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  • Objective of the study:
  • Scope of this study:
  • Relevce and liitations of study:
  • Major Components of Balance Sheets of Scheduled Commercial Banks ±
  • Bank Group-wise
  • Operations of SCBs
  • Deposits/Advances/Investments/Assets of Bank Groups in India
  • Indian Banking at a Glance
  • Organisational Setup
  • Financial Profile
  • Business Profile
  • Meaning of Job Rotation:
  • Benefits of Job Rotation
  • Roadblocks
  • Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next
  • Basic Limitation
  • More Limitations
  • I.Need and objective of the Code
  • II.Bank¶s belief system
  • III. Philosophy Of The Code
  • i. General Standards of conduct
  • B.Disclosure Standards
  • C.Applicable Laws
  • D.Use of Bank¶s Assets and Resources
  • E. Confidentiality and Fair Dealings
  • Other Confidential Information
  • IV.Good corporate governance practices
  • Dos
  • Don¶ts
  • V.Waivers
  • Job Rotation in HDFC Bank
  • Job Rotation in Indian Overseas Bank
  • Definition
  • Differences between job enlargement and job rotation?
  • What are the similarities between job enlargement and job rotation?
  • Advantages of job enlargement
  • Disadvantages of job enlargement
  • What is the Job Rotation Programme?
  • Why Job Rotation?
  • Benefits for Companies
  • Benefits for Organisation Employees
  • Benefits for the Wider Economy
  • Drawbacks
  • General Points:
  • Success factors for job rotation:
  • Strategic Employee Rotation
  • A Change of Scenery Can Do an Employee Good
  • Employee Rotation as a Retention Strategy
  • Employee Rotation Turns to Greater Productivity
  • Can¶t take a cookie-cutter approach
  • Limitations
  • Job Rotation and Job Satisfaction
  • Job Rotation and Training Evaluation
  • Job Enlargement vs. Job Enrichment: 3 Tips for Success
  • Job Enlargement
  • Job Enrichment
  • Why the Disconnect?
  • Finding the Balance
  • 1. Have a talent matrix
  • 2. Conduct career development discussions
  • 3. Tie practices to strategic value
  • Area of study:
  • Sample size:
  • Sources of data:
  • Primary data:
  • Secondary data:
  • Sampling techniques:
  • Data collection technique:
  • Tools for analysis:
  • Pie - chart analysis
  • 1. Job Rotation & Enlargement Questionnaire To Branch Manager
  • 2.Base Line Job Rotation & Enlargement Questionnaire
  • Jobs proposed to be rotation and enlargement
  • Communication of job rotation and enlargement activities
  • Past
  • Present
  • Future




A project Report submitted for the Partial fulfillment of the award of Master of Business Administration Degree in KSOU 2010-11

MADHUSUDAN HM Reg.No. 8780177

Under the guidance of
Internal Guide External Guide

Ganesh.K, Lecturer,
Mahahjana First Grade College,

S.S. Parshwanath,
Chief Manager, Staff Training Centre, Mysore. Mysore.

Department of Studies & Research in Management, KSOU, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006





5 .

6 .

Best wishes for his future endeavours.S. 7 . PARSHWANATH. roll no.have successfully completed the project regarding Job rotation and Job enlargement A Study at SBM .EXTE L GUIDANCE CE TIFICATE Ihere by certify that Madhusudan HM. under my guidance.8780177. Chief Manager.4th semester MBA student of KSOU. DATE:30-12-2010 PLACE: Mysore S. Staff Training Centre. Mysore.


9 . Mysore Branch. Zonal office and STC of SBM that the highlights of job rotation and job enlargement are prospected.ABSTRACT Thi i a bi ¶ eye view of the practices regardi g job rotation and job enlargement in State Bank of Mysore. Implications of the findings are discussed. Using the data obtained from Kuvempunagar µM¶ Block.

10 . Mysore only and other being the lack of detail information as constraint. if any.  To present a picture of job rotation and enlargement in SBM.  Li itation for the study. the study was restricted to SBM Kuvempunagar branch. Relev ce and li itations of study:  Relevance of study.  To study the prospects of job rotation & job enlargement in banks.. Scope of this study:  To know about job rotation & job enlargement in banks.INTRODUCTION TO STUDY: Objective of the study:  To study the level of job rotation & job enlargement among the employees of SBM . the study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job rotation and enlargement level of the employees of SBM.

In 1980. there was a large network of cooperative banks and a few private banks. Apart from these. which led to considerable reorientation of bank lending to meet social objectives. In 1976. The period following nationalization was characterized by rapid rise in banking business and helped in mobilizing national savings. commercial banks and the respective state governments. eight more banks were nationalised. Way back in 1951. 11 . a large portion of the banking industry was state-controlled. especially in the rural areas. Aggregate deposits which registered annual growth in the range of 10% to 12% in the 1960s rose to over 20% in the 1980s. These banks were set up jointly by the central government. till around the 1980s. In 1959. the Regional Rural Banks Act came into being that allowed the opening of specialised banks exclusively to meet the credit requirements in the rural areas. State Bank of India took over the eight former state-associated banks as its subsidiaries. Branch network expanded significantly leading to increase in banking coverage. Savings rate in the country leapfrogged from 10 12% of GDP in the two decades of 1950-70 to about 25% by 1980. Growth of bank credit increased from an average annual growth of 13% in the 1960s to about 19% in the 1970s and 1980s. the need to form state sponsored institutions to increase flow of credit to the rural areas led to the formation of the State Bank of India by an act of Parliament passed in May 1955. Thus. that was recognised to be better adapted to meet the needs of economic planning and aiding the otherwise neglected sectors like agriculture and small scale industries. A major turning point in the industry was in 1969 with the nationalisation of 14 major banks.INDUSTRY PROFILE The Indian banking industry has emerged into a complex multi tier structure with a range of big and small Banks and FIs operating.

transparency and disclosure etc. Today. (b) liberalization of entry and exit norms leading to the establishment of several New Private Sector Banks and entry of a number of new Foreign Banks. 12 . Few of the major aspects of the reforms process included (a) moving towards international norms in income recognition and provisioning and other related aspects of accounting. (c) freeing of deposit and lending rates (except the saving deposit rate). relationship banking being replaced with transaction banking. which experienced rapid growth following nationalization. began to face pressures on asset quality by the 1980s. the banking world everywhere was gearing towards meeting new prudential norms and operational standards pertaining t o capital adequacy. etc. (e) greater transparency and disclosure standards in financial reporting. (d) allowing Pu blic Sector Banks access to public equity markets for raising capital and diluting the government stake.Indian banking. (f ) suitable adoption of Basel Accord on capital adequacy. India embarked on an ambitious economic reform program in which the banking sector reforms formed a major part. Simultaneously. In the early 1990s. The reforms led to major changes in the approach of banks towards issues such as competition. (g) adoption of technology in banking operations. accounting and risk management. profitability and productivity and the need for adopting global best practices. the business of banking in India has undergone a sea change with fee-based income overtaking net interest margin. The Committee on Financial System (1991) more popularly known as the Narasimhan Committee I prepared the blue print for the reforms.

and RRBs 3%. 22% in semi-urban areas. Regional Rural Banks (96).000 entities operating.Structure of the Indian Banking Industry The Indian banking system has undergone significant changes in the post reforms period. including urban and rural. the bank groups operating were State Bank of India a nd its associates numbering 8. including IDBI). All Scheduled Banks comprise Schedule Commercial and Scheduled Co-operative Banks. 13 . the number of scheduled commercial banks functioning in India was 183. has approximately 3.000 bank offices spread across the country. growing opportunities and new avenues to increase income streams. The new private banks and foreign banks have been significant drivers to growth in the banking sector. of which 43% were located in rural areas. Private sector Banks (26) and Foreign Banks (29). Acorganisationing this has been rising competition and risk factors. Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs) in India are categorized in five different groups according to their ownership and/or nature of operation. new instruments. The cooperative sector as a whole. By FY07. with the introduction of new banks. Scheduled Cooperative banks consist of Scheduled State Co-operative Banks and Scheduled Urban Cooperative Banks. 18% in urban areas and the rest 17 % in the metropolitan areas. cooperative banks accounted for 11% of the market. Performance of public sector banks has improved significantly over the years and is comparable with other domestic banks in terms of products and services offered. There were over 73. In this rapidly evolving milieu is a set of 183 commercial banks are now operating in India. and currently hold a combined share of 25% in total assets as of Mar 07. Nationalized Banks (20. As of end Mar 07. The 83 scheduled commercial banks (excluding RRBs) accounted for over 80% of the financial sector.

14 .Major Components of Balance Sheets of Scheduled Commercial Banks ± Bank Group-wise Source: RBI Trends and Progress in Banking 2006-07.

income recognition. as against those experienced by several East Asian and Latin American countries. asset classification and provisioning are gradually moving towards converging with international best practices. These have been lowered substantially over the years ± the CRR has come down from a peak 15% in 1992 to 7.5% to 25%. The reforms period saw a significant improvement in the capital position of commercial banks. 15 . subsequently they were allowed to raise funds from the market through equity issues.Operations of SCBs Growth in the Indian banking industry has been achieved with the least instability. Though improvements in capitalization of public sector banks was initially brought through infusion of funds by the government as a move to recapitalize these banks.5% currently and SLR from 38. Regulatory norms in terms of capital adequacy. the Indian banking system was saddled with very high reserve requirements (Cash Reserve Ratio and Statutory Liquidity Ratio) mainly to accommodate the high fiscal deficit in the economy and its monetization. Till the initiation of reforms. This has resulted in substantial diversification in ownership of public sector banks. along with maintaining a public ownership of 51%.

the aggregate balance sheet of the scheduled commercial banks increased by 24. The ratio of total bank assets to GDP rose to 84% in 2007 as compared to 78% in FY06.4% growth registered in FY06.6% in FY07 as against 17.As of FY07. y Deposits and Advances: Deposits of SCBs grew by 24. the position of Indian banks based on various financial indicators were as follows: y Balance Sheet Growth: In FY07.3%.6 bn. over an 18.8% in FY06.6% in FY07. 16 .896 bn. Reserves and surplus of all SCBs rose by 20% and stood at Rs 1. Growth in advances outstripped the pace of deposit growth with a rise of 30. Revenue and other reserves grew by close to 23% for the banks as a whole. 2007 stood at Rs 295. y Capital and Reserves: The capital of SCBs as on Mar 31.

