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# Solutions Manual

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

Second Edition

Willard W. Pulkrabek

University of Wisconsin-Platteville

Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

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**© 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc .
**

Pearson Prentice Hall Pearson Education, Inc . Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-13-141035-0

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Contents

1 In trod uction Operating Characteristics Engine Cycles Thermochemistry and Fuels

1

2

3 4

6 19

36

51

63

70

5

6

7

Air and Fuel Induction Fluid Motion Within Combustion Chamber Combustion Exhaust Flow Emissions and Air Pollution Heat Transfer in Engines Friction and Lubrication

8 9 10 11

76 82 95

103

III

CHAPrERl

(1-1) SI engines use spark plugs. CI engines use sell-lgnltlon. SI engines intake an air-fuel mixture. CI engines intake air only. SI engines have combustion at about constant volume. CI engines have some combustion at about constant SI engines use gasoline fuel, CI engines use diesel oil fuel. SI engines use carburetors or fuel injectors in the Intake system. CI engines have fuel injedors in the combustion chamber.

pressure.

(1-2)

Two stroke cycle engines have no exhaust stroke. Excess exhaust must be pushed out of cylinder (scavenged) by the intake air-fuel mixture (or intake air in CI engines). This requires that the intake mixture be at a higher pressure than the exhaust residual.

(1-3) Advantages of two stroke cyde: Smoother cycle with a power stroke from every cylinder on every revolution. Do not need mechanical valves. More power from same weight engine.

Advantages of four stroke cycle: Can operate without an intake pressure boost. Cleaner operation with less exhaust pollution. Can use crankcase for oil reservoir.

1

(1-4)

(a)

They do not need mechanical valves. Valve mechanism for a very small engine would need to be high precision and costly. With no valves engines can be made cheaper and lighter which is very desirable for small engines.

(b) Very large engines operate at a very low RPM. Because of this they need a power stroke (rom every cylinder during every revolution to have a smooth operating cycle.

(c)

Because of large valve overlap there is too much pollution in the exhaust of a two stroke cycle engine. They cannot pass automobile emission standards required by law.

(d) More power can be obtained

**from the same weight engine.
**

F

(1-5)

!

PI

Po

t

F

w

Po

t

iw

PI

(a) weight of piston (a) (b) W mg/g, ((2700 kg)(9.81 m/sec1)]/[(1 kg-m/N-secl)(lOOO N/kN)] = 26.487 kN

=

=

forces down = forces up P1(piston face area) + weight + F = Po(piston face area) ,(22 kPa) [(11'/4)(1.2 m)l] + (26.487 kN) + F (98 kPa)[(17"/4)(1.2 m)l]

=

F = 59.5 kN

= mg/&: =

m(9.81)/(1)(lOOO)

m = 6062 kg

(b) Po(piston face area) + weight = F + Pl(piston face area) (98 kPa) [(11'/4)(1.2 m)2] + (26.487 kN) = F + (22 'kPa) [(17"/4)(1.2 m)l]

F = 112.441 kN = mg/g,

= m{9.81)/O)(IOOO)

2

m::::::1l,462kg

7) = 38. L = 4.2 ft)lL = 38.2 Ct)l] F + F =[(14.41 nJ after piston movement VI = ('l'T/4)(3.41 ft3 distance piston moves X X = 9 .7 psia VI = Vt(P/P1) = (72.0 feet 1 t F (a) after combustion air In cylinder cools at constant volume pressure in cylinder PI when piston is first unlocked PI = PO(T/foomb) = (14.41 rtl from above = 3 .4.7 psia)(530/1000) = 7.2 ft)l] = 7991 Ihe (b) cylinder volume before cooling Vl = (1T/4)B2S = (1T/4)(3. (1-6) k--Po .8114. ~ PJ r F )- C L =-I~ I • X 9.22 ft ..38 re)(7.8 psi a balance of forces on piston P1(piston face area) + F = Po(piston face area) [(7.2 ft)1(9 It) = 72.38 ff with no load piston will move at constant temperature .8)(144) Ibf/ftl][(1'T/4)(3.78 ft power stroke = effective (c) cylinder volume at end of power stroke V1 38. until cylinder pressure Pz = Po = 14.7)(144) Ibf/ft2][(v/4)(3.78 = 4.

(b) Smaller diameter cylinders will have shorter name travel distance. Smoother engine cycle with more power strokes per revolution.5 ignitions and power strokes per revolution (360o/rev)/(4.5 ignitions/rev) = 80o/ignition (b) 4. Larger cylinder volume/surface area ratio giving less heat loss per cycle. Shorter engine crankshaft. (e) Less mechanical friction in engine. (1-8) (a) as a radial engine rotates every other cylinder flres giving 4.5 power strokes/rev (c) (4.(1-7) (a) Shorter engine length allows for shorter engine compartment. (e) Smoother engine cycle with more power strokes per revolution. (d) Lower engine height.5 power strokes/rev)(900/60 rev/sec) 4 = 67.5 power strokes/sec . Smaller diameter cylinders will have shorter name travel distance. Shorter engine length. Shorter crankshaft will have less bending stress.

1) .000) $14.65/Year (e) difference in cost ($32.($18.(195.1 gal 195.4 years = = 317 months 5 .(1-9) (a) standard automobile (16.65) = $S29.65/year) = 26.000) .(16.000 miles}/(31 ~= miles/gal) miles/gal) = = 516.1) = (321.000 t • ($14.000)/($529.1 gal hybrid automobile mf .0 gal/year) ($1.000 miles}/(82 (b) (516.

703 L (b) Eq.6 em) = 4703 cm3 = 4.744 (2-2) (a) Eq.36 X 108 rev)(4 firings/rev) == 1.000 miles)(60 min/hr)(1700 rev/min)]/(40 mlles/hr) (b) (4. (2-15) ('U'/4)B2Nc = ('1T/4)(0.9 cm)1(12.36 x 10' rev (e) there are same number or Intake strokes as spark plug firings (1. (2·9) Vd Ni'U'/4)B1S X 109 intake strokes/engine)/(8 cyl/engine) == 2.CHAPTER 2 (2-1) (a) [(171.40 m/sec) /2 bmep = 561 kPa or using Eq.18 x 10' strokes/cyl = = (4 cyl)(1T/4)(10.004703 m3)/21T = 0. bmep == (1000)(88)(1)/(4. (2-46) Wb = (bmep)~U"'2 88 kW = (bmep)(0.(2-76) T = (159.0373 m1)(8.40 m/sec ~= Eq.126.0373 m1 Eq.(2-8S) .744 x 10' firings = 4.2)(88)/(2000/60) (d) for one cylinder Vd = (4703 cm3)/4 = (Vd 1176 em" r.m/stroke)(2000/60 rev/sec) = 8.109 m)2(4 cyl) = 0.703)(2000/60) (e) Eq. (2-12) + Vc)Ne = 18 = (1176 + VJNe 6 . (2-40) T = 561 kPa = (bmep)V J21T == (56i kPa)(O.420 kN-m = 420 N-m = 420 N·m or using Eq. (2-2) Up = 2SN = (2 strokes/rev)(0. = Eq.

43 cmJ (b) Eq. s = 1. (2-2) Up = 2SN = = (2 strokes/rev)(0. Advantages of under square engine: in a An under square engine will have smaller diameter cylinders.50 em = "3.Y. = (Vd + VJNc = 9. resulting shorter name travel distance.6 L = 600 em" (600 Eq.06 B) B = 8.74 in.2 Ctlsec rev/sec) (24) Advantages of over square engine: For the same cylinder displacement volume an over square engine 'Will have a shorter stroke length. Cylinder lengths will be slightly shorter.4 = + VJN~ L = 4.97 (c) em) = 9.97 em = 3.13 m/see = 33. = 71. (2-12) r. chamber surface area will be smaller resulting in less heat loss 7 .07143 = = (1T/4)81S (1T/4)81(1. Eq.4 L)/4 = 0.36 in.06)(8. Combustion per cycle.0950 m/stroke)(3200/60 10.06 B = (1. (2-8) VII = 600 cnr' = 0.53 In.(2-3) (a) for one cylinder Vd = (2..3 . This will result in a lower average piston speed and lower friction losses.

2kW IW.13 m{sec (b) approximate a piston speed Is as shown crankshaft offset equals half of stroke length = 5/2 = (0.6 hp = 64.095 m)/2 = 0.2)(64.6)/(2500/60) = 247 N-m 8 .2 kW) = 64. (2-41) 'f' = (bmep)V J4n- = (886 kN/ml)(O. (2-42) .: = 10.0007 = (0.0007 ml (a) Eq.(2-81) II = [(886)(3.0475 m = Up = WI" [(3200/60)(211) radians/sec](O.(2-76) = (159.6 kW = 86.6 kW ml)/4n- W (e) or using Eq. • WI = WN/n =[(lkJ/cyl-cycle) (2S00/60rev/sec) (Scyl)]/(2rev/cycle)=104.(2-5) (a) from Problem (2-3) 1.9 m/sec (2-6) fOI" one cylinder Vd = (3.bmep = kPa) • (886 kPa) (d) indicated power using Eq.047S m) = 15.imep kPa) = 886 kPa = 543 kPa (c) Eq.5 L)/S = 0.62)(104.62)(1429 = (1429 m3)(1000 J/kJ)] = 1429 kPa (b) Eq. (2-37d) fmep imep .7 L = 0. (2-29) imep = WNd = (1000 J)/[(0. (2-41) Wb =: 11m WI :=: (0.003S = 247 N-m -r or using Eq. (2-37c) bmep = l1n.S){2500/60)]/[(lOOO)(2)] Eq.

0060 kg/sec)(1 .38 gm/kW-hr 8 • (e) mass now of unburned fuel emissions daDC [(0.97)(3600 sec/hr) = 0.18 gm/sec Eq.(64.178 kW/cm1 EAI.1 hp (2-8) (a) mass now rate of fuel into engine IL. 0..() kW) = 39.648 kg/hr)(IOOO gm/kg) ]/(3600 sec/hr) = = 0.648 kglhr = (b) Eq. (2-51) • SP = WJA. (2-8) for one cylinder Vd 0.0962 m = 9.0185 kW/cml (c) Eq.6 kW = 53.Wb = .62 em • = WJ[(1T/4)B1NcJ . (2-74) • (EI)BC mBdmr =• = (0.1J~) = (0.3 kW) ::.6 kW)/[(1T/4) (9..0007 ml (11/4)B%8 = = = (1T/4)B l B (a) = S = 0.6 kW) = 54. (b) = (64.6 kW)I(3S00 cml) = 0.Eq.0. = WI . (2-52) OPD WJVd = = (64. (2-.0060 9 kg/sec) = 30 gm/kg . Eq.62 cm)l(S cyl)] = 0. (2-53) SV = V (d) JWb = (3500 cm )/(64. .(2-73} (SE)BC • = mHdWh = (648 gm!hr)/(77.19) • W. (104.0060 kgIsec from Example Problem = 2-4 mass flow of fuel not burned (Iftr)nb Jtr<l .2 kW) .18 gm/sec)/(O.1 cml/kW 3 ~q.

60 = 253 hp (e) Eq.0 in.(152 hp) = 101 hp 10 .5 iD. = Eq. (2-9) Vd = NC<1T/4)B2S (8 eyl)(1T/4)(S.0 psia or using Eq.) = = 1452 in. = WI .955 Ibf/ft1)[1452/(12)J]fel( 417-) = 799 Ibf-ft or using Eq..(2-90) bmep [(396.Wb = (253 hp) . (2-1) Up = 2SN = 181.000)(152)(2)]/[(1452)(1000)] = (e) '" = (bmep)V.U.375 in.3 (b) A.(2-9) (a) Eq. (2-49) • •• W...l = 1.2 ft/sec)/4 bmep = 11.2 ft/see Eq.)2(8. (2-1S) (1T/4)B2Ne= (1'1'/4)(5. (2-47) • • WI = WJTJm = (152 hp)/O.260 ft1 = (2 strokes/rev)(8/11 ft/stroke)(1000/60 rev/sec) = 22.(2-77) '1' = (5252)(152)11000 = 799 Ibf·rt (d) Eq.)l(S eyl) Eq.0 psia = 83.J41'I' = Eq..375 in.I4 (152 bp){550 ft-Ibf/sec/hp) · - = (bmep)(1.260 ft1)(22.1) (11.955 Ibr/re = 83. (2. (2-45) Wit = (bmep)A.

. = p.:: (1T/4)B1S .N/n Eq. (2-S2} OPD = WJVd = (48 kW)f(I.S kg/hr Eq..49 em s= 0.985 kg/lu' = Eq. (2-8) for one cylinder Vd (S L)/6 0.107 kg/sec .92)(3000/60)/(2) (b) Eq.005)(0. = (Vd + Vc)Nc . (11"/4)(0.r.3 + Vc)/Vc y.Vd'l.Vd'l.49 em) = 9.14SS = kg/kW-hr = 145.5 L) = 32 kW/L (2-11) (a) Eq.5 gm/kW-hr m~= [(0.8333 L = 833.91)(2400/60)/(2) 11 = 0. = p.0407 kgfsec rate of fuel ioto engine using Eq..2 emJ = (833.0407)(22/21) (d) or exhaust equals air plus fuel kglsee)(3600 sec/hr) IS3.98S kg/hr)/(48 kW) = 0.:: 10. (2-55) Oat = mJ(AF) (0. (2-2) Up = 2SN (e) = (2 strokes/rev)(O.(2-71) = (1..92)(10.001500)(0.181)(0. (2-71) = 0. = 90.0965 m/stroke)(2400/60 rev/sec) = 7.65 em Eq. (2-60J bsre-= dJlWb (e) mass Dow = (6.92)B3 = = B (b) = 10.N/o = (1.0407 kglsec)/21 = 0.3 em) .6 (d) .181}(0.00194 kg/sec = 6. (2·12) 'r.(2-10) (a) m.72 m/sec Eq.92 B = (0.

2)(162)]/(3600/60) == 429.56 m/sec (b) eq (0.785 L/gal)/[{27.0963 m volume of one cylinder m3)/(10 cylinders) = 0.0860 m) = 0.(2-12) (a) (500 miles)/(18 gal) = 27.12)(0.12 B) B == 0.00056 m3) (n/4)B2(1..78 mpg (b) (3.32 kg = (2-13) (a) displacement Vd Vd = (0.12 B (1. 8))1 ( 5 • 6 ) = 964 kP a 12 .609 km/mile)] == 0.5hr)/(1000gm/kg) 1.0963m/stroke) (3600/60rev/sec) eq (2-76) ~= [(159.0860 m S .00056 m3/cylinder = = = (2-2) 0p=2SN=(2strokes/rev) == 11.8 N-m (c) eq (2-87) bmep == [( 6 .0056 eq (2-8) (n/4)B2S = (0.001048kg/sec) [(28gm/kg)] (3600sec/hr) (12.5hr)(3600 0.0847 L/km 8.1.28) (2) (429.785L/gal)(0.692kg/L)]/[(12.47 L/100 km = (e) rate of fuel use during trip ~=[(18gal)(3.78 miles/gal) (1.001048 kg/sec = see/hr)] mass of CO (0.

(2-14) (a) displacement volume of one cylinder Vd (4800 cm')/(8) 600 cmJ/cylinder Eq.92) (1.0879 m = = = = = (b) Eq.6) = 0.0870 kg/sec}/C14.00595 kg/sec 13 .181kg/m') (0. (n/4)B S = 600 em' = (II/4) (1.0048m3/cycle) (2000/60rev/sec)/(2 rev/cycle) CII 0. (2-71) =(0.06 8)28 S 8.86 m/sec (e) each spark plug fires once each cycle (2000/2 cycles/min) (60 min/hr) (24 hr/day)(5 days) == 7.20 x 106 cycles Cd) Eq.0870 kg/sec (e) • IDa = rtvp. (2-55) ~/AF = (0. (2-2) Up D 2SN = (2 strokes/rev) (0..0879 m/stroke) (200q/60 rev/sec) == 5.79 em 0. (2-8) 2 V.VdN/n ~= Eq.

.0200 = 5. = (FA)m.63 x 10-s kg/sec)/[8000/60 rev/sec)(1 cycle/rev)) = 4.5. = (5.:.067)(0.{2-71) = p.5) (a) Eq.33 m/sec (b) ah.28 em" (1T'/4)81S = = = (17'/4)83 B = 2.63 x 10' 5 kg/sec (d) m.181)(0.00084 kg/sec) . (c) Eq. (2·56) • m. (2·2) Up 2SN = = (2 strokes/rev)(0. • = (0. (2.00 em =S m/stroke)(8000/60 rev/sec) Eq.00000628)(0.Vd1}"N/n = (1.85)(8000/60)/(1) = 0.7 kg/cycle 14 .22 x 10.8) with 8 S Vd = 6.00084 kg/sec Eq.(2-l.

7 kPa (c) from above (d) • w. = 6.71 kW/L Eq.(a) Wb = 21TNT' = (211 radians/rev)(800/60 or using Eq.twb (b) = (1695 gm/hr)/(6..113/4 kg/min)(1000 gm/kg)(60 min/hr) = 1695 gm/hr Eq.(1T/4)B1S = (1 cyJ)('D'/4)(12. (2-601 bsrc = dt.700 N/ml = 405.365 kW) = 0. (2·15) = WJA.7 em') = 0.365 kW mass flow rate of fuel ~t = (0.353 L) = 2.(2-89) bmep (1000)(6.353 L)/(6.365 kW)/(2. (2-43) .7 kPa or using Eq.002353 ml Eq.2 = 6.9 em)! = 130. (2-9) V.7 kPa = ·or using Eq.353 L = 0.365 kW) = 266. (2-41) bmep 4?rrNd = (41r)(76 N·m)/(0. rev/sec)(76 N-m)/(IOOO WlkW) = 6. = N.(2-80) brake power using Eq.353){800/60)] = = 405.365)(2)/[(2.002353 ml) = 405.0 ern) = 2353 em] = 2.353) = = 405.365 kW ~ = (1T/4)B1= (1T/4)(12.9 cm)1(18.365 kW Wb = (800/60)(76)/159. (2-53) SV = V/Wb • = (2. = (6J65 kW)/(130..(2-87) bmep (6. (2-51) SP (e) Eq..7 cm1 Eq. (2-52) (f) piston face area using Eq.3 gm/kW-hr displacement volume using Eq.370 LIkW 15 .0487 kW/cm1 OPD • = WJVd = (6.28)(2)(76)/(2.

4 Ibm/rtl)(O.924 kW)/O.(2-77) -r = (5252)(72)/(4050) = 93.1748 re)(4050 rev/min) = 6712.28)(1)(109)/(3. bmep = n"'JVdN = (2 rev/cycle)(2.7 kW.(2-76) . (2-40) .. = (30 gal/min)(62..4 IhC-ft (e) brake power displacement Wb = (72 hp)(550 ft-lbf/sec!hp)(60 sec/min) = 2.924 W 11.2 amps) = 11.(2-87) bmep = (6..6 psia or using Eq.376 x 10' ft-Ibf/min Vd = (302 In.OOO)(72)(2)]/[(302){40S0)] (2-18) = 46.376 x 10' ft-lbf/rnin)/(O..= 93.4 hp (b) ~q.109 kN-m = 109 N-m or using Eq.= (159..2)(13.4 Ibf-ft (b) Eq.924 kW b. (2-43) or using Eq.(2-17) •• (a) Q = mc~T ((72 hp)(2545 BTU/hr/hp)(0.ower from engine using Eq.6 = psia (a) p'0werout of generator • Wg = (220 volts)(54...7 kW = 18. (2-86j . = 13.7)/(1200/60) = 109 N-m (e) Eq.(2-90) bmep = [(396. \Vb = 21TNr = (72 hp)(SSO ft-lhf/sec/hp){60 sec/min) = (21T radians/rev)(40S0 rev/min}r .3)/(12 injft)J = 0.1337 rtl/gal)(1 BTU/lbm-OR)A.1748 re Eq.T aT = Ue F Texlt = 46° + 110 = 57° F .0031 mJ/rev)/(21T radians/rev) hmep 221.4 Ibr/ftl = 46.87 = 13.93)]/(60 min/1lf) . = or using Eq... (2-43) Wb = 21TN.= (bmep)VJ21T = 109 N-m = (bmep)(O. (2-50) Wb = W/TJgen = (11..000 N/m% = 221 kPa rev/sec).rake p.= (21T radians/rev)(1200/60 -r = 0.1) = 221 kPa 16 .

