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Short Answer 1. List three athletic events that do NOT use the SI system of measurement. 2. Describe two advantages of the worldwide use of SI. 3. Sequence the following steps: scientific law, problem, theory, hypothesis, experiment. 4. Explain how the lack of a control in an experiment affects the data. 5. List three athletic events that use the SI system of measurement. 6. How is the International System of Units commonly abbreviated?

Figure 1-3 7. Use the graph in Figure 1-3 to find the number of grams of sugar that will dissolve in 100 grams of water at 80ºC. 8. Use the graph in Figure 1-3 to find the temperature, in Celsius, that will dissolve 300 g of sugar in 100 g of water. 9. What is the dependent variable in the graph shown on Figure 1-3? 10. What type of graph is shown in Figure 1-3? 11. Use the graph in Figure 1-3 to find the temperature, in kelvins, that will dissolve 400 g of sugar in 100 g of water. 12. Arrange each of the following in order from largest to smallest. 1. centimeter 2. kilometers 3. meters 4. micrometers 5. millimeters 13. A truck travels to and from a stone quarry that is located 2.5 km to the east. What is its distance? What is its displacement?

14. Two cars start at the same point and drive in a straight line for 5 km. At the end of the drive their distances are the same but their displacements are different. Explain. 15. An inline skater is skating around a parking lot. Can she have constant speed and a changing velocity? Changing speed and constant velocity? Explain your answers. 16. Two cars are traveling along the same road at the same speed but at different velocities. Explain. 17. A car is driving down a road. Is it possible for its position to be changing and its acceleration to be zero? Is it possible for its velocity to be changing and its acceleration to be zero? 18. Describe how both velocity and acceleration are rates of change. 19. A car has an acceleration of –5 m/s2. Describe the car’s motion. 20. What is necessary for an object to accelerate? 21. If two equal forces act on an object in opposite directions, what is the net force? What is the acceleration? 22. Can an object be in motion if the net force acting on it is zero? Explain. 23. State Newton’s first law of motion. 24. If you are running and you stub your toe, you fall forward. Explain. 25. Why is it necessary to wear a seat belt to hold you in place if you are riding in a car that stops suddenly? Object 1 2 3 4 D. Table 3-1 26. Complete Table 3-1 by calculating the missing values. 27. Which object in Table 3-1 has the greatest momentum? 28. Which object in Table 3-1 has the least momentum? 29. In Table 3-1, how does the momentum of object 2 compare with the momentum of object 3? 30. In Table 3-1, why is object 2's momentum greater than object 1's momentum? 31. In Table 3-1, what factor causes object 4 to have a greater momentum than object 3? 32. Sally sits on a rock. Her weight is an action force. Describe its reaction force. 33. A bowling ball loses momentum of 0.5 kg × m/s when it hits some pins. How much momentum did the pins gain? B. 25 kg C. 25 m/s Mass 10 kg Velocity 25 m/s 25 m/s A. 300 kg × m/s 300 kg × m/s 300 kg × m/s Momentum

34. A book and a piece of paper, the same size, fall at different rates. How can you change the shape of the paper so it will fall at nearly the same rate as the book? Explain your answer. 35. Two objects that have the same mass are dropped from a tall building. One object is larger and flatter than the other. Explain why the larger, flatter object hits the ground last. 36. Sally throws a ball horizontally from the top of a tall building at the same time that Pete drops a ball from the top of the same building. Which ball will hit the ground first? Explain your answer. 37. List the forces that act on a tennis ball during a game and explain how each force affects the tennis ball. 38. Explain how mass and weight are different from each other. 39. Why is your weight less on the Moon than on Earth, but your mass is the same? 40. Explain the action-reaction forces of a rocket in space. 41. What is weight? 42. Explain what effect terminal velocity and air resistance have on a sky diver when he opens his parachute. 43. A bowling ball hits some pins. Explain what happens to the momentum of the ball and the momentum of the pins. 44. The space shuttle moves into a higher orbit farther from Earth. Explain what happens to the gravitational force on the shuttle. 45. What causes friction? 46. When coasting while roller skating, you eventually stop. Why? 47. Which body processes are fueled by chemical potential energy? 48. How is mass converted into energy in nuclear fusion? 49. How is mass converted into energy in nuclear fission? 50. Where do nuclear fusion and nuclear fission reactions occur naturally?

Figure 4-1 51. Which ball in Figure 4-1 has the greatest potential energy? 52. Which ball in Figure 4-1 has the least potential energy? 53. What is the difference between the energy provided by fats and the energy provided by carbohydrates and proteins? 54. Is it possible for a ball to have both kinetic energy and potential energy at the same time? Explain. 55. A ball has 100 J of potential energy when it is on a shelf. Explain what happens to the potential energy and the kinetic energy as the ball falls, and find the amount of kinetic energy the ball has at the instant it hits the floor.

