# Solutions Manual For

Engineering Mechanics
Manoj Kumar Harbola
IIT Kanpur

1

Chapter 1 Rotational speed of the earth is very small (about 7 v 10 5 radians per second). Its effect on particle motion over small distances is therefore negligible. This will not be true for intercontinental missiles. 1.2 The net force on the (belt+person) system is zero. This can be seen as follows. To pull the rope up, the person also pushes the ground and therefore the belt on which he is standing. This gives zero net force on the belt. For the person, the ground pushes him up on the feet but the belt pulls him down when he pulls it, giving a zero net force on him. 1.3 A vector between coordinates (x1, y1, z1) and (x2,y2,z2) is given by
Ö Ö ( x 2  x1 )i  ( y 2  y1 ) Ö  ( z 2  z1 ) k . Thus (i), (ii) and (iv) are equal. j

1.1

1.4

Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö The vectors are (i) 2i  3 Ö  5k (ii) 4i  3 Ö  k (iii) 2i  9 Ö  5k (iv) j j Ö j Ö  3iÖ  3 Ö  2 k j

1.5

Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö j (i) The resultant vectors are 6i  6k , 4i  6 Ö  10 k and  i  3k Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö (ii) The resultant vectors are 2i  6 Ö  4k , 2i  6 Ö  4k and 7i  3k j j

1.6 T A T B T T B A T T A B

T B

T A

1.7

On each reflection, the sign of the vector component perpendicular to the reflecting mirror changes.

2

1.8 z

y

T v

x O

The fly is flying along the vector from (2.5, 2, 0) to (5, 4, 4). This vector is
Ö Ö Ö Ö 2.5i  2 Ö  4 k 2.5i  2 Ö  4k j j Ö Ö ! 2.5i  2 Ö  4 k . The unit vector in this direction is j . 6.25  4  16 26.25

The velocity of the fly is therefore 0.5 v

Ö Ö j 2.5i  2 Ö  4k 26.25

Ö j ! 0.25iÖ  .20 Ö  0.39 k .

1.9

T T After time t, the position vectors rA and rB of particles A and B, respectively, are
T T Ö rA ! l sin [t i  l cos [t Ö j rB ! l sin [t iÖ  l cos [t Ö j T T Their velocities v A and v B are given by differentiating these vectors with respect to

time to get T T Ö Ö v A ! l[ cos [t i  l[ sin [t Ö v B ! l[ cos [t i  l[ sin [t Ö j j T T T Velocity v AB of A with respect to B is obtained by subtracting v B from v A T T T Ö v AB ! v A  v B ! 2l[ cos [t i 1.10 For rotation about the z-axis by an angle U
v x ' ! v x cos U  v y sin U v y ' !  v x sin U  v y cos U

v z' ! v z

It is given that U ! 30 Q. Therefore
v x' ! 1 vx 3  vy 2

v y' !

1  vx  vy 3 2

v z' ! v z

3

13 If the angle between two vectors is U.11 T Component of a vector A along an axis is given by its projection on that axis. T T (ii) Cross product between two vectors A and B is r r Ö Ö A v B ! (Ay Bz  Az By )i  (Az Bx  Ax Bz )Ö  (Ax By  Ay Bx )k j T T Taking A to be the fourth vector and B to be the first.2 Q ! 0.8 Q 4 .7 Q ! 0. second and the third vector gives the cross products to be Ö Ö  9i  11 Ö  3k j Ö Ö  9i  5 Ö  21k j Ö Ö  33i  11 Ö  24k j 1. Thus T T Ax ! A  iÖ ! A cos U 1 T T A y ! A  Ö ! A cos U 2 j T 2 2 2 A ! Ax  Ay  Az2 T T Ö Az ! A  k ! A cos U 3 Also 1.127   U ! 82.4 each of the other vectors to be 4.1. Thus AB Between (i) and (ii) cos U ! Between (i) and (iii) cos U ! Between (i) and (iv) cos U ! 4 38 26 2 38 110  25 38 22 ! 0. This is obtained by taking the dot product of the vector with the unit vector along that axis.037   U ! 88. T T (i) Dot product of two vectors A and B is TT A  B ! Ax Bx  Ay B y  Az B z This gives the dot product of the first vector of problem 1. the cosine of this angle is given by TT A B cos U ! TT.865   U ! 149. 2 and 25.12 Substituting the expression for Ax. Ay and Az completes the proof.

1Q ! 0.6 Q 1.14 T T T Ö Ö Vector A can be written as A ! A cos E 1i  cos E 2 Ö  cos E 3 k j .Between (ii) and (iii) cos U ! Between (ii) and (iv) cos U ! Between (iii) and (iv) cos U ! 40 26 110 5 26 22 11 38 22 ! 0.209   U ! 102.380   U ! 67.748   U ! 41.6 Q ! 0.

T T Ö j Similarly B ! B cos F 1iÖ  cos F 2 Ö  cos F 3 k .

TT A B Taking the dot product between the two vectors and using the formula cos U ! TT. T T Magnitude A  B ! T T Similarly A  B ! T T TT 2 2 A  B  2 A  B cos U T T TT 2 2 A  B  2 A  B cos U 1. we get the answer. AB where U is the angle between the two vectors.15 TT Equating the two gives A  B ! 0 which implies that the two vectors are perpendicular to each other. T T Ö B v C ! .

y C z  B z C y  .

B z C x  B x C z Ö  .

x C y  B y C x Ö B i j B k T T T A  B v C ! Ax .

y C z  Bz C y  Ay .

Bz C x  B x C z  Az .

x C y  B y C x B B T T T T T T This comes out to be equal to C  A v B and B  C v A T T T From the expression for A  B v C it is clear that it is equal to the determinant 1.16 .

17 . 1.

.

Ax Bx Cx Ay By Cy .

Az Bz Cz 5 .

This implies Bx Cx Ax By Cy Ay Bz Bx By Ay Cy Bz Ax Ay By Cy Az Bz Cz C z !  Ax Az Cx Az ! B x Cz Cx thereby proving the equalities in problem 1. T T Ö B v C ! .16.Interchange of two rows in a determinant changes the sign of the determinant.

y C z  B z C y  .

B z C x  B x C z Ö  .

x C y  B y C x Ö B i j B k Therefore T T T Ö a A v B v C ! _ y .

x C y  B y C x  Az .

B z C x  B x C z i A B 1.18 .

aj  _ z .

B y C z  B z C y  Ax .

x C y  B y C x Ö A B aÖ  _ x .

B z C x  B x C z  Ay .

y C z  B z C y k A B T T T The x-component of A v B v C .

_ .

B C A
y x

y

a  B y C x  Az

B z C x  B x C z ! B x ( A y C y  Az C z )  C x ( A y B y  Az BZ )

On the right hand side above, add and subtract Ax B x C x to get

_

B C A
y x

y 

B y C x  Az

Bz C x  Bx C z a! Bx ( Ax C x Ay C y  Az C z )  C x ( Ax B x Ay B y  Az BZ ) TT TT ! B x ( A  C )  C x ( A  B)

Do the same manipulation for the other components to get
T T T T TT T TT Av B vC ! AC B  A B C

.

6 .

1.19 ( i) Ö Ö AB ! ai  aÖ  aiÖ  ak ! a Ö  k j j Ö Ö Ö AC ! aÖ  ak  aiÖ  ak ! a Ö  i j j Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö BC ! aÖ  ak  ai  aÖ ! a k  i j j .

.

.

.

.

and show that it is parallel to the body diagonal. AC or BC. For example taking the cross product of AB and AC gives Ö AB v AC ! a 2 k  iÖ  Ö j . This vector is perpendicular to the vectors AB. because its dot product with each one of them vanishes. (ii) Ö j Ö Body diagonal from the origin to the opposite corner is a i  Ö  k . This shows that the diagonal is perpendicular to the plane. Another way to see this is to find a vector perpendicular to the plane by taking cross product of any of the two vectors from AB. AC and BC in the plane.

which is parallel to the body diagonal. (iii) If the angle between OA and AB is U then cos U ! Ö Ö Ö 1 OA  BA ai  ak  ak  aÖ j ! ! 2 OA BA a 2 a 2 .

.

.

.

This gives U ! 60r .3 by replacing the position vector by the velocity vector and the velocity vector by the acceleration.21 . 1. In the same manner we get the angle between OA and AC also to be 60r . Note that we have taken dot product with the vector BA rather than AB because we wish to keep U less than 90r . T Position vector R (t ) ! R cos [t iÖ  sin [t Ö j T T d (t ) Ö Velocity vector v (t ) ! j ! [  sin [t i  cos [t Ö dt 1.20 The problem is to be solved exactly in tha same manner as done in example 1.

.

7 .

T T dv ( t ) Acceleration a (t ) ! ! [ 2 R cos [t iÖ  sin [t Ö j dt .

V z1 in frame 1 by formula (1. 1. V y 2 .22 T (i) In reference frame 2. y1 .24 Done in later chapters T Magnitude of a vector quantity A(t ) is fixed. z1 are time-independent because vector T is constant in frame 1.23 1. V y 2 . 8 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ Here x1 . the equation above implies that T A(t ) and perpendicular to each other. we get dV x 2 (t ) ! [ V x1 sin [ t  [V y1 cos [ t ! [ V y 2 dt dV y 2 (t ) ! [ V x1 cos [ t  [ V y1 sin [ t ! [V x 2 dt dV z 2 !0 dt (ii) From (i) it is clear that T T dV Ö ! [k v V dt 1. V z 2 of vector V at time t are given in terms of its components V x1 . T dA(t ) are dt . V z 2 with respect to time. the components V x 2 .10) as V x 2 (t ) ! V x1 cos [t  V y1 sin [t V y 2 (t ) ! V x1 sin [t  V y1 cos [t V z 2 ! V z1 Differentiating V x 2 . V y1 . This means T T A(t )  A(t ) ! constant Differentiating both sides with respect to time we get T T A(t ) !0 A(t )  dt Since T A(t ) is not zero.

The magnitude of its position vector is a constant and therefore its velocity. 1.An everyday example is a particle moving in a circle.25 OA ! OB ! 1 2 . which is the time-derivative of its position vector. is perpendicular to the position vector.

sin [t iÖ  cos [t Öj .

 sin [t iÖ  cos [t Öj ¤¤ 1 The area of triangle OAB is given as 1 1 OA v OB ! 2 2 2 .

The component in the z Ö direction is given as k  OA . Then the component OB is OA sin U . Ö Thus the magnitude of OB is k v OA .26 T 2 or t ! Let the angle between the z axis and the vector be U. Thus the vector OA is Ö Ö general k can be replaced by n . To get the proper Ö Ö direction we again take cross product of k v OA with k . its direction is .2 sin [t cos [t ! T 4[ This is maximum at 2[t ! 1. perpendicular to the plane containing the z axis and the vector OA. 9 ¤¤ 1 £ £ 2 2 sin 2[t However.

Ö  OA Ö  .

k k k In .Ö v OA v kÖ .

This is determined by using the fact that at the lose end (y=L) of the rope. we have T ( y ) ! T ( y  (y )  Using Taylor series expansion for T(y+(y).1 (i) y T(y) L (y T(y+(y)+ M (yg L (ii) Since the element of length y is in equilibrium.Chapter 2 2. which gives 1 d 2T dT (y  ( (y ) 2  T ( y  (y ) ! T ( y )  2 2 dy dy And taking limit (y p 0 leads to the differential equation for T(y). The equation is dT M ! g dy l Solution of this equation is T ( y) !  M gy  C L where C is the integration constant. the tension is zero. This gives 10 ¦ ¥ M L yg .

C ! Mg and T ( y ) ! M (L  y) g L 2. Thus the force is 50 times the unit vector in the direction of the given vector. This gives T ¨ 3iÖ  2 Ö ¸ j F ! 50© © 13 ¹ ¹ ª º 50 Ö 50 Ö j j k 3i  2 Ö ! With this the torque is 2iÖ  Ö v 13 13 .2 T T T Torque X ! r v F T It is given that r ! 2iÖ  Ö and the force has magnitude 50N and acts in the direction j Ö j of vector 3i  2 Ö .

.

3 (a) 100N 100N (b) The centre of the rod is at (3. 2. 2) T Ö The right end is at position r ! 8i  2 Ö and the force at this end is j T ¨ 3 ¸ Ö 1 Ö¹ F ! 100© © 2 i  2 j¹ ª º T The left end is at position r ! 2iÖ  2 Ö and the force at this end is j 11 .

T ¨ 3 Ö 1 F ! 100© i © 2 2 ª Torque with respect to the origin =

8iÖ  2 Öj v 100¨ ©

¸ Ö¹ j¹ º

¨ 3 ¸ ¨ 3 ¸ 3 Ö 1 Ö¸ Ö 1 Ö¹ Ö Ö 1 Ö¹ © i  j ¹   2iÖ  2 Ö v 100© j ¹ © 2 i  2 j ¹ ! 10i v 100 © 2 i  2 j ¹ 2 º ª 2 ª º ª º Ö ! 500 k

Torque with respect to the centre of the rod =
¨ 3 ¸ ¨ 3 ¸ ¨ 3 ¸ Ö Ö 1 j Ö 1 j Ö Ö 1 j i  Ö ¹   2iÖ v 100© i  Ö ¹ ! 10i v 100© i  Ö¹ 8i v 100© © 2 © 2 © 2 2 ¹ 2 ¹ 2 ¹ ª º ª º ª º Ö ! 500 k

Torque with respect to the left end of the rod = ¨ 3 ¸ Ö 1 Ö¹ 10iÖ v 100© © 2 i  2 j¹ ª º Ö ! 500k Torque with respect to the right end of the rod = ¨ 3 Ö Ö 1  10i v 100© © 2 i2 ª Ö ! 500k ¸ Ö¹ j¹ º

(c) Torques about all the points are equal because the net force on the rod is zero.

12

2.4

(a) TA TB

3m A 1m 30N 70N 120N 0.5m B

(b)

§F

y

! 0 gives

T A  TB ! 220 Net torque about A is zero, which gives
3TB ! 1 v 70  1.5 v 30  2.5 v 120 ! 415

(i)

(ii)

Equation (ii) gives TB ! 138 N This substituted in equation (i) gives T A ! 82 Component of force in the plane perpendicular to the axis is F cos U at a distance of R from the axis. Therefore the torque about the axis is RF cos U

2.5

2.6

Free-body diagram of the block

13

§F §F horizontal ! 0 gives N 1 sin U ! N 2 cosU vertical ! 0 gives N 1 cos U  N 1 sin U ! W Solution of these two equations is N 1 ! W cosU and N 2 ! W sin U 14 .N1 N2 W N1. N2 and W are three forces in a plane. So the equilibrium conditions are only the force conditions. Thus they must pass through one common point for equilibrium.

2. To do so.2m 1m Rx Free-body diagram of the block N F Nground If the rod makes angle U with the horizontal then sin U ! 0. we first calculate the normal force N on the rod.7 Free-body diagram of the plank N Ry 2m 100N 0.98 (a) To get the horizontal force F. we calculate the total torque about the hinged end of the plank .2 and cos U ! 0.

 1 v N  3 v 100 cos U and equate it to zero. This gives N ! 3 v 100 cos U ! 3 v 98 ! 294 N Now we balance the horizontal forces .

§ F horizontal ! 0 on the block to get F ! 294 sin U ! 0.2 v 294 ! 59 N 15 .

2.9 Free body diagram of the painting 25 8 ! 8.(b) Force balance on the plank §F This gives horizontal ! 0   R x ! N sin U ! 59 N ! 0   R y  N cos U ! 100 §F vertical R y ! 100  288 ! 188 N Minus sign in front implies that the direction is opposite to that shown in the free-body diagram above.8 Free-body diagram of the rod N2 N1 W F Balancing the vertical forces gives N1 = W = 50N Balancing the horizontal forces gives N2 = F Balancing the torque about the centre of gravity gives F v 8 ! 50 v 0.8 N 16 .5 leading to F! 2.

10 We first calculate the forces at the ends of the rod.T N1 N1+N2 Fx W W N2 Force balance equations give Fx ! T and N 1  N 2 ! W N1 and N2 are equal because the component of torque perpendicular to the wall must vanish. After finding the forces on the rod. This gives N1=N2=25N Balancing the component of torque parallel to the wall taken about the lower end of the painting gives 20 3 v T ! 10 v 50 giving T! 25 3 ! 14.4 N 2. Free body diagram of the rod 17 . These forces are applied by the supports. we then calculate the forces and the torques applied by the wall on the supports.

75 Nm 2.05 v 15 ! 0.N1 140cm 60cm 35N N2 Free body diagrams of the left and the right supports F1 X1 5cm N1 X2 F2 5cm N2 The forces on the rod satisfy §F y ! 0 which gives N 1  N 2 ! 35 Taking torque about the left end and using § X ! 0 gives 140 v N 2 ! 60 v 35   N 2 ! 15 N This gives N 1 ! 20 N Now balancing vertical forces and the torque on the supports gives For the left support F1=20N and X 1 ! 0.11 18 .05 v 20 ! 1Nm For the right support F2=15N and X 2 ! 0.

Free-body diagram of the pole 19 . we balance torque about the upper left corner. This leads to 40 v N ! 30 v 40   N ! 30 N Balancing the vertical forces gives Ry = 40N Balancing the horizontal forces gives Rx = 30N Negative sign means that the direction of Rx is opposite to that assumed in the free-body diagram above.Ry Rx 60cm 40cm N 40N To find the force applied by the plastic block.

12 Free-body diagram of the table 90cm Ö j Rx Nx Ö i Ry 20N Ny To find Ny.4 = 12Nm Balancing the torques on the pole about the ground gives X = 30v0. we balance the torque on the table about its left hand edge to get 90 v Ny ! 45 v 20   Ny ! 10 N 20 .4 = 12Nm 2.30N 40cm 40N 30N N X Balancing the vertical forces on the pole gives N = 40N There is no net horizontal force and the two horizontal forces give a couple = 30v0.

we get Ry ! 10 . Free-body diagram of one of the rods Ry 2 Rx 2 30r Sx Sy Free body diagram of the entire system 90cm 30r Ny Nx 20N 2Sy 2Sx To get Nx.By balancing the vertical forces. This gives 30 3 v Nx ! 45 v 20   Nx ! 10 3 N 21 . we balance the component of the torque coming out of the paper on the entire system about the lower hinge. The negative sign tells us that the force is direction opposite to that shown above.

2.The negative sign again tells us that the direction of the force is opposite to that shown.13 Free body diagrams of the two side portions and the portion AC over the pulley: TA N TC TA TRM g L TC L2 M g L L1 M g F Tension TA and TC at both ends of the portion over the pulley is the same because the torque about the centre must vanish. Balancing the horizontal and vertical components of forces on each rod gives Sx ! Rx ! 5 3 N and 2 Sy ! 5 N Thus the net force on each rod is 10N compressive. This gives T A ! TC ! Free body diagrams of the portion AB and BC 22 § § ¨ 1 Mg . Balancing the horizontal component of the force on the table then gives Rx ! 10 3N Note: The net force on each rod on its upper end is  Rx Ö Ry Ö Ö i j ! 5 3i  5 Ö which is along j 2 2 the rod as it must be for the equilibrium of a rod held at its ends.

However two such forces acting at two different points will give rise to a couple moment.14 The support does not apply any torque about the x-axis.Neffy Neffx Neffy Neffx TB TRM g 2L TB TRM g 2L TA TC Notice that Torque of the normal reaction about the centre of the cylinder vanishes because for each small portion of the rope over the cylinder. Balancing the torque about the centre on AB gives R v TA  R 2 v TRM g ! R v TB 2L TR ¸ M ¨ g   TB ! © L1  ¹ 2 2º L ª Thus if the net force by the cylinder on the rope is Neff at an angle U from the horizontal then by force balance TR ¸ M ¨ g N eff sin U ! © L1  ¹ 2 º L ª ¨ TR ¸ M g N eff cos U ! © L1  ¹ 2 2º L ª Note that Neff acts at a point different from the centre of BC because on different infinitesimal portions it is different. the normal reaction is radial. force balance demands that the force be equal and opposite. The couple moment is zero only if the forces point along the rod (see figure below) 23 . 2. All other components and torques are balanced by the support. 2. Thus TA (or TC) and TB cannot be equal because they together provide a torque to balance the torque due to the weight of the rope.15 When forces are applied at two points of the rod.

Ö 2. This implies there is no component of the torque in the direction of n . they must all pass j through the same point so that their net torque is zero. 24 .18 The net force on the plate is 50iÖ  50 Ö  70iÖ ! 120i  50 Ö j j Therefore the force that must be applied to the plate to keep it in equilibrium is T F ! 120iÖ  50 Ö . This is shown in figure below. Then balancing the vertical forces gives 2T (sin U 1  sin U 2 ) ! 45000 The sine of the angles is easily calculated to be sin U 1 ! 1 2 sin U 2 ! 1 11 4 ! 2 5 This gives T=14050N T Ö 2.17 The torque direction is given by the direction of cross product n v F . which is Ö Ö perpendicular to n .16 Let cables OA and OC make angle U1 and OB and OD angle U2 with the vertical.Couple moment non-zero Couple moment zero 2. Since there are only three forces acting on the body.

Thus it does ª 120 º not pass through O and intersects with side AD and diagonal BD of the square.A B O D C T ¨ 50 ¸ j The force F ! 120iÖ  50 Ö is at an angle U ! tan 1 © ¹ ! 22.58a ª 2 34 º It is clear that for equilibrium.125a And from B = (iii) ¨1 3 ¸ 2 v ©  ¹a ! 0. Equation of BD with O as origin is y ! x Equation of line along which the third force acts is y !  Solving the two equations gives y ! x ! 3 a 34 a 5¨ 3a ¸  ©x ¹ 2 12 ª 2 º This gives the distance of point O = 0.6r from the line DC. It is possible to keep the square in equilibrium by applying the third force at a point on BD. 25 . the force can be applied only on AD and BC. Therefore: (i) (ii) It is not possible to keep the square in equilibrium by applying the third force at O.

3. m = 21.1 that FFE ! FCE 5000 2 5000 N .2 Showing that pin E is in equilibrium There are five forces acting on E of which two (FE and ED) are horizontal. We wish to check if the horizontal and vertical forces add up to zero. Thus they all satisfy 2j-3 = m. Thus they are all simple trusses. It is solved in 3. j = 12. two (CE and the external load) are vertical and one (BE) is at an angle.1 For the three trusses shown.Chapter 3 3.

FBE ! N .Tensile .

000 N .000 10.Tensile 3 3 10.

FDE ! N .Tensile .

Number of force balance equations therefore is 8 (2vnumber of joints). i. In addition there is the external load of 5000N vertically down.Tensile ! 3 3 Since all the forces are tensile. The net horizontal force is §F x !  FFE  FBE cos 45r  FDE ! !0 5000 1 5000 2 10000   3 3 3 2 Similarly the net vertical force is §F y ! 5000  FBE sin 45r  FCE ! 5000  !0 1 5000 2 10000  3 3 2 3. then 2 j  3 ! m is satisfied and the truss becomes stable and a simple truss. In terms of stability condition 2 j  3 " m which implies that the truss will collapse. they all pull the pin. number of forces available is only 7 (3+number of members). Let us add a member across AC.3 (i) The truss has 4 members and 4 joints. 26 . On the other hand. which implies that the truss will not be stable and will collapse. (ii) If we add one more member to the truss.e make m = 5.

75 v 5000 À Now balancing the vertical and horizontal forces on the truss gives NAx = 0 and NAy = 1875N The negative sign again tells us that the direction of the force is opposite to that shown. The free-body diagram of the truss is as follows: B NAy C NAx A ND D 5000N The direction of the forces applied by the external supports has been anticipated as shown. Assuming these forces to be tensile gives the free body diagram of joint D as follows 27 . We begin to apply the method of joints from point D since at this point there are two unknown forces FAD and FCD.5 cos 60r) v 5000 ¾ ¿   N D ! 6875 N ! 2.To find forces in each member we start by first finding the forces applied by the external supports. To find ND. we balance torque about A to get 2 v N D ! ( 2  1.

The free body diagram of point A is FAB FAC 60r 3969N 1875N U In drawing the figure above. Next we go to point A and balance the forces there. The length of rod AC is = . Balancing the horizontal forces on point D gives FCD cos 60r  FAD ! 0   FAD ! 3969 N The negative sign again shows that the force FAD is compressive and not tensile as assumed. we have shown the direction of FAD according to it being a compressive force.FCD 60r FAD 6875N Balancing the vertical forces on point D gives FCD sin 60r  6875 ! 0   FCD ! 7939 N The negative sign shows that the force FCD is compressive and not tensile as assumed.

2  1.5 cos 60r 2  .

04 m 28 .1.5 sin 60r 2 ! 3.

Thus FBC = 0.904 3.04 Now balancing the horizontal forces at A gives F AB sin 60 r  F AC sin U ! 1875 and balancing the vertical forces at A gives FAB cos 60r  FAC cos U ! 3969 Solving these two equations gives FAB = 0 and FAC = 4390N Since the sign of FAC is positive it is in the same direction as assumed and therefore tensile.5 sin 60r ! 0. Now we can easily see that force FBC will be zero because point B is under equilibrium under only two forces FAB and FBC and FAB has already been determined to be zero. Finally to check our answer we make the forces at point C and see if they all balance. Thus all the forces are now determined.427 and 3.04 cos U ! 2  1. They are FCD ! 7939 N (compressi ve) FAD ! 3969 N (compressive) FAB = 0 FAC = 4390N (tensile) and FBC = 0.5 cos 60r ! 0. The free body diagram of point C is 7939N 60r U 5000N 4390N Balancing the horizontal forces at C gives 7939 cos 60r  4390 cos U ! 3969  3969 ! 0 Balancing the vertical forces at C gives 29 .So sin U ! 1.

both unknown forces can be determined easily.4 Free body diagram of the truss Ry B 30cm U 20cm C Rx 30N N A Since point C is in equilibrium under one known and two unknown forces. 3. This implies that members AB and BC may not bee needed for the truss. AC and CD (m=3) there are only three joints (j=3) and the truss satisfies the condition 2 j  3 ! m for it to be a stable structure. The forces on C look as follows FAC U FBC 30N 30 . Note: We see that FAB and FBC both vanish.7939 sin 60r  5000  4390 sin U ! 6875  5000  1875 ! 0 This indicates that our answers are correct. This is true because with just three members AD.

The forces in the members remain the same. We calculate this by balancing forces acting on pin A. So do the forces by the two support except that the fixed point at A also provides a vertical fore of 30N that was earlier provided by member AB. FAB U FAC This gives FAB ! FAC sin U ! 30 N Additionally we can also solve for the normal reaction N and the forces Rx and Ry. 3. two of these are provided by the fixed supports and two by the two members. However if it is removed and the vertical force is provided by a fixed pin joint. and Ry = 30N 3.5 Rod AB provides a vertical force to hold pin A.6 Free-body diagram of the truss 31 . These are N = 54N. the structure will remain stable because we need 3j=6 forces for equilibrium of 3 joints. Rx = 45N.Balancing the vertical forces at C gives FAC sin U ! 30 With sin U ! 2 13 this implies FAC = 54N (compressive) Balancing the horizontal forces at C gives FBC ! FAC cos U ! 54 v 3 13 ! 45N (tensile) The only force left is at AB. which look as follows.

The forces acting on C are 32 . we can start our calculations from this point onwards. The forces on D are FCD FAD 100N It is immediately clear that FAD = 0 and FCD = 100 N (tensile) Next we go to pin C and balance the forces there.Ry B Rx C N A D 100N Since pin D has only two unknown forces acting on it.

The forces there are as follows FAB N 100 2 N Balancing the vertical forces at A gives FAB ! 100 N (tensile) Balancing the horizontal forces at A gives N=100N Finally balancing forces at pin B will give the external forces Rx = 100N and Ry = 100N 3.7 Free body diagram of the truss is as follows 33 .FAC FBC 100N Balancing the vertical forces at C gives FAC ! 100 2 N (compressive) Balancing the horizontal forces at C then gives FBC ! 100 N (tensile) Next we go to pin A.

75 v Nx ! 1.Ry Rx B Ny Nx A C D 500N E (i) There are 4 reaction forces at the supporting pins at A and B. Thus the truss is a stable one. (iii) First we find Nx by balancing the torque about point B. The number of joints in the truss is 5 that require exactly 10 number of forces for equilibrium. (ii) It is also statically determinate since the number of forces available is equal to the number of equations to be satisfied for equilibrium. In addition the forces generated by the members of the truss equal 6. This makes the total number of forces available = 10. This gives 0.5 v 500   Nx ! 1000 We now begin by balancing the forces at point D FED FCD 500N Balancing the vertical forces at D gives FED ! 500 2 (compressive) 34 .

The forces are as follows FCE FAE 500 2 N Balancing forces at E gives FAE ! 500 N (compressive) FCE ! 500 N (tensile) Next we go to pin at A. The forces there are Ny 500N FAC 1000N Balancing the forces gives FAC ! 500 2 N (compressive) and Ny ! 500 (tensile) Finally we go to point C where only one force FBC is unknown. The forces on C are 35 .Balancing the horizontal forces at D then gives FCD ! 500 N (tensile) Nest we go to pin E because it has two unknown forces acting on it.

8 Since each member of the truss weighs 50N. This is consistent with the overall equilibrium of the truss when it is treated as a system by itself. at each pin we take the load by each pin at that point to be 25N. This gives 36 . 3. NBx NBy B C A E NE D 1000N We firs find NE. here each small arrow pointing down indicates the weight of the truss member.500 2 N F FBC 500N 500N Balancing the horizontal forces at C gives FBC=1000N As a final check. acting at its centre. the value for FBC gives the horizontal force Rx by pin B on the truss to be 1000N and vertical force Ry to be zero. The free body diagram of the truss is as follows. To do this we balance the torque about B.

The force diagram on pin D is as follows (there are two members meeting at pin D that give a load of 2v25=50N there) FCD FDE 1050N Balancing the forces gives FCD ! 1050 2 N ! 1485N (tensile) and FDE ! 1050 N (compressive) Next we go to pin E. The forces acting there are (including 3v25=75N from 3 members) 2275N 1050N FAE FCE +75N Balancing the forces gives 37 . We begin at pin D as there are two unknown forces there. by balancing forces on the entire truss NBx = 0 and NBy = 925N The negative sign showing that the force I opposite to the direction assumed in the figure above.l v NE ! l 3l v 150  l v 50  v 100  2l v 1000   2 2 N E ! 2275 N This immediately gives.

The forces acting there are (including 3v25=75N from 3 members) FAB FAC 1050N 75N Balancing the forces gives FAC ! 1050 2 N ! 1485 N (tensile) and FAB ! .FCE ! 2200 (compressive) and FAE ! 1050 N (compressive) Next we go to pin A.

one balances all the forces at C and sees that they all balance properly. 38 .75  1050 N ! 975 N   FAB ! 975 N (compressive) Net we move to point B where the forces are (including 2v25N=50N from two members) FAB FBC 50N 925N This immediately gives FAB = 975N (compressive) and FBC = 0 As a final check. This implies that the answers obtained by us are correct.

3. The free body diagram is then as follows. B C NA ND A Nx F E 5000N By balancing the torque about A we get 12 v N D ! 2 v 1000  4 v 500  6 v 1500  8 v .9 Free body diagram of the truss with the weight of each member included.

The forces on A are (including the weight of two members) 11750 N 3 FAF FAB Balancing the forces at point A 500N §F y !0 !0 gives gives FAB §F x 11750  500 or FAB ! 4832 N ( compressiv e) 3 2 F 10250 F AF ! AB ! N (tensile ) 3 2 ! 39 . we take the weight of each member shared equally at each joint.500  5000  10 v 1000 ¾ ¿   ! 67000 À ND ! 16750 3 D Balancing the vertical and horizontal forces on the truss. this gives NA ! 11750 and Nx ! 0 3 For calculating force in members.

The forces at point F are (including the weight of three members) FBF 10250 N 3 FFE 750N Balancing the forces here gives FBF ! 750 N ( tensile ) FFE ! 10250 N ( tensile ) 3 Next we go to point B since now there are only two unknown forces there.Next we go to point F. So FBC = 5083N (compressive) 40 . At point B the forces look as follows (including the weight of four members) 4832N FBC 750N 1000N Balancing the forces FBE §F y !0 !0 gives gives FBE 2  1000  750 ! 4832 2  2357 2 4832 2   FBE ! 2357 N (tensile ) FBC ! 5083 N §F x FBC  !0   Negative sign above means that the direction of the force is opposite to the one assumed.

The 3 force diagram there is (including 500N form the weight of two members) 16750 N 3 FED 500N 7188N It is easily seen that the vertical forces balance at this point. Balancing horizontal forces then gives FED = 5083 N (tensile) 41 . This points to the correctness of our calculations so far.We next consider point C and balance the forces there. The forces at point C are (including 750N form the weight of three members) FCD 5083N 750N FCE Balancing the forces §F x !0 !0 gives gives FCD 2 ! 5083   FCD 2 FCD ! 7188 N (compressiv e) ! 5083   FCE ! 4333 N (tensile ) §F y FCE  750 ! Next we go to pin D where the normal reaction is 16750 N and balance the forces there.

10 Free body diagram of the truss NBy C 1000N NBx B D 2000N A E NE Taking torque about B we get 3 v N E ! 4 v 2000   NE ! 8000 3 Balancing the horizontal and vertical forces now gives NBx = 1000 N and NBy =  2000 N 3 Negative sign above means that the direction of the force is opposite to the one assumed. Thus our calculations are correct. 42 . 3. The forces at pin E are (including the weight of four members) 2357N 10250 N 3 4333N 5083N 1000N 5000N All these forces balance as can be seen by calculating the net x and y components of the forces.As a final check we should check whether all the calculated forces balance at pin E.