.81 kJ/cycle Q"l heat in (or engine per cycle heat in per cycle per cylinder = (42..006)(6000/60) 31. (2-55) m. = J.(2-64) .920 kJ/kg)(O..181)(0.VdN (b) = (2)(0.6 kW 17 .198 kg/sec)(lO.950 = 95.. heat in for engine per time kg/sec)(lO.81 kJ/cycle)/(8 cylinder) = 5.5 kJ/sec Q11I = (2140.3366)1(1.3366 kg/sec = 0.(2-19) (a) Eq.Quvl1e = (0.~= nmJp.5 kJ/sec)(2 rev/cycie)/(6000/60 rev/sec) = 42. = 0.920 kJlkg)(l .. = m.I/cyl-cvcle (d) • Qunbumed = mrQuv(1 -l1J = (0.7) = 0.. .0% .3366 kglsec from above (e) QI.(AF) Eq.198 kgIsec)(I.99) = 2140.0.(2-71) = (0.99) = 21.35 k.198 Eq .

fuel flow needed will be proportional to mechanical efficiency.0437 kg/sec use Eq.0046m1/cycle) (1750/60rev/sec)/(2rev/cyc = 0.00278 kg/sec) (c) Eq.Vl2] [ = = 31. p.067 kg 18 .237 MPH/m/sec) Vl = (20)/(2.94)2]=854. 0437kg/sec) =(0.18 kJ)(0. (2-55) ~/AF = (0..0404 kg/sec (b) Eq.94 m/sec 6.. fuel flow rate needed for V4: ~ = (0.(2-20) assuming four-stroke cycle (a) Eq.180N-m = 854.18 kJ 1 51% of this is recovered in battery E = (854.51) = 436 kJ (b) 24% of chemical energy recovered e = (26950 kJ/kg) (0.00240kg/sec)(1000gm/kg)(3600sec/hr)]/(32.4kW) == 267 gm/kW-hr (2-21) (a) VI = (70 MPH)/(2..86) (1.00278kg/sec)(1000gm/kg}(3600sec/hr)]/(32.(2-71) to find needed engine speed == n.VdN/n =(0.0404 kg/sec)/(14.237) 8. (2-71) I1l.S) le) ~= == 0.00240 kg/sec) (18.4kW) == 309 gm/kW-hr (d) with sarne indicated thermal efficiency and same combustion efficiency.181kg/m]) (0. (2-60) bsfc=~/Wb=[(0.2) = 0.00240 kg/sec Eq. = flvp.00278 kg/sec) [(75/87)] = 0.51) (1.(2-55) ~.KE = (m/2gc:)V l .181kg/m3) (O. ~(AF) gives air flow needed = (0..VdN/n = (0.29 m/sec =(1900 kg)/[(2) (1kg-m/N-sec2)] [(31.24) 6468 kJ/kg = mass of fuel saved rn = (436 kJ)/(6468 kJ/kg) = 0.0023m3/cycle) (N/60rev/sec)/(2rev N = 2245 RPM ~ (e) /cycle) Eq.29m/sec)2-(8. (2-60) bsfc=~/~b=[(0.

T.(TJ .TJ)/(1 .: (-327 kJ/kg) + (+1689 kJlki.732)K :. (3-11) Qav'le = (AF + 1)c.000 kJ/kg)(O.568 = kPa T. (3-29) or (3-31) 1].821 kJlkg-K)(TJ .TJ (43.: 1 .35) ::::-327 kJ/kg wnet (I) 1].287 kJ/kg-K)(732 _ 333)KJ(1 .: R(T. = 1362/2502 = 0.3779)KJ(1 .k) (d) = (0. = P'(l/rJk = (10.287 kj/kg-K)(1719 .: 1 . (3-12) q.k) :.S)t. = 1 .5)I.lS = 732 K :. (3-16) and (3-17) TilJrJk-1 (3779 K)(119.. = Pl(fJl'l) -= (2047 kPa)(3779!732) = 10. :.5 + 1)(0.J5 506 kPa = = = (c) Eq.5)O. 1]. (3-4) and (3-5) Tl = Tt(rcYt-l = (333 K)(9.:.: 459 = 2047 kPa 0 C Eq. :.) = +1362 kJ/kg = W ..545 = 54.1.545 19 = 54. (3-7) WI•l = R(fl .(Tlf1) = 1 .l5 PJ = P01(rJk = (98 kPa)(9. 3-2 600 C 333 K 98 kPa = given given Eqs." = c.(1/rc)lIol :.732 K) TJ = 3779 K = 3506.CHAPrER3 (3-1) (a)(b) ~= L = using Fig.J5 1719 K = 14461>C P. (3·18) wJ-4 :.5% . .Jlkg Eq.(119.(333{732) .821 kJ/kg-K)(3779 .545 . 0.35) .568 kPa)(1J9.C at constant volume P.)/(I wI•Z .: 2502 kjlkg Eq.5% or using Eqs.:: 1689 k.5)0.TI) (e) = (0.5)°..: (0. Eqs.96) = (15.1.J«.35= 0.(T3 .: + wJ-4 :.

= 0.0005 + 0. (2-52 OPD WJVd ::. = 0.6 kW)/(3 L) ::.[l + (1/15.000035 kg = = = • m.6 kW) = 192.6kW Eq. WI - = • w.780kJ/cycle) (2400/60rev/sec) I (2rev/cycle)] (6cyl)=93.2 gm/sec '.0005588 m = m mass in cylinder at point 1 = PV/RT'= (98 kPa)(O.0005588 m3)/(0.(l + FA) = m. = 9.0005 ml)](100) = 91.000538 kg m.: 0.DC = Vd + v. (2-47) • w.000573 kg 0 work per cylinder per cycle W= = (0.000538 kg)/(1.: . m.000573 kg m. (2-43) Wb = 21TNr = 78.::26.0000588 m 3 VI V.0005 + VJNc Vc :. = 0.:: 15.2 kWfL = 1 20 .287 kj/kg-K)(333 mWne( K) ::.780 kJ EQ. • = '1mWI = (0.::(78. + m.6 kJ/sec .5 = (Vd + Vc)Nc = (0.(3.Wb = (15.000573 kg)(1362 kJ/kg) . 3-2 for 1 cylinder Vd = (3 L)/6 = O.313 kN·m = bmep(0. (2-601 bsfc = dt.Vd = ::. (2-42) ~i= WN/n =[(O.0 kW (e) for 1 cylinder from (a) above mm 0.S L = 0. = (93.120 gm/hr)178.84)(93. l r.6 kW) = 15. (2-70) '1~ mjp.6 kW) = 78. (2-12) . (2-41) 'T rev/sec)'T = (bmep)V J4lT = 0.0042 kgfsec 4.4 gm/kW-hr (0 Eq.0000588 = 0..181 kg/mJ)(O.:: (217" radians/rev)(2400/60 'T = 0. = (0.:[(0.:: 0.(78. (2-49) • • W.000035 = kglcycle-cyl)(6 cyl)(2400/60 rev/sec)/(2 rev/cycle) 0.313 kN-m .0005 ml Eq.313 N-m (e) Eq.6 kW) .5)] m.1% (g) Eq.120 gm/hr = Eq. ) 2 (a) using Fig..003 m3)/41r bmep = 1311 kPa (d) I}q..6 kW (b) Eq.

(3-50) Tl = xrTu = + (1 . (e) Eq.xr)T.032)(1048 K) + (1 .f) = (1/9.032)T.032)(307 K) = 331 K :::.:: T1(r. (3-50) (f ".0.3S-1}ll.032 = 3. 333 K = (0.J5 = 1129 K = 856 0 C (b) Eq. 3-4 expansion cooling of exhaust residual when intake valve opens To: = (1129 K)('75/100)(I.5)(1719/1129)(100/506) = 0. = 307 K :::. 3-6 Eq. (0.: 4° C 3 (3-4) (a) using Fig. (346) x.J5 = 728 K == 4550 C 21 .: 8° C 5 (b) Eq. (3·37) T7 = Tu = T4(Pfl4)(k-ll/k = (1719 K)(100/S06)(l.lS-1){1.(3-3) (a) using Fig.5)o. (3-4) T2 :.J5 1048 K = Eq.)1 = XrTu + (1 .2% + (1 • 0.xr)T.032)(1129) T. = (l/rJ(T/fu)(P JP.)k-l = (331 K)(9.

(3-31) TIt = 0.216 BTU/Ibm. 1 .51l0tR]/(1 1Jt ::: w". 3·2 L :::00" 1 ~ F ::: 560 R ::: 14.R)(I'3 ..2 psia = (c) WI_l ::: Eq. (3-18) "'3-4 ::: R(f4 • TJ)/(1 . (3-12) ql .560tR]/(1 • 1.1-1 256r R = 2l0r F P.z) ::: (369 psia)(5110/1407) ::: 1340 psi a Eqs.A-l ::: 1407° R ::: 947° F PJ ::: P1(rJk = (14.550 .3) ::: +586.k) ::: [(0.1)]/(800) ::: 0.. 55.069 BTU/lbm-OR)(I407 . (3-16) and (3-17) T.1 BTU/Ibm Eq.(T3 .:.(l/IOl-l 22 . (3-4) and (3-5) Tl ::: T.347 = 1 ..7 pSia)(10)iA ::: 369 psia Eq.7 psi a 0 given given Eqs. ::: PJ(l/r.4) = -146.k) .1.)k ::: (1340 psia)(l/lO)l.(3-5) (a) (b) using Fig.. (3-7) Ref) • TI)/(l .0% Eq. = e.3) .. = [(0.TI) ::: 800 BTU/Ibm ::: (0.069 BTU/lbm-OR}(2561 .3 BTU/lbm + (-140.(llrc:)k-l k ::: 1.1407° R) G T3 = 5110" R ::: 4650" F at constant volume P3 = PI(f/I"./qln ::: [(+586. ::: T3(I/rc:)k-l ::: (5nOO R)(1/10)1.550 .:.J ::: 67.(rJk-' ::: (560" R)(10)1..

(2·S7) for actual air-fuel ratio AF = (AF).287)(338)/(130) = 0.08)l.)k-l ::::(2913 K)(0.1208 m 1kg VI 1 :::: 3 Eqs.)k ::: (6922 kPa)(O. (3·52) and (3-53) T: = T.T1) Woet = (1.98) = (18.7462 ml/kg = RT/PJ = (0.(rc)k.".J5 :::: 1540 K = 12670 C p.547) = 1191 kJ/kg = 987 kJlkg 23 'leI = qout = qin .J5 6922 kPa = = = G use Eq.35[{(3.l (338 K)(19)0.7462)1.(T3 .(l/19)0.J5 = 592 kPa (e) Eq.1208/0..08 = • I)}] :::: 0.1)/{k(jJ .(31) (a) (b) using Fig..7462)0.35 :::: 947 K ::::674 C k PI = PI(rJ (130 kPa)(l9)1.08 (d) Eq.. (3-64) and (3-65) T. (3-58) Quvllc = (AF + 1)c.d'" = (14.8) = 18. = P3(VJV .500 kJlkg)(O. 3-8 TI PI = 65° C = 338 K = 130 kPa given given Eqs.35)(3.O'l . l}f{(1.287)(2913)/(6922) = 0. = Tiv/v. = C.947)K T3 = 2913 K PJ = 2640° C V3 = Pz = 6922 kPa v" = = RTalP (0.125 + 1)(1.Woo 2178 .1208/0.115 Eq. = 1 . (3-62) fJ = T/fl = 2913/947 = 3.7% (e) Eq.547 :::: 54.5)/(0.1191 .(1/rJk.108 :::: kJlkg-K)(2913 • 947)K = 2178 kJlkg =qin11t = (2178 kJlkg)(O.I)}] 1 .T1) (42.108 kJ/kg-K)(TJ' .. (3·73) ('lJDIESEL 11.(3-59) 'II.1[(jlk .lS.

/fl 2853/888 3. (3-79) a =: P JPl 9000/4851 =: 1.Bk . + m.. (3·73) (1JJDlESEL = 1 • (lIre)kol [(.(T1I . (a) highest possible thermal efflcleney will be when as much of combustion as possible is done: at constant volume.852 thermal efficiency using Eq.533 = 53.e. l.)cp(TJ • TJ let fie 1 and divide by m.52) and (3-53) T: = T1(rJk.. (3-62) fJ T. = 2853 K = 2580 0 C from above 24 .. + m. (3. and (3·86) (QI") "'tal Ql. = 50° C 323 K PI = 98 kPa = given given Eq.500 kJlkg = 19.35)(1.35[ {l. (3-58) QnvTlc (AF+l)Cp{T3-Tl) (42.l}/{ka(fl .I) + a • 1}) = 1-(lfI8)0.3-11 T.108 kJ/kg-K)(T3 . i. 1 .) 42.855 cutoff ratio using Eq. operate as a Diesel cycle Eq.J5 P: = Pl(r~)k (98 kPa)(18)t.J5 = = = 888 K 6150 C 4851 kPa = P3 = Pmax = 9000 kPa = P.35(3.821 kJ/kg-K) (1647 .)c.52 total heat in is found by combining Eqs..52)(1.T1) + (m.500 kJ/kg)(I) = (18.52(0.Bk .I)}] .054 = = = = = 18." + Qx. (3-76). (3.81). (3-85) f1 TJfIl = 3050/1647 = 1. (3·89) (flJDUAL = 1 • (1/rJk 1[ {a.888)K + (19.8S5(1.e. as close to Otto cycle as possible at constant volume (AF) TI = T:(PJPJ = (888 10(9000/4851) = 1647 K = li(FA) = 1/0.213 • I)}] = 0.3 mrQJlV1Je = (m.108 T3 = 2853 K = = kj/kg-K) (f3-888 K) cutoff ratio using Eq.1647)K T3 = 3050 K pressure ratio using Eq.35[{(3.852)1.213 thermal efficiency using Eq.52+1)(1.852-1) + 1.3% = = = = (d) TPUk = T.l)f{k(P .3% = = 0 = (b) Tpeak =T J = 3050 K = 27770 C from above (e) minimum thermal efficiency is when combustion is at constant pressure.1 = (323 K)(18)o.T1) + (AF + 1)cp(T3 .8S5-I}] 0.855)(1.(lfI8)0.1}/{l. Qov (AF + 1)c.213)1. .T.35_1}/{(1.(3-7) using Fig.35 .603 = 60.{T.

(3-64) and (3-65) T4 :::: TJ(Vy'v4)k-1 = (2985 K)(0. (3-52) and (3-53) Tl T.J5 .589 ::::58. (3-78) = (3561 kPa)(2072/839) .0974/0.l5 = 1347 K = 10740 C P4 = P3(VJv4)k :::: (8794 kPa)(O.287)(333)/(101) = 0. Eq.470)(0.9462)1. = RTJPJ = = VI = RTiPI = (0.9% (0 Eq.l5 = 839 K = 5660 C k Pz = P1(rJ = (101 kPa)(14)1.0974/0.287)(2985)/(8794) = 0. = 1·(llI4)0.(fll . .C = 333 K 101 kPa given given Eqs. (3-85) P = T/fI = 2985/2072 = 1.108 kJlkg-K){TJ .500 kJ/kg)(l) = (20 + 1)(0.T = 11. (3-58) with half of heat in at constant pressure Quv'1c = (AF + l)cp(T.:: 561 kPa 3 = = Quvlle = (AF"+ T~ %(42. = 60.470 (e) Eq.rr.I}/{ka(jJ • I) + a • I}l 11.l5{[(2. Eq.821 kJ/kg-K)(Tx .(rJk-1 (333 K)(14)·.470-1]} = 0.3-11 ft = T.839 K) TK = 2072 K = 179~ C Eq.9462 ml/kg (0.l5 ::::408 kPa (e) Eq.Ilkg (g) wqet = (0.0974 ml/kg Eqs. • TJ 112(42.) • 839)K + «1.44I)1.441)+2.I/kg 25 .821 kj/kg-K)(2072 = C.:.470)(1.500kJ!kg)(l) = (20 + 1)(1.35)(2.(3-8) (a) (b) using Fig.589)(2024 kJ/kg) = 1192 k.108 kJ/kg-K)(2985 _ 2072)K ::::2024 k. (3·19) = PJPl = 8794/3561 ::::2. q'n = (0. V.Qln (3-87) l) + cp{TJ • T.:::8794 kPa = P. (3-11) with half of heat in at constant volume ne.2072 K) T3 = 2985 K = 27120 C Px = P1(T/I'z) v.Js-l]/[(1.9462)O.441 IX (d) Eq. (3-89) ('1JnuAL = 1 _ (lJrJk-1[{a{Jk -.

800 gm!hr)/(57 kW) = 189 gm{kW-hr 26 .287)(333) using mass in 1 cylinder kg Qln = mq.602 kJ/cycle) = 4.7 = 0..0033 ru3)/6 = = 0.000042 m r.000626 kg/cyl-cycle){I/21)(6 cyl) = O. = m') (V.00055 + VJIVe 3 VI = V.003 kglsec = 10.. mass of fuel will be (1/21) of total mass m.= 272 N-m = bmep(O. = (0.000592)/(0. (2·12) Vc = 0. (2-47) (c) T (4.00055 m' l Eq.602 m.589)(7.rt. + Vc)Nc = 14 = (0.00055 + (0.000592 rn = 0. rev/sec)T .3% bmep Eq. values from Problem 3-8 (0. = = = (21T radians/rev)(2000/60 272 N-m .00018 = Eq. = PIV1/RTI = (101)(0.000626 = 7. (2-41) = (bmep)V J4n.763 = 76. (b) for 1cylinder' Vd (0.(3-. + Vc = (0. (2-42) • WI = WN/n Eq. (W1)lIel qln and '1.000042 nr') = 0. (2-60) kg/cycle)(2000/60 rev/sec)/(2 rev/cycle) 0.272 kN-m .48 kJ/cycle)(2000/60 71m rev/sec)/(2 rev/cycle) = 74.000626 kg)(2024 kJ/kg)(6 cyl) = kJ/cycie = 1]lQln = = (0.OOOlSkg/cycle .48 kJ/cycle Eq.3-11 Eq.7 kW •• = W'/wl = 57/74.> (a) using Fig.8 kglhr = 10.0033 m3)/41r = 1036 kPa (d) with AF = 20. = (0.800 gm/hr bsfc= mtWb = (10. (2-43) W = 21TNT 57 kJ/sec '1'= 0.

