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University of Western Australia
Thermofluids TF306
2005
Pump Application, Operation and Specification
Melinda Hodkiewicz
mhodki@mech.uwa.edu.au
Extension: 7911, Room G55
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 1 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.1. Outcomes of the course
• Recognition of pump system components and their purpose
• Determination of a pump system curve
• Ability to interpret manufacturer’s pump documentation
• Competence to select and size a centrifugal pump for a particular application
• Understand the effect of changes in the system on the operating point of the pump
• Appreciate the effect of assembly, installation and operating practices on the life cycle of a
centrifugal pump
1.2. References
Books
• Centrifugal pumps 2nd ed., Karassik and McGuire
• Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics, Gerhart and Gross
• Centrifugal Pumps  Design and Application 2nd ed, Lobanoff & Ross
• Introduction to Fluid Mechanics  Fox and McDonald MPSL 620.106 1998 INT/1992 INT
• Fundamentals of ThermalFluid Sciences – Cengal and Turner MPSL 621.402 2001 FUN
• Predictive Maintenance of Pumps using condition monitoring – R.S.Beebe.
• Slurry Systems Handbook  Abulnaga
Useful web references
• Pumps&Systems www.pumpzone.com
• API 610: http://www.api.org/tf610/index.htm.
• Links www.bhrgroup.co.uk/links
• Software www.fluidflowinfo.com
• Warman Slurry pumps www.warmanintl.com
• Gould pumps www.gouldspumps.com
• GE www.ge.com/industrialsystems/solutions/pump.html
• Pump types: http://www.pumpschool.com
Vendor references
• Crane Technical Paper 410(metric)
• Flow of Fluids through valves, fittings and pipes
• Goulds Pump manual GPM6
• Basic Principles for the Design of Centrifugal pump installations (SIHI)
• Sulzer Centrifugal pump handbook
• Warman Slurry Pumping Handbook
• Cameron Hydraulic data
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 2 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.1. Centrifugal Pump Generic design
There are many different styles of centrifugal pumps, but they can essentially be divided into three broad
groups
a. horizontal or vertical
b. single impeller (end suction/split case, single volute, double volute, double suction) or multistage
impeller designs
c. Impeller design: Radial, mixed flow, axial. Open and closed, semi open designs.
The governing principles of all centrifugal pumps are the same but the design details vary.
Examples of the different designs are given below …
1
http://www.fpdlit.com/cms/results detail.asp?ModelID=102
Figure 1: Singlestage endsuction horizontal
centrifugal pump
1
2
Figure 2: Singlestage vertical
centrifugal pump
Figure 3: Multistage horizontal centrifugal pump
2
1
http://www.giwindustries.com/lsa.html
2
http://www.fpdlit.com/cms/results_detail.asp?ModelID=23
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 3 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.2. Main Centrifugal Pump components
• Volute/Housing Bearing housing, bearings and seals
• Impeller Coupling
• Shaft and sleeve Motor
• Mechanical seal or packing Foundation and baseplate
•
3
4
Figure 5: Endsuction centrifugal pump and motor
3
Figure 4: Schematic of end suction pump
4
3
Ref: C.Dean UWA Honours thesis 2001 – from Goulds Pumps
4
Ref: Goulds Pumps – this is the pump on the PUMP TEST RIG (Engine lab)
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 4 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.3. Typical Pump Installation
Centrifugal pumps are part of a “SYSTEM”. The system contains tanks, pipes, valves and fittings. The
performance of a centrifugal pump is determined by the system it works in. Key factors are the “HEAD” H
P
on
the pump and the “FLOWRATE” Q.
+
−
+ − +
−
= =
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
2
) (
) (
) (
2 2
ρ &
&
The head on the pump is determined by the rate of work W in J/s of the shaft/impeller divided by the mass flow
and the gravitational constant g. The W is a function of
S
&
m&
S
&
1. The pressure p divided by ρg, this results in units of metres of head. The pressure is a function of the
pressure p acting on the FREE surface of the liquid in the system on the inlet (i) or suction side and the
exit (e)or discharge side. When the suction and discharge tanks are open to atmosphere, the values are p
i
= p
e
= 0. When the tanks are closed and contain elevated pressure or vacuum this must be taken into
account.
2. The height of the liquid in the tanks at the suction and discharge z
i
and z
e
3. The velocity at the free surface of the liquid V
i
and V
e
, this can usually be ignored.
4. The friction loss in the entire system h
L
(both suction and discharge). This is affected by the line
diameter, line lengths, fittings and valves and is discussed in detail later.
Any change in the value of these system terms will affect the Head on the pump, as a result the flowrate through
the pump will change. This can be demonstrated using a LabView PUMP SIMULATION program.
1.4. Sizing a Centrifugal Pump
In order to correctly size a pump for a particular application it is necessary to understand the system in which it
is installed. One selects a pump based on its ability to supply the required flowrate for the system. The operating
point of a pump is set by the intersection of the PUMP curve (specific to the pump) with the SYSTEM curve
(defined by the piping system, tank elevation, overpressures etc)
1.5. Steps involved in selecting and sizing a pump
1. Determine flowrate
2. Obtain fluid property information
3. Design piping system
4. Determine the System Head Curve
5. Decide on duty point
6. Calculate Power required and Specific speed values
7. Calculate Net Positive Suction Head available
8. Develop pump specification sheet
9. Select a pump
10. Evaluate pump selection
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 5 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.5.1. Step 1: Determine flowrate/pump
• Determined by process engineers/designers
• Determine number of pumps required (function of criticality and reliability)
• Define realistic maximum and minimum flowrates
1.5.2. Step 2: Determine Fluid property information
• Density, specific gravity, Dynamic or Absolute viscosity, Kinematic viscosity.
• Water density at 20 deg C = 1000 kg/m
3
• Specific weight γ = ρg , Weight of fluid per unit volume.
• Specific gravity S= ρ/ ρ
H20
.
Why is viscosity important?
• Increase viscosity  increase losses  less head generated  lower efficiency
• Effect is greater on smaller pumps due to smaller internal passage dimensions
• Used to calculate the Reynolds Number which determines the set of pump equations to use
1.5.3. Step 3: Design piping system
Select pipe sizes
• This is a compromise between installation costs and running costs.
• Small diameter pipes lead to high line velocities and friction losses.
• Elbows and fittings also result in friction losses
• Suction piping design is critical to avoid creating swirl/uneven flow at the pump suction
Guidelines for line velocity
Suction piping (water) = 1.22.1 m/s, Discharge piping (water) =1.23.0 m/s,
Slurry piping (mining) = 1.52.5 m/s but there are special considerations due to particle settling velocity
Discharge piping (hydrocarbons)= 17 m/s
Friction losses in pipes
Resistance to flow as liquid moves through pipe results in loss of head. This friction loss h
L
is measured in m.
Resistance is due to viscous shear stresses within the liquid and friction losses at contact of moving fluid and
pipe wall
2
( , , , ) (Re)
2
L
L V
h f L d V f
d g
υ
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
Calculation of this will be discussed in Section 1.5.5
1.5.4. Step 4: Determine System Head Curve
For a new pump installation you will need
• P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Drawing) Symbols used may be found in AS 1101.6,
• GA (General arrangement) plan and elevation,
• Flowsheet,
• Isometric drawings
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 6 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
+
−
+ − +
−
= =
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
2
) (
) (
) (
2 2
ρ &
&
where h
L
= h
L(D)
+ h
L(S)
This is often done by considering the suction and discharge sides separately as
Total Head (H
p
)
H
p
= h(d)  h(s)
Total Suction Head
h(s)= p(s)/ρg z(s)+V
2
s
/2g  h
L
(s)  h(i)
z(s) = static suction head, h
L
(s) = total friction loss in suction line, h(i) = entrance loss, p(s) = pressure other than
atmospheric in suction tank in m, h(s) = total suction head
Total Discharge Head
h(d)= p(d)/ρg + z(s) +V
2
d
/2g+ z(d) + h
L
(d) + h(e)
z(d) = static discharge head, h
L
(d) = friction loss in discharge line, h(e) = exit loss, h
P
(d) = overpressure in
discharge tank in m, h(d) = total discharge head
Note: the friction loss is SUBTRACTED on the suction side but ADDED on the discharge side
1.5.5. Calculation of the friction loss terms (h
L
).
There are TWO separate friction calculations, one for the pipes and one for the fittings.
1. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss in pipes
For turbulent flow
∑

.

\



.

\

=
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2
2
h
L
= pressure drop or friction loss in m, f=friction factor, L=length of pipe (m), V=line velocity (m/s), D= pipe
ID (m),
Friction loss depends on fluid velocity, pipe ID and roughness.
Darcy’s formula is valid for turbulent and laminar flow only if line pressure >> vapour pressure of the liquid ie
NO cavitation
For laminar flow
2
64
Re 2
L
L V
h
D g
 
  
=
  
\ .\ .
\ .
Friction Factor f
The friction factor is determined experimentally. For laminar flow f=64/Re.
For turbulent flow f depends on Re also the relative roughness ε/d. ε = roughness of pipe wall, d = pipe diameter
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 7 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Need to see appropriate table
Examples for the Friction factor values for clean commercial pipe with turbulent flow, see Pump Formula sheet.
2. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss valves and fittings
∑


.

\

=
g
V
K h
L
2
2
See suitable tables for values, some common values are provided on the pump formula sheet.
Summary for Friction Loss calculation
∑ ∑


.

\

+

.

\



.

