(A Theory and Practical guide )

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HSS : Commited to Quality Education

Table of contents :
1- Mostly used terminology in Motors and VFDs 2-Basics of Motors 3)- Types of Motors 4)Methods of starting of motors The main functions of starters & variable speed drives 5)Basic Principle of VFDs 6) Additional features of variable speed drives 7)Control modes of VFDs 8)Effect of long distance cables on VFDs 9) Types of braking 10) Classification of VFDs based on application 11)PI control

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Before discussing VFD it is necessary to understand some of the basic terminology associated with motor/VFD operation.Many of these terms are familiar to us in some other context. Later in the course we will see how these terms apply to Force Torque In simple terms, a force is a push or a pull. Force may be caused by electromagnetism, gravity, or a combination of physical means. Torque is a twisting or turning force that causes an object to rotate. For example, a force applied to the end of a lever causes a turning effect or torque at the pivot point. Torque (τ) is the product of force and radius (lever distance). τ = Force x Radius In the English system torque is measured in pound-feet (lb-ft) or pound-inches (lb-in).If 10 lbs of force were applied to a lever 1 foot long, for example, there would be 10 lb-ft of torque. Acceleration An object can change speed. An increase in speed is called acceleration. Acceleration occurs only when there is a change in the force acting upon the object. An object can also change from a higher to a lower speed. This is known as deceleration (negative acceleration). A rotating object, for example, can accelerate from 10 RPM to 20 RPM, or decelerate from 20 HSS : Commited to Quality Education RPM to 10 RPM.

Once rolling. we know that when the roll is stopped it would take a certain amount of force to overcome the inertia of the roll to get it rolling.The English system of measurement is pound-feet squared (lbft2). The force required to overcome this inertia can come from a source of energy such motor. for example. If we look at a continuous roll of paper.Inertia as a Mechanical systems are subject to the law of inertia. the paper will continue unwinding until another force acts on it to bring it to a stop.This property of resistance to acceleration/deceleration is referred to as the moment of inertia. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The law of inertia states that an object will tend to remain in its current state of rest or motion unless acted upon by an external force.

therefore no lines of flux would be cut. The synchronous speed for a two-pole motor operated at 60 Hz. Synchronous speed is equal to 120 times the frequency (F).Synchronous Speed The speed of the rotating magnetic field is referred to as synchronous speed (NS). is 3600 RPM. If the rotor and the rotating magnetic field were turning at the same speed no relative motion would exist between the two. Slip is dependent on load. An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow down or increase slip. % SLIP = (Ns-Na) x 100 HSS : Commited to Quality Education -------------------- . A decrease in load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip. Slip is expressed as a percentage and can be determined with the following formula. Ns = 120 F / P Slip There must be a relative difference in speed between the rotor and the rotating magnetic field. Slip is necessary to produce torque. and no voltage would be induced in the rotor. Synchronous speed decreases as the number of poles increase. The difference in speed is called slip. divided by the number of poles (P). for example.

These motors are used in applications with constant torque requirements such as mixers. thus power output varies directly with speed.800/900-rpm motor that develops 10 hp at 1. lathes.800 rpm produces 5 hp at 900 rpm. and milling machines. have a torque requirement that varies as the square or cube of the speed. Typical applications include machine tools such as drills. and blowers. and compressors. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . this motor characteristic is usually adequate. For example. conveyors. For example. a motor rated at 10 hp at 1. Constant horsepower: These motors develop the same horsepower at each speed and the torque is inversely proportional to the speed.Variable torque: Motors have a speed torque characteristic that varies as the square of the speed. Constant torque: These motors can develop the same torque at each speed.5 hp at 900 rpm. fans. Since some loads. such as centrifugal pumps. an 1.800 rpm produces 2.

The resultant voltage (E) represents force (emf) available to produce magnetizing flux and torque.67 volts per hertz. is proportional to voltage (E) and frequency (F). for example. Not every motor has a 7. Voltage drops occur due to stator resistance (RS). It is the maximum current the motor can carry without damage. like flux (Φ). Stator current can be measured on the supply line and is also referred to as line current. Stator Current Stator current (IS) is the current that flows in the stator circuit. has a 3. Flux (Φ). for example. A clamp-on ammeter. Magnetizing Current Magnetizing current (IM) is responsible for producing magnetic lines of flux which magnetically link with the rotor circuit. Magnetizing current (IM) will also decrease. Increasing frequency (F) without increasing voltage (E). for example. Volts per Hertz A ratio exists between voltage and frequency. This ratio is referred to as volts per hertz (V/Hz). Magnetizing current is typically about 30% of rated current. A typical AC motor manufactured for use in the United States is rated for 460 VAC and 60 Hz.67 V/Hz ratio. A decrease in load decreases the work the rotor circuit does decreasing working current (IW). Working current is a function of the load.8V/Hz ratio . Working current (IW) will vary with the applied load which causes a corresponding change in stator current (IS). Magnetizing current. Working Current The current that flows in the rotor circuit and produces torque is referred to as working current (IW). Flux. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . and torque are all dependent on this ratio. An increase in load causes the rotor circuit to work harder increasing working current (IW). Typically magnetizing current (IM) remains constant. magnetizing current (IM).Line Voltage Voltage (VS) is applied to the stator power leads from the AC power supply. A 230 Volt. however. 60 Hz motor. A decrease in magnetizing current will cause a corresponding decrease in stator or line (IS) current. will cause a corresponding increase in speed. is frequently used to measure stator current. The ratio is 7. The full-load ampere rating on the nameplate of a motor refers to stator current at rated voltage. frequency and load. Stator current is the vector sum of working current (IW) and magnetizing current (IM). These decreases are all related and greatly affect the motor’s ability to handle a given load. will decrease causing motor torque to decrease.

