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Here r = i . (iii) (4. . 1 + 2 cos 0 = 1 or. the given equation represents a parabola. The required point is (1/2.3 cos 0. 4 . The radius vector r will be least if 1 .

e cos 0 we get I = 5/3 and e = 4/3. r r 4 Comparing it with ~ = 1 . cos O' (iv) Determine the nature of the conic ~ = 2 + 4 cos (J and also find its length r of the latus rectum.4: GEOMETRY 4.= 4 . . . (i) hyperbola.V3cosO or.cos O.. 3 Isr=34 COS!7 Ll' - (iii) Determine the nature of the conic r = 2 + . r =1- 5 . (v) The given equation can be written as Comparing with . Since r e > 1 the equation represents a hyperbola whose semi-latus rectum is 2 i.5 cos 0 .cos O. Find the length of the focal chord inclined at an angle 60° with the major axes. 10 (i) The latus rectum of a conic is 10 and its.CH. ~ = 1 .5 cos O. Hence the latus rectum is 21 = 10/3 and the eccentricity is 4/3.5 cos r 1/4 or.e cos 0.= 1 . (ii) hyperbola. (iii) hyperbola. eccentricity is ~. (ii) Determine the nature and latus rectum of the conic whose polar equation . [Ana.e.= 4 .21 (ii) The equation r = 4 .5 cos 0 or. v3 ~= r 3 .r 5~3 = 1- ~ cos O.5 cos 8 l} can be written as 8 2 5 . 2. . Here I 4 = 1/4 and e = 5/4 > l. latus rectum is 4. Exercise 4 (i) Find the nature of the conic ~= r 4 .] Ex. = 4/3 and Comparing it with e= 1/v'3 < l. 4/3 = 1r ~ cosO. ~nd Hence the conic is a hyperbola (iv) Here semi-latus rectum is 1/4. 1 1 (iii) We have r = 4 0 or. (iv) hyperbola. we have I = 2 and e = 5/4. ~ =1r e cos 0 we get I Hence the given conic is an ellipse. 3..

cos 0 which (i) The equation of a conic with focus as pole is e cos O.3..1 SP + SpI = 20 + 4 = 32. 6 6 Then SP = 1 /3 = . 1. Let S be the focus and PSP' be a focal chord.cos ( -27r /3) 1 .. Then 9 + 16 = a2 or.2 ~= SpI = 6 = 6 = 6 .2' 2 = .cos O. 4 or.G. (iii) Find the polar coordinates of the centre of the circle r = 8 cos O. Hence the length of the focal chord is SP + BP' = 12 + 4 = 16. Here 21 r and e = 1/2. a = 5 and tan 0' = 4/3 .4.(--) . r Let S be the focus and PBP' be a focal chord.ecosO 5 Hence the length of the focal chord is ~ S -120 0 P600 pI Figure: 4. 11 (i) Find the centre and radius of the circle r = 3 cos 0 + 4 sin O. r = 3 cos 0 + 4 sin 0 = a cos () cos 0' + a sin () sin 0' ... MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (ii) Find the length of the focal chord of the parabola is inclined to the axis at an angle 7r /3 . (ii) Find the centre and radius of the circle r = acosO + bsin O.22 U. Ex. ~ =1- = 10 SP= = 20 5 1 1 0 = 1 . 0' = tan _1 3' 4 = a sin 0'..2 cos 60 3 I 5 5 SP = 1 = 1 1 = 4.. • SOLUTION: (i) Let 3 = a cos 0'.cos 1200 1 + 1/2 . 1 . 3 3 (ii) Here the equation of a conic is 1 .1 = 12 and -COS7r 1.cos(-1200) 1.4 1 . • SOLUTION: ~= r 1 .2 2' 2 1 I 1 . .