\

=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2
This can also include the entrance and exit losses if they are significant
Note on Hazen Williams
The DarcyWeisbach method is the technically correct method however many engineers use Hazen Williams
which is convenient and produces reliable results for water with turbulent flow
See reference book for equation and C factors. Widely used for simple flowsheet calculations
Pipe Friction loss Tables
Pipe friction losses = x m/100 m pipe for a specific pipe ID, material and line velocity and temperature. Depends
on material, condition and age
For example the friction loss of 700 l/s water through 4” Sched 40 steel pipe is 0.194 bar per 100 m or 1.98
m/100 m pipe
The methods above are used for new projects where you have drawings with line sizes, tank elevations etc.
However if you have an existing pump installation the pump head can be determined with a pair of pressure
gauges and a flow meter. Place the pressure gauges in ports as close to the suction and discharge of the pump,
simultaneously read the pressure gauges and the flow rate.
The pressure P on a gauge located close to the flange of the suction of the pump will measure
) (
.
S L S S S
h g z g p P ρ ρ − ⋅ + =
The conversion to ‘head’ and addition of the suction velocity head will give a value for the total suction head
A pressure gauge placed on the discharge of the pump will read the following terms.
) (
.
D L D D D
h g z g p P ρ ρ + ⋅ + =
It can be seen that the Total Head H
P
on the pump.
( ) ( )
−
+
−
=
+
−
+ − +
−
= =
g
V V
g
P P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
S D S D
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
2 2
) (
) (
) (
2 2 2 2
ρ ρ &
&
The values V
D
and V
S
are the velocity in the pipe at the pump suction and discharge. This is a function of the
flow rate Q and the line diameter D. V = Q/A = 4Q/(πD
2
), V = line velocity m/s, Q = flow rate m
3
/s, A =
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 8 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
inside pipe area m
2
, D = inside diameter m. If the line size are the same for suction and discharge, this term can
be ignored.
Draw System Curve
System curve determined by Total Head (m) at different flow rates (below, design and above design)
Flow (m3/hr) Total Head (m)
0 (Static head) 18
60 25
100 48
110 56
Superimpose System Curve on a ‘suitable’ Pump Curve
5
Figure 6: Pump Curve
1.5.6. Step 5: Decide on a Duty Point
Duty Point is expressed as the calculated Head for the desired Flowrate
For example 120 l/s at 58m head
Determine high and low operating flow points
1.5.7. Step 6: Calculate Power required, Efficiency and Specific Speed
Power : Hydraulic power is work done by a pump in moving the liquid.
5
Reference: Southern Cross Pumps
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 9 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
P S
gQH W ρ =
&
Pump Efficiency:
η
P
= Hydraulic Power (W ) / Power input to the pump shaft from the motor (W )
S
&
M
&
Pump Efficiency depends on energy loss due to
• leakage (recirculation around the impeller outlet to inlet, internal to the pump)
• hydraulic losses (viscosity and nonuniform flow)
• mechanical losses (friction losses in the bearings and seals)
What is the flow rate at maximum efficiency for a 438 mm impeller using the pump curve in ???
Motor Efficiency: η
M
M
W
&
is the power from the motor to the shaft = Power supplied to the motor x motor efficiency.
Calculation of the motor power requires
1. Measurement of the power delivered to the motor from the MCC (Motor Control Centre). This is
available as a kW reading.
2. Knowledge of the efficiency of the motor. This information is often available on the motor nameplate or
from the manufacturer. The motor efficiency is dependent on the load on the motor and the speed, if it is
a variable speed drive.
1.5.8. Step 7: Calculate NPSH available
An acceptable margin of NPSHA  NPSHR must be maintained over the entire operating range to prevent
CAVITATION. Cavitation is caused by the local vaporisation of a fluid when the static pressure drops below the
vapour pressure. The small bubbles filled with vapour that form in the low pressure region (suction eye of the
pump) will collapse on moving into high pressure regions (inside the impeller). This "implosion" causes pitting
on the metal surface, vibration and a drop in efficiency.
For NPSH calculation must understand difference between absolute and gauge pressure
• Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure at elevation
• Standard barometric pressure is 1.01325 bar or 760 mm Hg and changes with elevation above sea level.
• Gauge pressure is pressure above barometric pressure
• Convert gauge pressure readings to m by (x 0.102/SG)
• Absolute pressure always refers to perfect vacuum as base
NPSH available
• Net positive suction head is the absolute suction head at suction nozzle corrected to datum less the vapour
pressure of the liquid at operating temperature. Determines at what point liquid will vaporize at the lowest
pressure point of the pump (cavitation) and is characteristic of the system. NPSHA varies with capacity and
is always positive.
•
( ) (
suction atm
A suction L suction VP abs
p p
NPSH z h h
g ρ
+
= + − −
)
OR
( )
−
+
) (abs VP
atm S
h
g
p P
ρ
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 10 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
• h
vp(abs)
= head in m corresponding to the ABSOLUTE vapour pressure of the liquid at the temperature being
pumped. This is determined from Tables of vapour pressure (usually given in bar)
NPSH required
The NPSHR is characteristic of pump design and represents the minimum margin required between suction head
and vapour pressure. NPSHR varies with capacity. It is determined by manufacturer and verified by NPSH pump
test. NPSHR depends on impeller design, flow rate, rpm, liquid and other factors. As a rule of thumb there
should be a margin of at least 1m, though depends on application between NPSHA and NPSHR)
What is the NPSHR for a flowrate of 120 l/s on the pump curve in Figure ?.
1.5.9. Step 8: Develop Pump Specification Sheet
1.5.10. Step 9. Select a shortlist of suitable Pumps from different manufacturers
1.5.11. Step 10: Evaluate Pump Selection
• Match Pump and System curve
• Determine Efficiency and NPSH margin
• Compare efficiency, NPSH margin, and off design performance of different pumps
• Determine materials to be used based on fluid properties
• Consider vendor technical support and spare parts issues
• Consider preferred vendor supply contracts
1.6. Other Useful Pump terms
Specific speed: N
s
= ϖ(Q)½/(h)¾; (h=gH units of L
2
/T
2
, ϖ in rad/sec)
Many design charts are a function of Ns. As Ns increases
• Impeller shape changes from radial to axial
• Lower head per stage
• Blade loading increases
• Maximum velocity increases
• Tendancy to cavitate increases
Low Ns values: radial impellers, large diameter, narrow profile, high head per stage
Medium Ns: Francis vane impellers, low diameter to profile ratio, low headhigh volume
High Ns mixed flow impellers
Very high Ns axial flow impeller
Suction specific speed: Nss = n (Q*)
1/2
/(NPSHR*)
3/4
n=rpm; Q*=Flow gpm;H*=Head ft; NPSHR* (ft) [The gpm is per impeller eye]
Nss is a function of NPSH required. Modifying the diameter of the impeller eye, increase the flow, reduces the
NPSH required but increases the value of Nss. This causes a reduction in the low flow capability of the pump.
1.7. Affinity Laws
Use of the affinity laws to select the optimum impeller diameter and/or pump rotating speed (if a variable
frequency drive or sheave drive system is appropriate)
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 11 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Allows for performance at one speed to be predicted from known performance at known speed (or impeller
diameter)
Q = Q
1
(n/n
1
) = Q
1
(D/D
1
)
H = H
1
(n/n
1
)
2
=
H
1
(D/D
1
)
2
P = P
1
(n/n
1
)
3
=
P
1
(D/D
1
)
3
n/D = new desired speed rpm/diameter. n
1
D
1
=speed rpm/diameter for known characteristics Q
1
, H
1
and P
1
1.8. Parallel and Series Operation
In order to supply sufficient head or volumetric flow it may be necessary to place pumps in series or in parallel
respectively.
Pumps in parallel: the combined pump curve is obtained by adding the capacities of the individual pumps at the
same head
Pumps in series (the first pump discharge into the suction of the second pump): the combined pump curve is
obtained by adding the head of the individual pumps at the same capacity.
1.9. Potential source of pump problems
Design (Critical speed  lateral/torsional)
Application/ Sizing (Low NPSHA, OffBEP)
Assembly (Bearings, Looseness, Vane pass, Unbalance)
Installation (Alignment, Looseness, Soft foot)
Operation (Pulsations, Turbulence, Cavitation, Recirculation, Piping resonance)
Each of these will result in vibration and other problems if not engineered correctly
1.9.1. Operational problems
Theoretically as long as NPSHA >> NPSHR then a centrifugal pump can operate over a wide range of capacities
however the exact capacity is determined by intersection of pump headcapacity curve with the system head
curve. Can vary pump curve by changes in speed or system curve by throttling valves however operation is only
optimum at one point called BEP
Off design conditions
Is any condition when a pump delivers flow in excess or below the capacity at best efficiency BEP
Operation at high flow
Results from oversizing the pump. Oversized pumps usually require throttling to move the operating point back
up the curve, this results in higher power consumption. If not throttled, higher flows can result in NPSH
problems. High flow situation also happen when two pumps are in parallel and one is taken out of service
Cavitation
Occurs when NPSHR>NPSHA
Causes impeller damage on visible side of vanes due to implosions (collapsing of the bubble). Identified by loud
continuous noise “pumping rocks" and high vibration
Avoid cavitation by increase NPSHA or decreasing NPSHR