667 and sin U ! ! 0.5 In the diagram above cos U ! Balancing the vertical forces gives FED sin U ! 2000   FED ! 2683N (compressive) Balancing the horizontal forces gives FCD ! FED cosU  1000 ! 2789N Next we go to pin E. The forces there are 8000 N 3 FAE U U FCE 2683N Balancing the vertical forces gives .745 1.5 2  1 1 ! 0.We begin at pin D.5 1. The forces there are FED FCD U 1000N 2000N 1.

2683  FCE sin U ! 8000 3   FCE ! 895 N (compressive) Balancing the horizontal forces gives FAE ! 2683 cos U  FCE cos U ! 1192 N (compressive) 43 .

Next we go to pin A. The forces there are FAC U 1192N U FAB Balancing the vertical forces gives FAC = FAB. Balancing the horizontal forces gives .

we finally balance the forces at pin B and see if they all balance there. At pin B the forces are as follows 44 .FAB  FAC cos U ! 2 FAB cos U This also means that ! 1192   F AB ! 895 N(compress ive) FAC = 895N (tensile) Now we go to pin C. Balancing the horizontal forces gives FBC  2 v 895 v cos U ! 2789   FBC ! 1596 N(tensile) To check our answers. The forces there are 895N U FBC U 895N 2789N The vertical forces are already balanced here.

3v2000v10 = 576000N This weight is divided equally between the two trusses on the sides. 3.895N U 1000N 2000 N 3 1596N It is easily seen that all the forces above balance. Weight of the members of the truss = 13v5000 = 65000N Total weight supported by each truss therefore is = 353000N Thus only Free body diagram of the truss is B NAy C D NE NAx A H G F E 353000N From the balance of forces. is clear that N Ax ! 0 N Ay ! N E ! 353000 ! 176500 N 2 45 . 288000N is supported by each truss. So our answers are all consistent.11 The weight of the road = volume of the roadvdensityvg = 12v8v.

members) The forces on pin D are (including the weight of the 46 . The forces on pin E are (including the weight of the members) 176500N FEF U 57600N 5000N FDE In the figure above sin U ! 3 ! 0. and the forces applied by the members. 5 the weight of the members at that pin. Let us now balance forces at point E. 8 5 Balancing the vertical forces in the figure above gives FDE cos U  57600  5000 ! 176500   FDE ! 142375N (compressive) Balancing horizontal forces then leads to FFE ! FDE sin U ! 85425N (tensile) Next we consider pin D.Let us now consider forces at each pin one by one. which is 288000 ! 57600 N .6 5 cos U ! 4 ! 0. Each pin has the following forces acting on it: The weight of the road divided over 5 pins.

The only force that we now have to calculate is on member CG. The forces there are (including the weight of the members) 106400N FGF 85425N U 57600N 10000N FCF Balancing the vertical forces in the figure above gives FCF cos U  57600  10000 ! 106400   FCF ! 48500 N (compressive) Balancing horizontal forces then leads to FGF ! FCF sin U  85425 N ! 114525N (tensile) By symmetry of the problem.8  7500 ! 106400 N (tensile) Next we look at pin F. Two horizontal 47 .142375N U FCD FDF 7500N Balancing horizontal forces then leads to FCD ! 142375 sin U ! 85425 N (compressive) Balancing the vertical forces gives FDF ! 142375 v 0. For this we consider point G. forces on the members to the left of member CG will be exactly the same as on the corresponding members to its right.

forces at G are by HG and GF and are equal to 114525N each.12 Free body diagram of the truss is as follows 48 . The forces there (including the weight of 5 members meeting there) are 48500N 48500N 85425N 85425N 65100N 12500N FCF As is easily seen. The forces at point G are then given as FCG 114525N 114525N U 57600N 7500N This gives FCG = 65100N Finally we check our answer at point C. 3. the forces at C balance and therefore our calculations have been consistent throughout.

The forces at E are 1000N FEF E U FDE Balancing the vertical forces in the figure above gives FDE sin U ! 1000   FDE ! 2236 N (compressive) Balancing the horizontal forces gives FEF ! FDE cos U ! 2236 * 0. We start with pin E because there are only two unknown forces there.5 v 2000   N E ! 1000 N Thus NA = 2000N and RA = 0 Now that the external reactions have been determined.5m tan U ! BH = DF = 1.25m (similarity of triangles) 1.25 ! 0.5   U ! 26.894 2.894 ! 2000 N (tensile) 49 . we can go about calculating the forces in the members.2000N NA B RA A C 1000N NE D U H G F E Here the distances and the angles are AH = HG = GF = FE = 2.447 and cos U ! 0. 5 Balancing torque about point A gives 10 v N E ! 5 v 1000  2.6r   sin U ! 0.

Nest we go to pin D. FCF 0N FGF F 2000N Balancing the forces gives FGF = 2000N (tensile) FCF = 0 Pin G is considered next. we immediately can write FCG = 0 and FGH = 2000N (tensile) Next we consider point A where two members AB and AH meet and therefore there are two unknown forces. even without making the forces there. The forces there are FDF 2236N D FCD Balancing the forces gives FCD ! 2236 N (compressive) FDF = 0 Next we go to point F where the forces are as shown below. The forces there are 50 . Since the forces there are only vertical and horizontal.

it becomes clear that FCH ! 2000 2 N (tensile) Finally the answers are checked at C.2000N U FAB Balancing the vertical forces gives FAB sin U ! 2000   FAH A FAB ! 2000 ! 4472 N (compressive) 0. and FBC and 4472N) has two forces in opposite directions. Here there are four forces acting and each pair (FBH and 2000N. Thus without solving the detailed force balance equations. The forces at C are as shown below 51 .4472 Balancing horizontal forces then gives FAH ! 4472 cos U ! 4000 N (tensile) Next we go to point B. we can directly write FBH = 2000N (compressive) and FBC = 4472N (compressive) Next we go to point H and balance the forces there. The forces there are as follows FCH 45r 4000N H 2000N 2000N By balancing the forces at H.

balancing the horizontal forces leads to 52 . In the present case we take the following section of the truss and show various forces on that section. Thus our answers are all correct. we make a cut through the truss so that it passes the concerned members. To calculate the forces by method of sections. FCH is determined easily by taking torque about A since the torque due to FCB and FGH both vanish about A. Finally. the horizontal a n vertical forces all balance at C. we balance the vertical component of the forces to get FCH 2  FCB sin U ! 0   FCB !  2000 !  4472 N sin U Negative sign here means that the force is opposite to the direction assumed and therefore is compressive in nature.2236N 4472N D 2000 2 N 1000N As is easily seen. 2000N 2000N FCB B FCH U A H FGH In the figure above. This gives AH v FCH 2 ! AH v 2000   FCH ! 2000 2 N (tensile) To find FCB.

we make a cut through CD. This gives 16 v N E ! 12 v 50 kN   N E ! 37.894 ! 2000 N (tensile) 3.5 kN FCD E FGF FGD 50kN To find FGF.5 kN This gives NA = 12. we balance torque about point D about which the torques due to FCD and FGD vanish.5 kN and RA = 0 To find forces in members CD and DG. This looks like the following D 37. DG and GF. This gives F 53 .FGH  FCH 2  FCB cos U ! 0   FGH ! 2000  4472 v 0.13 The free-body diagram of the truss on one side is as follows (Notice that the weight of the truck is equally divided between the two trusses) B NA A RA H G F E C D NE 50kN We first calculate NE by balancing torque about A.

which is point G. we make a cut through the members BC. Balancing horizontal forces gives FGD v 4 41  20  30 ! 0   FGD ! 16kN Negative sign here means that the force is opposite to the direction assumed and therefore is compressive in nature.5   FGH ! 10 kN (tensile) Finally we get FBG by balancing vertical and horizontal forces. To find the forces in the members BC and BG. BG and HG as follows and then calculate the forces.5  4 v 50   FCD ! 20kN (compressive) Now we balance the horizontal and vertical forces on the truss.5   FBC ! 20kN (compressive) FBC Next we find FGH by taking torque about B. We get 5 v FGH ! 4 v 12. This leads to 5 v FCD ! 8 v 37. which is point G.4 v 37. B 12. we take torque about point where FDG and FGF intersect.5 kN A FGH H FBG To obtain FBC. This leads to 5 v FBC ! 8 v 12. we take torque about point where FGH and FBG intersect.5 ! 5 v FGF   FGF ! 30 kN (tensile) To obtain FCD. we make the following cut through the truss 54 . Horizontal force balance gives FBG v 4 41 ! 10   FBG ! 16kN (tensile) Finally to find FCG.

55 . this implies FCG = 0. the horizontal forces are also balanced.5kN E G F 50kN Since the vertical forces all balance.B 12. Further.5kN A H FCG D 37.

3 The free body diagram of the block is as follows 56 . f N mg 4. Thus the normal reaction will be at the point where the arrow showing the weight meets the inclined plane. the three forces must pass through the same point.1 QsN Frictional force Fmax Applied force 4.Chapter 4 4. This is shown below.2 Since the block is in equilibrium under three forces.

for equilibrium we should have F sin U e Q .N U F U f mg Balancing the horizontal forces gives f ! F sin U Balancing the vertical forces gives N ! mg  F cosU Since the maximum frictional force f max ! QN .

4 We consider two different situations when the weight on the table is about to move to the left or to the right.mg  F cos U   F e Q mg sin U  Q cos U 4. When it is about to move to the left. its free body diagram will look as follows N 10g f mg 50g By equilibrium conditions. we have N = 50g 57 .

1 v 50 g   5 e m Thus the minimum value of m is 5kg when the frictional force is at its maximum pointing to the right. In that situation.5 Taking the x axis along the plane and the y axis perpendicular to the plane. 58 . the equation for horizontal force balance is f + 10g = mg This coupled with f e QN leads to f ! mg  10 g e 0. the free-body diagram of the block looks as follows. N 10g mg f 50g In this situation. frictional force becomes less and less.f + mg = 10g Since f e QN We have f ! 10 g  mg e 0.1 v 50 g   m e 15 Thus 5 e m e 15 4. the free body diagram of the block on the table is as follows. eventually changing direction and attaining its maximum value pointing left. As m is increased above 5kg.

8ms .N Y X F 30º Fd 30º 100g The equations describing equilibrium in the X and the Y directions are §F x !0   !0   F cos 30r  F d 100 g sin 30r ! 0  N  F sin 30r  100 g cos 30r ! 0 §F y The first equation implies that F d  F cos 30r  100 g sin 30r ! Taking g = 9.e.6 Free body diagram of the box when it is about to move (i.6 N ! F ! 500 N   F d 57.0 N ! F ! 100 N   F d 403. the frictional force is at its maximum) is shown below 2 F h a QN mg N b 59 .4 N ! 4. the value of Fd for different values of F is F ! 600 N   F d 29.

The force F also equals QN at this point.7 suppose each break show makes an angle E at the centre as shown below E The force F is assumed distributed uniformly over the shoe. the maximum couple moment that can be created by mg and N is a mg . This is the reason that N shifts towards the direction of the push. 2 Thus for the box not to topple. However. the couple created by F and the friction should remain less than a mg . Then the torque due to the frictional force will be b + ! ´Q a Fr E 2 b  a2 2 . the friction is at its maximum and is equal to QN.When the box is about to move. Thus implies 2 h v Qmg e a a mg   h e 2 2Q 4. This creates a couple that is counterbalanced by the couple formed by the weight of the box mg and N (=mg).

E r dr ! 2 QF b 3  a 3 2 QF a 2  ab  b 2 ! .

a  b 3 b2  a 2 3 .

.

.

With two shoes therefore. the torque would be +! 4QF a 2  ab  b 2 .

a  b 3 .

4. Since each time the string is wound once more around the rod. The contact angle is . the mass M that can be balanced by m becomes twice as large. we have ¾ ± 2 M ! m exp( 3QT ) ¿   2 ! exp( 2 QT ) 4 M ! m exp( 5QT ) ± À M ! m exp( QT ) 60 .8 It is given that mass M is balanced by mass m.

11 There is a range of M2 that exists because frictional force can act with its maximum value in one direction to the maximum in the other direction.11 4. Thus we have L1  L2   L1 ! exp(QT ) L2 L1 L2 Mg ! exp(QT ) Mg L1  L2 L1  L2 4.2 v T / 2) ! 3. In that case the tension will work in the other direction and m ! 5 exp(0.2 v T / 2) ! 6. we have mass L1 M on one L1  L2 side of the pulley that is balanced by mass L2 M on the other side.10 As the weight is put.This gives Q = 0. Thus we get m ! 5 exp(0.85kg An interesting possibility exists if a person had pulled the weight down and then slowly brought it to equilibrium. Thus if the tension in the rope on the spring balance side is T1 and that on the weight side is T2 then ¨ T¸ T2 ! T1 exp© Q ¹ ª 2º Now it is given that T1 = 5g and T2 = mg. Hence the frictional force will be in the counterclockwise direction. it has a tendency to move down. Largest value of M2 is when the mass M1 is about to slide up the plane.65kg However we have not considered this possibility. 4.9 Neglecting the length of the rope passing over the pulley. The free body diagram of M1 in that case is as follows 61 .

the frictional force due to the pulley will be acting counterclockwise. Thus we have ® ¨T ¸¾ M 2 g ! T exp ¯Q 2 ©  U ¹¿ ºÀ ° ª2 Thus   ® ¨T ¸¾ M 2 g ! M 1 g .N T f U M1 g When the mass M1 is about to slide up. we have T ! M 1 g sin U  Q1 M 1 g cos U ! M 1 g (sin U  Q1 cos U ) ¸ ¨T The contact angle between the rope and the pulley is ©  U ¹ º ª2 Since the rope has a tendency to move clockwise.

sin U  Q1 cos U exp ¯ Q 2 ©  U ¹ ¿ ºÀ ° ª2 ® ¨T ¸¾ M 2 ! M 1 .

sin U  Q 1 cos U exp ¯ Q 2 ©  U ¹¿ ºÀ ° ª2 The other extreme is when the mass M1 is about to slide down the plane. In that case the free body diagram of M1 is N T f U M1 g Thus we have T ! M 1 g sin U  Q1 M 1 g cosU ! M 1 g (sin U  Q1 cos U ) 62 .

the frictional force due to the pulley will be acting clockwise. Thus we have ¸¾ ¨T M 2 ! M 1 .Now the rope has a tendency to move counterclockwise.

sin U  Q1 cos U exp ¯ Q 2 ©  U ¹¿ ºÀ ª2 4.12Free body diagram of the tire when it is loaded and is about to roll is as follows F f W Balancing the vertical forces gives N ! abP ! W   a! W bP N Balancing the horizontal forces gives F = f Balancing torque about the centre of the wheel gives a FR ! W 2   F! W2 2bPR 63 ©  ¸¾ ¨T M 2 g exp ¯ Q 2 ©  U ¹ ¿ ! T ºÀ ª2 Thus ¸¾ ¨T   M 2 g ! M 1 g .

sin U  Q1 cos U exp ¯ Q 2 ©  U ¹¿ ºÀ ª2 ©  ©  .

Then the coordinates .1 Consider a composite surface of total area A made up of N different surfaces.Chapter 5 5.

It is 4 4 A ! ´ ydx ! ´ 4  . YC of the centroid satisfy AX C ! ´ xdA AYC ! ´ ydA If the area of each surface is Ai (i ! 1.N ) then A ! § Ai i Now in the definition of the centroid. We are nevertheless going to prove it below.X C .2 By symmetry it is clear that XC = 2. the integrals can be performed separately over each surface so that we can write AX C ! § ´ xdA ! § Ai i i i AYC ! § ´ ydA ! § Ai YCi i i i This immediately gives XC ! § Ai X C i A ¨ § Ai X C i !© © §A i ª § Ai X C i ¨ § Ai YC i ¸ ¹ and YC ! !© © §A ¹ A i ª º ¸ ¹ ¹ º 5. We first calculate the area of the surface.

x  2 dx 2 0 0 4 _ ! 16  ´ .

we take vertical strips of width dx on the surface at distance x from the origin and then calculate XC ! O x X 64  Ci a ´ xdA A .x  2 dx 2 0 Substituting z ! x  2 we get 2 A ! 16  ´ z 2 dz ! 16  2 16 32 ! 3 3 Y To calculate Xc.

Thus dx 4 ´ x _  .

These points are given by the equation y ! 4  . the strip extends from x1 to x2.x  2 a 2 0 4 XC ! 32 !2 3 Similarly to calculate YC. we take horizontal strips of width dy at height y and calculate YC ! ´ ydA A Y At height y.

x  2 2   x1 ! 2  4  y x2 ! 2  4  y y O x1 x2 X Therefore dA ! ( x 2  x1 ) dy ! 2 4  y dy We thus have 32 YC ! 2 ´ y 4  y dy 3 0 4 Substituting y ! 4 sin 2 U so that dy ! 8 sin U cosU dU . we get 32 YC ! 2 ´ 4 sin 2 U v 2 cos U v 8 sinU cos U dU ! 128 ´ sin 2 U cos 2 U d .

cos U 3 0 0 1 T 2 1 ! 128 ´ cos 2 U  cos 4 U d .

cos U 0 .

¹ ª 5º 65 . ! 256 15 This gives YC ! 8 5 ¨ 8¸ Thus the centroid is at © 2.

The other curve (curve 2) is y ! 16  4( x  2) 2 ! 4 4  .5.3 One curve (call it curve 1) y ! 4  ( x  2) 2 in this problem is the same as that in the problem above.

x  2 _ 2 a 128 . Similarly 3 8 32 . ! 5 5 The y-axis of curve 2 is thus 4 times curve 1. The area of curve 2 is therefore the x coordinate the centroid of curve will remain at 2 but the y coordinate will be 4 v Thus we have A1 ! 32 3 .

X C1 . YC1 ! ¨ 2. 8 ¸ ¹ © ª 5º . A2 ! 128 3 .

32 ¸ ¹ © ª 5 º The area A for which we wish to obtain the centroid . YC 2 ! ¨ 2.X C 2 .

YC is obtained by removing surface formed by curve 1 from the surface formed by curve 2. We thus have 128 32  ! 32 3 3 AX C ! A2 X C 2  A1 X C1 A!   32 X C ! .X C .

4 Trapezoidal loading is shown in the figure below f(x) w1 w2 X X1 X2 66 .A2  A1 v 2 128 32 32 8 v  v 3 5 3 5     XC ! 2 YC ! 8 AYC ! A2YC 2  A1YC 1   32YC ! 5.

The total force on the beam will be equal to the area under the curve. Thus the total force is equal to .

w1  w2 2 .

X 2  X 1 This load will be acting at the centroid of the area. Thus it acts at X2 XC ! X1 ´ x© w © ª ¨ 1  ¸ w2  w1 .

x  X 1 ¹dx ¹ X 2  X1 º 2 .

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1  w1 X 12  X 22  X 1 X 2 .

w2  w1 .

X 1  X 2 X 1  w1 3 2 ! .

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3w1 X 2  3w1 X 1  2 w2 X 1  2 w2 X 2  2w2 X 1 X 2  2 w1 X 12  2w1 X 2  2 w1 X 1 X 2  3w2 X 12  3w2 X 1 X 2  3w1 X 12  3w1 X 1 X 2 ! 3.

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 2 2 2 1 2 .

X X 2  .

w .

! 2 2 w1 X 2  2 w1 X 12  w2 X 12  2 w2 X 2  w2 X 1 X 2  w1 X 1 X 2 3.

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 ! 2 X 2 .

w1  2 w2  X 12 .

2 w1  w2  w2 X 1 X 2  w1 X 1 X 2 3.

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 Adding and subtracting w2 X 1 X 2 and w1 X 1 X 2 in the numerator we get ! 2 X 2 .

w1  2 w2  X 12 .

2 w1  w2  2w2 X 1 X 2  w1 X 1 X 2  2 w1 X 1 X 2  w2 X 1 X 2 3.

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 ! .

2 w1  w2 X 1 .

X 2  X 1  .

w1  2 w2 X 2 .

X 2  X 1 3.

w1  w2 .

X 2  X 1 1 .

2w1  w2 X 1  .

w1  2 w2 X 2 3 .

w1  w2 ! 67 .

14.15 X 1 ! Y1 ! h1 cos U X 2 ! Y2 ! h2 cos U w2 ! Vgh2 w This gives from formula 5.5. from figure 5.9 X C ! YC ! 1 (2h1  h2 )h1  (h1  2h2 )h2 3 (h1  h2 ) cos U 2 2 h12  h1 h2  h2 3 . for a plate of width w w1 ! Vgh1 w Similarly.5 From figure 5.

h1  h2 cos U ! .

25m 0.6N The average pressure is the pressure of water at the centroid of the submerged part.8 v 0.125 ! 1225 Nm 2 Thus the total force due to the water pressure is 68 .5m 153.125N NB 19.6 Loading on the tank door is triangular as shown below N1 NA 0.17) 5. which is equivalent to the depth given by formula (5. Thus the average pressure will be Vghcentroid ( plate ) ! 1000 v 9.

5 v 0.25 v 1225 ! 153 . Thus it is at a distance 1 .125 N This force acts at the centroid of the loading that is triangular in this case.F ! 0.

417 v 153 .417 m 3 below point A. This leads to N 1 ! 19.125   25. we take a strip (see figure above) of width dy parallel to the x-axis and calculate b2 I xx ! b 2 2 ´ y .6 N 0.0.7 The rectangular surface looks as follows Y b X a To find Ixx.125   N A  N B ! 153 .25  2 v 0.50 ! 0.7 N 5. We now apply equilibrium conditions to the door.4 N N B ! 127 .5 v N B ! 0.

we take a strip (see figure above) of width dx parallel to the x-axis and calculate a 2 I yy ! a 2 2 ´ x .ady ! ab 3 12 Similarly to find Iyy.

bdx ! a 3b 12 69 .

To find Ixy. we take a small square (see figure above) of size dxvdy parallel and calculate a2 b2 I xy ! by symmetry of the inegrand.  a 2 b 2 ´ ´ xy.

8 Y¶ X¶ b O E a From the figure sin E ! b a2  b2 cos E ! a a2  b2 sin 2E ! 2 sin E cos E ! 2ab a  b2 a2  b2 cos 2E ! 1  sin 2 2E ! 2 a  b2 2 From the formula for transformation of area moments (taking X and Y axis as in the problem above) we get I x 'x' ! ! ! Similary I xx  I yy 2  cos 2U  I xy sin 2U 2 ab b 2  a 2 a 2  b 2  24 a2  b2 I xx  I yy ab a 2  b 2 24 a 3b3 6 a2  b2 .dxdy ! 0 5.

.

.

.

.

70 .

I y'y ' ! cos 2U  I xy sin 2U 2 2 ab a 2  b 2 ab b 2  a 2 a 2  b 2 !  24 24 a2  b2 I xx  I yy  I xx  I yy .

.

.

.

! and ab a 4  b 4 12 a 2  b 2 .

.

sin 2U  I xy cos 2U I x'y' ! I xx  I yy 2 2ab ab b 2  a 2 ! 2 24 a  b2 ! a b a b 12 a 2  b 2 2 2 2 .

.

.

.

9 Y b X a To calculate IXX we take a horizontal strip of width dy at y (see figure) for dA and calculate b I XX ! ´ y dA ! 2 ´ y 2 2 b a b 2  y 2 dy b Taking y ! b sin U . we get I XX sin 2 2U Tab 3 a 2 3 2 dU ! ! 2 ´ b sin U b cos UdU ! 2ab ´ 4 4 b T 2 T 2 2 2 T 2 T 2 71 . 2 5.

we get I YY ! And by symmetry I XY ! 0 We now calculate the moments and product of inertia about a set of axes rotated by an angle with respect to the original one and with the same origin. Thus Ix x ! I xx  I yy 2 2 2 2 Tab(b  a ) 1 Tab(b 2  a 2 ) !  8 2 8 Tab ! 3a 2  b 2 16  I xx  I yy cos120 Q I xy sin 120 Q T 3 Ta 3 b 4 Similarly Iy y ! cos120 Q I xy sin 120 Q 2 2 Tab b 2  a 2 1 Tab b 2  a 2 !  8 2 8 2 2 Tab a  3b ! 16  I xx  I yy I xx  I yy Product of inertia is calculated using the formula Ix y ! sin 120 Q I xy cos120 Q 2 3 Tab b 2  a 2 ! 2 8 Tab 3 a2  b2 ! 16 I xx  I yy    .Similarly for IYY. we take a vertical strip at x for dA and calculate a I YY ! ´ x 2 dA ! 2 ´ x 2 a b 2 a  x 2 dx a Taking x ! a sin U .

.

.

.

.

.

72 .

5.10

Y

y X O x1 x2

To calculate IXX we take a horizontal of width dy strip at y (see figure) for dA and calculate
R

I XX ! ´ y dA ! 2 ´ y 2 R 2  y 2 dy
2 0

To evaluate the integral, we substitute y ! R sin U so the integral is transformed to
T 2

I XX ! 2 R ! Now substituting z ! 2U , we get
I XX

4

´ sin
0

2

U cos 2 U dU 2U dU

R 2

4 T 2

´ sin
0
T

2

R4 2 ! ´ sin z dz 4 0 ! T R4 8

73

Y

x X O

Similarly for IYY, we take a vertical strip of width dx at x for dA (see figure) and calculate
I YY ! ´ x 2 dA
2R

!

´x
0

2

R 2 

x  R dx

2

Taking

x  R ! R cos U we get
0

I YY ! R

4

´

1  cos U sin U v  sin U dU
2
T T

! R 4 ´ 1  2 cosU  cos 2 U sin 2 U dU
0

2 0 2 T T T ´ cos U sin 0 2 U dU ! 0 and ´ sin 2 U cos 2 U dU ! 0 T . This gives 8 I YY ! 5T 4 R 8 5. T Now ´ sin U dU ! .11 Product of area about the origin O is given as I xy ! § x i y i (Ai ! ´ xy dA i If the centroid is at O¶ which has the coordinates .

x0 .y respect to O¶ are . y 0 and the coordinates of a point with .

x d dthen x ! x0  x d y ! y0  y d 74 .

Y Y¶ (x0.y0) X¶ O X Therefore .

dA I xy ! ´ xy dA ! ´ .

12 Consider the moments and product of inertia of a square about a set of axes parallel to its sides and passing through its centre. Y X a For this set of axes 75 .x0  x dy 0  y d ! x 0 y 0 A  x0 ´ y d  y 0 ´ x d  ´ x d dA dA dA yd However. by definition of the centroid dA ´ xd ! 0 Thus I xy ! x 0 y 0 A  ´ x d dA yd dA ´ yd ! 0 5.

we get I xx  I yy d 2 I x'x ' ! 4 cos 2U  4 I xy sin 2U 2 dU 2 dU 2 Thus the two derivatives have opposite signs. Thus any set of axes passing through the centre is the principal set of axes. the other one will be a minimum.    d 2I y y !4 I xx  I yy 2 cos 2U  4 I xy sin 2U 76 .¨ a4 ¸ I xx ! I yy ! © ¹ © 12 ¹ ª º I xy ! 0 Now by the formula I x'y' ! I xx  I yy 2 sin 2U  I xy cos 2U Ix¶y¶ will always remain zero because of the equality of Ixx and Iyy irrespective of the angle of rotation of the new set of axes x¶y¶. This implies if one of them is a maximum.13 The formulae for the moments of inertia in rotated frames are I xx  I yy 2 I xx  I yy 2 Ix x ! Iy y ! I xx  I yy 2 I xx  I yy 2   cos 2U  I xy sin 2U cos 2U  I xy sin 2U Taking the second derivative of these expressions with respect to U . 5.

1 (i) (a) and (d) are the virtual displacements because these are the only ones consistent with the constraint that the block can move only in the vertical direction. the forces on the block are as shown ky0 mg Now a virtual displacement gives a displacement of Hy in the vertical direction. Taking it in the vertically up direction gives the virtual work to be HW ! .Chapter 6 6. In that situation. (ii) Suppose the strech is y0.

2 Figure below shows the students and the plank on a wedge and a possible virtual displacement of the system.ky 0  mg y H Equating this to zero gives y0 ! mg k 6. For the 77 . x (3-x) HU 30g 50g 40g It is clear that as long as the point on the wedge does not move. the only possible displacement is the rotation of the plank about this point and the system has only one degree of freedom.

virtual work ! 40 xgHU Center o gravity o plank : virtual displacement ! . the displacement and the virtual work done by various forces is as follows: 40kg : virtual displacement ! xHU .virtual displacement shown.

virtual work ! 30.x  1.5 .

5 gHU HU 50kg : virtual displacement ! .x  1.

virtual work ! 50.3  x .

3  x gHU HU Since the net virtual work must vanish for equilibrium. we have _ .

3  x  40 x  30.

625 120 6. these coordinates change and the changes are given by Hx ! 1.5 cos U y CG ! 0.75 cos U rod and yCG of the centre of gravity of the rod with respect to the pivot point.3 (i) Since the number of parameters required to describe the system is 1. A virtual displacement will be to change U by HU.5 sin U HU Hy CG ! 0.5 cos U HU Hy ! 1.75 sin U HU 78 .5 m 2kg 20kg T (ii) To apply the principle of virtual work.5 agHU 50 ! 0    120 x  195 ! 0   x! 195 ! 1. we need to calculate the virtual work done by various force when U is changed to U +HU. y) of the tip of the y ! 1.x  1.5 sin U As U is changed to U +HU. the number of degrees of freedom is 1. For this we first write the coordinates (x. We choose it to be the angle U. the rod makes from the vertical. These are x ! 1. U 1.

both in the positive y direction.Thus the total virtual work done by the external forces ± 2g at the CG. and T at the tip in the positive x direction ± is HW ! . 20g at the tip.

. Equivalently.5m Hy1 1m Hy2 NA 100N 2m 500N NB Now the vertical virtual displacement of different points is Point A : Point B : Centre of gravity of the plank : Athlete : Thus the total virtual work done is Hy1 Hy 2 Hy1  Hy 2 2 ¨ H y  H y1 ¸ Hy1  1. One is the vertical displacement of the centre of gravity and the other the rotation of the plank about the CG.5© 2 ¹ ! 0. For only vertical motion. there are two degrees of freedom. We choose the second option because this is related directly to the forces applied by the bricks.4 To find the forces applied by the bricks. we can take the vertical displacements of the ends A and B as the virtual displacements.25H y1  0. The plank in equilibrium and virtually displaced is shown below 1.5 cos U v T  1.75 sin U v 2 g 1 HU Equating this to zero gives T ! 21g tan U 6.5 sin U v 20 g  0. we treat these forces as external.75H y 2 2 º ª 79 .

¨ Hy  Hy 2 ¸ HW ! N A Hy1  N B Hy 2  100© 1 ¹  500 .

75Hy 2 2 ª º ! .25Hy1  0.0.

N A  50  125 y1  .

5 (i) Constraints on the system: length of the strings holding the masses is fixed (ii) There is only one degree of freedom. There are three variables needed to describe the system: The distance of two masses and one pulley from the ground.N B  50  375 y 2 H H Equating the virtual work to zero and therefore the coefficients of each independent displacement (Hy1 and Hy2) to zero gives NA=175N and NB = 425N 6. Thus only one variable is left to change freely. (iii) In terms of the lengths shown in the figure h1 M1 M2 y2 h2 y1 The constraint that the longer string has fixed length is expressed as . However there are two constraints: To of the strings have fixed lengths. This can be understood as follows.

h1  y1  2.

The constraint that the shorter string has fixed length is expressed as h2  y 2 ! const. 80 .h1  h2 ! 3h1  2h2  y1 ! const.

we make a virtual displacement Hy1 of mass 1. The corresponding displacement of mass 2 is then Hy 2 . the number of degrees of freedom for the system is 2. These two forces must be equal for equilibrium but we wish to obtain this by applying the principle of virtual work.(iv) The constraint forces are the tension in the two strings. At equilibrium spring on the left is stretched by x1 and the total stretch of the two springs together is by x2. To apply the method of virtual work. we first express the virtual work in terms of only Hy1 . Similarly the two force 81 . It is by these tensions that the constraints are maintained. Thus spring on the right is stretched by (x2x1). we will finally express Hy 2 in terms of Hy1 to apply the method of virtual work. However. for equilibrium M 2 ! 2M 1 6. since h1 if constant. Therefore we should not conclude that M1=M2=0 for equilibrium. To apply the method. The virtual work done in these processes is HW !  M 1 gHy1  M 2 gHy 2 (v) Notice that the two virtual displacements are not independent.6 (i) Since the two blocks are free to move in one dimension without any constraint.  2Hh2  Hy1 ! 0   Hh2 !  Hy1 2 Hy1 2 From the second constraint we have Hh2  Hy 2 ! 0   Hy 2 ! Hh2 !  Substituting these in the expression for the virtual work gives HW !  M 1 gHy1  M 2 g Hy1 ¨ M ¸ ! ©  M 1  2 ¹ gHy1 2 2 º ª Equating this to zero then gives. since there is only 1 degree of freedom. (ii) The system in equilibrium is shown below. Thus force on mass m1 is k1 x1 to the left and k 2 ( x 2  x1 ) to the right. From the first constraint equation.

let us assume that mass m1 moves by H x1 . its height is y and the distance of the left edge of the wedge is x (see figure) then the constraint is expressed as 82 . their movements are connected because the piston moves on the surface of the wedge. the constraint force specific to the piston¶s movement on the surface of the wedge is the normal reaction of the wedge surface on the piston. ¹ º 6. Again these two forces must be equal for equilibrium and we will obtain this by applying the principle of virtual work. In the present context. Then the virtual work done will be HW !  k1 x1Hx1  k 2 ( x 2  x1 )Hx1  FHx 2  k 2 ( x 2  x1 )Hx 2 Equating this to zero and therefore the coefficients of H x1 and H x 2 to zero gives k1 x1 ! k 2 ( x 2  x1 ) and F ! k 2 ( x 2  x1 ) This gives x1 ! ¨1 F 1 and x 2 ! F ©  ©k k1 ª 1 k2 ¸ ¹. (ii) Normal reactions on all the surfaces are the constraint forces.7 (i) There is only one degree of freedom. (iii) if the distance of the middle line of the piston is at a distance a from the origin. k1 m1 k2 m2 F x1 x2 As the mass m2 is moved by a virtual displacement H x 2 . Although the piston moves in the vertical direction and the wedge in the horizontal direction.acting on m2 are F and k 2 ( x 2  x1 ) to the left.

m x a U y F y ! .