7r /3). 2 the radius of the circle is centre are Ja + b 2 2 and the polar coordinates of the ( Ja 22+b2 ' tan. Hence the polar coordinates of the centre are (~. Hence the radius is d and centre is (d.G) = A 2.1 ~ . Find also the radius and the centre of the circle.O) and (2d. Hence the polar coordinates of the centre are (4.7r/3). Ex. a Thus r = a cos 0 + b sin 0 = A (cos 0 cos G + sin 0 sin G) = Acos(O . r = 2' 2 -(} Slll 2 . • SOLUTION: The equation of the parabola i~ polar coordinates is ~= r 1 . . a = 4. 7r /3).G). Since it passes through (d. b) (iii) The given equation is of the form r = 2a cos O.7r/3) then d = a and (1) . -1 b = AsinG. .G) = 5cos(O . where I is the semi latus rectum of the parabola. 13 Show that the equation of a parabola in polar coordinates can be expressed in the form r 1 / 2 sin(8/2) = (1/2)1/2. tan -1 ~) and radius is 5/2. 12 Find the polar equation of the circle which passes through the pole and two points whose polar coordinates are (d.. (ii) Let a = G = tan ACOSG.23 = acos(O .CH. 0) and radius is 4.O) and (2d. • SOLUTION: Let the equation of the circle be r = a cos 0 + bsinO.2 cos(O - G). Then A = Ja 2 + b2 and b -.cos (} I or. (~ ~ Ex.4: GEOMETRY 4. the required equation of the circle is r = d cos 0 + V3d sin 0 = 2d cos 0 + sin 8 ) = 2d(cos 8 cos 7r/3 + sinO sin 7r/3) = 2d cos(O .

(iii) What is the nature of the conic.24 U.) 1/2 . The nature of the conic is represented by these ab . (ii) If the equation 6x 2 + kxy .4 General Equation of Second Degree The general equation of second degree is ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = O.6y2 + 14x + 5y + 4 = O. find the values of k.1 2 .. 2 2 4.4. The curve represented by this equation is a conic section or conic. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) () l or rl/2 sin . represented by 4x 2 . (v) Does the equation x 2 . represent a pair of .5xy .= ( .G.h 2 D>O Do < 0 D >0 Do < 0 D>O Do> 0 D>O Canonical form Name ellipse circle imaginary ellipse pair of imaginary lines or point ellipse parabola pair of parallel lines pair of coincident lines hyperbola pair of inter -secting lines hyperbola x 2 + y2 = a2 x Q2" 2 ~+~=1 + ~ =-1 b Do = 0 a2x 2 + b2y2 ::.: 0 2 x ~ Do < 0 Q2"-b .3y2 + 4x + 5y .5xy + 4y2 straight lines ? + X + 2y - 2 = 0.4xy + y2 . (iv) State the nature of the conic represented by 4x 2-4xy+y2+2x-26y+9 = O.a2y2 = 0 Do = 0 x Do =1= Do> 0 x ~- 2 ~ =1 Ex. Type Elliptic Do D= ab . Let D = a h 9 2 and Do = h b f '. 1 (i) Find the nature of the conic 6x 2 .12x + 6y + 9 = O.2 = 0 represents a pair of intersecting straight line.: 0 D=O Parabolic D=O D=O D <0 D <0 D <0 Hyperbolic 0 x"'" = 4ay or y2 = 4ax Do = 0 x 2 = a 2 or y2 = b2 Do = 0 x 2 = 0 or y2 ::.h 9 f c two quantities.

6y + 3 = 0 represents an ellipse .k - 5k) + 2 (4 + 6 2 + 5k + 2 = 0 or.4 35) 10 . = 0 2 5/2 5) 25) or.13y + 8 = 0 ? (vii) Show that x 2 . f = 3. which are the required values of k.h = k/2. the given conic represents a pair of coincident lines.4x . tii) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21 y + c = 0 we have a = 6.1 = 5/2.2" (. a If the given equation represents a pair of straight lines then h 9 h 9 b 1 1 c = 6 k/2 k/2 -3 2 5/2 -2 = O.4 or.h 2 = -36 . 21 k 2 + 10k + 21 = 0 or.g = 2. . '. k = -3.25/4 < 0 and ~= h 9 b 1 9 1 c a 6 = h -5/2 7 5 + 2" ( - -5/2 7 -6 5/2 5/2 4 = 6( - 25) 24 .2 + 7 (25 + 42 ) = O.2xy + 2y2 . .c = -2.Cti. Now. • SOLUTION: (i) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21Y + c = 0 we have a = 6. (iii) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 21Y + c = 0 we have a = 4. 9 = -6.h 2 = 4 . 6 ( 6 . h = -2.h = -5/2. (k + 3)(k + 7) = 0 or.b = -6. 9 = 4(9 . k2 k .8xy + lOx ./ = 5/2.4 Hence the given conic is a pair of intersecting lines. D = ab . '.25 - (vi) Determine the nature of the conic represented by the equation 3x 2 . b = 1.9) + 2( -18 + 18) ~ 6( -6 . -7.c = 4 .g = 7. ' + 6) = O. D = ab . .4: GEOMETl1Y 4.b = -3.4 = 0 and a h 9 4 -2 -6 ~ = h b f = -2 1 3 9 f c -6 3. c = 9. .3y2 .