Increase NPSHA by raising suction level, lower pump, reduce friction losses in suction, Subcool liquid
(injection)
Decrease NPSHr by using slower speed (or variable freq drive), installing a double suction impeller, increasing
impeller eye area, using an oversize pump or installing an inducer ahead of impeller
Operation at low flow
A Reduction in demand results in throttling at pump discharge and the operating point moves up the curve
towards shut off. This causes recirculation resulting in hydraulic unbalance, vane passing forces, effects from
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 12 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
recirculation through wear rings, suction and discharge recirculation within the impeller, rotating stall,
cavitation, surge and system instabilities. These combine to cause pressure fluctuations, surging and vibration.
1.10. Typical pump fault conditions
Misalignment
Unbalance
Mechanical Looseness
Resonance
Bearing damage/failure
Pump operating problems
Vane passing
Electrical
1.11. Positive Displacement pumps
• Used when flows are low and required pressure high
• Often used for viscous liquids and for those requiring a shear free action
• Inherently leak resistant design
• Provide a fixed displacement per revolution. Pump will develop as much pressure as required to overcome
discharge pressure up to the point where motor trips or relief valve opens.
• Often require discharge pulsation dampeners and suction stabilisers, generally pressurized vessels with a
gasliquid interface.
• Acceleration Head H(ac) represents energy required accelerate the column of fluid (m)
• API standards 674, 675 and 676.
•
( ) (
suction atm
A suction L suction VP abs
p p
NPSH z h h
g ρ
+
= + − −
)
minus H(ac)
• H(ac) = L
s
v
s
C/Kg, where L
s
and v
s
are the length of and velocity in the suction line.
• C=constant dependant on type of pump, 0.4 for simplex single acting, 0.2 for simplex double acting, 0.2 for
duplex single acting. See appropriate reference for full list
• K=factor for the relative compressibility of liquid (eg.K=1.4 for hot water, 2.5 for hot oil)
Examples: Main types: Rotary, Reciprocating, Gear
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 13 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Figure 7
References for figures:
http://www.turfmaker.com/Positive_Displacement_Pump/positi
ve_displacement_pump.html
http://www.learromec.com/Products/PR_Spur.htm
http://www.eng.rpi.edu/dept/chemeng/Biotech
Environ/PUMPS/reciprocating.html
1.12. Review theoretical fluids concepts
Four main theoretical concepts introduced in the pump course are
• The conservation of mass
• The conservation of linear momentum
• The conservation of angular momentum
• The conservation of energy (including Bernoulli’s equation)
An understanding of these concepts is important for an understanding of pump systems, which are a major
component of industrial plants.
1.12.1. The conservation of mass
Rate at which the mass
accumulates in the control
volume
= Rate at which mass enters
the control volume
 Rate at which mass leaves
the control volume
Mathematically this is written as ….
sys
in out
in out
dm
m m
dt
= −
∑ ∑
& & CONSERVATION OF MASS EQUATION
where = mass flow rate (kg/s) m&
For an incompressible fluid passing through a fixed control volume
Rate at which mass enters region = rate at which mass leaves control volume Q=v
1
A
1
= v
2
A
2
where v is the velocity of the fluid
A is the cross sectional area of the control volume through which the fluid flows.
1 is the entry to the control volume
2 is the exit of the control volume
1.12.2. Conversion between head and pressure
From first principles (Conservation of mass) gz p P ρ + =
Where z = height of the fluid and P = pressure measured at the base of the fluid. For example, a column of cold
water (15 deg C) 10.2m high produces 1 bar pressure at its base.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 14 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.3. Velocity profiles
According to laminar flow theory, the velocity of fluid in a pipe has a parabolic profile as shown below:
Figure 8: Laminar flow profile
In piping systems the flow is usually turbulent. Turbulent flow also has a rounded velocity profile, but rather
than a parabolic shape, the curve is flatter as shown below:
Figure 9: Turbulent flow profile
1.12.4. Laminar and Turbulent Flow
• Laminar Flow occurs at very low velocity or with high viscosity fluids. This is often visualised as
streaks of colored fluid flow in straight lines.
• Turbulent Flow flow occurs above critical velocity and involves the irregular, random motion of the
fluid particles
• Reynolds Number (Re) determines laminar or turbulent flow and depends on pipe diameter, flow
velocity, density and viscosity of the fluid.
Re = Vdρ/u d=pipe ID (mm), v=flow velocity (m/s), ρ=density kg/m
3
, u=viscosity (cP).
Flow is considered if laminar if Re < 2000, turbulent if Re > 4000, critical zone 2000<Re<4000. Reynolds
number is used in the calculation of friction factor for friction loss of fluids flowing in pipes
1.12.5. Conservation of linear momentum
Mathematically this is written as
,
sys
ext j i i e e
j in out
dP
F mV m
dt
= + −
∑ ∑ ∑
& & V
External forces are those applied without mass flow across the control boundary. Surface forces due to pressure
and body forces ) , , ( V g f ρ . For steady state conditions
∑ ∑
− = +
in
i i
exit
e e surface body
V m V m F F & &
This has applications in piping systems for calculations such as the force exerted on the pipe flange by fluid
moving through an elbow. It can also be used to derive Bernoulli’s equation from 1
st
. principles (see any Fluids
text).
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 15 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.6. The conservation of energy
In pipe flow, as with any situation, energy is conserved from one point in fluid flow to another. The energy can
be in the form of kinetic energy (KE), potential energy (PE) or internal energy (IE).
[Rate of heat transfer in]+[Rate of work done on sys]=[Rate of increase of IE +KE + PE]
Mathematically this is written as for steady, uniform, incompressible flow as (where u is specific internal
energy)
)
2
(
2
z
g
V
u m W Q
net
+ + = −
∑
&
& &
This is the steady state general energy equation as presented earlier in Thermodynamics lectures.
W
&
is the rate of work done by (+) or on () the control volume W
stress shear stress normal shaft
W W W
. .
& & & &
+ + =
Shaft work rate is transmitted by the rotating shaft W (shaft torque x rotational speed) ω T
shaft
=
&
Shear work rate is the product of shear stress, area and fluid velocity component parallel to the control surface.
With pumps the control surfaces lie adjacent to solid boundaries where the fluid velocity is zero. In this case
there is no shear work although there may be shear stress.
Normal stress work can be written in most situations as a function of the pressure acting on the control surface
∑
=
net
pressure
p
m
W
ρ
&
&
In pump/piping problems it is conventional to assume to that g m Q h
L
&
&
− = where h
L
is the heat dissipated as
friction by fluid contacting the pipe wall in units of metres.
Making these substitutions
L
net
S
gh m zg
V p
u m W & &
&
+ + + + =
∑
)
2
(
2
ρ
GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION
This is commonly written as in terms of Power required at the shaft to drive a centrifugal pump. For pumps it is
assumed that 0 = −
i e
u u
+ − +
−
+
−
=
L
i e i e
S
h z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m W ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2
ρ
&
&
PUMP SYSTEM SIZING EQUATION
This is the foundation equation for sizing pumps used in unit and we will spend time discussing how to
determine the values in this equation.
If one is dealing with a compressor substitute for the internal energy with ) (
i e v i e
T T c u u − = − and use the ideal
gas law RT p = ρ
For systems with no friction we have the MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
− +
−
+
−
= ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2
z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m W
i e i e
S
ρ
&
&
where Mechanical Energy is that which can be converted to
mechanical work completely by a mechanical device such as a turbine or pump.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 16 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.7. Bernoulli’s equation
Bernoulli’s equation is a special case of the conservation of energy equation.
Special conditions for use: inviscid and incompressible fluids, steady flow, constant density, no mechanical
work and no friction
It is derived from the previous equation for the special case when W and h 0 =
S
&
L
= 0.
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2 2
z
g
V
g
p
z
g
V
g
p
+ + = + +
ρ ρ
The terms in this equation are referred to as, pressure head, velocity head and static head respectively.
Dimensional analysis will show that all three terms are in meters.
1.12.8. How to measure the velocity in a pipe?
Due to layers of fluid shearing across each other, the velocity of a liquid is maximum in the centre of the flow,
and zero at the pipe wall. This means that the pressure due to velocity at the pipe wall is zero. Thus, head due to
velocity can be measured as the difference between the head at the centre of the pipe and the edge (See Figure).
Physically this can be done using a pitot tube for the centre reading and a piezometer for the pipe wall reading.
This can be seen in the test facility in the CWR Fluids laboratory.
The term ‘head’ relates fluid pressure in a pipe to the meters of water that would push up an open topped tube.
Head depends on the density of the fluid and the density of air and is the sum of the static head, velocity head
and pressure head.
The velocity can be estimated from the pressure difference between the fluid at the side wall and the stagnation
pressure at the centre of the pipe. From Bernoulli’s equation
2
2
2
1 1
2 g
p
g
V
g
p
ρ ρ
= + ; where p
2
is pressure at the stagnation point and p
1
and V
1
are the pressure upsteam.
h
g
p p
g
V
=