The starting current measured on the incoming line (IS) is typically 600% of full-load current when rated voltage and frequency is first applied to a NEMA B motor. NEMA B design motors are the most common and most suitable for use on AC drives. Full-Load Current Full-load current is the current taken from the supply line at rated voltage. NEMA Classifications Three-phase AC motors are classified by NEMA as NEMA A. for example. B. Pull Up Torque Pull up torque is the torque developed during acceleration from start to the point breakdown torque occurs. C and D. Breakdown Torque Breakdown torque is the maximum torque a motor develops at rated voltage and speed without an abrupt loss of speed. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . When rated voltage and frequency are applied to the stator there is a brief amount of time before the rotor turns. frequency and load. typically requires 600% starting current and 150% starting torque.Locked Rotor Torque Locked rotor torque. also referred to as starting torque. This condition occurs each time a motor is started. These considerations do not apply to motors started with an AC drive. frequency and load. NEMA specifies certain operating characteristics for motors when started by applying rated voltage and frequency (across the line starting). is developed when the rotor is held at rest with rated voltage and frequency applied. Starting Current When a motor is started. Full-Load Torque Full-load torque is the torque developed when the motor is operating with rated voltage. it must perform work to overcome the inertia of the rotor and attached load. This is the current taken from the supply line at rated voltage and frequency with the rotor at rest. A NEMA B motor. Locked Rotor Current Locked rotor current is also referred to as starting current.

F.65 KW.746 x 25 HP Kilowatts can be converted to horsepower with the following formula: HP = 1. 18.341 x KW The power formula for a single-phase system is: KW = (V x I x P. x 1.F.Horsepower and kilowatts AC motors manufactured in the United States are generally rated in horsepower (HP).) / 1000 The power formula for three-phase power is KW = (V x I x P.65 KW = .732) / 1000 HSS : Commited to Quality Education . Horsepower can be converted to kilowatts with the following formula: KW = .746 x HP For example. a 25 HP motor is equivalent to 18. Equipment manufactured in Europe is generally rated in kilowatts (KW).

they cannot be ignored by installation or machinery designers. this manual describes the technical and operating features of asynchronous motors. known as brushless or permanent magnet motors. Moreover. although they are ideal for many applications when controlled by contactor devices. There are many types of motor in existence. and single phase asynchronous motors remain suitable for limited power applications. This is the case for start/stop control with soft start/soft stop units. apart from lighting devices. This part of manual touches briefly on variable speed control of electric motors. The use of synchronous motors. After presenting the various types of electric motor and their operating principles. speed control and braking methods.Basics Of Motors Application of Motors Nowadays. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . combined with converters is becoming increasingly common in applications requiring high performance levels. and hence. and when precise speed adjustment is also necessary with variable speed drives/regulators. but 3-phase asynchronous motors. It provides a solid grounding for the reader to gain a good understanding of all the problems involved with motor control and protection. However. covering in particular the main starting devices. Their function. installers or users. and in particular squirrel cage motors. electric motors represent the largest loads in industry and commercial installations. to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. the increasing use of electronic equipment is widening their field of application. means they are particularly significant in economic terms. are the most commonly used in industry and in commercial buildings applications above a certain power level. precision and speed range. slip-ring asynchronous motors are used for certain high power applications in industry. mainly for buildings applications. in particular in terms of dynamic torque (on starting or on a change of duty).

The left hand rule (action of the field on a current. The index finger indicates the direction of the field. The turn is therefore subject to a torque that causes it to rotate in the same direction as the coil field. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . and rotating around an axis xy (see Fig 1 ). Both of the conductors are therefore subject to a Lorentz force F (also known as Laplace force). According to Lenz’s law. The turn therefore starts to rotate and the electromotive torque produced balances the resistive torque. The middle finger points in the direction of the induced current. we rotate the magnetic field clockwise. the turn is subject to a variable flux and becomes the source of an induced electromotive force which causes an induced current I (Faraday’s law).If. see Figure 2 ) helps demonstrate the direction of the force F applied to each conductor. The thumb points in the direction of the movement field. located in magnetic field B. called the rotating field. The combined action of this induced current and the magnetic field creates a motive force on the motor rotor.Operating principle (Asynchronous motors) The operating principle of an asynchronous motor is based on the creation of an induced current in a conductor when the conductor cuts the lines of force of a magnetic field. the direction of the current is such that it opposes the cause that produced it by its electromagnetic action. Let us take the example of a turn with short circuit ABCD. hence the name "induction motor". in the opposite direction to its relative displacement in relation to the field coil field. for example.