significant changes are perceptible in the strength and sustainability of Indian banking. reduction in non -performing assets and surge in capital adequacy. Indian banks have experienced sharp growth in profitability. Indian banks have also expanded operations abroad. greater emphasis on prudential norms with higher provisioning levels. 17 .Deposits/Advances/Investments/Assets of Bank Groups in India Source: RBI Today. Apart from a growing domestic spread.

phone banking. which are the mainstay of the Indian Banking system. Also. mobile banking. debit cards. while on the other hand the private sector banks are consolidating themselves through mergers and acquisitions. ICICI Bank¶s acquisition of ITC Classic etc. For instance. have been permitted to open up to 12 branches a year with effect from 1998-99 as against the earlier stipulation of 8 branches. The UTI bank.Global Trust Bank merger however opened a Pandora¶s box and brought about the realization that all was not well in the functioning of many of the private sector banks.Current Scenario: The industry is currently in a transition phase. 18 . Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) and combined various other services and integrated them into the mainstream banking arena. HDFC Bank¶s merger with Times Bank. are in the process of shedding their flab in terms of excessive manpower. following India¶s commitment to the WTO agreement in respect of the services sector. while the PSBs are still grappling with disgruntled employees in the aftermath of successful VRS schemes. Therefore one of the means for them to combat the PSBs has been through the merger and acquisition (M& A) route. great size and access to low cost deposits. Private sector Banks have pioneered internet banking. the industry has witnessed several such instances. anywhere banking. Over the last two years. On the one hand. excessive non Performing Assets (NPA¶s) and excessive governmental equity. foreign banks. including both new and the existing ones. the PSBs. The private players however cannot match the PSB¶s great reach.

Banks in India have been allowed to provide fee-based insurance services without risk participation invest in an insurance organisation for providing infrastructure and services support and set up of a separate joint venture insurance organisation with risk participation. Banks with their phenomenal reach and a regular interface with the retail investor are the best placed to enter into the insurance sector. Many of them are also entering the new vistas of Insurance. Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India Meanwhile the economic and corporate sector slowdown has led to an increasing number of banks focusing on the retail segment.Indian Banking at a Glance Source: RBI. 19 .

which has seen rapid growth with strong contribut ion from all the three sectors of banks. This move. at present it has gone up to 74% with some restrictions. mortgages and investment services are expected to be strong. Go home at 4) of functioning. especially retail banking. revitalized the banking sector in India. The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body. Bankers. with minimal pressure from the government. strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region. Indian banks are considered to have clean. and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up). private banks and foreign banks. With the growth in the Indian economy expected to be strong for quite some time-especially in its services sector-the demand for banking services. All this led to the retail boom in India. namely. The new wave ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks. ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank.The way travelled: In the early 1990s. Axis Bank(earlier as UTI Bank).   20 . were used to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%. takeovers. which later amalgamated with Oriental Bank of Commerce. One may also expect M&As. where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%. The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment. These came to be known as New Generati n tech-savvy banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy. along with the rapid growth in the economy of India. People not just demanded more from their banks but also received more. government banks. the then Narsimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true. till this time. licensing a small number of private banks. and asset sales. Lend at 6%. The new policy shook the Banking sector in India completely.

the RBI was swift to reduce the policy rates. vehicle and personal loans.Under penetrated financial system . The Indian Banking Sector is poised for significant growth in the coming years driven by: . Couple of fiscal stimulus packages by the Government.Healthy outlook on GDP . both repo and reverse repo and provide liquidity to the economy by reducing the reserve ratios and offering adequate support to the banking system. relaxation of norms for certain sectors like real estate and allowing the banks to restructure its advances too contributed to the sailing of Indian banks through the rough phase with minimal impact.In recent years critics have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery efforts in connection with housing.Borrowings from infrastructure and mortgage finance (home loans) 21 . There are press reports that the banks' loan recovery efforts have driven defaulting borrowers to suicide The way ahead: During the recessionary phase in October 2008±March 2009 period.

including the Imperial Bank of India. the former state-owned or state-associate banks. An important turning point in the history of State Bank of India is the launch of the first Five Year Plan of independent India. These three banks dominated the modern banking scenario in India . Therefore. on 27 January 1921. in 1951. It began with the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta in Calcutta. on 2 January 1809. the commercial banks of the country. the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act was passed in 1959. they were not equipped to respond to the growing needs of the economic revival taking shape in the rural areas of the country. confined their services to the urban sector.SBI PROFILE The evolution of State Bank of India can be traced back to the first decade of the 19th century. The Plan aimed at serving the Indian economy in general and the rural sector of the country. the State Bank of India (SBI) was established on 1 July 1955. Subsequently. This resulted in making the State Bank of India more powerful. three years later. The All India Rural Credit Survey Committee proposed the takeover of the Imperial Bank of India. Subsequently. Moreover. established under the sponsorship of the Government of Bengal. As a result. because as much as a quarter of the resources of the Indian banking system were controlled directly by the State. the All India Rural Credit Survey Committee recommended the formation of a state-partnered and state-sponsored bank. The Act enabled the SBI to make the eight former State-associated banks as its subsidiaries. Until the Plan. Later on. an Act was passed in the Parliament of India in May 1955. on 2 June 1806. It was the first ever joint-stock bank of the British India. in order to serve the economy as a whole and rural sector in particular. 22 . until when they were amalgamated to form the Imperial Bank of India. and integrating with it. the Bank of Bombay (established on 15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (established on 1 July 1843) followed the Bank of Bengal. in particular. The bank was redesigned as the Bank of Bengal.

Patiala. The lack of a banking infrastructure in these regions led the government to develop a state-owned banking entity to fill the gap. targeting in particular the development of the country's rural areas. Yet the bank. The new state-owned bank now controlled more than one-fourth of India's total banking industry. By then. and Travancore became subsidiaries of the State Bank. as well as 200 sub-offices.000 branches and offices throughout India. the State Bank's network already contained nearly 500 branches and suboffices. Hyderabad. Indore. Yet the State Bank now began an era of expansion. dominating the Indian commercial banking industry.Into the early 1950s. India had achieved its independence from Britain. government controlled banks. the Imperial Bank was nationalized and then integrated with other existing government-owned banking components. acting as a motor for India's industrial and agricultural development. in 1955. which was to transform it into one of the world's largest financial networks. their seven remaining subsidiaries were converted into associate banks. As part of that process. 23 . As such the Banks of Bikaner. The result was the creation of the State Bank of India. In 1951. Following the 1963 merger of the Bikaner and Jaipur banks. and also entered a new phase of national expansion. the Imperial Bank grew steadily. by the early 1990s. as well as the three original head offices inherited from the presidency bank era. giving it the world's single largest branch network. In the early 1960s. the new government launched its first Five Year Plan. That position was expanded at the end of the decade. like most of the colonial government. Jaipur. By the middle of the 1950s. The bank continued to build up its assets and capital base. when new legislation was passed providing for the takeover by the State Bank of eight regionally based. the Imperial Bank operated more than 170 branch offices. or SBI. Saurashtra. focused primarily on the country's urban regions. Mysore. the State Bank counted nearly 15. Indeed.

SBI continued to develop its commercial banking operations. in 1986. SBI responded by launching an ambitious technology drive. including full-fledged subsidiaries in the United Kingdom. In 1972. China. SBI had yet to establish an automated teller network. then teaming up with GE Capital to issue its own credit card. The bank also provided backing for the development of the country's infrastructure. particularly on a local level. and elsewhere. SBI added subsidiaries SBI Factors and Commercial Services. The following year. in collaboration with the Housing Development Finance Corporation. Even as it played a primary role in the Indian government's industrial and agricultural development policies. where it provided credit coverage and development assistance to villages.. and South Africa. The nationalization of the banking sector its elf. for example. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd. SBI Home Finance. in the meantime. the bank's merchant banking operations had grown sufficiently to support the creation of a dedicated subsidiary. SBI began addressing the technology gap that existed between it and its foreign-backed competitors. By the mid-1980s. operating some 50 offices in 34 countries. 24 . In 1995 the bank set up a new subsidiary. indeed.SBI played an extremely important role in developing India's rural regions. rolling out its own ATM network. providing the financing needed to modernize the country's agricultural industry and develop new irrigation methods and cattle breeding techniques. Back home. an event that occurred in 1969 under the government led by Indira Gandhi. it had not even automated its information systems. gave SBI new prominence as the country's leading bank. the bank began offering merchant banking services. the United States. SBI had long been present overseas. The bank also extended its international network into new markets such as Russia. Then in the early 1990s. and backing the creation of dairy farming. the organisation launched another subsidiary. SBI Capital Markets. as well as pork and poultry industries. to back its corporate and international banking services. Into the 1990s. and then launched institutional investor services.

rolling out "anytime. The implementation of new technology helped the bank achieve strong profit gains into the early years of the new century. SBI continued its technology rollout. SBI also adopted new human resources and retirement policies. almost entirely through voluntary retirement in a country where joblessness remained a decided problem. Branches The corporate center of SBI is located in Mumbai.000 most profitable branches. the bank began cross-linking its banking network with its ATM network and Internet and telephone access. By 2002. In order to cater to different functions. By the beginning of 2004. In the meantime. located at major cities throughout India.In the early 2000s. helping trim its payroll by some 20. anywhere" banking access. apart from the corporate center. well networked to cater to its customers throughout India. SBI appeared to be well on its way to meeting the challenges offered by the deregulated Indian banking sector. SBI promised to remain a central figure in the Indian banking sector as it entered its third century. boosting the number of networked branches to more than 4.000. there are several other establishments in and outside Mumbai. It is recorded that SBI has about 10000 branches. 25 . the bank had succeeded in networking its 3. The bank boasts of having as many as 14 local head offices and 57 Zonal Offices.000 at the end of 2003.

credit cards and insurance.Subsidiaries The State Bank Group includes a network of eight banking subsidiaries and several nonbanking subsidiaries.. (Nigeria). fund management.A. SBI Funds Management Ltd. Nepal SBI Bank Ltd.. Indo Nigeria Merchant Bank Ltd. SBI Gilts Ltd. SBI (Canada).. Through the establishments.. (Nepal). it offers various services including merchant banking services.. SBI Factors & Commercial Services Ltd. SBI Securities Ltd. SBI Home Finance Ltd. SBI Cards & Payments Services Ltd. primary dealership in government securities. SBI (U.. SBI European Bank plc (U. (Mauritius).).S.K.. State Bank International Ltd.. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd. The eight banking subsidiaries are: y y y y y y y y State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ) State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH) State Bank of India (SBI) State Bank of Indore (SBIR) State Bank of Mysore (SBM) State Bank of Patiala (SBP) State Bank of Saurashtra (SBS) State Bank of Travancore (SBT) Other Subsidiaries: Bank of Bhutan (Bhutan). 26 . SBI Capital Market Ltd. factoring services.).