56. Explain the changes in energy when a child slides down a sliding board. 57. How does the child's ride on the slide change if the slide is lubricated with water to make it slippery? 58. What kind of energy is stored by green plants? 59. Describe the changes in mechanical energy as you run up a flight of steps. 60. A dump truck, a sports car, and a bicycle are traveling at the same velocity. Compare their kinetic energies. 61. How is nuclear fission used to generate electricity? 62. Which of the following could be the mechanical advantage of a third–class lever: 0.7, 1.5, 10.5, or 3.0? 63. An inventor claims to have built a machine that can produce 120 J of work with an input of 110 J. Would you believe the inventor's claim? Why or why not? 64. Tin snips, designed for cutting metal, have long handles and short blades. Shears designed for cutting paper have short handles and long blades. Explain why this is so. 65. What happens to energy when work is done? 66. Explain why the mechanical advantage of a single fixed pulley is always 1. 67. How are work, time, and power related? 68. Explain why adding oil to the moving parts of a machine can increase its efficiency. 69. Gears are modified wheel-and-axle machines. Explain how to calculate the mechanical advantage of a pair of gears. 70. Sally and Pete do the same amount of work. Sally does the work in 2.3 hours and Pete does it in 2.5 hours. Who is more powerful? Explain. 71. Why is actual mechanical advantage less than ideal mechanical advantage? 72. What is the unit of efficiency? 73. Why would it be very difficult to drop a note in a bottle off of a boat into the waves and have it reach shore? 74. If you put a ringing alarm clock into a vacuum jar, you cannot hear the alarm. Explain. 75. On the surface of the ocean, water particles are free to move up-and-down as well as back-and-forth to form a combination of transverse and compressional waves. What kind of waves are likely to transport energy deep in the ocean? Why? 76. Explain how seismic waves form.

Figure 11-1 77. In Figure 11-1, identify the following structures: ______wavelength ______crest

______amplitude 78. How is the amplitude of a compressional wave determined? 79. You are shaking the end of a rope to make a wave. You start shaking the rope the same distance, but more rapidly. What happens to the frequency and wavelength? 80. You shake the end of a rope to make a wave. You start shaking the rope a greater distance but at the same speed. How are the wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed affected? 81. You drop a stone into a pond. Ripples move away from the point where the stone entered the water. As the ripples move out, they become smaller and smaller. Explain what is happening in terms of energy. 82. Explain what it means for a wave to have a frequency of one hertz. 83. A hiker shouts toward a cliff and hears an echo. Explain how the echo occurred. 84. A light wave traveling at an angle starts in air and passes into glass. Will the wave's speed and direction be affected? 85. Explain why AM signals can often be heard behind hills while FM signals cannot. 86. Compare and contrast refraction and diffraction. 87. A standing wave shows both constructive and destructive interference. Explain.

You are designing an experiment to determine how the use of a particular fertilizer affects the growth of tomato plants. Answer the following questions based on this particular experiment.

88. There are many factors that you must control in this experiment for your results to be valid. List

**three of these factors.
**

89. What would NOT be used in your control set-up that you MUST use in your experimental set-up?

Why?

90. List two types of measurements that you would need to make during the experiment. 91. A student designed and conducted the tomato plant experiment. He chose one particular amount of

fertilizer to apply throughout the experiment, which lasted for many weeks. He discovered that the fertilized plants grew taller and leafier than the control plants, but did not produce nearly as much fruit. Can he conclude that this particular brand of fertilizer is detrimental to tomato plants? Why or why not?

92. What are the two properties of motion that can be changed to cause acceleration? Give an example

**of each to explain your answer.
**

93. A high speed train, full of passengers, is waiting at a station. If the train suddenly accelerates rapidly,

what will the passengers experience? Which of Newton's laws applies to the passengers' experience? An astronaut brings her lucky horseshoe on a mission to the moon. Answer the following questions about this horseshoe.

94. Would the astronaut's lucky horseshoe weigh the same, more, or less on the moon than it did on the

Earth? Explain your reasoning.

95. Would the lucky horseshoe's mass on the moon be the same, greater than, or less than the mass of the

**horseshoe when it is on the Earth? Explain your answer.
**

96. Name an example for each of the three classes of levers.

**a. first class b. second class c. third class
**

97. Calculate the work done when a 50 newton object is lifted 5 meters using a block and tackle. 98. Name a metric unit used to measure each of the following quantities:

a. b. c. d.

energy work force power

99. A ball is thrown from position (1) to a height of 3 meters (position 2) to give it potential energy. The

ball then falls to position (3). Assuming there is no energy loss due to friction, at the instant it returns to position (3), compare:

**a. kinetic energy at position (1) with kinetic energy at position (3) b. potential energy at position (2) with kinetic energy at (3)
**

100. Kinetic energy and potential energy are often considered to be forms of mechanical energy. List

**three other forms of energy and state a source for each.
**

101. Name three common oscillators. 102. How are frequency and period related? 103. What is the approximate period of revolution of the Moon around the Earth? 104. Which graphs represent two pendulums that are in phase?

Figure 4.1

105. What is the period of the pendulum whose motion is graphed in Figure 4.1? 106. What is the amplitude of the pendulum whose motion is graphed in Figure 4.1? 107. Waves are an everyday experience. List three common situations in which you encounter waves. 108. Write a formula for expressing the speed of a wave. 109. When waves travel, they meet obstacles. Name four different things that can happen to the waves

**when they meet an obstacle.
**

110. List 2 factors that determine the natural frequency of a "plucked" string. 111. The pictures below represent vibrating guitar strings. Which picture shows a guitar string of one and

only one wavelength?

112. Two pulses are traveling on the same rope as shown in the diagram. As they meet, what type of inter-

action will occur at their meeting point?

113. How many wavelengths are represented by the distance between adjacent nodes on a standing wave? 114. There are two main types of waves. Of which type is a sound wave? 115. Sound travels at about 340 meters/second in air under normal conditions. Name two factors that af-

**fect the speed of sound in a material.
**

Problem 116. A small stone dropped into a graduated cylinder causes the water level in the cylinder to rise from 18 mL to 22 mL. What is the volume of the stone? 117. What is the density of the acid in a car battery if 200 mL of the acid has a mass of 240 g? 118. A temperature of 798K is equal to what Celsius temperature?

Figure 1-1 119. Use the graph in Figure 1-1 to determine the percent of human blood that is NOT red blood cells.

