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1. The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to: A) dismiss the value of replication. B) reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested. C) exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events. D) assume that correlation proves causation. E) overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.
2. The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our common-sense understanding is most clearly facilitated by: A) illusory correlations. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect.
3. Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of: A) the false consensus effect. B) illusory correlation. C) the hindsight bias. D) random sampling. E) the double-blind procedure.
4. Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of: A) illusory correlation. B) the false consensus effect. C) the hindsight bias. D) the double-blind procedure. E) the placebo effect.
5. Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates: A) the placebo effect. B) the false consensus effect.
C) illusory correlation. D) the hindsight bias.
6. Mike Crampton's stockbroker has informed him of substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, “I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!” Her comment best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. B) illusory correlation. C) the placebo effect. D) the false consensus effect.
7. Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) random sampling. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) illusory correlation. E) random assignment.
8. The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by: A) the hindsight bias. B) correlational evidence. C) random assignment. D) operational definitions. E) naturalistic observation.
9. Government experts who are convinced of the correctness of their own mistaken political predictions most clearly demonstrate: A) illusory correlation. B) the false consensus effect. C) overconfidence. D) the placebo effect.
10. Overconfidence is best described as: A) a placebo. B) critical thinking. C) an illusory correlation. D) intellectual conceit.
11. Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, in order to develop her career, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. B) illusory correlation. C) random assignment. D) the false consensus effect. E) overconfidence.
12. Two fundamental characteristics of the scientific attitude are: A) pride and enthusiasm. B) ingenuity and practicality. C) creativity and patience. D) skepticism and humility.
13. Alicia insists that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of: A) pride. B) skepticism. C) practicality. D) enthusiasm.
14. The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to: A) perceive order in random events. B) reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested. C) recognize the errors in our own theories. D) respect any religious beliefs that contradict our own.
15. A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) critical thinking. C) the hindsight bias. D) overconfidence. E) illusory correlation.
16. A hard-headed curiosity that questions truth claims and demands evidence most clearly facilitates: A) an illusion of control. B) hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) critical thinking. E) overconfidence.
17. Questioning the generalizability of anecdotal evidence best illustrates: A) overconfidence. B) the false consensus effect. C) the hindsight bias. D) random assignment. E) critical thinking.
18. Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n): A) theory. B) replication. C) naturalistic observation. D) illusory correlation. E) hindsight bias.
19. The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable: A) assumptions. B) correlations. C) predictions. D) variables.
20. A hypothesis is a(n): A) observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables. B) testable prediction that gives direction to research. C) set of principles that organizes and explains newly discovered facts. D) unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning.
21. Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in securing employment. The professor's prediction regarding employment success exemplifies: A) the hindsight bias. B) the false consensus effect. C) an hypothesis. D) illusory correlation.
22. A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n): A) standard deviation. B) control condition. C) replication. D) operational definition. E) case study.
23. In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n): A) hypothesis. B) independent variable. C) operational definition. D) standard deviation.
24. The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by: A) the hindsight bias. B) the false consensus effect. C) illusory correlation. D) operational definitions. E) the placebo effect.
25. Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances? A) replication B) correlational research C) random sampling D) naturalistic observation E) random assignment
26. Professor Saxton was very skeptical about the findings of a recently reported experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings? A) naturalistic observation B) replication C) random sampling D) the case study
27. The case study is a research method in which: A) a single individual is studied in great depth. B) a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors. C) organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment. D) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
28. In order to understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client's current life situation and his physical, social, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist employed? A) the survey B) the case study C) experimentation D) naturalistic observation
29. The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it: A) is based on naturalistic observation. B) may be unrepresentative of what is generally true. C) is unusually easy to explain in hindsight. D) leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between events.
30. In which type of research is a representative random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or opinions? A) experimentation B) the survey C) the case study D) naturalistic observation
31. Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion? A) the survey
B) naturalistic observation C) the case study D) experimentation
32. Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of: A) random sampling. B) wording effects. C) hindsight bias. D) the false consensus effect. E) naturalistic observation.
33. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as: A) the hindsight bias. B) the false consensus effect. C) illusory correlation. D) an illusion of control.
34. Conservatives are more likely than liberals to perceive high levels of popular support for conservative views. This best illustrates: A) an illusion of control. B) illusory correlation. C) the false consensus effect. D) the hindsight bias.
35. Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does. Jeff best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) the hindsight bias. C) an illusion of control. D) the placebo effect.
36. When conducting a survey, gathering representative samples is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) the hindsight bias. B) an illusion of control. C) the false consensus effect.
D) the placebo effect.
37. In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n): A) population. B) representative sample. C) case study. D) independent variable. E) control condition.
38. In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of: A) random assignment. B) naturalistic observation. C) replication. D) correlation. E) random sampling.
39. Psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that: A) the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying. B) there will be a large number of participants in the research study. C) the study will not be influenced by the researcher's personal values. D) the same number of participants will be assigned to each of the experimental conditions.