27 . 6900 non-supervisory staff (as on 30.2010). under the patronage of the erstwhile Govt. At the end of March 2009. in March 1960. The skill and competence of the employees have been kept updated to meet the requirement of our customers keeping in view the changes in the environment. State Bank of Mysore had a paid up capital of Rs. Human Resources The Bank has a dedicated workforce of 10028 employees consisting of 3128 supervisory staff. 360 million. 3 Treasury branches. Organisational Setup While the Chairman of State Bank of India is also the Chairman of the Bank.Visvesvaraya. State Bank of India holds 92. Sir M. The Bank's shares are listed in Bangalore.06. 2009. In the same financial year. Subsequently. State Bank of Mysore achieved a capital adequacy ratio of 12. 1619. 4 specialized Personal Banking Branches.06.2010) and 21 extension counters spread all over India which includes 5 specialized SSI branches. it recorded a profit of Rs. Chennai. 336. Late Dr. 4 Industrial Finance branches. Financial Profile As on March 31. at the instance of the banking committee headed by the great Engineer-Statesman. the Bank became an Associate of State Bank of India. and Mumbai stock exchanges. The Bank has a widespread network of 690 branches(as on 30. 10 Agricultural Development Branches.33% of shares. The Managing Director is assisted by a Chief General Manager and 6 General managers.91 crore s. 1 Asset Recovery Branch and 8 Service Branches. while the net worth of the bank is Rs. of Mysore. offering wide range of services to the customers.44 crores. 3 Corporate Accounts Branches.SBM PROFILE State Bank of Mysore was established in the year 1913 as Bank of Mysore Ltd.99%.

commercial and institutional banking schemes. It offers term.13 19607. offering a range of services to the customers. 10 Agricultural Development Branches. four Industrial Finance branches. Banking Operations are further segmented to Corporate/Wholesale and Retail Banking.Business Profile Following table will showcase the business profile of State Bank of Mysore as on March 2009 (Figures are in Rs. one Asset Recovery Branch and eight Service Branches. crores): Total Deposits Total Advances Export Credit Forex Merchant Turnover Forex Trading Turnover 32915. advances. three Treasury branches. and recurring deposits. foreign exchange (Forex) services and automated teller machines (ATM). 28 . the Bank has a network of 682 branches and 20 extension counters all over India. It operates under two segments: treasury operations and banking operations. As of March 31. including deposits. three Corporate Accounts Branches. 2010. and micro and small enterprises schemes. reinvestment. agricultural banking. The Bank offers services.76 25616.27 State Bank of Mysore (the Bank) is an India -based organisation.05 1158. which includes five specialized SSI branches. four specialized Personal Banking Branches.42 82197. The Bank offers personal banking schemes.

Job satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully. when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied. To utilize their contribution they shou ld be provided with good working conditions to boost their job satisfaction. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Whichever method or combination of methods is chosen depends on both the management and the staff of the organization. enrichment.BACKGROUND Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. restructuring. employers can be considered as backbone of any industrial development. f) Supervision. Many human relations processes such as job enlargement. or more satisfying position. c) Promotion d) The work group. a) Pay. Apart from managerial and technical aspects. more fulfilling. problem of efficiency absenteeism labour turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpos e to solve the human problems in the industry. Personnel do not always have to leave an organization in order to find a different. e) Working condition. Any business cab achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved. In modern society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. b) The work itself. When the people are ever increasing and ever changing. and rotation can be a means to an end. 29 .

they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and µburnout¶. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision.PAY Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. 30 . By and large. The two most important aspect of the work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In general. More over. job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. workers want jobs that are challenging. shelter. Money facilities the obtaining of food. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as direct wages. PROMOTION Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. more challenging work assignments and high salary. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom. pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. job content and pay. Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. THE WORK ITSELF Along with pay.

The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making. display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation. The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work. employee who participates in decision that affect their job. friends and recreation outside work. People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them.SUPERVISION Two dimensions of supervisor style: 1. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. WORK CONDITION The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. 31 . If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime. 2. WORK GROUP Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. they will have very little felt for their families.

and turnover. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction. productivity. this may not be true in all cases. job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. productivity decreases. alcoholism and mental and physical health result f rom psychologically harmful jobs. this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. when job satisfaction increases. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker. 32 . absenteeism. The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. For example. Productivity: There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: 1. Therefore. its favorableness or unfavourableness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. when satisfaction decreases. since a job is an important part of life.Effect of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. Further. A happy worker is a productive worker. a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Various research studies also support this view. Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual¶s physical and mental health. The another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. 2. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling. However. For example. Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual¶s physical and mental health. productivity increases. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance.

Moreover. add variety. The organisation 33 . the employee is rotated to anot her job. the process is called horizontal job enlargement. Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job.Worker has more control over the work 3. It may widen the number of task the employee must do that is. This also presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom. Job enlargement is oblivious forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Such changes permit more social contacts and greater control over the work process. This practice provides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additional skills. JOB ROTATION Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely different sets of job activities. Output will increase if 1. Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through systematically moving workers from one job to another. the assembly lines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers on each line. To check harmful effects of specialization. at the same level that has similar skill requirements.Workers abilities are fully utilized 2. the engineering factors involved in each individual job must be carefully analyzed. instead of assigning one man to each job and then allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work.Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated. One way to tackle work routine is to use the job rotation. When additional simple task are added to a job. When an activity is no longer challenging. Perhaps. It is simply the organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to the capacity. of workers.JOB ENLARGEMENT The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. actual and potential. Stephan o ffers three basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement.

34 .also benefits since the workers are qualified to perform a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency. CHANGE OF PACE Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he wishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted to change their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment.

surprisingly. he will be skilled to a new job which is more or less similar to his earlier job. With job rotation. However. Hence. Individuals learn several different skills and perform each task for a specified time period. Job rotation can be defined as lateral transfer of employees among a number of different positions and tasks within jobs where each requires different skills and responsibilities. thus.JOB ROTATION IN A NUTSHELL Job rotation. and how each member of the team contributes to the process. Cheraskin. Meaning of Job Rotation: Job Rotation implies systematic movement of employees form one job to the other. Empirical research in this regard is sorely needed. Job rotation is a developmental technique that has been widely used but. organizational theorists have advocated frequent rotation as a means of reducing fatigue and boredom on production jobs so as to maintain productivity and fairly frequent rotation after the initial hiring as a means of orientation and placement. experience and ability to perform different jobs. From the employers¶ point of view. job rotation permits individuals to gain experience in various phases of the business and. how their own effort affects the quality and efficiency of production and customer service. which enriches his skills. 35 . Rotating job tasks helps worker understand the different steps that go into creating a product and/or service delivery. is one of the many forms of on-the-job training and a formal effort at executive development. When rotation occurs at longer intervals. & Stevens. Traditionally. broaden their perspective. Job remains unchanged but employees performing them shift from one job to the other. it has been thought as a practice of progressive human resource development or a means of enhancing the value of work experience for career development (Campion. the jobs offered under job rotation are more or less of the same nature. As a result. an employee is given an opportunity to perform different jobs. job rotation is usually addressed at an organizational level. received little attention in human-resources studies. 1994). sometimes called cross training. Job rotation enables the training of workers to be backups for other workers so that managers have a more flexible work force and a ready supply of trained workers . This is described as job rotation.

frequently referred to as management rotation. In many cases senior managers seem unwilling to risk instability in their units by moving qualified people from jobs where the lower level manager is being successful and reflecting positively on the actions of the senior manager. This has been practiced by the German green party for some time but has been discontinued. Whilst there is relatively little research undertaken in this area a prospective emancipatory action research study has been on-going in north west London health services for several years. Many military jobs use the job rotation strategy to allow the soldiers to develop a wider range of experiences. Dr. is tightly linked with succession planning . prior to the end of incumbency or the legislative period.developing a pool of people capable of stepping into an existing job.Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. The work has been undertaken by Patrick Coyne. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a organisation. Buchan and Jane Ball. especially in public offices. Prof. For lower management levels job rotation has normally one of two purposes: Promotability or skill enhancement. with the local health communities.com. job rotation .www. A meta-evaluation of the research and the development of a global model of job rotation is being completed at this point by Patrick Co yne. the research papers can be found on . and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction through job variation. 36 . Ricky Lucock. The term job rotation can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices. Here the goal is to provide learning experiences which facilitate changes in thinking and perspective equivalent to the "horizon" of the level of the succession planning. and an exposure to the different jobs of an occupation. At the senior management levels.nurserotation.

Raises intrinsic reward potential of a job: Job Rotation is likely to raise intrinsic reward potential of a job due to different skill and abilities needed to perform it. The employee gets some variety of work. 5. the organization stands to gain because of the versatility of its employees who develop skills due to job rotation. Staff adjustment in different department is possible easily due it the practice of job rotation. It also facilitates personal growth of employees and makes the workers more useful and valuable to the organization. It develops a common culture because of wide and common exposure to workers. 37 .operation among them. 2. the management gets employees who can perform a variety of tasks to meet contingencies. It is suggested as a motivational strategy. 4. Reduce Boredom: Job rotation reduce boredom and disinterest among employees.Beneficial to the organization: Due to job rotation. As and result. 3. Improves inter-departmental co-operation: Periodical job rotation improves inter-departmental co-operation. Due to job rotation. Management gets the benefit of job rotation because workers become competent in several jobs rather than only in one job.Benefits of Job Rotation 1. The organization stands to benefit as the workers become competent in several jobs. A worker becomes a broader based versatile worker due to job rotation. workplace and peers. Worker becomes competent in several jobs: Due to job rotation. 6. Motivates employees: Job rotation technique is used for motivating employees in the organizations. workers know about a variety of jobs. a given employee performs diffe rent jobs of more or less the same nature. Employees understand each other¶s problems properly and this facilitates co.

