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Logic is the study used to distinguish Good from bad and correct from Incorrect. from incorrect reasoning. Logic is the appeal to thoughts. Thoughts can be expressed in three forms. 1. General Idea 2. Judgment 3. Inference i.e. conclusion 4. Logic is a process of application of senses. i.e. Visual sense logically high lights colour, size, shapes, brightness, darkness. Touch sense which logically high lights, hardness, softness, warmness and coldness. 5. According to sigmand fruand logic in a study which highlights the consciousness and unconsciousness Logic as a study of thoughts. In definition logic is a process of application of senses and perception which results in positive thoughts. Logic is a process of critical thinking. This is also known as logical thinking. Logic and critical thinking are correlated to each other and are the branches of philosophy which facilitate the application of fruit full ideas in the business. Aristotle and John lock believed that the human mind is a blank slate and that the most ideas and knowledge comes through the application of senses. Hence the knowledge of logic and critical thinking is a basic need for the managers of modern world business. Logic in term of art science. Or Logic is the study of the Methods and principals used to distinguish correct
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Science is the knowledge of nature while art is the application of science for the well fare of human being. As Science 1. Logic Natural As Art Ideas developed will be utilized & applied for the success of business. 2. Need Valid Result Results are used for the benefit of human kind. LOGIC & CRITICAL THINKING Premises & Conclusion Premises:- are the limitations or boundary walls in which certain arguments can be discussed. I.e. Job design. Premises are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Job Analysis Job Specifications Job Enrichment Work Environment Quality of work etc.
Conclusion are the results obtained from different arguments discussed in the premises e.g Impacts of job analysis on the 1. 2. 3. Business profitability. Stock holder wealth Stock holder Satisfaction
Logic & critical thinking are always based on certain premises & conclusion one can not move logically without premises & conclusion. Basic terms Normally the following terms are used in the process of logic & critical thinking these terms are known as the basic terms of logic. 1. Idea:- It refers to a set of images originated in a creative form.
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Proposition:- Refers to the ideas which is expressed in a specified language or different languages Such as:1. 2. 3. I speak (English language) Ich speech (German language) je parle (French language)
Arguments:- refers to the set of proposition which is discussed with in specified premises. Judgment:- It is the end result of the logic process which may be aenial or affirmation of the connection among ideas.
The Order of Premises & Conclusion In the process of logic & critical thinking we discussed that premises & conclusion are the milestones, hence the order of premises & conclusion in this process is that logic & critical thinking are always be initiated with premises & Conclusion then after detail & fruit full discussion results will be concluded. Hence, the order is that premises come first & conclusion at the end. i.e We open the logical & critical thinking process with premises & end this process with conclusion. e.g (A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state) (Premises) the right of the people to keep & bear Arms shall not be infringed. USA Constitution Premises & conclusion indicator. Distinction b/w premises & conclusion can be made in the process of logic & critical thinking through the following indicators. Premises indicator (Reason show) Since, because, as for as for, as, follows from. Conclusion indicator (Result) Therefore, hence, thus, so, accordingly as a result etc. Arguments in context.
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Logic & critical thinking is a process where argument will always be discussed in reference to the context. e.g prohibition of riba in the light of holy Quran, Ahadith or in fiqa. The study of motion, reaction & genes in the light of physics, chemistry biology respectively. AGREEMENT & DISAGREEMENT OF ATTITUDE Attitude:- The persistent tendency to behave in favor or against of certain phenonomena. Logically attitude & opinion are two different concepts. Attitude refers to explicit behavior regarding likes & dislikes of any phenomena. Opinion refer to implicit behavior regarding likes & dislikes of any phenomencn Explicit: - something that is shown clearly or openly. Implicit: - something that is unclear or explains in indirect way. Agreement of attitude: - refer to the explicit behavior which shows liking or acceptance of any phenomenon. Disagreement of Attitude:- refer to the explicit behavior which shows disliking or refection of any phenomenon. Basis of Agreement & Disagreement:- there are certain bases which cause agreement or disagreement of attitude towards a phenomenon. There are, 1. 1. Social thoughts. 2. Social influence 3. Social relations. Social thoughts: Social thoughts as the name signifies are the results of social interaction b/w the members of society, such thoughts either results in the form of agreement or disagreement of attitude. 2. Social influence: Social influence is a potential which divert the attitude either in the from of agreement or disagreement, such influence normally developed due to the following factors. . Group Pressure: selfish approach) 1. Qualitative leadership 2. Cognitive approach (n/on
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Social relation: Attitude are also social relation b/w the members of the society. Therefore, the agreement or disagreement of the attitudes depends upon the following variables.