40. Which of the following scientific procedures is most useful for helping researchers avoid false generalizations? A) the case study B) naturalistic observation C) random sampling D) operational definitions
41. The sight of large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies led Governor Donavan to become overconfident about his chances of winning the upcoming election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of: A) replication.
B) random sampling. C) experimental control. D) naturalistic observation.
42. People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases. A) randomly selected B) vivid C) representative D) the most frequently occurring
43. After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of: A) replication. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) generalizing from vivid cases.
44. Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as: A) the survey. B) experimentation. C) naturalistic observation. D) the case study. E) random sampling.
45. Professor Ober carefully monitors and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in: A) survey research. B) naturalistic observation. C) experimentation. D) replication.
46. In order to compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as:
A) the case study. B) naturalistic observation. C) random assignment. D) the double-blind procedure. E) the survey.
47. A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called a(n): A) standard deviation. B) independent variable. C) correlation coefficient. D) mean.
48. Correlational research is most useful for purposes of: A) explanation. B) prediction. C) control. D) replication.
49. Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables? A) correlation coefficient B) standard deviation C) range D) mean
50. In order to determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of: A) case studies. B) correlational research. C) experimentation. D) naturalistic observation.
51. In order to discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to employ: A) the case study approach. B) naturalistic observation. C) correlational measures.
D) experimental research.
52. In order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a: A) skewed distribution. B) scatterplot. C) standard deviation. D) bar graph.
53. A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between: A) intelligence and academic success. B) financial poverty and physical health. C) self-esteem and depression. D) school grades and school absences.
54. If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are: A) causally related. B) negatively correlated. C) independent variables. D) dependent variables. E) positively correlated.
55. If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +.85, this would indicate that: A) the relationship between weight and reading ability among elementary school students is not statistically significant. B) low body weight has a negative effect on the reading abilities of elementary school children. C) better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among elementary school students. D) body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities of elementary school children.
56. If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are: A) normally distributed. B) positively correlated.
C) negatively correlated. D) not correlated.
57. A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +.60 would indicate that: A) physical attractiveness has no causal influence on dating frequency. B) more frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness. C) it is impossible to predict levels of physical attractiveness based on knowledge of dating frequency. D) less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
58. Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of self-esteem level? A) +.60 B) +.01 C) -.10 D) -.06 E) .00
59. Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables? A) -.12 B) +1.00 C) -.99 D) +.25 E) -.50
60. If those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively, this would not necessarily indicate that watching TV violence influences aggressive behavior because: A) random sequences often don't look random. B) correlation does not prove causation. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. D) events often seem more probable in hindsight.
61. An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as an-
gry. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of: A) perceiving order in random events. B) generalizing from extreme examples. C) randomly sampling children's views. D) exaggerating the extent to which others share our beliefs. E) assuming that correlation proves causation.
62. If psychologists discovered that intelligent parents have smarter children than unintelligent parents, this would demonstrate that: A) intelligence is inherited. B) intelligent parents provide their children with greater educational opportunities than do unintelligent parents. C) the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated. D) all the above are true.
63. A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that: A) poverty makes people vulnerable to psychological disorders. B) the poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than the wealthy. C) psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth. D) all the above are true.
64. Statistical measurement is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) the hindsight bias. B) illusory correlation. C) overconfidence. D) the placebo effect. E) random sampling.
65. Illusory correlation refers to: A) the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not actually exist. B) a correlation that exceeds the value of +1.00. C) a cluster of points on a scatterplot that suggests a correlation between two variables. D) a correlation that is not statistically significant.
66. Karen erroneously believes that her test grades are negatively correlated with the amount of time she studies for her tests. Research on illusory correlation suggests that she is especially likely to notice instances in which: A) poor grades follow either brief study or lengthy study. B) either poor grades or good grades follow lengthy study. C) good grades follow lengthy study and poor grades follow brief study. D) poor grades follow lengthy study and good grades follow brief study.
67. The perception that seemingly infertile couples who adopt a child are subsequently more likely to conceive a child themselves best illustrates: A) the process of replication. B) random assignment. C) an illusory correlation. D) the placebo effect.
68. Our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to: A) the false consensus effect. B) an illusory correlation. C) replication. D) the placebo effect.
69. Adelle dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Adelle concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. Her belief best illustrates: A) the placebo effect. B) illusory correlation. C) random assignment. D) the false consensus effect.
70. If the total number of boys and girls born each year is exactly equal, which of the following would be the most likely sequence of boys (B) and girls (G) for the next six births? A) G G G G G G B) G G G B B B C) G B G B B G D) All the above would be equally likely.
71. For randomly generated sequences of numbers, people tend to ________ the sequential repetition of any particular digit. A) radically overestimate B) slightly overestimate C) accurately estimate D) underestimate
72. On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, it is reasonable to conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy: A) defies the laws of statistical probability. B) illustrates the phenomenon of illusory correlation. C) is inconsistent with the false consensus effect. D) is a random and coincidental occurrence.