Figure 1-2 120. Use Figure 1-2 to find the percentage of adults who carpool compared to the number of adults who ride the bus. 121. A cross-country runner runs 10 km in 40 minutes. What is his average speed? 122. A high speed train travels with an average speed of 227 km/h. The train travels for 2 h. How far does the train travel? 123. Find the acceleration of a car that goes from 32 m/s to 96 m/s in 8.0 s. 124. A 10-kg wagon has a speed of 25 m/s. What is its momentum? 125. Calculate the force on an object that has a mass of 12 kg and an acceleration of 4 m/s2. 126. An 18-kg bicycle carrying a 62-kg girl is traveling at a speed of 7 m/s. What is the kinetic energy of the girl and bicycle? 127. A 20-kg bicycle carrying a 50-kg girl is traveling at a speed of 8 m/s. What is the kinetic energy of the girl and bicycle? 128. A 70-kg boy is sitting 3 m from the ground in a tree. What is his gravitational potential energy? 129. A 90-kg ceiling light is suspended 4 m above the floor. What is its gravitational potential energy?

Figure 5-2 130. Find the ideal mechanical advantage of the second-class lever shown in Figure 5-2. 131. What would be the ideal mechanical advantage of the lever in Figure 5-2 if the fulcrum were moved 2 m to the right?

Figure 5-3 132. In Figure 5-3A, what is the ideal mechanical advantage of the inclined plane? 133. In Figure 5-3A, what is the weight of the block? 134. In Figure 5-3A, what is the amount of work required to move the block along the total length of the inclined plane? 135. If the weight of the block in Figure 5-3A were doubled, how much work would be required to move the block along the total length of the inclined plane? 136. If the efficiency of the fixed pulley in Figure 5-3B were 100 percent, how much force would be required in using the pulley to lift the block off the ground? 137. Calculate the ideal mechanical advantage of a lever that is 6 m long and that has 4.5 m effort arm. 138. A 24 cm long screwdriver is used as a lever to open a can of paint. If the fulcrum is 0.5 cm away from the end of the screwdriver, what is the screwdriver's ideal mechanical advantage? 139. Make a sketch of a possible block-and-tackle arrangement that has a mechanical advantage of 4. 140. Speed can be determined by dividing the distance traveled by the time. The water waves in a lake travel 4.4 m in 2.0 s. What is the speed of the waves? 141. An ocean wave has a frequency of 2.0 Hz with a wavelength of 10 m. What is the velocity of the wave? 142. Would you be more likely to win a ten-kilometer race if you ran at a constant speed of 6 miles per

hour, or if you ran at a constant speed of 8 kilometers per hour? Explain how you arrived at your answer. (Hint: 1 kilometer = 0.62 mile).

143. A woman jogs for 2.0 hours covering a distance of 13. kilometers. What is the speed of the woman

**expressed in kilometers per hour?
**

144. A man runs 1500. meters in 4.00 minutes. What is the speed of the man expressed in meters per

second?

145. A race car travels at a constant speed. Position and time data are recorded. A graph is prepared using

the data. Use this graph to determine the speed of the race car.

146. A boy riding a bicycle travels at 10 miles per hour for 3 hours. He stops to rest for one hour and then

continues his ride. For the next hour he rides at a speed of 20 miles per hour. During this ride, what was the rider's average speed for the five hour period?

147. A carton weighs 5.00 pounds. If 1.00 newton equals the weight of 0.228 pounds, what is the weight

**of the carton in units of newtons?
**

148. According to legend, Galileo dropped two balls from the Tower of Pisa to see which would fall

faster. Suppose one of the balls had a mass of 5.0 kilograms. Given the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/sec2, what was the weight of the ball in newtons?

149. A 50-kilogram boy standing on a friction-free skateboard throws a 5.0-kilogram ball backward off

**the skateboard at a speed of 10 meters per second. At what speed does the boy move forward?
**

150. While sitting motionless in a 5.00-kilogram, friction-free wagon, an 80.0-kilogram clown catches a

15.0-kilogram cannonball traveling horizontally at 20 meters per second. After the cannonball is caught, at what speed do the clown, wagon, and ball move?

151. A block and tackle is designed with five supporting ropes. If a 250-newton object is to be lifted with

**this machine, what is the minimum input force that would have to be applied?
**

152. A first class lever is used to lift a 500-pound load. If the input arm is 6.0 feet long, what is the min-

imum length of output arm that would allow the load to be lifted using only 125 pounds of input force?

153. A construction worker uses a block and tackle to lift 2,400 newtons of lumber from the ground to a

waiting helper on the second floor, 4 meters from the ground. To do this, she applies a 250-newton force on the rope of the block and tackle. She pulls 50 meters of rope through the block and tackle before the load is lifted to the second floor. Based upon the information given, calculate the following for this block and tackle: a. work input b. work output c. efficiency

154. Jennifer, who weighs 450 newtons, and Judy, who weighs 600 newtons, are standing at the bottom of

a flight of stairs that is 4.00 meters high. Jennifer runs up the stairs in 3.0 seconds. Judy runs up the same stairs in 4.0 seconds. Compare the work done and the power generated by each girl's run up the stairs. Support your answer by showing calculations for each quantity. a. Who does more work?

**b. Who is more powerful?
**

155. A father warns his son against speeding in the family automobile by saying "Having an accident at

80 miles per hour is four times as dangerous as an accident at 20 miles per hour." Do you agree with Dad or not? Give support for your answer based upon principles of energy conversion and conservation.

156. If no friction is involved, mechanical energy is never created or destroyed, just transformed from one

form to another. With this principle in mind, answer the following question: A ball with a mass of 0.15 kilograms is thrown to a height of 3.0 meters. How fast is it traveling as it leaves the throwers hand? (Assume there is no friction).