'. . Now. h = -4. Now. D = ab .25/4 = -9/4 < 0 and a h 9 1 -5/2 1/2 a = h b / = -5/2 4 1 = O.h = -5/2.h = -1.h 2 = 2 . Ex. 2 (i) Find the centre of the ellipse 7x 2 .g = 1/2. Now . The given conic represents a parabola.g = 1. the conic is a hyperbola.h2 = 4 . / = -13/2.-4 5 33 -4 -3 -13/2 ="4 5 -13/2 8 > O.h = -2.G. the equation represents a pair of intersecting straight lines (vi) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0 we have a = 3.b = l. (vii) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0 we have a = l. < O. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iv) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + 1Yy2 + 2gx + 2/y + e = 0 we have a = 4. D = ab - h2 = -9 - a= h 9 h b / 9 / e a = 16 = -25 < 0 and 3 . b = -3. 9 = 5.1 = 1 > 0 and a h 9 1 -1 -2 ~ = h b / = -1 2 -3 = -26 9 / e -2 -3 3 Hence the given conic represents an ellipse.e = -2.e = 3.b = 2. (v) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/ y + e = 0 we have a = l./ = -3. (ii) Show that the curve 4x 2 + 4xy + y2 + 4x + 2y + 20 = 0 has infinitely many centres. D a = ab - h2 = 4- a= h 9 h b / 9 / e = 4 = 0 and 4 -2 1 -2 1 -13 1 -13 9 = -625 =I O. e = 8. Now.4./ = -13.e = 9.26 U.b = 4./ = l. D = ab .g = -2.2xy + 7y2 + 22x -lOy + 7 = O. . 9 / e 1/2 1-2 Yes.

m+n .. (ii) Comparing the given equation with ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/y we have a = 4.h = -l. +c = 0 The (a.1/2). (iii) Mid-point: If R is the mid. . Yb zt) and Q(X2.27 (i) Comparing the given equation with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2/y + c = 0 we have . 40' + 2(3 + 2 = 0 and 20' + (3 + 1 = O. ' Z2 + Zl) 2' . Y2. Hence the given conic has infinite many centres. or.g = 11. b = 1. Y2.CH. 1/2.point of P(XI./ = -5. h = 2. .7O'-(3+11=Oand-O'+7(3-5=O. These two equations are identical and they are 20' + (3 + 1 = O. / = 1.'t: GEOMETP' • SOLUTION: 4. (ii) Internal point: If R divides P(XI. Hence the required centre of the conic is (-3/2.Xl)2 + (Y2 - Yl)2 + (Z2 - zt)2.b = 7.5 Direction Cosines and Ratios Some important formulae on three dimensions (i) Distance between two points: Let P(XI. '. (3) is obtain from the equations aO' + h(3 + 9 = 0 and hO' + b(3 + / = o . c = 20. Z2) be two points. 9 = 2. The distance between P and Q is V(X2 . (3) be the coordinates of the centre and it is obtain from the equations aO' + h(3 + 9 = 0 and hO' + b(3 + / = O. The centre (a. Yb Zl) and Q(X2. Z2) then the coordinates of R are ( X2 + Xl 2 ' Y2 + Yl 2. This equation has infinite solutions. Z2) internally in the ratio m : n then the coordinates of R are ( mX2 + nXl mY2 + nYl mZ2 + nZl) m+n ' m+n '. (3 ::. a = 7. Three Dimensions 4. Solving we get 0'= -3/2. Yll zt} and Q(X2.c = 7. Y2.