The laminations have slots in them for holding the stator windings that produce the rotating field (three windings for a 3-phase motor). Stator This is the fixed part of the motor. Each winding is made up of a number of coils.5 mm thick) made of silicon steel. The way these coils are joined to one another defines the number of pairs of poles of the motor.Construction (asynchronous motors) A 3-phase squirrel cage asynchronous motor consists of two main parts: a field coil or stator and an armature or rotor. Like the magnetic circuit of the stator. Rotor This is the moving part of the motor. and thus the speed of rotation. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . A cast iron or light alloy frame surrounds a ring of thin laminations (around 0. The "lamination" of the magnetic circuit reduces losses via hysteresis and eddy currents. forming a keyed cylinder on the motor shaft. which separate asynchronous motors into two distinct families: those with a “squirrel cage” rotor and those with a wound rotor which are referred to as “slip-ring”. The laminations are insulated from one another by oxidation or an insulating varnish. Two different technologies can be used for this part. it is made up of a stack of thin laminations insulated from one another.

whereas that of the asynchronous machine is proportional to the square of that voltage. They are always used with a variable speed drive. Rotor The rotor carries field magnets or coils through which a direct current flows and which create interposed North and South poles.The speed of the motor is constant. These motors can tolerate significant overload currents in order to achieve high-speed acceleration. Operating characteristics The motor torque of the synchronous machine is proportional to the voltage at its terminals. for which smaller motors. The second type of synchronous machine has a wound coil. regardless:of the load.It can withstand relatively large voltage drops (around 50% due to its over-excitation properties) without stalling.Construction (Synchronous motors) Like the asynchronous motor. . 10 ) (generally rare earth magnets). the rotor rotates with no slip at the speed of the rotating field. It differs from the asynchronous motor in that the flux in the air gap is not due to a component of the stator current: it is created by magnets or by the field coil current provided by an external DC source energizing a winding placed in the rotor. Unlike asynchronous machines. For many years these machines have been mainly used as alternators. the motor rotor is fitted with permanent magnets (see Fig. The synchronous motor therefore has a number of advantages over the asynchronous motor with regard to its ability to be powered via the constant voltage/frequency line supply: -. The stator has three-phase windings. and these motor-drive assemblies are intended for specific markets such as robots or machine tools. Stator The stator consists of a housing and a magnetic circuit generally comprising silicon steel laminations and a 3-phase coil similar to that of an asynchronous motor supplied with 3-phase AC to produce a rotating field.It can supply reactive power and increase the power factor of an installation. in order to achieve increased field strength in a small volume. and is a reversible machine that can operate as either a generator (alternator) or a motor. There are therefore two different types of synchronous motor: magnet motors and wound rotor motors With magnet motors. to Quality Education HSS Commited -. Their use as motors was virtually confined to applications where it was necessary to drive loads at fixed speed despite relatively wide variations in their resistive torque. -. the synchronous motor consists of a stator and a rotor separated by the air gap. acceleration is essential. it can work with a power factor equal to one or very close to it. Unlike the asynchronous motor.

either by DOL starting for small motors. .It may stall if the resistive torque exceeds its maximum electromagnetic torque. starting must be performed at noload. the synchronous motor supplied directly by the constant voltage/frequency line supply has two disadvantages: -. -.However.It has starting difficulties. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . If the motor is not combined with a variable speed drive. the entire start process must be repeated. or using a starting motor that drives it at a speed close to synchronous speed before direct connection to the line supply. In this case.

up to high power levels (several megawatts). which is independent of the line supply frequency. They are also particularly suitable. in terms of both hardware and maintenance costs. # Armature or rotor-This is a cylinder of magnetic laminations that are insulated from one another and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.This is a non-moving part of the magnetic circuit on which a winding is wound in order to produce a magnetic field.DC motors Separate field excitation DC motors are still sometimes used for driving machines at variable speed. This magnetic field "enters" the armature from the North pole side of the field coil and "exits" the armature from the South pole side of the field coil. according to Laplace's law. The armature is a moving part that rotates round its axis. Their characteristics also enable accurate torque regulation. for speed variation with simple. and essential for very low powers and low voltages. When the armature is energized. They are however less rugged than asynchronous motors and much more expensive. currents pass through the conductors located under one field coil pole (on the same side of the brushes) in the same direction and are thus. These motors are very easy to miniaturize. when operating as a motor or as a generator. They rub against the commutator and thus supply power to the armature conductors. The conductors located under the otherCommited to Quality Educationsame intensity in the opposite HSS : pole are subject to a force of the direction. The electro-magnet that is created has a cylindrical cavity between its poles. it creates a magnetic field (excitation flux) in the air gap. Conductors are evenly distributed around its outer surface. as they require regular servicing of the commutator and the brushes. Construction A DC motor is composed of the following parts: # Field coil or stator . The two forces create a torque which causes the motor armature to rotate ( . Operating principle When the field coil is energized. is easy to adapt by design to suit all applications. subject to a force. # Commutator and brushes The commutator is integral with the armature. The brushes are fixed. uncomplicated electronic technologies for high performance levels (variation range commonly used from 1 to 100). in the direction of the radii of the armature. and is separated from the field coil by an air gap. Their nominal rotation speed.

it creates a magnetic field (excitation flux) in the air gap. currents pass through the conductors located under one field coil pole (on the same side of the brushes) in the same direction and are thus.Φ is the flux HSS : Commited to Quality Education This equation shows that at constant excitation the back emf E (proportional to ω) is an image of the speed. . it produces back emf E whose value is E = U – RI RI represents the ohmic voltage drop in the armature.k is a constant specific to the motor -.ω is the angular speed -.Operating principle When the field coil is energized. The conductors located under the other pole are subject to a force of the same intensity in the opposite direction. according to Laplace's law. subject to a force. in the direction of the radii of the armature. When the armature is energized. The two forces create a torque which causes the motor armature to rotate When the motor armature is powered by a DC or rectified voltage supply U. The back emf E is linked to the speed and the excitation by the equation E = k ω Φ in which: -. This magnetic field "enters" the armature from the North pole side of the field coil and "exits" the armature from the South pole side of the field coil.