157. The distance between the crests of two waves on a lake is 2.0 meters. The waves break on the shore

**every 5 seconds. How fast do the waves move on the surface of the water?
**

158. On a guitar, if the natural frequency of a 64 centimeter string is 140 hertz, what is the frequency of a

**48 centimeter string?
**

159. Charlie is standing on the bottom of a wide canyon, leaning against its wall. He wonders just how

wide the canyon is. Knowing that sound travels at a speed of about 340 meters per second. He hollers and listens for his echo. Measuring with his stopwatch, Charlie determines that his echo returns in 4.00 seconds. How wide is the canyon?

Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true. ____ 160. Displacement includes both distance and direction. _________________________ ____ 161. Motion occurs when there is a change in speed. _________________________ ____ 162. If you were trying to get out of the way of a storm, you would need to know the speed at which it was moving. _________________________ ____ 163. The total distance traveled divided by the constant speed is the average speed. _________________________ ____ 164. The relationship s = d/t can be used to calculate speed, distance or time. _________________________ ____ 165. Acceleration occurs when velocity changes. _________________________ ____ 166. If you roll a ball up a hill, it undergoes positive acceleration. _________________________ ____ 167. When you push on a sled and it begins to go downhill, you cause negative acceleration. _________________________ ____ 168. Acceleration is calculated by dividing change in speed by total time. _________________________ ____ 169. When the forces acting on an object are unbalanced, the net force is zero. _________________________ ____ 170. An object in motion at a constant velocity will change its motion only if a balanced force acts on it. _________________________ ____ 171. In a car crash, inertia could cause you to crash into the windshield. _________________________ ____ 172. The greater an object's mass, the weaker the gravitational force on it. _________________________ ____ 173. When a ball is dropped, it falls down due to the force of friction. _________________________

____ 174. Pushing a box up a hill, you have to overcome static friction. _________________________ ____ 175. A box doesn't move when you push it because of static friction. _________________________ ____ 176. Energy in the form of motion is potential energy. _________________________ ____ 177. According to the law of conservation of energy, mechanical energy can be changed to heat energy. _________________________ ____ 178. A rock at the edge of a cliff has kinetic energy because of its position. _________________________ ____ 179. When you put on the brakes of a bicycle, friction causes some of the mechanical energy to change to thermal energy. _________________________ ____ 180. According to the law of conservation of energy, energy can be created or destroyed. _________________________ ____ 181. Energy that is stored is kinetic energy. _________________________ ____ 182. Energy stored in food you eat is chemical potential energy. _________________________ ____ 183. Elastic energy is the total potential and kinetic energy in a system. _________________________ ____ 184. Energy is measured in joules. _________________________ ____ 185. Compression energy is stored in a stretched rubber band. _________________________ ____ 186. A book sitting on a shelf has gravitational potential energy. _________________________ ____ 187. Actual mechanical advantage is determined with the equation MA = Fr/Fe. _________________________ ____ 188. Power is work done over a distance. _________________________ ____ 189. The longer arm of a lever with a mechanical advantage greater than 1 is the effort arm. _________________________ ____ 190. Friction changes the useful work of a machine into mechanical energy. _________________________ ____ 191. Reducing friction increases the ideal mechanical advantage of a machine. _________________________ ____ 192. Sound waves do not carry energy. _________________________ ____ 193. Mechanical waves need a medium through which to transport energy. _________________________ ____ 194. The particles in a surface water wave move back-and-forth only. _________________________ ____ 195. Waves in which the particles of medium move at right angles to the direction of the wave are compressional waves. _________________________ ____ 196. Waves caused by an earthquake are called uniform waves. _________________________ ____ 197. The troughs of a transverse wave correspond to the compressions of a compressional wave.

_________________________

____ 198. The lowest point on a transverse is the trough. _________________________ ____ 199. The amplitude of a wave is measured from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next.

_________________________

____ 200. If the wavelength of a given wave decreases, you know that its frequency will stay the same.

_________________________

____ 201. Two waves have the same frequency and wavelength, but the first wave has a greater amplitude. The energy of the first wave is greater than that of the second. _________________________ ____ 202. Wave A has a greater frequency than wave B, but the amplitude of the two waves is the same. The energy of wave A is greater than that of wave B. _________________________ ____ 203. The unit for frequency is the meter. _________________________ ____ 204. The property of light that allows you to see yourself in a mirror is reflection.

_________________________

____ 205. When light passes from water into air, the light bends away from the normal.

_________________________

____ 206. When two sound waves are out of phase, the amplitude and loudness increase.

_________________________

____ 207. The ability of an object to vibrate by reflecting energy is called resonance.

_________________________

Essay 208. Scientists and people from most countries in the world use the metric system. Only people from the

U.S. and one or two other countries in the entire world still use the English system. Why is it important for you to be able to use BOTH the English AND the metric systems?

209. To make a graph, five steps are routinely followed. List the five steps in logical order for preparing a

proper graph.

210. Newton's third law is, perhaps, the most difficult to understand at first. It would seem that if two

teams are pulling on the same rope and, according to Newton's 3rd law, are exerting equal forces (all forces come in pairs), then neither team would win in a tug-of-war. Yet, one team wins every time. And it is not because they pull harder on the rope when the other team tires. They cannot. Why is one team able to win? Explain your answer.

211. Scientists and engineers both use science to solve problems they encounter. List the four (4) steps in

the engineering cycle. Compare these steps to the process we call the scientific method. Point out the similarities and differences between the two processes.