m2. n2 are d.Yl. 'Y with the positive directions of x. . .YI.cs) are generally denoted by 1. . n2 are d. 2. ml. (vii) Condition for perpendicularity: If iI. ~ (vi) Angle between two lines: If h. Direction cosines (d. axes.Xl. (viii) Condition for parallel lines: If iI. (ii) Can 1. Z axes respectively the cos Ct.Zl) and Q(X2. b2 . m.1. (v) Direction cosines of a line joining two points: Let P(XI. m.cs of two lines then they are parallel if and only if 11 12 = ml = nl = 1.cs of two lines then the angle () between them is If ab bb C! and a2.. .rs) of this line are X2 . C2 are the d.2. (iii) Can the numbers )a.3). n. nl and h.4) and (3.Yl Z2 . m2. cos /3. 3 be the direction cosines of a straight line? Can they be direction ratios ? Justify your answer.4. /3. ml. What angle does it make with the z-axes ? (v) Find the direction cosines of a line equally inclined to the coordinates .. ~.G. Z2 .Z2) be two points.rs of two lines then the angle () between them is £I -1 ± ala2 + bl b2 + ClC2 u=cos Ja~ + b~ + C~ Ja~ + b~ + C~ .45° with the axes of x and Y respectively. mb nl and 1 . m2 n2 Ex. cos'y are called the direction cosines of this line. y. n satisfy the relation 12 + m 2 + n 2 = 1. na are the d.Xl Y2 .28 V. m2. 1 (i) Find the direction cosines of the straight line passing through the points (1. The direction cosines 1.rs of two lines then they are perpendicular to each other if and only if h12 + mlm2 + nln2 = o. (iv) A directed straight line makes angles 60°. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (iv) Direction cosines: If a directed line makes angles Ct.where PQ IS the dlstance between the pomts P and Q.~ be the direction cosines of any line? Justify your answer. Directio/Il ratios (d. nl and 12.Y2.ZI and the direction cosines are X2 .cs 2 or d.Zl . PQ ' PQ ' PQ . Y2 .

{cosa cos a cosa} or. cos. or..~ = ~.rs of the line joining the given points are {I . cos a} or. because 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 =1= 1. • SOLUTION: Putting x = -1/3 in the equation x 2 + 2y2 1 107 (-1/3)2 + 2y2 + 3z 2 = 12 or. 1. 2 The length of the projections of a segment of a straight line on the axes of coordinates are 3.cs are {cos a.cos 2 45° = 1 . 5 units respectively.4 . (iv) Let a = 60°. 3} do not form d. cos.J2 can not be a d. I}. 4. Squaring and adding we get 9 + 16 + 25 = (PQ)2(cos 2 a + cos 2 13 + cos 2 .f 2 a ' v 3 cos 2 a '-.4: GEOMETRY 4. Taking AB as x-axis. (PQ)2 = 50 or. We know cos2 a + cos2 13 + cos2 .cs are (ii) vi4 + 1 + 1 ' vi4 + 1 + 1 or. {-2.cs of any line. J6' J6' J6 .13 = 45°. 3x + 1 = 0 on the yz-plane. PQ = 5J2. = 60°.cs.3} or. {I. + 3z 2 = 12 we get .cos 2 60° . 107/18 + 107/27 = 1.Ir==::. . = 1 . 4 = PQ cos 13.1.) or. where P'Q' is the projection of PQ on a line AB and 9 is the angle between PQ and AB. But they may be d. Hence the line makes 60° with the z-axis.9 = 9 y2 z2 2 or.:= v 3 cos v 3 cos2 a or. 3 Find the projection of the curve x 2 + 2y2 + 3z 2 = 12. Ex. The d..CH.3. { v'3' =. III} v'3' v'3 . 2.~ . III} J2' .} (v) Here a ~ 13 . which is the length of the line segment.f .f3" then we know that P'Q' = PQcos9. cos 2 60° + cos 2 45° + cos 2 . = 1 or. y-axis and z-axis successively we have 3 = PQ cos a. • SOLUTION: Let the line be PQ and make angles with coordinates axes be a. Find the length of the segment. Ex. cos 13.29 • SOLUTION: (i) The d. =1 =~ Then the d. cos 2 . or. or.J2 ( 1)2 = 3" + "2 + "2 1 1 1 =1= 1. {cosq. 5 = PQcos.rs of a straight line. 18y2 + 27z = 107 or. 2y2 + 3z 2 = 12 .2 . -2 { vi4 + 1 + 1 ' II} { -2 II} 1)2 (1)2 (iii) ( v'3 + J2 Hence { v'3' + . cos a. .