= T.T Tmu: = T7 + AT = 872 + 226 = 1098 K = 825 0 C 27 . (e) = (l/re)(T/fuHPeJP. (3-37) and Fig.JS-l)ll.6% velocity will be sonic .J5-1)ll.choked flow Eq.35)(287 J/kg-K)(1295 (d) as velocity is dissipated kinetic energy will be changed to an enthalpy increase K))'h = 708 mfsec . = TiP. (3-1j) Vel = c = [kRT]'" = [(1. = T3(P JP3){k-l)Jk = (2800 K)(460/9000)(1./P3)(k'l)1k = using Eq. 3-6 = 872 K = (2800 K)(10019000)(l. = 4h.108 kJ/kg-K).JS 599 C 0 (b) T.036 = 3. vn«. (346) Eq.15= 1295 K Eq.(3-10) <a) r. (3-1h) x.) = (1/9)(1295/872)(100/460) = 0. = c~T (708 m/sec)1/[(2)(l kg-m/Nssec'j] = (1.6.

(3-11) (a)(b) using Fig.7032 mJ/kg RTJPl = (0.TJ)/(I . (3-16) and (3-17) T.287)(710)/(2319) = 0..Js = = 1402 K = 11290 C = 572 kPa (e) Eq.. (3-35) per unit mass wpump = (PI· Pu)(v1 .287 kJ/kg-K)(710 -343)K]/(1 • 1..35 p. = T.VI) = [(140 ·100)kPa] [(0.: 953.(I/rct-1 (2902 K)(1/8)0..3S = 710 K = 437 = (140 kPa)(8)1.q'n :.: 2319 kPa = (0.0% i 28 .821 0 C <.301 kJ/kg (e) VI VI = = RTIIPI = (0.7032 • 0.6) = 953.287 kJ/kg-K)(1402 -2902)K]/(l .6kJlkg = w.TJ = 1800 kJ/kg T3 kJ/kg·K)(T3 • 710)K = 2902 K = 2629° C = 9479 kPa at constant volume P3 = P1(fy'Tl) = (2319 kPa)(2902/710) Eqs.6/1800 = 0. 3·5 Tl = 70° C = 343 K PI = 140 kPa given given Eqs.35) = + 1230 kJJkg (d) Eq.1.k) = [(0. = PJ(I/r~)k = (9479 kPa)(1/8)I. (3·4) and (3·5) Tl T1(rJk•1 P1 = P1(rJ" Eq. .530 = 53..JS :.0879)mJ/kg] ::.6 kJ(kg (0 tIt Wnd = (-301) + (+1230) + (+24. (3-12) qln = = = (343 K)(8)0.35) = .ocr. (3-18) W3-4 = R(T4 ..0879 mllkg • using Eq.287)(343)/(140) = 0.:24. (3-7) WI•I = R(Tl ·TI)/(l • k) = ((0.

8790 m"/kg v.(PJP.0 kJ/kg (f) Wnet = (+1311) + (..821 kJ/kg·K)(T" K = 2629° • 710)K C = P1ff.J5 = 1296 K ::.568 ::.(3-12) .(r = (140 kPa)(8)l.1 kJ/kg Vs 3 V6 WS-6 6) = (+86.0879) = +86.1 kJ/kg w6-' = P(v.3S ::.:: 2902 K)(lJl0t.::P. Tl P1 %n c)" using Fig..0) = +1023 29 kJ/kg 7lt = Wne. 3 ~ (e) ::.a cancels W'.:: 023· C ( 1 p.7032/8 = 0..8% . at constant volume P. = RT. • vs) = (100)(0. = 100 kPa given Eq.287 kJ/kg-K)(710 • 343)KI(1 • 1. (3-Ii) W7_2 = (0. ..7032·0.7032 m Jkg = v.287)(343)/(140) = 0. = 70° C = P7 = p.Itke Eq. = (0.)'-l = (343 K)(8)0. = 140 kPa .1) = +7. • v = (140)(0.:: T.0879 mJ/kg = pev.::437 = P.!qin = 1023/1800 = 0. (3-11) w.) = (1296 K)(lOO/423) = 306 ~ = 33° C = T.(r./P. (a) (b) L = T.35) (e) ·301 kJ/kg W.0879 • 0. 3·15 343 K given given 0 = T.1) + (-79.287)(306)/(100) = 0.::56. = R(T .8790) = -79.JS = 2319 kPa = c.(f3 • T1) C T:J = 2902 = 1800 kJikg = (0.287 kJ/kg-K)(1296 := ·2902)KI(1 • 1.301) + (+7.7 Wpump = RTJPs = (0..k) (d) = (0. • TJ/(1 .. = TJ(l/rJk..:: 23 kPa 4 at constant volume Ts::./fl) = (2319 kPa)(2902nlO) = 9479 kPa T. = P (l/rJ' = (9479 kPa)(l/lO)l.35 = 710 K ::.::+1317 k.35) ::./rc = 0.l ::.

1. :=: = +86.35 = 2319 kPa qln = <..(rJ"·· P2 p. Tl(l!rJk•t (2902 K)(l/10)0.8790 kg/nr' VJfe = (0.(rc)k = = (343 K)(St.7032/0..0879 + (-79. = P1V11R (e) P.821 kJ/kg-K)(Tl • 7tO)K TJ = 2902 K = 262~ C volume PJ at constant = P1(f.7032 m31kg = = r.)k = = (104 kPa)(O. = vJ = VI = RT.8790) .:9479 kPa T.7032 = (100)(0.l .(3-13) (a) (b) usi~g ~ig.8790 ml/kg)/10 = 0. (3-11) wM = R(f4 .35 = 1296 K :.0 k...J5 ::: 104 kPa Eq.0879 rn3!kg = (0../P7 = Vs = v" = RTJPs = (0. • TJ = 1800 kJ/kg .3S = 710 K :. (3-li) (e) W6-7 WS-6 W'_l .:437' C :I (140 kPa) (8)1.{l'l) = (2319 kPa)(2902nl0) :.. = 70° C = 343 K .TJ)/(l • k) = (0.~ = 140 kPa given Tl = T.1) .0.' = P(v.287 kJ/kg-K) = 318 K = 45° C (140 kPa)(O.1 kJ/kg Wpump = (+86..I/kg (0 Wnd = (+1317) + (-301) + (+7.1) = +7.8790 mJIkg)/(0. (0.:10230 C k p.vs) cancels Wi. = Pl(lJrJ (9479 kPa)(1/10)1.{Ps/P.35) = +1317 kJ/kg (d) Eq.) = (1296 K)(100/423) = 306 K = 33...vJ P(V6 .fv..8% 30 .3-16 I.. (0.287 kJlkg-K)(306 K)/(100 kPa) = 0.35) :=: ·301 kJlkg W'.1 kJ/kg -79. = P7(v.0.2902)KI(1 .35 423 kPa Ps :.(TJ.0) = +1023 kJ/kg fit = wnelqlll = 1023/1800 = 0.: 100 kPa = P6 given = = = = at constant volume VI VIS Ts = T. = = (140)(0.287)(343)/(140) 0.C = T6 V.8790)l..287 kJ/kg-K)(1296 .0879) .287 kJ/kg-K)(710 • 343)KI(1 • 1.568 = 56.

202 closes = + Hi) (10..2)1.O}+(l)-cos(200Q)-/(4...5 in.2)1.n ::i: V2/V1 (10.)] O:"' T""· VI/V2 = = (10.0)2-sin2(200°)]=10.8) +(l) -cos(110o) -J(3. = P3(1/r.S}1.2S3)/(1. 120SoR .64 in..1S-1 = 1298~ = 4.cose ..) = 3... (3-4) T2 .35 PaiD. = PI(1/re)1t = 74.sin2e] [(3..(3-14) (a) Eq.935 TdVl/V2)1t-1 = (46600R) (1/7~935)1.I T1(rC)It-l .283 Eq.556)1. = (9.35 = 292 psia at constant volume = Tl (P7/Pl) = (4660oR) (292/1137) = 11970a = 737°F 31 .tf1k T7 = (17.)/(1.·35-1 .) Eq. 74SoF (3-15) (a) P2 = P7(rC)1r.JR2 .. = (100 ·kPa) (8.val .556 T2 .5-1) V2/Vc = 1 + 7i(rc .5 in....35 PEVO .0 = 838°F (b) R= rIa = (6.1) [R + 1 ..0) + (1) -cos (245°) _v'r-:-("":"'4-.66 in. (9197 kPa) (1/10.8)2-sinl(1100) J=7 ..cosS ..·35-1 = 2257~ = 1797°F = 7.5-1) (VI/V.(2-14) V2/VO= (1) 1.)/(V2/VO) for volume when spark plug fires [ (4.935 (c) P7 = p. (570 OR) (10.)/(2.(2-14) gives chamber volume when intake valve VI/Vo = 1 + 7i(re ..J(rc).S-1)(4.8 psia) (7.35 .)lt = 400 kPa (3-16) (a) R = rIa .8 Eq.1) [R + 1 .5 kPa (b) Miller (c) ~cle P~ has no pump work .202) = 8.sin26J =(1)+(~)(10.935)1.(2-1.4) =(1)+(~) T2 (b) Jkl. :):-:!2-_S-1 n~2-:-(=-24-:-:S::"l'or.2)1. 1713 kPa = (1713 kPa) (1/10. T1(V1/V2)k-I = (570 OR) (S.

42 kW) = 1339 gm/kW-hr Eq. Eq.02t3 m/stroke)(23. (2.606 m3)/21T = 7. (2·9) Vd = Ni.8) = (2 strokes/rev)(l.OS m) = 0. (2-60.(3-17) <a> W.. (2-43) = kJ/sec (21T' adians/rev)(2tO/60 r 164 kN-m 164.43) • 21TN'T = 1.2) Up = 2SN (3-l..35 m/see (d) .000 N-m = = rev/sec}r (b) Eq. 'T = 0.3S m)l(t.J21T = 164 kN-m bmep = 1700 kPa = bmep(O."/4)B1S = (6 cyl)(1T/4)(0.7 gm/min)(60 min/hr)/(1. bsfc (b) = irt/Wb = (31.0213 m Eq.00059 kN-m 0.606 m3 = 606 L (c) Eq.33 m/sec (e) 65% gets trapped.59 N-m = = 32 .3 gm/min Eq.94)(0.13 em = 0.OOO/60 rev/sec) = 16.OOO/60 rev/sec)".7 gm/min) + (1 • 0.05 m/stroke)(210/60 rev/sec) (a) Eq. (2. = 21TN'T = 3600 I Eq. (2-40) 'T = (bmep)V. (2·2) Up = 2SN= (2 strokes/rev)(0.7 gm/min) = 12.35)(31.42 kJ/sec = (2'l'T radians/rev)(23. so 35% gets exhausted in addition only 94% or trapped fuel gets burned mex (d) Wb = (0. (2-9) with S = B Vd = Nc(1T/4)B1S = (1 eyl)(1T/4)B1S = (1)('77'/4)83 = 754 em" B = S = 2.65)(31.

= Pl(Tfl'l) = (14.J5 == 29440 R = 2484° F p .(3-19) (a) (b) using Fig..)k = (104 psia)(1J2)l.. = TJ(VJvJIt.530)OR]/(3752 .. then mass of fuel will be = (0.7/40. (3-124)and(3-125)with v.3% 1.T J (12.3-21 ~ Tl == P2 = Po = 14. (3-133) TIc = 1 .530)OR .35(1061 .Tl) = 1 ..3S == 40.7 psi a = Tl = 70° F = 530 0 R given given mass ml = or air-fuel In cylinder P1VJR_TI = [(14. • 530tR = = at constant volume P.[(2944 . me with AF = 18.[CT.8 psia Ps == 14.0882 Ibm)(l/19) = 0.8) = 1061° R = 60r F ) (c) .T1)]/(T.7 psia)(3752/530) == 104 psia T .00464 Ibm Eq.. = P3(VJv . .000 BTU/lbm)(l) (18 + 1)(0. = (2944° R)(14.33 ft-lbf/Jbm-OR)(S30 = 0. (3-11) assuming combustion efficiency 100% Quvlle = (AF + l)c..Eq.1 = (3752° R)(II2)O.7)(144) Ibf/ft1](1.Ts) + k(Ts .(f.(PJP. == 2v. . 33 .178 ft')/[(53.193 == 19. Eqs.7 psia at constant volume T5 = T.1061tR + = 0. .0882 Ibm Q R)] .196 BTU/lbm-OR)(T.

(2-42) ..821 kj/kg-K)(T3 TJ = 3057 K 2784° C = = = • 621)K at constant volume PJ = P1ff/fl) ~ = (1656 kPa)(3057/621) = 8152 kPa Eqs.' R)]/(778 ft-Ibf/BTU) Wnet = (13.J5 = = = = 1476 K = 1203° C 492 kPa 34 .97 BTU) + (-3.97 BTU Eq..196 4) BTU/lbm·oR)(3752 -2944)OR = 13.78 hpJ = 3.(fJ .76 BTU indicated power at 140 RPM using Eq.12) q.21 BTU) = 10. (3-131) W5-1 PO(Vl • VJ [(14.7S hp hp using both sides of piston (e) Eq.21 BTU = = ftH·l.384 BTU/hr (90.Tlm = (35.z = T1(rJ"·1= (300 k)(8)o..76 BTU/cycle)(140/60 rev/sec)/(1 rev/cycle)](3600 sec/hr) 90. (3-16) and (3-17) T. <.0882 Ibm)(0. (3-126) W. • WI = WN/n [(10.7)(144) Ibf/fe][(1T/4)(1 = ·3.5) T.. for one cycle for 1 side of piston Eq.51 hp)(O..51 hp = = = Eq. 3·2 Tl = 27° C = 300 K PI = lOa kPa given Eqs. (2-2) Up 2SN= • Wb = (2)(1.J5 = 621 K = 348° C PI = Pl(re)" (100 kPa)(8)1.(d) .J5 p.-4 = m<.s 2. Pll/rJ" = (8152 kPa)(I/S)1.T = (0. (3.J5 = 1656 kPa = Eq.56 = (2 strokes/rev)(3 ft/stroke)(140/60 rev/sec) = 14 ft/see (3-20) (a) using Fig.384 BTU/hr)/(2545 BTU/hr/hp) = 35.(1'3 • TI) 2000 kJ/kg = (0.OS) = 1. (34) and (3. TJ(IJrJ"·l (3057 K)(lIS)O.. (247) Wb • • = W.

32 • 491.J62. = RT. 7545 kPa for isentropic expansion using relative specific volumes v.= 1 . (3-18) Wl-4 = (u.u. .00/2000 = = 0..09 kJ/kg) + (-277.1227.2S7 kJlkg-K)(300 K)/(IOO kPa) =V3 = 0.09 kj/kg) = +987.1076 mJ/kg for isentropic compression using relatlve specific volumes (vJv.32 = 1264.tPl = (0.287){IS24)/(O.4% 35 ./rc = (0.35 = 0. (3-7) using internal energy values from tables = (u1 . (73] L VI = 27° C = 300 K rl ::. .494 = 49.09 kJ/kg w_ = (1264.861) = 508 kPa (d) WI_l Eq.41 = -277..1076) = 1795 kPa kJlkg q u3 = 2491. = RTJv .41 kJ/kg) T3 = 2829 K = 2556° C (u.68384 T. = (0.u1) = 214.OS548){S) = 0.517 = 51.799 Tl = 673 K = 4000 C from tables = PI U1 = RTjVI = (u.(lIrc)k.393 VrJ = 7. (3-31) 11. wneJq. - from tables at constant volume P3 = PI(f/fl) (1795 kPa)(2829/673) ::.(b) Eq. vr3(vJvJ = (O.861 ml/kg)/S = 0.41 kJlkg = = 2000 kJ/kg = from tables 491. 1524 K = 1251° C from tables = = P.n = 987.) = 2491.t = 1 • (1/S)O.09 kJ/kg Eq.41 .287)(673)/(0.u = 491.) (Vdvrl) = (118) = v.7% (c) using air tables from Ref.00 kPa given 1 = v.00 kJ/kg thennal efficiency 11. (2-12) VI = v.41 = 1) (0..S61 mJ/kg Eq.

&+ 0.42) = 2(14.76) 84.79 . (4-2) (e) Eq. + 84.1 MJ QL8V = QBUV .325 = 1.98) = 42.485 C"H. (2-63) (1 kg)(43. (4-6) (AF).95) + z 8x = 8(0.76)(29)]/[(1)(56)] (b) stoichiometric reaction equation = 12.325 stoichiometric air-fuel ratio Eg..95 CO." = (AF).485 <a) Eqs.76) N.&_14.p (evaporation of water in products) for 1 kgmole of fuel in stoichiometric reaction there are 4 kgmoles of water for 1mole of fuel (bra value ~.485 put these Into reaction equation 4.9 MI 36 .CHAPTER 4 (4-1) an unknown amount of fuel burned with an unknown amount of air with z = amount of water removed before analysis conservation of N conservation .79/12.1 MJ!kg) .of 0 conservation of H y(3.p = ("'.MJNrMt = [5(4. AiIv.&+ 14.420..tokh = [6(4.94) = y = 22. + 22.3 kJ/kg) = 175.42 z = 14.tolm!(AF)ad = 14.9 :MJ/kg) • (3.85 MJ)/S6 = 3. ~.8 MIlkK (d) Q'n = m.20 QIJIV = QUBV· ~.85 MJ for 1 kg of fuel = (175. (2-55) and (4-1) AF = mJm.p = at 25° C from Ref.& + 22.76)(29)]/[(1)(56)] = 14.75 C"H. = N.94 H.94 x = 4.p [90]) (4 kgmoles)(18 kg/kgmole)(2442.8 MJIkg)(O.43.&O divide by 4.75) + 2(14.QUlV1Jc = Eq.3N.42(3.3 2(22.

+ 14(3. I II II I isomer of nonane 11 (el II I II II I II I I II I H-C--C-C--C--C-H H I I I I CHl H I I I I H I I 37 isomer of octane II c.n.76) Nz t/I = 0.M.76)(29)]/[(1)(128)] = IS.n.7)(3.76) + 10 HzO + (14/0.fNrM.HlO + 14 0.7) 0.RII Isomer I I I I II or octane (b) H ellis H H-C--C--C-C-C-H I I I c. (2-55) and (4-1) AF (4e3) = mJmr = N.7 Nz 9 COz C. H H . = [(14)(4.10 (al H Hell) CH) H H H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HUHHHH I I I I I I C.76) Nz _ reaction with equivalence ratio 9 COz + 10 HlO + 14(3. + (14/0.Paraffin Family stoichiometric chemical reaction C.7)(3.HlO + (14/0.76) Nz + 6 OJ this reduces to Eqs.

16 (b) amount of air relative to stelchlometrie % air = [(15)(4.833)02 + (12. John Wiley and Sons.100 .5)(32)] = = 0.(2-56) and (4-1) FA m/m. (2-55) and (4-1) AF = m. = [(1)(2)]/[(0.5)(4..IlOuN. = 1000 C stoichiometric combustion equation at equivalence ratio CIHI• tP = 0..76)N1 + 2.241..20 = 120% air = 20% excess air (c) Eq. (4-5) and (4-8) = 241.826 kJ/kgmole Lax = 4991 (%)[0 + O]~ K (d) exhaust Is aU H10 with PII£ = Pu = 101 kPa (4-5) In.0 .l (c) (using enthaipy values for water from Introduction to Tbennodynamlcs.76)] = 1.(b~ + Ah).76)]/[(12.5/0. = . (4·10) and values from Table A·2 38 FS = RON· MON = 100 .lmr = N..125 (b) stoichiometric !k.M. (1)[(.826) + 4h]~ = (1)[0 + O)]u.833 8 CO2 + (12.M..S/. 1991) t. Eq.+ 4by Eqs.5 ° 1 (a) Eqs. = ~crN.833)N1-+ this reduces to + 9 H10 + (12.76)(29)]/[(1)(114)] = 18.(4-4) chemical reaction equation (a) EqS.(b~ + 411). by Sonntag and Van Wylen..5/0. = NrM/N.tNrMr ~ [(15)(4.:.833)(3. (4-9) and values from Table A·2 AKI (MON + RON)!2 = (100 + 100)12 = 100 . 3rd ed.