212. Explain what is meant when the statement is made that energy is conserved by a machine. 213. Waves move from one location to another. They carry energy due to continuous oscillations. Com-

**pare the oscillation and travel of transverse waves to the oscillation and travel of longitudinal waves.
**

214. Describe each of the following wave interactions using at least one complete sentence.

a. b. c. d.

reflection refraction diffraction absorption

215. State THREE pieces of evidence that allow us to refer to sound as a wave. 216. Imagine you are cruising in outer space in a spaceship when you notice an asteroid hurtling towards

your ship. You fire a missile and score a direct hit. The asteroid explodes into a billion pieces. Would you hear the explosion? Explain your answer.

217. Two musical instruments may play the same note and yet they do not sound the same. What gives

**each instrument its characteristic sound?
**

Other 218. What is the length of the object pictured next to the metric ruler? Give your answer in centimeters

and include the unit label in your answer.

219. Most timing equipment displays time in three units: hours, minutes and seconds. To use the time data

to do a calculation, the time has to be expressed in one unit such as seconds. Describe how you would convert a time of 2 hours 3 minutes and 4 seconds to seconds only. Write the answer for the conversion as well.

220. Experiments are done to discover the relationship between variables. When results are graphed, the

graph may indicate a strong, weak or inverse relationship or no relationship at all. Label each graph with the words strong, inverse, weak or none to indicate the type of relationship shown by the graph.

A.

B.

C.

D.

221. Listed below are descriptions of the motion of several objects. If they are accelerating answer YES

next to the description of the object. If they are not accelerating answer NO. a. _____ A car traveling on a turnpike at a 60 mph with its cruise control engaged b. _____ A motorcycle whose brakes have been applied c. _____ A baseball dropped from the roof of a building d. _____ A girl on a skateboard going around a corner at a speed of 3 m/sec e. _____ A tractor-trailer parked in a rest area

222. Data is recorded for the change in the distance of a moving car as time passes. A graph is drawn

from this data. Look at the graph of distance versus time for this data. On the empty grid of the speed versus time graph, draw a line that would correctly represent the motion of the same car.

223. Listed below are daily life scenarios about objects in motion and at rest. Decide which of Newton's

three laws of motion best applies to each situation, and answer 1st, 2nd, or 3rd in each blank. a. _____ A boat moves through the water because of a rowing motion (using oars). b. _____ Spin a raw egg on the table, stop it with your hand, and remove your hand quickly. The egg will begin to spin again with no help at all! c. _____ A dropped basketball hits the floor and bounces back up. d. _____ It takes more force to accelerate a loaded dump truck than it takes to accelerate a small car with one passenger. e. _____ A cup of water sits motionless on a kitchen table.

224. Study the wheelbarrow picture. The arrows in the drawing represent the input force, the output force

and the fulcrum.

a. Write the words input force, output force and fulcrum next to the arrow to correctly identify what each arrow represents. b. Identify the wheelbarrow as a first, second or third class lever. c. Tell why you have identified the wheelbarrow as this class of lever.

225. Complete each of the following statements to make a true statement about the energy in each situ-

ation. 1. A bicycle at the top of a hill has energy because: 2. Gasoline has energy because: 3. You have energy because:

**Fall Review Part B
**

Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 1. The SI base unit of mass is the ____________________. 2. A measurement must include both a number and a(an) ____________________. 3. An experiment in which only one variable, the manipulated variable, is changed at a time is called a(an) _________________________. 4. An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information is called a(an) _________________________. 5. A(An) ____________________ is a way of organizing data that is used to show changes that occur in related variables. 6. Computers are an example of ____________________ that helps people solve problems. 7. The two main areas of physical science are physics and ____________________. 8. Natural science is divided into life science, Earth and space science, and _________________________. 9. The _________________________ is the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable.

10. A(An) ____________________ is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature. 11. A(An) _________________________ explains a pattern found in nature. 12. A flight simulator that helps astronauts prepare for a shuttle launch is an example of a(an) _________________________. 13. Because lab activities can involve hazardous materials, it is always important to read and understand any ____________________ that must be followed. 14. A(An) _________________________ makes it easier to understand things that are too small, too large, or too hard to observe directly. 15. In scientific notation, (8.2 × 104 m) × (3.7 × 102 m) equals ____________________. 16. In an experiment, 0.014 seconds equals ____________________ milliseconds. 17. ____________________ is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value being measured. 18. In an experiment, if doubling the manipulated variable results in a doubling of the responding variable, the relationship between the variables is a(an) _________________________. 19. The three values—10.714 m, 12.821 m, and 13.646 m—have the same number of ____________________. 20. The motion of an object looks different to observers in different ______________________________. 21. The SI unit for measuring ____________________ is the meter. 22. The direction and length of a straight line from the starting point to the ending point of an object’s motion is ____________________. 23. Displacement and velocity are examples of ____________________ because they have both magnitude and direction. 24. The sum of two or more vectors is called the _________________________. 25. Speed is measured in units of _________________________. 26. A car’s speedometer measures _________________________.

27.

is the equation that defines _________________________.

28. A constant slope on a distance-time graph indicates ____________________ speed. 29. The difference between speed and velocity is that velocity indicates the ____________________ of motion and speed does not. 30. A distance-time graph indicates an object moves 20 km in 2 h. The average speed of the object is ____________________ km/h. 31. Because its ____________________ is always changing, an object moving in a circular path experiences a constant change in velocity. 32. Two or more velocities add by _________________________. 33. A moving object does not ____________________ if its velocity remains constant. 34. Freely falling objects accelerate at 9.8 m/s2 because the force of ____________________ acts on them.