6. MATHEMATICS (SliURT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) This equation represents a curve surface (elliptic cylinder) projecting the given curve on the yz-plane. .1)2 = vx2 + (y . C be respectively (0.2)2 + (z .2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z .0 3.2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z .2 ' 3_ 2 or .10). ABC is an isosceles right-angled triangle.5) form a .0)2 + (y . (AB)2 = (0 + 1)2 + (7 .3) is V(x .0) . 7.1) r (16 -6 17) 3+2' 3+2 ' 3+2 a 5' 5 ' 5 and the coordinates of the external point are ( (8 -6 1 ) 3. {ITff {ITff V18 and V27 . • SOLUTION: The coordinates of the internal point are ( 3.6) and (-4.3)2 Of. V(x .G.9.6)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18 (BC)2 = (-1 + 4)2 + (6 . B.-2. . Ex.6).6)2 + (10 .2. 6 Show that the points (0.7)2 + (6 .2.6) form an isosceles right-angled triangle. z) to (2. square. 5 Find the coordinates of the points which divide the distance between two points (2.2' 3.2)2 + (z . 10).5.2y .1. Distance from (x. ° Ex.5) and (2.(-2) .9)2 + (6 . (-1.6) and (-4.7.2..2 3. x . as t h e Ieng th 0 f·Its semi-maJor and seml-mmor Ex.0)2 + (9 .5+2.6)2 = 9 + 9 + = 18 and (CA)2 = (-4 . Ex.2)2 + (z .0 3.1) and (4. • SOLUTION: Let the coordinates of A. • SOLUTION: Let the coordinates of P be (x.4+2.2)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z .1)2 = x 2 + (y . and Wit h axes.4 .10)2 = 16 + 4 + 16 = 36. Since AB2 + BC2 = CA2 and AB = BC.5 . z).1).2.5) internally and externally in the ratio 3:2. According to the condition. -2.2.4. 1) and (0.0.z + 1 = 0. . -4x + 8y + 4z = 4 or. y. Squaring we get (x .4.3)2.2 3..2. (-2.9.3)2. 3. -2.30 U. y.1) 3 . 7 Show that the points (1.6. (-1.1). (-1. 1) is V(x .(-2)+2.3).1)2 and that of from P to (0. The projection is an ellipse with centre at (0. 4 Find the locus of a point P which is equidistance from the points (2.

5)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18 CD 2 = (-1.7.5)2 + (1..e. YI. -1) and (1. f3.1)2 = 1 + 1 + 16 = 18 . Again AC2 = (1 + 1)2 + (1 . 0. (iv) Intercept form of a plane: If the plane cuts the coordinates axes at (0.31 • SOLUTION: Let A(l. 'Y be the direction angles of a line then show that sin2 a+sin2 f3+ sin2 'Y = 2. c) then its equation is :. 0) and (0.(sin~ a + sin2 f3 + sin2 'Y) = 1 or. f3. if a.5)2 = 9 + 9 + = 18 and DA2 = (2 .4.c's of any directed line. m.rs a. (ii) Equation of the plane passing through a point: The equation of the plane passing through a point (Xl.sin2 'Y) = 1 or.5)2 = 16 +4+ 16 = 36.] 4. b. AB = BC = CD = DA.0. B( -2. Then the distance is a ° c ° l va ax 1 + byl + CZI + 2 +h2+c2 dl. where a. (i) {2/vU.2)2 + (1.cs of the plane and pis the perpendicular distance from origin to the plane. 1. + !b + :.4: GEOMETRY 4.2)2 + (5 . . the ~iagonal AC and BD are equal.6 Plane (i) General equation of plane: ax+by+cz+d = is the general equation of the plane.5)2 + (1 .: 1. -3/Vl3.1)2 = 9 + 9 + = 18 BC2 = (-2 + 1)2 + (4 . 3 .yt} + c(z . c are d. 0).sin2 a) + (1 . b.4. -I)? (ii) Show that 1. Zl) and having d. ° ° . Exercise 1 (i) What are the direction cosines of the straight line joining the points (3. Hence ABCD is a square.zt} = 0. (1 . AB2 = (1 + 2)2 + (1 . 2.1)2 + (2 -1)2 + (5 . Ex.0}. ::. n are the d. b. • SOLUTION: We know. (v) Perpendicular distance of a point from a plane: Let ax + by + cz + d = be the equation of the plane and (Xl! yl! zt) be a given point. 8 If a. sin2 a + sin2 f3 + sin2 'Y = 2. 5) be the corner points of the square ABCD.rs of the plane. c is a(x . 1.1). where I. 'Y be the direction angles of a line then cos2 a+ cos 2 f3 + cos 2 'Y = 1 or. [Ans. S) and L!(2.5.CH.sin2 (3) + (1 . (0. 1). C( -1.4)2 + (1 . (iii) Equation of the plane in normal form: Ix + my + nz = p is the normal form of a plane.5)2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 36 and BD2 = (-2 _2)2 + (4 .xt} + bey .2)2 + (5 . 1 can not be the d. i.

