INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase

Introduction to Hydrocarbon Exploitation
Development Phase
Cementing By Pratap Thimaiah

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt

Solutions

2

Cementing It is the process by which cement slurry is placed in the annulus ,bonding the casing to the formation. Conventionally the cement is pumped down the casing and displaced around the shoe into the annulus.

Deve lopment Pha se - Ce me nting

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt

Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005

September – October 2005

INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase
3

Cementing

Develop me nt Phase - Cementing

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt

Solutions

4

Functions of Cements  Primary functions are :
– Provide support to the casings – Zonal isolation-prevent fluid movement between zones – Casing protection against corrosive fluids – Support wellbore – Protect water zones

Deve lopment Pha se - Ce me nting

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved

Abalt

Solutions

©abalt solutions limited - 2005

September – October 2005

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 5 Cement Job Planning  Each cement job must be carefully planned to ensure correct additives are being used and suitable placement technique is being employed for that application. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .Cementing  The cement engineer must ensure that – Cement can be placed correctly using the available equipment – Cement achieves adequate compressive strength – Cement will isolate zones and support casing throughout the life of well. Develop me nt Phase .2005 September – October 2005 . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 6 Classification of Cement  Several classes have been approved by API Deve lopment Pha se .

Deve lopment Pha se .000ft (3050m).Ce me nting  Class D – Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1.830m) Moderate to High sulphate resistance Similar to ASTM Type II Has lower C3A content than class A ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 7 Classification of Cement  Class A – Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1. – Moderate and High sulphate resistance types available – Under moderately high temperatures and pressures conditions.2005 September – October 2005 .Cementing  Class B – – – – Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 8 Classification of Cement  Class C – Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .830m) to 10.830m) – When no special properties are required.830m) – When conditions require early strength – Available in all 3 degrees of sulphate resistance and similar to ASTM Type III. – Similar to ASTM (American Society of Testing materials) Type I – Cheaper than other classes of cements Develop me nt Phase . ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.

Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 9 Classification of Cement  Class E – Intended to use from 10. Deve lopment Pha se .000ft (4720m) – Under conditions of High temperature and pressure. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.000ft (1.000ft (2440m) – Can be used with accelerators and retarders to cover a wide range of well depths and temperatures – Class G Available in MSR and HSR Types. while Class H is available in MSR Types only. – Moderate and High sulphate resistance types available – Extremely 09High temperatures and pressures conditions.2005 September – October 2005 . – Available in MSR and HSR types Develop me nt Phase .Cementing  Class F – Intended to use from surface to 10.830m) to 16. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 10 Classification of Cement  Class G and H – Intended to use from surface to 8.000ft (3050m) to 14.000ft (4880m).

2005 September – October 2005 . Deve lopment Pha se . – Slurry should have enough thickening time to allow mixing .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 11 Properties of Cement  Compressive strength – To support the casing string a compressive strength of 500 psi is generally adequate – ‘WOC’ ( Waiting on Cement)-The time required for the cement to attain strength and settle behind the casing. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 12 Properties of Cement  Thickening Time (Pump ability) – Time required for cement slurry to be pumped and displaced in the annulus. – The casing shoe should not be drilled out until strength is attained. – Compressive strength depends upon Temperature Pressure Amount of water mix Elapsed time Develop me nt Phase .Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – Generally 2-3 hours thickening time which includes safety factor to allow for delays and interruptions in operations.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.pumping and displacement before hardening. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .

Deve lopment Pha se .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 13 Properties of Cement  Water Loss – If water is lost before cement reaches its intended position??? – Amount of water loss depends upon the type of cement job Squeeze cement jobs require low water loss since the cement must be squeezed before filter cake builds up Primary cementing is not so critical Develop me nt Phase . ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.Cementing  Corrosion resistance – Formation water may contain Na and Mg sulphates which react with lime to form calcium sulphoaluminate. – These crystals expand and cause cement to crack.2005 September – October 2005 . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 14 Cementing Additives  Most slurries contain additives to modify the properties of the slurry to produce a better cement job. added with the cement or mixed with water.  Cement additives can be used to – Vary slurry density – Change compressive strength – Accelerate and retard setting time – Control filtration and fluid loss – Slurry viscosity  Additives may be granular or liquid form.depending upon the type of formation – Density is varied for a low to high strength formation. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .5 ppg . – Lowering C3 A content increases sulphate resistance types  Slurry Density – Vary between 11 to 18.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.