.

\
 −
=
ρ
1 2
2
1
2
Thus the velocity at a point in the pipe is equal to the square root of the height difference between the tubes
multiplied by 2g. gh 2 = v
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 17 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Pitot tube
piezometer
Fluid flow
Height (h) due to
velocity
Figure 10: Measuring the head due to velocity
1.12.9. Conservation of Angular Momentum
The conservation of angular momentum principle when applied to the shaft of a pump can be used to show that
torque is transformed to a change in velocity of fluid through the impeller. This is done from first principles
using the equation below:
( ) ( )
0
0,
sys
j i i i e e
j in out
dL
e
M m r V m r V
dt
= + × − ×
∑ ∑ ∑
& &
This equation can be written in scalar form to illustrate its application to pumps. The fixed coordinate system is
chosen with the z axis aligned with the axis of rotation of the machine. The fluid enters the rotor at a radial
location r
i
with uniform velocity V
θi
and exits at r
e
with absolute velocity V
θe
. Thus the equation above becomes:
) (
i e
V r V r m T W
i e SHAFT S θ θ
ω ω − = = &
&
where T
shaft
is the shaft torque
is the mass flow rate
.
m
r is the radius
V
θ
is the tangential component of the absolute fluid velocity
e is the exit of the impeller
i is the inlet of the impeller
This is Euler’s turbomachinery equation, which is used to calculate the hydraulic power a pump is supplying,
which in turn can allow the calculation of pump efficiency
It is sometimes presented in terms of theoretical head
) (
1
1 2
1 2 θ θ
V U V U
g
H
Theo
− =
This figure shows the inlet and exit radii, and the tangential components of the fluid velocity V
θ
at the inlet and
exit. It should be noted that the fluid velocity V is not the same as U = ωr the velocity of the impeller.
It is conventional is pump design to describe flow passing through the impeller in velocity terms relative to the
rotating coordinate system of the rotating impeller. This is best done using “velocity triangles”.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 18 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.10. Velocity triangles
Using velocity vectors V U = + W
V is the absolute velocity of the fluid
relative to a fixed coordinate system
W is velocity of the fluid relative to a
coordinate system fixed to the impeller
U is velocity of the impeller relative to a
fixed coordinate system
The subscript (1) relates the impeller inlet and
Figure 11: Velocity triangle
r
θ
β
1
α
1
Leading edge of impeller blade
W
1
V
1
U
1
V
θ1
(2) the impeller discharge.
Each of the velocity vectors can be
resolved into r and θ components.
Using vector summation:
At the impeller entry (1)
1 1 1 1
cos β
θ
W U V − =
U
1
= r
1
ω where ω is the speed of the
impeller in radians/sec.
And
1 1 1
sin β W
r
= V
There are similar equations at the exit.
For an impeller of entrance width b
1
with volumetric flow rate Q then Q = 2π.r
1
.b
1
.V
r1
If Q and the impeller dimensions are known, V
r1
can be calculated and from this W
1
. If the speed in rps of the
impeller is known then U
1
can be calculated and from this V
θ1
.
The values of V
θ1
and V
θ2
are used to determine the torque T
shaft
or power draw W on the impeller using Euler’s
equation (from Section 1.12.9).
&
) (
1 1 2 2 θ θ
ω ω V r V r m T W
SHAFT S
− = = &
&
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 19 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.13. Worked Examples
1.13.1.
Consider the system in the schematic diagram below
Centrifugal pump
Suction side Discharge side
On the suction side, the level of the fluid is 10 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the
closed tank is 100 kPa. There is a gate valve between the suction side tank and the pump. Line length is 5 m.
On the discharge side, the level of the fluid is 30 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the
closed tank is 200 kPa. There is a butterfly valve on the discharge line and three 90 degree elbows. Line length is
50 m.
All line sizes are diameter 150 mm.
The desired flow rate is 100 l/s, the fluid is water at 15 deg C.
1. What is the head on the pump at the desired flow rate?
2. What is the hydraulic power?
3. Draw a system curve for this installation.
Solution:
Start with the Pump sizing equation (see Section 1.3). Note that D (discharge) and S (Suction) have been
substituted for e (exit) and i (inlet).
− +
−
+ − +
−
= = ) (
2
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
S L D L
S D
S D
S D S
P
h h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
ρ &
&
Suction side
Static head z
S
= 10m
Pressure head p
S
/ρg = 100 x 10
3
/(10
3
x 9.8) = 10.2 m
Velocity head at entrance = very small.
Friction head
∑ ∑


.

\

+ 
.

\



.

\

=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 20 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
From tables, f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0.015
The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is
2
4
D
Q
V
π
= = (4 x 0.1)/(3.14 x 0.15
2
) = 5.66 m/s
Suction side Line friction loss = 0.015 x (5/0.150) x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 0.8 m
From tables, K value for a gate valve is 8f
Suction side Valve/fitting friction loss = 8 x 0.15 x (5.7
2
/2x9.81) = 0.2 m
Suction side friction head = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1 m.
Discharge side
Static head z
D
= 30m
Pressure head p
D
/ρg = 200 x 10
3
/(10
3
x 9.8) = 20.4 m
Velocity head at entrance = very small.
Friction head
∑ ∑


.

\

+ 
.

\



.

\

=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2
From tables, f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0.015
The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is
2
4
D
Q
V
π
= = (4 x 0.1)/(3.14 x 0.15
2
) = 5.66 m/s
Discharge side Line friction loss = 0.015 x (50/0.150) x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 8.2 m
From tables, K value for a butterfly valve is 45f and for each elbow is 30f. Total K value = (45+90)f.
Discharge side Valve/fitting friction loss = 135 x 0.015 x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 3.3 m
Discharge side friction head = 8.2 + 3.3 = 10.8 m.
Summary
Suction (m) Discharge (m)
Static head 10.0 30.0
Pressure head 10.2 20.4
Velocity head ~ ~
Friction head 1.0 11.5
Total 21.2 61.9
Total head on the pump at 100 l/s = 61.9 – 21.2 = 40.7 m
The hydraulic power = ρgQH = 1000 x 9.8 x 0.1 x 40.7 = 39.9 kW
To determine the System curve the calculation must be repeated at different flow rates, for example Q=0, 70 and
130 l/s. A curve can be drawn based on the four points. You can see from the table above that the total head at 0
l/s = 50.4 – 20.2 = 30.2 m as the friction head is zero at the noflow point. The remaining flow points have to be
worked through in the same method as above taking into account the change in Friction head contribution as the
flow rate (and hence line velocity V) changes.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 21 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.13.2.
A water distribution pump has a 150 kW electric motor with a motor efficiency of 94%. The flow rate through
the pump is 350 l/s. The diameters of inlet and outlet pipes are the same and there is no significant elevation
difference across the pump.
If the inlet and outlet pressures are measured at 100 kPa and 400 kPa (absolute) respectively, determine,
a. The mechanical efficiency of the pump [74.5%]
b. The temperature rise of the water as it flows through the pump due to mechanical inefficiency. [0.024
deg C]
Let specific heat of water be 4.18 kJ/kg. Deg C.
Solution:
Calculate mass flow rate through pump kg/s = ρ x m
3
/s = 1 kg/l x 350 l/s= 350 kg/s
Power to shaft = motor efficiency x motor power = 0.94 x 150 = 141 kW.
Change in energy of fluid (or Hydraulic Power) =


.