Develops wide skills among workers: job rotation develops and wide range of skills among employees. It broadens knowledge and skills of an employee. Many job rotation systems have failed because of lack of planning and lack of foresight into the problems and shortcomings of rotation. It can prove more difficult than it might seem at first glance. increased employee satisfaction and lower MSD rates. and especially the employees themselves. However. including the potential for increased flexibility in production. medical providers. This guidance should be viewed as a starting point for further discussion by workplace personnel. union. since it involves changing the organizational structure of an entire facility. There are many issues to consider and no official protocol or methodology to call upon. Roadblocks There are two major categories of roadblocks that are often encountered in setting up a job rotation system: Cultural issues: The first set of difficulties are associated with the challenge of changing the work structure and not from the job rotation in and of itself.7. 38 . Personal worth of employee also improves. The following materials provide systematic guidance for setting up a rotation system. establishing a rotation system that properly determines job rotations and monitors their safe use is not a simple task. There are many reasons for implementing a job rotation system. including management. Examples of problems include: Experienced workers not wanting to learn new types of work Employees not wanting to ³lend´ their equipment to other s Pre-existing differences in wage levels among employees whose jobs are to be rotated High-seniority employees who have ³paid their dues´ working at difficult jobs may believe that they have earned their right to easier jobs and may resist going back to more difficult work. The successful implementation of a program requires teamwork from all parts of the organization.

Inability of some employees to be physically able to perform the most difficult tasks Education and training of workers for new jobs Inconsistency of application Basic Limitation Job rotation alone does not change the risk factors present in a facility. This can be shown in the following graph. However. When employees rotate between two jobs the risk exposure can be thought of as being ³averaged. there will be no net change in risk factors present.Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next Rotation issues: The other set of difficulties have to do with issues surrounding the rotation schedule itself: Difficulties in finding appropriate jobs to rotate to (fo r the goal of reducing MSDs) Difficulties for employees in learning the subtleties of some tasks and thus end up increasing the physical demands. Thus.´ Job rotation may drop the average to within a safe level. the risk for some individuals can be reduced. or raise the whole 39 . while the risk for others can be increased. It only distributes the risk factors more evenly across a larger group of people.

Typically. More Limitations If the jobs being rotated involve the same muscle-tendon groups then the benefit of MSD risk reduction is lost. For this reason it is prudent to be cautious about job rotation. There is no single work-rest regimen. Job rotation should be used with caution and as a preventive measure.group in excess of safe limits. An hourly rotation is probably better and a four-hour rotation probably the maximum that would provide any benefit from an MSD perspective. it must be determined by the nature of the task. not as a response to symptoms. for example. a wrist intensive task is adjacent to a back-intensive task. The principle of job rotation is to alleviate physical fatigue and stress of a particular set of muscles and tendons by rotating employees among other jobs that use different muscle-tendon groups.not necessarily an ergonomist. the job analyses must be reviewed by a qualified person to ensure that the same muscle-tendon groups are not used. In analyzing jobs for rotation. 40 . the benefit may also be lost. Engineering changes should remain the goal of the ergonomics program. such as a daily rotation. the qualified person must have sufficient expertise to identify the ergonomic stresses each job presents and which muscles and tendons are used. it is not possible with current knowledge to determine what the safe limit is. Job rotation can mean that a worker performs two or more different tasks in different parts of the day (i. employees should rotate every two hours. a plant engineer fully trained in ergonomics . A "qualified person" is one who has thorough training and experience sufficient to identify ergonomic hazards in the workplace and recommend an effective means of correction. for example.e.. Situations that are best able to benefit from job rotation are those where. rotation among jobs that are similar is not appropriate. switching between task "A" and task "B" at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals). Additionally. If rotation is utilized. Unfortunately. if the rotation is too infrequent. The important consideration is to ensure that the different tasks do not present the same ergonomic stressors to the same parts of the body (muscle-tendon groups). Thus.

and (4) the overall job difficulty. Thus. documented job rotation system which carefully matches jobs. 41 . it is important to quantify or score the risk factors associated with each of the tasks that are to be rotated. The purpose here is to build upon the ergonomics training already received and further it by discussing the relationship between it and j ob rotation. a good rotation would a job with a red score for the lower back and one with a green score for the lower back. medium. (3) the lower back. Whatever scoring system is used. such as in a pilot work area so that the program can be further refined before being implemented elsewhere. and low risk. However. During this meeting it would be appropriate to have a short presentation on ergonomics and job rotation.´ and ³green´ to represent high. Steps for Implementation Step 1: Hold an employee meeting to determine interest and gain involvement and input. other factors and body parts may need to be taken into consideration depending upon the tasks. To ensure that all job rotations meet basic ergonomics requirements a consistent and systematic approach is required. a score would be calculated for each job for (1) the hand and wrist. Scoring System For best results. Be Systematic To realize the beneficial aspects of job rotation it is necessary to establish definitive internal guidelines that insure consistent application and at the same time allow for restricting employees from rotating into jobs they cannot perform. Typically.´ ³yellow. It is probably best to start slowly at first. There is no established system or protocol for these scores and you will need to select or develop a system that is appropriate for your site and the tasks in question. At this time it would be appropriate to issue a Job Rotation Questionnaire.These excerpts indicate the importance of establishing a formal. This matching system should ensure that different muscle-tendon groups are emphasized. it can be helpful to convert your final results into ³red. (2) the arm and shoulder.

they should generally be allowed the break-in period to become accustomed to the work again. This also suggests that the number of jobs included in a particular rotation should be kept to a minimum. The training and break-in period enables the employee to develop those subtle work techniques needed to perform the task the easiest way and thus minimize the risk factors. Step 4: Provide employees with any training that they may need to perform the tasks or handle the tools and equipment. experienced employees going to a new job should receive the same training requirements and documentation that a new hire must have before starting in that position. the same guidelines for new hires starting out should apply to experienced employees starting in a new job. decisions about the suitability of a particular job rotation should be based on the following: Step 3: Apply a common-sense review to ensure that the logistics of the proposed rotation are suitable and that the job rotation seems reasonable. Even if the employees have performed the job previously. allowing the employees to become ³experts´ at each task. review the job rotation scheme with the affected employees. If necessary. changes to the list should be made. The employee concerns and insights should be taken into account. Step 5: Provide employees with adequate break-in time to ensure that they are fully qualified and physically conditioned to perform their new tasks. In general.Step 2: Calculate the scores for the jobs considered for rotation. Similar to training requirements. 42 . and final approval for the list obtained. Also. Use these scores to establish which jobs should be rotated with which. In general. perhaps two or three.

However. Role of Ergonomics Team Anyone should be able to suggest job rotations. 43 . Assess if further training. If results are favorable then continue rotation.Step 6: Begin job rotation. production employees. break-in. and/or accommodations can be made for these individuals. Compare results to the initial survey. employee satisfaction. consistent. or union officials. you may find it helpful to use the Job Rotation Checklist. and syst ematic method of job rotations that are based on the requirements of the jobs. including supervisors. turnover. Comments These steps should be viewed as options and starting points for further discussion by the site ergonomics team and other interested personnel. the job rotation scheme should be approved by TeamErgo with input from the affected employees before being implemented. If results indicate a problem then decide if corrective action is needed or if rotation should be discontinued. Step 8: Hold follow-up meetings with employees to evaluate the job rotation. To help you make sure that all of the steps of the process are completed and documented. Survey the employees using the job rotation questionnaire again. Step 7: Monitor the new rotation to ensure flexibility and consideration for individuals that are having difficulty performing new tasks. The objective here is to show you one approach for developing a formal. Step 9: Track other measures such as injury rates. or workers compensation to determine effects of the job rotation.

requires.Bank¶s belief system This Code of Conduct attempts to set forth the guiding principles on which the Bank shall operate and conduct its daily business with its multitudinous stakeholders.REASONS BEHIND JOB ROTATION: I. and anyone else with whom it is connected. III. II. It recognises that the Bank is a trustee and custodian of public money and in order to fulfil its fiduciary obligations and responsibilities.Need and objective of the Code Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement entered into with the Stock Exchanges. The Bank shall continue to initiate policies. it has to maintain and continue to enjoy the trust and confidence of public at large. government and regulatory agencies. which are customer. as part of Corporate Governance the listed entities to lay down a Code of Conduct for Directors on the Board of an entity and its Senior Management. The Bank acknowledges the need to uphold the integrity of every transaction it enters into and believes that honesty and integrity in its internal conduct would be judged by its external behaviour.centric and which promote financial prudence. Accordingly the State Bank of India has laid down this Code for its Directors on the Central Board and its Core Management (Core Management means top executives of the Bank at the level of Deputy Managing Directors).The Bank shall be committed in all its actions to the interest of the countries in which it operates. The Bank is conscious of the reputation it carries amongst its customers and public at large and shall endeavour to do all it can to sustain and improve upon the same in its discharge of obligations. Senior Management has been defined to include personnel who are members of its Core Management and functional heads excluding the Board of Directors. Philosophy Of The Code The Code envisages and expects - 44 . media.

c)compliance with applicable laws. and other stakeholders and to maintain a cooperative. efficient. employees. at offsite locations where the business is being conducted whether in India or abroad. b)full. These standards need to be applied while working in the premises of the Bank. General Standards of conduct The Bank expects all Directors and members of the Core Management to exercise good judgement. fair and accurate disclosures in the periodic reports required to be filed by the Bank with government and regulatory agencies. to ensure the interests. The Directors and members of the Core Management while discharging duties of their office must act honestly and with due diligence. safety and welfare of customers. rules and regulations. They are expected to act with that amount of utmost care and prudence. A ³Conflict of Interest´ occurs when personal interest of any member of the Board of Directors and of the Core Management interferes or appears to interfere in any way with the interests of the Bank. its stakeholders and to each other. They are expected to perform their duties in a way that they do not conflict with the Bank¶s interest such as- 45 . Although this duty does not prevent them from engaging in personal transactions and investments. it does demand that they avoid situations where a conflict of interest might occur or appear to occur. or at any other place where they act as representatives of the Bank. ii . which an ordinary person is expected to take in his/her own business.a)adherence to the highest standards of honest and ethical conduct. including proper and ethical procedures in dealing with actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships. Every member of the Board of Directors and Core Management has a responsibility to the Bank. d)to address misuse or misapplication of the Bank¶s assets and resources. at Bank-sponsored business and social events. e)the highest level of confidentiality and fair dealing within and outside the Bank i. positive. harmonious and productive work environment and business organization.