g. armature and field coil are connected in parallel or supplied via two sources with different voltages in order to adapt to the characteristics of the machine (e. There are two methods for increasing the speed. This operation requires the torque to decrease as the speed increases. the torque decreases. --.: armature voltage 400 volts and field coil voltage 180 volts). Various types of DC motor # Parallel excitation (separate or shunt) The coils. and thus the excitation current. while keeping the supply voltage constant: this is known as "reduced flux“ or "constant power" operation.The torque is linked to the field coil flux and the current in the armature by the equation: T = k Φ I If the flux is reduced. --.Or decrease the excitation flux.Either increase the back emf E. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . and thus the supply voltage at constant excitation: this is known as "constant torque" operation.

HSS : Commited to Quality Education . # Series wound --The design of this motor is similar to that of the separate field excitation motor. #Compound wound (series-parallel excitation) --This technology combines the qualities of the series wound motor and the shunt wound motor.The direction of rotation is reversed by inverting one or other of the windings. The direction of rotation can be reversed by inverting the polarities of the armature or the field coil. This motor is mainly used for traction. A low current (low in relation to the working current) flows through it. It is an added flux motor if the ampere turns of the two windings add their effects. More recent coaches use asynchronous motors. generally by inverting the armature voltage due to the much lower time constants. But this particular mounting method is very rarely used as it leads to unstable operation with high loads. This motor has two windings per field coil pole. hence its name. Most bidirectional speed drives for DC motors operate in this way. in particular on trucks supplied by battery packs. The field coil is connected in series to the armature coil. One is connected in parallel with the armature. In railway traction the old TGV (French high-speed train) motor coaches used this type of motor. Otherwise it is a negative flux motor. The other is connected in series.

Reliable and cost-effective frequency inverters appeared as a result of advances in power electronics and microelectronics. Brief history Originally. Speed cannot be controlled. cost effective. Electronic technology has made them more flexible and has extended their field of application. . However. which modulates the electrical energy supplied to the motor. reliable and maintenance-free solution for industrial applications. and even incompatible with the functions required from the machine: The inrush current on start-up can interfere with the operation of other devices connected on the same line supply. An electronic drive or starter is an energy converter. Electronic starters are used solely for asynchronous motors. They are a type of voltage controller. Controlled rectifier type variable speed drives are used to supply power to DC motors and frequency inverters are used for AC motors. Modern frequency inverters can be used to supply power to standard asynchronous motors with performance levels similar to those of the best DC variable speed drives.Methods of starting the Motors The most common way of starting asynchronous motors is directly on the line (DOL) or Star-Delta supply. electronic starters and drives came to the fore as a modern. rheostatic starters. drives for DC motors appeared first. Later. Starters and variable speed drives are able to counter these problems. Mechanical shocks during starting that cannot be tolerated by the machine or may endanger the comfort and safety of users. This technique is often suitable for a wide variety of machines. it sometimes brings with it restrictions that can be inconvenient for some applications. Variable speed drives ensure gradual acceleration and deceleration and enable speed to be matched precisely to operating conditions. mechanical drives and rotating sets (Ward Leonard in particular) were used for starting electric motors and controlling their speed. Acceleration and deceleration cannot be controlled. Some manufacturers even offer asynchronous motors with electronic variable speed drives housed in a custom-made terminal box. This solution is HSS : Commited to Quality Education designed for reduced power assemblies (only a few kW). Historically.

The speed of the motor is defined by a reference. This means that it is a rudimentary system where the control principle is developed on the basis of the electrical characteristics of the motor using power amplification but without a feedback loop and is described as “open loop”. Speed control A variable speed drive cannot be a regulator at the same time. The precision of a regulator is usually expressed as a % of the nominal value of the value to be controlled. If a deviation is detected following speed variation. Speed regulation A speed regulator is a controlled drive (see Fig. This ramp is usually adjustable and therefore enables a speed rise time that is appropriate for the application to be selected. temperature). It features a control system with power amplification and a feedback loop and is described as “closed loop”. The speed range is defined in relation to the nominal speed. which is an image of the motor speed. 1 ). For a given reference value. The feedback control renders the speed virtually impervious to disturbances. load. the values applied to the motor (voltage and/or frequency) are automatically corrected in order to restore the speed to its initial value.The value of the reference is continuously compared with a feedback signal. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The speed of the motor is defined by an input value (voltage or current) known as the reference or set point. this speed may vary depending on disturbances (variations in supply voltage. This signal is supplied either by a tachogenerator or by a pulse generator connected at the motor shaft end.The main functions of electronic starters and variable speed drives Controlled acceleration Motor speed rise is controlled using a linear or S acceleration ramp.