73. Six of the children in Mr. Myer's second-grade classroom were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that: A) random sequences of events often don't look random. B) events often seem more probable in hindsight. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. D) the tendency to seek confirming evidence promotes overconfidence.
74. The illusion of streak shooting in basketball best illustrates the need to recognize that: A) random sequences of events often don't look random. B) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. C) events often seem more probable in hindsight. D) correlation does not prove causation.
75. The fact that some basketball fans believe the outcome of a player's last few shots is a predictor of the outcome of that person's next shot best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. B) random sampling. C) illusory correlation. D) the false consensus effect.
76. Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships? A) the survey B) the experiment
C) correlational research D) naturalistic observation
77. Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between: A) facts and theories. B) causes and effects. C) case studies and surveys. D) random samples and representative samples.
78. The most accurate way of assessing the impact of breast milk feedings on the intellectual development of children is by means of: A) case studies. B) surveys. C) naturalistic observations. D) experiments.
79. Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness? A) the case study B) the survey C) naturalistic observation D) the experiment
80. Prediction is to ________ as explanation is to ________. A) correlation; experimentation B) case study; survey C) random assignment; random sampling D) independent variable; dependent variable E) the hindsight bias; false consensus
81. In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process? A) the survey B) the case study C) experimentation D) naturalistic observation
82. In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of: A) naturalistic observation. B) survey research. C) a case study. D) an experiment. E) correlational research.
83. The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of: A) survey research. B) case study research. C) naturalistic observation. D) correlational research. E) experimental research.
84. Participants in an experiment are said to be “blind” if they are uninformed about: A) what experimental hypothesis is being tested. B) whether the experimental findings will be statistically significant. C) how the dependent variable is measured. D) which experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.
85. An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a: A) placebo. B) median. C) case study. D) replication.
86. In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a: A) dependent variable. B) replication. C) placebo. D) random sample. E) double blind.
87. The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates: A) random assignment. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect. E) illusory correlation.
88. The placebo effect best illustrates the effect of ________ on feelings and behaviors. A) critical thinking B) random sampling C) positive expectations D) random assignment
89. Both the researchers and the participants in a drug-evaluation study are ignorant about which participants have actually received an experimental drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of: A) the false consensus effect. B) the hindsight bias. C) random sampling. D) the double-blind procedure. E) replication.
90. To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control conditions can be attributed to placebo effects, researchers make use of: A) random sampling. B) the double-blind procedure. C) random assignment. D) operational definitions. E) replication.
91. In the control condition of an experiment the: A) experimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior. B) research participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments. C) research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment. D) experimental treatment is absent.
92. In order to study the effects of loud noise on worker productivity, Dr. McDuffee had one group of research participants work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. Those who worked in the quiet room were exposed to the ________ condition. A) experimental B) survey C) control D) correlational
93. In an experimental study, men with symptoms of impotence received either Viagra or a placebo. Those who received Viagra participated in the ________ condition. A) correlational B) control C) survey D) experimental
94. Being randomly assigned to the experimental condition in a research project involves being assigned: A) to that condition by chance. B) to the condition in which participants are representative of people in general. C) in a fashion that ensures that the independent variable will have a strong effect on the dependent variable. D) to the condition in which participants are all very similar in personality characteristics.
95. To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use: A) random assignment. B) naturalistic observation. C) standard deviations. D) case studies. E) scatterplots.
96. To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of: A) random assignment. B) the double-blind procedure. C) naturalistic observations. D) operational definitions.
97. For which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean? A) 9, 8, 9, 8, 7 B) 10, 22, 8, 9, 6 C) 12, 6, 8, 5, 4 D) 12, 15, 12, 9, 12 E) 23, 7, 3, 27, 16
98. Median is to range as ________ is to ________. A) frequency distribution; bar graph B) mean; mode C) scatterplot; correlation D) central tendency; variation
99. Central tendency is to variation as ________ is to ________. A) scatterplot; correlation B) range; normal curve C) mean; standard deviation D) median; mode
100. The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the: A) mean. B) range. C) median. D) standard deviation. E) percentile rank.
Answer Key - Chapter 1 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. B
8. A 9. C 10. D 11. E 12. D 13. B 14. C 15. B 16. D 17. E 18. A 19. C 20. B 21. C 22. D 23. C 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. B 29. B 30. B 31. A 32. B 33. B 34. C 35. A 36. C 37. A 38. E 39. A 40. C 41. B 42. B 43. D 44. C 45. B 46. B 47. C 48. B 49. A 50. B
51. C 52. B 53. A 54. B 55. C 56. C 57. D 58. A 59. A 60. B 61. E 62. C 63. B 64. B 65. A 66. D 67. C 68. B 69. B 70. D 71. D 72. D 73. A 74. A 75. C 76. B 77. B 78. D 79. D 80. A 81. C 82. D 83. E 84. D 85. A 86. C 87. D 88. C 89. D 90. B 91. D 92. C 93. D
94. A 95. A 96. A 97. B 98. D 99. C 100. B
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