Employment / Outside Employment .The members of the Core Management are expected to devote their total attention to the business interests of the Bank. and the nature of the relationship between the Bank and the customer. association in which the relative or other person is associated in any significant role. or of the other entity.Related Parties . their access to confidential information of the Bank. they should disclose to the Bank any interest that they have which may conflict with the business of the Bank. supplier or competitor should be considered in determining whether a conflict exists. C. Relatives shall include: Spouse Father Mother (including step-mother) Son (including step-son) Son¶s wife Daughter (including step-daughter) Father¶s father Father¶s mother Mother¶s mother Mother¶s father 46 .If any member of the Board of Directors and Core Management considers investing in securities issued by the Bank¶s customer. the Directors and members of the Core Management should avoid conducting Bank¶s business with a relative or any other person or any firm.As a general rule. They are prohibited from engaging in any activity that interferes with their performance or responsibilities to the Bank or otherwise is in conflict with or prejudicial to the Bank.Business Interests . organisation. they should ensure that these investments do not compromise their responsibilities to the Bank. their ability to influence the Bank¶s decisions.a. Many factors including the size and nature of the investment. B. Additionally. supplier or competitor.

Auditors and other Statutory Agencies. fair and accurate disclosures in the periodic reports required to be filed with Government and Regulatory agencies. they must fully disclose the nature of the related party transaction to the appropriate authority.Disclosure Standards The Bank shall make full.In the case of any other transaction or situation giving rise to conflicts of interests. 47 . B. Any dealings with a related party must be conducted in such a way that no preferential treatment is given to that party. ii. The members of Core Management of the Bank shall initiate all actions deemed necessary for proper dissemination of relevant information to the Board of Directors. the appropriate authority should after due deliberations decide on its impact. as may be required by applicable laws. rules and regulations.Son¶s son Son¶s son¶s wife Son¶s daughter Son¶s Daughter¶s husband Daughter¶s husband Daughter¶s son Daughter¶s son¶s wife Daughter¶s daughter Daughter¶s daughter¶s husband Brother (including step-brother) Brother¶s wife Sister (including step-sister) Sister¶s husband i.If such a related party transaction is unavoidable.

This responsibility includes the safeguarding. All confidential information must be used for Bank¶s business purposes only. D. acting on behalf of the Bank in any transaction in which they or any of their relative(s) have a significant direct or indirect interest. trade secrets. accepting or agreeing to accept anything of value from any person while dealing with the Bank¶s assets and resources. employee related information. legal.Such disclosure should be made after considering its potential benefits and risks. administration. confidential information may have to be disclosed to potential business partners. To further the Bank¶s business. which the Bank has rightfully received under non-disclosure agreements. They should report any inadvertent non-compliance. soliciting. ii. strategies. rules and regulatory orders. research in connection with the Bank and commercial.The Bank's confidential information is a valuable asset. if detected subsequently. confidential and privileged information. iii. Confidentiality and Fair Dealings Bank¶s Confidential Information i.Use of Bank¶s Assets and Resources Each member of the Board of Directors and the Core Management has a duty to the Bank to advance its legitimate interests while dealing with the Bank¶s assets and resources. It includes all trade related information. scientific. to the concerned authorities. securing and proper disposal of confidential information in accordance with the Bank's policy on maintaining and managing records. technical data that are either provided to or made available to each member of the Board of Directors and the Core Management by the Bank either in paper form or electronic media to facilitate their work or that they are able to know or obtain access by virtue of their position with the Bank. only after 48 . regulations.C. using corporate property. E.Care should be taken to divulge the most sensitive information. ii. information or position for personal gain. customer information. This obligation extends to confidential information of third parties. Members of the Board of Directors and Core Management are prohibited from: i.Applicable Laws The Directors of the Bank and Core Management must comply with applicable laws. iii. demanding.

Any publication or publicly made statement that might be perceived or construed as attributable to the Bank.the said potential business partner has signed a confidentiality agreement with the Bank. Sometimes. made outside the scope of any appropriate authority in the Bank. Such confidential information should be handled in accordance with the agreements with such third parties.. the Bank may request that a third party provide confidential information to permit the Bank to evaluate a potential business relationship with that party. they will volunteer confidential information about their products or business plans to induce the Bank to enter into a business relationship. rules and regulations that have the objective of preventing unlawful gains of any nature whatsoever. any act or failure to act. shareholders/ stakeholders. At other times. IV. gift. to influence any business decision. The Bank requires that every Director and the member of Core Management. iv. that is perceived as intended. directly or indirectly. statutes. or anything of value from customers. Attend Board meetings regularly and participate in the deliberations and disc ussions 49 . any commission of fraud. Other Confidential Information The Bank has many kinds of business relationships with many companies and individuals. ii. payment promise to pay. Dos i. General Managers should be fully compliant with the laws. or opportunity for the commission of any fraud.Good corporate governance practices Each member of the Board of Directors and Core Management of the Bank should adhere to the following so as to ensure compliance with good Corporate Governance practices. Directors and the members of Core Management shall not accept any offer. special care must be taken by the Board of Directors and members of the Core Management to handle the confidential information of others responsibly. i. etc. or authorization to pay any money. Therefore. should include a disclaimer that the publication or statement represents the views of the specific author and not the bank. suppliers.

iv. doctors. (This does not prevent the Chairman. and Minutes. Do not do anything. Managing Directors and Core Management from using DO Letterheads or visiting cards with SBI¶s logo thereon). lawyers and other professionals etc. iii. Do not interfere in the day to day functioning of the bank. v.Be familiar with the broad objectives of the Bank and the policies laid down by the Government v. which will interfere with and / or be subversive of maintenance of discipline. Do not reveal any information relating to any constituent of the Bank to anyone. 50 . investments. good conduct and integrity of the staff. V.) ii.Waivers Any waiver of any provision of this Code of Conduct for a member of the Bank¶s Board of Directors or a member of the Core Management must be approved in writing by the Board of Directors of the Bank. enlistment or empanelment of contractors. (This stipulation does not apply to the Chairman. Do not sponsor any proposal relating to loans. Ensure and confidentiality the of the various Bank¶s laws agenda papers. ii.Study the Board papers thoroughly and enquire about follow up reports on definite time schedule. the Managing Directors and the Core Management. iii. and notes legislations. Don¶ts i. Do not display the logo / distinctive design of the Bank on their personal visiting cards / letter heads.Involve actively in the matter of formulation of general policies iv. buildings or sites for Bank¶s premises. architects. auditors.effectively.

The union might think that employees are being harassed and more work is being taken from them.A person who is doing a particular job and get it comfortable suddenly finds himself shifted to another job or department . In reality this is not the case. Misunderstanding with the union member:Sometimes job rotation may lead to misunderstanding with members of the union. and are essential to the Bank's ability to conduct its business in accordance with its value system.this interrupts the work in both the departments. he takes time to learn the new job.when a new worker I shifted or rotated in the department.The matters covered in this Code of Conduct are of the utmost importance to the Bank. Disadvantages of Job Rotation Frequent interruption:Job rotation results in frequent interruption of work . 51 . Reduces uniformity in quality:Quality of work done by a trained worker is different from that of a new worker . makes mistakes in the process and affects the quality of the job. its stakeholders and its business partners.

The staffs and clerks have internal rotation and officers get rotate to other branch. For Job Rotation of the employees meeting are held in every 6 months and for officers it is 3 years. Job Rotation in Indian Overseas Bank In JOB all the employees involved in the job rotation schedule. The employees are been provided with the rule and regulation.Job Rotation in HDFC Bank In HDFC Bank all employees involved in the Job Rotation Schedule. 52 . the staffs. In HDFC Bank the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years. The flexibility and consideration is been given and those individual who have physical deficiency have no job rotation. The flexibility and consideration is given to those employees who have Physical difficulty for such employee there is no Job Rotation for example: Deaf and Dumb. As per the Bank rule the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years. clerks and officers. Job Rotation takes in bank for other new comers to show their work as per their knowledge and to avoid frauds.

this in turn can lead to similar levels of demotivation and job dissatisfaction at the expense of increased training levels and costs. This contradicts the principles of specialization and the division of labour whereby work is divided into small units. thus reducing monotony. However results have shown that this process can see its effects diminish after a period of time.JOB ENLARGEMENT IN BRIEF Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities generally with in the same level and periphery. each of which is performed repetitively by an individual worker. they perform several tasks on a single item. It is a horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. job enlargement seeks to motivate workers through reversing the process of specialization.' which can lead to an unmanageable workload. A typical approach might be to replace assembly lines with modular work. 53 . The continual enlargement of a job over time is also known as 'job creep. In order for employees to be provided with Job Enlargement they will need to be retrained in new fields which can prove to be a lengthy process. instead of an employee repeating the same step on each product. as even the enlarged job role become the mundane. Thus. Job enlargement may also result in greater workforce flexibility. Some motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused by the division of labour can actually cause efficiency to fall. Definition Job design technique in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased (and appropriate training provided) to add greater variety to activities.

It increases the scope of the job. X is working as an executive with a organisation and is currently performing 3 activities on his job after job enlargement or through job enlargement we add 4 more activities to the existing job so now Mr.Differences between job enlargement and job rotation? Job enlargement seeks to reduce boredom and increase employee's satisfaction by increasing the number of tasks the worker does. new challenge. Job enlargement can be explained with the help of the following example ± If Mr. By job enlargement we provide a greater var iety of activities to the individual so that we are in a position to increase the interest of the job and make maximum use of employee¶s skill. Job enlargement involves combining various activities at the same level in the organization and adding them to the existing job. Source of professional satisfaction Job enlargement is another method of job design when any organization wishes to adopt proper job design it can opt for job enlargement. exposure. 54 . It must be noted that the new activities which have been added should belong to the same hierarchy level in the organization. Job enlargement is also essential when policies like VRS are implemented in the organisation. Need of training and adaptability. What are the similarities between job enlargement and job rotation? New tasks. Kind of horizontal promotion. X performs 7 activities on the job. It is also called the horizontal expansion of job activities. Both job enlargement and job rotation are alternatives to job specialization.