this is achieved economically by injecting direct current into the motor with a special power stage function. Electronic starters and drives can be used to control deceleration via a linear or “S” ramp. For starters and variable speed drives for asynchronous motors.Controlled deceleration When a motor is switched off. Drives. Braking to a standstill This type of braking stops a motor without actually controlling the deceleration ramp. This ramp can be adjusted in order to produce a time for deceleration from the steady state speed to an intermediate speed or zero speed: if the required deceleration is faster than the natural deceleration. it decelerates solely on the basis of the resistive torque of the machine (natural deceleration). or via information transmitted via a line supply connection. Reversal of operating direction The majority of today’s drives support this function as standard. Built-in protection Modern drives generally provide thermal protection for motors and self-protection. A microprocessor uses the current measured and speed data (if motor ventilation depends on its speed of rotation) to calculate the temperature rise of the motor and sends an alarm signal or trigger signal in the event of an excessive temperature rise. which can be achieved either by restoring energy to the line supply or via dissipation in a braking resistor. are also often fitted with protection against: Short-circuits between phases and between phase and ground Over voltages and voltage drops HSS : Commited to Quality Education Phase unbalance Single-phase operation . This is described as electrical braking. and in particular frequency inverters. the motor must develop a motor torque greater than the resistive torque of the machine and continue to drive the load until the motor comes to a stop. As all the mechanical energy is dissipated in the machine rotor. or via a logic command on a terminal. If the required deceleration is slower than the natural deceleration. this function will be provided by connecting a resistor to the armature terminals. The order of the motor supply phases is inverted automatically either by inverting the input reference. On a drive for a DC motor. this braking can only be intermittent. the motor must develop a resistive torque that can be added to the resistive torque of the machine. which is usually independent of the acceleration ramp.

a fan unit HSS : Commited to Quality Education . which are usually programmable. The power module The main components of the power module are: Power components (diodes. Alternatively they can be displayed remotely to supervisors via fieldbuses. Speed limits. PLCs or PCs. Similarly. brake. etc. sequence. electroluminescent diodes. etc. The microprocessor uses this information to manage the deceleration and acceleration ramps.) Monitoring (speed threshold. Operating parameters and alarm and fault data can be displayed using indicators. end of starting) The voltages required for all measurement and control circuits are supplied via a power supply that is integrated into the drive and electrically isolated from the line supply. thermal. which uses the settings. pre-alarm. thyristors. overload. Protection and safety measures are processed by dedicated circuits (ASICs) or circuits integrated in power modules (IPMs).Structure of electronic starters and drives Structure Electronic starters and variable speed drives comprise two modules.) Interfaces for measuring voltages and/or currents In most cases. ramp profiles.) can be sent via HMIs. etc. the microprocessors’ calculation functions have made it possible to perform extremely highperformance control algorithms and in particular to recognize the parameters of the machine being driven. stop. IGBTs. or via PLCs (over fieldbuses) or PCs. ): A control module. for speed control and current limiting as well as to control power components. product. the various commands (run. which manages the operation of the device A power module. current. Relays. segment displays or LCDs. Along with dedicated circuits (ASICs). current limits and other settings are defined using the integrated keypads. which supplies power to the motor in the form of electrical energy The control module On modern starters and drives. the commands sent by an operator or by a processing unit and the results of measurements such as speed. all functions are controlled by a microprocessor. provide the following data: Fault (line supply. which are usually housed in a single enclosure (see Fig. etc.

HSS : Commited to Quality Education .

HSS : Commited to Quality Education .

It comprises: A rectifier with filter capacitor An inverter with 6 IGBTs and 6 diodes A chopper. A frequency inverter can be used to create a miniature electrical supply network providing a variable voltage and frequency capable of supplying power to a single motor or to several motors in parallel. Composition The power circuit comprises a rectifier and an inverter. 560 V at 400 V three-phase). A limitation circuit controls the current on drive start-up.Frequency inverter for asynchronous motor General principle The frequency inverter. In order to meet the requirements of the EC (European Community) directive and associated standards. which is powered at fixed voltage and frequency via the line supply. This type of drive is designed to power asynchronous cage motors. Some converters use a thyristor bridge to limit the inrush current of these filter capacitors. which is connected to a braking resistor (usually external to the product) c HSS : Commited to Quality Education . Note: Although discharge circuits are fitted. a “line supply” filter is installed upstream of the rectifier bridge. provides a variable voltage and frequency AC power supply to the motor as appropriate for its speed requirements. The rectifier is usually fitted with a diode rectifier bridge and a filter circuit comprising one or more capacitors depending on the power rating. This requires the voltage and frequency to increase simultaneously in equal proportions. which uses the rectified voltage to produce a variable amplitude voltage and frequency (see Fig). Constant flux must be maintained in order to facilitate the supply of power to an asynchronous motor at constant torque regardless of speed. which are loaded to a value that is approximately equal to the peak value of the line supply sine wave (approx. these capacitors may retain a dangerous voltage once the line voltage has been disconnected. The inverter bridge connected to these capacitors uses six power semiconductors (usually IGBTs) and associated freewheel diodes. Work must only be carried out on this type of product by trained personnel with knowledge of the essential precautions to be taken (additional discharge circuit or knowledge of waiting periods).

Speed control The output voltage is generated by switching the rectified voltage using pulses with a duration. known as PWM (Pulse Width Modulation).IGBT transistor control circuits A control unit based around a microprocessor. The modulation frequency selected is a compromise: it must be high enough to reduce current ripple and acoustic noise in the motor without significantly increasing losses in the rectifier bridge and in the semiconductors. drives use this feature to avoid the effects of transient line supply fluctuations.This power supply is provided by a switching circuit connected to the filter capacitor terminals in order to make use of this energy reserve. A power supply for low-level electronic circuits. thereby achieving remarkable performance levels on line supplies subject to significant disturbances. conditions regular rotation at low speed and limits temperature rises. which is modulated so that the resulting alternating current will be as sinusoidal as possible (see ). This technique. the DC voltage at the capacitor terminals and in some cases the voltages at the terminals of the rectifier bridge and the motor as well as all values required to control and protect the motor-drive unit. which is used to control the inverter Internal sensors for measuring the motor current. and therefore a width. Built-in protection The drive provides self-protection and protects HSS the motor against excessive temperature rises : Commited to Quality Education by disabling it until the temperature falls back to .