6)(4.76)(29)]/[(1)(61)] = 1.MjN. (2-55) and (4-1) AF = mJm.(4-6) stoichiometric combustion at equivalence ratio $ = 1.2 5) (3. = N.6)(4.76)] (b) Eqs.2 5 ) 02 + ( 0 • 75/1 • .25 "2 CH3N02 + ( 0 • 75/1 • . 76) N2 -+ 0 • 8 CP2 + 1.36 39 .76)]/[(0.75)(4.Mr = 0. 2 CH3N02 this reduces to (a) % air = [(0.80 = 8&10 stoichiometric air = [(0. 2 H20 + [ 0 • 75 (3 • 76 ) ~] / (1 • 25 ) + O.

76)(29)]/[(1)(32)] x = 8.0079)(29118) = 0.1815 vapor pressure or water P. = N.190)(101 kPa) = 19. (4--9) P. (rh)P.)] = (0.622)[1.33 kPa using steam tables from Ref.7S this reduces to (a) Eqs.2681(101 • 1.12 "20 + 2(3. convert this to molar units using Eq.63 2(3. = XPfiila1= (0.190 vapor pressure of water from steam tables (d) Eq. (4-1) co (0.76)N2 +.169 kPa) = 1.0127)H10 __ COl + 2. = (0.268 kPa = specific humidity co = 0. ~/Nfiilal = 2/[1 +2 + = 0. (2-55) and (4·1) AF = m.268)] = 0.0079 kgjkg.12 + 2(3.2 O2 + 2(3.622 [Pj(P fiilal .76) (.0127 molesjmoles. [90] (c) using psychrometric equations and steam tables from Ref.MJN.76) + 0.22 kPa lop = 59° C AKI = (MON + RON)12 = (92 + 106)12 40 = 99 .12/[1 + 2.40)(3.M. = adding this amount of water vapor to the inlet reactants CHlOH + .5] = 0..5] (b) mole fraction of water = N. = [2(4.76)N1 + 2(4.5 O2 mole fraction or water x = 2. = (0.1815)(101 kPa) = 18.(4-7) stoichiometric combustion reaction at equivalence ratio t/J = 0.76) + 0. [90] P.P.lm.

(118. + VJNc V4 = (3 L)/4 = 0.11) Vaoc = VII + Ve = (0.98) QIa = • or beat In (2.402 Eq.01904 kg/sec gm/hr)/(203 kW) = 161.00075 m 3 + (0.0001 m3 Eq.04 gm/sec = 68.000119 kg)(20.000 kJ/kg)(0.000057 kg QIa = m.544 gm/hr)/(197 kW) = 347.00085 kg m3 mass In cylinder evaluated at DOC after Intake m = PV/RT (100 kPa)(..75 L = 0.050 kJ/kg)(0.544 gm/hr = (68..12) rc = (V. (2-65) rate In kJ/cyl.00085 m')/(.5)°.n = (2.00075 m3 = 8..3 kW) (0~27) ::: 203 kW using gasoline m.338 kJ/cyl-cycle)(4800/60 rev/sec)(4 cyl)/(2 rev/cycle) using methanol = 374.-cycle)(4800/60 rev/sec)(4 cyI)/(2 rev/cycle) = 384.9 gm/kW-hr with methanol 41 .527 = for 1cylinder Eq.l = 1 .832 = 0.6 Eq.402 kJ/eyl-cycle Q.287 kJ/kg-K)(333 K) = = .Quv'le or beat (2-63) = (0. rate WI (0.3 kW WI ::: Qln'l.6 = 0. (2.00089 kg)!1S. = (0.000119 isle fuel rate In for methanol kg/cyl-cycle)(4800/60 = rev/sec)(4 cyl)/(2 rev/cycle) 19. m. (2. + mr for 1 cycle using gasoline with AF = 14.0001 m~ = 0.(4-8) thennal efficiency using Eq.000119 kg QIII.00075 + VJNe v ) e = 0.832 ~r = Eq.~1) bfe = m/fil = (32. (3·31) 'fit = 1 • (lJrJk.338 kJ/cyl-cycle for 1 cycle using methanol with AF = 6.98) ::: 2.12 gm/sec 32.5 = kg)n. ::: (0.000057 kg)(43.1 kW = (374. = (384.1 kW)(0.000057 kg!cyl-cycle)(4800/60 rev/sec)(4 cyl)/(2 rev/cycle) = 0.S = (0. = (0.7 gm/kW-hr with gasoline ru.00912 kgIsec = 9.s = 0.00089 2.527) = 197 kW fuel rate In for gasoline in.35 0. (2 . = (0.00089 = m.

0/15..3I = 2261 kPa o flav1Jc (AF + 1)c..1 = 0.) stoichiometric combustion equation <a> Eq. = P.· TJ (U. • 745 K) T. ." = (AF). (3-4) and (3-S) for conditions at end of compression TJ = T1(rJll l = (333 K)(lO)US = 745 K PJ = P1(rJII '= (101 kPa)(lO)1.(4-.0/1.to~(AF)_ = 9. 1Jc' 11m' rn.596 If the air flow rate is the same and the fuel injectors are not readjusted. and m... there will be a 39.10 8. (z. = Tpak = 4214 K = 3941.. 3-2 and Eqs.9S0 KJJkg)(O. ~ then the fuel Dow rate will be the same lor same 1J. .C Eg.18 + 1)(0.97) = (8.1 stoichiometric AF ror ethanol .821 kJ/kg-K)(f..J4fJ 9..789 kPa <a> at stoichiometric 0=1 value for lsooctane from Table A·2 (b) actual AF will be stoichiometric (AF)_ = IS. (3·11) = (c> at constant volume P.18 = = (b) using Flg.II = P1Cf/fJ) = (2261 kPa)(4214n45) <4-10) = 12..2% decrease in brake power with ethanol 42...S7) and stoichiometric value from Table A-2 (AF)aet = (AF).(T.

0.7B5 x == 20. from Table A-2 = [(FA) AOHVllc:1 .5.068) (43.001 m1/L) (768 kg/m3) = = 29. ..OOO)] = 2.ol/~g. 4-7.920)]/[(O.(2-56) = ~QRVI"lc = and (2-63~ (FA) .(4-11) .96 (e) mass of isodecane m (10 gal) {3. (4-9) AKI (MON +.06 - WJl1tro/~g"Olin.power with nltromethane (4-12) for same thermal efficiency WeUl .lIne - gaaolille <a> (b) using values Crom Table A-2 Eq. (2-56) and (2-64).07)(92) kg/ml) (0. lor same thermal emclency W. thanoll [ (FA) II~Qwllg] g. RON)!2 = = (92 + 113)12 = t02.0~8)(43.155)(20.07)(87) gallons (20. oline = = =: ((FA)..toi~OHVIlc = using values ~ . •.(2-11) with x (x + 29..764 of butene-l needed L/gal) ::9. • oc Q.001 m]/L)(3.J!. Qav] 1•.Quv] nltnl[ (FA). 1:1 ~QIIVIlg (FA) .8olin.22 gal 43 .. = [(0..07 kg kg Eq.588)(10.Ow!lc:] ultra/ [ (FA) AQwllc:] (FA) .20 (4-13) == [( FA) .uoline [(0.toiChm.764 kg)/[(595 = = mass of butene-l needed x(80) + (29.Quvl.OHVI"lC 1200/0 increase In .Quv]Nethe. oc QIa Qin 1EQs../[(FA). using Fig.000)] :: 1.. th&ll.". • ~qs. QiD.2 gm/L raises ON about 4 MON = 92 + 4 .785 L/gal) (0.050)]/(0..

950 = 95.rtr LIMt = (0. (2-71) (2)(0.00198 = (0.6 kW (4-15) (a) Good alternate ruel: tan be obtained from many sources decrease In some emissions high octane number high h" which results in cooler engine cycle (b) Poor alternate fuel.V~N (b) Eq.35 k.0% m.198 kg/sec) = 0.(4-14) (a> . = [(0.920 kj/kg)(0.000495 from above (e) fuel Into 1 cylinder per cycle m.7)(0.3366 gtsec = 0.01) = 0. low energy ecntent » about twice as much fuel needed high aldebyde emIssions corrosive to many materials poor starting characteristics 44 .181}{O. (2·55) to Ond ·mass Dow rate of air Into engine (AF)m. = 0. = use Eg.00198 kglsec kg/sec)(lO.99) = 5.J unburned fuel .000495 kg)(10.OO6)(6000/60) = 0.3366 kg/sec 119 = nm.198 kgfsec)(l • '1J = (0.198 kglsec)(2 rev/cycle)]/[(6000/60 revlsec)(8 cyl)] kglcyl-cycle flu.(2-63) and ~eating value from Table A-2 (0.0.lp.198)(0.Quv'1e = (d) using Eq. = m.920 kj/kg) = 21. = (1.3366)/(1.

wllI be equal amounts of NJ and 0."'l t = x/y the argon coefficients cancel and because the pressure tenn equals 1. = 0.913 K. = 0. at equlllbrium ~ t: = 0.1221 (b) stoichiometric reaction equation because Nand 0 combine 1 to 1 there. [90] 10110 Ie.0576 (e) actual reaction equation K.(4-1') (a) using Table A·3 and method from Ref.4712 equilibrium Is Independent or pressure because pressure tenn In equilibrium equation is equal to 1 moles of NO at equilibrium NNo= 0.U22 = (1 • 2y)/y .0576 (e) moles (d) or 0.1222 = [J:(l)/Y~~(l»)[SOI (x+2y+l) ]l+M!r. Y = 0. at ~ulllbrium and the actual reaction will be: conservation or nitrogen 1= x + 2y x = 1· 2y x = 1. 2y = 0. neither the presence of argon nor the high pressure affect final equilibrium moles of NO at equilibrium ~o= 0.0576 0.4712 moles of NO at equlUbrlum lS'so= 0.0576 45 . = -0.

244 kJ = I:PllooNihi enthalpy 1:~ihi values from reference [90] (4-18) Y. = 2 [(x )/(2x)] H2 and C H [l/(x + 2X)]2-1 = = = 1/6 = 0.364) (106) + (0.4347)[(0)+(0)] -(0.826}-(0)]+(O.+ 0.4347) (3.15 A == 1/~ == (2-58) (1)/(1.76)(29»)/[(1)(2») 30 H2 = = = x = .636)(80) = 84.76) N2 (b) find mass percents methanol m (~)(32) butene-l m == (~)(56) = = = Eq.869 (e) at U 30 + X 02 + x(3.4347)(3.55) + (84.4347) (3.l{3.ct (b) Eq.40 (b) Eq. * == (34.76) N:z (AF).76) N2 -> Hla + Y.lCHJaH+Y.7781 in Table A-3 for reaction (A) T == 3362 K 46 . 76) N2 -> products AF [x(4.37)]/(2) 16kg 28kg 44kg mass % (16/44) (28/44) = = 0.76)(29)]/[(~)(32)+(~)(56)] = 11.1667 B = D = 0 (c) l091oK .8694) [(-241.76) (29)]/[(1)(2)] = 34..76) N2->0. by interpolation =- 0.55 MON == (0.76) N2~ (5/2) CO2+3HaO+ (15/4) AF = [(15/4}(4.(4-17) (a) stoichiometric combustion equation H~ + 0l + ~(3.aC~H8+ (15/4) 02+ (15/4) (a) stoiChiometric for one mole of fuel (3.20+ ( (0.76)Nl+0 .636 = = 93.15) == 0.1306Hz actual reaction with - equation Eq. (4-11) ON = (% of A) (ONA) + (% of B) (ON.eoich/(AF).1306) [(0)+(O}]-(1)[(0)+(0)]-(0.76)[(O)+(0)] +(0. 86948.4347)(3.4347 82+0.toiCb == [(~) (4.43470:1.) RON =" (0. 0.76 reaction (3.(4-S) Q =(0.364 0.636) (99) = 101.(4-4) with A K.37 Eq.364)(92) + (0.51)1(30) = 1. (4-9) AKX (MON+RON)/2 = [(101. (2-57) $ == (AF).76}[(O)+(0)] == 210.2 of H x = 0.51 Eq.0 (4-19) (a) actual 82 - reaction conservation 2 x + 2x >xH + 2x = 8.

(4-20) stoichiometric combustion equation using Table A-2 0.4(3.H1Q + 11.341 1.263 0. == N.648.4)(4.76) Nl AF = (b) .4(3.oHu + 0.Ha6 + 0.2 0.768 kJ/kgmole kJ/kgmole)/(108 kg/kgmole) «lurv = (4.2)(114)+(0.H1• (a) Eqs.4 <.4 142 92 = molecular = weight or gas mixture Eq.044 kJlkg 47 .768 = 43.MJN.8 20. 108 0.8 108.76)(29»)/[(0.20 <.211 0.Un c.600) or fuel = 4.HlI Cl.8) (44.8) (40.300) + (20.341)(120) (e) for I mole = 112 QLOV = (22.185)(112)+(0.l\f.76) NJ _7.185 0.0 28. + 11.2 0.2)(100)+(0..4)(92)] moles (N) molecular mass mass fraction 0.220) +(36.4 36.8 COl + 7:1. = [(11.H" c.648.211)(100)+(0. = 1457 for I mole of ruel we1ght(M) 114 100 m=NM 22.263)(113)+(0.u.2)(142)+(0. (2-55) and (4-1) + 0.4 OJ + 11.11.000 mJm.0 C.2 0.4) (44..2 C.0) (44.2 C. (4-11) RON (0.440) + (28.

) + 3.34+ (0.59(3.000 combustion equatJon for one mole of fuel CH. (4-10) and (~9) = = = = = 99 (4-22) <a) (b) Eq.7 :: 10.59)(4.34 Eq.863 T. = ..OH + 3.46)z +(0.9 ·34. (4-13) G (141.7 RON = %(100) + %(106) + %(107) 104.OII + 0.6 AKI (MON + RON)11 (93.352)(46)] = 10.352 1 stoichiometric 0.5 = 32. = -4Z0.346 01 CO2 + 3.10 MON = Ya(100) + %(92) + Va(89) 93.59 _2.863) .46) OoglO [444]) + (65.016) (32.01174 0.(4-21) using values from Table A·2 mass (m) 1 .0 [444])2_( = 32.3 .7 + 104.15) (77) = 34.142)(114)+(0. = [(3.016 G + 0.6](100) = 48 -4. = N.9 % error 0.5/0.352 C1H.0001809)(444)2 = [(32.3 FS = RON .7.03125 0.01) (log.192) (32. (4-Il) spectnc gravity eN = (23) + (0.06176 1 mole fraction 0.59(3.76) NJ Nl AF = (b) Eqs.HII (a) 46 1.M. (4-11).142 0. 5) and (4-1) 5 mJm.142 C.3)12 Eqs.506)(32)+(0. (2. = pIp_IN = 860/997 = 0.6 5.46 = ngo c = 444° F 2 + 0.506 + 0.192 .MON = 104. G(logloTmJ + 65.MJN.0001809 TIllP '1.76)(29)]/[(0.olecular wdgbt(M) 114 32 moles N=m!M 0.91% .346 H20 + 3. CI = -420.93.506 0.00877 0.6)134.131.01(logloTmJ 2 ·0.

2 CXIll-420• 34+0. (2-57) <I> - = 15.0010 sec = (4-24) (a) stoichiometric combustion equation C.(1/17 ..190)) -~) (16)'·05) -13.5)·_ (83.toio" [(19/2) (4.25 (3.ct =- (15.34)+(0.36+.400 dqVsec ID = (1S-)/(14.+(19/2) (3.0001809)(156)2 (4-2S) (a) Eq.36+ (0 .400 dealsec) 0..659)]-(131.5)/(0.840)/(CN [ gives ignition + 25) delay III (618.22Up) exp{EA ( E[ 0. ) XD= ..1) Jaxp( 8U3 [(11 8. (2-58) A (c) = =- 1/<1> • (1)/(0.p2 .76) (29)]/[(1) (86)] Eq.(4-14) EA III (618.2) / (Pirclr.21 «1.525 ms (4.22) (9.314) (320) (16)•.610) 156°F = III 1. (141.Hu+(19/2)O:l.25)/(25) = 0.(1/17190) « 1 [ (21.') x .64 Eq .2) [log10(156)] 83. III start of injection 12° bTDC = x N) III III 16..5) [(141._(0. 69°C .610 (b) Eq.. 016G3+0 •192G(log10Tmp) +65 .08° bTDC (4-15) XD{ms) III XD(ca)/(0.-12.840)/(51 in crank angle degrees + 25) III 8143 lOOfil) ].006 0.192) 0001809T.01( loguTmp) 2_0• III (-420.(4-23) N = (2400/60 rev/sec)(360 deg/rev) = 14. (4.4) 121.7 +(6S.01)[loglo(156)]:1..-po .5/Sg)-(131.08°) (b) Eq...33.76)Nz ~ 6COz+7HzO+(19/2) (AF).76)N2 (AF)~toiCh/(AF).•• .-l) .08)/[(0. 4-13) ( G 'r.016)(83.006)(1295)] 49 ..50) (l/RuTirclr.2)2+(0.

34 + 0.JLkg (b) stoichiometric combustion equation Eqs~ (1-S5) and (4-1) AF = mJmr = N.2)' = 8.722 + 65. = [1f2{4.2]) + (65.) . = -420.48)2 + (0..88 kgmoles) = 98.194 )cJ/kgJDole)/(18kg/kgmoJe) = 3507 k.5/0.0001809 ..016 GJ + 0.800 kJ)/(2.88 kgmoles using Eq.192)(64.88 kgmoles of fuel =[(28kg)(10.01(logloT .IIkg = because there Is no water vapor Qwv =Q BBV = 3507 k.48)(10110[195.(4-26) speclOc gravity 5.76)(29)]/[(2. :. = p/p __ = 720/997 = 0.64 kg mass of fuel In 1 kgmole = molecular weight M = miN = (80.016)(64. 195.2° F C .>' ·0.76)(28) = 80. (4·1) m.88){28)] = 0.856 (c) no dew point as there Is no water vapor 50 .2])2.64 kg)/(2.. (4-13) G = (141.76)(28)kg(OkJ/kg)]m=282. CI = 420..MJNrM.191 G(lOgl0T.800kJ higher heating value In 1 kgmole or fuel = (182.100kJ/kg}]~+[(~)(3.34 + (4-27) (0.mus of fuel In 2.01)(log10[195. (0.88 moles of fuel .48 T = ~)1. Eq.76)NJ equals 1.88 kgmoles) = 18 kglkgmole (a) higher heating value in 2.7 [CO + %(3.0001809)(195. = (1)(28) + (112)(3.194 kj/kgmole hJgher heating value In mass units QB8V (98..722) ·1315 = 64. T!.