Job enrichment means improvement. Therefore the efforts of the individual may remain unrecognized. Disadvantages of job enlargement Increases work burden:Job enlargement increases the work of the employee and not every organisation provides incentives and extra salary for extra work. Improves earning capacity:Due to job enlargement the person learns many new activities. Increasing frustration of the employee:In many cases employees end up being frustrated because increased activities do not result in increased salaries. whereas job enlargement means to add more duties. This reduces the salary bill for the organisation. By job enrichment.Advantages of job enlargement Variety of skills:Job enlargement helps the organization to improve and increase the skills of the employee due to organization as well as the individual benefit. Since a single employee handles multiple activities the organisation can try and reduce the number of employee¶s. Problem with union members:Many union members may misunderstand job enlargement as exploitation of worker and may take objection to it. an employee finds satisfaction in respect to their position and personal growth 55 . or an increase with the help of upgrading and development. Wide range of activities:Job enlargement provides wide range of activities for employees. When such people apply foe jobs to other companies they can bargain for more salary. and an increased workload. The difference between job enrichment and job enlargement is quality and quantity.

they also possess some distinct features that differentiate them. not only includes more duties and responsibilities. The job enlargement theory involving horizontal expansion to incre ase job satisfaction and productivity is relatively simple. an employee might feel lucky to have a job at all.potential. In spite of mutual dependency. whereas job enlargement refers to having additional duties and responsibilities in a current job description. Although job enlargement and enrichment have a relationship with each other. Job enrichment involves organizing and planning in order to gain more control over their duties and work as a manager. Job enlargement and job enrichment are both useful for motivating workers to perform their tasks enthusiastically. which does not happen in job enlargement. and applied in numerous situations. managerial duties are sanctioned. 56 . Job enrichment is largely dependent on job enlargement. Job enrichment. whereas job enlargement has no such dependency. Job enlargement expands horizontally when compared to job enrichment. as in the case of enhancement. Due to downsizing. mutual reliance. Vertical growth of job or augmentation is helpful to obtain managerial rights. Job enlargement is a vehicle employers use to put additional workload on employees. The execution of plans and evaluation of results motivates workers and relieves boredom. despite the fact that his duties and responsibilities have increased. such as area of expansion. Another approach is that by adding more variety and enlarging the responsibilities will provide the chance of enhancement and more productivity. Job enrichment has a greater motivational impact than job enlargement. perhaps in economical downtime. The employee focuses more on job depth. motivation and profundity. which expands vertically. but also gives the right of decision making and control. allocation of duties and responsibilities. when compared to job enlargement.

57 . 2. 5. whereas job enlargement is not dependent on enrichment. Job enrichment is dependent on job enlargement. Job enrichment gives more control and managerial access to perform tasks and responsibilities. Herzberg's research shows that improving the 'meaningfulness' of a job has the motivational impact. 3. whereas job enrichment is vertical expansion. Job enlargement is horizontal. Job enlargement and job enrichment are tools for motivation and growth. 4. Job enlargement means taking charge of more duties and responsibilities which are not mentioned in the job description. not simply increasing the amount of pressure or volume of the tasks. Job enlargement is different to Job enhancement.1.

58 . nor a simple continuing training tool enabling firms to maintain and expand their employees¶ skills without holding up production. Job enlargement increases the variety of tasks built into the job may involve taking on more duties and usually adds variety t o a person's job. or more satisfying position. What is Job Rotation? 1. restructuring. The job ± Rotation model is neither a simple market tool enabling a solution to be found to the long -term unemployment of low-skilled persons. allowing the worker to move between tasks. enrichment. Eac h team member carries out a set of operations to complete the product. usually at fixed times. There are a number of articles dealing with job rotation in organisation its deals with his experience in a events & fabrications. Whichever method or combination of methods is chosen depends on both the management and the staff of the organization. Job rotation links training p olicy and employment policy.RELATIONSHIPS OF JOB ROTATION AND JOB ENLARGEMENT Personnel do not always have to leave an organization in order to find a different. during the time that they leave their jobs for more education and training. They look at the advantages and disadvantages of a two-year rotation of reference department supervisors Job rotation is training and education in which the unemployed are educated and trained continuously in order to replace employees in companies. Many human relations processes such as job enlargement. Teamwork involves the team in the planning and allocation of the work. and rotation can be a means to an end. Job enlargement :-It requires workers to move between different ³jobs´. or more usually workstations. more fulfilling. It enables a limited solution to be found to the big question of the relationship between training and employment.

Job rotation can also offer physical benefits to workers. Psychosocial and physical negative features:-Workers may lose their sense of mastery and feelings of competence if their job is placed in a rotation. marketable. It is not desirable that ³bad´ jobs are be hidden in the rotation. thus ranking behind engineering controls but a head of person focused interventions and personal protective equipment. These included decreasing the amount of time on physically demanding jobs. and gives workers the perception of physical relief. Workers with seniority may lose their ³lighter´ jobs in job rotation. 4.2. Job rotation may be distributing the risky jobs to a wider pool of workers. they should be fixed. job rotation is classed as an administrative control. 3. potentially making workers more valuable.In a hierarchy of hazard control measures. and injured workers with work accommodations may face peer pressure to overreach their physical limits. re-training. job rotation is threatening to those who do not embrace change. Moreover. 59 . different jobs offer changes. there are feelings of job insecurity. and hence more secure in their job. As a result. leaving more workers. Engineering solutions:. They lose their sense of ownership and pride. and the opportunity to increase skills and versatility. or do not have a full understanding of all aspects of the work. variability and a break from monotony. The job and their skill-set can no longer be considered special if ³anyone´ can do it. It is not uncommon for Health and Safety regulations to emphasis that job rotation is a temporary control measure until engineering controls can be instituted. Psychosocial and physical benefits:-: Benefits included offering increased social interaction and collegiality between workers.

What is the Job Rotation Programme? This programme has been specifically funded to get women back into employment. sequencing. In particular. It can be used to provide variety in jobs that are highly repetitive and monotonous or jobs that can be adjusted to different workers. The reintroduction of injured workers should in particular be considered. and supervision should be planned to accommodate foreseeable circumstances such as a range of training.000 companies India wide have participated in Job Rotation. 60 .An important and often forgotten requirement is the need for retraining. Job rotation needs to have a staged introduction: Exploration:. it enables unemployed women to gain employment so that other employees within the host organization can be released for training. Currently. Almost 90. Planning:. Job rotation can work with jobs with similar levels of risk and difficulty. Simply put.The jobs. There needs to be an adequate training and a phase-in time.000 employees have received training and 20.Job rotation should be initiated only after there has been an ergonomic assessment and engineering solutions to musculoskeletal risk factors have been implemented.The concept is quite simple Job Rotation support s organisation and staff development by ‡providing vocational training for selected staff ‡supplying and training unemployed women as workers to substitute for the staff released on training leave Although a relatively new programme in Mumbai. and capacities of workers in the rotation sequence. Training:. more than 3. it should be initiated only after the peak loads have been addressed. skills.000 unemployed people have trained as substitut es and reentered employment. the Job Rota tion concept is already helping to transform learning in the workplace.

Benefits for Organisation Employees Organization employees will improve their knowledge. it is suggested to measure a baseline of what the situation was like before the rotation (injuries. whilst providing a replacement worker to cover whilst existing employees are released on training. etc.There is the potential for a decrease in quality and productivity at start up and initial difficulties in formalizing the schedule. After implementation. use them as the ³canaries´ to make sure that the rotation was not increasing output. Job Rotation provides tailored training for staff of small and medium sized enterprises. listen to feedback to modify the process. absenteeism. worker satisfaction. can't get experience without a job' . Another way to assess the effectiveness would be to monitor the effect on the workers who were being rotated out of the ³easy´ jobs. increasing effecti veness in their role and improving job security 61 . but carries a cost in terms of releasing key staff and finding the right training. Why Job Rotation? 'Can't get a job without experience.) so that you can have a before andafter picture of the effect. skills and qualifications through supplementary training and general education.Implementation:. These need to be planned for. Benefits for Companies Investment in staff development is a major key to survival and growth. Given the difficulty of performing controlled evaluations of job rotation effe ctiveness in each workplace. Evaluation:-It is important to treat each new job rotation as if it was a pilot study.

Tackling unemployment 2. developing multi ± dimensional knowledge and skills of employees. Employees could not plan their own career path as envisaged in the policy. Job rotation within the work center has not taken place at any of the work center. enabling employees to develop their own career path and providing flexibility in pursuing specialist tasks. Encouraging business development trough staff training and learning 3. Drawbacks Job rotation which should have been a major outcome after implementation of the policy has taken a back seat and the process of skill development and enhancing the knowledge base has remained only in papers.Benefits for the Wider Economy Job Rotation meets three separate but interrelated needs of the local economy. 62 . Promoting Lifelong Learning For Job Rotation Trainees: As part of your pre-employment training you will be provided with the following nationally recognised qualifications: ‡Employment Skills level ‡Basic Computing ‡Communication Skills ‡Application of Number Banks have realized that the scheme has not been able to achieve the desired objectives as intended in the scheme. The main objective of the policy.as envisaged by the management. was to have planned movement of employees to meet operational or administrative requirement of the organization. 1. Most of the envisaged objectives have not been met by the policy.

and more importantly. qualification and trade. experience. The job rotation at various operational areas should not be based on the level but on the basis of their knowledge. 2. intentional employee rotation will have many positive effects on your business and employees. understanding how to get the most out of your employees. Success factors for job rotation: Doesn¶t work if you mix high risk jobs with low risk jobs Doesn¶t work well if your team has very difficult physical capabilities Doesn¶t work well for reintroduction of injured workers Doesn¶t work well if jobs are too similar Needs a good overall safety climate Strategic Employee Rotation Planned.General Points: 1. Encouraging employees to rotate into different roles every few years contributes to knowledge sharing. The tenure of Fabrication does not allow the individual to acquire the knowledge within this time frame. understanding your customer's needs. This is where employee rotation is important for maintaining a hands-on approach to managing your organization. Sometimes the latter requires some innovation on your part. Staying on top of the market. 63 . and helps to develop employees' careers. In fact they should become the area for specialization and extended arms of operations/all assets to aid in enhancement of performance. exposes workers to new challenges. Part of running a successful business is understanding what it takes to remain innovative and fresh with your ideas. The guidelines of the policy should be strictly adhered to. 3. The policy should be implemented in the right earnest and spirit.

do not send them to another manager in your organization. saves your organization¶s recruiting dollars. Take the appropriate action to eliminate weak performers. increases your employees' effectiveness. Many recruiters target 'passive job seekers' because they have fresh competitive knowledge. or to take their corporate knowledge and experience to another part of the organization in a lateral move.' Employee rotation improves morale. This length of aim provides adequate time for your employee to gain experience and have an impact in the position. Experts recommend moving employees to a new role every two years. Employees who feel stagnant in their job will passively search for a new job. After two years. progressive. as defined by answers.com is. 64 . employee rotation is a strategic approach to managing your employees that keeps your organization fresh. Strong familiarities with operations do not look at employee rotation as a way to unload your trash on someone else. you are promoting personal growth and substantially reducing the chance that an employee will become a 'passive job seeker. A Change of Scenery Can Do an Employee Good Experts recommend moving employees to a new role every two years.Employee rotation. Plain and simply. "a practice which allows qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a organization and increase job satisfaction through job variation". and helps to keep your employees away from your competition. If you have a bad employee. This length of time provides adequate time for your employee to gain experience and have an impact in the position. By encouraging rotation. and successful. the employee should be ready to move up a level from their role. Employee Rotation as a Retention Strategy Employee rotation is also a very reliable technique for improving retention.