fault) ---. This information. torque. This provides a means of generating information that is used by a PLC and a supervisor to control the machine. HSS : Commited to Quality Education .The drive status (run.The motor status (speed. which is essential for the drive.Run or stop commands ---. temperature) These dialog options are also used in connection with a PC in order to simplify settings on start-up (download) or to archive initial settings. The information transmitted includes: ---. stop. the inverter. The PLC also uses the same channel to provide control information in the same way. such as over voltages or under voltages or the loss of an input or output phase. Additional functions of variable speed drives Dialog options In order to ensure that the motor operates correctly. the control and protection against short-circuits are housed in a single IPM. the chopper. the “motor” currents and the thermal state of the motor.Initial drive settings or modifications of these settings during operation ---. the drives are fitted with a number of sensors for monitoring the voltage. It also provides protection against any type of disturbance or problem that may affect the operation of the unit. overload.Speed references ---. current.Alarms ---. the rectifier. can be useful for operation. In some ratings.Built-in protection The drive provides self-protection and protects the motor against excessive temperature rises by disabling it until the temperature falls back to an acceptable level. The latest drives and starters feature dialog functions based on fieldbuses.

Option to connect PTC thermal sensors integrated into the motor -.Skipping of the machine resonance frequency.Jog operation -. S or U) -.Choice of preset speeds -.Switching of references present at the drive input -.The presence of summed inputs.Ramp switching.Ramp profiles (linear.Automatic catching a spinning load with detection of motor speed for catch on the fly -.Built-in functions In order to be compatible for use in a large number of applications. which can be used to sum speed references -. which can be used to obtain two acceleration or deceleration ramps in order.The presence of a PI regulator for simple servo control (speed or flow rate for example) -.Reduction of the maximum torque controlled using a logic input or a reference -. the drives feature a significant number of adjustments and settings.Automatic stop following loss of line supply enabling the motor to brake -. including: -. the critical speed is skipped in order to prevent operation at this frequency -.Time-delayed locking at low speed in pumping applications where the fluid is used to lubricate the pump and prevent seizing These functions are increasingly being included as standard on sophisticated drives HSS : Commited to Quality Education . for example.Management of brake control for lifting applications -.Thermal protection of the motor using an image generated in the drive -.Acceleration and deceleration ramp times -. to permit a smooth approach -.

Flux Current Control Stator current (IS) is made up of active and reactive current. This is the simplest type of control and is suitable for general purpose applications.The reactive current component of stator current produces the rotating magnetic field. If the motor nameplate information has been correctly entered and the drive properly set up. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . Quadratic Operation A second mode of operation is referred to as a quadratic voltage/frequency curve. The motor is always operated at optimum efficiency. the flux current control mode will usually provide better dynamic performance than simple V/Hz control. The active current produces work. constant volts per hertz is supplied to the motor at any frequency between 0 and 60 Hz.Control Modes The VFD has four modes of operation: Linear voltage/frequency Quadratic voltage/frequency Flux Current Control Sensorless vector frequency control Closed loop vector control (440 with encoder option card) Linear Voltage/Frequency The VFD can operate utilizing a standard V/Hz curve. Using a 460 VAC. This mode provides a V/Hz curve that matches the torque requirements of simple fan and pump applications. 60 Hz motor as an example. Motor nameplate data is entered into the drive. Flux current control automatically adapts the drive output to the load. The drive estimates motor magnetic flux based on the measured reactive stator current and the entered nameplate data. Proprietary internal computer algorithms attempt to keep the estimated magnetic flux constant. Speed remains reliably constant even under varying load conditions.

HSS : Commited to Quality Education . flux vector. slight variations in stator resistance and other parameters will have an effect on speed calculation. This makes vector control without a tachometer impractical below a few hertz. based on a small CEMF and known corrections for stator resistance. An AC motor. Vector control. and field orientation are terms that describe this specialized control technique of AC drives.When motor speed is calculated at very low speeds. is less expensive and requires less maintenance than a DC motor.Sensorless Vector Control In the past. Sensorless vector control calculates rotor speed based on the motor model. and inverter output current. Vector control systems facilitate independent control of flux producing and torque producing elements in an induction motor. inverter output voltage. Using a complex mathematical motor model and proprietary internal computer algorithms vector control is able to exert the necessary control over an AC motor so that its performance is equal to that of a DC motor. This results in improved dynamic performance compared to other control methods. the dynamic response of a DC motor was generally considered significantly better than an AC motor. however. calculated CEMF.

or if cable is run through a metal conduit. the maximum distance is 50 meters (164 feet). Voltage spikes caused by long cable lengths can potentially shorten the life of the inverter and the motor. The maximum distance between a motor and the VFD. such as shielded cable or cables in metal conduit. Spikes occur on the output of all PWM drives because of the charging current of the cable capacitance. have greater capacitance. Some types of cables. The longer the cable. Higher voltage (460 VAC) and higher capacitance (long cables) result in higher current spikes. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . If shielded cable is used. the greater the capacitance. when unshielded cable is used. is 100 meters (328 feet).Effect of long Distance cables to Motor All motor cables have line-to-line and line-to-ground capacitance.