G. The equations of the planes are alx + bly + ClZ + dl v'ai + bi + ci = ± a2x + b2y + C2Z + d 2 v'a~ + b~ + c~ .Z2).zl Z3 z4 - Zl = O.Z + 1 = o.32 V. (iv) Find the equation of the plane so that the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to it is (2. .4. (X4.5) and containing the y-axis. (v) Find the equation of the plane that bisects perpendicularly the line segment joining the points (2.3. (vi) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (4. -1).Y2. (X2. -3. (iii) Find the equation of the plane passing through P(a. (X3. (x) Coplanarity of four points: If the four points' (Xl.2y + 4z + 3 = 0 and through the point (-3. -4).2. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (vi) Angle between two planes: The angle between two planes alx+bly+ ClZ + dl = 0 and a2x + b 2 y + C2Z + d 2 = 0 is given by -1 ± cos· ala2 + bl b2 + ClC2 v'a~ + b~ + c~v'a~ + b~ + C~· (vii) Condition for perpendicularity: If the planes alx+blY+ClZ+d l = 0 and a2x+b2Y+C2Z+d2 = 0 are perpendicular then ala2+blb2+CIC2 = o.Z3). (ii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes 3x + Y . (viii) Condition for parallel planes: If the planes and a2x + b2Y + C2Z + d 2 = 0 are parallel then alX + bly + CIZ + dl = 0 al a2 bl b2 Cl C2 (ix) Planes bisecting the angles between two planes: Let the equations of the planes be alX + blY + ClZ + dl = 0 and a2X + b2 y + C2Z + d2 = o. -1.Y3. c) and perpendicular to OP. 1 (i) Find the equation of the plane which passes through the point (1.3) and (-4. Zl Ex.2).2. 2) and is parallel to the plane 2x + 3~ .Y4.Z4) are coplanar then X2 .5z + 7 = 0 and X . where 0 is the origin. b.Xl Y2 Y3 Y4 - Xl :1:4 -j'>Xl X3 - Yl Yl YI z2 . -1. Yb zI).

(O.0.z + 1 = 0.CH. Hence (1) becomes 2(x . b.5/2). -1) is the foot of the perpendicular on the required plane.e.a) (2. 2. (ii) Let the equation of the plane passing through the given planes be (3x + y . i. 4x .y .1) . If iJ passes through the point (-3. -1.20k Hence the required equation of the plane is (3x + y . c}.2) + 3(y . Hence the required equation of the plane is 2{x .b) + c{z . 0). . 2x + 3y - (v) The requi~ed plane passing through the middle point of A(2.1) + 3(y + 1) . the d.rs of the line passing through origin (0) and P(2.5z + 7) + k{x .. through the point (-1.3 .16 + 3) = 0 or. c a2 + b2 + c2 . • SOLUTION: (i) Let the equation of the plane passing through (I.2y + 4z + 3) = 0 or. -1 . + 1) = 0 or. 3. c .O} or. k = 1.= . ax + by + cz = + 1) = O. 3.O} or. b.a) m{y . b.l(z . a{x .2) + b(y .3) .rs of the line OP are {a . (iv) The d. Let the equation of the plane be a(x .2) = O.. + 10 = O.1) + b{y + 1) + c{z .z = 0 or. -1.0.33 (vii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (I. -4) then (-9 + 2 + 20 + 7) + k{ -3 . 20 . 0.3.b) + n{z .4: GEOMETRY 4.1/2. (1) Since OP is perpendicular to the plane (1).2) = 0 or. c) be l{x .2. (iii) Let the equation of the plane passing through P{a.l(z ~ = ~ = ~1 z = 14. 0. is perpendicular to the line 0 P then + The d.=k. {2. If the plane ~= a mb = ~.0. 2 3 -1 Putting the values of a. 1.2) i.e. c to (I) we get the required equation of the plane. -I}. b .c) = 0 or.2) be a{x .= . abc . -1) are {20.z + 3 = O. (I) Since it is parallel to 2x + 3y .4 .rs are proportional.c) = O. 2x + 3y .2y + 4z + 3) = O.3) + c(z Hence the equation of the plane is + b{y .3) and B{ -4. {a.0) and (O.5z + 7) + l{x .