35. The velocity of an object moving in a straight line changes at a constant rate when the object is experiencing constant ____________________. 36. The acceleration of a moving object is calculated by dividing the change in ____________________ by the time over which the change occurs. 37. Accelerated motion is represented by a(an) ____________________ line on a distance-time graph. 38. A car that increases its speed from 20 km/h to 100 km/h undergoes ____________________ acceleration. 39. ______________________________ is how fast a velocity is changing at a specific instant. 40. A push or pull is an example of a(an) ____________________. 41. The type of force measured by a grocery store spring scale is ____________________. 42. The sum of all the forces acting on an object is called the _________________________. 43. If the forces acting on an object produce a net force of zero, the forces are called _________________________. 44. The force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move pass each other is called ____________________. 45. It usually takes more force to start an object sliding than it does to keep an object sliding because static friction is usually ____________________ than sliding friction. 46. The two forces acting on a falling object are gravity and _________________________. 47. When a falling object reaches terminal velocity, the net force acting on it is ____________________. 48. The drag force acting on an falling sky diver is also known as _________________________. 49. The path of motion of a thrown javelin is an example of ____________________ motion. 50. The tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion is called ____________________. 51. During a head-on auto collision, ____________________ causes a passenger in the front seat to continue moving ____________________. 52. The acceleration of an object is equal to the net ____________________ acting on the object divided by the object’s ____________________. 53. The force of gravity acting on an object is the object’s ____________________. 54. If a golf ball and bowling ball are rolling at the same speed, the ____________________ ball has greater momentum. 55. When you push on a wall, the ____________________ pushes back on you. 56. In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one object ____________________ the gain in momentum of another object. 57. The observation that a charged object can attract or repel other charged objects led scientists to conclude that there are ____________________ types of charges. 58. The universal force that is most effective over the longest distances is ____________________. 59. The centripetal force acting on the moon continuously changes the ____________________ of the moon’s motion. 60. For work to be done on an object, the object has to ____________________.

61. Any part of a force that does not act in the direction of an object’s motion does no ____________________ on an object. 62. The SI unit of work is the ____________________. 63. You calculate work by multiplying the force acting in the direction of ____________________ by the distance the object moves. 64. The rate at which work is done is called ____________________. 65. The SI unit of power is the ____________________. 66. The watt and the horsepower are both units of ____________________. 67. A machine is a device that changes a(an) ____________________. 68. A device that changes the size or direction of force used to do work is called a(an) ____________________. 69. The force that is exerted on a machine is called the ____________________ force. 70. Besides a reduction in friction, the only way to increase the amount of work output of a machine is to ____________________ the work input. 71. The ___________________________________ of a machine is the number of times that the machine increases the input force. 72. The mechanical efficiency of any machine is always ____________________ than 100 percent. 73. A(An) ____________________ can be described as an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. 74. The fulcrum is always between the effort force and the resistance force in a(an) ____________________class lever.

Figure 14-1 75. The bottle opener shown in Figure 14-1 is a(an) ____________________-class lever. 76. The ideal mechanical advantage of a third-class lever is always ____________________ than 1. 77. As the thickness of a wedge of given length increases, its IMA ____________________. 78. Two or more simple machines working together make up a(an) ____________________ machine. 79. A watch consists of a complex systems of gears. Each gear acts as a continuous ____________________. 80. Energy of an object increases when ____________________ is done on the object.

81. Energy and work are measured in the SI unit called the ____________________. 82. If the ____________________ of an object doubles, its kinetic energy doubles. 83. The kinetic energy of an object is proportional to the square of its ____________________. 84. Energy that is stored due to position or shape is called ____________________ energy. 85. When a pole-vaulter flexes the pole, the pole-vaulter increases the pole’s ____________________ potential energy. 86. You can calculate an object’s gravitational potential energy by using the equation ____________________. 87. Mechanical energy does not include kinetic energy or ____________________ energy. 88. The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of an object is called its ____________________ energy. 89. All energy can be considered as kinetic energy, ____________________ energy, or the energy in fields. 90. Wind turbines convert ____________________ energy into electrical energy. 91. The process of changing energy from one form to another is called energy ____________________. 92. “Energy cannot be created or destroyed” is a statement of the law of ___________________________________. 93. When an apple falls from a tree to the ground, the apple’s beginning kinetic energy and ending gravitational potential energy are both equal to ____________________.

Figure 15-1 94. In Figure 15-1, the kinetic energy of the pendulum bob decreases between locations B and ____________________. 95. In the equation E = mc2, c is the speed of ____________________. 96. Energy resources that exist in limited amounts and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years are called ____________________ energy resources. 97. Flat collector plates through which water flows are found in ____________________ solar energy systems. 98. Geothermal energy, in addition to being renewable, offers the benefit of being ____________________.

99. Turning off unused lights or appliances is an example of energy ____________________. Short Answer 100. When a number in a measurement is converted from kilometers to meters, does the number get larger or smaller? 101. How many significant figures will the answer to the calculation 65.25 × 37.4 have? 102. What type of graph would be the best to use to compare the levels of lead contamination in six water wells? 103. What is the relationship between two variables if the product of the variables is constant? 104. The study of an organism that lived 10 million years ago would most likely fall under which two branches of natural science? 105. Distance is a measure of length. What information does displacement give in addition to distance? 106. A child rolls a ball 4 m across a room. The ball hits the wall and rolls halfway back toward the child. Using vector addition, calculate the ball’s displacement. 107. Which is the most suitable SI unit for expressing the speed of a race car? 108. What are two types of speed that can be used to describe the motion of a car driving on the highway? 109. Bus A travels 300 m in 12 s. Bus B travels 200 m in 12 s. Both vehicles travel at constant speed. How do the distance-time graphs for these two speeds differ? 110. What is the significance of the slope in a distance-time graph? 111. Vector addition allows you to add what two quantities for any number of vectors? 112. What types of changes in motion cause acceleration? 113. How is motion described when the velocity of an object changes by the same amount each second?