Compound Braking Compound braking uses a combination of the controlled deceleration ramp and DC injection braking. Up to 250% of the motor’s rated current can be applied. then allowing the mechanical inertia of the engine to slow the vehicle until the car is brought to a stop. Controlled Deceleration Another way is to use a controlled deceleration. As the motor decelerates to a stop a DC voltage is periodically applied to the motor windings. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The excess energy of the bus is dissipated in the motor windings. This is similar to alternately applying the brakes to slow a car.Types of Braking Coast-to-Stop To stop an AC motor in single-quadrant operation voltage and frequency can simply be removed and the motor allowed to coast to a stop. This would be similar to slowly removing your foot from the accelerator of a car. The drive monitors bus voltage during operation and triggers compound braking when the bus exceeds a set threshold point. Voltage and frequency are reduced gradually until the motor is at stop. DC Injection Braking The DC injection braking mode stops the rotating magnetic field and applies a constant DC voltage to the motor windings. This is similar to removing your foot from the accelerator and applying the brakes to bring the car to a stop quickly. turning off the ignition and allowing the car to coast to a stop. This is similar to putting a car in neutral. The amount of time required to stop a motor depends on the inertia of the motor and connected load. The more inertia the longer it will take to stop. helping stop the motor.

Loads generally fall into one of three categories: Constant Torque The load is essentially the same throughout the speed range. Winders and rotary cutting machines are examples. and speed characteristics of the load.Application of Variable Frequency Drives When applying an AC drive and motor to an application it is necessary to know the horsepower. Hoisting gear and belt conveyors are examples. Constant Horsepower The load decreases as speed increases. Variable Torque The load increases as speed increases. torque. Pumps and fans are examples. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The following chart shows typical characteristics of various loads.

It must be remembered that constant torque refers to the motor’s ability to maintain constant flux (Φ). One example of a constant torque load is a conveyor similar to the one shown below. and change belt direction. maintain tension. Peak torques in excess of 100% can occur at any speed.Constant Torque Applications constant torque load implies that the torque required to keep the load running is the same throughout the speed range. and can take many styles and shapes. and idlers to support the belt and load. Torque produced will vary with the required load. Conveyors can be found in all sorts of applications and environments. various pulleys to support the belt. Conveyors are made up of belts to support the load. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . including zero speed.

which is beyond the scope of this course. Someone with knowledge of. It would be difficult to find a motor that would operate at exactly this speed. for example. This would allow the conveyor to be operated at any speed between zero and the desired maximum speed of 750 FPM. Another advantage to using AC drives on a conveyor is the ability to run different sections of the conveyor at different speeds. Given the velocity in feet per minute (FPM) of the conveyor belt. A bottle machine. One motor would run the filling section at a given speed and a second motor would run the labeling section slightly faster spreading the bottles out.000. and experience with conveyor operation would be required to accurately calculate the required horsepower. . If. The horsepower required to drive a conveyor is the effective tension (Te) times the velocity (V) of the belt in feet per HSS : Commited to Quality Education minute. and the gear ratio (G) between the motor and driven pulley. The following formula is used to calculate conveyor speed. divided by 33.The speed and horsepower of an application must be known when selecting a motor and drive. the maximum speed of the motor is 638. may have bottles bunched close together for filling and then spread out for labeling. the driven pulley is 18” in diameter.3 RPM. and the gear ratio between the motor and driven pulley is 4:1. Two motors and two drives would be required. the maximum desired speed of a conveyor is 750 FPM. for example. An AC drive can be used with an eight-pole motor (900 RPM). the diameter in inches of the driven pulley. the speed of the motor can be determined. Motor Speed Horsepower Calculating motor horsepower is complicated with many variables.

then the required horsepower is 45. causing a corresponding increase in torque.pulley inertia .5 to 2 times full load torque.5 times full load torque for starting. Once at its new speed the working current and torque will be the same as its old speed.Effective tension (Te) is determined by several forces: • Gravitational weight of the load • Length and weight of belt • Friction of material on the conveyor • Friction of all drive components and accessories . Since torque is proportional to (volts/Hz)2 any increase in speed will cause available torque to decrease by the square.motor inertia . There will be a corresponding increase in horsepower as speed (RPM) increases . however. As a result. Starting torque of a conveyor can be 1. An engineer may need to choose a larger motor and drive in order to start and accelerate the conveyor. Horsepower (HP) is affected by torque HSS : Commited to Quality Education and speed.belt/chain weight .5. During acceleration working current will increase. Torque (T) is affected by flux (Φ) and working current (IW). the motor will be unable to supply rated torque. A motor capable of driving a fully loaded conveyor may not be able to start and accelerate the conveyor up to speed. To do this the drive increases voltage and frequency in proportion. The drive will maintain constant flux by keeping the voltage and frequency ratio constant. AC drives can typically supply 1.friction of plows . HP. The conveyor cannot be operated above the rated frequency ofthe motor (60 Hz) without losing available torque.friction of idlers • Acceleration force when new material is added to conveyor If the effective tension of a conveyor were calculated to be 2000 pounds and the maximum speed is 750 FPM. Torque. and Speed The speed on a conveyor is increased by increasing the AC drive frequency (F) to the motor.

positive displacement pumps are constant torque. It should be noted that not all pumps are variable torque. Fans and pumps are examples of variable torque. There are variations of the centrifugal pump. Peak torques are typically limited to rated torque. The faster a centrifugal pump turns. The most common pump is the end-suction centrifugal pump illustrated below. Overloads. Reciprocating. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . This section deals with variable torque loads. There are three related horsepower calculations involved in pump applications: liquid. A pump used on a chilled water system is shown below.Variable Torque Applications A variable torque load implies that torque and horsepower increase with an increase in speed. mechanical and electrical. as a rule of thumb. Horsepower Calculating horsepower for a pump application is an involved process that requires someone with a thorough knowledge of the application and pumps. Variable Torque Pumps There are several types of pumps. The following information is for illustration only. are not possible at lower speeds. the more fluid it pumps and the more torque it requires. Turbine and propeller pumps are examples.

