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who- water quality swimming pool 9241546808_eng

who- water quality swimming pool 9241546808_eng

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Published by Abdul Raheem U L

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Published by: Abdul Raheem U L on Feb 13, 2011
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layout Safe Water.indd 108
layout Safe Water.indd 108

24.2.2006 9:57:15
24.2.2006 9:57:15

be used. Quaternary ammonium and polyoximino compounds and copper salts can
be used, but any based on mercury (a cumulative toxic heavy metal) should not be
added to swimming pools. All should be used in strict accordance with the suppliers’
instructions and should be intended for swimming pool use.

5.3.3 Disinfection by-products (DBP)

The production of disinfection by-products (see Chapter 4) can be controlled to a
significant extent by minimizing the introduction of precursors though source water
selection, good bather hygienic practices (e.g. pre-swim showering – see Section 5.1),
maximizing their removal by well managed pool water treatment and replacement
of water by the addition of fresh supplies (i.e. dilution of chemicals that cannot be
removed). It is inevitable, however, that some volatile disinfection by-products, such
as chloroform and nitrogen trichloride (a chloramine), may be produced in the pool
water (depending upon the disinfection system used) and escape into the air. While
levels of production should be minimized, this hazard can also be managed to some
extent through good ventilation (see also Section 5.9).

5.3.4 Disinfectant dosing

The method of introducing disinfectants to the pool water influences their effectiveness,
and, as illustrated in Figure 5.1, disinfectant dosing may occur pre- or post-filtration.
Individual disinfectants have their own specific dosing requirements, but the following
principles apply to all:

• Automatic dosing is preferable: electronic sensors monitor pH and residual dis-
infectant levels continuously and adjust the dosing correspondingly to maintain
correct levels. Regular verification of the system (including manual tests on pool
water samples) and good management are important. Section 5.10 describes the
monitoring procedures.
• Hand-dosing (i.e. putting chemicals directly into the pool) is rarely justified.
Manual systems of dosing must be backed up by good management of opera-
tion and monitoring. If manual dosing is employed, it is important that the
pool is empty of bathers until the chemical has dispersed.
• Dosing pumps should be designed to shut themselves off if the circulation sys-
tem fails (although automatic dosing monitors should remain in operation) to
ensure that chemical dispersion is interrupted. If chemical dosing continues
without water circulating, then high local concentrations of the dosed chemical
will occur. On resumption of the circulation system, the high concentration
will progress to the pool. If, for example, both hypochlorite and acid have been
so dosed, the resultant mix containing chlorine gas may be dangerous to pool

• Residual disinfectants are generally dosed at the end of the treatment process.
The treatment methods of coagulation, filtration and ozonation or ultravio-
let serve to clarify the water, reduce the organic load (including precursors for
the formation of disinfection by-products) and greatly reduce the microbial
content, so that the post-treatment disinfection can be more effective and the
amount of disinfectant required is minimized.

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