interactivity iii. Sentimental attachment. The frequent & persistent presence of the aforesaid variables among the members of the society results agreement of attitudes & vice verse. The language: Language is a basic medium which facilitates the exchange of ideas messages & understanding, Co-Operation & Co- Ordination among the members of the society so as to ensure smooth relationship & multiplicity of social welfare. As discussed, a. b. c. language is the medium of communication & communication fuels in the flouring categories. verbal communication Non- verbal communication C Symbolic Communication. Verbal Communication as the name signifies is a
most common type of communication in which we orally present ideas, messages & thoughts. b. Non- Verbal Communication: Simply speaking non verbal communication is that type of communication where we do not orally presents our ideas & messages, but show it through emersion. C. Symbolic Communication: Symbolic Communication is a special type of communication in which messages, ideas are presented are derived through symbols such as beckon lights. The basic Functions of languages: a. b. c. Directive function of language. Expressive function of language Informative function of language 5 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING body language, gestures, eye expression, facial
Directive function of language:
Directive function of language represents
the authoritative style of communication such as instructions to subordinates through their bosses, it is the autocratic usage of language in order to control, of language in order to control. Guide & direct the behaviors in a derided manner. Expressive function of language: Expressive function of language represents the expression of emotions of human beings such as oh! In case of sorrow & Wava! In case of happiness. Informative function of language: As against the directive & expressive functions of language, it is a very normal type function of language through which just information in a very normal style is communicated such as information about scientific research advertisement regarding industrial exhibitions & weather fore cast etc. Discourse serving multiple function: It is a special type of functions of language which serves multiple purpose. This function represents the combination of the aforesaid basic function & serves the purposes of the basic functions singly. Such as the poetry of our national poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal serves multiple functions. The forms of discourse: Discourse refers to general conversation. The form of discourse refer to the ways of the presentation of conversation which either proves the correctness or incorrectness of conversation such as grammatical structure (mistake or grammatical corrections) phonemes (accent) & perception of the word & sentences. MOTIVE WORD & THE LOGIC OF EMOTIONS As the words signifies, emotive words are those words & sentences which directly influence feelings & emotions of the individual such as exaggeration in the poetry. What are two basic theories regarding the logic of emotion. They are. a. b. Games lange theory. Cannon Bord theory.
James Lange Theory: 6 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
This theory highlights that emotions in the human being are emerged due to secretion of special brain hormones in a particular are a hypothalamus. Cannon Bord Theory: This theory emphasis upon the importance of environment factors which provoke the individual emotions in a specified manner. For example of the environment presents a friendly atmosphere, the result will be positive response in the form of emotions i.e. Joy, happiness, co-operation will be develop other wise the negative response in the form of angriness, sadness, fear may be provoke. Emotively Neutral Language: When ever, the words & sentences are presenting the literal meanings with in a specified language is called emotively neutral language. In this type of language emotions are replaced by actual information provided to the individuals in the society. TRUTH & VALIDITY Validity: The process through which we compare our test scores with Criterion standard scores is called validity. Valid score: The score which falls near to the standard scores are valid scores. Invalid Scores: If the scores fall away from the standard scores then it will be considered invalid scores. Truth: The value which is obtained from a valid test & which provides the same scoring results as defined by the valid testis called truth value of the test. Test construction (Assignment): Problem Solving (Assignment): Creativity thinking & Innovating: The methods in which the individuals organize ideas, concepts & images to form new constructive associations are called creativity helps in invention. It is a cognitive activity which depends on knowledge & interest creativity involves the generation of ideas that are original, novel & useful. The creativity Process: 7 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
Most people would agree that creativity is a highly desirable activity that has made possible major invention, scientific break through & great work of art & literature, usually people assume that creativity springs suddenly from flashes of inspiration.
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FALLACIES i. Fallacies ii. Fallacy of Relevance iii. Fallacy of Ambiguity
Fallacies: Any argument which is physiologically true or incorrect but logically incorrect is called fallacy. Normally each fallacy is a type of incorrect argument so “Fallacy” is an argument which is although incorrect in nature but psychologically persuasive Fallacy can make us fool any time but they prove upon examination. So it is necessary to study these mistaken arguments and they should be avoided. (Propagandas Hinary Fayol). Normally the fallacy is divided into two main groups. i. ii. Fallacy of Ambiguity. Fallacy of relevance.