72/2 = 2.88 (e) using Fig.sln29)%] VIVc:fVc = 1 + %(11 .3:1 ::I combustion chamber volume when ignition occurs 11 ) - ((3.85)2 .(RJ . = 34se using Eq.JS (b) Eq.cos(22'-) ~ [(3.JS = 778 K Pl = PI(rJ" = (92 kPa){U)I.86 3.28) 1.214 = 8.Tl) (363 . (5-14) 0.u = 2342 = 505· C kPa (b) crankshaft offset = a :: S/2 R ::: rIa 11. =(10.)1e = (Th ..5)O./Vc) ..1){(3.sinl(22r)]'I.1)[R + 1 .28 l1li 704 K == 431°C 1596 kPa (5-2) <a> using Fig.sinl(3451l)]'I.0/2.85)2. 3-5 and Eq.l)llA = = 363 K 1.5-19 and Eq.(PJPl)(k·l)/k (333 K)(130196)(lA.333) TlA = 370 K = 97° C 51 .85 = = = 5. (3-4) TJ = TI(rJk. (3-4) and (3-5) Tl = TI(r)··l = (336 K)(ll)o. (5-15) with k Tlf = T. (2--14) (or combustion chamber volume when intake valve closes VrvdVc = 1 + %(re .1){(3.214) (c) Tz::l (l36 K) (8.333)/(f lA .cos9 .t} = 1.05)/(1.8S) + (1) .cos(345 effective compression ratio VIVc:fV ='(Vrvc:fVe)/CV.35-1 Pz ::I (92 kPa) (8 .28)1.t} = 10.! = (333 K)(10..85) + (1) .05 Vt/Vc = 1 + %(11 .T1)/(fu .82 = ('1.CHAPTERS (5-1) <a) Eqs.4 Eq. (3-4) = 758 K = 485· = C L = 8.86 em crank angle when Intake valve closes and actual compression starts 8 = 180· + 41· 2210 = crank angle when ignition occurs .

..983(\.370% + 12.c~T (m.76) + 1] this volume flow rate is now increased by reduction (Vol.05)(900° R) 52 + (1 .h.AT b" = [(m..)wllh 41 = = (Vol.(5-3) <a> .6/0.AT = (AF + l)c~T . + m. = 0.983 (Vol.. (307 kJlkg)[O.(e) Eq.76) N%_ 8 COl + 7.240 BTU/lbm-OR)AT = aT = 34° F T: (b) = Tl .0.37(3.05)(500° R) = 520° R = 60° F .4299 (BTU/lbm)/(kJlkg)] = (16.Hu + 12.uJ 0.~)T.]c.01.0% increase in l1y ..)n ..)1] [(534° R)/(500° R») = 1.37)(4.5 "%0 + 12.37)(0.95 this reduces to C.37(3.P = m.)t(N. + mr)c.)/m. (2-57) for actual air-fuel ratio (AF)act = (AF)Jq. = 14.)1 • 5.)l • = [(12..76) Nz + 0. (3-50) Tl = xrTu + (1 ..37)(4..050 (Vol.76»)/[(12..tthou!N.620% volume now of air is reduced by volume of fuel vapor in molar quantities volume flow of air with evaporation (VOI. = (0.. = m.95 = 15.use Eq.1 in temperature •• = [0.5000 R stoichiometric combustion reaction combustion reaction with equivalence ratio q.AT = 74° • 34'1 = 40° F =.37 using low temperature value of cp Q..

z-AT = 40°_gO • 31°F = 491°R (b) volume now of air is reduced by volume of water vapor moles of water for 1 mole of fuel using Eq. However. If thls were Dot done there would be a chance of .cp..}c.206 CJ.l1T for every mole of ruel there are 0.+m.. (4-1) m/m. th (VoIJ.combustion temperature becoming too high with resulting self-lgnltlon and knock problems.76) + 1.980 (Vol. (5-5) <a> When a turbocharger Isused Cylinder inlet" air temperature is usually higher due to compressive heating. + m.76)}/[{U.206 moles or water vapor .206] = 0.M.37) + 31](0. + m. The compression ratio is often then reduced to lower the additional compressive heating that occurs during the compression stroke. (d) Engine knock is not a problem in CI engines.otJNwtuJ = = (VolJl[(12. = mJI_ = m.)t. = 0.+m. compression ratio change. (b) Brake power could be increased or decreased depending on amount of pressure increase.. depending on amount of aftercooUng.(18) N. original volume flow of air is reduced by both fuel vapor and water vapor In molar quantities volume flow or air with evaporation (Vol. aftercooIing.37)(4. N. and exhaust pressure increase due to turbine of turbocharger. ~.+m. = (1)(11l)IN .(Nwtu..240 BlU/lbm·oR)AT .7% increase in v.. "l".(5-4) (a) cooling with water evaporation b" = {[m.....M/N...)1 this volume flow rate is now Increased by reduction in temperature 5.AT = {[m.AT 1052 BTU/lbm = [30(15.) . 53 . (c)" By alr-standard Otto cycle analysis reducing the compression ratio will lower the Indicated thermal efficiency [Eq. . (3·31)]. greater indicated power generated in the cylinders along with basically the same mechanical efficiency will increase real brake thermal efficiency.]!m.e.+(m/30)]/(m/30HCpAT= [30(AF)+31]c..dT = go FT. = 30 =..37){4.T = (m.

1.0006)(600/60)]/(2) .VdN"IJn = (1.6 = 0..95)12 w.4° 54 .0000721 kg/sec = fuel flow into one cylinder for one cycle at idle ~=(.0006)(5800/60)(0. (0.icU8-[(1.03254 kgfsec)/14.0.001052 kg/sec)/(14. using Eq. (2..(2-SS) gives fuel flow into one cylinder Dlt =.00223 kgIsec' (b) using Eq. == P.0000721kg/sec)(2rev/cycle)/(600/60rev/sec).55) gives fuel now rate Into 1 cylinder which Is the Row rate through an Injector = mjAF = (0.181)(0.03254 kgfsec Eq.001052 kg/sec Eq. Eq.00223 = kg/sec) = 0.0.at..6 L = 0.81)(30/101.0065 sec) = 23.4 L)/4 Vd (a) = p.)(0.0000144 kg)/(O. (2-71) for air fl.(2-71) for air flow rate into one cylinder at WOT = 0.000014'kg/cycle time of injection t (0.cw-rate into .(2-71) for air flow rate into one cylinder at WOT m.0065 sec (c) rotational speed at Idle (600/60 rev/sec) (360o/rev) time of injection = 3600 /sec o .0006 m3 m.cne_cyllnder.6) 0.(S-4i) for 1cylinder = (2. = (36000/seo) (0.

The amount of fuel that vaporizes in the manifold will change.Vd1J. = 9. = (0. time of 1 cycle t = (2 rev/cycle)/(3000/60 rev/sec) = 0. = (1. Also at higher speed engine components.04 sec)/(' cylinders) = 0.0000484 kg mass of fuel from auxiliary injector for 1 cy.0000484 kg = = time of injection = (0.02 kg/sec) ::: 0.0000484 + 0.000411/(0.0000484 kgJ/{0. - 8.0004 m3){O. = (0. etc.181 kg/m3)(0.4 L)/6 = 0.00242 sec (b) actual AF from above (c) fAFl. (2-57) to get actual AF ratio (AF)_. changing the amount of evaporative cooling.06 = 8. Including intake manifold. The mixture will pass through the manifold quicker allowing less time for heating from the hotter walls.87) = 0. type of fuel.000411 kg)/8.003 kg/sec)(0.(2-70) Eq. a higher now rate will increase the convection heat transfer rate.lokliq. air-fuel ratio.000020 kg Eq. = (AF).49 when auxiliary Injector Is used at 3000 RPM .000020) = = 6. 55 .49 for 1cylinder Vd = (2. for 1 cycle m.0004 m3 gives mass of air into one cylinder for one cycle <a) m.04 sec/cycle mass of fuel from port injector for 1 cylinder for 1 cycle m. mJ(AF). = P.01 (~) Temperature of the air-fuel mixture at intake manIfold exit could either increase or decrease as engine speed is increased. = 0.4 L = 0. engine geometry.0/1. Exit temperature will depend on many parameters including engine speed increase.(5-7) use Eq.. However.000411 kg Eq. (2-55) gives mass of fuel into 1 cylinder for 1 cycle m.49 0. (2-55) for 1 cylinder for 1 cycle AF = mJrnr 0. will be hotter.

(5-8) for fuel capillary tube now area = CnA [2 p r1P r] If" 0.s283)Po = (0.0062){6500/60)(O. = Po • P.00000081 !L = m1 = 0.0873 kg/sec)/15 = 0.95)[.00582 kg/sec = (O.0873 = (236.4 kPa throat .r Ac = 0.5)(0.8S)~[(2)(7S0 kg/ml)(47. = 0. . (5·12) for throat area of 1 barrel (sttJ_ = 236.88)!2 = 0. (2-55) gives fuel now rate needed for 1 barrel t = mJ(AF) = (0.4 47.6 kPa = use Eq. 2.\] for each of 4 barrels = (0. = 4P.t.349 kg/sec m.016 mm 56 .6 kN/m2)(1 kg-mlN-sec2)]V..81 mm! =(1T/4)d~ 1.:. (5-6) and (5. (2-70) to get air now rate needed at max speed .00582 kg/sec Eq.VdN"jn = (l. = 101 • 53. (a) use Eq.886 em! = (1T/4)rlt d.0873 kg/sec Ac .349 kglsec)/4 use Eq.M».5283)(101 kPa) = 53.5 CJ)([AJ = 0.7) give pressure differential in fuel capillary .224 em (b) m Eq.181)(0. = p.(5-9) m. 0.0003886 m1 = 3. (5-10) gives pressure in carburetor PI = (O. Eqs.

This would result In a fuel-lean mixture and poor acceleration. The low pressure after the throttle valve in the carburetor causes a fuel flow through the idle valve. This rich mixture is needed to give acceptable combustion because of the large exhaust residual. This causes a high fuel flow rate through both the fuel capillary tube and the idle valve. With a low air flow rate the resulting air-fuel mixture is very fuel-rlch. An accelerator pump adds addition fuel at this time to avoid the fuel deficiency that would occur. Exhaust gases back flow into the intake manifold due to the low pressure there. the rich mixture is needed to assure a combustible air-fuel vapor mixture. The gaseous air inflow rate increases quickly but the increase rate of the liquid fuel droplets and wall film is slower due to the higher mass inertia of the liquid. The result is a fuel-rich mixture which is desirable during acceleration.(5-10) (a) The choke is first closed by stepping the accelerator pedal fully down. The engine is turning at high speed but there is very little air flow into the engine. This results in a high exhaust residual remaining in the cylinders for the next cycle. (b) \VIlen an automobile is accelerated the throttle valve is quickly opened to increase air intake rate. This fuel mixes with the low air now giving a fuel-rich mixture into the engine. Because only a very small percent of the fuel evaporates in the cold engine intake. The closed choke creates a high vacuum downstream through the carburetor. (c) When the carburetor throttle Is closed to decelerate an automobile which is traveling at high speed a large vacuum is created in the intake system. 57 .

09 cmz Advantages: Greater Intake valve now area which Improves volumetric efficiency.{S-27) gives mass flow rate through injector .22)(3..073 mm)2] Jar [2(860 kglm3)(SO .08 em1 with two Intake valves (AJz = em)] M (b) increase in now area = (10.1 em time (0.073 = 0.2 cm)/2 4.7 cm)[(O.72)[(JT/4)(0.041 m)/(233 m/sec) = 0.(5-11) (a> Eq.99 em" = 10.000838 kg/sec = Pr(Vel)A = Vel = 233 m/sec (b) distance to travel x = B/2 = (8. Difficulty of fitting valves into combustion chamber surface.1 1T(3. Greater flexibility in intake be allowing variation in valve timing and lift between the two valves. (5-12) (a> Eq.99 cnr') = 2. (860 kg/mJ)(Vel)[(1T/4)(O.000838 mm)l) kg/see = 0.00018 sec = = = 0.5 MPa)(l kg-mIN-sec1»)'I. Disadvantages: Need for greater number and/or more complex camshafts..tar = CnAn[2p. Higher cost in manufacturing.041 m 58 .M»]~ = (0.22)(2. (5-3) with 1 intake valve (AJI = 1Td.08 cml) • (7.4 em)[(0.4 = (2 valves)1T(2..7 em)] = 7. Greater exhaust valve flow area which allows for a shorter exhaust blowdown process.

17 m/sec At = CB%[(U.:: 0.(dj4) = = = (1r/4)d.40)(287 JIkg·K)(333 K)]~ = 366 m/sec Ifg.06)B3 B = 0. = 3. (Vol)Pr = (3 x 10-14 m3){860 kglm3) 2.97 cm)2(22..535 x 106 droplets (b) from Example Problem 5-9~ Va=O.97 cni S = (1.450 X 10.450 10·n rn3 Vol if volume occupied by droplet is assumed a sphere = ('Ir/6)dl 2.11 m1 d = = 0.580 x 10·n kg or = = (a) # of droplets = (0.360 rom 59 .17 m/sec)/(366 m/see) = 6.00064 m3 for one cylinder Vc rc use Eq.6 L = 0. (2-2) gives average piston velocity at maximum speed (U').06) (8.3)(8.(5-13) for 1 cylinder using Eq.97 em) = 9.53S x 106 = 2..0897 m = 8.0006 m' = (11'/4)828 = ('fT'/4)(1.6/6 = 0.360 mm d distance between droplets will be about equal to sphere diameter distance:.0000396 kg)J(2. (3·lj) c = [kRT]~ = {(1.17 em! 17'd.w: = 2SN = (2 strokeslcycle)(O.00064)Nc == = 0.34 em! using Eqs.000360 m = 0..34/2 = 3.] At Eq.50 em (a) sonle velocity at inlet conditions using Eq.01 cm (b) maximum flow velocity will be sonIc Y. (2·12) to find clearance volume 18 (VC + V~)/Vc = (Vc + O.0000376 m~ X volume occupied by 1 droplet = Vol = VJ# = 0. (Z-S) V.580 x 10·n kg/dropJet) = 1.0000396 kg mass 1 fuel droplet m.0000376 rn~/1. 366 m/sec ~ = 2.. (S·I) and (5-3) for 1 valve 6.1= 1rd.u = c= from above with difficulty (e) with proper design valves could be fit into combustion chamber (5-14) mass of fuel in 1 injection from Example Problem 5-4 mr = 0.09S0 m!stroke){7000/60 rev/sec) = 22. (5-4) gives area for the 2 valves = (1.J-Jc.

(2-71) = Tlvp.(2-55) ~ = ~/AF for fuel flow rate into engine = (0. 0/sec 7200 L- crank angle rotation in 0... (18.(2-65) gives brake power with this fuel flow rate Wb=Tlt~Q~e=(0.SQOkJ/kg)(O.00132kg/sec)(42.75kW same equation to find fuel flow rate for two-cylinder engine (24.0277 kg/sec It.75kW)=(O.0297kg/sec).OOl~3/cycle)(N/60rev/sec)/{2rev/cycle) = 3348 RPM (5-16) Ca) engine speed at 3000 RPM (3000/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev) = 18.0000/sec crank angle rotation in 0..6° aTDC 60 .42)~(42.0297 kg/sec gives engine speed for this air flow rate Eq..004 seconds L-:. (b) EQ.(2-SS) ~ = ~(AF) (c) gives air flow rate needed = (0.82)(1.45)(0..98) ~=0.(2-71) N (.500kJ/kg)(0.00132 kg/sec EQ.181kg/~)(. 72° x + 72° = 20° aTDC angle when intake valve opens x = 52° bTDC (b) engine speed at 1200 RPM (1200/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev) :.000 o/sec} (0..0277 kg/sec)/(21) = 0.002 sec) 14.4° = 20° aTDC opens x= 5.(..001415kg/sec Eq.61) (1.4° = = x angle when intake valve + 14.(5-15) (a) Eq.002 seconds (72000/sec) (0.004 sec) :.V4N/n =(0.001415 kg/sec) (2l) = 0.181kg/m') (0..98)=24.0022m1/cycle) (2100/60rev/sec)/(2 rev/cycle) = 0.

181kg/m3) = 1.(lr=D\u/VdP..642 kg/sec (b) Ift. (5-26) Are=~e /V dP.046) = 0.(5-25) Aae = m.0005m3)] 0.460m3/cycle) (195/60rev/sec)/(2rev/cycle ) ~ (e) Eq.00906kg/sec) I [(195/60rev/sec) (12cylinders) (lcycle/r ev») 0.232 kg/sec average flow rate of diesel fuel ~ = (1. =hee / ).5) diesel fuel for one cylinder = 0.(5-17) (a) Eg.=(0.00906 kg/sec for one cycle m=(0. (2-71) =(0.955) 61 .760) = 0.0015/3m3) (1.000420 kg Eq.92)]/(6..0.t/~c = (0.5) = 0.(S-23) Ac.1Blkg/m3)(O.000440kg)/[(1.642 kglsec) (0.711)/(0. (2-55) = ~/AF = [(1.000420 kg) / (0.000232 kg)/(O.711 Eq.'86 =(O.=1Dat/V4P.OlBO sec) = 0.(S-22) i.0005m3) (1.000553 kg Eq.= (5-18) (a) ~t flow rate through injector (0.= (e) (0.955 (d) Eg.000440 kg) = 0.000420 kg) / (0.t/ ~6 = (0.000440 kg)(! .000232 kg/cycle-cyl = engine speed = (195/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev) = 11700/sec time of one injection ~.=I'lvP.181kg/m3)] = 0. 0004~Okg) / [(0.745 = = (0.181kg/m1) J =0.93) (1.642 kg/sec) (0.0130 kg/sec air-fuel mass trapped in cylinder after valves are closed = (0.000S53kg)/[(0.(S-24) gives mass of air-fuel ingested IDmi = m.08)]/(14.936 (b) Eq. V4N/n (0.

037 kJ/kg. = (-3.76)kgmoles(29 kg/kgmole) (1.000)] +(47.280)+(0)] -(5) [(-81.397)]+(9)[(-241.40 = 258 K = this increases density of air and increases heat in Qil!.000)/(3.515 kJO[(12.T hfg(nwnber of moles) 10(4.134.23 kg/hr chemical Qi.6 using enthalpy values from reference [90] EREAC-rRiHl N2 El'RO~lHi [(0)+(0)] this heat amount is increased because of less air required Qu = (-3.463)]-(1) [(-259.525.005 kJ/kg-K)ll.918.6)] = 0.555.608 kJ 6%=(4.6)/(15.525.144 kJ) [(298)/(258)J = -4.0108 kg/sec)/(25) 0.522)+(33.003 ml) (1.(5-19) (a) Eq. = (0.76) N2 -+ 8 CO2 + 9 H20 + 47.00043 kg/sec a fuel = (c) 85% of intake is trapped and burned.3% increase 62 .134.6) = -3.(5-22) gives air-fuel flow into engine ~ = ~V4P.555. 15% escapes during scavanging ~ == (0.6)] == 0.000065 (5-20) CaH18 + 5 N20 kg/sec = 0.1683 kg/sec) [(14.600-3.5)/(10)] == -3.181 kg/m1) = 0.6)[(0)+(21.826)+(26.1683 kg/sec) [(1)/(15.Q.0108 kg/sec oi1 flow into engine ~ = (0.15) == 0.T =(11.515 kJ = reaction equation with nitrous oxide + 10 O2 + 10(3.1575 kg/sec (b) ~ kg/sec flow into engine (0.mole)(5 kgmoles) 6T = 40 K T UDal = 298 K .918. Eq.144 kJ cooling by evaporation of nitrous oxide JnCpll.00043 kg/sec) (0.(4-S) =(8)[(-393.1683 air flow only ~= (0.000)](100)= 200 kW becomes 255 kW 27.95) (0.600)+(0)]-(10) [(0)+(0)]-(37.