\
 −
=
− +
−
+
−
ρ ρ
i e i e i e
P P
m z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m & & ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2
=350 x (400100)/1000 = 105 kW
Mechanical efficiency of the pump = Hydraulic power/Power to shaft = 105/141 = 74.5%
Only 105 kW of power supplied to the pump is imparted to the fluid as mechanical energy. The remaining 36
kW is converted to thermal energy and lost.
Rate of Energy loss = 141 – 105 = 36 kW.
(
1 2 1 2
) ( T T c m u u m E
v
− = − = & &
&
) Delta T = 36/ 350 x 4.18 (jk/kg. C) =0.024 deg C.
This is very small.
In an actual application the temp rise of the water is less as the heat is transferred to the casing and surroundings.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 22 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.13.3.
Examine the pump curve for the Southern Cross ISOPRO 200x150400 pump, fixed speed 1475 rpm above
a) If the total head on the pump is 60m and you are using a full size impeller, what is the expected flowrate
in l/s and efficiency (%) ?
b) What standard size motor is required for the headflow combination in (a)?
c) If you wanted to deliver 107 l/s at 50 m of total head, what is the optimum impeller diameter?
d) Calculate the hydraulic power and the motor power draw at 107 l/s and 50 m head for the impeller
diameter selected in c)?
e) If the pump was running as in c) and you slowly closed a discharge butterfly valve to achieve 60 l/s,
what would happen to the total head and the pump efficiency?
f) For c) what would be the calculated power draw on the pump?
Solution:
a) Full size impeller is 438 mm, flowrate at 60 m total head is 107 l/s, efficiency = 82.5%.
b) Motor size 90 kW.
c) 410 mm
d) Hydraulic power = 107 * 3.6 * 50 * 1/368 = 52 kW, efficiency from graph = 0.83, Power draw on motor
= 52/0.83 = 63 kW
e) The head value would increase to 57 m as the system curve would steppen due to greater friction head
component. The intersection of the pump and system curve would move to the left along the line of the
impeller diameter. The efficiency would decrease to 71%. Resulting power draw on motor = 60 * 3.6 *
57 / (368 *0.71) = 47 kW
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 23 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.13.4.
Impeller design
Given the following details about the design of a closed centrifugal impeller, determine
a) The flow rate through the impeller
b) Torque on the impeller shaft
c) Hydraulic power
Rotating speed ω 148 rad/s
Inlet radius r
1
0.0375 m
Discharge radius r
2
0.0875 m
Inlet width b
1
0.025 m
Discharge width b
2
0.015 m
Inlet blade angle β
1
25°
Discharge blade angle β
2
30°
Discharge velocity relative to the
impeller W
2
4 m/s at 30°
Step 1: Sketch the impeller
U
2
β
2
W
2
U
1
r
1
W
1
β
1
r
2
U = impeller velocity relative to inertial
Reference
V = fluid velocity relative to inertial
Reference
W = fluid velocity relative to impeller
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 24 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Step 2: Draw the inlet and exit velocity triangles
Exit triangle
W
θ2
V
θ2
U
2
β
2
W
2
W
r2
V
2
Calculate U
2
= ωr
2
= 12.95 m/s
Calculate Q (flowrate in m
3
/s) from Q = 2πr
2
b
2
W
r2
Where from velocity triangle sin β
2
= W
r2
/W
2
, W
r2
= 4 sin 30 = 2 m/s
Hence Q = 2 x 3.14 x 0.0875 x 0.015 x 2 = 16.5 x 10
3
m
3
/s.
Calculate V
2
: V
2
2
= W
2
2
+ U
2
2
– 2W
2
U
2
cosβ
2
= 94; V
2
= 9.7 m/s
Calculate V
θ2
: From triangle V
θ2
2
= V
2
2
– W
r2
2
= 94 – 4 = 90; V
θ2
= 9.5 m/s.
Repeat calculation for inlet values noting that Q
inlet
= Q
discharge
= 16.5 x 10
3
m
3
/s.
Results: U
1
= 5.55 m/s; W
r1
= 2.8 m/s; W
1
= 6.6 m/s; V
1
= 2.8 m/s.
As W
r1
= V
1
= 2.8 m/s there is no V
θ1
component
Torque calculation W T
( )
e i
M SHAFT e i
m rV rV
θ θ
ω ω = = −
&
&
2 2 ϑ
V r m T & = where m kg/s 5 . 16 10 5 . 16 1000
3
= = =
−
x x Q ρ &
T = 16.5 x 0.0875 x 905 = 13.7 Nm
And Power = ωT = 147 x 13.7 = 2 kW
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 25 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.1. Outcomes of the course
• • • • • • Recognition of pump system components and their purpose Determination of a pump system curve Ability to interpret manufacturer’s pump documentation Competence to select and size a centrifugal pump for a particular application Understand the effect of changes in the system on the operating point of the pump Appreciate the effect of assembly, installation and operating practices on the life cycle of a centrifugal pump
1.2. References
Books • • • • • • • Centrifugal pumps 2nd ed., Karassik and McGuire Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics, Gerhart and Gross Centrifugal Pumps  Design and Application 2nd ed, Lobanoff & Ross Introduction to Fluid Mechanics  Fox and McDonald MPSL 620.106 1998 INT/1992 INT Fundamentals of ThermalFluid Sciences – Cengal and Turner MPSL 621.402 2001 FUN Predictive Maintenance of Pumps using condition monitoring – R.S.Beebe. Slurry Systems Handbook  Abulnaga
Useful web references • Pumps&Systems www.pumpzone.com • API 610: http://www.api.org/tf610/index.htm. • Links www.bhrgroup.co.uk/links • Software www.fluidflowinfo.com • Warman Slurry pumps www.warmanintl.com • Gould pumps www.gouldspumps.com • GE www.ge.com/industrialsystems/solutions/pump.html • Pump types: http://www.pumpschool.com Vendor references • Crane Technical Paper 410(metric) • Flow of Fluids through valves, fittings and pipes • Goulds Pump manual GPM6 • Basic Principles for the Design of Centrifugal pump installations (SIHI) • Sulzer Centrifugal pump handbook • Warman Slurry Pumping Handbook • Cameron Hydraulic data
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Page 2 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course
Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005
single impeller (end suction/split case. semi open designs.com/cms/results_detail. double volute. Centrifugal Pump Generic design There are many different styles of centrifugal pumps. but they can essentially be divided into three broad groups a. double suction) or multistage impeller designs c.giwindustries.asp?ModelID=102 Figure 1: Singlestage endsuction horizontal centrifugal pump 1 2 Figure 3: Multistage horizontal centrifugal pump 2 Figure 2: Singlestage vertical centrifugal pump 1 2 http://www.asp?ModelID=23 Pump Application. horizontal or vertical b. single volute. Open and closed. Examples of the different designs are given below … 1 http://www. mixed flow.fpdlit.com/lsa.com/cms/results detail. Operation and Specification Page 3 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .1.1. axial.html http://www.fpdlit. The governing principles of all centrifugal pumps are the same but the design details vary. Impeller design: Radial.
Main Centrifugal Pump components • • • • • Volute/Housing Impeller Shaft and sleeve Mechanical seal or packing 3 Bearing housing.2. Operation and Specification Page 4 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .1. bearings and seals Coupling Motor Foundation and baseplate 4 Figure 5: Endsuction centrifugal pump and motor 3 Figure 4: Schematic of end suction pump 4 3 4 Ref: C.Dean UWA Honours thesis 2001 – from Goulds Pumps Ref: Goulds Pumps – this is the pump on the PUMP TEST RIG (Engine lab) Pump Application.
Typical Pump Installation Centrifugal pumps are part of a “SYSTEM”.1. Select a pump 10. The velocity at the free surface of the liquid Vi and Ve. The WS is a function of 1. Steps involved in selecting and sizing a pump 1. The operating point of a pump is set by the intersection of the PUMP curve (specific to the pump) with the SYSTEM curve (defined by the piping system. When the suction and discharge tanks are open to atmosphere. valves and fittings. tank elevation.3. Develop pump specification sheet 9. Determine the System Head Curve 5. Evaluate pump selection Pump Application. The friction loss in the entire system hL (both suction and discharge). the values are pi = pe = 0. Obtain fluid property information 3. line lengths. Calculate Power required and Specific speed values 7. & (Ve2 − Vi 2 ) WS ( p e − p i ) HP = = + ( ze − zi ) + + hL & 2g mg ρg & The head on the pump is determined by the rate of work WS in J/s of the shaft/impeller divided by the mass flow & & m and the gravitational constant g. this results in units of metres of head. this can usually be ignored. The performance of a centrifugal pump is determined by the system it works in. as a result the flowrate through the pump will change. One selects a pump based on its ability to supply the required flowrate for the system. This can be demonstrated using a LabView PUMP SIMULATION program. Decide on duty point 6. 1. fittings and valves and is discussed in detail later. When the tanks are closed and contain elevated pressure or vacuum this must be taken into account. pipes.4. This is affected by the line diameter. Determine flowrate 2. The pressure is a function of the pressure p acting on the FREE surface of the liquid in the system on the inlet (i) or suction side and the exit (e)or discharge side. 4. Operation and Specification Page 5 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . 2. The height of the liquid in the tanks at the suction and discharge zi and ze 3. overpressures etc) 1.5. Key factors are the “HEAD” HP on the pump and the “FLOWRATE” Q. Design piping system 4. Any change in the value of these system terms will affect the Head on the pump. Sizing a Centrifugal Pump In order to correctly size a pump for a particular application it is necessary to understand the system in which it is installed. The pressure p divided by ρg. The system contains tanks. Calculate Net Positive Suction Head available 8.
3.23.5.5. • GA (General arrangement) plan and elevation.52. Resistance is due to viscous shear stresses within the liquid and friction losses at contact of moving fluid and pipe wall 2 L V hL = f ( L.5. Discharge piping (water) =1.υ ) = f (Re) d 2g Calculation of this will be discussed in Section 1.5 m/s but there are special considerations due to particle settling velocity Discharge piping (hydrocarbons)= 17 m/s Friction losses in pipes Resistance to flow as liquid moves through pipe results in loss of head. specific gravity.22.6. Specific gravity S= ρ/ ρH20.5 1. • Elbows and fittings also result in friction losses • Suction piping design is critical to avoid creating swirl/uneven flow at the pump suction Guidelines for line velocity Suction piping (water) = 1. • Isometric drawings Pump Application. • • • Step 1: Determine flowrate/pump Determined by process engineers/designers Determine number of pumps required (function of criticality and reliability) Define realistic maximum and minimum flowrates Step 2: Determine Fluid property information 1.4. Operation and Specification Page 6 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .less head generated .5. Dynamic or Absolute viscosity. V . • • • • Density. Kinematic viscosity.5.0 m/s. Water density at 20 deg C = 1000 kg/m3 Specific weight γ = ρg . Step 4: Determine System Head Curve For a new pump installation you will need • P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Drawing) Symbols used may be found in AS 1101. • Small diameter pipes lead to high line velocities and friction losses. Slurry piping (mining) = 1.1 m/s.lower efficiency • Effect is greater on smaller pumps due to smaller internal passage dimensions • Used to calculate the Reynolds Number which determines the set of pump equations to use 1. • Flowsheet. Weight of fluid per unit volume. Why is viscosity important? • Increase viscosity .1. Step 3: Design piping system Select pipe sizes • This is a compromise between installation costs and running costs.1.increase losses . d .2. This friction loss hL is measured in m.