The virtual work is HW !  FH x  mgH y ! . and equating the total virtual work to zero.a  x tan U   H y ! H x tan U Now the method of virtual work is applied by considering x as the free variable. varying it by Hx.

8 When the equilibrium angle is U. the distances of various points (see figure) . taking A as the origin are as follows x B ! l sin U 2 x D ! l sin U 2 y C ! 2l cos U 2 The force on the two points B and D due to the spring is U¸ ¨ k © l 2  2l sin ¹ 2º ª to the left on B and to the right on D 83 . F  mg tan U x H Equating the coefficient of Hx to zero gives F ! mg tan U 6.

Substituting in the equation above. Thus there is only one degree of freedom.A x B D U y C W It is clear that we need only one parameter U to specify the system. For very small value of therefore we have U !  x . kl 2 2 kl where x is very small. we get 84 . In that situation l U Hx B !  HU cos 2 2 xD ! l U HU cos 2 2 y C ! lHU sin U 2 Thus the total virtual work done as U is changed by HU is « ¨ U¸l U U¸l U U» ¨ HW ! ¬k © l 2  2l sin ¹ cos  k © l 2  2l sin ¹ cos  mgl sin ¼HU 2º2 2 2º2 2 2½ ª ­ ª Vanishing of the virtual work then implies « ¨ U¸l U U¸l U U» ¨ ¬ k © l 2  2l sin 2 ¹ 2 cos 2  k © l 2  2l sin 2 ¹ 2 cos 2  mgl sin 2 ¼ ! 0 º ª º ­ ª ½ Or equivalently 2  2 sin If U ¨ mg ¸ U !© ¹ tan 2 ª kl º 2 mg T T mg ! 0 then the solution is U ! . Now let us make a virtual displacement by changing U by HU .

x ¸ ¨ mg ¸ ¨ Q x ¸ ¨ 2  2 sin © 45 Q ¹ ! © ¹ tan © 45  ¹ 2 º ª kl º ª 2º ª Since x is small. we get by Taylor series expansion 2 x¸ x 1 ¨ x¸ ¨ sin © 45  ¹ ! sin 45Q cos 45 Q } ©1  ¹ 2º 2 2 ª 2º ª x¸ x ¨ tan © 45  ¹ ! tan 45 Q sec 2 45Q } .

Thus it is the tension in the rope that is the force of constraint. (iii) A virtual displacement would be to displace the bar by an angle HU from its equilibrium position. Hence the two variables cannot vary independently since the length of the rope is foxed (constraint). Therefore there is only one degree of freedom in the system. 85 . Therefore the tension does positive work at one end of the rope and exactly equal but negative work at the other end. we would require two variables. It is enforced by the tension that develops in the rope. the midpoint of the bar moves by the same distance as the mass connected to the rope.  x 1 2º 2 ª Thus the equation for equilibrium is 2 2 1 ¨ ©1  2ª x ¸ ¨ mg ¸ ¹(1  x) ¹!© 2 º ª kl º   ¨ 1 mg ¸ mg  x© ¹! ª 2 kl º kl Or to a good approximation x! mg kl 2 Thus U! T mg  2 kl 2 6. The sum of the work done by the tension then vanishes. This tension makes the movement of the bar and the mass restricted. Since the length of the rope is fixed. (ii) The constraint is the length of the rope remaining constant. the two are connected by a rope. However.9 (i) Even if we consider only one dimensional motion. one the angle that the bar makes with the vertical and the other describing the position of the mass.

(iv) Let us say we make a virtual displacement of the bar by turning it counterclockwise by an angleHU from the vertical. The weight has a tendency to fall down so the torque applied is such that it tends to pull the weight up. Then the end of the rod moves by lHU in the direction of the force. At the same time. Thus the mass moves by opposite to the gravitational force (see figure) F HU l HU 2 m The net virtual wok therefore is l HW ! FlHU  mg HU 2 Equating this to zero then gives F! mg 2 6. the virtual displacement of the mass is equal to the movement of the midpoint of the bar. the weight will be lifted up by the corresponding distance Hy. By the method of virtual work then we have KHU  WHy ! 0 This gives K !W Hy HU 86 .10 Initially the bars are at 90r. Thus is a virtual displacement of angle HU is made in the direction of the torque. The corresponding virtual work done by the torque K is KHU and the corresponding work by the gravity is WHy.

the length of the horizontal diagonal decreases by p HU . If the corresponding angle at the 2T vertical corner changes from 90r to 90r+H . As the rod is rotated by angle HU.Next we calculate the relationship betweenHy and HU. then we have (see figure) (90r+H ) K W Change in the length of the horizontal diagonal ¨ ¨ 90 r  HE l ¸ HE l ¸ l ¹ ! 2© l sin 45 r  l © l sin = 2© cos 45 r  HE  ¹! ¹ 2 2 2º 2º 2 ª ª This should equal p HU so we have 2T l 2 HE ! p HU 2T As the angle changes the length of the vertical diagonal changes by ¨ ¨ 90 r  HE l ¸ HE l ¸ l ¹ ! 2© l cos 45 r  l sin 45 r  2© l cos HE  ¹! ¹ © 2 2 2º 2º 2 ª ª Thus we have Hy ! This gives K ! pW 2T l 2 HE ! p HU 2T   Hy p ! HU 2T 87 .

6. Or equivalently the displacement of its two ends is sufficient to describe its orientation.11 (a) For the motion in a plane. 3 2 . the orientation of the rod can be described by the displacement of its centre of mass and the angle it has rotated by about its CM. Thus the degrees of freedom is 2. In that case. (b) We take the vertically down displacement of the two ends as the virtual displacement as shown in the figure. HyCM Hy1 Hy2 Let the centre of mass be at a distance 2L from the left hand end of the rod.

Hy 2  Hy1 ! 1 Hy1  2 Hy 2 . The virtual work 3 3 3 the centre of mass moves down by Hy CM ! Hy1  done by the springs in such a virtual displacement is  ky1Hy1 and  ky 2Hy 2 respectively while that by the weight of the rod is WHy CM ! gives 2W W Hy1  Hy 2  ky1Hy1  ky 2Hy 2 ! 0 3 3 W 2W Hy1  Hy 2 . Thus equating the net virtual work to zero 3 3 Now equating the coefficient of each independent displacement to zero gives y1 ! W 3k y2 ! 2W 3k 88 .

y). ªxº Unit vectors are given by Ö r! Ö Ö Ö j xi  yÖ Ö  yi  xj and J ! r r T TÖ Ö T T Ö Ö At each point the velocity v is given as .1 For Cartesian coordinates (x. J>270r. 270r>J>180r and if y<0 and x>0. If y<0 and x<0. the planar polar coordinates are r ! x 2  y 2 and ¨ y¸ J ! tan 1 © ¹ .Chapter 7 7.

2 .v .J J .r r  v . Thus for (iv) v ! 2iÖ  3 Ö for j 7.

13 a particle at (-2.-3). the velocity is .

 2iÖ  3 Öj  .

 2i  3 j rÖ  .

 2iÖ  3 Öj  .

3 The two points with polar coordinates vectors are shown in the figure below .3i  2 j JÖ !  5rÖ  12J Ö Ö Ö Ö 13 13 Ö 7.

r1 .J1 and .

J 2 and the corresponding T r2 T T r1  r2 Ö J1 Ö J2 (J2J1) J2 J1 T r1 T T (i) As is clear from the figure. the angle between the vectors r1 and r2 is .r2 .

This also the J Ö Ö Ö Ö angle between unit vectors r1 and r2 and unit vectors J1 and J 2 . Therefore Ö Ö Ö Ö r1  r2 ! J1  J 2 ! cos . 2  J1 .

J 2  J1 89 .

angle between r1 and J 2 is  .T T T T Ö Ö Similarly.

J 2  J1 and that between r2 and J1 is  .

2 2 Therefore ¸ ¨T Ö Ö r1  J 2 ! cos©  J 2  J1 ¹ !  sin .J 2  J1 .

J 2  J1 º ª2 ¸ ¨T Ö Ö r2  J1 ! cos©  (J 2  J1 ) ¹ ! sin .

J 2  J1 º ª2 T T Ö Similarly. from the figure r1 v r2 ! sin .

J 2  J1 z T T r1  r2 ! r12  r22  2r1 r2 cos.

cos J ! 2 3 13 Therefore the radial and tangential components of the velocity at the highest point are 90 .4 The trajectory of the projectile is shown schematically in the figure below.5 3m . Similarly. sin J ! 1 13 . 2  J1 J (ii) (iii) 7. The vertical component of the velocity at this point vanishes while the horizontal component is 5 3ms -1 .25m) is 2. the vertical component of the acceleration is 10ms-2 vertically down. The horizontal distance from the origin to the point of highest elevation (height 1.5 3m From the figure it is clear that for the point of highest elevation tan J ! 1. Also shown in the figure are unit vectors in the radial and the tangential directions at the highest point and on the ground.5 3 ! 1 2 3 .25 2. Ö J 5 3ms -1 J Ö r Ö J 1.25m Ö r 2.

the radial unit vector points towards positive x direction and the tangential unit vector is in the negative y direction.5 The position of the particle at time t is shown in the figure below. Therefore v r ! 5 3ms 1 vJ ! 5ms 1 Similarly. its radial and tangential components are ar ! 0 aJ ! 10 ms 2 7. Thus the radial component of the velocity is its x component and the tangential component is its y component. since the gravitational acceleration on the ground is in the negative y direction. 2ms-1 1 J 2t The polar coordinates of the particle at time t are given as r ! 4t 2  1 Therefore  r! 4t 4t  1 2 ¨1¸ J ! tan 1 © ¹ ª 2t º  J ! 2 4t  1 2 91 .v r ! 5 3 cos J ! 5 3 v 2 3 30 ms 1 ! 13 13 vJ ! 5 3 sin J ! 5 3 ms 1 13 Similarly the radial and tangential components of the acceleration are a r ! 10 sin J !  10 13 ms  2 aJ ! 10 cos J ! 20 3 ms  2 13 On the ground.

This gives the velocity in polar coordinates as T Ö  Ö v ! rr  rJJ ! Differentiating the velocity vector gives T dv ! dt 4t 4t  1 2 Ö r 2 4t  1 2 Ö J 4 4t  1 2 Ö r 16t 2 .

4t 2 2  1 32 Ö r 4t 4t  1 2  Ö r 8t .

 7. we get the acceleration above to 4t  1 4t  1 be zero.6 (i) Kepler¶s second law states that the rate of the area swept ( ! A) by the radius vector is constant.4t 2  1 32 Ö J 2 4t  1 2  Ö J  Ö Ö Now substituting r ! JJ !  2 2 Ö  Ö Ö Ö J and J ! J r ! 2 r . 92 . This can be expressed as (see figure for the symbols used)  1  A ! r 2J ! constant 2 T r J Sun Now differentiating the equation above with respect to time gives 1 2  r J rrJ ! 0 2     r 2J 2 rrJ ! 0 The expression on the right is the tangential acceleration. Thus Kepler¶s second law gives tangential acceleration to be zero.

(ii) Since the tangential acceleration is zero. the force is only in the radial direction. Acceleration in the radial direction is   a r ! r rJ 2 .

We differentiate the orbit equation r !  r! r0 with respect to time to get 1  e cos J !   r 2Je sin J 2 Ae sin J ! r0 r0  r0 e sin JJ .

7.7 It is given that  m !  F sin [ t x  m ! F cos [ t y which gives  F ! msec [ t y Now write y ! x tan [t and differentiate it twice with respect to t to get  ! tan [t  2 x[ sec 2 [t  2[ 2 x sec 2 [t tan [t    y x This gives    F ! m ! m tan [t  2 x[ sec 2 [t  2[ 2 x sec 2 [t tan [t sec [t y x . differentiating the equation above once more with respect to time.1  e cos J 2  Since A is constant. we get   2 Ae cos JJ ! ! r r0 This gives ar !  4 A 2 ¨ r0 ¸ 2  ©  1¹  rJ 2 r ªr º 2 ¨ r0  4A 4 A2 ¸ ! ©  1¹  r 4 r0 r 2 ª r r º 2  ¨ 4A ¸ 1 ! © © r ¹ r2 ¹ ª 0 º ¸ ¨ r 2 A© 0  1¹J 2 º ! 4 A ¨ r0  1¸ ªr ¹ © r0 r0 r 2 ª r º This shows that the force is proportional to r2.

 x Substitute this in m !  F sin [ t to get 93 .

 !  tan [t  2 x[ sec 2 [t  2[ 2 x sec 2 [t tan [t sin [t sec [t    x x .

we have T T Ö v . Multiplying and rearranging terms gives  ! 2[ x tan [t  2[ 2 x tan 2 [t   x The equation does not appear to be easily ingrable.   7.r ! v cos 45r   This gives 2t ! 4t 2  t 4  1  2t 2 ! 2 t 4  6t 2  1 2 .8 It is given that r ! 2t and J ! 1rad s 1 (i) r (t )  Since r (0) ! 1 . integrating the equation for r gives t 2 2 ´ dr ! ´ 2t ' dt '   r (t )  1 ! t or equivalently r (t ) ! t  1 1 0 T Ö Ö  Ö Ö (ii) v ! rr  rJJ ! 2tr  (t 2  1)J If the velocity vector is at 45r to the radius vector.

2trÖ  (t 2 Ö Ö  1)J .r ! 1 .

4t 2 2  (t 2  1) 2 Squaring both sides gives 8t 2 ! t 4  6t 2  1 OR t 4  2t 2  1 ! 0 This is equivalent to .

t (iii) 2  1 ! 0   t ! 1s a r !  rJ 2 ! 0 r  2 Radial acceleration zero implies .

  r ! 2t   r! 2 which leads to 2  t 2  1 ! 0 giving t ! 1s .

9 Free body diagram of the bead when its radius vector is making an angle U (increasing as the particle slides down) from the vertical is shown below 94 . This also gives the distance from the origin to be r (t ! 1) ! 1  1 ! 2m 7.

N R U U mg Taking the components of the forces in the radial and tangential directions and equating these to mass times the radial and tangential components of the acceleration. respectively. gives In the radial direction In the tangential direction 2  N  mg cos U ! m r rU .

  mg sin U ! m rU 2 rU .

  Since the particle moves on a path of constant radius r ! R . this gives 2 N  mg cos U !  mRU  g sin U ! RU 2   1 dU . we have r ! r! 0 When substituted in the equations above. we get from the second equation above Now using U! 2 dU  RU! which gives upon integration  R dU 2 ! g sin U 2 dU R  U 2 ! g ´ sin U dU ! g .

 cos U   1 2 0 U  1 RU 2 ! 2 g .

this gives N ! m.  cos U 2 When substitutes in the equation N  mg cos U !  mRU .

3g cos U  2 g 7.10 The free body diagram of the bead at equilibrium is shown in the figure below. 95 .

N U mg [ The horizontal components of the normal reaction N provides the centripetal force while the vertical component balances the weight of the bead.11 Since N ! 1 2 t . N ! t   and N ! 1   Thus a r !  rJ 2 ! 2  t 4 and aJ ! rJ 2 rJ ! t 2  4t 2 ! 5t 2 r  . Thus N sin U ! mx[ 2 N cos U ! mg Dividing the first equation by the second one gives x[ 2 tan U ! g The slope of the curve is also equal to tan U . we have 2 and  r ! 2N ! t 2 . Thus x[ 2 dy ! ! 4cx 3 g dx This gives x! [2 [ [4 4 and y ! cx ! ! 4cg 2 cg 16cg 2 7. r ! 2t   r! 2 .

.

12 We know that Ö Ö Ö r ! sin U cos J i  sin U sin J Ö  cos U k j 96 . 7.

Ö Ö Ö U ! cos U cos J i  cos U sin J Ö  sin U k j Ö Ö J !  sin J i  cos J Ö j Therefore  Ö Ö  Ö  U ! Usin U cos J iÖ  J cos U sin J i  U sin U sin J Ö  J cos U cos J Ö  Ucos U k j  j Ö   Ö ! U sin U cos J iÖ  sin U sin J Ö  cos U k  J cos U  sin J i  cos J Ö j j .

.

Ö Ö  ! U r  J cos U J Similarly  Ö  J ! J cos J iÖ  sin J Ö j  Ö ! J sin U r  cos U UÖ .

.

13 Since m3 3 ! T2  m3 g  y ¸ ¨ 4 m1 m 2  © m1  m 2 ¹ m3 º ª © ¹ 4m1 m 2  ¨ m1  m 2 ¸ m 3 ª º  We get from the solution 3 ! y g T2 ! m3 4m1 m 2  . 7.

m1  m 2 m3 g  m3 g 4m1 m2  .

we get 8m1m 2 m3 g 4m1m 2  .m1  m2 m3 ! From T2  2T1 ! 0 .

m1  m 2 m3 T1 ! Now from m1 1 ! T1  m1 g we get  y 1 !  y And from m2 2 ! T1  m 2 g we get  y 2 !  y 4m1m 2 m3 g 4m1 m2  .

m1  m 2 m3 3m 2 m3  4m1 m2  m1 m3 g 4m1 m2  .

m1  m2 m3 3m1 m3  4m1m2  m 2 m3 g 4m1 m2  .

m1  m2 m3 97 .

7.14 l m [ T2 T1 (i) The tension in the outermost string provides the centripetal force for the outermost bead. Let the tension in this string be T1. Then T1 ! Nml[ 2 Similarly. Thus T2  T1 ! ( N  1) ml[ 2   T2 ! . centripetal force for the second bead from outer end is provided by the difference in the tension T2 in the second string and tension T1 in the first string.

2 N  1 ml[ 2 Extending further T3  T2 ! ( N  2) ml[ 2 T4  T3 ! ( N  3) ml[ 2   T3 ! .

3 N  3 ml[ 2   T4 ! .

In general we can write for the ith string from the outside. 2  1  0a ml[ 2 ( A i (i  1) » « 2 ! ¬iN  ¼ ml[ 2 ½ ­ 2 iml[ ! . Ti ! Ti 1  ?N  (i  1) Aml[ 2 ! Ti  2  ?N  (i  2) Aml[ 2  ?N  (i  1)Aml[ 2  .- This is then easily seen to be Ti ! ?iN  _ i  1)  (i  2)  (i  3)  ..4 N  6 ml[ 2 and so on.

e. Thus we have L ! Nl . we consider the mass of each bead to be distributed over the connecting string whose length we take to be vanishingly small i.2 N  i  1 2 (ii) Now we generalize the result of part (i) to a rope of length L and mass per unit length . . x ! ( N  i )l . To make the transformation from the problem in part (i) to this problem. l p 0 .

we get 98 .L  x ! il and m ! Pl Substituting this in the expression for Ti above.

( L  x )P[ 2 (2 Nl  il  l ) T ( x ) ! Ti ! 2 P[ 2 ( L  x)(2 L  L  x  l ) ! 2 P[ 2 ( L  x)( L  x  l ) ! 2 On taking limit l p 0 . we then get C! P[ 2 L2 2 and T ( x ) ! P[ 2 2 L  x2 2 . With the condition that the tension vanishes at x=L. as shown in the diagram below T(x) Then T ( x )  T ( x  ( x ) ! P (x [ 2 x   T ( x )  T ( x  (x ) ! P[ 2 x (x T(x+(x) This gives the differential equation  dT ! P[ 2 x dx The solution of this equation is T ( x) ! C  P[ 2 x 2 2 where C is the integration constant. we take a small portion of the rope of length (x at a distance x from the centre O. we then get P[ 2 2 (L  x 2 ) T ( x) ! 2 To get this answer by considering the rope directly. The centripetal force to it is provided by the difference in the tension at its two ends.

The force at its two ends due to the tension in the rope is shown in the diagram below 99 . 7.15 Consider a small section of the rope making a small angle U at the centre of the loop.

The corresponding equations are 100 . polar coordinates of mass m and tension T in the string. Therefore T U ! P RU v R[ 2   T ! PR 2 [ 2 7.16 The relevant coordinates and the free body diagrams of the two masses are shown below r T J y T m M Mg mg We treat the mass m using the polar coordinates as shown in the figure.U/2 U T Tsin(U/2) T For small angle the forces at the ends give a net force towards the centre which is equal to U ¨U ¸ 2T sin © ¹ } 2T ! TU 2 ª2º This provides the required centripetal force for the segment. The total number of unknowns in the problem are : y coordinate of mass M.

 M  ! Mg  T y m  rJ 2 ! mg cos J  T r  .

m.

2 (ii) Free body diagram of the bead is shown below N Thus the equations of motion are  m  ! N sin U x  m  !  N cosU y From the constraint equation   A  cot U !  y x Thus   N sin U ! m. J 2 rJ  mg sin J r   And the constraint equation    r  y ! constant   r  y ! 0 and   ! 0 r y 7.17 (i) After time t. the end of the rod that was at the origin has moves by a distance Thus the relationship between the x and y coordinates will be y ! tan U 1 2 x  At 2   y cot U ! x  1 2 At 2 1 2 At .

A  cot U   N ! mA cos ecU  mcot U cos ecU y y which gives  N cos U ! mA cot U  mcot 2 U y Thus   m !  mA cot U  mcot 2 U y y    mcos ec 2U ! mA cot U y 101 .

A sin 2U 7. y) at time t.18 Suppose the lower corner with angle U is at the origin at t=0. the mass 2 quite simple: when the wedge moves by horizontal distance should move vertically down by 1 2 gt and the relationship between the two at 2 1 gt 2 minimum acceleration is 2 2 ! tan U   A ! g cot U . 1 At 2 (ii) For the particle not to move with respect to the wedge.  !  g which gives A ! g cot U i.  x The free body diagram of the mass is as follows 102 . we have ! 0  y which implies ! A .e.Or  !  A cos U sin U !   y A sin 2U 2 (iii)  Integrating the equation above with the condition y (0) ! 0 and y (0) ! d gives y (t ) ! d  A sin 2U t 2 4 Thus the bead will take time t ! 4d to reach the lower end. This implies   A  cot U !  y x (i)  Now if the mass falls vertically down. The interpretation is 1 2 At . the y wedge accelerates to the right with acceleration g cot U . the relationship between these coordinates is y ! tan U 1 2 x  At 2   y cot U ! x  1 2 At 2 if the acceleration of the wedge is A. Then if the position of the mass is (x.

9  m2 ! N 1 sin U x  M 1 !  N 1 sin U x 2 ! (   2 ) tan U    y x1 x N1 ! mg cos U m ¸ ¨ sin 2 U ¹ ©1  M º ª  This gives (assuming x1 (0) ! x1 (0) ! 0 ) m g cosU sin U M  !  x1 m ¸ ¨ 2 ©1  sin U ¹ º ª M Similarly 2 !  x g cos U sin U m ¸ ¨ sin 2 U ¹ ©1  M º ª This gives 103 .Y N X Thus we have by the conditions above N cos U ! mg  N sin U ! mA which gives A !  g tan U 7.19 From example 7.

we have 2T  k .20 The coordinates used in solving the problem are shown in the figure below P1 P2 T h1 y1 y2 y3 m P3 T T T m h2 Let the tension in the string be T.m¸ ¨ 2 ¹ g sin U ©1  Mº 2 !  ª  y m ¸ ¨ sin 2 U ¹ ©1  M º ª Thus if mass m starts from height h. it will take time t! 2h ! 2  y 2h (m  M cos ec 2U ) (m  M ) g And at this time the speed of the wedge will be 1t ! m cot U  x 2 gh ( m  M )( m  M cos ec 2U ) 7. The equations of motion for the two masses are  m1 ! T  mg y  m2 ! T  mg y And since the pulley P3 is massless.

y 3  h ! 0 104 .

the constraint is expressed as . If the heights of the two fixed pulley are h1 (for P1) and h2 (for P2).Thus we have four unknowns y1. y3 and T but only three equations. One more equation is provided by the constraint equation. y2. The constraint is that the length of the string is a constant.

h1  y1  .

h1  y 3  .

h2  y 3  .

1  2 ! 2 3    y y y Now adding the equations of motion for the two masses gives   m. or equivalently as y1  2 y 3  y 2 ! const .h2  y 2 ! const .

1  2 ! 2T  2mg y y    y y y On substituting 1  2 ! 2 3 and 2T ! k .

y 3  h from the equations above. we get   2 m3 ! ky 3  kh  2 mg y This gives 3   y kh ¸ k ¨ y3 ! © g  ¹ 2m 2m º ª The general solution of the equation above is the sum of its homogeneous solution yh(t) and the particular solution yp(t). Thus 2m These give A! 2 mg k B!0 Thus 105 . We have y h (t ) ! A cos [t  B sin [t y p (t ) ! h  2mg k Here A and B are two constants to be determined by the initial conditions and [ ! the general solution is 2mg ¸ ¨ y 3 (t ) ! A cos [t  B sin [t  © h  ¹ k º ª Now the initial condition is y 3 (t ! 0) ! h  y 3 ( t ! 0) ! 0 k .

y 3 (t ) ! h  2mg ¨ k ¸ ©1  cos t¹ k © 2m ¹ ª º This immediately gives through the equation 2T  k .

there are three constraints: The length of the string is fixed. mass m1 moves only in the vertical shaft and mass m2 moves on the plane of the wedge. (ii) The origin and the coordinate axes chosen to describe the motion are given in the figure below. Since it is gives that y1 (t ! 0) ! 0 and y1 (t ! 0) ! h . we get y1 (t ) ! h  In exactly tha same manner we get y 2 (t ) ! h  2mg ¨ k ¸ ©1  cos t¹ k © 2m ¹ ª º 2mg ¨ k ¸ ©1  cos t¹ k © 2m ¹ ª º 7. Also shown are the free-body diagrams of the three masses 106 .y 3  h ! 0 ¨ k ¸ t¹ T ! mg ©1  cos © 2m ¹ ª º This gives 1 !  g cos  y k t 2m  This is easily integrated. However. m1 and m2 move both horizontally as well as vertically. Thus there are only two degrees of freedom. These constraints reduce the degrees of freedom to 2. Thus we would have had 5 degree of freedom.21 (i) Wedge m3 is free to move only in the horizontal direction.

N2. N3 and T. The equations of motion are:  (i) m1 ! N 1 x  m1 ! T  m1 g y (ii ) (iii ) ( v) ( vi)  m3 3 !  N 1  N 2 sin U  T cos U x  (iv ) m 2 2 ! N 2 sin U  T sin U x  m 2 2 ! N 2 cos U  T sin U  m 2 g y 1 N 3 ! T . x2. x3. y1.m1 m2 y1 x1 x2 x3 m3 y2 U T T N1 m1g N1 T N2 m3 T N2 m2g m2g N3 We see that there are in total 8 unknowns: x1. y2. N1.

 sin U  N 2 cos U  m 3 g y 2 ! .

x3  x 2 tan U 2 ! .

3  2 tan U    y x x (ix ) These are the equations of motion.   ( vii) ( viii ) . In addition there are three constraint equations.

h  y1  .

1 ! 3  x  .x 2  x1 sec U ! const .

x3  x1 ! const .   x  x x   y  1  .

2  1 sec U ! 0 107 .

(iii). There are a total of nine variables and nine equations. Of these equation (vi) is not relevant for the motion since the wedge moves only in the horizontal direction. h is the height of the wedge. Equations (i).In the above. (iv) and (ix) give   m3 1 !  m1 1  N 2 sin U  T cos U x x   x x !  m1 1  m 2 2 which gives   .

Similarly equation (iv) and (v) along with (ii) give   m 2 2 cos U  m 2 2 sin U ! T  m 2 g sin U x y  !  m1 1  m1 g  m 2 g sin U y   y y Now substituting for 1 from (viii) and 2 from (vii) and using (ix).m1  m3 1  m 2 2 ! 0 x x This is the equation expressing momentum conservation in the horizontal direction. we get      m2 2 cos U  m2 .

  2 tan U sin U !  m1 .

2   sec U  m1 g  m 2 g sin U x x1 x x x1 Which is equivalent to      m 2 2 cos 2 U  m 2 .

1  2 sin 2 U !  m1 .

2    .

m1  m 2 sin U g cos U x x x x x1    1 .

m1  m2 2  .

m1  m2 sin 2 U x ! .

m1  m2 sin U g cos U x    x Now using .

we eliminate 2 from the equation above to get x x  This gives  !  x1 m2 .m1  m 3 1  m 2 2 ! 0 .

m1  m 2 sin U g cos U  ! 3 x 2 m  2m1 m2  m1m3  m2 m 3  m2 sin 2 U 2 1 .

m1  m2 .

m1  m3   .

 m x m2 1 1  x1  m2 sin 2 U  ! .

m1  m 2 sin U g cosU   And using .

we then get x x 2 !   x .m1  m 3 1  m 2 2 ! 0 .

m1  m3 .

m1  m2 sin U g cosU 2 m  2m1m 2  m1 m3  m2 m 3  m2 sin 2 U 2 1 Now using equation (viii) we get 1 !   y .

m1  m2  m3 .

m1  m2 sin U g 2 m  2m1 m 2  m1 m3  m2 m 3  m2 sin 2 U 2 1 108 .

Using equation (vii). we get 2 !  y As m3 p g . we get  ! 3 ! 0 2 !     x1 x x .

m1  m2  m3 .

m1  m2 sin U g sin U 2 m12  2m1m2  m1m3  m2 m 3  m2 sin 2 U .

m1  m2 sin U g cos U .

m1  m2 1 !   y .

m1  m2 sin U g .

m1  m2 2 !  y .

m1  m2 sin U g sin .

there is no net force on the rope or any part of it. Thus from the free body diagram of the rope F ! QMg From the free body diagram of the left portion of the rope F  T ( x)  Q . The free body diagrams (showing only the horizontal forces) of the rope and these two parts are shown below x Friction F F Friction T(x) T(x) Friction Since the rope is moving with constant speed.m1  m2 7.22 Consider two parts of the rope x and (L-x) in length.

L  x Mg M xg ! 0   T ( x) ! Q L L T ( x) ! Q Or from the free body diagram of the right portion of the rope .

L  x L Mg 109 .

It is also instructive to solve the problem by considering a small portion of length dx at distance x from the left and balancing the forces there to get a differential equation for T(x). The free body diagram of such a portion is as given below dx T(x) Friction dx Mg L dT ( x ) M ! g dx L T(x)+dT(x) T ( x )  .

T ( x)  dT ( x) !   With the condition that T(L) = 0. the equation above can be integrated to get T ( x) ´ dT !  0 M g dx d L ´ L x   T ( x) ! .

Free body diagrams of the two blocks are shown below friction F mg N N friction Mg Normal reaction M If the entire system is moving with acceleration a then N ! Ma F  N ! ma This gives a! F M m and N! M F M m If mass m is not falling then 110 .23 The force applied should be such that the frictional force on mass m is sufficient to balance its weight.L  x Mg L 7.

friction ! QN ! Q Thus .

M  m mg M F u mg   F u M m QM Fmin ! .

we get Fmin ! 104 v 16 v 9.8 ! 487 .24 The forces on the bead are: Its weight. M=88kg. Q=0.M  m mg QM For m=16kg. normal reaction NV in the vertical direction and normal reaction NH in the horizontal direction.7 N 0.8ms-2.38 and g=9.38 v 88 7. Thus the free body diagram of the bead is as follows (assuming the rotating arm is going into the page) NV friction NH mg Ö r These force provide the radial and the tangential acceleration given by T   Ö a !  rJ 2 r  rJ 2 rJ J r  Ö .

.

we have T Ö   Ö a ! . Since the rod is rotating with a constant angular speed [.

we get for stationary bead mR[ 2 e Qmg 2   [0 ! Qg R 111 . we have T Ö a !  R[ 2 r This gives N V ! mg NH ! 0 friction ! mR[ 2 Since friction e Q v N . r[ 2 r  2 r[J r (i) If the bead is stationary at r=R.

The equation describing the motion of the bead is then   r[ 2 ! 2 Qr[  r OR   r 2 Q[r  [ 2 r ! 0 Assuming a solution of the form r (t ) ! e Pt and substituting it in the equation above we get P2  2 Q[P  [ 2 ! 0 Solution of this equation gives P1 ! [ 1  Q 2  Q Thus the general solution is .(ii) If [ "" [ 0 and negligible weight of the bead. we have N V ! mg  N H ! 2mr[   N ! m g 2  4r 2[ 2 } 2r[  friction !  QN } 2 Qmr[ The minus sign for the friction shows that since the bead slides outwards. the frictional force in inwards.

and A P 2 ! [ 1  Q 2  Q .

A r (t ) ! A exp [t 1  Q 2  Q  B exp  [t 1  Q 2  Q ?.

? .

 Here A and B are to be determined by the initial conditions that r (t ! 0) ! R and r (t ! 0) ! 0 . Thus AB ! R .

1  Q 2  Q A  1 Q2  Q B ! 0 .

The solution is 2 R ¨ 1 Q  Q ¸ © ¹ and A! 2 ¹ 2© 1 Q ª º 2 R ¨ 1 Q  Q ¸ © ¹ B! 2 ¹ 2© 1 Q ª º Thus the distance of the bead from the center is given as r (t ) ! R 2 1 Q 2 _ 1 Q .