Cementing  Retarders – extends thickening time of cement slurry to aid proper placement before hardening. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 16  Weighting Agents( Heavy additives) – Increases slurry density.Ce me nting Cementing Additives Abalt  Extenders (Light weight) – Materials that lower slurry density and increase yield to allow weak formations to be cemented without fracturing.5-2% Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 2-2. – Used in HT wells with Intermediate and production casings and squeeze cement jobs – Avoids cement setting prematurely – Common types are: Calcium lignosulphonate 1-1.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 15 Cementing Additives  Accelerators – Chemicals that reduce thickening time of slurry and increase early strength – Used in conductors and surface casings to reduce WOC – Common types of accelerators are : Calcium chloride (CaCl2 )1. All rights reserved Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . Editions Technip ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.5% Sea water Develop me nt Phase . – Allows more mix water to be added – Types are: Bentonite Pozzolan Diatomaceous earth gilsonite Source: Drilling Data Handbook.5% Saturated Salt solutions Cellulose derivatives Hydroxycarboxylic acids ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – Used when cementing over pressurized zones – Types are: Barite Hematite Deve lopment Pha se .2005 September – October 2005 .

All rights reserved  Fluid Loss Additives Cementing Hardware Guide Shoe – Used to guide the casing through the hole with its rounded nose.5 % Abalt CMHEC (Carboxy Methyl Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose) 0.3-0. – Float shoe takes extra time to run casing in hole Deve lopment Pha se .3 Solutions ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 . – Avoiding jamming casing in washed out zones or deviated wells Float Shoe – Prevents the back flow into the casing once cement is displaced behind casing.5-1. – Types are Polymers 0.5 lb / sx of cement Salt Calcium lignosulphonate 0. – Negatively charged polymer molecules that attach themselves to positively charges in cement grains.Ce me nting 18 ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.premature setting or reduces fluid loss to formations – Types are: Organic polymers 0. – Improves flow properties of slurry – Lowers the viscosity so that turbulence will occur at lower circulating pressure. – Built in check valve that is flapper or ball type. – Prevents undesirable side effects caused by mud on cements etc.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 17  Mud Contaminants Cementing Additives – To Improve slurry properties additives such as Diesel Oil .5 lb / sx  Dispersants (Friction Reducing Additives) Develop me nt Phase .thinners etc are added. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .5 -1.Cementing – Excessive fluid loss can cause ineffective cement setting – Prevents slurry dehydration .

– Allow casing to be pressure tested.it scrapes walls as it moves  Top Plug  Provides seal and withstand high pressures  Pumped on the tail end of slurry and comes to rest on bottom plug  Scratchers – Run on casing to remove mud cake and break up gelled mud. – Types Rigid-Positive centralizers are designed for a casing-casing annular space Flexible or spring bow type are used in centring in uncased holes. – Run normally 2 or 3 joints above the shoe. known as shoe track. There are two types: straight and spiralled – They help to Keep casing out of key seats Prevent differential sticking Improve displacement efficiency ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.Cementing – Centring the casing string for the success of cement job. – Plugs prevent contamination and wipe casing from mud – Prevent over displacement of cement – Give surface indication that cement placement is complete. – Promotes a better bond between cement and formation – Types  Rotating Scratchers  Reciprocating Scratchers Deve lopment Pha se .  Bottom Plug  Bursts when slight over pressure is exerted.2005 September – October 2005 . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 20  Cement Plug – Designed to separate the different fluids when pumped through the casing. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .Ce me nting Cementing Hardware Source:weatherford ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.  Centralizers Develop me nt Phase .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 19 Cementing Hardware  Float Collars – The purpose of these landing collars is to serve as a seat for cement plugs.  Besides seperating.

– Cement plug need to installed correctly in the heads. Develop me nt Phase .Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 .Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. Deve lopment Pha se . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 22 Cementing Hardware  Cementing Baskets – Equipment to minimise losses of cement slurry in weak zones – Used in shallow to medium depths – Curb fluid passage considerably. but do not prevent pressure transmission.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 21 Cementing Hardware  Cementing Heads – Provides connection between discharge line from cement unit and top of casing – Designed to hold cement plugs – Releases bottom plug. mix and pump down cement slurry – Release top plug and displace cement without making connection.

– When slurry pumped down. – Landing collar acts as shoulder for bottom plug. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .  Casing string lowering speed is controlled according to surge pressures on wall and bottom.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 24  Primary Cementing Cementing Operation Deve lopment Pha se .Ce me nting – Cement plugs placed correctly in cement head.  Mud can be reconditioned and circulated while string is manoeuvred and scratchers put to work. – Slurry displaces mud and washes the outside wall of casing as it flows. – First plug (wiper) pumped down ahead of cement to clean inside of casing.  Lengths of casing are screwed b means of hydraulic tongs.2005 September – October 2005 .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 23 Lowering Casing  The casing must be lowered as fast as possible as time spent is NPT. top plug is released and is pushed along down by drilling mud (flushing) – Pressure increases and top plug bumps against landing collar (not to exceed burst pressure) – Displace with spacer and low density mud.  Carefully organized to prevent casing from being stuck. – Pressure surge ruptures bottom plug and allows slurry to pass through and circulate into annulus. – Pump spacer ahead of cement.  Driller monitors as casing string is filled up.  Circulation is stopped when – mud returns contains no more cuttings – Low gas content – No kicks or lost returns – Homogeneous volume of circulating mud Develop me nt Phase .  Spider and casing elevators are often used.