h(s) Total Suction Head h(s)= p(s)/ρg z(s)+V2s/2g . 1. For laminar flow f=64/Re. D= pipe ID (m). pipe ID and roughness. There are TWO separate friction calculations. h(s) = total suction head Total Discharge Head h(d)= p(d)/ρg + z(s) +V2d/2g+ z(d) + hL(d) + h(e) z(d) = static discharge head. d = pipe diameter Pump Application. Darcy’s formula is valid for turbulent and laminar flow only if line pressure >> vapour pressure of the liquid ie NO cavitation For laminar flow 2 64 L V hL = Re D 2 g Friction Factor f The friction factor is determined experimentally. hL(s) = total friction loss in suction line.hL(s) . p(s) = pressure other than atmospheric in suction tank in m.h(i) z(s) = static suction head.HP = & WS ( p e − p i ) (V 2 − Vi 2 ) = + ( ze − zi ) + e + hL where hL = hL(D) + hL(S) & mg ρg 2g This is often done by considering the suction and discharge sides separately as Total Head (Hp) Hp = h(d) . h(i) = entrance loss. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss in pipes For turbulent flow V L hL = ∑ f 2 2g D hL = pressure drop or friction loss in m. one for the pipes and one for the fittings. hL(d) = friction loss in discharge line. Calculation of the friction loss terms (hL).5. h(d) = total discharge head Note: the friction loss is SUBTRACTED on the suction side but ADDED on the discharge side 1. V=line velocity (m/s). hP(d) = overpressure in discharge tank in m. For turbulent flow f depends on Re also the relative roughness ε/d. h(e) = exit loss. Operation and Specification Page 7 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .5. L=length of pipe (m). Friction loss depends on fluid velocity. f=friction factor. ε = roughness of pipe wall.
2. condition and age For example the friction loss of 700 l/s water through 4” Sched 40 steel pipe is 0. However if you have an existing pump installation the pump head can be determined with a pair of pressure gauges and a flow meter. HP = 2 & (P − PS ) VD − VS2 WS ( p e − p i ) (V 2 − Vi 2 ) = + ( ze − zi ) + e + hL = D + & mg ρg 2g 2g ρg ( ) The values VD and VS are the velocity in the pipe at the pump suction and discharge. Q = flow rate m3/s. Depends on material. material and line velocity and temperature. V = line velocity m/s. PD = p D + ρg ⋅ z D + ρg .hL ( D ) It can be seen that the Total Head HP on the pump.194 bar per 100 m or 1. Widely used for simple flowsheet calculations Pipe Friction loss Tables Pipe friction losses = x m/100 m pipe for a specific pipe ID. Place the pressure gauges in ports as close to the suction and discharge of the pump.hL ( S ) The conversion to ‘head’ and addition of the suction velocity head will give a value for the total suction head A pressure gauge placed on the discharge of the pump will read the following terms. see Pump Formula sheet. A = Pump Application. Summary for Friction Loss calculation V V L hL = ∑ f 2 + ∑ K 2 2g 2g D This can also include the entrance and exit losses if they are significant Note on Hazen Williams The DarcyWeisbach method is the technically correct method however many engineers use Hazen Williams which is convenient and produces reliable results for water with turbulent flow See reference book for equation and C factors. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss valves and fittings V hL = ∑ K 2 2g See suitable tables for values. Operation and Specification Page 8 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . some common values are provided on the pump formula sheet.Need to see appropriate table Examples for the Friction factor values for clean commercial pipe with turbulent flow. tank elevations etc.98 m/100 m pipe The methods above are used for new projects where you have drawings with line sizes. V = Q/A = 4Q/(πD2). simultaneously read the pressure gauges and the flow rate. This is a function of the flow rate Q and the line diameter D. The pressure P on a gauge located close to the flange of the suction of the pump will measure PS = p S + ρg ⋅ z S − ρg .
Efficiency and Specific Speed Power : Hydraulic power is work done by a pump in moving the liquid. Step 5: Decide on a Duty Point Duty Point is expressed as the calculated Head for the desired Flowrate For example 120 l/s at 58m head Determine high and low operating flow points 1.7.5. 5 Reference: Southern Cross Pumps Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 Pump Application.6.5. Step 6: Calculate Power required. this term can be ignored. Draw System Curve System curve determined by Total Head (m) at different flow rates (below. If the line size are the same for suction and discharge. design and above design) Flow (m3/hr) 0 (Static head) 60 100 110 Total Head (m) 18 25 48 56 Superimpose System Curve on a ‘suitable’ Pump Curve 5 Figure 6: Pump Curve 1. Operation and Specification Page 9 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course .inside pipe area m2. D = inside diameter m.
Operation and Specification Page 10 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . internal to the pump) • hydraulic losses (viscosity and nonuniform flow) • mechanical losses (friction losses in the bearings and seals) What is the flow rate at maximum efficiency for a 438 mm impeller using the pump curve in ??? Motor Efficiency: ηM & WM is the power from the motor to the shaft = Power supplied to the motor x motor efficiency. Cavitation is caused by the local vaporisation of a fluid when the static pressure drops below the vapour pressure. if it is a variable speed drive.01325 bar or 760 mm Hg and changes with elevation above sea level. For NPSH calculation must understand difference between absolute and gauge pressure • Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure at elevation • Standard barometric pressure is 1. • (P + p atm ) p + patm − hL ( suction ) − hVP ( abs ) OR S NPSH A = zsuction + suction − hVP (abs ) ρg ρg Pump Application. This information is often available on the motor nameplate or from the manufacturer. Step 7: Calculate NPSH available An acceptable margin of NPSHA .& WS = ρgQH P Pump Efficiency: & & ηP = Hydraulic Power ( WS ) / Power input to the pump shaft from the motor ( WM ) Pump Efficiency depends on energy loss due to • leakage (recirculation around the impeller outlet to inlet. The small bubbles filled with vapour that form in the low pressure region (suction eye of the pump) will collapse on moving into high pressure regions (inside the impeller).NPSHR must be maintained over the entire operating range to prevent CAVITATION. This "implosion" causes pitting on the metal surface.8. This is available as a kW reading.102/SG) • Absolute pressure always refers to perfect vacuum as base NPSH available • Net positive suction head is the absolute suction head at suction nozzle corrected to datum less the vapour pressure of the liquid at operating temperature. Calculation of the motor power requires 1. NPSHA varies with capacity and is always positive. • Gauge pressure is pressure above barometric pressure • Convert gauge pressure readings to m by (x 0. 1. 2. The motor efficiency is dependent on the load on the motor and the speed. Determines at what point liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point of the pump (cavitation) and is characteristic of the system. vibration and a drop in efficiency.5. Measurement of the power delivered to the motor from the MCC (Motor Control Centre). Knowledge of the efficiency of the motor.
5. NPSHR varies with capacity. and off design performance of different pumps Determine materials to be used based on fluid properties Consider vendor technical support and spare parts issues Consider preferred vendor supply contracts 1.5. rpm. This causes a reduction in the low flow capability of the pump. ϖ in rad/sec) Many design charts are a function of Ns.H*=Head ft.7.9. low diameter to profile ratio. Step 9. Operation and Specification Page 11 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . reduces the NPSH required but increases the value of Nss. As Ns increases • Impeller shape changes from radial to axial • Lower head per stage • Blade loading increases • Maximum velocity increases • Tendancy to cavitate increases Low Ns values: radial impellers. (h=gH units of L2/T2. large diameter. high head per stage Medium Ns: Francis vane impellers. though depends on application between NPSHA and NPSHR) What is the NPSHR for a flowrate of 120 l/s on the pump curve in Figure ?. flow rate.10. Modifying the diameter of the impeller eye. NPSHR depends on impeller design. liquid and other factors. Other Useful Pump terms Specific speed: Ns = ϖ(Q)½/(h)¾. Select a shortlist of suitable Pumps from different manufacturers 1. 1. increase the flow. NPSH margin.5.11. Step 8: Develop Pump Specification Sheet 1.• hvp(abs) = head in m corresponding to the ABSOLUTE vapour pressure of the liquid at the temperature being pumped. Step 10: Evaluate Pump Selection • • • • • • Match Pump and System curve Determine Efficiency and NPSH margin Compare efficiency. It is determined by manufacturer and verified by NPSH pump test. Affinity Laws Use of the affinity laws to select the optimum impeller diameter and/or pump rotating speed (if a variable frequency drive or sheave drive system is appropriate) Pump Application. Q*=Flow gpm. 1.6. low headhigh volume High Ns mixed flow impellers Very high Ns axial flow impeller Suction specific speed: Nss = n (Q*)1/2/(NPSHR*)3/4 n=rpm. As a rule of thumb there should be a margin of at least 1m. This is determined from Tables of vapour pressure (usually given in bar) NPSH required The NPSHR is characteristic of pump design and represents the minimum margin required between suction head and vapour pressure. NPSHR* (ft) [The gpm is per impeller eye] Nss is a function of NPSH required. narrow profile.