.5) = 0. so -4a + 4b . (2) Again (1) containing y-axis.G.0.0) + z (0 + 1) = Ex.1/2) + l(z 5/2) = or. x-4 z-5 On dividing we have -4.-3) from the plane 5x . '.5c = 0.2 + 1. (1) and (2) become a(x .3.1 -1 y z 1 0 0 1 = O.3y + z + 5 = 0 is 5.5) be a(x . 5x-4z (vii) Let the equation of the plane through (1.0) + c(l . x + y + z = 1.= -5. (x .1) . 2 z ° or.1.3z + 5 = 3z . These d.1).1) + b(l . -3. or. b.O + b..4) + b(y + 3) + c(z . MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) The d.4. c from (1). so all the points on y-axis are the points on the plane (1).or.rs of the line perpendicular to the plane. It also pass through (0.(-3) + 51 __1_ y'25+9+1 .2.0) be a point on y-axis.1) + b(O .rs are proportional to the d. • SOLUTION: ° and x + 2y - (i) The distance from the point (1.3(y .1. (1) The plane (1) containing y-axis. ° (vi) Let the equation of the plane passing through (4.rs of AB are {6. 1}.7 = 0 .y'35' 1 .0) = O. (2) and (3) we get x -1 .4) + c(z .O = 0 ({O. 6x . Equation (1) passes through it.3y + 0.3y + z + 5 = 0. -3. Hence the equation of the plane is 6(x + 1) . 2.cs . a(O .y (-1 . b = 0 .1) + b(y .0.0) = O. Eliminating a.e.:. + c.0) = O.34 V. so a.0) and (0.1 of y-axis) i.5) = 0 and 4a + 5c = O. (ii) Find the distance between the planes x + 2y . Let (0.0) + c(z . 1.0) + c(O . +5= (i) Find the distance of the point (1.1. (1) (2) (3) = O. 5x-20 = 4z-20 or. -3) to the plane 5x . a(O .0) be a(x . O} are the d..

• SOLUTION: + 2y + (i) Dividing the given equation by ~+~-~+~=O 5V3 5V3 x or.1. Since dl and d2 are opposite in sign.1. (ii) Write down the intercept form of the equation of the plane 5x 3z -17 = O . dl = 2x + y + 3z .3z +5 = 0 is Again the distance from the origin to the plane x -7 vT4' vT4' 7 + 2y - 3z .4: GEOMETRY 4. Determine the value of h for which the planes 3x .1). (i) Find the angle between the planes x-y+2z .7 = 2.1).CH.7 = 1 > O.1. x y z 17/5 + 17/2 + 17/3 = 1.1) and (2. d2 = 2x + y + 3z . 5 (ii) = 9 and 2i+y+z = 7.1 + 1 + 3.2 + 1 + 3.5V3 = .=4=+=='9 = - + 2y .2y + hz .7 = -1 < 0 and at (2. 5V3 J1 2 + 52 + (_7)2 = J75 = 5V3 we get + 5V3 5V3 y 7z 2 V3 . Hence find the length of the perpendicular from origin to the plane. (ii) The equation can be rewritten in the form 5x + 2y + 3z = 17 or. Ex. the points lie opposite sides of the given plane.V3' Which is the normal form of the given plane and the perpendicular distance from the origin is 1. • SOLUTION: At (1.7 = o. which is the required intercept form of the given plane.1 . 3 Show that the points (1.:::9 = vT4' ~v'~i=+=.1) lie on the opposite sides of the plane 2x + y + 3z .35 (ii) The distance from the origin to the plane x 5 5 ~v'~1=+=.1 = 0 and x + hy + 5z + 2 = 0 may be perpendicular to each other.7 = 2. Ex.1 . 4 (i) Reduce the equation x + 5y .=4=+:::.7z + 10 = 0 to the normal form.~ 1= ~.1.7 = 0 is Hence the required distance between the given planes is 5 12 vT4 1 - vT4 -71 = Ex.