114.

is the equation for calculating the acceleration of an object. Write out the relationship shown in the equation, using words.

115. In the equation for acceleration,

, how can you describe acceleration if the numerator is negative?

116. What information does the slope of a speed-time graph provide? 117. The slope of the curve at a single point on a distance-time graph of accelerated motion gives what information? 118. How can an arrow be used to represent the size and direction of a force? 119. How can you double the acceleration of an object if you cannot alter the object’s mass? 120. During a collision, a seat belt slows the speed of a crash-test dummy. What is the direction of the net force exerted by the seat belt compared to the direction of the dummy’s motion? 121. How are the size and direction of action-reaction forces are related? 122. Why don’t action-reaction forces cancel each other?

123. What law states that if no net force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system does not change? 124. A billiard ball with a momentum of 20 kg m/s strikes a second ball at rest and comes to a complete stop. What is the change in momentum of the second ball? 125. Compare the speed of a moving golf ball with the speed of a moving bowling ball if both balls have the same amount of momentum. 126. Electric force and magnetic force are the only forces that can both do what? 127. One end of a bar magnet attracts one end of a second bar magnet. What will happen if the second bar magnet is reversed? 128. Which of the universal forces acts only on protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom? 129. What is the primary cause of Earth’s ocean tides? 130. How is work done when you lift a book? 131. Why don’t you do work as you hold a book motionless over your head? 132. If two swimmers compete in race, does the faster swimmer develop more power? 133. If a simple machine provides an increased output force, what happens to the output distance? 134. Why is the work output of a machine never equal to the work input? 135. If you grease a ramp to make a box slide more easily, what happens to the ramp’s mechanical advantage? Explain your answer. 136. If a simple machine could be frictionless, how would its IMA and AMA compare? 137. How does friction affect the calculation of the IMA of a simple machine? Explain your answer. 138. How will a lubricant affect the efficiency of a simple machine such as a pulley? 139. What is the equation for calculating a machine’s efficiency?

Figure 14-1 140. Compare the size and direction of the input and output forces shown in Figure 14-1. 141. Which has the greater IMA—a screw with closely spaced threads or a screw with threads spaced farther apart? 142. Compare the effects of a fixed pulley and a movable pulley on the size and direction of the input force.

143. How is a pair of scissors a compound machine? Explain your answer. 144. In a compound machine made up of two simple machines, how is the work output of the first simple machine related to the work input of the second simple machine? 145. What evidence is there that energy is transferred as a golf club does work on a golf ball? 146. Show that the unit “kg m2/s2,” calculated from the kinetic energy equation, is equivalent to a joule. 147. What are the two general types of energy that can be used to classify many forms of energy? 148. Sled A (with its riders) has twice the mass of Sled B (with its riders). If both sleds have the same kinetic energy, which sled is moving faster? Explain your answer. 149. In what two ways can you increase the elastic potential energy of a spring? 150. What is the most familiar form of electromagnetic energy? 151. Why can you model the thermal energy of an object as the “mechanical energy” of the particles that make it up? 152. Describe one energy conversion that takes place in a hydroelectric power plant. 153. What energy conversion takes place as an arrow is shot from a bow? 154. Identify two types of nuclear reactions in which the equation E = mc2 applies. 155. What are two examples of nonrenewable energy resources? 156. What are two examples of renewable energy resources? 157. What is a characteristic of a renewable energy resource? Problem 158. During a race, a runner runs at a speed of 6 m/s. Four seconds later, she is running at a speed of 10 m/s. What is the runner’s acceleration? Show your work. 159. If you ride your bike at an average speed of 2 km/h and need to travel a total distance of 20 km, how long will it take you to reach your destination? Show your work. 160. A crane exerts a net force of 900 N upward on a 750-kilogram car as the crane starts to lift the car from the deck of a cargo ship. What is the acceleration of the car during this time? Show your work. 161. The mass of a newborn baby is 4.2 kilograms. What is the baby’s weight? (The acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface is 9.8 m/s2.) Show your work. 162. A small 32-kilogram canoe broke free of its dock and is now floating downriver at a speed of 2.5 m/s. What is the canoe’s momentum? Show your work. 163. A small engine causes a 0.20-kg model airplane to accelerate at a rate of 12 m/s2. What is the net force on the model airplane? Show your work. 164. A worker uses a cart to move a load of bricks weighing 680 N a distance of 10 m across a parking lot. If he pushes the cart with a constant force of 220 N, what amount of work does he do? Show your work. 165. A girl lifts a 100-N load a height of 2.0 m in a time of 0.5 s. What power does the girl produce? Show your work.

166. The input force of a pulley system must move 6.0 m to lift a 3000-N engine a distance of 0.50 m. What is the IMA of the system? Show your work. 167. A 16-N force applied to the handle of a door produces a 30-N output force. What is the AMA of the handle? Show your work. 168. A force of 12 N is applied to the handle of a screwdriver being used to pry off the lid of a paint can. As the force moves through a distance 0.3 m, the screwdriver does 32 J of work on the lid. What is the efficiency of the screwdriver? Show your work. 169. What is the kinetic energy of a 74.0-kg sky diver falling at a terminal velocity of 52.0 m/s? Show your work. 170. A 0.49-kg squirrel jumps from a tree branch that is 3.6 m high to the top of a bird feeder that is 1.5 m high. What is the change in gravitational potential energy of the squirrel? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2.) Show your work. 171. A small dog is trained to jump straight up a distance of 1.1 m. How much kinetic energy does the 7.7-kg dog need to jump this high? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2.) Show your work. 172. In a nuclear reaction, an amount of matter having a mass of 1.0 × 10–14 kg is converted into energy, which is released. How much energy is released? (The speed of light is 3.0 × 108 m/s.) Show your work. Essay

Figure 1-1 173. Use Figure 1-1 to describe how the steel ball moved during the experiment. Average speed is calculated by dividing total distance by time. Did the steel ball speed up, slow down, or remain at the same speed throughout the experiment?