All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . held by retaining pins. • Top plug closes by moving a second sleeve Deve lopment Pha se . • After first stage is complete.  Second Stage • Involves a stage collar.NGUYEN ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. • Stage collar are initially closed by inner sleeve. longer pumping times and excessive hydrostatic pressure from cement column leads to cementing Cementing Operation  First stage  Similar to earlier procedure.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. a special dart is released from surface opening ports allowing communication between casing and annulus. • Displace cement with mud. except that a smaller volume is used to cement lower part of annulus depending upon fracture gradient. which is made up into casing string at pre determined depth.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 25 Cementing Operation Develop me nt Phase . • Circulate through stage collar and pump spacer • Pump secondary stage slurry and release closing plug.2005 September – October 2005 .Cementing Source: drilling. – Requirements of high pump pressures. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 26  Stage Cementing – Carried out usually in longer strings in which the annulus need to filled completely.

INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 27 Cementing Operation Risk of channelling and poor cement bond may arise ??? Develop me nt Phase . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 28 Cementing Operation  Inner String Cementing – Large diameter casing result in ??????  Large displacement volumes  Long pumping times – Cement casing through tubing or drill pipe  Casing run as before  Special float shoe-allows drill pipe to be stabbed  Cement job can then proceed as before. Deve lopment Pha se . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .  Inner string can be retrieved  Suitable for casings of 13 3/8” and larger  Disadvantage of NTP for running and retrieving inner string.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 .

2005 September – October 2005 . landing collar and shoe installed. – Both move down until Landing collar.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 29 Cementing Operation – Has a full length float collar . – Bump plugs with 1000 psi pressure. – Excess cement used to seal top of liner.Ce me nting Source: drilling. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . – Mud is circulated out to ensure it is free of debris. – Release pump down plug and displace cement out of liner.NGUYEN ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. excess cement is reversed circulated Liner cementing Develop me nt Phase . – Before cementing.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. setting tool is backed off. setting tool is picked up out of liner – With tail pipe above liner. – Bleed off and check for back flow. – Pump down plug releases wiper plug. – Liner is run on drill pipe and hanger set at correct point inside previous casing string. – Pump spacer ahead and followed by slurry. – Landing collar catches the cement wiper plug. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 30 Cementing Operation Liner Cementing Deve lopment Pha se . – Wiper plug is held on end of the tail pipe by means of shear pins. – Once cement is set.

ensure mud has good flow properties – Displace cement under turbulent conditions if possible – Spacers to prevent mud contamination in annulus.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase Cementing Operation  Problems with cementing Liners – Minimal annular spaces Clearance between 7” OD liner and 8-1/2” hole.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 .Cementing 31 Difficult to centralise Cement placement poor (channelling) – Mud contamination – Lack of pipe movement-due to risk of setting tool sticking ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. Difficult to run liner Lost circulation problems Develop me nt Phase . Recommendations Deve lopment Pha se . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 32 Cementing Job – Use centralisers at critical points along the casing string – Moving the casing-rotation rather than reciprocation – Before cementing. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .

Deve lopment Pha se . – Repair casing failure through leaking joints and corrosion. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 . – Remedial work on a poor primary cement job. – Seal off lost circulation zones.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 33 Secondary Cementing Operation Squeeze Cementing “Process by which hydraulic pressure forces cement slurry through holes in casing into annulus and formation”  Often used as a remedial operation in work overs Develop me nt Phase . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 34 Secondary Cementing Operation  Applications – To seal off gas and water producing zones and maximize oil production from completion interval. – Abandonment.

– After breaking formation. – Fracture occurs along plane perpendicular to direction of least compressive stress. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . – Carried out by solids free fluids – water or brine. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions Secondary Cementing Operation High Pressure Squeeze – Breaking down the formation and allowing cement slurry into fractured zone.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 35 Secondary Cementing Operation Processes of squeezing cement – High Pressure – Low Pressure Develop me nt Phase . At depths >3000 ft. – Injection pressure gradually builds up. 36 Deve lopment Pha se .2005 September – October 2005 . slurry of cement is spotted adjacent to formation and pumped slowly. – Pressure released for back flow. – High Pressure squeeze jobs are recommended for very dense and impermeable formations.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. vertical stresses are greater than horizontal stresses.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.

INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 37 Secondary Cementing Operation  Low Pressure Squeeze – Efficient method to seal unwanted zones – Slurry of finely divided solids in liquid is forced into formation without fracturing. – Liquid is forced into formation and solids build up cake. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited .Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 . – Often used for repairing primary cement job. Develop me nt Phase . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 38 Secondary Cementing Operation Placement Techniques – Braden head Squeeze – Retrievable squeeze packer – Drillable cement retainer Deve lopment Pha se . – Reverse circulate out excess cement.Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.

Cannot be used for squeezing off one set of perforations if other are still open.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – Can be either compression set or tension set.2005 September – October 2005 . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . – Displacing fluid is then pumped down.  Apply squeeze pressure  Release pressure and check back flow  Release packer. – Isolate casing and well head while high pressure is being applied. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions Secondary Cementing Operation Retrievable Packer – Can be set and released as many times on one trip.Ce me nting  Procedure for squeezing  Run packer on drill pipe and set at depth to with bypass open  Pump cement slurry .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase Secondary Cementing Operation Braden head Squeeze – Pumping cement through drill pipe without the use of packer. 39 Develop me nt Phase . pick up and reverse circulate.displace cement and allow fluid to flow through by pass ports  Close port when cement slurry reaches packer. ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – By pass ports allow annular communication – Generally set 30-50ft above perforations. – Cement stopped at required depth and pressure build up is obtained by closing BOPS at surface. – Disadvantages It is difficult to place cement accurately. forcing cement into perforations – Generally used for low pressure cement squeeze job. – Sometimes tail pipe is used below packer to ensure only cement is squeezed 40 Deve lopment Pha se .

retainer isolates lower perforations Develop me nt Phase .Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – In multiple zones. – Run on drill pipe or wireline. the drill pipe can be removed. ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 .INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 41 Secondary Cementing Operation  Drillable Retainer – Contains two way valves to prevent flow in either or both directions. – Used for primary cement jobs as well as closing water producing zones. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 42 Cement Plugs Cement Plugs – Designed to fill a length of casing or open hole to prevent vertical fluid movement – Used for: Deve lopment Pha se . – Can be used once then drilled out. once cement has been squeezed.Ce me nting Abandoning depleted zones Seal lost circulation zones Providing KOP for directional wells Isolating zone for formation testing Series of plugs for well abandonment – Precautions Selection of clean hole to prevent contamination Condition mud prior to placing plug Pre-flush fluid ahead of cement Densified slurry to be used. closing back pressure valve.

INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 43 Cement Plugs Develop me nt Phase .Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.2005 September – October 2005 . cement slurry and spacer fluid are pumped down the drill pipe and displaced with mud. – Preflush. ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – Drill pipe retrieved leaving plug in place. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 44 Cement Plugs – Method achieves an equal level of cement in the drill pipe and annulus.Ce me nting Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . – Displacement continues until level of cement inside and outside is same. All rights reserved Balanced Plug Abalt Deve lopment Pha se .

2005 September – October 2005 .Cementing – Set permanent bridge plug below plug back depth – Cement bailer containing slurry is then lowered down the well – When bailer reaches bridge plug the slurry is released and set on top – Advantages Better depth control Reduced risk of contamination – Disadvantages Only small volume of cement can be dumped and therefore several runs required Not suitable for deep wells unless retarders used. ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 45 Dump Bailer Method Cement Plugs Develop me nt Phase .Ce me nting ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 46 Cement Evaluation Tools  Cement job can be considered a failure if: – Cement does not fill annulus to required height. All rights reserved Abalt Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . – Cement does not isolate undesirable zones. Deve lopment Pha se . – Cement does not provide good seal at shoe.

©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. – Amplitude indicates whether bond is strong or weak. – Channelling can also be detected. – Thermometer responds to heat generated by cement hydration to detect top of cement.2005 September – October 2005 . Solutions ©abalt solutions limited . Develop me nt Phase . – Tool emits sonic signals and receives at receiver. – Carnolite is commonly used and detects the top of cement in annulus.INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase 47 Cement Evaluation Tools  Temperature surveys – Running a recording thermometer in the casing after cementing.Ce me nting  Cement Bond Logs – Indicate presence of cement and bond.Cementing ©2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved Abalt Deve lopment Pha se . All rights reserved Abalt Solutions 48 Cement Evaluation Tools  Radioactive surveys – Radioactive tracers can be added to cement slurry before it is pumped.

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