2  Q exp [t 1  Q 2  Q  ?.

.

1  Q A 2  Q exp  [t 1  Q 2  Q ? .

a A 7.25 The solution for the distance travelled by the particle is x (t ) ! F k « m  .

m t » k ¬t  k 1  e ¼ ­ ½ .

112 .

the first nonzero term we get is ¸ 1 k2 2 m¨ k ©1  1  t  t  higher order terms ¹ t © ¹ 2 m2 kª m º ! This gives x (t ) ! 1F 2 t 2m 1 k 2 t 2m 7.26 The equation of motion for the particle is  ! g   y k  y OR m   y k  y ! g m The solution of the homogeneous equation   y k  y!0 m is ¨ k ¸  y ! A exp©  t ¹ ª m º Here A is a constant to be determined by the initial conditions. This gives A ! v0  mg k Thus mg ¸ ¨ k ¸ mg ¨  y (t ) ! © v 0  ¹ exp©  t ¹  k º ª m º k ª 113 . we can¶t substitute this directly in the formula since we are dividing by k in the expression above. In this limit. Thus we take the limit k p 0 . The particular solution is  y! mg k Therefore the full solution is ¨ k ¸ mg  y ! A exp©  t ¹  ª m º k  Now the initial condition is y (t ! 0) ! v 0 .For k=0.

In that case (up to order k)   114 . let us see the time change in the limit of very small k.t up  t dn  m ¨ v0  mg ¸«1  exp¨  k t up ¸ exp¨  k t dn ¸» ¹¼ © ¹ © ¹ © k º¬ kª k ª m º½ ª m º ­ Thus tdn will be given by solving mg mg t dn t up !  k k OR t up ! t dn  mg 1« ¸ ¾» ¨ k ¯1  exp©  t dn ¹¿¼ ¬v0  k g­ ª m º À½ v0 m « ¸» ¨ k  ¬1  exp©  t dn ¹¼ g k ­ ª m º½ « » ¬ ¼ mg ¸ mg k m¨ ¸¼ ¨ k ¬1   © v0  exp©  t dn ¹ ¹ mg ¸ k º¬ ¨ kª ª m º¼ ¬ © v0  k ¹ ¼ º ­ ª ½ ! t dn  To understand whether tup is larger or tdn is larger.

¼ ! 0  2 k © mg ¹ k ­ mg 2 m 2 g 2 ª º ½ g 2 mg And tdn is given by solving t up ! t dn  v0 m « ¸» ¨ k  ¬1  exp©  t dn ¹ ¼ g k ­ ª m º½ v0 m « k 1 k2 2 » t dn ¼ } t dn   ¬1  1  t dn  g k ­ m 2 m2 ½ v 1 k 2 ! 0  t dn g 2m This gives t 2 dn 2mv 0 2m 2 ¨ kv 0 ¸ !  2 ln©1  © mg ¹ ¹ kg k ª º } 2mv 0 2m 2  2 kg k 2 3 ¨ kv 0 1 k 2 v0 1 k 3 v0 ¸ ©    .27 It is given that v0 ! 100 ms 1 and U ! 45r . the average speed is smaller since the particle has lost energy due to viscosity and continues to do so..... This makes sense because the while coming down. Therefore v0 sin U ! v0 cos U ! 50 2ms 1 . 115 ..t up ! 2 2 » v 1 kv 0 m ¨ kv 0 ¸ m « kv 0 1 k 2 v 0 ¹} ¬ ln ©1    . this approximation will be valid only if 1 5....¹ 2 2 3 3 © mg 2 m g ¹ 3m g ª º 2 3 v0 2 kv 0 ! 2  3 mg 3 g Therefore t dn v ! 0 g ¨ 2 kv 0 ¸ ©1  © 3 mg ¹ ¹ ª º 12 } 2 v0 1 kv0  g 3 mg 2 A comparison shows that tup is smaller than tdn. This also gives the total time of flight to be (up to order k) T ! t up  t dn ! 2 2v 0 5 kv 0  6 mg 2 g 2 kv 0 mg 2 However. It is also given that g ! 10 ms 2 .

62 13.2 v 0 sin 2 U (i) Height = ! 250m 2g Range = 2v0 sin U v cos U ! 1000m g (ii) When k { 0 . Height = 202m For k=0.29 12.14 s .5 13 12.07?  exp(0.58 It is clear from the Table above that the expression on the right was smaller than T till T=13s and becomes larger at 12. from the expression derived in the problem above.8s. we tabulate T and the right hand side of the equation above to find T for T e 14 T 14 13. Height = 172.05T )A OR T ! 27.3m To find the range. From the solution of the previous problem.5 27.1. this gives 200T ! 5414?  exp(0. we know that the time of flight T is given by solving mg ¸ « m¨ mg ¨ k ¸» T ! © v 0 sin U  ¹ ¬1  exp©  T ¹ ¼ k º­ kª k ª m º½ For k=0. Thus the time of flight will be between 13 and 12. we get with the initial vertical speed v0 sin U mv 0 sin U m 2 g ¨ kv 0 sin U Height =  2 ln ©1  © k k mg ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º Substituting the values .07?  exp(0. we get For k=0.5s.13 to find the horizontal distance travelled. we first fine the total time of flight and then use formula derived in example 7. 116 .05T )A 1 1 Since the time of flight without drag is 2v0 sin U ! 14. and as the result of the problem g shows the time of flight becomes smaller for k { 0 .05T )A 1 13.5s.93 12.2. A little more tabulation gives T=12.1.

Substituting this in x(T ) ! Since t up ! m v o cos U .

75s.1T )A 1 1 Making a table like above gives T=11.1T )A OR T ! 17.07?  exp(0. For k=0.05 s .2.8s and Range x(T ) ! (iii) mv o cos U . This confirms numerically that time ¹ º taken to come down is greater. we get tdn= 6. / m k T . we get Range = 669m 1 e k ? A m ¨ kv 0 sin U ln ©1  k © mg ª ¸ ¹ ! 6. the equation to determine the time of flight is 100T ! 107?  exp(0.

it is the range that is affected much more than the height.1 k=0. we have already found the range for U ! 45r .2 (iv) When drag is introduced. Let us now take the case of k=0. (7.1 and find the range for U ! 40r and U ! 50 r .28) In the problem above. 117 . / m k T 1 e ! 490 m k ? A k=0 k=0.

the equation mg ¸ « m¨ mg ¨ k ¸» T ! © v 0 sin U  ¹ ¬1  exp©  T ¹ ¼ k º­ kª k ª m º½ beomes 200T ! 5286?  exp.For U ! 40r .

05T A or T ! 26.43?  exp. 0.

1 ? A Thus for U ! 40r .05v11. 0.7 = 678m. the range increases. 0. the equation mg ¸ « m¨ mg ¨ k ¸» T ! © v 0 sin U  ¹ ¬1  exp©  T ¹ ¼ k º­ kª k ª m º½ beomes 200T ! 5532?  exp.05T A 1 1 and gives T=11. This gives a range of x(T ) ! 2 v 100 cos 40r 1  e 0.7s. For U ! 50 r .

05T A or T ! 27. 0.66?  exp.

8s. 118 .1 ? A Thus for U ! 50 r the range decreases. For this it is better to have a relatively larger horizontal component of the velocity compared to the case when there is no drag. Thus the angle should be smaller than 45r .8 = 641m.05v13. The two calculations above show that for maximum range. 0. This gives a range of x(T ) ! 2 v 100 cos 50r 1  e 0.05T A 1 1 and gives T=13. Since the horizontal speed reduces as the projectile moves. the projectile should be launched at an angle less than 45r . 0. The reason for this is as follows. it should cover a larger distance in the initial part of the flight.

we change to 1 d 2  y to get the speed as a 2 dy .(7.29) In this case the drag force is proportional to the square of the speed. So the equation of motion will be given as follows for the motion up and motion down (taking vertically up direction to be the positive y direction) Motion up Motion down   m !  mg  ky 2 y   m !  mg  ky 2 y  y Since we are only interested in height.

function of the vertical distance of the ball from the ground. The first equation in that case is k 1 d 2   y  y 2 ! g m 2 dy .

 The solution of this equation is the sum of the solution y 2 ( y ) of the homogeneous equation h 1 d 2 k    y  y 2 ! 0 and a particular solution y 2 ( y ) . These solutions are p 2 dy m .

Therefore ¨ 2k ¸» ¨ 2 k ¸ mg « 0 ! vi2 exp©  h¹  ¬1  exp©  m h ¹¼ º½ ª ª m º k ­ This gives h! m ¨ mg k ln © 2 k © mg k  vi2 ª ¸ m ¨ kv 2 ¸ ¹! ln ©1  i ¹ ¹ 2k © mg ¹ º ª º 119 . This gives A ! vi2  mg k This the speed of the ball as it moves up is ¨ 2k ¸» ¨ 2 k ¸ mg «  y¹  y 2 ( y ) ! vi2 exp©  ¬1  exp©  m y ¹¼ º½ ª ª m º k ­ At the maximum height h. The full solution therefore is ¨ 2k  y 2 ( y ) ! A exp©  ª m ¸ mg y¹  º k  The initial condition is that y 2 ( y ! 0) ! vi2 . the speed becomes zero. mg ¨ 2k ¸   y ¹ and y 2 ( y ) !  y 2 ( y ) ! A exp©  p h k ª m º Here A is a constant to be determined from the initial conditions.

This can be rewritten as k 1 d 2   y  y2 ! g m 2 dy .Now we consider the motion for downward motion.

 Again the solution of this equation is the sum of the solution y 2 ( y ) of the homogeneous h equation 1 d 2 k    y  y 2 ! 0 and a particular solution y 2 ( y ) . These solutions are p 2 dy m .

then v2 !  f vi2 mg k mg  ! k kvi2 kvi2 1 1 mg mg Note that of k=0 then v 2 ! vi2 The answer can also be written as f 1 1 k  2 ! 2 mg v f vi 120 . Thus the complete solution is p h k ªm º ¨ 2k  y 2 ( y ) ! A exp© ªm ¸ mg y¹  º k m ¨ kv i2 ¸ ¹ ln ©1  2k © mg ¹ ª º  Now the initial conditions are y ( y ! h) ! 0 . mg ¨ 2k ¸   y ¹ and y 2 ( y ) ! y 2 ( y ) ! A exp© . with h ! ¨ kv 2 ¸ mg 0 ! A©1  i ¹  © mg ¹ k ª º   A! mg k kv i2 1 mg This gives  y 2 ( y) !  mg k ¨ 2k ¸ mg y¹  exp© 2 kvi ªm º k 1 mg If the final speed is vf. This gives.

Initial momentum in the horizontal direction = momentum of the carriage + momentum of rain = Mv  0 = Mv Final momentum of the system after time t = .Chapter 8 8. the total momentum in the horizontal direction is conserved.1 Since there is no external force on the system in the horizontal direction.

Equating the two moment gives vf ! Mv .M  mt v f Here vf is the final velocity.

2 Since the water leaking out of the carriage still has a horizontal velocity equal to the velocity of the carriage. then the initial momentum of the system (carriage + water in it) = . total momentum of water after it came out for time t is = mtv If the initial amount of water in the carriage was m0.M  mt 8.

M  m 0 v If the aped of carriage (with left over water in it) after time t is vf. then by momentum conservation .

M  m0  mt v f  mtv ! .

2. After she gives the books. let her speed by vf.M  m 0 v   v f ! v 8. Her momentum before transferring the books is Mv . there will be no change in the speeds of the two bicyclists. Consider the person giving the books. Then by momentum conservation Mv ! mv  . This is easily done by considering the momentum of the two friends before and after the books are given by one of them to the other person.3 Exactly like in problem 8.

for the person receiving the books Mv  mv ! .M  m v f   vf ! v Similarly.

Since the relative velocity of the bullet when it leaves the gun is u. Initial momentum is 0. we write only the symbol for it.M  m v f   vf ! v 8.4 Conserve momentum after the first bullet has been fired. the direction is taken care of by the sign) of the gun after the bullet is fired be v1. Let the velocity (since the motion is one dimensional. and the bullet leaves the gun when the gun 121 .

is already moving with v. bullet¶s speed ug with respect to the ground is calculated as follows: u ! u g  v1   u g ! u  v1 Therefore momentum conservation gives ?M 0  .

N  1 mAv1  m.

u  v1 ! 0   v1 !  mu M 0  Nm Now the momentum of the gun and .

N  1 bullets in it is  ?M 0  .

N  1 mA mu .

Then momentum conservation gives ?M 0  .M 0  Nm Now let the speed of the gun after the second bullet is fired be v2.

N  2 mAv2  m.

u  v2 ! ?M 0  .

N  1 mA mu .

M 0  Nm   v2 !  mu mu  M 0  Nm M 0  .

N  1 m Similarly one can now show that if the speed after the third bullet is fired is v3 then v3 !  mu mu mu   M 0  Nm M 0  .

N  1 m M 0  .

N  2 m Generalizing this we get after N bullets have been fired v final ! k ! N 1 k !0 § .

4 Ö kg ms1 (ii) velocity of the centre of mass = total momentum/total mass 1 j 0.M 0 mu  ( N  k )m 8.2iÖ  0.3 4 2 ! iÖ  Ö ms 1 j 3 3 ! .2iÖ  0.5 (i) Momentum of the system = sum of the momentum of each particle j = 0.4 Ö 0.

8.6 (i) acceleration of the CM 122 .

T Fnet ! total mass Ö j iÖ ! 0.3 10 Ö Ö i j ! 3 .

8. L/2). z y L x R To obtain the z coordinate of the CM. the x and y coordinates of the CM are (0. as shown in the figure. We thus have to calculate the z coordinate of the CM. is 123 . consider a rectangular sheet of thickness dz at height z. the acceleration is not in the same direction as the momentum of the CM.7 If the base of the cylinder is in the xy plane. z R If the density of the material that the cylinder is made of is V. by definition. as shown in the figure below. the z coordinate of the CM. (ii) No.

This gives z CM 4 ! TR 2 ! ! T 2 ´ R cos U v R sin U v R cos UdU 0 1 4R 2 ´ cos Ud . we substitute z ! R sin U and dz ! R cos UdU .R z CM ! V ´ 2 L R 2  z 2 zdz 0 VL TR 2 2 ! 4 TR 2 R ´ 0 R 2  z 2 zdz To evaluate the integral.

cos U T 0 4R 3T 8.8 (i) CM of a cone shown in the figure below h r z R The CM is on the axis of the cone by symmetry. By similarity of triangles. it radius r is given by r R ! hz h   r ! . we take a thin disc of thickness dz at height z. To calculate its height.

h  z R h If the density of the material that the cone is made of is V. then the position of the CM is given by h z CM ! V ´ z v T r 2 dz 0 1 2 TR hV 3 3 h R2 ! 2 ´ 2 .

2  z 2  2hz ! h zdz 4 R h0h h 124 .

9 Given N particles of masses mi (i=1-N) with total mass M ! § mi at positions ri (i=1-N).It is reasonable that the location of the CM is more towards the base since larger mass of the cone is concentrated there. r R U z The CM will be on the line passing through the centre of the base. then the mass dm of the ring is dm ! 2T rW v R dU ! 2T R 2  z 2 W dz ! 2T R W dz cos U Thus z !R z! R z CM ! z !0 z! R ´ zdm ´ dm 2TRW ! 2TR W z !0 2 ´ zdz ! R 2 z !0 N T 8. (ii) Hemispherical bowl of radius R is shown in the figure below. To calculate its height zCM. sin U ! z . i !1 T position of their CM RCM is given as 125 . R cos U ! r ! R R2  z2 R If the mass per unit area for the shell is W. According to the figure z ! R sin U and dz ! R cosU dU . we take a ring of height dz at height z.

.... It is also clear by symmetry that the CM will be on the extended axis of the cone.T § mi ri T 1 ! RCM ! i !N § mi N i !1 §m r i !1 N T i i M Now let us make m subsystems of these masses with number of particles N1. The position of the CM can i !1 Ni then be written as T § mi ri T 1 ! RCM ! i !N § mi N i !1 T N2 T § mi ri  § mi ri  . 8... T 1 RCM ! i !N ! ! m § mi §Mi N i !1 i !1 m §M i !1 m i !1 i T RCM i i §M This shows that the CM of the system can be calculated by treating each susbsystem as a point particle of mass Mi located at the CM of each subsystem.. N1 i !1 i !1 M N T T T By definition of the CM we have for the position RCMi of each subsystem M i RCMi ! § mi ri .. N2. Taking the axis as the z direction with z = 0 at the base of the cone. N3««Nm in them.10 To find the CM.. i i !1 Thus the expression above can be written as T § mi ri M 1 RCM 1  M 2 RCM 2  . we will treat the cone and the hemisphere as two subsystems. we have z CM ! mass of the sphere v z CM (sphere)  mass of the cone v z CM (cone) total mass Assuming the entire system is made of a material of uniform density. Then we have the mass of each subsystem as M i ! § mi .. we get  z CM ! 2 3 R1 2TR13 H TR2 H v  v 4 2 2 8 3 4 3 !  3 R1  R2 H 2 2TR13 TR 2 H 8 R13  4 R22 H  3 3 126 .

we have X CM ! m. let the position of the CM when the block in on the left be X1 and let it be X2 when the block is on the right.11 Since there is no external force on the system in the horizontal direction. Then the poison of the CM of the block is (X1R) and (X2+R). Taking horizontal direction to be the x-direction. the position of the CM will remain unchanged as the small block moves from one side to the other. Since the CM does not move. respectively.8.

X 1  R  MX 1 ! m .

X 2  R  MX 2 This immediately gives .

X 2  X 1 !  2mR .

12 When the ball is compressed. it looks like shown in the picture below R Rx The radius r of the circular area of contact for x<<R is r ! R 2  .m  M 8.

And the force by the c c 127 .R  x } 2 Rx Thus. the impulse J ! J [ 2J [ and if it is reflected then J ! . If it gets absorbed. it gives it an impulse proportional to its momentum. the force that the ball applies on the wall is F ! T r 2 p ! 2T pRx 2 8. if the pressure in the ball remains unchanged.12 As a photon hits the surface.

On hitting the surface.14 By equation (8. then n ! acN Thus the pressure P (i) (ii) when the light is completely absorbed P ! when light is perfectly reflected P ! acN J [ v ! NJ [ a c acN 2J [ v ! 2 NJ [ a c 8. If the height through which it falls before hitting the lower surface is h then the amount of mass in the air is the rate at which the mass is falling and the time it takes 128 . The major axis of the ellipse is = And the minor axis remains the same as d 2 d 2 d ! 2 2 Thus the cross-sectional are of the ellipse is = Td 2 Vv 2 Thus the pressure on the surface = 4 2 Td 2 2 2 Vv 2 2 Td 2 2 2 ! 8.15 At steady state flow let the mass flow rate from the upper portion of the hour-glass be  m . If the cross-sectional area of the parallel beam of light is a. Thus all the momentum that water stream carries perpendicular to the surface is transferred to it. the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane becomes zero while that parallel to the plane remains unchanged. it makes an elliptical cross sectional area on the surface because the surface is slanted. the force on the planar surface will be equal to momentum transfer per unit time. The momentum carried by the stream of water per second is Its component perpendicular to the surface is Td 2 4 2 Vv 2 Td 2 Td 2 2 Vv v v ! Vv 4 4 When the water stream hits the surface.42b).stream of photons hitting the surface will be nJ where n is the number of particles hitting the surface per second.

it transfers momentum to the hour glass that exactly compensates for the weight in the air. its speed is  the momentum it transfers to the bottom per second is m 2hg . Thus it is m 2h  and its weight is m 2hg . Thus 8. for it to reach the bottom. Thus the hour g glass should have weighed less by this amount.43) for the rocket. This is shown as follows.16 Consider equation (8. As the mass hits the bottom. However as the sand hits the bottom. 2 hg . T T T T ( M  (m) (v ! (m .

This gives in the equation above T T T M(v ! (m u rel  Fext (t 8. This gives momentum change per unit time = Pv 2 . its mass increases at the rate of Pv .9) using equation derived above. This force is = Pgh (ii)If the chain is to be pulled at a constant speed v. u rel ! u  (v  (v ) each time the bullet is fired. The example is solved exactly as done T T T T in the text except that in applying the equation derived above. Thus the total force is Pgh  Pv 2 . This immediately leads to equation (8.50) and the rest is the same as done in the example. we have T T T T u rel ! u  (v  (v ) This is because when the mass leaves the rocket.18 (i) Force needed to hold the chain is equal to the force required to hold the part of the chain hanging vertically.17 Example (8. 8.u  v  Fext (t T Now since the mass coming out leaves the rocket with u rel . it has already achieved velocity T T (v  (v ) . This is the additional force required to provide momentum. This is also seen easily by the rocket equation T T dv dM T M ! u rel  Fext dt dt 129 .

dt This substituted in the rocket equation immediately gives the result derived above. dt dM ! Pv. u rel ! v is dt M (t ) dv ! P v 2  F dt If at a time t. Thus the rocket equation can be rewritten as dt dx dt 2 dx dv 2 P !  Pv 2  F (h  x ) dx 2 This is integrated as V2 2 dv 2 dx ' ´ F  Pv 2 ! P ´ . with dM ! Pv. u rel ! v . (iii) The rocket equation. the length of the chain on the table is x then M (t ) ! P (h  x ) and dv dv dx 1 dv 2 ! ! .T dv Now it is given that ! 0.

h  x' 0 0 x Upon integration this gives 1 ¨ F ln © P ª F  PV 2 ¸ 2 ¨h x¸ ¹   ¹ ! ln © º P ª h º F ¨h x¸ !© ¹ 2 F  PV ª h º 2 Upon solving this gives V ! 1 F 2 x  2 hx .

h  x P .

19 Since the peg is frictionless and the length of the portion of chain passing over the peg is negligible. Taking the tension to be T. the other portion has length (Lx) and the tension in the chain is the same throughout. the equation of motion for the two portions is (see figure) 130 . 8.

The solution of the homogeneous part is 2 L ¨ 2g ¸ ¨ 2g ¸ t¹ t ¹  B exp©  x h (t ) ! A exp© © l ¹ © L ¹ ª º ª º Where A and B are two constants to be determined by the initial conditions. x L L The solution for the equation above is a sum of the solution of the homogeneous equation   x L 2g x ! 0 and the particular solution x p ! . the net force is M 2 Mx  g ?x  ( L  x )A! g  Mg and the acceleration is . Since the total mass being moved is M.T T ( L  x) x(t) M ( L  x) g L M xg L ¨M ¸ ¨M ¸  x ¹ ! © x ¹g  T x © ª L º ª L º M  x   M (L  x) g  T ( L  x)( L  ) ! L L   M M  x (L  x) ! T  ( L  x) g L L Adding the two equations to eliminate T gives  M ! x 2 Mx g  Mg L     x 2g x ! g L This equation is also obtained by direct application. The full solution is 131 .

22 In this case the rocket equation becomes (assuming vertically up direction to be positive) m dv ! Kmu  mg  bmv   dt dv  bv ! .¨ 1000  M ¸ 6 ! 5 ln© ¹ ª 1000 º This gives 1  M ¨6¸ ! exp© ¹   M ! 2320kg 1000 ª5º 8.

Ku  g dt Solution to the equation above is given by the sum of the solution for the homogeneous part and the particular solution. This gives A !  v (t ) ! Ku  g ?  exp( bt )A 1 b 133 . Thus b A is determined by the initial condition v(t ! 0) ! 0 . This gives v(t ) ! A exp( bt )  Ku  g b Pu  g .

we have 1 1 mv 2f  mv i2 ! ´ F ( x) dx 2 2 xi xf Then by the work energy Now in the frame O¶. the corresponding velocities are related to the velocities in frame O as follows v f ! V  v 'f vi ! V  vi' and x ! x'Vt   dx ! dx 'Vdt and t ! t '   dt ! dt ' Substituting this in the work energy theorem gives 1 m v 'f 2 tf .1 Consider a frame the origin O and another frame with origin O¶. Let there be a force F act on a particle.Chapter 9 9. theorem in frame O. the force is the same in the two frames. Frame O¶ is moving with velocity V in the x-direction with respect to frame O.

2 1  m v i' 2 .

 mV .

v 2 ' f v ! ' i ´ F ( x' )dx'  V ´ Fdt d x' i ti x' f tf Now ti is ´ Fdt d noting but the momentum change m.

v tf f  vi ! m.

Thus leads to ti ! ´ Fdt d m. 'f  vi' . which is the same v in both the frames.

v ' f  vi' . when substituted in the equation above 1 m v 'f 2 . This.

 1 m.

2 Kinetic energy of each particle is 134 .v ! ´ F ( x' )dx ' 2 2 ' 2 i x' f x' i Which is the work energy theorem in frame O¶. 9.

5kgms 1 Velocity of the CM therefore is = 0.4 J 2 Thus the total kinetic energy of the system is = 0. 3 2 PCM 0.1 v 0. 5 ! 1.25 ! ! 0.05 J 2 and 1 v 0.1 v 12 ! 0.45J Momentum of the system is = 0.667 ms 1 0.4 ! 0.2 v 2 2 ! 0.1  0.417 J 2.

450.1 v .m1  m 2 2 v 0.033J This can also be checked by calculating the kinetic energy of each particle in the CM frame. which is 1 2 2 v 0.417 = 0.3 Thus the kinetic energy of the CM is = Thus the kinetic energy of then particles in the CM frame is = 0.

0  VCM ! 0. .05 v .

2 v .0  1.667 ! 0.022 J 1 1 2 1 2 2 v 0. .

1 v .667 ! 0.2.  1.

velocities.5 Thus the total mass is = 15kg Total momentum is = 15kgms1 Velocity of the CM =  15 ! 1ms 1 15 135 . the kinetic energy of the CM = 0 9.011J 2 9.3 Since the momentum of the system is zero.5 32 62. moment and kinetic energies o feach particle are shown in the table below vi(ms1) 1 2 3 4 5 pi(kgms1) 1 4 9 16 25 mi(kg) 1 2 3 4 5 KEi(J) 0.0 13.0  1.4 Masses.2.667 ! 0.5 4.

5 J ! 2 v total mass 2 v 15 Kinetic energy about the CM = 105J This is easily checked by calculating the kinetic energy of each particle about the CM and adding them all up.Total kinetic energy = 112. Thus KE about the CM = 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 v .5J Kinetic energy of CM = 2 PCM 15 v 15 ! 7.

 1  1  2 v .

2  1  3 v .

 3  1  4 v .

4  1  5 v .

5 From equation (9.37). 5  1 2 ? A = 105J 9. we have v1 ! VCM  v 2 !V CM  Thus the kinetic energy of the system 2 mm 1 1 1 1 m1 m 2 2 2 2 m1 v1  m2 v 2 ! m1VCM  .

v1  v2 2  1 2 VCM .

v1  v2 2 2 2 2 2 .

m1  m2 .

m1  m2 m2 (v1  v 2 ) m1  m2 m1 (v1  v 2 ) m1  m2 1 1 m2 m12 2 .

v1  v2 2  m1m2 VCM .

v1  v 2  m 2VCM  2 .

m1  m2 2 2 .

we get 1 1 1 1 m1 m 2 2 m1 v12  m 2 v 2 ! .m1  m 2 Since v rel ! v1  v 2 .

m1  m 2 CM  V2 .

v1  v 2 2 2 2 2 2 .

where U . Thus U ( x ) !  ´ F ( x)dx  C .m1  m 2 ! 1 1 2 2 MVCM  Qv rel 2 2 9. dx where C is a constant chosen according to the reference point x0.6 (a) We will be using F ( x ) !  dU ( x ) to calculate the force.

x0 ! 0 . (i) F ( x ) ! kx 1 U ( x ) !  ´ kxdx  C !  kx 2  C 2 136 .

(ii) F ( x ) ! 1 x2  a2 To calculate the potential energy. substitute x ! a sinh z so x C a 5 cos 2T x dx  C 2T that dx ! a cosh zdz to get U ( x ) !  sinh 1 (iii) F ( x ) ! 5 sin 2T x (iv) F ( x ) ! 5 sin 2 2T x U ( x ) !  ´ 5 sin 2 2T x dx !  (b) U ( x ) !  ´ 5 sin 2T x dx ! sin 4T x ¸ 5¨ 5 ´ .

(ii) The plots are drawn for a = 5 137 .1  cos 4T x dx !  2 © x  4T ¹  C 2 ª º The plots of force and potential in each of the cases above are as follows.5. We have chosen the constant such that U(0) = 0. The force is shown on the left and the corresponding potential on the right in each case. (i) We have taken k = 1.

Therefore the potential energy curve keeps going down as x increase.e. (iv) We have chosen the constant such that U(0) = 0. In the plots the force is shown on the left and the corresponding potential on the right in each case. (i)  ®k F ( x) ! ¯  °k if x " 0 if x 0 138 . pointing in the positive x-direction. i. Notice that the average force is always positive.7 We use U ( x ) !  ´ F ( x)dx  C and keep the potential continuous everywhere.(iii) We have chosen the constant such that U(0) = max. 9.

we have chosen k=2. (ii) F ( x ) ! k x 1 x " 0 U ( x ) !  ´ kx dx  C !  kx 2  C 2 1 x 0 U ( x ) !  ´ ( kx) dx  C ! kx 2  C 2 If we choose U(x) = 0.x " 0 U ( x ) !  ´ (  k ) dx  C ! kx  C ¾ ± ¿   U ( x) ! k x  C x 0 U ( x ) !  ´ kdx  C ! kx  C ± À If we choose U (0) ! 0. U ( x) ! k x For the plots drawn below we have chosen k = 2. 139 . For the plots below. C=0.

(iii) ± 0 if x e a F ( x) ! ¯  ± kx if x " a ° The nature of force implies that the potential is a constant for  a e x e a x " a U ( x) ! ´ kx dx  C ! x e a U ( x) ! 1 Choosing U(0) = 0 gives C !  ka 2 and 2 1 2 kx  C 2 1 2 ka  C 2 x " a U ( x) ! 1 k x2  a2 2 x e a U ( x) ! 0 .

we have chosen k=2 and a =15. For the plots below. (iv) 0 if x e a ± F ( x) ! ¯ C ± 2 if x " a x ° The nature of force implies that the potential is a constant for  a e x e a x " a U ( x) !  ´ x e a U ( x) ! Choosing U(0) = 0 gives const ! C C dx  const !  const 2 x x C  const a  a and const !  C for x " a a C for x a 140 ! .

This gives dx F ( x) !  dkx ! k dx (ii) U ( x) ! k x ® d kx  ± dx !  k x " 0 ± F ( x) ! ¯ ± d . 9. we have chosen C=250 and a =20.Thus C C ® x ± a U ( x) ! x  a ± C C ± ¯x " a U ( x) !  x a ± ± e a U ( x) ! 0 x ± ° For the plots below.8 We use F ( x ) !  (i) U ( x ) ! kx dU ( x ) .

 kx ! k x 0  ± dx ° F ( x) !  d ¨ 1 © dx ª x 2  a 2 2x ¸ ¹! 2 2 º .

 a2 x  2x ¸ ¹! 2 2 º .

it is a constant force and linearly varying potential Plots for part (ii) are similar to that of part (i) in problem 9.  a2 x (iii) U ( x ) ! 1 x  a2 2 (iv) U ( x ) !  1 x  a2 2 F ( x) !  d ¨ 1 © 2 dx ª x  a 2 (b) Plot for part (i) is straightforward. 141 . This has been given above.7.

Thus it is a restoring force and the position at x = 0 is a stable equilibrium point. 9. Further the force is varying almost linearly with x near x = 0. its speed v at the top of the loop should be such that 142 . 9.10 For the block not to fall off the track. (iv) We have chosen a = 5. it will runaway to infinity.(iii) We have chosen a = 5.9 Since all the potentials except (i) are time-dependent. only (i) is conservative. Thus when a particle is displaced slightly from this point. Thus when a particle is displaced slightly from this point. The force is shown on the left and the corresponding potential on the right. Thus it is a force that pushes a particle away from x = 0 and the position at x = 0 is an unstable equilibrium point. The force is shown on the left and the corresponding potential on the right. it will perform simple harmonic oscillation. Notice that the force is positive for negative x and negative for positive x. Notice that the force is negative for negative x and positive for positive x.

v2 ug R   v 2 u Rg Now by the conservation of energy we have mgh  mg ( 2 R ) ! 1 mgR mv 2 u 2 2   hu 5 R 2 9.11 For the potential energy U ( x ) ! C .

From this it is clear that the point x = a is a point of unstable equilibrium.5 and a =2) 3 It is clear from the curve that a particle will always experience a force in the negative direction except at a = 2.x  a we have the potential energy curve (with parameters C = 0. For the potential energy U ( x ) ! C .

5 and a =2) 3 143 .x  a we have the potential energy curve (with parameters C = 0.

this potential energy is quite flat near the equilibrium point (because º ª2 . Notice that unlike the potential energy for a ¸ ¨1 spring © kx 2 ¹ . Thus this point is a point of stable equilibrium.This potential energy curve gives force opposite to the displacement. and the force is zero at x = a.

x  a 4 .

Then by momentum conservation mV ! m . For larger displacements from x = a. 9.12 Let the velocities of the balls be v1 and v2 after the collision (since this is a one dimensional motion.x  a 2 for x  a 1 . we are not putting vector signs on top of the velocities). the curve rises much faster than the spring potential energy.

v1  v 2   V ! v1  v 2 1 1 2 2 mV 2 ! m .