3 63 .m1/sec)/[(4.30 X 10-1i kg·m1)(168 rev/sec)(21T radians/rev) = = 0.0979 = (91.001372 kg.8 cu/{2100/60 rev/sec) = = (. if.CHAPrER6 (6-1) Eq.)= 168 rev/sec Eq.0008 ml = (17'/4)82S = (1T/4)81(0.102 m)l/S 1. (6004)keeping angular momentum constant C£>= fll = (0. (6-2) (SR)l uJUp = = 13. kg-m" or = Eq.7 kg-m2)(21T radlans/revj] (b) Ut = 485 rev/sec = CUf = (485 revJsec)(217' radians/rev)(O.ml/sec <a) mass moment of inertia at TOe I = (0.8S3 m) = 91. (6.50 x 10-' kg-m" using Eq.5 x 10.2 em Eq.4/3 = 0.102 m = 10.001372 kg.4 m/sec)/(6.1) during compression stroke (SR)l cufN = 4. (2-8) V41 rOf = 2.OJ = (2 strokes/rev)(O.8 1 cylinder L = 0. (6-4) gives angular momentum r IC£> = (1.4 m/sec (c) ~.853 m/sec Eq.0979 m) B = 0. = (2-2) 2SN m/stroke)(2100/60 m/sec) rev/sec) = 6.001 kg)(0.30 x 104. (6·3) gives mass moment Inertia during compression I = mBl/S = (0.001 kg)«0.060 m)2/8 = 4.

69 in.8 rev/sec = I OO = (mass) (O.l = (1T/4)B1S ('II"/4)B2(0.95)(3.95 B) B 3. (6-2) (SR)l (b) u.0003125m2)~2 64 .35 = 9.2 inJsec .) 3. U = 2SN = (2 strokes/rev)(3.23 m/sec)/(7.SS6 m)2/(8) (mass) (O •. = u/(35. = (mass) (0. (2·2) gives average piston speed .(6-2) Eq.07875 m Isec 2SN = (2strokes/rev) (0.1 6) ft/sec) u.07875m/stroke) (2800/60rev/sec)=7. (2-2) Up s = 0.35m radians/rev} (0.36 Eq. = 281 ft/sec 10.23 m/sec = (67.92)(0~0856 m) ::I 0.)= 291 rev/sec (21F'radlans/rev)(3.51 inJstroke)(3600/60 rev/sec) = 421.)/(12 inJft) = (1)r = 281 ftlsec = (. =8= u/ii.92 B = (0. 000916m2) at TDC r.85 (6-3) (a) Eq.0428m) m/sec) = tangential speed ut=oor= (250rev/sec)(2n Eq.0003125m2) ::I ::I conservation PI = r2 Il(J)l of momentum using Eq. = 35.(6-1) (SR)l = ~/N = (250 rev/sec)/(2BOO/60 (b) rev/sec) = 5.5 lo.(6-4) 22 (mass) (O.15 Eq. S (0. = = = = = Eq.050 m)2/(8) = (mass) (0.(6-2) (SR)a = ut/Up = 67. (2-8) for 1 cylinder Vd = 150/4 37.1 ft/sec (a) Eq.(6-3) during compression r1 = ma2/S (mass) (0.51 in.69 ln.69/2 (c) (SR)l = wIN :: (291 rev/sec)/(3600/60 rev/sec) :: 4.000916m2) (250 rev/sec) (0)2 = 732.

.1075 kg/hr (e) (0.666 Vz)]}(100) (b) = 4.00865 J = I~2/2rlc kinetic energy (6-5) (a) at end of compression T'J.0474trapped) (0. (6-5) ~t == (TR)N = (1.93rev/sec)(2n (b) tangentia1 velocity radians/rev) (O.37 m/sec Eq.2)1. 86xl0-'kg-m2 [(94.86 x 10-1 kg-m2 rotationa1 =4. 9Jrev/sec) {2n radians/rev)]'J. = Pz == P1(rc)k • (100 kPa) (10.0474)(O.28 kJ/sec = = = [(O.287 kJ/kg-K) (453 X)] == 0.00865 N-m • 0.93 rev/sec ut-wtr=(94.1S)kg/sec](43.0.05305Va) + (10.5305 V2 mass in clearance volume ~1.)/[(0.74% m=(0.666 V'J.U'=PV/RT=(2299kPa)V2/ (0.28 kW 65 .35-1 751.530S V'J.01S0 m)2/0 == 4. K .(6-4) (a) EQ. (6-3) 2 J: '== mB /0 = (0.OOOkJ/kg) = 1.0090m) == 5. T1(rc)k-l • (333 X) (1.OJ)V2]/[(0.35 = 2299 kPa mass in crevice D\:z-ey == Pvcrev/ RT = (2299 kPa)[(0.0042kg/sec) = 0.70)(3200/60 rev/sec) . percent mass in crevice % = {(O.2B7kJ/kg-K) (751 K)] = 10.0012 KE kg) {0.15 not burned) (3600sec/hr) Energy mQn 1.0042)(O. [2(lkg-m/N-sec2)] / == 0.94.2)1.

464 VJ/[(O. (3-11) QBVl1l = (AF + l)c.9)·. = (13.287 kJ/kg-K)(463 K) mce = PVJRT = (2465 kPa)V)(0.3% 66 ..3I = 780 K = P1(rJk = (98 kPa)(lO.(6-6) Eqs.011 VJ]}(lOO) = 18.025 VJ/(0.287 kJ/kg-K)(780 K) = 11. at constant volume PJ = P2(T/TJ = (2465 kPa)(4137/780) = 13.04% (b) Eq.464 VJ or mass In crevice + (11.011 v.821 kJlkg·K)(TJ ·7S0)K TJ = 4137 K = .460 VJ/[(2.460 Ve . (43.(rJk•1 (338 K)(lO.287 kJ/kg·K)(463 K) percent of mass In crevice % = {(2.000 kJ/kg)(I.074 kPa)V J(0. = 0.9)W = 2465 kPa Tz Pz = <_> mass in combustion chamber (clearance volume) at TDC mass In crevice volume Il1c = (2465 kPa)(O. 3·2 = T.460 VJ + (11. (3-4) and (3-5) and Fig.6 + 1)(0.011 Ve = 2.J • TJ .011 VO!)] }(100) = 4.287 kJlkg·K)(4137 K) • mass In crevice volume me = 11.(T.O) (14.464 Vo: percent % = {(O.074 kPa mass In clearance volume mce == (13.074 kPa)(O.025 VJ/(0.

00085 ml r.483 VJ/[(2.233 Vc)]}(100) = 5.000 mass In combustion chamber at end or combustion m = (11.89% PII = Ppeak = 11.I(0.st.05% percent or mass in crevice % = {(2.3J = 966 K P1 = PJ(rJk = (120 kPa)(18.03 Ve)/(Ool87 k.8/8 = 0.5)J.000 kPa given at constant volume Til = T1(PJPJ = '(966 K)(1l.03 VJ/(0. = use Eq.00004857 m = 48.233 VJ]}(lOO) 67 = . (3-85) PJ T3 kPa = PT" = (2.392 Vc)/[(1. (3·52) and (3-53) and Fig.287 kJ/kg-K)(3965 K) mass in crevice volume at end or combustion m = (11.287 kJ/kg-K)(966 K) = 22.000 kPa)(O.J/kg-K)(463 K) = 22.OOO/6164) = 1724 K Eq.0008S + VJNe 3 Vc 0. 3-11 TJ = T1(rJk•1 = (348 K)(18.57 cm3 = = VCftt'k>e (b) = (0.392 VJ + (22.00004857 m') = 1.5 = (Vd + Vc)Nc {O.392 Vc percent or mass In crevice % (c) = {(1. (2-12) to find clearance volume of 1 cylinder 18.233 Ve = mass in crevice volume m = (6164 kPa)(0.46 x 10" rn3 = 1.03)(0.3)(1724 K) = 3965 K = PI! = 11.46 em) Eqs.233 Vc = 2..(6-7) (a) for 1cylinder V4 = 6.000 kPa)(2.483 V.3 Vc)/(0.85 L = 0.287 kj/kg-K)(463 K) = 1.:> + (22.l5 = 6164 kPa P: < PpeIIk which means engine is operating on Dual cycle and not on Diesel cycle mass In combustion chamber after compression (clearance volume) m PVjRT = (6164 kPa)V.483 V( 10.

: 0.0000684 VI :. 10.0000561 = (13.5 holes (6-9) <a> for 1 cylinder Vd = 2.000586 kg = mal + mn = (AF + I)mn = (20. = PV/RT (2100 kPa)(O.l)/(mn +mc) = (0.0000561 mn in primary chamber = = m3)/(0.8 t = (Z6°Jinjectlon)/(10.2 m3 in secondary chamber m.5 = (Vd + VJ/Vc = = (0.00000908 kg = = + l)ma mal = (13.0.0001200 kg m1 = PV/RT = (2100 kPa)(0.0000269 68 +0.800 degrees/sec) = 0.2)(0. 0.0005595 +0.0000269 kg mal = (20. (6-1) (SR)1 2.9 .012/(number of holes) of holes) number of holes .800 degrees/sec time (b) Eq.0001200)/(0.0000123 mJ volume of secondary chamber volume of primary chamber' VI = (0.65 L = 0.0000269 kg) = 0.012 (e) Eq.OOOOI23 m3)/(0~87 kJ/kg-K)(700 K) .8)(0. (6-5) injection time = (period of swirl)/(number 0.0000123 = 0. = 0.0024 = 0.(6-8) <a> engine speed In degrees/sec (1800/60 rev/sec)(360o/rev) = 10.0024 sec/injection = = <il/N = <il/(1800/60 rev/sec) w = 84 rev/sec seclrev period of swirl = l/w = 1/(84 rev/sec) = 0.00000908 kg) = 0. (2-12) r.0000684 m3 ml) = 0.00065 mJ Eq.000129 kg = mal + me (AF + l)ma rna = 0.18)(0.00000908) = 18.0005595 kg overall air-fuel ratio AF = (mal +ml.0000684 .287 kJ/kg·K)(700 K) 0.8 + l)mn .6/4 = 0.00065 + VJ/Vc Vc = 0.

.000449 sec mass flow rate .98) = (13.(Tl .000 kJlkg)(O.\fJT:z) = (2100 kPa)(4315nOO) (e) mass In secondary chamber before expansion = 0. = P.OOOl ml)] Vel = 231 69 .000129 .000108 kg expansion takes 7° of engine rotation.821 kJ/kg-K)(Tl .2 Eq..000108 kg)/(0.45 kg/ml velocity Vel kg/sec)/[(IO.(b) Quv1Jc (AF + 1)c.0000209 = 0.0000209 kg amount of mass through orifice during expansion Am = 0. (3-11) = + 1)(0.45 kg/m3)(0.OOOOI23 m3)/(0.945 = m/pA = (0. so time of expansion t = (7/360 rev)/(2600/60 rev/sec) = 0.287 kJJkg-K)(431S K) = 0.945 kPa at constant volume P.287 kJ/kg-K)(431S = 10.700 K) TJ = 4315 K = 4042° C = 12.241 m/sec kPa)/(0.m = (0.000129 kg mass in secondary chamber after expansion (approximate) m = PV/RT = (2100 kPa)(O.0.241 kg/sec = p(Vel)A K) density p = P/RT = (12.000449 sec) = 0.TJ (43.

50 = 12.92){~000/1200)(IS. spark plug must be fired 39.00090 sec time of combustion at 2000 RPM t = D/(Vel).0° • 12.2) (a> (b) t (Vel):ooo = (O.4'"aTDC.4° (e) = 26.057 m = = time (b) = D/(Vel)r = (0.00235 sec)(2000/60 rev/sec)(360°/rev) = 28.23 m/sec) = 0.00235 sec total time of ignition and combustion at 2000 RPM t = (0.2° = 15.057 m)/(IS.4° arne (7.CHAPTER 7 (7-1) (8) name travel distance = bore/2 + orrset Dr = (10.057 m)/(24.2° .23 mlsec real time of combustion development = (6.00090 sec) + (0.0036 sec)(1200/60 rev/sec)(3600/rev) = 25_90 crank position at end of combustion 25.8 m/sec) = 24.6 em 5.00235 sec) == 0.9° • 13.0° for combustion to end at 12.12.40 70 .7 em 0.5°)/[(3600/rev)(1200/60 rev/sec)] = 0.2 cm)12 + 0.80 bTDC combustion must start 28.00325 sec total time in degrees of engine rotation (0.6° bTDC engine rotation during combustion (0.8 m/sec) = 0.0036 sec combustion starts at 13$ bTDC time of combustion in degrees of engine rotation <0.00325 sec)(2000/60 rev/see)(3600/rev) = 39. = (0.

00169 sec) = 15.10235 m)/4 = 0.02031 m)/(0.00036 sec) 0. 2SN .02559 m)/(0.8 L 0.00226 sec)(1850/60 rev/sec)(3600/rev) 16° bTDC 0 = 25. = B/4 = (0.00072 sec = = (b) 16° .95)(0.02559 m (Vel).95)Bl B = 0.07718 m/stroke)N N = 51. = D/t = (0.15 rev/sec = 2469 RPM time of name distance of name travel name speed t = (25 )/[(360 /rev)(41. = B/4 = (0.00169 sec D.00134 sec D.15 rnlsec o name speeds (or both engines are the same !! 71 .08124 m) 0.M = = time of name distance of name travel name velocity t = (25°)/[(360 /rev)(51.08124 m S == (0.:.8.00226 sec = in degrees of engine rotation (0.8° (e) from problem statement ignition delay Is half of original ID ID = (0.10235 m S (0. (2-8) for 1 cylinder of V8 engine Vd (3.1 = 9.:.00072 sec)/2 . (2-2) to find engine speed Up 8 m/sec 2SN = (2 strokes/rev)(O.00036 sec time between start of injection and final ignition of last fuel droplets t = (0.83 rev/sec = 3110 RP.95)83 B = 0.0008 m3 = (1T/4)B1S = (1T/4)(O. (3.10235 m) = 0.08124 rn)/4 = 0.0972 m = = = use Eq.0004 m = (1T/4)B1S (17'/4)(0.02031 rn (Vel). (2·2) to flnd engine speed Up = 8 m/sec . (2 strokes /rev)(O.10 aIDe (a) using Eq.15 rev/sec)] .4 L 0. 0. 0..0972 m/stroke)N N = 41.0019 sec) + (0.15 rnlsec D o (b) using Eq.:.(7-3) (a) ignition delay of first fuel injected SOof rotation 0 t = (8°)/[(360 /rev)(1850/60 rev/sec)] 0.2 L)/8 = 0.:. (2-8) for 1 cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine V.1° crank position when last droplets start to combust (7-4) + 25. = D/t = (0.07718 m = = = = use Eq.00134 sec) = IS.83 rev/sec)) = 0.2 L)/4 = 0.95)(0.

.3°/injection erne + 35.1]/[m . (2-57) %)1 = (AF).) = CPl(volume %)1 + tPl(volume = (1.75)(0.849 Eq.849 (rom above 72 .1 + (FA)lmal]/m.) + tPl(m .3 0 0 aTDC shorter name travel distance .(FA)Jlolch1 = (.1° = 8.1 + (FA)lm.849 = 17. (2·57) (AF)act equivalence ratio using Eq.im.3 = 14.0065 sec)(310/60 rev/sec)(360o/rev) = 12.~ bTDC (0.2)(0.l + tPlm.(7-5) (a) ID = (0.2 (b) '" = 0.r (b) 218 bTDC + 12.019 sec)(310/60 rev/sec)(360o/rev) 210 (c) engine rotation per injection crank position (7-6) Advantages: = 35.ct = [(FA)lm. = (FA).J/m.78) = 0. = tPl(mal/m. (FA).lolch = [(FA)lrn. = (FA)lmal + (FA)2rnal ".lokJeP = 14..6/0..plm.closer to constant volume combustion (higher real thermal efficiency) less chance of knock less chance of poor ignition or misfire Disadvantages: hard to fit valves and spark plugs into combustion chamber cost need for more complex ignition system (7-7) (a) actual total fuel actual overall fuel-air ratio (FA)actm.22) + (0.)(FA).

15)(2)/(2)(3500/60) = 1203 kPa (e) unburned fuel (.003685 kgIsec)(1 . (2-60) bsfc :'/Wb = (4.52)(156. (2.685 = (0.06407 kg/sec)/14.06338 kg/sec Eq.000 kJ!kg)(0...Vd'fl. (2·55) for fuel Dow rate dar mj(AF) = (0.2 = Q.388 gm/sec)(3600 sec/hr)/(74.133 kg/hr gm/sec)(3600 sec/hr)/(70.74 kW) = 211 gm/kW-hr 73 . (2-64) - .92)(3500/60)12 m.(2-71) f9r air flow rate into = p.003685 kg/sec = 156.) = (3.64) = mrQnv'1c = (0.74)(2)/(2)(3500/60) :::::1281kPa (1-0.J/sec)(O~86) :::::74. .316 kg/hr (d) Eq. = bmep = (1000)(74.99)(3600 sec/hr) :::::0.15 kW) :::::189 gmlkW-hr (7-9) (a) use Eq.9 kJ/sec using Eqs. (2-55) ror fuel Dow rate .99) ~ing Eq.002)(0. = Qln Eq.6 = = 0.. (2-60l bsfc = It/Wb m~l ·11.06338 kg/sec)/17.o'1l11 = (0.n1Jm = (0. . = = engine :::::0.(2-47) and (2-65) Wit = '1tQ.N/n (1. ::::: 0.06407 kg/sec lit.181)(0. = mrQuvTJc= (O~003685 kglsec)(43. (2-88) (e) unburned fuel (D'Lr>unbunlfld=IIlr(l-11c)={ .87 kJ/sec .004388kg/sec) . engine :::::0.87 kJ/sec)(O.004388 kg/sec fq:.15 kW bmep (b) Eq.002)(0.004388 kg/sec)(43.nj(AF) (0..qs.181)(0..{2-47) and (2-65) Wb ~ '1t6.93)(3500/60)/2 n. (2-71) for air flow rate into p.9 k.47)(184.98) = 184.OOO kJlkg)(0.74 kW (b) Eq.(7-8) (a) use Eq.86) = 70.0.nr)unbumed = (d) Eq.Vdf/yN/n = (1.. (2-88) = (1000)(70.98) (3600sec/hr)=O.