gle () between the planes is given by cos () or..v..5.4y + 7z + 10 = O.rs are 3. (4.4y + 12z = 26.4) and (0.Since the planes are perpendicular i.2z = 9.G.3y + 4z + 1 = 0 and 4x + y 2z + 6 = O. 7r 3.2.3.4. -1.:2=+=2==='5 . Ex. () = 60°. (vii) Find the equations of the planes bisecting the angle between the planes 3x .. -8) and perpendicular to each of the planes 2x .4). x + 2y .h + h. (ii) Find the equation of the plane which is perpendicular to the plane x + 2y .4.. 7 (i) Find the equation of the plane through the point (1.4) and parallel to the zx-plane.r=9=+=4=+=======h"""2".1). -3) and normal to the straight line joining the points (-1.= + (-1)2 + 22v'22 + 12 + 12 2 cos 600 (ii. 5. 3h + 3 = 0 or.. :. = Jli 1.4.·The_~. -1) are coplanar.2.=1=+:::::h=. (v) Find the equation of the plane passing through (2.. h = -1. MATHEMATICS (SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) (i~:.-'-.2h + 5h = 0 or.3. (iii) Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (2. Hence the given points are coplanar.5 cos 2" = -. . 3 .2 + (-1).36 • SbLUTlON: p.1.1 + 2. (iv) Find the equation of the plane passing through (4. -1). 6 Show that the point (3. -1) and perpendicular to the line whose d.0) and parallel to the plane 3x .4 = 0 and 2x + y + z + 2 = O.z + 1 = 0 and which contains the line of intersection of the planes x + 2y + 3z .9.' or. the angle between them is ~.1. -2.4) and (5. Ex. (vi) Find the equation of the plane passing through (2.1 1 =. • SOLUTION: Here 4-3 5-9 1-4 -4-3 4-9 4-4 0-3 -1-9 -1-4 = -4 -3 -7 -5 0 -3 -10 -5 1 =0.1 + (-2). (-4.e.

rs 3.5.2) + O.5z = 19.z 2(2 + k) .rs of the required plane. Since the plane normal to this line {-6. .rs of the required plane are {3. (iv) Since the required plane is parallel to the given plane.2z = 12.4: GEOMETRY 4.4. (1 + 2k)x + (2 + k)y + (3 + k)z + 2k . 3x + 4y .4/3)x or.12z2 planes .4) = 0 or.4. Hence the equation of the plane is 3(x 4) .4 = O. 6x . (1) becomes 1.1.(z . x+10y+'lz+4 = 0.2) + 5(z + 3) = 0 or.. -8) be a(x . • SOLUTION: + 18yz + 2zx + xy = 0 represents a pair of (i) The d.(3 + k) = 0 or.4 abc = 4 + 16 = 2 + 12 or i = 10 = "7 = 0 or.3.2c = 0 (2) (3) Solving (2) and (3) we get abc 6. {1) If it is perpendicular to the plane x + 2y . +1= 0 then 1.1. 1. therefore the d.y .0) = 0 or.5) + c(z + 8) = O. -1) is 3(x . Hence the equation of the plane passing through the point (1.7z + 16 = O. -1) are { -6.2. 3x .(y .rs of the plane are also 3.4/3 .4y .4(y .3. x + z = 6.8 = O.2/3)z .(1 + 2k) + Then (1) becomes (1 . Then its equation is 1. the d.4) and (5. -2.4 = 0 (iii) Let the equation of the plane passing through the point (2. (1) If it is perpendicular to the given