Fallacy of Ambiguity: The fallacy of Ambiguity is not used intentionally but it is used unintentionally. A phrase or word can be ambiguous in a particular context if it can have two or more different meanings in that context. 1. Equivocation: An informal fallacy in which two or more meanings of the same word or phrase have been confused. 2. Amphiboly: In this type of ambiguity the grammatical structure is so loose that it can be interrupted in two or more than two ways. If a fallacious statement may be true on one interpretation & false on other e.g. he is scholarshpoing. 3. Accent: An informal fallacy committed when a term or phrase has a meanings in the conclusion of an argument different from its meanings in one of the premesis, the different araising chiefly from a change in emphasis given to the words used. Arabs Chinese Bakistan Raing Germans Africa
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Fallacies of Relevance: When an argument relies upon the premises that are not relevant to its conclusion. These fallacies are used intentionally, there are 5 types fallacy of relevance. i. The Argument from Ignorance:
this type of fallacy is committed whenever it is urged that a proposition is true is simply on the basis that it has been proved true, this fallacy appcal to know the logical meanings while ignorance appear most commonly in misunderstanding of developing sciences. Example during war the propaganda & rumours are the example of argument from ignorance. ii. The Appeal to In appropriate Authority: Some people appeal to inappropriate authorities to accept or eject contain issues of subject matters with in specified population. These inappropriate authorities are example of some model “Sportsmen”. For example, we are argued to drive an automobile or special models or sport cur of given make. Because of a famous player confirms superiority. We are urged to drink a beverage of certain brand because some moves star or football player express enthusiasm about it. iii. Complex Question:
In this type of fallacious statement such questions are asked which are unanswerable, the main aims in complex questions are to divert an individual from actual subject matter. They presuppose the truth of some conclusion. The question itself is likely to be euwkward which beck no answer. Normally they put the questions very seriously, for example how one can climb the sky. iv. Accident: Here the conclusion which is drawn accidentally and is already
The fallacy of accident is committed which we move carelessly or too quickly toward a generalization. generalized is always considered true in general populations.
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For example when in any particular situation or events which results in object or events which results in bad luck or good luck then that situation is always associated with good or bad luck. v. False Cause: Some individual induces such fallacy which can secure their right in general population by violating of the correct methods of law & order & therefore providing false causes or proof. For example during war in Afghanistan the capitalist got sympathy of common people that communist people are going to humiliate our ISLAMIC value & culture and therefore, they secure their capital by using such propaganda. DEFINITION Definition means on explicit statement of a term of symbol, in connection with term. Our first concern is to fix their meanings. The concept with which we work must be clear & distinctive, the aim of logical definition is to secure the clear concepts. For example child ask me, what is an elephant. I may just point to an elephant to say. Any elephant is a creature of such type, this may satisfy the child & may be enabling to recognize the elephant & distinguish it from some other animals. If the elephant is available near at hand. I shall proceed to describe some prominent features of the animal, shall construct some rough image of the elephant. I shall talk of its massive body, its column like legs, its ear image, & its rough skin etc. Enumerative Description: This is the external features of anything. Connotation: It means the characteristics of any thing. Purposes of definition: i. To increase Vocabulary: Usually a term that is to be explained improper manner, requires certain other words to form a sentences which should represent the properties of that works, so in this way we increase vocabulary to introduce new scientific definition. We may have to define all kinds of terms such as. 12 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
i. ii. iii. 2.
Technical terms in various subject. Psychology, motivation, perception etc. Physics, maths, force, Newton laws. To Eliminate Ambiguity:
Ambiguity means the confusion of one word with another, for example (excess, access), (Accept, Except). 3. To Explain concepts & ideas theoretically: It should explain a useful description of the entities theoretically to which the term is applied, e.g. laws of motion. Types of Definition: There are five types of different definitions: i.stipulative definition Stipulative means to attach new symbol or word to the old wording & the term which is newly defined need not itself to be entirely novel. But it may be newly in the context in which definition take place. Therefore, the stipulative definition means only “ nominal” or verbal & it is not suppose to change the character of the symbol, this is only done or the convenience i.e to same the time& reduce the writing material. e.g (1) Billion trillion ii. 2. Trillion Trillions Lexical definition: 1021 1024 Zeta yota.
in this type of dominion warty to redefine aeration symbolic
values, the job of the lexical definition is to define the symbolic more covariant way. E,g Bird Two footed mammal--- Any wave blooded vertebrate with feathers. 5. Presise Definition: this type of definition has psychological & emotional impact by influencing the attitude of the viewers, Persuasive definitions are common in political arguments. Written by Perviz khan Khalil Lecturer IBMS Agricultural Uni Peshawar. PRoPOSITION
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Preposition is a statement / judgment Which is represented with in an argument in a specified language. There are three kinds of proposition. a. b. c. For example. a. e.g. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. All human beings are mortal. Muslims are human beings. Therefore muslims are mortal. Simple Proposition. It is the connection of two terms, These term are “subject” and “Predicate”. Simple proposition. Complex proposition. Categorical proposition.