8 m/sec angle turned during flame propagation L [(O.000694 sec (c) angle turned during flame propagation L (2400/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev) (0.(2-S) gives displacement volume of one cylinder V".2698)(14.j(4.7S m/sec = = (e) Eq..80)(2400/1200) (48 m/sec) = = 76.(2-2) gives average piston speed Up=2SN=(2strokes/rev) (0.Sm/see)] (2400/60rev/see) (3600/rev) = 22.sin a)] = (n/2)sin(8°) (1 + (cos(8°)/.j(4.12 m)/(48 m/sec)= 0.1) [R + 1 .001667 sec) final crank angle L = (10° bTDC) + (24°) = 14° aTDC = = 24° (7-11) (a) angle turned L = (1200/60 during flame development rev/sec) (3600/rev) (0. 2= (Ve+O.JR2 .5° = angle when spark plug should be fired L = (8° aTDC) .cose .(2-12) gives clearance volume rca (VC+Vd) /Ve=S.23)2 . (2-5) 2 2 Up/Up = (rr/2) sina (1 + (COSe/.24 m)2(0.35 m) =: 0.sinle) =(l)+{lh)(8.044 V = (1.00229 m1 = 2.5° bTDC (d) Eq.0 m/sec) = 3.12m)/(76.jR .2698)Up = (0.002199 ml) :: 0.2698 Up (0..(22.01583 m3 Eq.5°) == 14.0m/sec Eq.29 L V/Ve Eg.0025 sec angle of flame propagation L = (1200/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev) (0.2-1) [(4. = (n/4)B28 = (n/4) (0. 01583) IVe = 1 + . (2-14) 74 .044)Ve = (1.0025 sec) = 18° angle when flame propagation ends L = (100 bTDC) + (18°) = SO aTDC (e) flame speed at 2400 RPM uf (0.(7-10) (a) L = (10° bTDC) (b) t - (20° bTDC) = 10° = (10°)/[(2400/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev)] = 0. 35m/stroke) (1200/60rev/sec) =14.s (re .23)+{l)-cos(So)-.044) (0.23)2-sin2(SO») = 1.8in2(SO»] 0.00125 sec) = 9° angle when flame propagation starts L = (19° bTDC) + (9°) = 10° bTDC (b) time of flame propagation t = (0.

(.(2-71) gives air flow in at high-load = I'Ivp..01008 lbm/sec Eq.(2-S5) gives fuel flow at high-load ~ = ~/AF (0.94)( 3600sec/hr) ~ 1.(2-65) gives indicated power at high-load • fltlDtQBVIla =.2218 Ibm/see)/(22l .5) .35..4)1-1. 0.... fit= 1_(1/13.038S1bm/sec) (3600sec/hr)/(497 low-load isfc = (0.03851bm/sec) (43000kJ/kg) (. (0.5200 Ibm/sec ~ = Eq.1.0385 lbm/sec = at low-load ~=(.2218 Ibm/sec ~ .525 == 52.4299BTU/lbm/kJ/kg)(.000)(0.20(.0% Eq.(7-12) (a) Eq...000 BTU/hrl/(2545 BTU/hr/hp) = 497 hp ( W ..264.35 0.5% .7)1-1. (3-31) high-load low-load (b) flt=1-(1/rc)1-1t=1-(1/8.000 BTO/hr W .V4N/n 51..78)(..0739lbm/ft3){[(380)/(12)lftl/eycIe] (2100/60rev/sec)/2 !ill 0.4299)](0.01008) == 157 hp (d) [(43...... (c) 3t=l~~~~~~~(0. 0.. 0.264.0739lbm/ftJ) [380/(12)Jft3/cycle] (3200/60rev/sec)/2 rev/cycle 0.1008Lbm/sec) (3600sec/hr)/(157 hp) hp) = 279 lbm/hp-hr = 231 lbm/hp-hr 75 .600 = 60.99)(3600)/(2545) high-load isfe.525(.5200 Ibm/sec)/(13.

.6/70)(1.l5-1)ll.15 T3 = 2115 K = 1842° C from above (8-2) (a) Eq.:.J5-1)ll..35 = := 652 K := 3790 C x.)(k-l)lk .3) and Fig... = (IJrJerlfeJ(p . ) = (119)(3220/2145)(14.J5 = 2145° R = 168SO F . (3·16) (e) T.035)(308 K) = 320 K = 47" C (d) Eq. = (O.S given .) = (118. + psia (1 • xr)T. 8·1 TT = T.. (e) = (1/rJ(TPu)(P ufP.0.Eq.5)(1000/652)(100/520) (e) Eq. 8·1 Ta (b) = TT = TEVO(P"jPEVO)(k'l)lk == .035)(5950 R) = 640 0 R = IS0° F ~ = 8..J5'l)l1..035 .35 188r = = R Eq.035)(lSSr 76 R) + (1 .. t ) = xrT..6/70) = 0.(PiP . = (0.JP.5)0.035)(652 K) + (1. = 1000 K = T3(l/rJk•1 = Ti1lS..5% Eq. (3-50) (fm)l = xrTa: + (1 M xr)T. (3-50) (T. (8-3) and Fig..3. = Tu(flntaJfu)(k·l)1k {2145° R)(8.5% exhaust residual will be cooled by expansion cooling when intake valve opens temperature of exhaust residual after intake valve opens T . (3~ = 0.8/14.0.CHAPTERS (8-1) Ca> (b) Tu Eq.. (3220 R)(14.035 = 3. (3-46) x.6)(t. (s. (1000 K)(100/520)(1.

2) When choked flow occurs. (3-64) and (2-12) = Tl(V IV J"-l = TlPV /'IS. Eq..)k!<k-1) =(9000 kPa)(154813173)1.)k-l = (2400 K)(1. (3-1h) and Fig.JS.(3-3) <a> (b) Eq. (3-62) and Fig.l) 565 kPa = sonic velocity using Eq. sonic velocity through the exhaust valve is greater due to the higher temperature.l${(1.fJlr. 3-2 T EVO T.95/20.5)°. 3-16 Pz = P1(TzIT.5)o.35 = 1135 K = 8620 C Diesel cycle engine fJ = VJVl T. (3-16) and Fig. 1) There is a larger pressure differential pushing the essentially same mass amount through the exhaust valve. TJ(l/rJk-l = = = {2400 KHU8.JS (8-5) .t = 1053 K = 780" C = Ti. (3-1j) Vd = c = [kRT]Ya = [(1. 77 . 3-8 VJ = flV} Eqs.35)(287 J/kg-K)(I548 K)(l kg-mlN-sec1)]Ya = 774 m/sec (84) Otto cycle engine Eq.

15 = 857 K = Tu kg m = PV/RT = (98)(0.000265 mass that exits cylinder during blowdown &n = (0.35) (287J/kg-K) (1277K) (1 kg-m/N-sec2)]~= 703 m/sec 78 .85)B = (0.10 cm R = rIa = (16.65 crankshaft offset a = S/2 (8..l)l.4 cm)/(4.000265 kg) = 0..000697 K) kg at start of blowdown after blowdown at state 7 P7 = Pa.10 cm) = 4. = 0.000697 kg) .35-1 1277K = = Eq.65 em S {O. 8-1 exhaust blowdown lasts for 56° of engine rotation time t = (56°)/[(4500/60 rev/sec)(3600/rev)) = 0.lS = = = 361 1202 K kPa for 1 cylinder Vd = (1.287 kJlkg-K)(1202 = 0. P. (2-11) = (0.0006 ml Eq.0006 + V JNc Vc = 0.85B) B = 9.0006659 m')/(0.20 cm)/(2) 4.0021 sec (b) Eqs.0000659 + 0.0000659 rnJ V.(8-6) <a> use Fig.eose . Vd (n/4)B2S = 600 eml (n/4)B2{O.000432)/(0.(2-14) = 1 + ¥.0% (c) Eq.287)(857) = 0.3S-1}ll. = P"VJRT" = (361 kPa)(O.85){9.(3-1)(j) for sonic velocity v=c=JkRT=[(1.(0.l$ p.000432 kg %A = [(0.0006659 ml = TJ(P7/P3)(k·l)lk .1 = (Vd + VJNc Eq.'.1) [(4)+(1)-cos(124°)-1(4)2-sin2(124ti)] 8.20 em = = VEVo/Ve for volume when exhaust valve o~ens [R + 1 . (3-16) and (3-17) T" = T..490 TEVO = Tl(Vl/VEVO)k-l Tc(Vc/VEVO}k-l = (2700K) (1/8~490)1.8 L)/J = 0.6 L = 0.l)°.(IJrc}k. (3-37) T7 V = VBOC = 0.1 .I(re-l) = Eq. (2-8) to find stroke length . = 98 kPa Eq.oc = Ve + V.0006659)1(0.0 = = = cm) = 8.::: (2700 K)(98/8200)(1.(l/rJk = (8200 kPa)(lflO. (2':'12) rc = 10.0006659 ml mEVO = m.t = (2700 K)(IJIO.0006 = 0.000697)] (100) = 62.R2-sin8) = 1 + ~(10.

= xrTa + (1 . == (0. (VeJ)l/2~ fJ.108kJ/kg-K)(1000 T_x = (857) + (223) = l080K = B07°C J/kJ)]=2230 (3-8) (a) T7 = -T3(P. = 857 K = 5840 C from Prob.164)(777 K) + (1 .678)Yi == 0.678 .4% total exhaust in cycle = x.JS= 1133 K p.lPJ)(k-l}.T = All = <.6)°.nt = (2500 K)(10l/6800)(l.) = (119. 8-1 = 566" C x. + EGR = 4. (3.164)(333 K) (d) temperature = 406 K = 133° C Eq.35-1)l1.4 + 12 = 16.82 .A.6)(1133/839)(101/321) = 0.12)(777 cr + (1 - 0. = = 79 (386/839)Yi = 0. [('f1'/4)d:1/[(1T/4)dj = (0.Js = 777 K Eq.(S-7) (a) pseudo steady state temperature TQ: .4% cooling occurs temperature of exhaust after intake valve opens and expansion To = (839 K)(7SI101)(l-l5-1)l1.50) TJ.)T. (3'!'37) and Fig. (3·16) and (3-17) T. T.(Vel) 2/2rIcCp - ~(703m/sec)2/[(2)(1 kg-m/N-sec2) (1...6)l.044 = 4. = Til/rJ'·l = (2500 K)(1J9.J5 = 321 kPa Eq. = (l/rJ(TII'eJ(P (e) Eq. (3.. = AulA. = Pl(l/rJk = (6800 kPa)(lJ9.T KE is changed to enthalpy increase =. (6) (b) when velodty is dissipated. (346) eJP. of flow through intake valve with 12% EGR added to inlet air K) = (0.12)(333 K) = 386 K (T/fu)Yi Eq. (8-6) duld.35 = 839 K (b) Eqs..x.0.50) T.

=T (P~/Paax)lI:-l/k= .287kJ/kg-K)(3100K}/(7846kPa)=0..(8-9) (a) t~e of b1owdown t = (48°)/[(3200/60 rev/sec) (3600/rev)] = 0..7° bBDC (8-11) (a) use Eq.7° 3 crank angle of blowdown ~:.35 Uex=c:VkRT=J(1. (3100K) (101/7846) 1.: ~ ./k= (2800K) (100/6500) 1.35) =1462 K ) choked flow will be sonic. 8-1 and eq (3-37) Tex=T.) = (rn.(2-71) m.108 kJ/kg-K)(44G) = 7. (lOlk.1389 kg/sec)(1 .JP .00174 sec sec) :.287kJ/kg-K) (1462K) (lkg-m/N-sec2 == 753 m/sec (1000J/kJ) (8-10) (a) using Fig. xV. 287kJ/kg-K} (l003K) x= = 0.35= 949 K :.=T __ CPEVO/P_.000242 kg (c) mass of one blowdown process in one cylinder ~ :.35= 1003 K = 7300e (b) cylinder volume at TDC V3~T/P=(0..15-1/1..=T.vo cylinder = v.: 676°e (e) temperature when exhaust valve opens TEVO=T.VdTJ.N/n = (1..8 kg/sec) = 0../r" = (0.(0. . + = m.8) = 0.22 kW 80 . flow + 0..000691 In1 cylinder mass at end of blowdown m.= for mass flow rate of air into engine p.181){O.0000705 m1)/(9.00069lml) 1(0..068) = 0.000380 kg)/(0..) lI:-l.(81) ..148 kg/sec Wt = mc~T = (0.0025 sec (b) using Fig.OOS6)(O. total exhaust now = air flow mez (b) ~'. .(3-37} T.Pa) (0.x=P .35-1/1.: 9..000622 kg) .000242 kg) = = 0. __ . 8-1 and Eq.148 kg/sec)(1. = volume when exhaust valve opens V.(l + FA) '. = + fuel = (0./RT.00174 open exhaust valve at 39.21.. .000622kg)(0.OO0070Sm3 Vr.)k-1/k={2800K) {100/6500)1.=T (Pe.: (3800/60 r~v/sec)(3600)(0.. using eq (3-1)(j) (0.~x (0.90)(2800/60)/2 0..15-1/1.000380 kg time valve must be open t = (0..1389 kg/sec ~ m.

0361 kg/sec mass now rate of exhaust ma: = (m.0361 kg/sec)(1.V .I)ll.'l¥N/n (b) use Eq.625 kW)(0.JCOIllP = (W.(Tout . ~.J/kg·K)(Tout Tout = 326 K = 53° C (d) exit temperature .300)K = 0. = (0.0361 kg/sec)(1 + 0.(8-12) <a> density of air entering compressor p = P/RT = (96 kPa)/(0.78 ::: 0. (5-13) for isentropic (W. = p.08)(2400/60)12 ::: 0. + ril.t.0015)(1.· • \ YY.931 kW ::: (0. (5-15) gives Tout if compressor is isentropic = T1(PJPl)(kol)lk = {300 K)(120/96)(1M-l)'lAO = 320 K .)com/1J.931 kW ~.TIn> = 0.00S k.)Wrtl = mft(hin • houJ = mexcp(fln .0386 kg/sec)(I.115 kg/mJ m.l)lk = is isentropic (770 K){98/119)(I. Eq.625 kW isentropic ".0386 kg/sec = (c) power needed for compressor using low temperature values of k and cp T:.)turil :::::..)comp = m.287 kJ/kg·K)(300 K) = 1.068) ::: 0.80) == 1.) = m.15 = 732 K = 1.30 kW 81 .(hout .732)K actual power from turbine • • (W.c.bin) = m.J(k.0361 kg/sec)(l..OOS kJ/kg-K){320 power needed to drive compressor . (2-70) for mass Dow of air through compressor = (1.(l through turbine = air flow rate + fuel flow rate + FA) (0.uJ (0.Jtun = 71s(W. (5-13) for actual air temperature at compressor exit cWacJcomp = m.726 kW actual power to drive compressor using Eq.108 power from turbine kJ/kg-K)(770 . = (0.(1.~crout .115)(0.Tin) .)..T.J5. = Tln(P = if turbine -/P1.726 kW)/O.300 K) (f_. (S-14) • • (W.

is abrasive components 82 .CHAPTER 9 (9-1) 1 kgmole of CuHu has 144 kg of carbon and 22 kg of hydrogen mass % of carbon In fuel = 144/166 = 0. Lower combustion temperature » more chance of slow combustion or gives lower cycle thermal on cylinder efficiency. (b) Generation of NOx is reduced by using EGR to lower combustion temperatures.OOO miles/yr) (O.867S carbon put into atmosphere mCl&rfIoft = [(O.OOS) = 6500 gm/yr = 6. Solid carbon in exhaust requires larger flow passages. Exhaust temperature is lower on CI engines. (c) Less efficient combustion when EGR is used misfire.8675){lOO gm/mile)](15.50 kg/yr (9-2) (a) CI engines operate overall lean. and harmful to Solid carbon in exhaust lubricating oil.

(9-3) (a) 1) Not enough oxygen when engine operates fuel-rich. 4) Intake fuel is exhausted during valve overlap.9-1) Slightly lean generates high NOx (Fig. If a catalytic converter is placed near the engine in the engine compartment it is much more difficult to cool the engine compartment properly because the converter is hot and it restricts air flow. Modern automobile design allows for very small engine compartments with no room for a catalytic converter.9-1) Catalytic converter is inefficient for all emissions (Fig. If a catalytic converter is placed near the engine there is less heat loss before the converter and it will reach efficient operating temperature quicker. S) Fuel'vapor gets absorbed-desorbed in wall deposits. This would reduce overall emissions. 3) Combustion is quenched in boundary layer of combustion chamber surface. A converter mounted in the engine compartment would have a higher steady state operating temperature which would result in quicker thermal degradation. 2) Fuel gets trapped in crevice volume of cylinder.9-~1) (Fig. 6) Fuel vapor gets absorbed-desorbed 7) Poor combustion of oil in combustion (b) Lean: Engine generates lower He and CO (Fig. so high generation of NOx Rich: Engine generates high levels of HC and CO (Fig.9-11) (Fig. chamber. 83 .9-~1) (c) A major percentage of emissions getting exhausted to the environment occurs at engine startup when the catalytic converter is cold. in oil film on wall.9-1) Catalytic converter is inefficient for NOx Stoichiometri c: Catalytic converter most efficient for all emissions High engine temperatures.

194}(0.6 CO + 2 H10 + 1.194 = = mr = (FA). (2-57) (FA). (1.0028m1/cycle) (2300/60rev/sec)/( 2rev/cycle] = 0.181kg/m') (0.000204 kgmoles/sec kg/kgmole)(lO.0561 kg/sec .2(3.of CO in exhaust CO in exhaust (0.5 0% + 1.000204 kgmoles/sec)(28 84 .2(3.4 + 0. actual fuel-air ratio using Eq.0109 kg/sec)/(32 kglkgmole) = 0.76)] = 0.76)N1 (a) mole fraction of CO Xco NcofNwl. flow rate of fuel into engine using Eq.2(3.76) Nl _ ~ COl + 2 HIO + 1.6)(0.0561 kg/sec) = 0.885) (O.6)/[0. = 4>(FA).0109 kg/sec = (0.5(3.25)(0.2(3.2(3. (2-56) = (0.6 + 2 + 1.m.(2-71) =(l.5(3.76) N1 __ 0.00034 kgmoles/sec) mea = Qlost = 0.76) N% .76) N1 + 2 = 3.7 kW • := • mcoQnv = (0.100 kJlkg) = 57.76) Nl _ consersatlcn oC carbon conser=vation of oxygen a a+b=l 2a + b q.flow. combustion reaction with equivalence CHlOH + 1.(9-4) stoichiometric combustion reaction CHlOH + 1. = 1.99% (b) lila = P.4 b = 0.&'= (0.4 COl + 0.r~~e of air into engine using Eg.25 a COl + b CO + 2 HIO + 1.4 = 0.6 actual combustion reaetlon CHlOH + 1.6 moles .00034 kgmoles/sec for every 1 mole of fuel there are 0.0799 = = 7.155) 0.T1 VJil/n y ~ss .2 01 + 1.2 0% + 1.

' V lop = (1T/4)B1t :::= (1'T/4)(3.72% % fuel not burned = 1.Quv = (1.OOO kJlkg)/(2.0739 Ibm/ff)[410/(12)' ftJ](O.0498 in.25 + Vc)Nc V e = 7.130 in.0172 = 1. = (410 in/)/8 = 51.' = ('17"/4)B1h = ('17"/4)(3.98)(O.0498)+(0.537 with fuel equally distributed (b) = 0.606 in.02595 Ibm/sec = 93.90)(3000/60 rev/sec)/2 = 0.(9-5) (a) displacement volume of 1 cylinder V. (2-70) for air flow rate into engine • m. = p.43 Ibm/hr fuel lost in exhaust (dJ.61 Ibm/hr)(43. • Qlolt = m..98)1(O.130n. (2-12) to find clearance volume rc = 7._ = (1T/4)BIt :::= (1'T/4)(3.7 hp = 85 .')loll = (93.606)(O.V".98 in.2 = 0.61 Ibm/hr (c).' at mC"when combustion occurs Vc == combustion chamber volume Vc = 7.3945 Ibm/sec fuel flow rate into engine using Eq.' total volume of boundary layer V~ (0.004) = 0.004) = 0.0172) = 1.)l/n = (0.l use Eq.)lh h = 0.0303 in. 29.' piston face V.326 [kJlkg]/[BTU/lbm)) ..764 BTU/hr)/(2545 BTUlhr/hp) = 11.n.98)1(O.3945 Ibm/sec)/15. + VJNc = (51. = height of combustion chamber at TOC volume of boundary side top layer of thickness t Valde = 1'TBht = 'IT(3.l % of total volume = O.764 BTU/hr = (29.8 = (V.537 in.0498 in.72% use Eq.537 in.0498) = = 0.43 Ibm/hr)(O. (2-55) • • mt = mJ(AF) = (0..004) = 0.25 in.0303)+(0.