144 .e.e. This is the situation after collision. i.13 According to the situation give. This is the situation before collision. the two balls are undergoing an elastic collision (no loss in energy) when they are moving in the opposite directions with equal speed V. 9. i. the first ball is not moving. the second ball is not moving. 12  v 2   V 2 ! v12  v 2 v 2 2 2 The first equation gives V 2 ! v12  v 2  2v1v 2 This and the second equation implies that 2v1v 2 ! 0 Thus either v1 is zero. Or v2 is zero.

Let the mass of the lighter ball be m and that of the heavier one be M. then by equation 9. If the velocity of smaller ball is v1 after the collision.36 (taking vertically up direction to be positive) v1 ! .

we have v1 } 3V If the balls are dropped from a height h then V ! 2 gh If after the collision the smaller ball goes to height H then 3V ! 2 gH These two equations give H ! 9h 9. when M>>m.14 By momentum conservation we have .M  m V M m  M 3MV  mV ( 2V ) ! M m M m In the extreme limit.

m1  m2 v ! m1v0 Totla initial energy = 1 2 m1 v 0 2   v! m1 vo m1  m2 2 m1 1 m12 v 0 ! v .

each of mass m. As the first bead falls over the edge. However.initial energy Final energy = 2 m1  m 2 m1  m 2 As is clear. by momentum conservation at that instant (neglecting the impulse due to gravity) the speed of two beads is v! m 2 gl 2m ! gl 2 Now the two beads fall together and as the string connecting the second bead to the third bead becomes taut. as soon as it pulls the second bead. its initial speed is zero bu by the time the string connecting it to the second bead is taut. the final energy is less than the initial energy. Now consider a pile of beads. the energy of hse two beads is 1 gl 5 v 2 m v  2 mgl ! mgl 2 2 2 145 . connected with strings of length l between them. it gains a velocity of v ! 2 gl . Therefore some energy is lost in the process.

9.If the length of the chain on the table is x then Kinetic energy = 1 ( x  h) P v 2 2 dx ! v and dt 1 Pgh 2  Pxgh 2 potential energy = Thus Total energy E = This gives 1 1 ( x  h) Pv 2  Pgh 2  Pxgh 2 2 dE 1 3 ! P v  P vgh 2 dt Thus the rate of change of the energy of the chain is not equal to the power delivered. separately. One may ask a question: what if instead of the chain.16 Let the length of the chain be L. If its length y is hanging from the table. the coordinate of the end of the hanging portion of the chain. As shown in the previous problem.  Writing  ! y  1 dy 2 we get from the equation above 2 dy  1 dy 2 Mg  y!0   M 2 dy l This gives 1 Mg  M ´ d y2  2 0 l v y y1 ´ y ' dy' ! 0 1 1 Mg 2 Mv 2  .  Thus the equation of motion of the chain is M  ! y Mg y or l   y g y!0 L The equation can also be derived by considering the two protions. it s a rope or a strin that is being pulled? Where does the energy go in that case? The answer is that the energy difference is then used in stretching the rope to generate the required force. the energy is lost in the inelastic collision. the one hanging from the table and the other on the table. is also y. when its length is y . the force pulling it down is = Mg y L Taking the vertically down direction to be positive.

y  y12 ! 0 or 2 2 l 1 1 Mg 2 1 Mg 2 Mv 2  y ! y1 2 2 l 2 l 147 .

the coordinate of the end of the hanging portion of the chain. 9. We take the mass per unit length of the chain to be . The external force on the chain is Pyg . kinetic energy = 0 potential energy =  1 Mg 2 y1 2 l Total energy =  1 Mg 2 y1 2 l When length y is hanging. Thus the equation of motion m ! y the chain is   Py ! Py 2  Pyg y OR   y !  y 2  yg y  Using  ! y  1 dy 2 we write this equation as 2 dy   1 dy 2 y 2  !g 2 dy y   We now solve this equation for y 2 as the sum of the solution y 2 ! 2 yg to get 3 A of the homogeneous y2 part and the particular solution 148 . Taking the vertically down direction to be positive. dm  ! Py . 1 kinetic energy = Mv 2 2 potential energy =  1 1 Mg 2 y Mv 2  2 2 l 1 Mg 2 y 2 l Total energy = It is clear from the above that the total energy remains unchanged. Thus the total energy of the chain remains unchanged as it slips off or the energy is conserved. is also y. when its length is y . and the relative velocity of dt dm u rel  Fext of dt   the mass that is added to it is  y . the mass of the hanging (and moving) portion keeps on changing. Thus the problem is like the variable mass problem.The second term in the equation above is the change in the potential energy of the chain as the length of its hanging portion changes from y1 to y.17 As the chain unfolds. This can also be seen as follows When length y1 is hanging.

Using the condition that y 2 ( y ! y1 ) ! 0 . we get A !  therefore  y2 ! 2 y 3  y13 g 3y 2 . y2 ! A 2  yg y2 3 2 3 y1 g and 3  Here A is a constant.

At the beginning. The same result can be obtained by letting p p g and l p 0 such that pl p y in the solution for a coiled set of beads in problem 9. when length y1 is hanging. Now let us compare the energy of the chain at the beginning o fthe motion and agter it has slipped so that y of its length is hanging. kinetic energy = 0 When length y is hanging. Kinetic energy = 1 Potential energy =  Pgy 2 2 1 potential energy =  Pgy12 2 1 Total energy =  Pgy12 2 y 3  y13 1 1 1 Py13  g ! Py 2 g  g Pyy 2 ! P 2 3y 3 3 y .14.

Total energy =  ¨ 2y ¸ 1 Py13 1 1 g  Pgy 2 ! © 1 ¹ v Initial total energy  Pgy 2 © 3y ¹ 3 y 6 6 ª º Initial total energy Thus we see that the energy is lost during the motion.14). 149 . This happens due to the inelastic collision between the chain links as each new link is pulled by the moving chain (see problem 9.

They are the same all over the place. it is negatve for (i) and positive for (ii). Thus the curl of both the fields is not zero.Chapter 10 10. y ) ! y i x y T (ii) F ( x. we see that a matchstick thrown in that fluid will tend to rotate clockwise in (i) and counterclockwise in (ii). y ) ! x Ö j x (b) If we think of the force arrows as velocity of a fluid. (c) curlf of force field (i) iÖ T T x v F ! xx y Ö j x xy 0 Ö k x Ö ! k xz 0 Curl of force field (ii) iÖ T T x v F ! xx 0 Ö j x xy x Ö k x Ö !k xz 0 150 . y T Ö (i) F ( x.1 (a) The fields are shown on the axses.

Thus the work done by the field will be 2 units. work done is again zero since the particle is moving perpendicular to the force field. y ) ! x Ö j Path 1: Work done is zero as the particle moves along the x-axis since the particle is moving perpendicular to the force field. Thus alongh path 2.0) to (2. as it moves from (0. The displacement along path 3 is given as 2 2 T Ö 1 j dl ! dxiÖ  dy Ö ! dxi  dx Ö . So the work done by the field is 2 units.10.1). Thus F ( x. Path 2: Work done is zero as the particle moves along the y axis because the field is zero. So the net work done by the field is zero.dl ! ´ xdx ! 1 unit 20 (ii) T Force field F ( x. 1) O X T Ö (i) Force field F ( x.1) to (2.1). Path 1: Work done is zero as the particle moves along the x-axis. it is under a constant force of 1 unit in the x direction.1) to (2.2 Y (2. y ) ! i . Path 2: Work done is zero as the particle moves along the y axis. Similarly as it moves from (2.1). Thus j 2 TT 12 dW ! F . y ) ! y i . 151 . As it moves from (0. However. the net work is 2 units.1). Thus alongh path 1. Path 3: Along path 3 y ! T x xÖ .0) to (2. the net work is zero. it is is moving perpendicular to the force field so the work done is zero again. Field is constant and equal to 2 units. Similarly as it moves from (2.

0) to (1.3 Force field is F ! 2 y i  3 x Ö . The displacement along path 3 is given as j 2 T Ö 1 j dl ! dxiÖ  dyÖ ! dxi  dx Ö . The work done is given by the integral 1 1 1 TT 1 5 W ! ´ F . 152 . Thus F ( x. Along path 2 y = x so that dy = dx.1). Along the x-axis. the force is T Ö F ! y i  3 Ö and displacement is dy Ö .dl ! ´ xdx ! 1 unit 20 In both the cases the work done depends on the path.0) to (1. y ) ! x Ö . the force field is NOT conservative. the T force is F ! 3 x Ö and the displacement is dxiÖ . It is therefore consistent with the curl of both the fields not being zero.1). When the particle moves from (1. Thus the work done is zero when the particle j moves along the x-axis.dl ! ´ 2 ydx  ´ 3 xdy ! ´ 2 xdx  ´ 3 ydy ! units 2 0 0 0 0 Since the work done along two paths is different. Thus the total work done is j j 1 W ! ´ 3dy ! 3 units 0 This then is the total work done along path 1. r Ö 10. 1) path1 O X We will calculate the work done along path 1 in two parts: first when the particle mones along the x-axis and secondly when it is moving from (1. Thus j 2 TT 12 W ! ´ F .Path 3: Along path 3 y ! T x . The paths are shown below j Y Path2 (1.

1) A (0. the corresponding angleU is as shown in the figure and varies from to 2 .10. The way we have set up the transformations Y C (2.4 The figure for the path si shown below.1) U B X x ! (1  cos U ) and y ! (1  sin U ) . Thus the integral W ACB ! ´ F dx  ´ F dy x y ACB ) ACB from A to B over the semicircular path is W ACB ! A 2 ´ x ydx  A ACB ) 2T x3 ´ 3 dy ACB A 2T 2 ´ .

1  cos U cos U dU 3 T 1 1 !  A ´ .

 cosU .

T For the force field F !  yiÖ  x Ö it is clear by inspection that the potential should be j U ( x. However. The curls of it is iÖ T T x vF ! xx  k1 y Ö j x xy  k2 x Ö k x !  k 2  k1 xz 0 If the curl has to vanish. we should have k1 ! k 2 . y ) ! xy .5 F !  k1 yiÖ  k 2 x Ö .  sin U sin U dU  2 T The integral can be carried out easily and gives W ACB ! 8A 3 T j 10. The force field will be conservative if its curl vanishes. to derive it formally we put 153 .

Therefore the field is not conservative.0) ! 0 . is zero. y ) ! xy  f ( y ) Differentiating this with respect to y and writing df ! 0 OR dy xU ! x gives xy f ! const. (ii) The curl of the field Ö i T T x vF ! xx Axyz Ö j x xy Axyz Ö k x Ö Ö !  A x.6 (i) Curl of the field Ö i T T x vF ! xx 3A Ö j x xy Az Ö k x !  AiÖ xz 0 is not zero. Thus U ( x. By the condition U (0. y ) ! xy 10. the const. This gives xU Ö xU Ö Ö j !  yi  x Ö j i xy xx xU !y xx Which is integrated to U ( x.

y  z i  y .

z  x Ö  z .

10. y ) ! 2 exp ¬ ¼ will be a constant where its 4 ½ ­ argument ( x  2 ) 2  ( y  1) 2 is a constant.7 (i) « ( x  2) 2  ( y  1) 2 » The function f ( x. These are concentric circles with centre at .x  y k j xz Axyz ? A is not zero. Therefore the field is not conservative. Thus the contours are given by ( x  2) 2  ( y  1) 2 ! const .

 1 .2. 154 .

(ii) The gradient of the function is given by « .

x  2 2  .

y  1 2 » « .

x  2 2  .

y  1 2 » ¨Ö x x ¸ ©i j  j ¹2 exp ¬ !  exp ¬ ¼ .

x  2 iÖ  .

8 Kinetic energy of the system of N particles with masses mi .y  1 Ö ¼ © xx 4 xy ¹ 4 ª º ­ ½ ­ ½ ? A 10.

N and positions T ri .i ! 1.

N is T 1 N § mi r2 i 2 i !1 T T T  Let the position of the CM be R so that V ! R . If the positions and velocities of these T particles with respect to the CM are given respectively by ric .i ! 1.

N and T  ric .i ! 1.

9 When some energy is released during collision. Further (E " 0 . we T 1 T 1 N 1 N § mi r2 ! 2 MV 2  2 § mi r2 i ic 2 i !1 i !1 This is the desired result. 10. we get T 1 N T N T T 1 N 1 N    mi ri 2 ! § miV 2  § mi ric2  § mi ric  V § 2 i !1 2 i !1 2 i !1 i !1 M N i !1 Denoting the total mass get § mi as M and using the property of the CM that i !1 §m r T i ic ! 0 . the paricles cannot 155 .i ! 1. the equations during the collision are T T T T d d p1  p 2 ! p1  p 2 (momentum conservation) T T T T 2 ' p12 p2 p1' 2 p 22   (E !  (energy conservation) 2 m1 2 m 2 2m1 2 m 2 Here the unprimed quatities are before collision and the primed quantities are after collision. The easiest way to prove that in the bove situation.N then T T T T T T T T     r ! R  ri and r ! R  ric ! V  ric Substituting this in the equation for kinetic energy above.

then T T d 2c p1c ! p d T T d 2c The above two equation give p1c ! p d! 0 Putting this in the energy conservation equation gives T T p12c ¨ 1 p2 ¨ 1 1 ¸ 1 ¸ ¹  (E ! 0   (E !  1c © © ¹ ©m  m ¹ ©m  m ¹ 2 ª 1 2 ª 1 2 º 2 º However that is not possible because two positive quantities cannot add up to zero. By momentum conservation T T d p1c !  p d 2c And if they are moving together. In that case (referring to quantities in the CM frame with subscript c) T T T T T T d d p1c  p 2 c ! p1c  p 2 c ! 0   p1c !  p 2 c T T d d p1c !  p 2 c and And using the splitting of the kinetic energy as in the problem above and the fact that T T T T d p1c !  p 2 c and p1c !  p d 2c T T T T 2 ' p12c p 2c p1' 2 p 22c c   (E !  2m1 2 m 2 2 m1 2m 2   T p12c 2 T ¨ 1 p1' 2 ¨ 1 1 ¸ 1 ¸ c © ¹ © ¹ © m  m ¹  (E ! 2 © m  m ¹ ª 1 ª 1 2 º 2 º Now if the particles are moving together. their momenta after the collision with respect to the CM will be zero.05cm 1. 10.55cm 2cm X 2ms-1 156 . This is also seen mathematically as follows.10 The picture of the carom coin and the striker is shown below Y Direction of impulse on coin 2. Thus the particles cannot move stuck together.move stuck together is to write all quatities in the with respect to the CM.

Thus the coin moves at an angle U such that sin U ! 2 5 ! ( 2.75r We will work in cgs units. Initial momentum of the system is that equal to the initial T momentum of the striker which is p ! 3000iÖ . This direction is perpendicular to their common surfaces and theefore along the line joining their centres.55) 9   cos U ! 56 9 and U ! 33.05  1.The coin will move in the direction of the impulse that it receives from the striker. T Ö j If after the coliision. the velocity of the striker is V ! Vx i  V y Ö and the speed of the coin is v v 56 Ö 5v Ö T Ö then its velocity would be v ! v cosU i  v sin U Ö ! j i j and the momentum 9 9 conservation will lead to v 56  15V x ! 3000 9 5v 5 v  15V y ! 0 9 5v Since the collision is elastic. the total energy is conserved and we get 1 1 1 v 5 v v 2  v 15 v .

Substituting Vx ! 200  5v 56 v and V y !  27 27 In the energy conservation equation gives ¨ 4v 2993 ¸ v©  ¹!0 9 º ª 3 157 . x2  V y2 ! v 15 v 200 2 V 2 2 2 These equations simplify to v 56  3V x ! 600 9 5v  27V y ! 0 v 2  3V x2  3V y2 ! 120000 These are 3 equations for 3 unknowns so all the answers can be obtained from these equations.

4cms 1 ! 2.30 º (ii) KE o fthe CM remains unchanged during the collision.This gives v ! 249. It is therefore 3000 2 v 10  7 ! 0. ª 1.0225 J .5ms 1 after collision. This gives the angle of deflection of ¨ 0. 2.46 ms 1 . This then leads to V x ! 1.30 ms 1 and Vy ! 0.46 ¸ the striker to be tan 1 © ¹ ! 19. The trivial answer v ! 0 of course refers to the situation before collision.5r below the x-axis.

5 ms 1 .5  15 (iii) Velocity of the CM = 15 v 2 ! 1.

the impulse J is in the direction (see figure) such that it makes and angle ¨ 2 ¸ U ! sin 1 © ¹ ! 33. We then draw the impulse vector from the head of the initial momentum vector at the angle U and take its length such that its head touches the circle. As is clear from the figure. In the CM frame the magnitude of velicities does not change during an elastic collision.5 ms1 along the xaxis in the CM frame. The magnitude of momentum of each body is 0. immediately shows that T T T p f ! pi  J It is also clear from the figure that T J ! 2 v 0.0125 kgms 1 It is also clear from the figure that the angular momenta vector srotate by 5 CM ! 180 r  2 v 33.15  5 Therefore the striker is moving with velocity 0. This is seaily done by drawing a circle of radius equal to the magnitude of the momentum with its centre at the tail of the initial momentum vector.75r ª 3. The vector from the centre to this point gives the final momentum.6 º from the x-axis.75r ! 112 .5 ms1 and the coin with -1.5r The construction 158 .75r ! 0. Thus the momentum and the velocity vectors of the striker and the coin just rotate.0075 v cos 33.0075 kgms1 in directions opposite to each other (see figure). the magnitude of J must be such that the final momentum has the same magnitude as the initial momentum. Further.

75r 0.0075 kgms1 5 CM 33.313ms 1 And we get from the figure (the CM is moving in x direction only) V ylab ! V yCM ! 0.39 ms 1 Similarly for the coin (see figure) V xCM ! 1.5 sin 112 .J 0.5 cos 112 .5  0.5r ! 0. As is clear from the figure.5 cos .462 ms 1 Thus 2 2 V striker . the x component of the striker¶s velocity in the CM frame is V xCM ! 0.187 ms 1 This then gives Vxlab as follows (keep in mind that the CM is moving in x direction only) V xCM ! V xlab  VCM   V xlab ! VCM  V xCM ! 1.0075 kgms1 As a check we now calculate the velocities of the striker and the coin in the lab frame from the information above and compare our answer.lab ! V xlab  V ylab ! 1.5r ! 0.187 ! 1.

5 sin .574 ms 1 180 This gives V xlab ! VCM  V xCM ! 1. r  112 .5r ! 0.574 ! 2.074 ms 1 and we get from the figure V ylab ! V yCM ! 1.5  0.

49 ms 1 159 .5r ! 1.386 ms 1 180 This gives 2 2 Vcoin.lab ! V xlab  V ylab ! 2. r  112 .

Thus there will be no component of the momentum to be balanced in the direction perpendicular to that. Squaring the momentum conservation equation and subtracting it from the energy conservation equation gives v v  2v1 3 ! 0 . it will continue to move along its original direction. the stationary balls will move in the direction of impulse after the collision. At the time of colliding.These match with the previously obtained answers.11 As in the problem above. Then by momentum conservation mv0 ! mv1  2 v m v v 3 2   v 0 ! v1  v 3 Since the collision is elastic. we have by energy conservation 1 1 1 2 mv 0 ! mv12  2 v m v v 2 2 2 2 2   v0 ! v12  2v 2 There are two unknowns v1 and v and two equations so we can get their values. This is also seen by noticing that the statinary balls have a net momentum in the direction of v0. Thus the striking ball will continue to move along its original direction. 10. the three balls will look as shown below. Direction of impulse on ball 30r Direction of impulse on ball Since the net impulse (due to the two stationary ball) will be along the line of its initial motion by symmetry (see figure). This is going to be along the line joining the centre of the striking ball and the centres of the stationary balls. Let the speed of the striking call be v1 after the collision and the speeds (equal by symmetry) of the other balls be v.

160 .

Theother solution is v ! 2v1 3 Substituting this in the the momentum conservation equation gives v1 !  v0 5 and v ! 2v0 3 5 161 .One of its solutions is the trivial solution v ! 0 referring to the situation before collision.

as shown by the straight arrow and then carrying out the rotation about the this point. 162 . as shown by the straight arrow and then carrying out the rotation about the CM.2 Now we generalize the result of the problem above. As is evident from the figure.Chapter 11 11. the magnitude and the sense of rotation is the same as in the figure on the left. the magnitude and the sense of rotation is the same as in the figure on the left. it can be shown about any other point. We have made the disc in this intermediate position by dotted circle. We have made the disc in this position by dotted circle.1 Disc rotating about a point on its periphery. Similarly. U U On the right we show the same rotation carried out by translating the CM of the disc first to its new position. The dashed circle shows the initial position of the disc while the solid circle shows the position after rotation. 11. we show the same rotation as in the figure on the left carried out by translating the opposite end of the diameter of the disc first to its new position. As is evident from the figure. Consider first a rotation about a point on the periphery by an angleU. This is shown on the left in the figure below. On the right in the figure below.

Thus the answers in different cases are T T Ö (i) L ! 2iÖ v 2iÖ ! 0 (ii) L ! 2 Ö v 2iÖ ! 4k j T Ö Ö Ö Ö j j (iv) L ! i  2 Ö v 2iÖ  Ö ! k  4k ! 3k T Ö (iii) L ! 2 Ö v 2iÖ  Ö ! 4k j j .3 The angular momentum L about the origin is given by L ! mr v v .U U T T TT 11.

.

.

4 The position of the wheel and the stone stuck to its periphery is shown in the figure below. 11. Y Vt x(t) y(t) X [t 163 .

T T T Thus we have for the position r (t ) . velocity v (t ) (obtained by differentiating r (t ) with respect T T to time once) and acceleration a (t ) (obtained by differentiating r (t ) with respect to time twice) of the stone T Ö r (t ) ! .

 R sin [t i  R cos [t Ö Vt j T v ( t ) ! .

the acceleration is towards the centre of the wheel.V  [ R cos [ t iÖ  [ R sin [ t Ö j T a (t ) ! [ 2 R sin [t iÖ  [ 2 R cos [t Ö j As is evident. This force is T T Ö F ! ma (t ) ! m[ 2 R sin [t i  m[ 2 R cos [t Ö j T The angular momentum L (t ) of the stone with respect to the origin is T T T Ö L (t ) ! mr (t ) v v (t ) ! m . The force for this is provided by the force that keeps the stone stuck to the wheel. It is the centripetal acceleration.

 R sin [t iÖ  R cos [t Ö v .

 [R cos [t i  [R sin [t Ö Vt j V j Ö ! m V[Rt sin [t  [R 2  VR cos [t k ? A? A .

Thus the torque T Ö X ! m . This gives T dL Ö ! mV[ 2 Rt cos [tk dt The angular momentum changes due to the torque provided by the force that keeps the stone stuck to the wheel and is equal to the centripetal force.

11.5 We assume that at time t = 0.  R sin[t i  R cos[t Ö v [ 2 R sin[t iÖ  [ 2 R cos [t Ö Vt j j Ö ! mV[ 2 Rt cos[t k ? A? A Thus it is equal to the rate of change of the angular momentum. Thus after time t. its position vector is give as (see figure) T r (t ) ! . the paricle is on the x axis.

R  R cos [t iÖ  R sin [t Ö j 164 .

the acceleration is the centriprtal acceleration. The angular momentum of particle with respect to the origin is T T T Ö L ! mr (t ) v v (t ) ! m .Y R [t O X T Thus its velocity and acceleration are (obtained by differentiating r (t ) with respect to time once for the velocity and twice for the acceleration) T T Ö v (t ) ! [R sin [t iÖ  [R cos [t Ö j a (t ) ! [ 2 R cos [t i  [ 2 R sin [t Ö j As expected. It is provided by the external force towards the centre.

R  R cos [t i  R sin [t Ö v  [R sin [t iÖ  [R cos [t Ö j j 1 k ! m[R 2 ?  cos [t AÖ ? A? A Its time derivative is T dL Ö !  m[ 2 R 2 sin [tk dt The torque due to the external force is T T T Ö j j X ! mr (t ) v a (t ) ! m .

6 The angular momentum for a collection of particles about an origin O is T T T LO ! § mi ri v vi i T Now let is choose a different origin O¶ such that the position vector of O¶ from O is R (see figure) so that T T T T T ri ! R  ri ' and vi ! vi' 165 .R  R cos [t iÖ  R sin [t Ö v  [ 2 R cos [t i  [ 2 R sin [t Ö Ö !  m[ 2 R 2 sin [t k ? A? A This is the same as the rate of change of angular momentum. 11.

we get T T T T T T T T T T LO ! § mi ri v v i ! § mi R  ri ' v v i ! R v § mi vi  § mi ri ' v vi' .Z¶ Z T ri ' T ri T R Y O¶ Y¶ O X¶ X T Substituting the expressions above in the formula for LO .

respectively. then the angular momentum of the earth at these two points is MearthRmaxVmax and MearthRminVmin . then T T T T mi vi ! § mi v i' ! 0 and LO ! LO ' § i i 11.7 At the maximum distance Rmax and the minimum distance Rmin from the sun.47 ! ! ! 0.52 166 . i i i i T T where we have used the fact that vi ! vi' . respectively.967 Vmin Rmax 1. the velocity vector is perpendicular to the radius vector. If the speed of the earth at these distances is Vmax and Vmin. Now the angular momentum about O¶ is T T T LO ' ! § mi ri ' v v i' Thus if the total momentum of the system is zero. By the conservation of angular momrntum we have MearthRmaxVmax = MearthRminVmin This gives Vmax Rmin 1.

the final mpmentum p f and the change in the momentum T T T (p ! p f  p i are shown in the figure below.T T 11.8 Initial momentum pi . T pf T (p 1 Y .

T  5 5 2 .

T  5 X T pi T T T 5 As is evident from the figure. the magnitude of (p is 2 p sin where p ! pi ! p f and it 2 is in the direction bisecting the angle .

Mathematically it can be seen as follows. Then T Ö p i ! pi and T Ö (p ! p . Choose the direction of incoming T p f ! p cos 5iÖ  p sin 5Ö j particle to be the x direction.T  5 between the incident and the scattered direction.

cos 5  1 i  p sin 5Ö j 5Ö 5 5 i  2 p sin cos Ö j 2 2 2 5¨ 5Ö 5 ¸ ! 2 p sin ©  sin i  cos Ö ¹ j 2ª 2 2 º ! 2 p sin 2 T 5Ö 5 5 ¨ and it is in the direction ©  sin i  cos Thus the magnitude of (p is 2 p sin 2 2 2 ª Ö¸ . its angular momentum is mvd going into the plane of the paper. the angular momentum about the origin is a constant. j¹ º (ii) Since the paticle is moving parallel to the x axis at a distance d. 167 . This can be seen as follows. since the force is central. velocity vectors of the particle are T Ö T Ö r ! xi  dÖ and v ! vi j The position and This gives for the angular momentum T TT Ö L ! mr v v !  mvd k Further.

Using polar coordinates. we write the angular T dJ Ö k .T T T T T dp T ! F . it is a constant equal to  mvd k . we have dJ !  mvd mr dt 2 T The force F between the two charges is in the radial direction and is equal to T Qq Ö j F ! k 2 cos J i  sin J Ö r r2   dt !  dJ vd . Since in the present momentum of a particle moving in the xy plane as L ! mr 2 dt Ö problem. we have (p ! ´ Fdt . we change the integration over time to integration over the angle by using the angular momentum conservation. (iv) Since dt T To calculate ´ Fdt . Therefore ´ Fdt is in the same direction as (p .

Thus T 5 Qq r2 Ö Fdt ! ´ k 2 cos J i  sin J Ö v  dJ j ´ vd r T .

Qq j !k cos J iÖ  sin J Ö dJ vd ´ 5 T .

!k Qq Ö 1 j  sin 5i  .

5 5 q q cot ! k cot 2 2 2 pv mv 168 " " . Comparison of this expression with that for vd 2 the momentum change shows that the two are in the same direction and 2 p sin 5 Qq 5 ! 2k cos 2 vd 2 Or d !k This is the Rutherford formula.  cos 5 Ö vd Qq 5¨ 5Ö 5 !k v 2 cos ©  sin i  cos vd 2ª 2 2 ? A Ö¸ j¹ º Thus the magnitude of ´ Fdt T is 2k Qq 5 cos .

1 11.9 (i) At angle U 1 the potential energy of the girl is MgL .

i. if the angular speed is [1 . However as she stands up her moment of inertia about the pivot is M .  cos U 1 } 1 MgL U12 with 2 respect to the equilibrium point. is 1 ML2[12 .e. The kinetic energy of the system at the lowest point . By energy conservation 2 1 1 ML2[12 ! MgLU12 2 2 (ii)   [1 ! U 1 g L Whe the child stands up at the lowest point. when the swing is in the vertical position. all the external forces on the her are passing through the pivot so her angular momentum remains unchanged.

Neglecting it gives the moment of inertia to be M .L  d  I CM where ICM is her moment ofinertia about her CM.

L  d . Then by conservation of angular momentum M .

L  d [ 2 ! ML2 [1 2 2 2   [2 ! L2 .

L  d 2 ¨ 2d ¸ [1 } © 1  ¹[1 L º ª keeping only linear terms in (iii) d since d<<L. L The final kinetic energy of the girl is 2d ¸ 2 1 2 1 2¨ I[ ! M .

L  d ©1  ¹ [1 L º 2 2 ª 4d ¸ 2 1 ¨ } M L2  2dL ©1  ¹[1 L º 2 ª 2 .

Thus we see that the kinetic energy of the L system has increased in comparison with the original energy. 4d ¸ 1 ¨ 2 d ¸¨ ML2 [12 ©1  ¹ ¹©1  L ºª L º 2 ª 1 ¨ 2d ¸ } ML2 [12 ©1  ¹ L º 2 ª } keeping only linear terms in d since d<<L. Threfore the swing would go higher on the other side. 169 .

(iv) Suppose the swing goes up to angle U 2 on the othwr side. we have by energy conservation and the fact that 1 1 ML2 [12 ! MgLU 12 2 2 1 ¨ 2d ¸ 1 U2 ML2[12 ©1  ¹ ! Mg .

Thus T R2 For the moment of inertia about the diameter of a ring. Since all the points on the radius are at the same distance from the axis. consider a small portion of it of extent dU at and angle U It moment of inertia about the diameter is M .Chapter 12 12. each small mass (m on the periphery gives the same contribution (mR 2 to the moment of inertia.1 Moment of inertia of a ring. Thus the total moment of inertia is I ! § (mR 2 ! mR 2 A disc can be thought of made of many rings of width dr at different radii (see figure). The moment of inertia of each ring is r 2 v the total moment of inertia is I!´ M 3 1 2r dr ! MR 2 2 2 R M 2T rdr . Let the mass of the ring be m and its radius R.

2TR U MR 2 Thus the total moment of inertia is 2T 2T ´ cos 0 2 U dU ! 1 MR 2 2 12.R cos U 2 RdU .2 Moment of inertia of a rectangular sheet. The sheet is shown in the figure below 171 .

we will get the moment of inertia Iy about the y axis to be M Iy ! a Ma 2 ´ y dy ! 12 a 2 2 a 2 Let us now calculate the moment of inertia about the z axis. let us take a thin strip of width dy parallel to the x axis and at a distance y from it. Its mass is M M a dy ! dy . ab b Since the perpendicular distance of all its points is y from the x-axis. Thus the total moment of inertia about the x-axis is b b M Ix ! b b 2 ´ y dy ! 2 2 Mb 2 12 Similarly by taking a thin strip parallel to the y axis.Z Y y b a X We first calculate its moment of inertia about the x axis. its moment of inertia about the x axis is y 2 M dy . For this. By parallel axis theorm the moment of inertia of this strip about the z axis is = (moment of inertia of its CM with respect to the z-axis + its moment of inrtia about the axis passing through its CM and parallel to the z-axis) dI z ! y 2 1 M M dy  a 2 dy 12 b b which upon integration leads to Iz ! M 2 . Consider again the strip parallel to the x axis.

a  b 2 12 172 .

Y R y X Length of this strip is 2 R 2  y 2 and its mass is inertia about the y-axis is dI y ! 2M 1 v 4 R2  y2 v 12 T R2 2M T R2 R 2  y 2 dy .12. Thus its moment of . The strip is of width dy and at a distance y fron the centre.3 The disc and a strip on it perpendicular to the axis of rotation (y-axis) is shown in the figure below.

R 2  y 2 dy ! 2M R2  y2 2 3T R .

We now divide the shell inti thinn rings at an angle U (see figure).4 This problem can be done exactly in the same manner as above. 3 2 dy The integration is easily carried out by substituting y ! R cos U and gives the resuly Iy ! 1 MR 2 4 12. U 173 .

its . its radius is mass is M 3M 2 R  y 2 dy . T R 2  y 2 dy ! 3 3 4TR 3 4R R 2  y 2 . Thus for a disc of thickness dy at height y (see figure).The radius of the ring is r cos U and therefore its mass is and its moment of inertia about the rotation axis is dI ! r 2 cos 2 U v M M 2T r cos U v rdU ! cosU dU 2 4T r 2 M cos U dU 2 Thus the total moment of inertia is Mr 2 I! 2 T T 3 ´ cos U dU ! 2 2 Mr 2 4 2 v ! Mr 2 2 3 3 12. we divide the sphere into thin discs and add the moments of inertia of all discs.5 In this problem.

.

Y R y X Therefore. the moment of inertia of the disc is dI ! 1 3M .

R 2  y 2 v .

R 2  y 2 dy ! 3M3 .

v 3 2 4R 8R Integrating it from R to R gives the total moment of inertia 3M I! 8R 3 3M ´ .R 2  y 2 2 dy .