Employee Rotation Turns to Greater Productivity Each time an employee rotates into a new role. a new perspective and a fresh drive to succeed. The employee brings increased internal relationships. When those factors converge. the employee can offer more ideas than if they were brought in new. be proactive and make strategic employee rotation part of your normal operations and business culture. The goal is always to do what works best for your business. 65 . Knowing how different functions of the organisation operate often provides interesting insights into how the employee's new position can be more effective and efficient. Another benefit is that the employee brings invaluable experience gained while in their previous position with your organization. he or she gets a new challenge and set of responsibilities. Knowing how different functions of the organization operate often provides interesting insights into how the employee's new position can be more effective and efficient. Make sure your employees understand their options and have easy access to int ernal job postings from various departments of your organization. your organization receives a big boost from within. Another benefit is that the employee brings invaluable experience gained while in their previous position with your organization. In most businesses. The end result is a pipeline of fresh ideas moving throughout your organization. a defined employee rotation program will substantially improve long-term success. If the position they are moving into was created. If you have not yet instituted employee rotation.

Can¶t take a cookie-cutter approach It is not a´ silver bullet´ to prevent : Job rotation is but one approach among a whole range of strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders. organizational and engineering factors. It is very context-specific: Important ingredients for successful implementation of job rotation include considerations of physical." 66 . Asking this series of questions may provoke considerations of key issues: Why is rotation being chosen as a control strategy? Have engineering solutions been considered and is rotation a good solution for preventing musculoskeletal disorders? Are there jobs in the proposed rotation sequence that have high demands (especially peak loads) that could expose more workers to hazards? Is rotation disrupting existing patterns of mobility that are bene ficial? Is the rotation schedule flexible enough to accommodate variations in production and staffing without compromising other workers? Are the staffing and training levels appropriate? Is there a plan for injured workers who need to be accommodated without compromising other workers? Quality Manager said "Having participated on previous employment programmes it had proved difficult to get appropriate work ready people. it is not an instant solution to poorly designed work and work organization. psychosocial. However [our job rotation trainee] has exceeded our expectations and has become a valued member of the team.

job swaps can contribute to the development of social as well as individual human capital by establishing and developing new relationships across the organization. 67 .Methods Seven control variables are: Job interval. After given the definition of job rotation as the lateral rotation of employees among a number of different positions without changes in hierarchy and salary. Job rotation. Cross-functional job rotation and. seniority. and salary. Cross-functional job rotation can be a powerful way of developing organizational high -fliers. to a lesser extent. gender. Enabling staff to work in different areas of the organization through cross-functional job rotation and job swaps can contribute to knowledge retention and management by spreading individuals¶ expertise more widely within the organization. respondents were asked: ³Does your organization practice job rotation?´ A positive answer was coded as 1 and a negative answer was coded as 0. education. Respondents were asked: ³On average how long you would stay in one position before possibly transferred to another position in your organization?´ The answers were coded in terms of number of year. Job interval. position. Objectives: Job rotation can lead directly to the accelerated development of new members of staff. age.

68 . although the potential scale and scope of the development opportunities are correspondingly smaller. Job swaps are easier to organize and resource than a cross-functional rotation program.Limitations The return on investment in cross-functional job rotation for selected groups such as graduates and high-fliers can be comparatively low without effective selection arrangements. This can cause resentment where their support is provided for those they perceive to be members of a privileged group or to be destined for higher things rather than continuing to work alongside them as colleagues. Cross-functional job rotation for selected groups can make considerable demands on the support of the colleagues of participants.

& Hulin. give them a sense of belonging. is generally acquired over a period of time as an employee gains more and more information about the workplace. 1965. 1967) are two widely used instruments. 1975 & 1976). the following hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 1: Employees who perceive their companies as practicing job rotation will have higher job satisfaction than those who don¶t . equitable rewards.Job Rotation and Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to an individual¶s general attitude toward his or her job. size. Conceivably.. 1990) and job characteristics such as skill variety. 69 . which measure five important factors conducive to job satisfaction: mentally challenging work. task identity. Job satisfaction. According to Locke (1976). employees see job rotation as a way of acquiring the skills needed for promotions and as an investment by the employer in their development. However. when people speak of employee attitudes. 1995). In addition. 1969) and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss. & Lofquist. Job Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith. and supportive colleagues. and centralization (Porter & Lawler. rotating employees to different positions is an excellent way to motivate employees. Job satisfaction related to a number of variables including organization structural characteristics such as hierarchy. For example. Therefore. task significance. one usually identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employee¶s feeling about each. and feedback (Hackman & Oldham. supportive working conditions. job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one¶s job and job experiences. reduce boredom and fight off a lack of commitment (Campion et al. To measure job satisfaction. 1994). Kendall. some other job facets such as job security and career opportunities may be important and should be also considered (Huo. autonomy. Accordingly. like any attitude. the practice of job rotation contributes at least to skill variety and task identity. Sakano. England. opportunities for promotion. they often mean job satisfaction. Tsai & Von Glinow. Dawis. As Robbins (1993) put it. Berger & Cummings.

In many companies. 70 . In each assignment. it minimize friction caused by personality clashes or personal feuds. The advantages of job rotation have been long recognized by organizational theorists. Hence. As summarized in Sargent (1952): a job rotation plan provides well-rounded training and a background of experience for the individuals. the trainee in the job rotation learns by doing. it tests the individual. the employee is given responsibility and expected to fit in as a regular member. In sum. One important form of OJT is job rotation in which the employee moves from job to job at planned intervals. and it widens the trainee¶s circle of acquaintances among organization executives. it stimulates the development of the individual because of the element of competition introduced. The follo wing hypothesis can be proposed: Hypothesis 2: Employees who perceive their companies as practicing job rotation will eval¡ate the companies¶ training effectiveness more positively than those who don¶t . Onthe-job training (OJT) involves having a person learn a job by actually performing it on the job. a training by job rotation is not perfectly substitutable by other kinds of training method.Job Rotation and Training Evaluation Training is giving new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. it eliminates the assu mption by an individual of any ³vested right´ in a particular job. 1994). OJT is the only type of training available to employees (Dessler. it streamlines the organization through periodic introduction of new managerial viewpoints.

Job rotation alone does not change the ergonomic risk factors in a facility. Dan MacLeod. During this meeting. A common-sense review of logistics and compatibility will ensure that proposed rotations are suitable and reasonable. if the two jobs have similar risks. the risk exposure may drop to a safe level. including supervisors. * Make a list. says MacLeod. if necessary. Generate a generic list of all acceptable rotations for each department to allow flexibility in making job assignments without violating organisation ergonomic policies. * Phase it in. The same training requirements and documentation for new hires should be applied to experienced line e mployees going into new jobs. To determine if the results of job rotation changes meet the goals of the 71 . MacLeod says this will help build upon previous ergonomics training and introduce the job rotati on concept. This is key. he says. When workers rotate between two jobs. review the proposed rotations with all employees who will be affected by the changes. an ergonomics committee and the employees who will be affected by the changes should approve rotatio ns. * Provide training. show a short presentation on ergonomics and job rotation. Pa. says employers can create a successful job rotation program using the following guidelines: * Get employee input. an ergonomics consultant based in Milford. This can ensure flexibility for individuals who are having difficulty performing new tasks.. Employees need to understand how new tasks will be performed or unfamiliar equipment should be handled. managers. production employees and union officials. In addition. However. Anyone should be allowed to suggest job rotations. However. * Verify rotation efforts with each affected department. the benefits are lost. Employee concerns should be taken into account and changes made. Provide employees with adequate break-in time to ensure they are fully qualified and physically conditioned to perform their new tasks. * Monitor the rotation. It only distributes the risk factors more evenly across a larger group of employees. He suggests employers first hold an employee meeting to determine if there is any interest in a job rotation program. Assess if further training or accommodations can be made for these individuals.

That must be determined by the nature of the task. Hold follow-up meetings with employees to evaluate the job rotation. In analyzing jobs for rotation. There is no single work-rest regimen recommended by Dan Macleod. For example. If results indicate a problem. making the job rotation pointless. Dan Macleod says. the employee will not be able to rest the specific muscle-tendon group. turnover. According to Dan Macleod. decide if corrective action is needed or if the rotation should be discontinued. Dan Macleod says. The key is ensuring that the different tasks do not present the same ergonomic stressors to the same parts of the body. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has guidelines for implementing job rotation. Survey workers using a job rotation questionnaire.program. The system should let you compare the number of cumulative trauma disorders. However. Track data such as injury rates. * Evaluate changes. * Measure effectiveness. a system of tracking should be in place. Dan Macleod says job rotation can include two or more different tasks performed during different parts of the day--for example. 72 . a plant engineer who has been fully trained in ergonomics would be fully qualified. Dan Macleod warns job rotation should be used with caution and only as a preventive measure. Otherwise. a job analyses must be reviewed by a qualified individual to ensure the worker is not using the same muscle-tendon group in both jobs. the qualified individual must have sufficient expertise to identify the ergonomic stressors each job presents and which muscles and tendons are used. the agency notes. restricted duty days and lost hours. When job rotation is used. switching between jobs at two. employee satisfaction and workers' compensation costs to determine the effects of the job rotation. rather than as a response to symptoms. Compare the results to the initial survey and reactions. a qualified individual should have sufficient training and experience to identify ergonomic hazards in the workplace and recommend an effective means for correction.or four-hour intervals.