JHU.0000352 Ibm/mile = (0.2)(1) = 22.2}(I.0498 kg/sec)/21 = 0.0000318 mJ/hr)/(838 x 10-11 ml/cluster) 86 = 3.0000352 Ibm/mile)(55 miles/br)(24 hr/day) = 0. (2-55) gives flow rate of fuel mJ(AF) = (0.2 fuel mass of carbon = (12.0445/3600 kg/sec)(33.79 x 1015 clusters/hr .6 kg mass of hydrogen = (22.8)(100) = = = 86.92)(2500/60)12 for air flow rate into engine = 0.2 kg % of carbon by mass (147..800 kJlkg) = 0.78S Ugal)/(1000/2.OOI25 Ibm/gal)(O.046 Ibm/day (9-7) (a) use E9.6/169.19 x 10-24 mJ/part volume of 1 cluster Vduskr (2000)(419 • = X 10-24 nr') = 838 x 10-11 mJ/cluster number of clusters (0.0445 kg/hr)/(1400 kgfml) = 0.004)(1.00125 Ibm/gal = (ll16 = 0.N/n = (1.93% sec/hr) .2S)(3600 = 0.8693)(O.181)(0.(9-6) lead in gasoline lead exhausted = (0.00237 kglsec for 1 kgmole of CU.VdTf.15 gmlL){3.u_t = (0.0000318 mJ/hr volume of 1 particle V part = (1'T/6)dJ= (1T/6)(20 X 10-9 rn)! == 4. = p.42 kW (e) volume of soot exhausted • • V MOt = m/p = (0.45) gm/lbm) = 0. rUr = Eq. • Qlost :.0445 kg/hr = (0.{2-71) m. m_Quv mass flow rate of soot kg/sec)(O.0022}(0.3)(12) 147.00237 (b).205 gal/mile)(O.0498 kg/sec .

55)](100) (b) Qlost volume of boundary-layer in one cylinder (6cm)2(0.2 kW)(O.55 in boundary-layer = 1.942)/(56._/mr = [(0. (2-73) Eg.8 kW) = 1.llt = di~1Jc'1t (0. = (0.0167)] (43.7 kW (c) 87 .. = = kJJkg)(0.8 • kW) = 199 gm/kW-hr (SE)_ (e) = m-IW .01cm)+Cn/4) Veloar = (II/4) (6 em) 2 (2 em) percent of total volume % = [(0.04 gmlkW-hr Eg.(9-8) <a> use Eq.67 % (which=% of fuel) = 28.2 kW use E~.Wb (b) Eq. (2-74) (EI)_.f.(2-65) for indicated power Q.oo~1 (9-9) Ca) v8L=n(6em) C2em)(O.7 kJ/sec = ~QIIV = [(0.01cm) (2sides)=0.00237 kglsec)(3600 sec/hr)(IOOO gmlkg)/(42. = (60.71) = 42.98)(O. (2-60) = (0.00237 kg/sec) (3600 sec/hr)] = S.2 gm.000 kJ/kg) 28..61) = 60.040 = kg/sec) (0.(2-62) for brake power Wb = W1'1.8 kW bsre = ..c = .00237~s«)(4~00 W..0445 kg/hr)(IOOO gmIkg)]/[(O.".0445 kg/hr)(lOOO gmJkg)/(42.942cm1 cm3 volume of clearance volume = 56.

0000851 m1 clearance volume of 8 cylinders Vc = (0.3 kW 88 .. = p.181)(0.4)1.5% = [(0.3083 kglsec Eq. 3-2 and Eqs.89)(5500/60)12 for air flow rate into engine = 0.000681 m3 = 681 cnr' crevice volume (b) using Fig.40 not burned) = 1..300 t .OOOOI91 m3)/(0.000412)/(0.000681 % of mass in crevice volume K) = 0.QHV = (1.(9-10) (a) for 1 cylinder v.4)·.J5 = 767 K PI = P1(rc>k == (120 kPa)(10. (2-12) for clearance volume of 1 cylinder rc = 10.0008 + Vc)Nc = Vc = 0.406 kg/hr)(44.0217)(3600)kglhr](O.000412 kg rol)/CO.VdTJ.8 L = 0..(2-71) dl.0217 kg/sec trapped)(O.0008 m l Eq.008764 + 0.= (6.287 kJ/kg-K)(767 K) = 0.287 kJ/kg-K)(458 mass in clearance volume mdear = (2833 kPa)(0.0000851 ml)(S) = 0. Q.4 L)/8 = 0..J5 = 2833 kPa mass in crevice m~ = PV/RT = (2833 kPa)(O.3083 kg/sec)/14. = m. • kJ!kg)/(3600 sec/hr) = 17.2 mass of fuel in exhaust (Rif)e>[ ~ ((0.008764 kg 4.N/n = (1. (2-55) for fuel now rate rof = mj(AF) = (0.000412)](100) = (9-11) (a) Eq.045 = 0.406 kg/hr (b)..0064)(0.4 = (Vd + VJNc (0. (3-4) and (3-5) Tl = T1(rc)k-l = (338 K)(IO.

. = 0. = J.N/n _.76 moles of N2 for every 1 mole of O2 moles of Nz in per hour (95..OOI converted) = 0..61 kgmoles/hr for every mole of Nz converted there will be 2 moles of NO ro (b) NO generated (75.(S-22} .(9-12) (a) m..181 kg/m')(220/60 rev/sec)/(1 rev/cycle) kg/sec air now In with AF = 22 m.806 = (0...95)(0.54 kg/hr NO = (0...7710 kg/sec = 2776 kg/hr = 95. (9·29) 1 mole of NHJ is needed for ·every mole of NO = (0.1512 kgmoles/hr)(30 from Eq... .. rio use timeT·· rate--..1512 kgmoles/hr)(17 kglkgmole) = 2.1512 kgmoles/hr kglkglJl01e) = 4.72 kgmoles/hr)(3.76) = 75.drVdP.. - m'/cycle)(l..-.for.61 kgmoles/hr)(2)(0.....196 4> for flow of air-fuel mixture .76/4. . = (0..m of Eq..806 kg/sec)(22/23) = 0.57 kg/hr mNB3 89 ..72 kgmoles/hr with air having 3.

76)[(0)+(11. 1991) l[(.393.76)(29) = 414.76)[(0)+(11.8) and (4·5) (using enthalpy values from Introduction toThennodynamics.1 + 46.](100) [(100.9% 90 . -+ [-199.3)](100) = = 17.522)+Ahco1 .0 = 560. (9·31) Cor 1 kgmoJe of fuel •• EGR = [m£G.000]+3[(0)+(12.28 &aNL= 1. 3rd ed.28+x) [(0) +(70.2 + 414.2 kg = mass of air in Cor 1 kgmole of fuel (3)(4. (4.1 kg mass of fuel in for 1 kgmole of fuel (I) (46) = 46.3 kg Eq..(b) add x amount of EGR (Nl) to lower Tmu to 2400 K Eq.000]+3[(0)+(12.76) [(O)+AhN} . John Wiley and Sons.668 find temperature to satisf'y this by trial and error Lax:::: 2652K . (4-8) at T = 2400 K 2((-393.o] +3(3.463)] x = 3.0 kg total mass in for each mole of fuel m_ = 100.2)/(560.779)] +3[(-241.499)]+3(3.937)] +x[(O) +(21.640)] :::: [. by Sonntag and Van Wylen.580 = (3.499)]+3(3.580 kgmoles)(28 kg/kgmole) kgmoles for 1 kgmole of fuel burned 100.937)] &l¥ 2 411001 +3 + 1l.Jrn.826) +Ahl\.826) + (93jl 41)] + (1l.(9-13) <a> stoichiometric combustion equation to find temperature use Eqs. +3 [(-241.522) +(115.485.199.

4 L = = = 0..0014mJ) = (b) Power t~e (9-15) = (20%)(0.000312 kg/sec = 1.4 sec <a> use a time rate fonn or Eq.00002 m'/cycle)(1.:: mass now ingested .0040 kglhr) 91 + 0. = lee VdP.ftu) .0632 kglhr = of this mall = Dtl'ud = (0..204 kg/hr use Eq.mass now trapped (.0037 kg/hr (mou)nA == (0.S2 == 0. so 6% does not get burned (mlud)~..0037 (0.000255 kg/sec = get rate of alr.N/n (0. = 14.918 kg/hr)/14..0014 or catalytic m J converter <a) heat needed Q = mt.2 kJ (24 volts)(600 amps) t = 14.06) = 0. (2-57) for -actual air-fuel ratio (AF)ad = (AF)~q..p.4T = pV~c. = (0..2 kJ)/(14.0622 kg/hrHO.0632 kg/h[")(1/61) == 0.0003 == 0..88}(O.400 W = 14. 1...fuel mixture trapped kgfm')(900/60 rev/sec)/(l rev/cycle) 0318 kglhr mass now or air-fuel in exhaust due to valve overlap :.(9-14) (rom Sec.AT (3970kg/m3) (O.40 kJ/sec = (106..014 kgfhr) + = 0.0010 kg/hr' 94% of fuel gets burned.0040 kg/hr = (0. 9-8 volume Vee Y2 V.(5-23)to = 0.6/1.l8l p use a time rate form of Eq.(0318 kg/hr) = 0.40 kJ/sec) = 7.72)(0.0003 kg/hr = total rate of HC not burned (c) (mHdlDtal mac == 0.p (0.122 kg/hr = ro.28) 0..122 kglhr) .08 = 1352 mass rate of fuel and oil in exhaust (modo: = {0..765 kJ/kg-K) (125°) = 106.0140 kglhr chamber (b) mass rate of fuel and oU (He) trapped in combustion (modu-.00002m'/cycie)(1. (5-22) to get rate of alr-Iue! mixture ingested tf.018 kg/hr .enap = (1. = l.40 kW = 14.0010 kglhr)(O.0622 kg/hr (0. V.181 kg/mJ}(900/60 rev/sec)/(l rev/cycle) = 0.N1n = (0.0632 kg/hr)(60/6l) = 0.52 = 0..204 kg/hr)/l4.

(9-15) (9-17) m.(2-55) ~(AF) for fuel flow = (379.0844 am/kW-hr (d) ~Ulfur= flow rate of sulfur into environment (7. (9·18) for I mole of SOl there is 1 mole of HlSOJ formed mass flow of sulfurous acid to environment m£YOJ (0.181kg/m3) (.76 mn/hr = 0.VdN/n = ev/cycle) ~= (b) Eq.fir = mJ(AF) = (0. using Eqs..Vdfl.00688 kg/sec m.000388 kgmoles/hr) (82 kglkgmole) = = 0..93) (1.181)(0.477 kg/day ..Ulfur/'W)) = (7. 76gm/hr) = (.1376 kg/sec .p. ~ 0.OOO) u1tur = (3.:: (0.OOS2)(0.76 kg/hr) / (92 kW) II: 0. (2-73) (SE) aulfut: = !.00776 kg/hr (e) Eq.032 kglhr 92 .44 x 10-6kg/sec)(3600 seclhrHIOOO gmJkg) = 12.00688 kg/sec)(SOO/I.N/n = (1.1376 Eq.0032ml/cycle)/(3600/60rev/sec)/(2r . 00776kg/hr) / (32kg/kgmole) 11:.(2-71) for flow rate of air into engine P.1054 kg/sec 379.0124 kg/hr)/(32 kglkgmole) = 0.000388 kgmoles/hr := 3.25 kg/hr ~vlfut:= = (17.4 gm!hr . (2·55) for fuel now rate kg!sec)IZO = 0.25 kg/hr) [(450)/(1.000243kgmole/hr and (9-18) one mole of sulfur produces one mole of sulfurous acid ~ci4 = (0.44 x 101 kgfsec from Eq.58 kg/hr ~ II: 'Il.000)] 7.000243 kgmole/hr) (82 kg/kgmole) (24 hr/day) .(2-71) =(.(9-16) (a) air flow into engine using Eq.000.OOO. (9·15) for 1 mole ofS there is 1 mole of SOl formed from Eq.96)(1800/60)1Z = 0. 0.58 kg/hr)/(22) = 17. = (b) now of sulfur through engine (0. = (a> use Eq.

Fuel with the lower cetane number will not self-lgnlte as readily and there will be a longer ignition delay between start of Injection and start of combustion.40gm/kW-hr)(1-.::1.348)](100) == 69.348 gm/kW-hr (e) hot t~e)+(2.q=(2.9S)(90%of • 0.IS gmIL)(0.40)(10~oOf cold time) % = [(0. (9-20) (a) yearly consumption of gasoline by 1 automobile (16. Solid carbon (smoke) is generated in the fuel-rich part of the combustion chamber where there is not enough oxygen to form COl' This fuel-rich zone would be larger under these conditions.33 X 10' bbl/yr)(160 Ubbl)(O. More fuel will be Injected before ignition occurs and the overall air-fuel ratio will be more fuel-rich when combustion starts.240)/(0.000 km/year)[(15 L)/(lOO km)] = 2400 Uyear lead into atmosphere by average automobile gmIL)(0.(9-18) Ca) ~= ~o rate of fuel used (8 kg/km) (100 kmJhr) = 8 kg/hr flow rate of CO = (12 gm/kg) (8 kg/hr) == 96 gm/hr Sq.35 exhausted) L = (2400 Uyear)«O.::126 gm/yr = 0.96 x 10to gm/yr 93 .35 exhausted) ::.15 m (b) ::.0% (9-19) More exhaust smoke would be expected.96 x 107 kg/yr = 1. (2-73) •• (SE)co == IDco/Wb == (96 gm/hr) / (40 kW) == 2.40 gm/kW-hr (b) [(SE)~].126 kg/yr (2.

6) = 78 Ibm/hr now rate or .(1 + AF) = = = (S Ihm/hr)(1 + 14.lr) + = 0.ft.l)]/0.006)(78 = co Ibm/hr) (0.co = (0.600/29) = 0. (4-1) = (mNoJMNoJ/(rtttot.7)(144)lbf/fiZ] = 8.05 not removed) = 60 gm/hr (SE)oo = (60 gm/hr)/(32 kW) = 1. (2-73) (b) •• = mBdWb = (140 gm/hr)/(32 = 4.OI67 hr :: 0.1 gm/km)(100 km/hr) NOx = or converter = 110 gm/hr KNOx= NNoJNtold mole fraction of NOx using Eq.315 min = lbmmoles/hr) 19 sec (9-22) (a) mass flow rate of He m BC = (1.0% 94 .9) (e) % (1.408 lbmlhr Ibm/lbmmole) = 0.203 grn(km = [{1.4)(1· 0.203 = 69.769 Ibmmoles to become dangerous CO = 10 ppm air [(20){20)(8)frl/(lS45 rt·lbf/lbmmole-°R)(5000 R) or = (10 x 10"")(8. = min = m.aJrvl. = m.6 kglhr = 93.5 Ibmmoles ume t = (8. + .4)(0.4)(0.95)(0.6 • + 1) = 93.4 gm/km)(lOO km/hr) (SE)Be = 140 gm/hr kW) Eq.769 lbmmoles) = 8 .0167 Ibmmolelhr moles of air in garage Ndr = PV/RT = (14.00525 x 10-5 Ibmmoles)/(O.1) :: 0. ID. + m.600 gm/hr ro mass now rate of NOx upstream (1.769 = 0.4 gm/kW~hr mass flow rate of CO upstream of.(9-21) exhaust flow rate .t.La. na.00074 = 740 ppm (d) (1. converter Woo = (U gmlkm)(100 km/hr) = 1200 gm/hr mass flow rate of CO downstream of converter rttco = (1200 gm/hr)(0.690 = (110/46)/(93.468 Ibm/hr)/(28 = 0.(AF + 1) = [(6 kgllOO km)(lOO km/hr)](14.88 gm/kW-hr (e) exhaust flow out:: mass flow in • • • • rna.769 X 10.

C2-71) Vd = (6. = (19.4 = rt4.lpA = (0.023 Reo"p~". Pr.02624 W/m-K)/(O. [63] Nu = 0. and h are all the same as in runner #1 Q = (75. [63] Re = (Vel)dplp.0289 kg/sec)(IOOS J/kg·K)(5.846 x 10·$kg/m-sec) = 49.T = (0.2 W/mz.1 L = 0.47 m/sec Reynolds number using property values from Ref. = pVtlf1~N/n= (1. Re.04 m)(1.04 m) = 7S.2°) aT = 107· C • 95 . Nu.6.023)(49.CHAPTER 10 (10-1) <a> for 1cylinder Eq.708)°.04 m)l] = 19.IS m)]. entering cyl #1 ro.K)[1T(O.0011)(0.181 kg/mJ)/(1.7 = hd/k where! cp = specific heat A = inside surface area of runner #1 dT = temperature difference between air and wall h = convection beat transfer coefficient d = inside diameter of runner k = thermal conductivity Pr = Prandtl number h = (Nu)k/d = (114.04 mHO.825)°.181 kg/m3)[(1i/4)(O.0011 m = 0.181)(0.7)(0.6 L)/6 = 1.47 kgIsec)(0.2 W/ml-K temperature out of runner = temperature Tout = Ln&er = 32.1(0.825 turbulent now: (c) Nusselt number using Dittus-Boelter equation and property values from Ref.0289 kg/sec)/(l.0289 3 rlt. = (0.89)(3000/60)12 kg/sec Vel (b) = m.20 C (d) in runner #3.

0289 kglsec)/9 = 0.2431 kJ/sec tpis cools the air-fuel mixture (use low temp value of cpl ~.6 = 0.)B]/(AJt.ttr = P (0.01055 m1 = Eq.00321 kgIsec)(873 kJlkg)(O.00321)kg/sec{I.4T (0.55) for fuel flow rate .109 96 .hr.846 x 10·s)) = 19.1159 m = 11.0289 + 0.9 B) 8 = 0.P = m.00321 kg/sec • <2ev.1159 m)! = 0. = (1T/4)BZ (71'/4)(0. (2. [63] Re = [(me + rn.34..0289 + 0.01055)(1.rtr = mJ(AF) = (0.00198 kgIsec)(307 kJlkg)(0.121 kJ/sec = (0. = (0.0011 mJ = (1r/4)B1S = (1T/4}W(0.40) = 1.59 em Eq.2° ..00198)kg/sec(1.P = c. (10·7) using viscosity value from Ref.) = [(0.00321)(0.0289 kg/sec)/14.7° = _2.(% evaporated) = (0..(1()"2) (a) use Eq.1159)]/[(0.00198 kg/sec • • CJe.00S kJ/kg·K)4T AT = 34. (2-8) for 1 cylinder Vd = 0.0289 + 0.5° C (10-3) Eq. (2-15) gives area of piston face A.7° C Tenlertng = 32.. = AT = 7.40) = 0.S· C (b) .005 kJ/kg·K)4T m.