R  y dy ! 8R 3 R 2 2 2 R ¨ 5 2 R 5 4 R 5 ¸ 3M 16 R 5 2 2 ¹! © 2R   ¹ 8 R 3 v 15 ! 5 MR © 5 3 º ª 174 .

The only difference is that the mass M is now distributed over half the volume and the y integration runs from 0 to R.6 For the moment of inertia about the y-axis.5 by taking a disc at height y. Thus the mass of the disc is M 3M 2 R  y 2 dy T R 2  y 2 dy ! 3 2TR 3 2R3 .12. the problem is done exactly in the same way as in 12.

.

And its moment of inertia is dI ! 1 3M .

R 2  y 2 v .

R 2  y 2 dy ! 3M3 .

R 2  y 2 2 dy v 3 2 2R 4R Thus the total moment of inertia is given as 3M I! 4R 3 ´ .

to calculate the moment of inertia about the x axis.R 0 R 2  y 2 dy ! 2 3M 4R3 ¨ 5 R 5 2 R 5 ¸ 3M 8 R 5 2 2 ¹! ©R   ¹ 4 R 3 v 15 ! 5 MR © 5 3 º ª Similarly.3. we make a cylindrical shell as we did in example 12. The mass of this shell is given by dm ! ! M 1 v v 2T y dy v 2 V 2 2T R 3 3 3M R3 R 2  y 2 y dy 175 .3 (see figure) Y R y X V Thus the moment of inertia will be calculated exactly like in example 12.

we take a ring at a distance x from the base extending from x to x+dx.7 A conical shell is shown below.Th factor of 1 comes because there is only half the shell in a hemisphere. its radius is y ! r . To calculate the moment of inertia. Therefore the moment 2 of inertia of the hemisphere is I ! ´ y 2 dm ! 3M R3 R ´y 0 3 R 2  y 2 dy ! 2 MR 2 5 12. Then by similarity fo triangles.

h  x . h Similarly the length of its side is dx ! cos U h h2  r 2 dx Y r x U X h Thus the mass of the ring is dm ! of inertia therefore is m T r h2  r 2 v 2T y v 2m h2  r 2 dx ! 2 .

h  x dx . Its moment h h dI ! y 2 v 2 2m .

h  x dx ! 2mr .

h  x 3 dx h2 h4 The moment of inertia of the shell is then given by integrating the expression above over x from 0 to h and gives I! 2 mr 2 h4 2 mr mr 3 3 2 2 3 ´ .

h  x dx ! h 4 ´ .

Thus 176 . To do this we use the parallel axis theorem and write the moment of inertia of the ring considered above as that of its CM plus its moment of inertia about the axis parallel to the y axis and passing through the CM.h  3h x  3hx  x dx ! 2 0 0 h 2 h 2 Now we calculate the moment of inertia about the y-axis.

2m 1 2 2m 2m mr 2 3 2 3 dI ! x v 2 .

h  x dx  y v 2 .

h  x dx ! 2 hx  x dx  2 .

h  x dx 2 h h h h 2 .

The calculations proceed in exactly the same manner as for the shell bu now instead of a ring. Integrating this we get I! mr 2 mh 2  4 6 We now do the calculations for a solid cone. we take a disc at distance x. The mass of the disc is dm ! m 3m 2 Ty 2 dx ! 3 .

h  x dx . Thus its moment of inertia is 2 h Tr h 3 dI ! 1 2 3m 3mr 2 2 y v 3 .

h  x dx ! .

h  x 4 dx 5 2 2h h Thus the total moment of inertia is 3mr 2 I! 2h 5 h 4 ´ .

So dI ! x 2 v 2 3m . we again consider the same disc and use the parallel axis theorem to write the moment of inertia of the ring considered above as that of its CM plus its moment of inertia about theaxis parallel to the y axis and passing through the CM.h  x dx ! 10 mr 0 3 2 For the moment of inertia about the y axis.

h  x 2 dx  1 y 2 v 3m .

h  x 2 dx ! 3m x 2 .

h  x 2 dx  3mr5 .

h  x 4 dx 4 4h h3 h3 h3 Now the integration over x from 0 to h gives 1 3 mh 2  mr 2 10 20 12.8 (i) The total angular momentum = angular momrntum of large disc + angular momentum of small disc L ! I1 (large disc).  I 2 (small disc). I1 ! 1 MR 2 2 1 mr 2 2 I2 is calculated using the parallel axis theorem and its value is md 2  Thus L ! 1 .

 md 2 .MR 2  mr 2 . 2 177 .

 mr 2 [ ! 0   . in the opoosite direction.  md 2 . Then by conservation of angular momentum  1 1 mr 2 [ MR 2  mr 2 . ! 2 2 MR 2  m r 2  2 d 2 .(ii) Let the large disc start rotating with angular speed .

.

u O ut B A As the person moves on the platform. we have . the platform starts rotating clockwise with angular speed [ so that the total angula momentum remains zero. a tail rotor is fitted that provides the counterbalancing torque. To prevent this. The net velocity v of the person with respect to the ground is T T equal to (velocity u of the person with respect to the platform + rotational velocity v rot of the person due to the rotation of the platform).9 The position of the person (represented by the filled circle) after time t is shown on the platform in the figure below. As the platform rotates. (iii) For M p 0 and d p 0 . as the large rotor starts. This is expressed as T T T v ! u  v rot Thus the angular momentum of the person is 178 .![ This keeps the total angular momentum zero since the large disc rotates in the opposite direction with exactly the same angular speed as given to the small disc. the T person also moves with it. (iv) In a helicopter also. 12. the body of the helicopter will tend to rotate in the opposite direction.

T T T T l p ! M r v .

The position. various distances and the velocities. it is positive for counterclockwise rotation and negative for clockwise rotation. Thus the angular momentum of the perso is lp ! 2 «¨ a ¸ 2 ¨ a Mau ¸ »  M[ ¬© ¹  ©  ut ¹ ¼ 2 º ¼ ¬ª 2 º ª 2 ­ ½ The angular momentum of the platform is l plat !  ma 2 [ 6 Now equation the total angular momentum to zero (by conservation of angular momentum) gives 179 .u  v rot T Here r is the position vector of the person from the origin O on the axis. B T u O a 2 T r T v rot ut A It is clear from the figure that T ¨a¸ ¨a ¸ r ! © ¹  ©  ut ¹ º ª2º ª2 2 2 T T a r vu ! u 2 2 «¨ a ¸ 2 ¨ a TT ¸ » 2 r v v rot ! [ r ! [ ¬© ¹  ©  ut ¹ ¼ º ¼ ¬ª 2 º ª 2 ­ ½ Here the sign takes care of the ddirection of angular momentum along the aixs of rotation. are shown in the figure below. as seen from the top.

Thus although on the platform. Let a small mass (m come out at a given time t during the time interval from t to t+(t from one of the containers. the person has 4 2 moved from A to B but overall he remains at his original position since the platform has rotated back by 5 ! For m T . 2 M . where ( 4  1 2 4m ¸ 2¨ ! ©1  ¹ 2 ª 6M º  1 2 } 1 m 3M 1 .5! U0 1¸ ¨ m  ¹ © ª 6M 4 º If m = 0. we have U 0 ! T T and 5 ! . Then the speed of gases coming out with respect to the ground is . it is impossible to solve the problem because of a large number of internal forces involved. We can therefore write T T ¸ ¨T tan U 0 ! tan©  ( ¹ ! tan  sec 2 v ( ! 1  2( 4 4 º ª4 Thus ( ! This gives m ¸¨ 1 m ¸ ¨T 5!©  ¹ ¹©  ª 4 6 M ºª 4 6 M º  m 6M 1 2 m ¨T }©  ª 2 3M m ¸ T m ¨T ¸ ¸¨ ©  1¹ ¹}  ¹©1  º ºª 3M º 2 3M ª 2 12.10 This is similar to the variable mass problem except that in this problem we will get the answer by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum because this is an extended body and if we try to apply Newton¶s second law to each point particle. we have 1¨ m 1¸ tan U 0 ! ©  ¹ 2 ª 6M 4 º Thus U 0 ! T  ( . Let the angular speed of the display be [ at t.

as shown in the figure 181 .u  [l .

then by conservation of angular momentum 4 v m l 2 [ ! 4.u-[l u-[l [ If in time (t the angular speed of the display becomes [  ([ .

m  (m 2 .

[  ([  4 (ml .

Obviously dm dm ! . Here m is the mass of each container at time t.u  [l l Here factor of 4 comes because of 4 containers. This gives dt dt dm should be written in terms of m for dt d[ dm u ! dt dt m l Integrating this gives. we have [! u ¨M m¸ ln© ¹ l ª M º 182 . Obviously m ! M  m  K t . we get m l 2 ([ ! (mlu   m l ([ ! ( m u Thus d[ dm u ! dt dt m l This equation can not yet be integrated because that. Neglecting the second order term (m([ . starting from [ = 0 at t = 0 u [ (t ) !  l M  m Kt M m ´ dm u ¨ M  m ¸ ! ln © ¹ m l © M  m  Kt ¹ ª º Thus after the entire gubpowder is exhausted.

Conservation of angular momentum now gives ¨l¸ ¨l¸ 4m l [  4 m © ¹ [ ! 4.11 This problem is exactly the same as the problem above except that the moment of inertia of the display is different because of different positioning of the containers of gunpowder.12.

m  (m 2 .

[  ([  4.

m  (m © ¹ .

[  ([ l ª2º ª2º l¨ l¸  4 (ml .

Taking the direction of rotation of the rods to be positive. we have L.u  [l  4 (m © u  [ ¹ 2ª 2º 2 2 2 Neglecting second-order terms and simplifying leads to ¨ 2 l2 © ml  m © 4 ª ¸ lu ¸ ¨ ¹ ([ ! (m© lu  ¹   ¹ 2º ª º 5 2 3 m l ([ ! (mlu 4 2 Following the steps in the solution of problem 12. this leads to [ (t ) ! 6u ¨ M  m ¸ 6u ¨ M  m ¸ ln © © M  m  Kt ¹ and [ ! 5l ln© M ¹ ¹ 5l ª º ª º 12.12 As the water comes out of the sprinkler pipes.10. However it does not happen because of the opposing torque which is the external torque on the system. it carries angular momentum with it. the system will rotate in the opposite direction with increasing angular speed to conserve the angular momentum. If the opposing torque were not there.

we have ml 2 .t  (t  L(t ) ! external torque v (t Here external torque is  Q with the minus sign indicating that it is in the direction opposite to the rotation. Since the mass of the rod remains unchanged. if the mass of water coming out from each end in time interval (t is (m .

[  ([  4 v (m l ¨ u  [l ¸ L .

t  (t ! 2 v ¹ © 12 2ª 2 º ml 2 .

[  ([  2(ml ¨ u  [l ¸ ! ¹ © 6 2 º ª and ml 2 ml 2 L(t ) ! 2 v [! [ 12 6 183 .

Ö n (U T (r J O T r T It is clear from the figure that the magnitude of (r is r sin J (U and it is in the direction of T T T T Ö Ö Ö n v r .14As the disc hits the rough surface. we get J ! mV  mV1 And by the torque equation JR ! 2 This gives V1 ! V 3 1 mR 2[ 2   J ! 1 1 mR[ ! mV1 2 2 V1 185 . By the equation for the CM. 12. By rolling condition we have V1 ! [R . let the surface apply an impulse J on it (see figure). [ V J As a consequence the disc moves with a smaller velocity and also starts rotating because the impule applies a torque on it about its CM. Since the magnitude of n v r is also r sin J (U . we get (r ! n v r .

12.15 Free body diagram of the disc is given below. Substituting this in the above two equations we get a! 2F 3m 12. d J Jf Here Jf is the frictional impuse on the disc. By the equation for the motion of its CM we get F  f ! ma Taking torque about the CM of the disc we get fR ! 1 mR 2E 2   f ! 1 mRE 2 For pure rolling we have a ! RE .16 (i) Free body diagram of the cylinder is shown below. By the equation for the motion of its CM we get J  J f ! MV Similarly the angular momentum equation about the CM gives MR 2 Jd  fR ! [ 2 MRV ! 2 186 . F f Here f is the frictional force on the disc.

Where the second equality follows from the rolling condition V ! [R . Solving the above two equations leads to ¨ 3MV ¸  1¹ R d !© ª 2J º (ii) For a sphere the equations are the same as for a cylinder except that its I about the CM is different.17 The rod in example 12. Before it impacts the ground. Thus the equations become J  J f ! MV Jd  fR ! 2 MR 2 [ 5 2 MRV ! 5 Their solution gives ¸ ¨ 7 MV d !©  1¹ R . l/2 J V h [ Thus Linitial ! ml 2gh cos J 2 187 .11 bounces back with angular speed [ and speed V. º ª 5J 12. and it is pointing into the page (see figure). its angular momentum about the point of impact is equal to the angular momentum of its CM because it is not rotating.

we get the equation V 2 .After the impact. Thus L final ! ml 2 mlV [ cos J 12 2 By conservation of angular momentum. the rotation about CM gives angular momentum coming out of the page and the translational motion gives angular momentum going into the page. we have ml 2 gh ml 2 mlV [ cos J ! cos J   l[  6V cos J ! 6 2 gh cos J 12 2 2 By energy conservation we have 1 ml 2 2 1 [  mV 2 ! mgh 2 12 2   l 2 [ 2  12V 2 ! 24 gh These are two equations for two unknowns. Substituing l[ ! 6 cos J V  2 gh from the first equation into the second equation.

 3 cos 2 J  6 2 gh cos J V  2 gh .

 3 cos 2 J ! 0 1 1 .

.

And after the impact its velocity is gives by the second From l[ ! 6 cos J V  2 gh . and its solution is ¨ s 1  3 cos 2 J ¸ V !  2gh © ¹ © 1  3 cos 2 J ¹ º ª The plus sighn in front of 1 above gives the trivial solution that the velocity of the rod before impact is root which is ¨ 1  3 cos 2 J ¸ V ! 2gh © ¹ © 1  3 cos 2 J ¹ º ª 2 gh downward. This is a quadratic equation in V. this gives [! 12 2 gh cos J l .

2 .  3 cos 2 J 1 T . the rod rebounds without any rotation.

It is evident from the equations above. for J ! 188 .

Its value is Linitial ! 3ml 2 gh cos U Let the system bounce back with angular speed [ and speed V after the impact. its angular momentum about the point of impact is equal to the angular momentum of its CM because it is not rotating. In this case the CM is at distance 3ml ! l from mass m.12. However.17 . and it is pointing into the page. Then L final ! 6ml 2 [  3mlV cos U Thus angular momentum conservation about the point of impact gives 6 ml 2 [  3mlV cos U ! 3ml 2 gh cos U   2l[  V cos U ! 2 gh cos U Similarly energy conservation gives 1 1 6 ml 2[ 2  v 3mV 2 ! 3mgh 2 2   2l 2[ 2  V 2 ! 2 gh Again we substitute l[ ! 1 V  2 gh cos U in the second equation to get 2 . the CM and the moment of inertia about the CM are different in this problem. before the system impacts the ground.18 This problem is similar to the problem 12. Thus the moment of inertia about the CM 3m I CM ! 2 ml 2  m v 4l 2 ! 6 ml 2 Like the previous problem.

¸ ¨ 1 V 2 ©1  cos 2 U ¹  º ª 2 .

2 gh cosU V  2 gh¨1  1 cos © 2 ª 2 ¸ U¹!0 º Its solution gives one trivial solution 2 gh and for speed after impact 1 ¸ ¨ 2 © 1  cos U ¹ 2 ¹ V ! 2gh © 1 ¹ © 2 © 1  cos U ¹ 2 º ª and [! 2 2 gh cos U ¸ ¨ 1 l ©1  cos 2 U ¹ º ª 2 189 .

if the rod and stone stuch with it move with angular speed [ after the impct. Thus. we « ¨ 3l ¸ 2 ml 2 » have (moment of inertia of the rod and the stone together is ¬ m 0 © ¹  ¼) 3 ¼ ª4º ¬ ­ ½ 2 3l « ¨ 3l ¸ ml 2 » m0 v 0 ! ¬ m 0 © ¹  ¼[ 4 ¬ ª4º 3 ¼ ­ ½ With m0 ! m and v 0 ! 3 gl . the potential energy of the system at this point is PE ! mg l .19 The figure below shows the rod and the stone just before the impact.12. we get [! (ii) 12 25 g l The kinetic energy of the rod and the stone system after the impact is 2 2 ml 2 » 2 1 25 2 ¨ 12 ¸ g 1 « ¨ 3l ¸ 3 mgl KE ! ¬m 0 © ¹  ! ¼[ ! v ml v © ¹ 2¬ ª 4º 3 ¼ 2 48 ª 25 º l 50 ­ ½ If the rod rises by an angle U. 3l 4 l (i) Right after the impact the angular momentum about the pivot is conserved.

1  cos U  m0 g 3l .

1  cos U ! 3mgl .

1  cos U 2 4 4 Equating the KE and PE.92   U ! 23r 190 . we get cos U ! 0.

we obtain the impulse that the pivot applies on the rod. It is also instructive to solve this problem by angular momentum consideration by calculating the change in the angular momentum of the system and attributing it to the torque provided by the impulse. the horizontal momentum of the system changes. This change is brought about by the impulse that the pivot applies on the rod. the momentum of the system changes by 2 ¨ 9 1¸ m gl ©  ¹ m gl ! 75 ª 25 3 º in the same direction that the stone was moving initially. Thus by calculating the change in the momentum of the system. For this we apply the equation dLCM ! X applied .CM dt Here CM is the centre of mass of the entire system (rod+sone). Distance of the CM from the pivot point = 1 ¨ l m 3l ¸ 9l ©m  v ¹ ! 4m 3 ª 2 3 4 º 16 191 . Note that this equation can be applied only about the CM of the system and NOT about the CM of the rod alone. Initial momentum of the system = m0 gl ! Final momentum of the system = m gl 3 momentum of the CM of the rod  momentum of the stone l 3l ! m [  m0 [ 2 4 3ml 12 g v 4 25 l 9 ! m gl 25 ! Thus after the stone gets stuck.(iii) The impulse by the pivot. As soon as the stone hits the rod and gets stuck with it. Thus the impulse given by the pivot is 2 m gl 75 or 2 m 0 gl 25 in the same direction that the stone was moving initially.

Thus befor the stone strikes the rod. rod starts moving with speed 9l 9l 12v 0 27 v[ ! v ! v0 16 16 25l 100 192 . The velocity of the CM is ! 0 in the ©  ¹! m  m0 4 ª 4 16 º 16 same directon as the stone.¨ 9l l ¸ l Thus the CM of the rod is ©  ¹ ! above the system CM. it is moving with respect to the system CM with speed with speeed  3v0 in the same direction and the CM of the rod is moving 4 v0 (in the opposite direction). Similarly the stone is ª 16 2 º 16 m0 v 0 v ¨ 3l 9l ¸ 3l below the system CM. 3 where we have used the fact that m0 ! Immediately after the stone hits the rod. This is shown in the figure below in the 4 system CM frame. The sense of rotation is counter clockwise. 9l 16 v0 4 3v0 4 Thus the angular momentum of the system in its CM before the impact is Linitial ! Lrod  Lstone ! ( L of CM of rod )  Lrod (about CM of rod )  Lstone ! mv ! 3l 3v l v0 v  0  m0 v v 0 16 4 16 4 mlv 0 16 m .

193 . Thus Jv 9l 3mlv 0 ! 16 200   J! 2 mlv 0 75 or 2m 0 lv 0 25 12. The ball hitting the bat and its swing is shown in the figure below. J is in the same direction as the firction of stone¶s velocity. Its magnitude is the torque impulse which is equal to the impulse J provided by the pivot times the distance fo the pivot from the system CM.With respect to the CM of the system. Thus with respect to the system CM. 3 3mlv 0 1¸ ¨ 19 L final  Linitial ! mlv 0 ©  ¹! 200 ª 400 16 º The negative sign here shows that the change is in clockwise direction.20 Let the distance of the sweet spot be ls. For clockwise sense. the motion is roational) rod vCM ! l l 12v 0 3v0 v[ ! v ! 16 16 25l 100 and v stone ! 3l 12v0 9v 0 v ! 16 25l 100 Thus the angulat momentum of the system about the system CM after the impact L final ! Lrod  Lstone ! ( L of CM of rod )  Lrod ( about CM of rod )  Lstone 3l 9v l 3v 0 ml 2 12v 0 v  v  m0 v v 0 16 100 12 25l 16 100 19 mlv 0 ! 400 ! mv where we have used the fact that m0 ! Thus the impuse gives a torque equal to m . the CM of the rod and the stone are moving with speed (keep in mind that [ is the same about any point and we are thinking of the motion of the system as the translation of the system CM plus rotation about the system CM. The sense of rotation is counter clockwise.

we have: Initial angular momentum Li ! I[ 0  mv i l s Final angular momentum L f ! mv f l s Since there is no external torque about the pivot. clockwise rotation to be represented by the positive direction. we have Li ! L f   I[ 0  mv i l s ! mv f l s or m.F ls [0 The point where the bat is held is the pivot point of the bat. Further. let the ball come horizontally with speed vi and retun alonh the same line with speed vf.

Initial momentum is the sum of the momentum of the bat and that of the ball. The final momentum is that of the ball only. This gives  F ! Pf  Pi !  mv f  ( mv i  MLc [ 0 ) Since for the sweet spot force is zero. f  vi ! v Considering I[ 0 ls Finally the momentum change of the system is caused by the force applied on the bat. we have m.

f  vi ! MLc[ 0 v This combined with the equation m.

f  vi ! v ls ! I[ 0 gives ls I MLc 194 .

3 m ! 37. LC=40 cm and I=0.3kgm2.5cm 2 v .(i) For M=2 kg. we get ls ! 0.4 m .

6cm 0.65 2 ! 0. its momentum and angular momentum remains the same before and after the collision. 4 MLc (ii) From the momentum equation above. We have I new ! 0.65 ! 0.8325 Thus the sweet spot is lowered by 1.05 v 0.55 rad s 1 ! 2 v 0. show various distances in the figure below.2 in chapter 15. we get [0 ! (iii) With the wrapping of the tape. Since there are no external forces or torques acting on the system. Y M l/2 v m a l/2 M O We X 195 .1 cm.05 v 0.3  0.4  0.8325 kg m This gives l s new ! 0.154 v 60 v ! 11.21 The problem is solved as example 15.321 m ! 38. f  vi 0.65 ! 2 v 0. 12. the mass the moment of inertia of the bat and its CM all change.321 kg m 2 and M new Lc new ! MLc  0.22 For generality we first take the masses on the dumbel to be of mass M each and the mass striking to have mass m. For convenience we take angular momentum about the origin.050 v 0. 12.

only the y component of its momentum gives the angular momentum about the origin and it is Linitial ! mv v l 2 a l 4 2 2 va ! mvla 4a 2  l 2 clockwise After the mass m gets stuck with M after hitting it. By momentum conservation the momentum of the system after the imact is the same as before it.The momentum components of the mass m are as follows p x ! mv v p y ! mv v a a2  l2 4 l 2 a2  l2 4 ! ! 2mva 4a 2  l 2 mvl 4a 2  l 2 Initial angular momentum about the origin arises only from the motion of mass m. the CM of the system is at xCM ! 0 immediately after the impact. When particle is on the x axis. Thus the angular momentum of the CM of the system after the impact is (see figure below) Y (M+m) yCM M O y CM ! .

M  m l 2  M l .

2 M  m 2 ! ml 2.

2M  m py px X M m 2 vla LCM ! y CM v p x ! .

2M  m 4a 2  l 2 Since angular momentum is conserved. the rest of the angular momentum comes from the angular momentum about the CM of the system. Thus the angular momentum about the CM is LaboutCM ! Linitial  LCM ! 2 Mmvla .

2 M  m 4a 2  l 2 196 .

This then gives the rate of rotation [ through the equation I aboutCM [ ! LaboutCM For this we first calculate I aboutCM . It is I aboutCM Thus M .

M  m l 2 2 Mmvla [! .

2 M  m .

2 M  m 4a 2  l 2 2va ¨ m ¸   [ !© ¹ ª M  m º l 4a 2  l 2 ¨l ¸ ¨l ¸ ml ml ! .

2 M  m ¹  M © 2  2.

2M  m ¹ ¹ © ¹ ª º ª º 2 2 ! M .

M  m l 2 .

These will be given by adding the velocity of the CM to their velocity due to rotation about the CM.2M  m With these we easily calculate the velocity of mass (M+m) and mass M right after the impact. Thus px ¨l ¸ ml M[ l v x ( M  m ) ! v xCM  [ ©  © 2 2.

2 M  m ¹ ! .

2 M  m  .

2 M  m ¹ ª º px ¨l ¸ .

M  m [l ml v xM ! v xCM  [ ©  © 2 2.

2 M  m ¹ ! .

2 M  m  .

2 M  m ¹ ª º v y ( M  m ) ! v yCM ! py .

2 M  m py v yM ! v yCM ! .

2 M  m For m ! M these answers become Angular momentum of the system CM about the origin after the impact = ! Angular momentum of the system about its CM ! and vx(M m) ! va 4a 2  l 2 v y ( M  m ) ! v yCM ! vl 3 4a 2  l 2 Mvla 3 4a 2  l 2 2Mvla 3 4a 2  l 2 v xM ! 0 v yM ! v yCM ! vl 3 4a 2  l 2 Chapter 13 197 .

1 (i) I xx ! § mi y i2  z i2 ! 2mw 2 .13.

i I yy ! § mi x i2  z i2 ! 2ml 2 .

i I zz ! § mi xi2  y i2 ! 2m l 2  w 2 .

.

i I xy ! I yx !  § mi xi y i !  mlw i I xz ! I zx !  § mi xi z i ! 0 i I yz ! I zy !  § mi y i z i ! 0 i Thus «2mw 2  mlw 0 ¬ 2 I ! ¬ mlw 2ml 0 2 ¬ 0 0 2m l  w 2 ­ » ¼ ¼ ¼ ½ .

Numbering the masses as shown in the figure. y¶) also gives 198 . one rotates the frame with respect to the z-axis by an angle U so that the coordinates for each particle transform by the formulae x' ! x cos U  y sin U y ' !  x sin U  y cos U and the resulting coordinates make I x ' y ' ! 0 . (ii) To find the principal axes. we get Y Y¶ 4 3 X¶ w 1 l x1' ! 0 y1' ! 0 ' x 2 ! l cos U ' y 2 ! l sin U ' x3 ! l cos U  w sin U ' y 3 ! l sin U  w cos U ' x 4 ! w sin U ' y 4 ! w cos U U 2 X Substituting these in the formula for I x ' y ' and equating the resulting expression to zero gives tan 2U ! lw l  w2 2 Substitution of new (x¶.

2 « » l 2  w2 l 2w2 I x 'x' ! m ¬ l 2  w 2   ¼ l 4  w4  l 2 w2 l 4  w4  l 2 w 2 ¼ ¬ ­ ½ .

.

and I y' y ' 2 « 2 l 2  w2 l 2w2 2 ! m¬ l  w   l 4  w4  l 2 w 2 l 4  w4  l 2 w 2 ¬ ­ .

.

» ¼ ¼ ½ 13.2) of the rectangle passing through its CM are shown in the figure when it is in the plane of the paper. 2 [ U a a b 1 (i) Components of the angular velocity are [1 ! [ cosU ! [ b a2  b2 [ 2 ! [ sin U ! [ a a2  b2 [3 ! 0 (ii) Components of angular momentum along the principal axes are L1 ! I 1[1 ! ma 2 b[ 12 a 2  b 2 L2 ! I 2 [ 2 ! mab 2[ 12 a 2  b 2 L3 ! 0 Ö Ö Ö Thus if the unit vectors along the principal axes are denoted as 1. Axis (3) is coming out of the paper. 2 and 3 then T L! ma 2 b[ 12 a  b 2 2 Ö 1 mab 2[ 12 a  b 2 2 Ö 2! mab [ 12 a  b 2 2 Ö Ö .2 The principal axes (1.

! 1 TT 1 1 ma 2 b 2 [ 2 2 [  L ! I 1[12  I 2[ 2 ! 2 2 2 12 a 2  b 2 .a1  b2 (iii) Kinetic energy of the rectangle K .E .

199 .

13.2) are shown in the figure below. 2 [ a U 1 LB b We have I 1 ! 2 v 2m v a2 ! ma 2 4 b a b 2 2 I 2 ! 2 v 2m v b2 ! mb 2 4 a 2 I3 ! m a2  b2 [3 ! 0 L3 ! 0 . Principal axis (3) is coming out of the paper.3 The system and its principal axes (1.

we have for the change in angular momentum T dL T T ![vL dt Ö Ö Ö ! ([ 2 L3  [ 3 L 2 ) 1  ([ 3 L1  [1 L3 ) 2  ([1 L2  [ 2 L1 )3 With the components calculated above. [1 ! [ cosU ! [ L1 ! I 1[1 ! [ 2 ! [ sin U ! [ L 2 ! I 2[ 2 ! a  b2 ma 2 b[ a2  b2 mab 2[ a2  b2 Rate of change of angular momrntum can be found easily by either the Euler¶s equations or by taking components of angular momentum in directions parallel to and perpendicular to T the direction of [ . we get T ¨ a2  b2 dL Ö ! ([1 L2  [ 2 L1 )3 !  mab [ 2 © 2 © a  b2 dt ª ¸Ö ¹3 ¹ º 200 . T By Euler¶s equations: Since the components of [ in the direction of the principal axes remain unchanged.

L|| remains unchanged and LB rotates with angulae speed [ and changes at the rate [LB and that gives the rate of change of angular momentum. It is then clear that at the instant shown this vector is going to rotate into the plane of the paper. it is pointing into the paper.T dL Ö Thus the vector is always in the direction opposite to that of principal axis 3 .4 The picture of the system of eight particles is shown below. By taking components of angular momentum in directions parallel to and T perpendicular to the direction of [ : If we decompose the angular momentum T T components L|| in the direction parallel to [ and LB perpendicular to [ . Thus at dt the instant shown. We also show the diagonal about which we consider it rotating. then as the body rotates. From the figure above. Thus the direction of change of angular momentum is into the paper and its magnitude is ¨ a2  b2 ¸ [LB ! mab [ © 2 ¹ © a  b2 ¹ º ª 2 13. it is clea that ¨ a2  b2 ¸ LB ! L1 sin U  L2 cos U ! mab [ © 2 ¹ © a  b2 ¹ º ª This is also shown in the figure above. Y [ X Z 201 .

These are ¨ h 2 w2 I 1 ! § m i ( y i2  z i2 ) ! 8 v m v © © 4  4 i ª ¸ ¹ ! 2m h 2  w 2 ¹ º . We do it for Ixy here. it is sufficient to show that all the off diagonal elements of its moment of inertia tensor vanish. the unit vector is = Ö liÖ  hÖ  wk j l 2  h2  w2 Ö Ö T li  hÖ  wk j Thus the angular velocity is given as [ ! [ l 2  h2  w2 To calculate the angular momentum. This is easily shown. we also need the moment of inertia about the principal axes. «l ¨h h h I xy ! I yx !  § mi xi y i !  m ¬ ©    i ­2 ª 2 2 2 h ¸ l ¨ h h h h ¸» ¹ ©    ¹ !0 2 º 2 ª 2 2 2 2 º¼ ½ Thus the set of axes chosen is the principal set of axes. (ii) For the diagonal shown.(i) To show that the coordinate system chosen is is also the principal axes system.

¨ w2 l 2 ¸ 2 2 I 2 ! § mi ( z i2  xi2 ) ! 8 v m v © © 4  4 ¹ ! 2m w  l ¹ i ª º .

¨ l 2 h2 ¸ ¹ ! 2m l 2  h 2 I 3 ! § mi ( x  y ) ! 8 v m v ©  ©4 4 ¹ i º ª 2 i 2 i .

Thus we have L1 ! h l 2 m.

2  w 2 [ l 2  h 2  w2 L2 ! w h 2 m.

2  l 2 [ l 2  h 2  w2 L3 !  2m.

2  h 2 [ l w l 2  h 2  w2 The kinetic energy 1 1 1 2m[ 2 h 2 l 2  w 2 l 2  w 2 h 2 2 2 2 K .E. ! I 1[1  I 2 [ 2  I 3[ 3 ! 2 2 2 h 2  l 2  w2 .

The first solution is trivial. Thus the rod can be in equilibrium at two positions. we find U by equating the angular momentum change about the pivot (a staionary point) to the torque. its angular momentum also changes. 13. The required torque is provided by the gravitational force pulling it down. For the second solution.5 As the rod rotates. Later 202 . Absolutely vertical or at an angle U from the vertical.

The rotating rod in the plane of the paper is shown in the figure along with its principal axes at the pivot. axis (3) is coming out of the plane fop the paper. The pivot applies a vertical force N to balance the weight mg of the rod and a horizontal force F to provide the required centripetal accelerartion to the CM of the rod. 2 [ N 1 F U U mg The moment of inertia of the rod about the principal axes at the pivot are I1 ! ml 2 3 I2 ! 0 I3 ! ml 2 3 [3 ! 0 The angular velocity components are [1 ! [ sin U [ 2 ! [ cos U Thus the angular momentum components are ml 2[ sin U L1 ! 3 L2 ! 0 L3 ! 0 Since the angular velocity and its components along the principal axes are constant. we have for the torque T T dL T T Ö Ö Ö X ! ! [ v L ! ([ 2 L3  [ 3 L2 )1  ([ 3 L1  [1 L3 )2  ([1 L2  [ 2 L1 )3 dt Thus 203 . Also shown is the free body diagram of the rod.we will check the answer by applying the torque equation about the centre of mass also.