Mechanical Horsepower Mechanical horsepower is the horsepower input to the pump and is equal to the liquid horsepower divided by the pump’s efficiency.400 ft-lb/minute is 2.53 HP.53 and the pump is 75% efficient the brake horsepower is 3.Hydraulic Head Hydraulic head is the difference in hydraulic pressure between two points.34 pounds per gallon. The hydraulic head would.34) = 83.000 ft-lb/minute.26 HP and 83.700 ft-lb/minute is 1. 100 feet x (50 gallons x 8.34) = 41. also increase. One horsepower is equal to 33. in actuality. pressure and velocity. If the liquid horsepower is 2. Liquid Horsepower Liquid horsepower is the hydraulic power transferred to the pumped liquid. An increase in pump speed would cause increases in pressure and velocity which increases the hydraulic head.4 HP. Twice the energy would be required. 41.700 ft-lb/minute.700 ft-lb/minute If the pumps speed were increased so that 100 gallons of water were being pumped through 100 feet of head the energy would be 83. which actually includes elevation.400 ft-lb/minute The common method of expression is horsepower. 100 feet x (100 gallons x 8. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The following formula can be used to calculate liquid energy.400 ft-lb/minute. Therefore. If 50 gallons of water per minute were required to be moved through 100 feet of head the energy required would be 41. Liquid Energy in ft-lb = Total Head x (Gallons x Weight) Water weighs 8.

the motor will be unable to supply rated torque.Electrical Horsepower Electrical horsepower is the horsepower required to run the motor driving the pump and is equal to the mechanical horsepower divided by the motor’s efficiency.78 HP. requiring the motor to work harder (IW increases). During acceleration. It can be seen that with an increase of pump speed there is a corresponding increase in electrical horsepower. The load’s torque requirements increase while the motor’s ability to supply torque decreases. As a result. Horsepower increases in proportion to the speed cubed due to an increase of torque and speed. The horsepower of a fan is determined by dividing the product of air flow (in cubic feet per minute) and pressure by the product of the constant 6356 and fan efficiency. In this application. Torque (T) is affected by flux (Φ) and working current (IW). torque increases in proportion to the speed squared. The drive will maintain appropriate flux by adjusting the voltage and frequency ratio dependent on speed. This is due to the increase in hydraulic head as the pump works harder to pump more fluid. and Speed The speed on a pump is increased by increasing the AC drive frequency (F) to the motor. HP. If the motor is 90% efficient the electrical horsepower is 3. Torque. Fans This same principle applies to fan applications. The pump cannot be operated above the rated frequency of the motor (60 Hz) because the drive will no longer be able to provide constant flux. Increasing the speed of the fan increases air flow and pressure. working current will increase causing a corresponding increase in torque. Torque and horsepower increase HSS : Commited to Quality Education .

Horsepower is equal to torque times speed. preparation rolls. traversing devices and winders. Horsepower will remain constant in a spindle drive application. Torque is equal to force times radius.Torque and Horse power: Applications. One drive may supply all the spinning pump motors or all the motors or individual motor control for each pump or may be used. Multimotor Applications Many applications require more than one motor. such as lathes. Another example of a constant horsepower application is a winder where radius increases as material is added to a roll and decreases as material is removed. one drive can supply two or more motors. Other applications require multiple motors and drives. for example. Surface speed will remain constant as the material is shaped and the radius reduced. The surface speed in feet per minute (FPM) is equal to 2π times the radius (in feet) of the material times the speed in RPM. When this happens. In some instances. Various motors run the extruder. that are driven in a continuous circular motion are sometimes referred to as spindle drives. starts out with a certain diameter object. Relationship of Speed . A lathe. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . The cutting force must remain constant. As the object is cut and shaped the diameter is reduced.Constant Horsepower Applications Constant horsepower applications require a constant force as radius changes. A spinning machine for producing synthetic fibers. godets. multidrive application. the current rating of the motors added together cannot be greater than the current rating of the drive. is one example of a multimotor. spinning pumps.

The motor should then settle in to the new desired speed. The end result should be a fast response time with about a 43% initial overshoot. Parameter (gain) and parameter (time) are used to tune the PI-controller’s performance. In our example the desired speed and actual speed are input to a summation point. The PI-controller’s job is to make speed corrections quickly with a minimal amount of overshoot and oscillation.PI-Controller PI-controllers are commonly used in drive technology. which is input into the PI-controller. Changes in load on the motor. The two signals are opposite in polarity. can affect motor speed. It is also possible that the application may require the motor to slow down or speed up. A sudden increase in load would cause the motor to slow down. is zero (0). Until the motor reaches the new desired speed there will be a deviation. Whenever desired speed and actual speed are different there is a deviation. When the actual speed is equal to the desired speed the deviation. HSS : Commited to Quality Education . This would decrease the feedback from actual speed and the deviation would become more positive. for example.

HSS : Commited to Quality Education .

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