Companies are beginning to see the effects as people seek outside employment rather than be assigned more duties disguised as a benefit.Job Enlargement vs. 73 . Even with merit budgets slightly de-thawed. This could include researching trends. Job Enrichment: 3 Tips for Success As the economy picks up. morale. rather the new role is merely a piling on of additional duties to an existing job. Unfortunately for many. Rather than simply adding duties. but often the change is not accompanied with any reward or removal of other tasks The employee gains more responsibility but remains largely in the same role. but they want more. Internal opportunities are surfacing as well with many employees looki ng to make a change within their current company. an employee¶s talents are leveraged to address various business challenges. The employee on the receiving end may interpret the added duties as positive at first. is at an all time low. or to offset lack of resources brought about from lack of hiring or turnover. That need can mean increasing competences against a new customer or industry demand. Why the Disconnect? After a year of little movement or change. and is good at. Job Enlargement Job enlargement increases an employee¶s scope (and workload) to accommodate a business need. Surveys from Gallup and the Conference Board. this latest round of increases has not perked people up to pre -recessionary production levels. They crave challenges that show off their abilities and yield real rewards. Enrichment is the true win-win for a company and its employees. Meaningful tasks are assigned to an employee based on their interests and performance history. and high performance output. the change they seek may not be in the form of a promotion with new challenges. doing a job rotation ± basically anything that aligns what the employee wants to do. Job Enrichment Job enrichment takes a different stance. the level of employee engagement is suffering. more job opportunities are becoming available. project managing a new program. against a business deliverable. We¶ve already started to see many companies like Cisco and Intel open jobs that were absent through much of 2009. Workers are still interested in having a job of course. show employee motivation.

like the survival mode many companies have faced in the last several months. task re-direction. All of the skills are captured from individual growth plans. What they do care about is communication.Finding the Balance It¶s not an exact science finding the intersection of job enrichm ent versus enlargement. Have a talent matrix Many problems around job duty changes. A talent matrix is an organization¶s accounting for the skills that exist ± both in skills that aren¶t immediately used in the business and those that are critical. and what people want to do. As with most workforce planning and career development programs. A regularly planned discussion with employees demonstrates a commitment to talent regardless of the business conditions. and conversations with employees. Here are three tips management and HR can do to strike a balance: 1. Many factors are at play including employee¶s perceptions of what constitutes tasks that they feel utilize their talents well versus help the company¶s interests only. 2. Most people are not entitles ± they can see conditions are poor and don¶t count on promotions or enrichment offers. and career growth stem from a missing talent management plan. paying attention to employee growth needs takes a back s eat. A good matrix shows who is good at what. This is a mistake. that¶s when employee¶s think they¶re not cared for or feel valuable. When managers ignore or abandon a career development discussion. 74 . With this data it¶s easier for managers to know who to assign to what when the opportunity arises. Under stressful conditions. open communication and aligned needs and interests becomes key. Conduct career development discussions People processes are as important to maintain engagement and connection as being a solid task master. It¶s important to set-up regular quarterly check-ins to make sure employees know what the conditions are and that they are heard in terms of what they want to do and where they want to go. resume dat a.

That¶s why management and HR have to show the value of these programs. it doesn¶t matter whether you¶re doing exactly what you should be doing in your job duties ± we¶re paying you to work and that should be enough. but behaviorally from management. A corporate philosophy has to surround these practices because it benefits the company.3. In other words. 75 . This concept seems simple enough but many companies insert ³be happy you have a job´ as a measure to job enlargement or enrichment. Building business-relevant connections with employee talent and interests will continue to be a vital tool for company¶s to survive the economy and maintain competitive advantage. It may not be communicated in this overt style. the subtly is there in the form of no commutation or action. Tie practices to strategic value Just having data about your talent and talking about career development isn¶t enough. Creating the right motivational foundation through carefully planned job enrichment and enlargement practices will mean the difference between dealing with retention issues due to turnover versus an engaged workforce. The data has to connect with competitive advantage that also leads to increased productivity and job satisfaction.

Sources of data: The study is based on both primary and secondary data. books. magazines and web-sites. Sample size: The researcher has proposed to interview branch staff who are working in Kuvempunagar µM¶ branch of State Bank of Mysore. Primary data: The primary data were collected through structured questionnaire.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Area of study: This study was conducted in State Bank of Mysore. 76 . Sampling techniques: The methodology followed for collecting data. selection of sample. Secondary data: The required secondary was collected from interviews. and they were selected as the sample for the study. and analysis of data is as follows: Data collection technique: The questionnaire has been designed and supplied to the Respondents for collecting primary data.

Tools for analysis: The following statistical tool is used in the study for the purpose of analysis. sectors are used to compare between two or more series of data and also to describe the relation. the sectors create a full disk. the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area). Together. 77 . Pie .chart analysis A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors. illustrating proportion. When angles are measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. is proportional to the quantity it represents. In a pie chart. Since the sectors reduced everything to a base and there by allow meaningful comparison to be made. It refers to a special kind of ratio.

turnover. employee satisfaction. etc. Jobs proposed to be rotated & enlarged are: ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ __ Has an employee meeting been held to determine interest and gain involvement and input? __ Has each task involved in the proposed rotation & enlargement been reviewed with the Physical Job Analysis checklist to determine precise requirements and has a Job Rotation Worksheet been generated? __ Has scientific method been used in evaluating job rotation & enlargement possibilities? __ Have all employees involved in the rotation schedule been trained to do all tasks? __ Have all employees been provided an adequate break-in priod to insure they are: Fully qualified to do all tasks? Physically conditioned and accustomed to do the job? __ Have flexibility and consideration been given for individuals in the rotation schedule? __Are there any employees who would have difficulty in performing all the tasks? Can accommodations be made for these individuals? __ Have formal follow-up evaluations been conducted? __ Are benefits or problems being tracked (increased or decreased injury rates. efficiency. workers compensation costs.QUESTIONNAIRES 1.)? 78 . Job Rotation & Enlargement Questionnaire To Branch Manager The following must occur for each job rotation & enlargement set-up at your branch. quality.

.... Do you like it?. To what jobs do you rotate or enlarge? _______________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ d............. why not? _________________________________________ c.......... If no.....2............ Yes b. If yes: a.Base Line Job Rotation & Enlargement Questionnaire Name: ___________________________ Date: ___________________ Department: _____________________________ Job Title: ____________________________ 1....... How often do you rotate or enlarge? ____________ e.. Yes No If no...... go to the next question..... Are you currently rotating or enlarging jobs?....... Have you received appropriate training for the jobs that you rotate or enlarge to? Yes No No 79 .....

. If yes... If you indicated on the form that you were having discomfort........ Would you like to rotate or enlarge?.... how have you managed? 5. Yes No b... If no.... Are there any other comments that you would like to make? 80 .. if any? 4. why not? ________________________________________ c........ Please point out the Discomfort areas.2. If you answered no to question 1: a. to what jobs would you like to rotate or enlarge? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 3.

 Communication of job rotation and enlargement activities The SBI formulates the job rotation & enlargement policy.FINDINGS OF THE STUDY  Table showing designations of the respond ants JOB TITLE MANAGER SINGLE WINDOW OPERATOR COMPUTER OPERATOR HEAD CASHIER PROBATIONARY OFFICER HELP DESK  Jobs proposed to be rotation and enlargement Mainly counter jobs such as opening accounts. deposits. enquiry. 81 . SBM head office receiving it communicates to their branches and the branch managers percolate orally to the branch employees or otherwise the job profile of the employees is implied to be rotative & enlarging in nature. FAQs etc.. withdrawals.

 Pie chart showing job rotation intensity in branch


BSENT 90% 

Pie chart showing job enlargement intensity in branch


¢ £



 Pie chart showing comparison between job - rotation & enlargement in branch






Introduction of core banking system has shifted prominence of job rotation to job enlargement. 

As this system is still new, employees found themselves little uncomfortable adapting in the changed job profile as every counter demands multi-tasking capacity, giving rise to larger horizon for job enlargement, rather than job rotation. 

No feedback, correction or follow-up has been conducted to address the issue, neither it has been one as training is provided to perform all banking jobs, rather structuring of the job profile systematically can be of concern to specify the areas of job rotation & job enlargement, if any. 

Compared to previous years, there was scope for job rotation and a clear picture was possible regarding the job profile of each employee, as everything was manual and the depth of each job required more time. Now, in the evolved scenario more jobs are to be done with in less time, even though computer device is there for assistance, the human mind capacity has been in use at common intensity leading to job enlarg ement. 

The larger involvement of an employee in the technology used for providing banking services may lead to misuse, though a possibility which cannot be ignored can occur as a rare case scenario, which will be the lack of job rotation, in other words due to greater level of job enlargement.


PROSPECTS OF JOB ROTATION & JOB ENLARGEMENT Past Clerical sections were rotating jobs over a period of six months. Job enlargement had less scope as banking services were fixed. Present Due to the advent of core banking system, branches have been computerized resulting in reduction of job rotation and job enlargement have increased as most of each and every service of banking is provided to customer at a single counter itself. Future Branches may become showrooms of financial services with only 3 personnel ± A single window operator, A relationship manager & A branch manager. The backend offices will be signifying as manufacturing units. Then, branches give scope to job enlargement and backend offices will be needed a policy of job rotation. With customer interaction minimized due to complete computerization of banking, job rotation will become extinct in branches and again as the saying goes ³history repeats´, for the sake of µhuman touch¶, job rotation may raise back from the ashes like a phoenix as there will be large number of employees at branches again.


Nowadays cashier has to do/ perform clerical jobs and clerks have to do cashier job. There is no demarcation of cashier and clerks.  Corrective structuring of jobs for rotation & enlargement systematically and scientifically.Srinivas Rao. the counter work demands knowledge of computer. R..¶M¶ block 86 .S. the job definition has undergone lot of changes. Mysore.e. STC. Branch manager. These above words inherit the qualities of job enlargement gaining more scope. Unlike in the past. and why not because any value addition to a common service for customer by the employee is job enlarged. The study proposes the following suggestions:  Continuance of SBI norms regarding job rotation & enlargement. As a note to end are the words of Kuvempunagar. i. nothing but value addition´ says S. customer delight is the core objective of SBM. speed and also multitask capacities. In the changed scenario. ³Selling what bank has got is not a big thing. since there is enlargement in the duties they perform. but reading and meeting the expectation of customer. Chief Manager. The designation also has changed to make the people at the counter to be friendlier with the customers and also enable them to complete all his work at one counter itself.CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS Better customer service will be achieved because of the future prospects which in the goal of a banking institution.Parshwanath. the concept of job rotation is losing its importance´. Mysore ± ³With the introduction of core banking system.


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