The torque of the weight about the pivot is pointing into the paper and its magnitude is mg l sin U 2 Thus we should have l ml 2[ 2 sin U cos U mg sin U ! 3 2   ¨ 3g ¸ U ! cos 1 © 2 ¹ ª 2l[ º T The same answer can also be obtained by taling horizontal (perpendicular to [ ) LH and T vertical (parallel to [ ) LV components of the angular momentum and then calculating the rate of change of angular momentum as [LH. with cos U ! © 2 ¹ ª 2l[ º X1 ! 0 X2 ! 0 X3 !  ml 2[ 2 sin U cosU mgl sin U ! 12 8 L2 ! 0 L3 ! 0 204 . This is proided by the weight of the rod.CM dt Further. Now we calculate F.X1 ! 0 X2 ! 0 ml 2[ 2 sin U cosU X3 !  3 Here the negative sign shows that the torque is pointing into the paper. for the principal axes at the CM (parallel to those at the pivot) ml 2 I1 ! 12 I2 ! 0 ml 2 I3 ! 12 So that (angular velocity components are the same) ml 2[ sin U L1 ! 12 ¨ 3g ¸ Thus we have. we apply the torque equation about the CM and see if the forces calculated by us satisfy this. This provideds the centripetal force so we have ¸ ¨l F ! m© sin U ¹[ 2 º ª2 Check: To check our answers. About the CM we have T dLCM T ! X applied .

the change in the angular momentum is such that at the position shown above.MR 2V Vertical components LV= MLV  in the vertically up direction. it will point out of the paper. torque due to the weight 206 . its direction is as shown in the figure below O LH (LH (iv) The free body diagram of the wheel. L (iii) As the wheel rotates. On the other hand. when it is going into the page is shown below. the vertical component of the angular momentum remains unchanged while the horizontal component rotates. N1 O F L mg N As the wheel rotates. therefoe equal to [V L H ! 1 MRV 2 2 L Its rate of change is If seen from the top.

about O is pointing into the paper. the normal reaction of the ground has to be more than the weight of the wheel so that Torque ! change in angular L . Thus to generate torque coming out of the paper.

In turn the wheel presses the ground and generated enough torque so that the rate of change of its angular momentum is equal to the torque generated. [V [H F mg N N1 207 . we get N 1 ! 1 MRV 2 2 L2 Thus when the wheel is moving. In turn.7 This problem is like the previous problem except for position of the centre of mass and the moment of inertia of a cone. We again obtain the horizontal component of the angular momentum of the cone and multiply it with the vertical component of the angular velocity of the cone to get the rate of change of the angular momentum. If there were no gravity. it is pulled down by the vertical shaft at the centre. the shaft is pulled up. Thus F! mV 2 L The explanation for why the wheel presses theground harder has been given above.N  mg ! 1 MRV 2 2 L   momentum N ! mg  1 MRV 2 2 L2 By balancing the vertical forces. The horizontal and the vertical components of the angular velocity and the free body diagram of the cone are shown below. The horizontal force applied by the shaft provided the centripetal acceleration. the horizontal shaft of the wheel will tend to turn clockwise about a horizontal axis as the wheel moves so that the change in the torque is zero. Another way to think about it is as follows. 13. Thus with time it will tend to come out of the ground.

(i) Now a point at distance x from the vertex (pivot point) on the line touching the ground moves with speed . Thus the horizontal moment 10 And its rate of change is 3 3 mV 2 R mVR v [V ! 10 10 h Coming out of the plane of the paper at the position of the cone shown.Since the speed of the centre of cone¶s base is V and its radius is R. We then find the relationship between them by demanding that the speed of all the points on the ground vanishes so that the cone rolls without slipping. Thus 3 3 mV 2 R hN  hmg ! 4 10 h And N 1  mg ! N   1 3 mV 2 R N 1 !  mg  4 10 h 2   N! 3 3 mV 2 R mg  4 10 h 2 Similarly.8 This is a problem where we take the components of the angular velocity according to the convenience of applying the rolling condition. about the vertical and [ about its axis. This shoud be equal to the torque about the pivot. Similarly R The principal axes of the cone at its vertex are its axis and two axes perpendicular to it. 208 .x due to the rotation about the vertical axis through the vertex and speed [x sin U (see figure below) in the opposite direction due to rotation about the axis of the cone. The moment of inertia about the axis of the cone is of inertia is LH ! 3 3 V mR 2 v ! mVR 10 R 10 3 mR 2 . So we split the angular velocity so that it has component . Thus 3 3 mV 2 2 F ! m v h v [V ! 4 4 h 13. [ H ! [V ! V . the force F provides the centripetal force. h V .

the net angular velocity Z of the cone is [ cos U parallel to the line touching the ground an in direction shown in the figure.! V h cos U This also gives [! V h cos U sin U As is clear from the components. we calculate the angular momenta along the principal axes shown in the figure below. Thus Z ! [ cos U ! (ii) V V h2  R 2 ! h sin U hR To calculate the angular momentum of the cone. 2 1 Z U From the figure it is clear that L1 !  I 1Z cos U !  3 V h2  R 2 h 3 v !  mRV mR 2 v 10 hR 10 h2  R2 209 .h cos U   . ! [ sin U U Now if the centre of the base moves with speed V.. Z x [ Thus for rolling we get . we have V ! .

the angular momentum changes because its vertical component rotates with angular speed Z.2 2 R 3 3 ¸V ¨ 3 ¸ V h R ¨ 3 L2 ! I 2Z sinU ! © mR 2  mh 2 ¹ v v ! © mR 2  mh 2 ¹ hR 80 80 ºh º ª 20 h 2  R 2 ª 20 In this case. Thus the rate of change of angular momentum is given by T dL ! Z LV ! Z .

L H ! mR 2[ 0 . we show the horizontal angular momentum LH of the rotating disc. its change (LH as the platform rotates and its free body diagram. N1 N2 LH (LH mg We have 1 L H ! mR 2[ 0 2 T dL 1 ! . Its sign depends on the relation between h and R. dt 2 210 .9 In the figure below. 13.L2 cos U  L1 sin U dt ! V h2  R2 hR «¨ 3 » h 3 3 R ¸V 2 mh 2 ¹ v  mRV v ¬© mR  ¼ 80 ºh h 2  R 2 10 h2  R2 ½ ­ª 20 ! 3 mRV 2 3 mhV 2  20 h 80 R and it is in the direction of axis 3. Check: The answer can be checked easily by applying the Euler equations that give  L1 ! [ 2 [ 3 ( I 3  I 2 ) ! 0  L2 ! [ 3[1 ( I 1  I 2 ) ! 0 3 ¸ ¨ 3  L3 ! [1[ 2 ( I 2  I 1 ) ! Z 2 sin U cos U ©  mR 2  mh 2 ¹ 80 º ª 20 ! 3 V2 ¨ 3 ¸ mR 2  mh 2 ¹ © hR ª 20 80 º which is the same answer as obtained above.

e.. This gives N 1  N 2 ! mg l . N1 and N2 will be such that the torque is equal to change in the angular momentum. Hence the disc will tend to rotate clockwise in the position shown so that N1 will become larger than N2. N1 and N2 are equal. i.If the torque applied on the disc is zero. there cannot be any change in the angular momentum. Finally.

3 (see figure 13. N1 2 [ U 1 U LH d d N2 The moment of inertia about the principal axes are as follows 211 . In the free body diagram of the rod. The cetre of mass of the system is also indicated in the figure. Carry it out further for each axis step by step.10: It has been worked out in section 13. 2 2 Solving these two equations gives N1 ! mg mR 2[ 0 . 13.11 We show in the figure below the principal axes for the system at the pivot point and the forces that act on the vertical rod at the bearings.18). we have not shown the vertical forces.5.  2 2l 13.N 1  N 2 ! 1 mR 2[ 0 .  2 2l N2 ! mg mR 2[ 0 . Principal axis 1 is along the rod and 2 and 3 are perpendicular to the rod with axis 3 coming out of the plane of the paper at the instant the rod is shown.

Thus 2 .I1 ! 0 l2 9l 2 5 2 I2 ! I3 ! m  m ! ml 4 4 2 [ 2 ! [ sin U [3 ! 0 The angular velocity components are [1 ! [ cos U Thus the angular momentum components are L1 ! 0 L2 ! 5 2 ml [ sin U 2 L3 ! 0 The torque required to keep the rod rotating can be calculated either by Euler¶s equations or by the horizontal component LH of the angular momentum and multiplying it by [. Euler equations give X 1 ! ([ 2 L3  [ 3 L2 ) ! 0 X 3 ! ([1 L 2  [ 2 L1 ) ! X 2 ! ([ 3 L1  [1 L3 ) ! 0 5 2 2 ml [ sin U cos U 2 This is the same answer as obtained through [LH as is easily checkd. The difference in these reactions also provides the centripetal force as the CM of then system is moving in a circle of radius l sin U . The torque is provided by the reactions of the bearings.

212 .12 In the figure below we show the principal axes for all the three rigid bodies. 2) are in the plane of the paper and axis 3 is coming out of the the paper in all three cases. Axes (1.N1  N 2 d ! 5 ml 2[ 2 sin U cos U 2   N1  N 2 ! 5 ml 2 [ 2 sin U cos U 2d l N 1  N 2 ! 2m v sin U v [ 2 ! ml[ 2 sin U 2 Solving these two equations gives N1 ! ml[ 2 sin U ¨ 5l cos U ¸ ¹ ©1  2d º 2 ª N2 ! ml[ 2 sin U 2 ¨ 5l cos U ¸ ¹ ©1  2d º ª 13.

[ 2 U 1 2 2 U [ 1 [ U 1 (a) In all the three cases we have [1 ! [ cos U (b) (c) [ 2 ! [ sin U [3 ! 0 and L1 ! I1[ cos U L2 ! I 2[ sin U L3 ! 0 Thus we have ¨ dL ¸ © ¹ ! ([ 2 L3  [ 3 L2 ) ! 0 ª dt º1 ¨ dL ¸ © ¹ ! ([ 3 L1  [1 L3 ) ! 0 ª dt º 2 ¨ dL ¸ 2 © ¹ ! ([1 L2  [ 2 L1 ) ! .

12 12 This gives ma 2[ 2 ¨ dL ¸ sin U cos U © ¹ ! 12 ª dt º 3 213 .I 2  I 1 [ sin U cos U ª dt º 3 Now in case (a) I1 ! mb 2 12 I2 ! ma 2 12 sin U ! b a2  b2 cos U ! a a2  b2 This gives m[ 2 ab ¨ a 2  b 2 ¸ ¨ dL ¸ ¹ © © ¹ ! 12 © a 2  b 2 ¹ ª dt º 3 º ª In case (b) I1 ! In case (c) mR 2 I1 ! 4 mR 2 I2 ! . 2 This gives mR 2 [ 2 ¨ dL ¸ sin U cos U © ¹ ! 4 ª dt º 3 mb 2 12 I2 ! ma 2 mb 2  .

13. [ 2 A 1 B U O A T B mg The components of the angular velocity are [1 ! [ cos U [ 2 ! [ sin U [3 ! 0 Therefore components of the angular momentum along the principal axes at the CM are L1 ! 1 mR 2[ cos U 2 L 2 ! mR 2[ sin U L3 ! 0 Thus the change in the angular momentum is [ times the horizontal component of the 1 ¸ 1 ¨ angular momentum = [ © mR 2[ sin U cos U  mR 2 [ cos U sin U ¹ ! mR 2[ 2 sin U cosU 2 º 2 ª And it points in the direction of axis (3) i. the tension in the string does two three things: it balances the weight of the ring. coming out of the page at the instant shown.e. Axes (1. Euler equations also give the same answer through 214 .13 As the ring rotates. The figure below shows the principal axes of the ring at its CM and the free body diagram of the ring. it provides the centripetal acceleration and it provides the torque for the angular momentum change of the ring. 2) are in the plane of the paper while axis 3 is coming out of the paper.

¨ dL ¸ © ¹ ! ([ 2 L3  [ 3 L2 ) ! 0 ª dt º1 ¨ dL ¸ © ¹ ! ([ 3 L1  [1 L3 ) ! 0 ª dt º 2 ¨ dL ¸ 2 © ¹ ! ([1 L2  [ 2 L1 ) ! .

as it moves up. Now balancing the forces gives T cos U ! mg T sin U ! m . the tension gets misaligned with the CM and starts giving a torque about it and finally the ring stops at an angle such that the torque equals the angular momentum change. This implies that the ring moves towards position 1. Thus the internal forces will move the ring so that there is an opposing change in the angular momentum. This ring moves so that its B end moves up. the tension and the weight of the ring give no torque about the CM of the ring. at the position shown.I 2  I 1 [ sin U cos U dt º 3 ª However. However.

R  l 2 sin U [   T ! m.

R  l 2 [ These equations give cos U ! g [ .

R  l 2 1 sin U ! 1  g2 2 [ 4 .

R  l ¾ ± g ± ¿   sin U cosU ! 2 2 [ .

R  l g ± ! 1 2 ± 2[ 4 .

This gives a torque X 3 ! F RT ! F mR . The perpendicular distance of the tension and the CM is about F R .R  l À If the ring moves up by an angle F.

R  l 2 [ Equating this to the rate of change of angular momentum gives F mR.

R  l 2 ! [ This gives F! Rg 2 2[ 2 .

R  l g 1 1 mR 2 [ 2 sin U cos U ! mR 2[ 2 2 2 2 [ .

7.R  l 13.14 Following the notation of example 13. we have (using parallel axis theorem for calculating I B ) 215 .

2 mR 2 50 v 10 3 v .

(ii) We see that .p ! mgl 50 v 10 3 v 9.3 v 10  4 kgm 2 4 2 Given [ S ! 100T rads 1 (i) The presseion angular frequency will then be . v 10 2 ! ! 10  5 kgm 2 I! 2 2 mR 2 IB !  ml 2 ! 5 v 10  6  50 v 10  3 v 25 v 10  4 ! 1.8 v 5 v 10 2 ! ! 7. the top will be coming out of the paper. Therefore for the nutation motion we can write (U  U 0 ) ! .8 rads 1 ! 450rs 1 I[ 10  5 v 100T Seeing the change in the angular momentum for the given sense of rotation. p [ S . p sin U 0 K .

1  cos K t with K 0 ! I [S IB K . Substituting all the The maximum difference between U and U numbers.6r The frictional force is needed to provide the centripetal force.15 The soulution of the Euler equations governing the motion is the same as in X sin U cos.076 N p 13. p sin U 0 K ! 30r  18. Thus F friction ! ml sin 30r.5 v 7.6r ! 48. we get U max ! U 0  (iii) is therefore 2. 2 ! 50 v 10 3 v 5 v 10 2 v 0.8 2 ! 0. p sin U 0 2.

[ S t I[ S X sin U sin .

7 but the initial conditions are different. 0 t  [ 3 !  A cos . 0 t  Here . Thus we have [ 2 ! A sin .[ S t I[ S example 13. 0 t  B sin . 0 ! . 0 t  B cos .

I  I B IB [ S . Then the initial conditions for the subsequent motion are 216 . Let the initial angular speed given about the vertical be [ 0 .

[ 2 (t ! 0) ! [ 0 sin U 0 [ 3 ( t ! 0) ! 0 These give A!0 ¨ X B ! ©[0  © I[ S ª ¸ ¹ sin U 0 ¹ º Thus we get ¨ X [ 2 ! © [0  © I[ S ª ¨ X [ 3 ! © [0  © I[ S ª ¸ X ¹ sin U 0 cos .

. 0 t  sin U cos .

[ S t ¹ I[ S º ¸ X ¹ sin U 0 sin .

0 t  sin U sin ..

p sin U ! [ 2 cos [ s t  [ 3 sin [ s t ! [ 0 sin U 0 cos.[ S t ¹ I[ S º If the precession velocity of the top is . p then .

. 0 t  [ S t   X .

sin U cos [ S t  sin U 0 cos . 0 t cos [ s t I[ S X .

sin U sin [ S t  sin U 0 sin . p ! [0 And  U ! [ 2 sin [ s t  [ 3 cos [ s t ! [ 0 sin U 0 sin . 0 t sin [ s t I[ S ¸¸ ¨ ¸ X ¨ ¨ I © sin U  sin U 0 cos© I [ S t ¹ ¹ ! [ 0 sin U 0 cos© [ S t ¹  ¹¹ ©I ¹ I[ © ©I ºº ª B º S ª ª B This gives .

0 t  [ S t   ¨ X ! ©  [0  © I[ S ª X ..

sin U cos [ S t  sin U 0 cos . 0 t sin [ s t I[ S ¨ I ¸ X ¨ sin U 0 ¨ I ¸¸ sin U 0 ©1  cos© [ S t ¹  cos© [ S t ¹ ¹ ©I ¹ I[ © ©I ¹¹ sin U sin U ª B º S ª ª B ºº X .

sin U sin [ S t  sin U 0 sin . 0 t cos [ s t I[ S ¸ ¸ ¨ I ¹ sin U 0 sin © [ S t ¹ ¹ ©I ¹ º ª B º  Upon integration. the equation for U gives 217 .

p (t )dt .23. we substitute the value of U (t ) in the  equation for . To get the angle through which the top has precessed.U (t ) ! ! U 0  IB I[ S ¨ X ©  [0  © I[ S ª « ¸ ¨ I ¸» ¹ sin U 0 ¬1  cos© [ S t ¹¼ ¹ ©I ¹ º ª B º½ ­ The variation of U (t ) with time is similar to that shown in figure 13. p (t ) and integrate it numerically. Finally to see the motion of the tip of the  axis of the top. U is plotted against ´ . 218 .

1 giving x(t ) ! 0.15   A cos J ! 0.11.1 leading to x(t ) ! 0.1 For this spring [ ! k ! m 25 ! 3.38 or J ! 1.1¾ T ¿ J ! .54 rad s1 2 T¸ ¨ A ! 0.54t  ¹ 2º ª (i) A sin J ! 0.Chapter 14 14.11sin . tan J ! 2. A cos J ! 0 À 2 (ii) ¾ ¿   A ! 0.1sin © 3.17 rad [A cos J ! 0.042 À A sin J ! 0.

028 À sin J " 0 ¾ ± T cos J 0 ¿   2 tan J 0 ± À which gives J ! 1.1   A cos J ! 0.84rad A sin J ! 0.54t  1.1 J T x(t ) ! 0.104 sin .3.57 [A cos J ! 0.17 (iii) ¾ ¿   A ! 0. tan J ! 3.104.

1 J 0 x(t ) ! 0.54t  1.84 (iv) ¾ ¿   A ! 0.0565 À sin J 0¾ T ± cos J " 0 ¿    2 tan J 0 ± À hich gives J ! 1. tan J ! 1.76 [A cos J ! 0.3.115 sin .06rad A sin J ! 0.2   A cos J ! 0.115.

1   A cos J ! 0.202 sin .43rad A sin J ! 0.06 (v) ¾ ¿   A ! 0.202.3.54t  1. tan J ! 7.2 J 0 x(t ) ! 0.028 À sin J 0¾ T ± cos J " 0 ¿    2 tan J 0 ± À hich gives J ! 1.14 [A cos J ! 0.

43 219 .3.54t  1.

(vi) ¾ ¿   A ! 0.2 J x(t ) ! 0.056 À sin J 0¾ ± cos J 0 ¿   T tan J " 0 ± À  T 2 hich gives J ! 1.84 rad A sin J ! 0.208.208 sin .2   A cos J ! 0.57 [A cos J ! 0. tan J ! 3.

54t  1.3.84 14.2 It is given that x(t ) ! 5 sin( 2t  J ) . This is shown below for different values of J. J !0 J! T 4 J ! T 4 220 . the velocity curve has intermediate amplitude of 10 and the acceleration curve has the largest amplitude of 20. Notice that phase difference of and  give identical curves. Thus the velocity is v(t ) ! 10 cos(2t  J ) and the acceleration is x(t ) ! 20 sin( 2t  J ) . Displacement curve is the one with smallest amplitude of 5.

J! T 3 J ! T 3 J! T 2 J ! T 2 J! 2T 3 J ! 2T 3 221 .

dx For V ( x) ! 2 x3  9 x 2  12 x . The second derivative of the potential at these points is  ®6 d 2V ( x ) ! 12 x  18 ! ¯  dx 2 °6 .3 Equilibrium points of the potential are given by dV ( x ) ! 0. this gives 6 x 2  18 x  12 ! 0   x 2  3x  2 ! 0 The roots of this equation are at x = 2 and x = 1.J! 3T 4 J ! 3T 4 T T 14.

x ! 1 .

The corresponding spring constant is d k ! V d! 2 ! 6 . x 222 .45rad s 1 . This gives [ ! k m ! 6 ! 2.x ! 2 Thus the potential is minimum at x = 2.

4 V ( x) ! C 1  e .14.

 a ( x  x0 ) 2   dV ! 2C 1  e  a ( x  x0 ) v ae  a ( x  x0 ) dx .

At this point the second derivative d 2V ! 2C 2a 2 e  2 a ( x  x )  a 2 e  a ( x  x 2 dx . Equating the derivative to zero gives x = x0.

At this point the second derivative » « « W 12 W6» W 12 W6 18I d 2V ! 13 2  42 8 ! I ¬156 14  42 8 ¼ ! I ¬156 14 2 13 13 ¼ W v4v2 W v2v2 ½ 2 W dx x x ½ ­ ­ 223 . x0=1.4.2 and the frequency will become larger and time-period smaller for a=0.2 (iii) (iv) [! k 2C !a m m As is clear from the figure.2 a = 0. (i) (ii) The corresponding spring constant k ! 2Ca 2 . 14. 0 0 ) ! 2Ca 2 is positive and therefore at this point the potential is minimum.5 «¨ W ¸12 ¨ W ¸ 6 » V ( x ) ! I ¬© ¹  © ¹ ¼ ªxº ¼ ¬ª x º ­ ½   « W 12 W6» dV ! I ¬ 12 13  6 7 ¼ dx x x ½ ­ Equating the derivative to zero gives x ! 21 6 W . To plot the potential and harmonic approximation to it.4 a = 1.0 and two values of a: a=0. Thus the frequency will become smaller and time-period larger for a=1. we have taken C=2.4 and a=1. depending on the value of a the potential becomes softer or harder for larger displacements from x = x0.

it applies a restoring force.16 rad s 1 75 m ! 75kg (ii) Velocity of platform and person on it is calculated by principle of linear momentum conservation and gives v! 55 2 gh .7 In this problem k ! 2000 Nm 1 (i) [ ! k ! m 2000 ! 5. the force on it is VV v V (x V V 2 (x ! . i.e. I0 I0 The total mass of the block is = number of electrons in volume V velectron mass = VV me e So the equation of motion for the displaced block of electrons is (writing (x ! y ) VV VV 2  me  !  y y   I0 e   y Ve I 0 me y!0 This gives the plasma frequency (here n is the number density of electrons) [p ! Ve I 0 me ! ne 2 I 0 me 14.6 The surface charge density W ! s V(x gives a electric field E ! V(x that pulls the I0 displaced electrons back.Thus the corresponding spring constant is [! 1 k ! m W 18I and the frequency of small oscillations is 21 3 W 2 18I 9 v 21 3 ! W 21 3 m I m 14. We consider volume V of the displaced block.

55  20 ! 4.59ms 1 224 .

we have A sin J ! 0.(iv) If we take the equilibrium point of (person+platform) as y=0. Thus this is a problem 2000 Representin the motion as y (t ) ! A sin([ t  J ) .93 sin .30 sin J " 0 ¾ ± T cos J 0 ¿   2 tan J 0 ± À J T hich gives J ! 2.27 m . then the displacement without the person on the platform is = with the initial conditions y (t ! 0) ! 0.89 À A ! 0.6   ¾ ¿   A cos J ! 0.27 [A cos J ! 4.6 ms 1 55 v 9.27  y (t ! 0) ! 4.85rad Thus the displacement is given by x(t ) ! 0.93 and tan J ! 0.8 ! 0.

5.16t  2. it is the motion of a rigid body about a pivot point. angular acceleration and the restoring torque. If the square is displaced by an angle U about the vertical (see figure) the torque is X ! mg a 2 sin U } mga 2 U U a mg The moment of inertia about the pivot is calculated by the parallel axis theorem and is ¨ a ¸ a2 2 I ! m© ¹ m ! ma 2 6 3 ª 2º 2 225 . Thus the equation of motion is written in terms of the moment of inertia.8 In this case.85 14.

The spring force is in the opposite direction on the pendulum on the right. U1 L K U2 M For visualizing the force applied by the spring.The quation of motion is  IU!  This can be rewritten as  3 g U ! 0 U 2a 2 This gives the frequency of oscillation to be [ ! 3g 2a 2 mga 2 U or 2  mga U ! 0 ma 2U 3 2 14. let us take U 2 " U1 . we use the angularmomentum torque equation for describing the motion of the pendulums. and therefre generate internal forces. (i) Since the rods are rigid.9 These two pendulums with their displacements are shown in the figure below. equations of motion for the two pendulums are  ML2U !  Mgl U 1  1  ML2U !  Mgl U 2  2 L L v k . Then the bob on the left feels a force to the right due to the spring and to the left due to the weight of the bob.

2  U1 U 2 2 L L v k .

2  U1 U 2 2     k  g U  U 1 ! .

U 2  U1 1 L 4M k  g U  U 2 !  .

U 2  U 1 2 L 4M Thus the 226 .

14.10 Angular displacement of the rod by and angle U and the corresponding angle J that the strings make with the vertical are shown in the figure below. These are 2T cos J ! mg mL2  U!  L v T sin J 12 cos J } 1 Then 227 sin J } J and l sin J ! L sin U 2 In the small angle approximation we have and sin U } U . We thus need three equations. the correct equation of motion to be used is the angular momentum-torque equation. J and T. Also shown are the tensions in the strings. There are four unknowns that will be given in terms of four initial conditions.(ii) The equations above are solved by adding them to get the equation for U (t ) ! U1 (t )  U 2 (t ) and for J (t ) ! U 1 (t )  U 2 (t ) . these are equal by symmetry. There are three unknowns in the problem: U. These are  g U U ! 0 L These give k ¸  ¨ g J ©  ¹J ! 0 ª L 2M º ¨ U (t ) ! A cos [1t  B sin [1t © [1 ! © ª g¸ ¹ L¹ º ¨ J (t ) ! C cos [ 2 t  D sin [ 2 t © [ 2 ! © ª g k ¸ ¹  L 2M ¹ º Combination of these two gives U1 (t ) and U 2 (t ) . J T U T l L Since we are dealing with a rigid rod.

Then U! y1  y 2 L X ext !  L k ( y1  y 2 ) 2 Thus we have for the CM CM   y And for rotation about the CM 2k y CM ! 0   [ CM ! M 2k M 228 .T ! mg 2 J! L U 2l And the equation of motion becomes mL2  mg L U!  L v v U 12 2 2l Thus the frequency of oscillation is [ ! 3g . 2 And the equation for rotation about the CM is  IU! X ext where we mesure counterclockwise U as positive.11We show in the figure below a displacement of the rod when the left spring is stretched by y1 and the right one by y2. l    3g U U ! 0 l 14. L y1 U yCM y2 The equation of motion for the CM is  M CM ! Fext !  k ( y1  y 2 ) y with y CM ! y1  y 2 .

U (t ! 0) ! A1  A2 .ML2  kL2 U!  U 12 2  6 k U ! 0   [ ! or U rot M 6k M With the initial conditions y1 ! A1 and y 2 ! A2 and the rod held stationary in the beginning. we have y CM (t ! 0) ! A1  A2 .12 Since we are writing the displacement as y (t ) ! A sin . U t ! 0) ! 0 ( L This then gives the answer ¨ A  A2 ¸ y CM (t ) ! © 1 ¹ cos [ CM t 2 º ª and ¨ A  A2 ¸ U (t ) ! © 1 ¹ cos [ rot t ª L º 14. 2  y CM (t ! 0) ! 0.

counterclockwise. the projection of the phasor on the y-axis gives the displacement.13 Assuming that the swing is performing simple harmonic motion.28s 1 6 l 229 . the period of the swing is [! 9.8 g ! ! 1. The phase angle is measured from the x-axis.[t  J . After that it rotates (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 14. In the following we show the position of he phasor at t = 0.

the amplitude will not change. It is like strating a swing. follows: When only the man is on the swing the total energy is = M gA 2 1 M man [ 2 A 2 ! man 2 2l Energetically it can be seen as When the child is handed over to the person at the extreme. the child brings in additional potential energy (with respect to the equilibrium point) = Mchildvgvthe height of the extreme point with respect to the equilibrium point ! M child g l  l 2  A 2 } ? AM child gA 2 2l Thus the total energy that the swing posseses after the child is handed over is .Therefore the speed of the person on the swing as the swing passes through its equilibrium point is = [A ! 1.56ms 1 (i) When the swing is at the extremes and the child is handed over. from a distance A from the equilibrium with zero initial speed.28 v 2 ! 2. ireespective of its mass.

M man  M child gA 2 2l If the new amplitude is Anew. this should equal (keep in mind that [ remains unchanged) 2 .

M man  M child gAnew 1 2 2 .

13ms 1 60 M man  M child And the total energy of the system is now 1 . the speed os the swing decreses by the conservation of linear momentum. It is V ! M manVinitial 50 v 2.M man  M child [ Anew ! 2 2l A comparison in the total energies calculated in two ways immediately gives Anew ! A . (ii) When the child is handed over at the equilibrium point.56 ! ! 2.

M man  M child V 2 ! 136.53J 2 If the new amplitude is Anew. then (keep in mind that [ remains unchanged) 1 2 2 .

67 m .53 2 This gives Anew ! 1.64 v Anew ! 136.M man  M child [ 2 Anew ! 30 v 1. 230 .

14 The equation of motion now will be  m !  kx  f x Its general solution is x(t ) ! C cos [ o t  D sin [ o t  f k  With the initial conditions x(0) !  A and x(0) ! 0 . The torque on the body is applied by the weight acting at its CG. the solution is f f ¸ ¨ x(t ) ! © A  ¹ cos [ o t  k kº ª  Since the velocity x of the block is f ¸  ¨ x ! © A  ¹[ o sin [ o t kº ª It becomes zero at [ 0 t ! T . and it is a restoring torque (see figure). 14. The value of the torque about the pivot point is X ! l mg sin U 2 The moment of inertia of the rod about the pivot point is I ! ml 2 3 231 . energy is conserved in case (i) only. At this time f¸ f 2f ¨ x (t ) ! © A  ¹  ! A  k kº k ª 14. its motion is described by the angular momentum-torque equation.15 (i) Since this is the motion of a rigid body pivoted at a point under an external force.(iii) As is clear from the calculations above.

this then leads to a reduction in the amplitude by 4X by the mgl time the pendulum reaches the left extreme. U (t ! 0) ! 0 . the equation of motion is ml 2  l U!  mgU  X 3 2  3g U ! 3X or U 2l ml 2  With the initial conditions U (t ! 0) ! U 0 . When the pendulum in the figure above is moving clockwise. The equation of motion can be written and solved exactly as in the problem above. the solution of the equation above is (just like in the problem of spring-mass system with friction) ¨ 2X ¸ 2X ¹ cos [t  U (t ) ! ©U 0  © ¹ mgl º mgl ª Like in the problem above. mgl 232 . We will now derive this result from energy considerations also. the frictional torque causes it to lose energy and therefore the amplitude of the pendulum decreases slowly. Thus in one cycle the amplitude reduces by 8X .mg Thus the equation of motion for the rod is ml 2  l U!  mg sin U 3 2 For small angles this equation bocomes ml 2  l U!  mgU 3 2 (ii) 3g  3g or U U ! 0   [ ! 2l 2l As the pendulum swings about.

Then the total angle covered by it is .Suppose at a certain instant the pendulum starts with the maximum displacement of U1 and goes to the maximum angle U 2 on the other side.

U1  U 2 and the work done against the frictional torque is therefore X .

1  U 2 . Equating this to the work done 2 2 2X 2X 4X ! ! 2 2 I[ ml 3 g mgl v 3 2l energy loss during the motion is against friction gives 1 2 2 1 2 2 I[ U 1  I[ U 2 ! X . The U 1 2 2 1 2 2 I[ U 1  I[ U 2 .

1  U 2   U 2 2 .

the amplitude is A(t) and the frequency [(t).U1  U 2 ! Thus in one cycle the amplitude reduces by 8X . it carries with it the energy at the rate 1 dm 2 1 2 v ! Cv . If at time 2 dt 2 t. it will stop swinging when it is at angle U such that U0  N mgl U !X 2   U !   N! 2X . then v(t ) ! [ (t ) A(t ) sin . Thus we have mgl 8X 2X ! mgl mgl mglU 0 1 mglU 0  } 8X 4 8X 14.16 As the mass leaks out. mgl Now if the pendulum starts with an angle U 0 and completes N cycles.

[t  J and the average rate of loss dE (t ) of energy E(t) of the oscillator is dt 1 1 dE (t ) !  C[ 2 (t ) A 2 (t ) sin 2 .

[t  J !  C[ 2 (t ) A 2 (t ) 2 4 dt In time averaging A(t) and [(t) come out of the integral because they vary slowly over a few oscillations (that is precisely why they can be defined). [ 2 (t ) ! k k ! m(t ) m0  Ct 233 . The negative sign shows that the energy is being lost with time.

the energy E (t ) ! dE (t ) dA(t ) ! kA(t ) . Combining all this gives dt dt 1 2 kA (t ) and the rate of change of energy 2 kA(t ) 1 k dA(t ) A 2 (t )   ! C 4 m0  Ct dt dA(t ) C A(t ) ! 4.And if amplitude is A(t).

this equation is integrated as dAd dt d ´ Ad!  ´ 4.m0  Ct dt If the amplitude at t = 0 is A0.