In first one “human” is the middle term represented by “M” In second one muslims” are the minor term represented y “S” (subject) and mortality is the major term represented by “P” (Predicate). The link between the subject (S) and predicate (P) is capula. Subject is the term which is affirmed or denied.
Capula: Subject :-
Predicate: it is the term which affirm or deny the subject. Here for example (Man is mortal) Man is subject, mortal is predicate & is capula. b. Complex Proposition” in complex proposition, in stead of using once a subject or predicate, we use more than one time of the above terms, where are two types of complex proposition. a. Conjunctive proposition:cool. b. Disjunctive Proposition: here or I shall go to see him 14 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING in this type of complex proposition we used “ Either” “or” for example Either “A” is “B” or “C” is “D” either my brother will be in this type of complex proposition we use a term “if” “ then” for example if A is B then C is D or if is rain then the weather will be
C. Categorical Proposition:
The proposition which is categorized into two
standard forms are known as categorical proposition it “s” & “P” represents the subject & predicate terns then the four standard forms propositions are represented by symbol. A, E, I, O A = universal affirmative. B = is universal negative I = is particular affirmative. O = is the particular negative. For example “ Human is motal”, is a simple Proposition & its standard forms of proposition are. A = All human beings are mortal. E = No human being is mortal. I = some human beings are mortal. O = some human beings are not mortal Here A is universal Affirmatleive E = is universal negative. I = particular affirmative. O = is particular negative Quality – Quantity & destitution. When we divide the categorical proposition into for forms. i. ii. iii. iv. universal affirmative. Universal negative. Particular affirmative. Particulate negative. So in the above standard form, the affirmation negation of the statement in a proportion is said to be quality of propos ion. While the universal son or the particularism is the quantity of that specified propositions For example”
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All humans are mortal no human is mortal some humans are mortal some are not mortal. Here ( All, no, some) repress ent the quantity & mortality represent the quality of the proposion). By, Perviz Khan Khalil ( Lecturer IBMS KPK Agricultural University Peshawar) TRADITIONAL SQUARE OF OPPOSITION There is a system made by logicians in order to compare the universal & particular standard Form of Propositions. Contraries
Where A. E. I. O. 1. Universal affirmative, Universal Negative, Particular Affirmative, Particular Negative, Contraries: (AE) All human are Mortal No human are mortal Some human are mortal Some Human are not mortal
When there is similarity in subject and predicate but deference in quality & the pair is universal. 16 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
Sub Contraries: (IO) When there is similarity in subject & predicate but deference in quality & the pair
is particular. 3. Sub Alternes: (AI) (EO) When there is similarity in subject, predicate & quality but deference in quantity. 4. Contridictries: (AO) (EI) When there is similarity in subject & predicate by deference in both quality & quantity. Therefore there are four (4) ways in which proposition may be “opposed” as contraries, sub-contrarces, sub alternes & contredictries. Categorical syllogism (Deductive Argument): A syllogism is an argument in which from two proposition containing a common element, a new proposition follows as a necessary consequence. e-g All human are mortal All kings are human There fore All kings are mortal The first two are the premises & the last one is conclusion & in the above. Mortality – Major term - Predicate (P) Human – Middle term - (M) Kings – Miner term – subject (S) Because Miner term – subject Major term – predicate Miner, middle & major term are the terms of syllogism. 17 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
Figure of the syllogism All humans are mortal Muslims are human Therefore Muslims are mortal The form of above syllogism is Major term (P) is Mortal Miner term (S) is Muslims Middle terms (M) is Human So All M are P All S are M Therefore all S are P Mood is (AAA) If All is No. No M is P No S is M Therefore No S is P Mood is (EEE) Figures F-1 M-P S-M ∴ S-P Therefore MOOD OF SYLLOGISM: F-2 P-M S-M ∴ S-P
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Every syllogism has a mood, the mood of a syllogism is determined by the types (A, E, I or O) of standard form categorical propositions it contains. The mood of the syllogism is therefore represented by three (3) letters & those there letters are always given in standard form order. e-g 1. All human are mortal Some human are mortal Some human are mortal So the mood of this syllogism is 2. No Heroes are cowards Some soldiers are cowards Some soldiers are not cowards Mood is (EIO) We can identify mood from - Universal Affirmative or negative - Particular Affirmative or negative s (I) (O) (A) (I) (O) (AIO) (E)
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