Piping resonance) Each of these will result in vibration and other problems if not engineered correctly 1. Can vary pump curve by changes in speed or system curve by throttling valves however operation is only optimum at one point called BEP Off design conditions Is any condition when a pump delivers flow in excess or below the capacity at best efficiency BEP Operation at high flow Results from oversizing the pump. High flow situation also happen when two pumps are in parallel and one is taken out of service Cavitation Occurs when NPSHR>NPSHA Causes impeller damage on visible side of vanes due to implosions (collapsing of the bubble). Turbulence.lateral/torsional) Application/ Sizing (Low NPSHA. Pumps in parallel: the combined pump curve is obtained by adding the capacities of the individual pumps at the same head Pumps in series (the first pump discharge into the suction of the second pump): the combined pump curve is obtained by adding the head of the individual pumps at the same capacity. Soft foot) Operation (Pulsations. Looseness. Cavitation. Recirculation. vane passing forces. using an oversize pump or installing an inducer ahead of impeller Operation at low flow A Reduction in demand results in throttling at pump discharge and the operating point moves up the curve towards shut off. effects from Pump Application. Oversized pumps usually require throttling to move the operating point back up the curve. Operation and Specification Page 12 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . Unbalance) Installation (Alignment. n1D1=speed rpm/diameter for known characteristics Q1. increasing impeller eye area. Operational problems Theoretically as long as NPSHA >> NPSHR then a centrifugal pump can operate over a wide range of capacities however the exact capacity is determined by intersection of pump headcapacity curve with the system head curve.9. Subcool liquid (injection) Decrease NPSHr by using slower speed (or variable freq drive).9. higher flows can result in NPSH problems. OffBEP) Assembly (Bearings. Looseness. this results in higher power consumption. Parallel and Series Operation In order to supply sufficient head or volumetric flow it may be necessary to place pumps in series or in parallel respectively. Identified by loud continuous noise “pumping rocks" and high vibration Avoid cavitation by increase NPSHA or decreasing NPSHR Increase NPSHA by raising suction level. If not throttled. This causes recirculation resulting in hydraulic unbalance. lower pump. reduce friction losses in suction. 1.8.Allows for performance at one speed to be predicted from known performance at known speed (or impeller diameter) Q = Q1 (n/n1) = Q1 (D/D1) H = H1 (n/n1)2 = H1 (D/D1)2 P = P1 (n/n1)3 = P1 (D/D1)3 n/D = new desired speed rpm/diameter. installing a double suction impeller. H1 and P1 1. Potential source of pump problems Design (Critical speed . Vane pass.1.
4 for hot water. 2. Often require discharge pulsation dampeners and suction stabilisers. C=constant dependant on type of pump. surge and system instabilities. 0.4 for simplex single acting. Acceleration Head H(ac) represents energy required accelerate the column of fluid (m) API standards 674. generally pressurized vessels with a gasliquid interface. cavitation. 0. Gear Pump Application. p + patm − hL ( suction ) − hVP ( abs ) minus H(ac) NPSH A = zsuction + suction ρg H(ac) = LsvsC/Kg.K=1.11. Operation and Specification Page 13 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . 0. where Ls and vs are the length of and velocity in the suction line. suction and discharge recirculation within the impeller. See appropriate reference for full list K=factor for the relative compressibility of liquid (eg.recirculation through wear rings.2 for duplex single acting. 675 and 676. Reciprocating. rotating stall. Positive Displacement pumps • • • • • • • • • • • Used when flows are low and required pressure high Often used for viscous liquids and for those requiring a shear free action Inherently leak resistant design Provide a fixed displacement per revolution.5 for hot oil) Examples: Main types: Rotary.10. Pump will develop as much pressure as required to overcome discharge pressure up to the point where motor trips or relief valve opens. 1.2 for simplex double acting. These combine to cause pressure fluctuations. Typical pump fault conditions Misalignment Unbalance Mechanical Looseness Resonance Bearing damage/failure Pump operating problems Vane passing Electrical 1. surging and vibration.
Conversion between head and pressure From first principles (Conservation of mass) P = p + ρgz Where z = height of the fluid and P = pressure measured at the base of the fluid.com/Products/PR_Spur.12.html 1. 1.2m high produces 1 bar pressure at its base. Pump Application.Figure 7 References for figures: http://www.12. The conservation of mass Rate at which the mass = accumulates in the control volume Mathematically this is written as …. a column of cold water (15 deg C) 10. For example.edu/dept/chemeng/BiotechEnviron/PUMPS/reciprocating. Review theoretical fluids concepts Four main theoretical concepts introduced in the pump course are • The conservation of mass • The conservation of linear momentum • The conservation of angular momentum • The conservation of energy (including Bernoulli’s equation) An understanding of these concepts is important for an understanding of pump systems.html http://www.2.learromec.com/Positive_Displacement_Pump/positi ve_displacement_pump.rpi.htm http://www.eng. 1 is the entry to the control volume 2 is the exit of the control volume 1. which are a major component of industrial plants. Rate at which mass enters the control volume Rate at which mass leaves the control volume dmsys dt & & = ∑ min − ∑ mout in out CONSERVATION OF MASS EQUATION & where m = mass flow rate (kg/s) For an incompressible fluid passing through a fixed control volume Rate at which mass enters region = rate at which mass leaves control volume Q=v1A1 = v2A2 where v is the velocity of the fluid A is the cross sectional area of the control volume through which the fluid flows. Operation and Specification Page 14 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .1.12.turfmaker.
V ) . For steady state conditions & & Fbody + Fsurface = ∑ m eVe − ∑ m iVi exit in This has applications in piping systems for calculations such as the force exerted on the pipe flange by fluid moving through an elbow.4. Re = Vdρ/µ Flow is considered if laminar if Re < 2000. the velocity of fluid in a pipe has a parabolic profile as shown below: Figure 8: Laminar flow profile In piping systems the flow is usually turbulent. v=flow velocity (m/s). Turbulent Flow flow occurs above critical velocity and involves the irregular. It can also be used to derive Bernoulli’s equation from 1st. principles (see any Fluids text). Pump Application. Conservation of linear momentum Mathematically this is written as dPsys &i & = ∑ Fext . This is often visualised as streaks of colored fluid flow in straight lines. d=pipe ID (mm). µ=viscosity (cP). ρ=density kg/m3.12. density and viscosity of the fluid. Laminar and Turbulent Flow • • • Laminar Flow occurs at very low velocity or with high viscosity fluids. Surface forces due to pressure and body forces f ( ρ . the curve is flatter as shown below: Figure 9: Turbulent flow profile 1.12.5. critical zone 2000<Re<4000.1. Reynolds number is used in the calculation of friction factor for friction loss of fluids flowing in pipes 1. j + ∑ mVi − ∑ meVe dt j out in External forces are those applied without mass flow across the control boundary. Turbulent flow also has a rounded velocity profile. g . Operation and Specification Page 15 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . Velocity profiles According to laminar flow theory. turbulent if Re > 4000. flow velocity. but rather than a parabolic shape. random motion of the fluid particles Reynolds Number (Re) determines laminar or turbulent flow and depends on pipe diameter.12.3.
potential energy (PE) or internal energy (IE). With pumps the control surfaces lie adjacent to solid boundaries where the fluid velocity is zero.stress & Shaft work rate is transmitted by the rotating shaft Wshaft = Tω (shaft torque x rotational speed) Shear work rate is the product of shear stress. uniform. Operation and Specification Page 16 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . In this case there is no shear work although there may be shear stress. The energy can be in the form of kinetic energy (KE). area and fluid velocity component parallel to the control surface.stress + Wshear .1. The conservation of energy In pipe flow.12.6. 2 & & & & & W is the rate of work done by (+) or on () the control volume W = Wshaft + Wnormal . incompressible flow as (where u is specific internal energy) V & & & + z) Q − W = ∑ m(u + 2g net This is the steady state general energy equation as presented earlier in Thermodynamics lectures. [Rate of heat transfer in]+[Rate of work done on sys]=[Rate of increase of IE +KE + PE] Mathematically this is written as for steady. For pumps it is assumed that u e −u i = 0 ( p − pi ) (Ve2 − Vi 2 ) & & WS = mg e + + ( z 2 − z1 ) + hL 2g ρg PUMP SYSTEM SIZING EQUATION This is the foundation equation for sizing pumps used in unit and we will spend time discussing how to determine the values in this equation. as with any situation. Pump Application. If one is dealing with a compressor substitute for the internal energy with u e −u i = cv (Te − Ti ) and use the ideal gas law p ρ = RT For systems with no friction we have the MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION ( p − pi ) (Ve2 − Vi 2 ) & & WS = mg e + + ( z 2 − z1 ) where Mechanical Energy is that which can be converted to 2g ρg mechanical work completely by a mechanical device such as a turbine or pump. Normal stress work can be written in most situations as a function of the pressure acting on the control surface & m & W pressure = ∑ p net ρ & & In pump/piping problems it is conventional to assume to that hL = −Q m g where hL is the heat dissipated as friction by fluid contacting the pipe wall in units of metres. energy is conserved from one point in fluid flow to another. Making these substitutions p V2 & & & WS = ∑ m(u + + + zg ) + mghL ρ 2 net GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION This is commonly written as in terms of Power required at the shaft to drive a centrifugal pump.
Operation and Specification Page 17 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . constant density.8.12. pressure head. 1.7. Physically this can be done using a pitot tube for the centre reading and a piezometer for the pipe wall reading. The velocity can be estimated from the pressure difference between the fluid at the side wall and the stagnation pressure at the centre of the pipe. This means that the pressure due to velocity at the pipe wall is zero. How to measure the velocity in a pipe? Due to layers of fluid shearing across each other. velocity head and static head respectively. Dimensional analysis will show that all three terms are in meters.12. ρg 2 g ρg 2 V12 p 2 − p1 =h = 2 g ρg Thus the velocity at a point in the pipe is equal to the square root of the height difference between the tubes multiplied by 2g. p1 V12 p V2 + + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The terms in this equation are referred to as. where p2 is pressure at the stagnation point and p1 and V1 are the pressure upsteam. Head depends on the density of the fluid and the density of air and is the sum of the static head. steady flow. This can be seen in the test facility in the CWR Fluids laboratory. The term ‘head’ relates fluid pressure in a pipe to the meters of water that would push up an open topped tube.1. and zero at the pipe wall. Special conditions for use: inviscid and incompressible fluids. Bernoulli’s equation Bernoulli’s equation is a special case of the conservation of energy equation. the velocity of a liquid is maximum in the centre of the flow. v = 2 gh Pump Application. no mechanical work and no friction & It is derived from the previous equation for the special case when WS = 0 and hL = 0. Thus. From Bernoulli’s equation p1 V12 p + = 2 . head due to velocity can be measured as the difference between the head at the centre of the pipe and the edge (See Figure). velocity head and pressure head.