Thus for the current problem we get 2 K ! dE ! KE where the energy E is dt 1 dE 2 1 [ 4e 2 A2 [ 2e2 ! v ! E dt me [ 2 A 2 2 6TI 0 c 3 6TI 0 m e c 3 14.17 The energy loss is given by the formula dE [ 4e 2 A2 ! cos 2 [t 3 dt 6TI 0 c Thus the average energy loss is 1 [ 4e 2 A2 dE [ 4e2 A2 2 cos [t !  ! 2 6TI 0 c 3 6TI 0 c 3 dt If the damping factor of the system is K. then E! 1 m e[ 2 A 2 .18 We consider an oscillator with initial conditions so that its motion is given by x (t ) ! K t Ae 2 sin [ 0 t 234 .m0  Ct d A 0 A t 0 This gives ¨ Ct A(t ) ! A0 ©1  © m 0 ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º 14 14.

it will be given at time when T .8 ! 7. This follows from the definition of the quality factor. where v is the speed at the equilibrium point. it is advanced by phase angle J.9 Ns 50 5 235 # dx ¸  t ¨ K ! A©  sin [ 0 t  [ 0 cos [ 0 t ¹e 2 ! 0   dt º ª 2 K tan [ 0 t ! 2[ 0 !2 K . Energy loss per cycle = 2 venergy loss per radian = 2T E Q Here E is the energy of the swing. 2Q cos J 1 } sin J J 14. For the damped 2 Since Q is very high. we have Energy gained per cycle = J[A This will equal the energy loss per cycle due to damping. E! Thus we get 1 m[ 2 A 2 J[A ! 2T v v Q 2   J! Tm[A T mA ! Q Q g l mgA 2 1 m[ 2 A 2 ! 2 2l Putting in all the numbers gives J! T v 45 v 2 9. Since v ! [A .For undamped oscillatot the siplacement is maximum when [ 0 t ! oscillator. the maximum occurs when [ 0 t ! the maximum occurs before T  J where J is very small. the energy gained by him is Jv.19 If the person gives an impulse J. Since 2 T . we have cot J ! This gives J ! 1 . Thus 2 ¸ ¨T tan ©  J ¹ ! 2Q   cot J ! 2Q º ª2 For small J.

58 Thses give 236 .535t Here A and B are to be determined by the initial conditions. k The speed of the load when it lands on the platform is 2 gh ! 20 ! 4. the initial displacement from that position is y (t ! 0) ! (i) 200 g ! 0.735 A  11.27s 1 250 m 2 Thus K 2 ! 176 . the value of K ! And the angular frequency [ 0 ! 5000 k ! ! 4.535 2 4 So y (t ) ! Ae 1.735t  Be 11.4 A  B ! 0.14.03 So the coefficient of drag force b ! mK ! 550 v 6. Thus we have from the solution above 1. Since the system is critically damped for 500kg put on the platform. the load+platform will move with the speed 200 v 4.47 ms 1 . Initial conditions: Since we are taking the equilibrium position of the (load+platform) as y = 0. we have K 2 ! 4[ 2 ! 4 v k 5000 ! 4v m 550   K ! 6. Then by momentum conservation.4  y (t ! 0) ! 3. which makes the system hevily damped. 250 (ii) From the above.535 B ! 3.58ms 1 .03 ! 3316 .1 " 4[ 0 ! 80 .5 N/ms 1 Thus when a 200kg weight is on the platform.58ms 1 .5 ! ! 13.4 m . the initial conditions are y (t ! 0) ! 0. The solution then is P t P t y (t ) ! Ae 1  Be 2 with P1 ! K K2 2   [ 0 ! 1.20 It is given that k ! 5000 Nm 1 and the mass of the platform is 50kg.735 and 2 4 P2 ! K K2   [ 02 ! 11.47 ! 3.47rad s 1 250 m b 3316 .

21 For a forces oscillation the angle J by which the displacement lags the applied force is given by equations sin J ! and K[ ([ o  [ 2 ) 2  K 2 [ 2 tan J ! K[ ([ o  [ 2 ) 2 2 cos J ! ([ o  [ 2 ) ([ o  [ 2 ) 2  K 2 [ 2 2 2 For a very heavily damped oscillator K p g .735t  0.106 and The solution therefore is B ! 0.294 e 11.A ! 0.106 e 1.294 y (t ) ! 0. Thus we have sin J p 1 This gives J ! T 2 cos J p 0 and tan J p g 237 .535t 14.

ma x=0 l The equilibrium point x0 is given by  k ?x0  ( l )A ma ! 0   x 0 ! l  ma k Thus the equation of motion for the mass in this frame is « ¨ ma ¸ »  m !  k ¬ x  ©  l  x ¹   k º¼ ­ ª ½   x ma ¸ k¨ ¹!0 ©xl  k º mª  At t ! 0 . In this frame. 238 . Thus the system in the noninertial frame looks as shown below.2 This problem is very easy to solve in the accelerating frame attached with the car. x (t ! 0) ! 0. there is a pseudo force ma acting in the negative x direction. The free body diagram of the door in the car frame with pseudo force included is shown below. ma ¸ ¨ We change the variables to y ! © x  l  ¹ and write the above equation as k º ª   y k ma . This gives the soulution y (t ) ! ma ¨ k ¸ ma k ©1  cos t¹ t   x (t ) ! l  cos k © m ¹ k m ª º 15. y ! 0 with the initial conditions y (t ! 0) ! m k  y (t ! 0) ! 0.1 We perform our calculations in a noninertial frame attached with the box and take the origin (x = 0) at the point where the spring is connected to the box. the initial conditions are x(t ! 0) ! l .Chapter 15 15.

Thus the problem becomes like examples 12.3 where a ruler/rod.car Ma w In the car frame therefore the door is being pulled at its CM by a force Ma and rotates about the hinges. pivoted at one of its ends¶ rotates about an axis at that point when the pivot point starts accelerating with an acceleration.8 v rotating ! vinertial  [ v r and a rotating ! dt T dvinertial dt T T T T d .7 and 15. Then by energy conservation this gives the answer for the angular speed of the door when it is about to close [! 3a w 15.4 We substitute A ! v rotating in T T T T dA dA ! [vA dt inertial dt rotating to get T dv rotational dt ! inertial T dv rotating dt rotating T T  [ v v rotating T dv rotating T T T T T Now from equation 15. T T 15.7 and the problem above and is solved in exactly the same manner.3 This problem is similar to problem 12.

the above equation is dt inertial T dvinertial T T T T T  [ v vinertial ! a rotating  [ v v rotating dt inertial 239 .[ v r  ! a rotating  [ v v rotatingl dt inertilal so we have rotating inertial T Since vinertilal T dr ! .

8 and a inertial ! dt . inertial we get T T T T T T T T a inertial  [ v v rotational  [ v .T T T dv inertial T T T Again substituting vinertial ! v rotating  [ v r from equation 15.

we should be working in terms of totques. it increases with the distance of fom the axis. (ii) When the rod is at an angle U from the vertical. Thus the rod will tend to swing away from the axis. Thus the free-body diagram of the rod in the rotating frame is as shown below. Notice that we are not taking the centrifugal force to be acting at the centre of mass because it is different for different portions of the rod. neither its weight nor the force by the pivot apply any torque. the component of force on a portion of length ds at distance s from the pivot is m ds ( s sin U )[ 2 (see figure).5 In the rotating frame the rod is stationary and there is a pseudo force ± the centrifugal force ± acting on it. the centrifugal force applies a counterclockwise torque on the rod but at the vertical position. Centrifugal force mg (i) It is clear from the figure above that the rod is pulled out horizontally by the centrifugal force (in the rotating frame) and would therefore move out when displaced from the vertical position. l 240 .[ v r ! a rotating  [ v v rotational which gives T T T T T T T a inertial ! a rotating  2[ v v rotating  [ v ([ v r ) 15. Since we are dealing with a rigid body. It will be clearer mathematically in part (ii). Thus at the given position.

Thus when disturbed from the vertical position it will move out to this equilibrium position (with very small friction damping the motion but not affecting the equilibrium position). If looked at from the top along CD. i. l[ 2 " 3g . the rod will not move out because the torque due to the 2 centrifugal force will not be able to overcome the torque due to the rod¶s weight. For angular speeds such that cos U " 1. the rod will be at equilibrium at the angle 2 whose cosine is given above. 15.e. the free body diagram of the rod in the rotating frame. 241 . looks as shown below.6 This problem is similar to the problem above except that there is no gravitational force involved here.s m ds ( s sin U )[ 2 l mg Thus the torque due to the centrifugal force is X centrifugal m ml 2 [ 2 2 sin U cos U ! ´ s cos U v ds ( s sin U )[ ! 3 l 0 l At the same time there is an opposing torque due to gravity and its value is X gravity ! mgl sin U 2 Balancing these two gives cos U ! 3g 2l[ 2 Thus as long as cos U 1. i. l[ 2 3g .e. when it is at an angle U from the frame.

the mass of the strip will be m m m wds ! ds and the centrifugal force on it = ds ( s sin U )[ 2 .m ds( s sin U )[ 2 l A s U B If we take a strip of width ds at a distance s from the axis CD. The net torque on it is lw l l therefore X centrifugal ml 2[ 2 m 2 sin U cosU ! ´ s cos U v ds ( s sin U )[ ! 12 l l 2 T are equilibrium positions of the sheet. 2 l 2 This shows that both U ! 0 and U ! (i) Thus when disturbed slightly .

the torque on the sheet is X centrifugal ! ml 2[ 2 U and tends to take it away from that position. 2 ml 2  ml 2[ 2 U! U 12 12  or U [ 2U ! 0 242 . The equation of 12 motion for slight disturbance from the position parallel to the frame is therefore  IU! This gives U (t ) ! A exp([t )  B exp([t ) Therefore the equilibrium position at U ! 0 is an unstable equilibrium position. (ii) If we call the angle from the perpendicular position of the sheet J then J ! The expression for torque in terms of J remains X centrifugal ml 2[ 2 sin J cos J ! 12 T U .U ~ 0 .

sin P dt dv z !  g  2v x . z (t ) ! v z 0 t  gt 2 2 and dv x d 2 x ! 2 ! 2. . sin P  2v z . ! 0 . 2 15. vx and vy would remain zero for a particle thrown up.7 We follow the convention for the directions as in the main text.However. The equations of motion in the northern hemisphere are therefore dv x ! 2v y . Thus correct to the linear order in . cos P dt If . the torque has restoring nature. For small J therefore the equation of motion is  IJ! ml 2  ml 2 [ 2 J!  J 12 12  or J [ 2J ! 0 Thus the motion about this position is oscillatory and is given by J (t ) ! A cos([t )  B sin([t ) or equivalently by U (t ) ! A cos([t )  B sin([t ) Therefore the equilibrium position at U ! T is a stable equilibrium position. cos P dt and dv z ! g dt This gives v z (t ) ! v z 0  gt . cos P dt dv y ! 2v x . as the sheet is disturbed from this position. There is no force in the horizontal plane. the equations above are dv x ! 2v z .

cos P dt dt Upon integration.v z 0  gt . the second equation gives v x (t ) ! .

cos P x (t ) ! ©  v zo t 2  © 3 ¹ º ª Straightforward approach to solve for the deflection by the time the particle reaches the earth again would be to find the time for it to come back to the ground and substitute it in the equation for x(t). We have 243 . and ¨ gt 3 ¸ ¹. 2v zo t  gt 2 cos P  .

since the sign of vz changes. cos P ! 8.8 v 4. While going up.8 cos P cm x( 2T ) ! ©  44. To see its effect.04 2  ¹ © 3 º ª v z0 ! 4. let us calculate the distances in two steps: first when the stone goes up and the second when it comes down.52s g The negative sing in front indicates that the deflection is towards the west. This does not happen because by the time the stone reaches its highest point.04s.04 3 ¸ ¹.27 ms 1 .33. it already has a westward velocity. Thus the total deflection by the time the stone comes back to the ground is ¨ 9.52 3 ¸ ¹. This is an interesting result. cos P ! 4. the net deflection would have been zero. One¶s immediate answer would normally have been that the stone deflects one way while going up and the other way while coming down.4 cos P x(T ) ! ©  44. Time taken to reach the highest point T! And the total time of flight = 2T = 9.27 v 9. the deflection of the particle by the time it reaches the highest point is ¨ 9.27 v 4.8 v 9. cos P ! 1206 .65.52 2  ¹ © 3 º ª At this point it has the horizontal velocity v x (T ) ! .8 v 100 ! 44.v z 0 ! 2 gh ! 2 v 9. cos P ! 603 .

cos P ! 1. The negative sing in front indicates that the velocity is towards the west.22.9. north and vertical direction are v x 0 ! v0 cos U cos E v y 0 ! v 0 cos U sin E v z 0 ! v0 sin U Equations of motion in are 244 .52 2 cos P ! 200 .46 cos P v 4.52  2. 2 v 44. 15.8 v 4.8 cos P during the entire flight.27 v 4. as shown in example 15.2 cos P cm. now the stone has an initial westward speed of 1. if a stone is dropped from a height of 100m. Thus the nest deflection fo th stone while it is coming down will be  1. Now.46 cos P cm s1.2 cos P ! 4.52  9.8 The initial components of the velocity in the east.46 cos P cm s1  . However.4 cos P This gives a total deflection of  8. it deflects to the east by 2.

cos P dt Since .dv x ! 2v y . sin P dt dv z !  g  2v x .. sin P  2v z . This means that for vx and vy. we will do our calculations correct to the first order in . This gives dv x d 2 x ! 2 ! 2v 0 cosU sin E . sin P  2. cos P dt dv y ! 2v x . is very small. we substitute their initial values and for vz we substitute v z (t ) ! v 0 sin U  gt in the equations above.

we substitute z = 0 and get T ! 2v 0 sin U 2v sin U } 0 g  2v 0 . cos U cos E cos P ¸ ©1  0 ¹ © ¹ g ª º Thus the time of flight of the projectile increases.t 2 cos U cos E cos P 2 For time of flight T calculation. t cos U sin E sin P  2© v 0 t sin U  gt 2 ¹.v 0 sin U  gt . with proper initial conditions v z 0 (t ! 0) ! 0. t 2 cos U sin E sin P  © v0 t 2 sin U  © 3 ¹ º ª 245 . z (t ! 0) ! 0 . cos P x(t ) ! v 0 t cos U cos E  v 0 . gives v z ! v 0 sin U  gt  2v0 . cos P dt dt dv y d 2 y ! 2 ! 2v 0 cos U cos E . cos P dt dt Integration of the last equation.t cos U cos E cos P z ! v 0 sin U t  1 2 gt  v0 . cos U cos E cos P g ¨ 2v . cos P 2 º ª ¨ gt 3 ¸ ¹. sin P dt dt dv z d 2 z ! 2 !  g  2v 0 cos U cos E . x(t ! 0) ! 0 to get 1 ¸ ¨ v x (t ) ! v0 cos U cos E  2v 0 . Now we integrate the equation for motion in the x direction. with the initial conditions v x 0 (t ! 0) ! v0 cos U cos E .

integration of the equation for the motion in the y direction gives v y (t ) ! v 0 cos U sin E  2v 0 . we take a projectile thrown staright up .Similarly. t 2 cos U cos E sin P Thus the deflection of the projectile in the east and north direction are known. As a check. t cos U cos E sin P y (t ) ! v 0 t cos U sin E  v0 .

sin E cos P (t y d) ! v 0 . t 2 cos U sin P  © v 0 sin U t 2  © 3 ¹ º ª To calculate the range and deflection from the path during the flight. we substitute the time of flight T for t.. To the first order in . ! 90r and find that the answer matches with that obtained U in problem 15. cos E cos P (t x d) ! v0 cos U t  © v0 sin U t 2  © 3 ¹ º ª ¨ gt 3 ¸ ¹.7. we transform these as (see figure) Y¶ Y X¶ X O x' ! x cos E  y sin E y ' !  x sin E  y cos E This transformation gives ¨ gt 3 ¸ ¹. cos U cos E cos P ¸ ©1  0 ¹ © ¹ g ª º 246 . To know the deflection x d) in the direction of launch and y d) perpendicular (t (t to it. we then have T } 2v 0 sin U g ¨ 2v .

! 0 will deflect towards the south and that fired E westward .

which is equivalent to changing the sign of to  . ! 180r will deflect to the north. it is then 247 . they differ by the sign of the terms containing sin P . From the expression derived above. If we look at the equations of motion in the E northern and the southern hemisphere.

2 g º ª3 15. cos P 2 dt The solution of this differential equation is given by the sum of the solution for its homogeneous part and the particular solution.9 Exact solution of the equations of motion on the surface of the earth. sin P  2v z . Thse are dv x ! 2v y . 2 v x ! 2 g. we get d 2v x ! 4. sin 2 U ¨ 1 ¸ © sin U sin E cos P  cos U sin P ¹ in the southern hemisphere.clear that the change in the range will not change but the sideways deflection will change to 3 4v0 . cos P 2 dt dt dt Substituting for the derivatives of the velocity components appearing on the right. cos P dt dv y ! 2v x . cos P   2 dt d 2vx  4. 2 v x  2 g. cos P dt To get the exact solutions. Thus it is v x (t ) ! A cos . sin P dt dv z !  g  2v x . we differentiate the first equation once and get dv y d 2v x dv !2 . sin P  2 z .

t  B sin .2.

t  g cos P 2. Here A and B are determined by the initial conditions. Subztituting this solution in the equation for vy gives v y (t ) ! ? A sin .2.

t  B cos .2.

t  gt cos P Asin P  C Here C is another constant.2. Similarly from the last equation we get v z (t ) !  gt  ?A sin .

t  B cos.2.

2. 248 .t  gt cos P Acos P  D Here D is another constant.

A! dv x (t ! 0) ! 0 . Since we have solved a second-order differential equation for vx . This gives v x (t ) ! g cos P ?  cos. we need two initial condtions for it.No wlet us determine the constants appearing in the equations above for a stone dropped from height h. Then we have dt g cos P . B!0 2. These are v x (t ! 0) ! 0.

2.t A 1 2. « sin .

½ « sin .2.t » v y (t ) ! g ¬  t ¼ cos P sin P  C ­ 2.

t » v z (t ) !  gt  g ¬  t ¼ cos 2 P  D 2.2. Thus the complete solution for the velocity is v x (t ) ! g cos P ?  cos. ­ ½ For the y and the z components of the velocity we have v y (t ! 0) ! 0. v z (t ! 0) ! 0 . These give C = 0 and D = 0.

2.t A 1 2. « sin .

t »  t ¼ cos P sin P v y (t ) ! g ¬ ­ 2. ½ « sin .2.

If only the motion in the horizontal plane is considered.10 Cyclone building up in the Bay of Bengal. p 0 this gives. 15.2. to the first order in . v x (t ) ! g. ­ ½ In the limit of . the equations of motion are 249 ..t »  t ¼ cos 2 P v z (t ) !  gt  g ¬ 2.t 2 cos P v y (t ) ! 0 v z (t ) !  gt This leads to the same answers as in example 15.9.

sin P ! 2 .sin P dt dt We choose the coordinate system such that its origin is where the storm starts from. sin P ! 2 . v y (t ! 0) ! 0 . y (t ! 0) ! 0. Since x(t ! 0) ! 0. sin P dt dt dv y dx ! 2v x .x(t ) sin P We substitute this in the first equation above to get dv x d 2 x 2 ! 2 ! .x(t ) sin P  C where C is a constant. v y (t ! 0) ! 0 . v x (t ! 0) ! 50 kmph . we get C = 0. Thus the initial conditions are x(t ! 0) ! 0.dv x dy ! 2v y . The second equation above can be immediately integrated to obtain v y (t ) ! 2. Thus v y (t ) ! 2.

2. sin P x or dt dt This gives x(t ) ! A sin .

2.t sin P  B cos.

B!0 2.t sin P With the initial conditions x(t ! 0) ! 0. v x (t ! 0) ! 50 kmph ! 13.9 .9ms 1 .9 sin . sin P   x (t ) !  13. this gives A! 13.2.

2.t sin P 2. sin P d 2x 2  .

9 sin . sin P x ! 0 2 dt Thus v y (t ) ! dy ! 13.2.

9 cos .2.t sin P dt   y (t ) !  13.

t sin P  C 2. v y (t ! 0) ! 0 we get C ! for the coordinates of the eye of the cyclone 250 . sin P 13.2. Thus finally we have 2.9 . sin P With the initial conditions y (t ! 0) ! 0.

9 sin .x (t ) !  13.

9 ?  cos.t sin P and 2. sin P y (t ) ! 13.2.

2.9 ¸ ¨ x2  © y  ¹ ¹ !© 2. sin P 2 v 7. the above equation can also be written in 2.9 v 10 -3 13.9 ¸ ¨ 13. sin P º ª 2 2 13. sin P (i) This gives the equation for the trajectory as 13.t sin P A 1 2.9 m! Since ! 278km . sin P º ª 2.3 v 10  5 v sin 20r kilometers as x 2  .

y  278 ! 278 2 2 Thus the trajectory is a circlular one with the centre at .

(ii) Thus the sense of the trajectory is clockwise as seen from above.11 The solution here is similar to the solution above except for the initial conditions. On the other hand.0. the winds around the eye move in counterclockwise direction. 278 km. 251 . (iii) To find out where the cyclone hits the coast.6 km and y ! 537.4 km . 15. we substitute in the equation above x ! 10 km and get y ! 18. We take the origin to be where the striker is played from. since we are in the northern hemisphere. Thus the cyclone hits the coast 18km north of where it started from. The x and the y axes are shown in the figure below. The second coordinate is for the return path.

we get dv x d 2 x 2 ! 2 ! . Assuming that the striker is played at an angle U from the x axis. Thus v y (t ) ! 2[ x (t )  v sin U Substituting this in the first equation of motion. v y (t ! 0) ! v sin U . v x (t ! 0) ! v cos U . y (t ! 0) ! 0. Thus the equation of motion in the xy plane are dv x dy ! 2 v y [ ! 2 [ dt dt dv y dx ! 2v x[ ! 2 [ dt dt Note that the signs on th right hand side are opposite to what they are in the equations of motion in the orther hemisphere of the earth because the direction of the angular velocity is opposite. we get C ! v sin U . v y (t ! 0) ! v sin U The second equation above is integrated to give v y (t ) ! 2[ x(t )  C With the initial condition x(t ! 0) ! 0.B 1 y [ 2 x A T Ö For the problem [ ! [ z . the initial conditions are x(t ! 0) ! 0.

2[ x  2[v sin U dt dt or d 2x 2  .

2[ x ! 2[v sin U 2 dt 252 .

The solution for the equation is then obtained as the sum of the solution for the homogeneous part and the particular solution. Thus x(t ) ! A sin .

2[t  B cos .

we get A ! x (t ) ! v cos U v sin U v sin U sin . v x (t ! 0) ! v cos U .2[t  v sin U 2[ v cos U v sin U .B! . Thus 2[ 2[ With the initial condition x(t ! 0) ! 0.

2[t  cos .

2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ When substituted in v y (t ) ! 2[ x (t )  v sin U . this gives dy ! v cos U sin .

2[t  v sin U cos .

2[t dt Solved with the initial condition y(0) = 0. this gives y (t ) !  v cos U v sin U v cos U cos .

2[t  sin .

2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ Thus the trajectory is described by the coordinates x (t ) ! v cos U v sin U v sin U sin .

2[t  cos .

2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ v cos U v sin U v cos U cos .

2[t  sin .

Now we want the trajectory to be such that it pass through point B.2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ y (t ) !  These can be combined together to give the equation of trajectory as v sin U ¸ ¨ v cos U ¸ ¨ v ¸ ¨ ¹ ¹ !© ¹ ©y  ©x  2[ º ª 2[ º ª 2[ º ª 2 2 2 ¨ v sin U v cos U ¸ . This implies that the striker should be played in direction 2. through coordinates . Thus the trajectory is a circle with centre at ©  ¹ and the sence of direction is 2[ º 2[ ª therefore counterclockwise.e. i.

this gives cos U ! [L v If the angle with AB is .0. then sin E ! [L v ¨ [L ¸   E ! sin 1 © ¹ ª v º 253 . When substituted in the equation for the trajectory. L .

Easy approximate solution correct to first order in [L : v [L in an easy way. We v dv x ! 2 v y [ dt dv y ! 2v x [ dt It is given that initially v y ! v and v x ! 0 . vy can be taken to be a constant equal to v. Thus as we integrate the equations above v x w [ and therefore dv y dt w [ 2 .¨ [L ¸ The striker is played in direction 2 making an angle E ! sin 1 © ¹ from AB. Now the initial x-componet of the velocity is x(T ) ! 2[L and the displacement x(T ) !  [L2 . Now the v L to reach the side v striker starts its journey back after hitting then board. This gives v x (t ) ! 2[vt and x (t ) ! [vt 2 because x(t=0)=0. we get C = 0. Now if we integrate the equation with these conditions. It again takes time T !  it started from. L and its has v Therefore by the time the striker reaches the other end. ª v º (ii) We first solve this problem for v "" [L correct to first order in then solve the problem exactly. Thus y (t ) ! vt and the integration of the first equation above gives v x (t ) ! 2[y  C Since v x ( y ! 0) ! 0 . then v 254 . So up to order [. time taken by it is T ! moved a distance x(T ) !  [L2  and has x-component of the velocity x(T ) ! 2[L .

vx T t  2[L ! x ´ dv d! 2[ ´ v y dt d 2[ ?y (T  t )  y (T )A T ! 2[ ?y (T  t )  L A ! 2[ .

L  vt  L ! 2[vt This gives v x (T  t )  2[L ! 2[vt or v x (T  t ) ! 2[L  2[vt Keep in mind that t is being measured from T onwatds. Thus t = 0 inplies when the striker starts its journey back. we get v [L2  2[Lt  [vt v  [L2 d ! ! ´ dx d ´ . Integrating this with the initial condition x(T ) !  x (T t ) t [L2 .

the striker would have reached its original position. 2[L  2[vt dt d 2[Lt  [vt 0 v   x(T  t ) !  For t ! T ! L this gives v 2[L2 x(2T ) !  v This is the final displacement when the striker comes back. Exact solution: If the striker is played along line AB then U ! 90 r . it has an x-component of velocity that makes it drift. One would have thought that the striker will come back to its original position. Had the x-component been zero when it started back. The trajectory of the striker is then v ¸ ¨ v ¸ ¨ 2 ¹ ¹  y !© ©x  2[ º ª 2[ º ª 2 2 and with time x(t) and y(t) vary as x (t ) ! v v cos . that does not happen because when it starts its journey back.

2[t  2[ 2[ y (t ) ! v sin .

we have from the trajectory equation x2  v x  L2 ! 0 [   x! v v 4[ 2 L2 s 1 2[ 2[ v2 255 .2[t 2[ Thus for y = L.

Further. This gives L! 2[L 4[ 2 L2 v sin . it would have taken time T such that y(T) = L.Thus the striker gets displaced in x direction as it reached point B. when the striker reaches the other end. The other  1 2[ 2[ v2 v v 4[ 2 L2  1 ) is when the striker would have returned had it 2[ 2[ v2 one (larger magnitude !  not hit the other side of the board. One of the two answers (smaller magnitude !  v v 4[ 2 L2 ) is when the particle is moving upward.

2[T   sin .

cos .2[T ! .

2[T ! 1  v 2[ v2 The x and y components of the velocity at the other end are therefore  x(t ) t !T ! v sin .

one sees that the speed  y (t ) t !T ! v cos.2[T ! 2[L From the above.

Taking the time when it starts back to be t = 0. However. As the striker hits the opposite side of the carom and returns back. the new trajectory is thus determined by the initial conditions v v 4[ 2 L2  x ( 0) !  1 . 2[ 2[ v2  x(0) ! 2[L.  y (0) ! v 2  4[ 2 L2 So that we have initial speed v at an angle U such that v 2  4[ 2 L2 v 2  4[ 2 L2 2[L . we can make use of the equations already derived for the trajectory if we describe the journey back with new coordinate system with the origin at the point where the striker starts back. y (0) ! 0. y ( 0) ! L .  y (0) !  v 2  4[ 2 L2 One could solve this problem with these initial conditions. sin U ! . cosU ! tan U ! v v 2[L 256 . x(0) ! 2[L. In this coordinate system the initial conditions are  x(0) ! 0. This is shown in the figure below.2[T ! v 2  4[ 2 L2   x 2  y 2 remains unchanged during the motion. This is expected since the coriolis force is perpendicular to the velocity and therefore does no work on the striker. its x velocity remains unchanged and the y component of the velocity changes direction and it traverses a new trajectory.

x v U B x! v v 4[ 2 L2  1 2 2[ 2[ v y A Thus the x and y displacement of the striker in the new coordinate system is x (t ) ! v cos U v sin U v sin U sin .

2[t  cos .

2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ 4[ 2 L2 4[ 2 L2 v v 1 cos .

2[t  1 v2 2[ 2[ v2 ! L sin .

2[t  y (t ) !  v cos U v sin U v cos cos .

2[t  cos .

2[t  2[ 2[ 2[ 4[ 2 L2 v 1 sin .

2[t  L v2 2[ !  L cos .

2[t  These can be combined together to give the equation of trajectory as 2 2 ¨ © x  v 1  4[ L © 2[ v2 ª 2 ¸ ¹  .

Thus the total displacement is 257 .y  L 2 ! ¨ v ¸ ¹ © ¹ ª 2[ º º 2 For y = L this then gives x! 4[ 2 L2 v v 1 s 2 2[ 2[ v While cutting the y = L line for the first time. the value of x will be 4[ 2 L2 v v 1 x!  2 2[ 2[ v This is in addition to the previous displacement of the origin in A p B journey.

(x !  v 4[ 2 L2 v  1 [ [ v2 It is easily seen that for v "" [L this goes over to the approximate answer obtained earlier. 258 .

1 In this problem there are four variables. corresponding dimensions are p ! ML1T 2 T ! MT 2 R!L theorem we form one The variables of the problem and the Let the dimensionless variable be T ! p a T b R c . On equating the dimensions of the right hand side in the equation above to zero we get ab ! 0  2a  2b ! 0 ac ! 0 Taking a = 1. The variables of the problem and the corresponding dimensions are p ! ML1T 2 m!M n ! L3 v ! LT 1 Let the dimensionless variable be T ! p a m b n c v d . we take a = 1. since we want an expression for p. So we make one dimensionless variable and equate it to a constant. b ! 1. we get p!k T R 259 . d ! 2. and c ! 1 . we get b ! 1 and c ! 1 . Since this is a dimensionless variable we have.Appendix A A. Therefore the dimensionless variable is T ! p mnv 2 Equating it to a constant k.2 This problem has three variables. on equating the dimensions of the right hand side in the equation above to zero ab ! 0  a  3c  d ! 0  2a  d ! 0 Then the equations above give Since we want an expression for p. Therefore the dimensionless variable is T ! pR T Equating it to a constant k. Therefore to apply Buckingham¶s dimensionless variable and equate it to a constant. we get p ! kmnv 2 A.

d ! 2. Therefore to apply Buckingham¶s dimensionless variable and equate it to a constant. and c ! 1 . d !  . corresponding dimensions are E ! ML2 T 2 h ! ML2 T 1 m!M R!L theorem we form one The variables of the problem and the If the dimensionless variable is T ! E a h b m c R d . Then the equations above give c ! 1 and V 5 b ! 2.A. we take a = 1. on equating the dimensions of the right hand side in the equation above to zero we get abc ! 0 2a  2b  d ! 0  2a  b ! 0 Since we want an expression for E. Therefore we form one dimensionless variable and equate it to a constant.4 This problem has four variables. on equating the dimensions of the right hand side in the equation above to zero we get abc ! 0 Since we want an expression for  a  2b  3d ! 0  2a  b ! 0 E . we take a = 1.3 This problem has four variables. The variables of the problem and the corresponding dimensions are E ! ML1T  2 V h ! ML2T 1 m!M n ! L 3 If the dimensionless variable is T ! E a h b m c n d . . Therefore the dimensionless variable is 3 T ! . Then the equations above give b ! 2. Therefore the dimensionless variable is T ! Equating it to a constant k. we get p!k h2 mR 2 EmR 2 h2 A.

we get h2 5 3 E n !k m V 260 .E V m h2n5 3 Equating it to a constant k.

Since we want an expression for the dimensioless variables with a = 1. Therefore to apply Buckingham¶s theorem we form twodimensionless variables and write one of them as a function of the other. Taking e = 1. we form one of dt These give b !  a. on equating the ª dt º dimensions of the right hand side in the equation above to zero we get bc !0 3a  b  c  d  e ! 0  a  2b  c ! 0 dV .5 This problem has five variables. the second dimensionaless variable is T2 ! R L Thus the functional relationship between the variables can be expressed as T 1 ! f . Taking d = 0 gives e ! 3 giving one dimensionless variable as ¨ dV T1 ! © ª dt ¸ L ¹ 3 º (PR For the other dimensionless variable. we take a = 0. The variables of the problem and the corresponding dimensions are dV ! L3T 1 dt (P ! ML1T  2 L ! ML1T 1 a L!L R!L ¨ dV ¸ b c d e If the dimensionless variables are expressed as T ! © ¹ (P L L R . Then the equations above give b ! 1. This gives b = c = 0 and d ! e . c ! 1.A. and d  e ! 3 . c ! a and d  e ! 3a .

T 2 Now we have several choices for the function f. If we take it to be a constant. we get (PR ¨ dV ¸ ¹!k © L ª dt º 3 But this is not consistent with observations. We next take f .

we can take higher powers of T 2 and construct higher order functional relationships.T 2 ! kT 2 where k is a constant. Then we get (PR ¨ dV ¸ ¹!k © LL ª dt º 4 This gives answer consistent with observations. 261 . For corrections to higher orders.