174. Explain how velocity is different from speed. 175. Picture a ball traveling at a constant speed around the inside of a circular structure. Is the ball accelerating? Explain your answer. 176. A girl walks from her home to a friend’s home 3 blocks north. She then walks east 2 blocks to the post office, 1 block north to the library, and 1 block east to the park. From the park, she walks 2 blocks west to the movie theater. After the movie, she walks 4 blocks south to the pet store. What is the girl’s displacement from her starting point to the pet store? Where is the location of the pet store in relation to her home? Calculate the distance she walked in blocks. 177. Why does a biker have to pedal harder to travel at a constant speed into the wind on a windy day compared to traveling on the same road at the same speed on a calm day? 178. Compare and contrast biomass energy with the energy from fossil fuels. Other USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 1-2 179. Analyzing Data What is the slope of the line shown in Figure 1-2? 180. Controlling Variables In Figure 1-2, what is the responding variable? 181. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-2, what is the relationship between mass and volume? 182. Using Tables and Graphs In Figure 1-2, what quantity does the slope represent? 183. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-2, what metric units are represented by values on the plotted line?

Figure 1-3 184. Using Tables and Graphs What measurements are compared in Figure 1-3? 185. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-3, which month had the highest amount of precipitation? 186. Inferring Why might the data in Figure 1-3 be important to share with a scientist studying agriculture trends in Port Hardy? 187. Using Tables and Graphs Use Figure 1-3 to determine the approximate total annual precipitation. 188. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-3, how many meters of precipitation were recorded during January? USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 11-2 189. Using Tables and Graphs Which graph in Figure 11-2 shows periods of constant speed? Explain your answer.

190. Interpreting Graphics Look at Figure 11-2. Describe the motion of the object in Graph A. 191. Using Models Which graph in Figure 11-2 shows acceleration? How do you know? 192. Calculating Using Graph A in Figure 11-2, calculate the average speed of the object in motion from 12 s to 20 s. Explain your calculation. 193. Comparing and Contrasting Compare Graphs A and B in Figure 11-2. At a time of 2 seconds, which graph shows a greater velocity? How do you know?

Figure 11-3A

Figure 11-3B

194. Interpreting Graphics Figure 11-3B illustrates the displacement of an object moving in a plane. Explain what information is provided by arrows A and B. 195. Calculating Using vector addition, calculate the distance traveled by the object and the displacement of the object represented by Figure 11-3B. 196. Using Models Arrows A and B in Figure 11-3A represent velocities. Describe the motion modeled by the vectors. 197. Predicting Suppose vector B in Figure 11-3B had a length of 12 m (instead of 5 m). What would be the distance the object moved? What would be the magnitude of the object’s displacement? 198. Applying Concepts Vectors A and B in Figure 11-3A represent the path walked by a student from home to school. What does the resultant vector A + B represent?

Figure 12-3 199. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-3, what is the momentum of each skater at Time 1? 200. Comparing and Contrasting In Figure 12-3, compare the size and direction of the momentums of both skaters immediately after the push shown at Time 2. 201. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-3, describe the motion of Skater B after Skater A pushes her. 202. Applying Concepts In Figure 12-3, if Skater A is pushing Skater B, why does Skater A move? 203. Applying Concepts Suppose that the skaters repeat the demonstration in Figure 12-3 again. This time Skater B is holding a 10-kilogram mass. If Skater A pushes exactly as he did the first time, will Skater A’s motion be different this time? Explain your answer. USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 14-2 204. Calculating What is the IMA of the ramp in Figure 14-2? Show your work. 205. Applying Concepts If the ramp shown in Figure 14-2 was coated with a smoother surface, how would the AMA of the ramp change?

206. Applying Concepts If the ramp shown in Figure 14-2 was coated with a smoother surface, how would the ramp’s efficiency change? Explain your answer. 207. Classifying What type of simple machine is the ramp shown in Figure 14-2? 208. Comparing and Contrasting In a post office, a 3-m long ramp is used to move carts onto a dock that is higher than 1 m. How does the IMA of this ramp compare with the IMA of the ramp shown in Figure 14-2?

Figure 14-3 209. Applying Concepts Look at Figure 14-3. If Machine A moves through an input distance of 4.0 m, what is the output distance of Machine B? 210. Classifying What type of simple machine is Machine A in Figure 14-3? 211. Interpreting Graphics What is the IMA of Machine B in Figure 14-3? 212. Interpreting Graphics As shown in Figure 14-3, Machines A and B operate together as what type of machine? 213. Comparing and Contrasting In Figure 14-3, how does the work input of Machine B compare with the work output of Machine A?

Figure 15-3 214. Interpreting Graphics At what location in Figure 15-3 does the ball have the least gravitational potential energy? 215. Comparing and Contrasting Compare the gravitational potential energy of the ball at locations B and E shown in Figure 15-3. Explain your answer. 216. Applying Concepts In Figure 15-3, does the total mechanical energy of the ball between locations A and F ever equal zero? Explain your answer. 217. Inferring In Figure 15-3, is the total mechanical energy of the ball conserved as the ball bounces? Explain your answer. 218. Applying Concepts Compare the kinetic energy of the ball in Figure 15-3 as it strikes the floor just before the second bounce with the first bounce (location C).

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