Thus the equation above becomes: & & WS = ωTSHAFT = mω (reVθ e − riVθ i ) where Tshaft is the shaft torque . which in turn can allow the calculation of pump efficiency It is sometimes presented in terms of theoretical head H Theo = 1 (U 2Vθ 2 − U 1Vθ1 ) g This figure shows the inlet and exit radii. It is conventional is pump design to describe flow passing through the impeller in velocity terms relative to the rotating coordinate system of the rotating impeller. Operation and Specification Page 18 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . This is best done using “velocity triangles”. Pump Application. and the tangential components of the fluid velocity Vθ at the inlet and exit. This is done from first principles using the equation below: dL0 sys dt & & = ∑ M 0. m is the mass flow rate r is the radius Vθ is the tangential component of the absolute fluid velocity e is the exit of the impeller i is the inlet of the impeller This is Euler’s turbomachinery equation. The fluid enters the rotor at a radial location ri with uniform velocity Vθi and exits at re with absolute velocity Vθe. It should be noted that the fluid velocity V is not the same as U = ωr the velocity of the impeller. j + ∑ mi ( ri × Vi ) − ∑ me ( r ×e Ve ) j out in This equation can be written in scalar form to illustrate its application to pumps. which is used to calculate the hydraulic power a pump is supplying. Conservation of Angular Momentum The conservation of angular momentum principle when applied to the shaft of a pump can be used to show that torque is transformed to a change in velocity of fluid through the impeller. The fixed coordinate system is chosen with the z axis aligned with the axis of rotation of the machine.9.piezometer Fluid flow Pitot tube Height (h) due to velocity Figure 10: Measuring the head due to velocity 1.12.
& & WS = ωTSHAFT = mω (r2Vθ 2 − r1Vθ 1 ) Pump Application. Vr1 can be calculated and from this W1.9). And Vr1 = W1 sin β 1 There are similar equations at the exit. For an impeller of entrance width b1 with volumetric flow rate Q then Q = 2π.r1. If the speed in rps of the impeller is known then U1 can be calculated and from this Vθ1.10.Vr1 If Q and the impeller dimensions are known.1. Using vector summation: At the impeller entry (1) V1 W1 and α1 β1 Vθ1 U1 Figure 11: Velocity triangle r θ Vθ 1 = U 1 − W1 cos β 1 U1 = r1ω where ω is the speed of the impeller in radians/sec.12.12.b1. & The values of Vθ1 and Vθ2 are used to determine the torque Tshaft or power draw W on the impeller using Euler’s equation (from Section 1. Each of the velocity vectors can be resolved into r and θ components. Operation and Specification Page 19 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . Velocity triangles Leading edge of impeller blade Using velocity vectors W + U = V V is the absolute velocity of the fluid relative to a fixed coordinate system W is velocity of the fluid relative to a coordinate system fixed to the impeller U is velocity of the impeller relative to a fixed coordinate system The subscript (1) relates the impeller inlet (2) the impeller discharge.
There is a butterfly valve on the discharge line and three 90 degree elbows. 2 & WS ( p D − p S ) (VD − VS2 ) HP = = + (zD − zS ) + + ( hL ( D ) − hL ( S ) ) & mg ρg 2g Suction side Static head zS = 10m Pressure head pS/ρg = 100 x 103/(103x 9. On the discharge side. Note that D (discharge) and S (Suction) have been substituted for e (exit) and i (inlet). Solution: Start with the Pump sizing equation (see Section 1.13. 1. What is the head on the pump at the desired flow rate? 2. Line length is 5 m. the fluid is water at 15 deg C. Worked Examples 1.1. the level of the fluid is 10 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the closed tank is 100 kPa. All line sizes are diameter 150 mm.8) = 10.3). The desired flow rate is 100 l/s. the level of the fluid is 30 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the closed tank is 200 kPa. Draw a system curve for this installation.1.13. Line length is 50 m. Friction head V 2 V 2 L + ∑ K hL = ∑ f 2g 2g D Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 Pump Application. What is the hydraulic power? 3.2 m Velocity head at entrance = very small. Consider the system in the schematic diagram below Centrifugal pump Suction side Discharge side On the suction side. There is a gate valve between the suction side tank and the pump. Operation and Specification Page 20 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course .
4 m Velocity head at entrance = very small.14 x 0.662/2x9.8 + 0. You can see from the table above that the total head at 0 l/s = 50.2 Discharge (m) 30. f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0.2 + 3.81) = 0.15 x (5.9 – 21.14 x 0.4 ~ 11. Total K value = (45+90)f.3 = 10. Friction head 4Q = (4 x 0.2 ~ 1.015 x (5.8) = 20.0 10.9 kW To determine the System curve the calculation must be repeated at different flow rates.150) x (5.72/2x9.152) = 5.66 m/s 2 πD From tables.81) = 3.662/2x9.2 = 1 m.152) = 5. A curve can be drawn based on the four points.8 m.7 m The hydraulic power = ρgQH = 1000 x 9. Summary Static head Pressure head Velocity head Friction head Total Suction (m) 10. The remaining flow points have to be worked through in the same method as above taking into account the change in Friction head contribution as the flow rate (and hence line velocity V) changes.9 Total head on the pump at 100 l/s = 61. Discharge side Static head zD = 30m Pressure head pD/ρg = 200 x 103/(103x 9.66 m/s πD 2 V 2 V 2 L + ∑ K hL = ∑ f 2g 2g D From tables.2 = 30.2 = 40. 70 and 130 l/s.1)/(3.2 m 4Q = (4 x 0.2 m Suction side friction head = 0. f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0. Pump Application.5 61.8 m From tables.8 x 0.From tables.81) = 8.662/2x9.015 The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is V = Discharge side Line friction loss = 0.81) = 0.3 m Discharge side friction head = 8. K value for a butterfly valve is 45f and for each elbow is 30f.7 = 39.150) x (5. for example Q=0.015 x (5/0.4 – 20.015 x (50/0.0 21. Discharge side Valve/fitting friction loss = 135 x 0.015 The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is V = Suction side Line friction loss = 0. Operation and Specification Page 21 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .1 x 40.1)/(3. K value for a gate valve is 8f Suction side Valve/fitting friction loss = 8 x 0.2 m as the friction head is zero at the noflow point.0 20.
2. If the inlet and outlet pressures are measured at 100 kPa and 400 kPa (absolute) respectively. a.18 kJ/kg. determine.13. Pump Application. & Change in energy of fluid (or Hydraulic Power) = mg =350 x (400100)/1000 = 105 kW ( p e − pi ) (Ve2 − Vi 2 ) P − Pi & + + ( z 2 − z1 ) = m e 2g ρ ρg Mechanical efficiency of the pump = Hydraulic power/Power to shaft = 105/141 = 74. The diameters of inlet and outlet pipes are the same and there is no significant elevation difference across the pump. [0. This is very small.1.5%] b. In an actual application the temp rise of the water is less as the heat is transferred to the casing and surroundings. The remaining 36 kW is converted to thermal energy and lost. Rate of Energy loss = 141 – 105 = 36 kW.5% Only 105 kW of power supplied to the pump is imparted to the fluid as mechanical energy. Deg C. Operation and Specification Page 22 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . The flow rate through the pump is 350 l/s.024 deg C. The mechanical efficiency of the pump [74. Solution: Calculate mass flow rate through pump kg/s = ρ x m3/s = 1 kg/l x 350 l/s= 350 kg/s Power to shaft = motor efficiency x motor power = 0.94 x 150 = 141 kW. The temperature rise of the water as it flows through the pump due to mechanical inefficiency. & & & E = m(u 2 − u1 ) = mcv (T2 − T1 ) Delta T = 36/ 350 x 4.024 deg C] Let specific heat of water be 4.18 (jk/kg. A water distribution pump has a 150 kW electric motor with a motor efficiency of 94%. C) =0.
what would happen to the total head and the pump efficiency? f) For c) what would be the calculated power draw on the pump? Solution: a) Full size impeller is 438 mm.3.83.71) = 47 kW Pump Application. Examine the pump curve for the Southern Cross ISOPRO 200x150400 pump. fixed speed 1475 rpm above a) If the total head on the pump is 60m and you are using a full size impeller. efficiency from graph = 0. flowrate at 60 m total head is 107 l/s.6 * 50 * 1/368 = 52 kW.5%. efficiency = 82. The efficiency would decrease to 71%.83 = 63 kW e) The head value would increase to 57 m as the system curve would steppen due to greater friction head component.1. The intersection of the pump and system curve would move to the left along the line of the impeller diameter. what is the expected flowrate in l/s and efficiency (%) ? b) What standard size motor is required for the headflow combination in (a)? c) If you wanted to deliver 107 l/s at 50 m of total head.6 * 57 / (368 *0. c) 410 mm d) Hydraulic power = 107 * 3. Operation and Specification Page 23 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 . b) Motor size 90 kW. what is the optimum impeller diameter? d) Calculate the hydraulic power and the motor power draw at 107 l/s and 50 m head for the impeller diameter selected in c)? e) If the pump was running as in c) and you slowly closed a discharge butterfly valve to achieve 60 l/s. Power draw on motor = 52/0. Resulting power draw on motor = 60 * 3.13.
4.015 m 25° 30° 4 m/s at 30° U2 β1 r1 U = impeller velocity relative to inertial Reference V = fluid velocity relative to inertial Reference W = fluid velocity relative to impeller W1 U1 r2 Pump Application.0875 m 0.1.13.0375 m 0. determine a) The flow rate through the impeller b) Torque on the impeller shaft c) Hydraulic power Rotating speed ω Inlet radius r1 Discharge radius r2 Inlet width b1 Discharge width b2 Inlet blade angle β1 Discharge blade angle β2 Discharge velocity relative to the impeller W2 Step 1: Sketch the impeller W2 β2 148 rad/s 0.025 m 0. Impeller design Given the following details about the design of a closed centrifugal impeller. Operation and Specification Page 24 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .
Operation and Specification Page 25 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3rd yr Thermofluids course Melinda Hodkiewicz Version 1 2005 .95 m/s Calculate Q (flowrate in m3/s) from Q = 2πr2b2Wr2 Where from velocity triangle sin β2 = Wr2/W2 .8 m/s. As Wr1 = V1 = 2.5 kg/s T = 16.8 m/s there is no Vθ1 component & & Torque calculation WM = ωTSHAFT = mω reVθ e − rVθi i ( ) & & T = mr2Vϑ 2 where m = ρQ = 1000 x16.14 x 0.Step 2: Draw the inlet and exit velocity triangles Exit triangle Wθ2 Vθ2 W2 β2 Wr2 V2 U2 Calculate U2 = ωr2 = 12.015 x 2 = 16. Vθ2 = 9.7 Nm And Power = ωT = 147 x 13.7 m/s Calculate Vθ2: From triangle Vθ22 = V22 – Wr22 = 94 – 4 = 90.0875 x 0.7 = 2 kW Pump Application.5 x 0.5 x 103 m3/s.0875 x 905 = 13.5 x 103 m3/s.55 m/s. W1 = 6. Wr1 = 2.5 m/s. Calculate V2: V22 = W22 + U22 – 2W2U2cosβ2 = 94.6 m/s. V1 = 2.5 x10 −3 = 16. Wr2 = 4 sin 30 = 2 m/s Hence Q = 2 x 3. Results: U1 = 5. V2 = 9.8 m/s. Repeat calculation for inlet values noting that Qinlet = Qdischarge = 16.
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