· 0' F~.:··-IDAMEI,NIALS ...


Observe Your S1l.],rnJlJ.lndillgs
Tl:u~Nude as




What Is Line? 13e'ginneiFs" W'oiJ.-l


1deal Proporlion~ &f ale
Ideal Ptoportion




'VariQus Stand'arCh'
Jde,(J,l ,Proportions



at 'Varivus' -,4gC8

The F

we Diagram
by A res ,(J-jtil
,Re(td' V-nit~:


jr'h~3' Fla: Diagrarn
'Qttick; Se,~'~upof Proporfi,otl$

33 34,

Pfop<n1.wn in Belauo« to

the Horium

T he John ,(jild Mary Problems


Fifl,(l'ing Prvportion at Any Spot in
~~ ,angi'ng'~~ H F'i,gures' on the Horizon We Begin to D~yjtO;First the



"'if tl,n.nikin If rame


,~1 o'Venlent in, th« M'(l:nnikbl Frame' Detede


o.t tho' ,i\:t'antlik.i'n


Ex,pDnnWttting with tlte l'vj",annikin
Outline8 in Relation to SolKl Farm
The Mannikin Figure

41 42

Adding Bulk to the Fnlme' Adding Perspective to the Solid



Arts of ,MOrd)6"J'nerU in Pt:n'~',rective PWc1n~ the M'{#i-ntkin at ,Any Spot ,or Level'
"T L .



Du.u.oing the ,Al'tlnniki,c~ frOrft An,y' V iewpo·i.:n.t
Gllfnbif,ling ,Ate", (,/ M,Qve'ment toith the Box

48 4:9 50

Landf.it(J~·ksYou Should Koow
La ndmru'h, Y Ull S I! cn:J(J; Knotf.' , Sketching the .Figu.rein Action p"ofJl.llnnginutioll


,Dr,aw Sotne oj These" B·u.t: DtaRi wt a.ny
TIl f;l F emale

0.1 Your Own

54 55 Sf)

M annik'ln


The 1\1ale Clnd Female Skeletons



Req uirem en ts of Suecessf ul F igu["e Dra win g
:EL1L USl'IlA T.~ON8

1tnportant Bone.,: l\'I-tl;s'cle.~'on. the Front of the l~igule


60 61
'62 6;3 64
c.t-·! U;.

A.fuscles on the Back of "the Ftgilf,e 1.\1usclcs ot the A f1n~Front \' iew
,~.f scles u

ol the

Artu, '7.uded Viele,s

,~1scles of the Leg; Front 'Vi,;.oa.~ u ~iuscl.es oj the L€~g:> BIlek and S ide V'ieu)

lust Piny u.:.-u.ft \vJUtt

}r ou.

Haoe Learned

t'f'ry lhdld:ng l"'I'igure~'u..~itlun.$t lHodel or Cops]

H7 A,N.D' LI(;I--IT1N'G


P oreshorteni n.g. and 'Ln,gh,lmill g


Block: Forms JI elp"to DCDelup Your Sense of ,Ii'tdk


Feel Free to Invent Your



Hou: To Use an Arr·,Store W~oodenlfannikin

QUick Sketches from ~'he'-\7ond'en IIIwln£kJn
F ores h ortening Senne Pen Sketches [o« F(rrc;s/!01tenlng

P lane I!}'

• ,I



Ar.and' TwisUng 1.ETH()DS lLW_.Ffont 96 '97 98 99 Light'ing Building fnn» the Skeleto« A...eflcil 110 9 .Marty Ways of Sl:anding 95 S/utdvtv Definc. 103.is...1 enline ll'rlti . TIONS T um.NS.USTR.Forn~ . L19 80.<E FI(.e.CONTENTS Lighting t INCLUDIN'G ILLU'STRATIO.DURE 82 83 84.P.ccentit~g the .aM TWi:$Nng Turning .ting T'u.e.TIONS 81 011~ PROCE.9 .oj V·alues Procedure Proced tl:fe T he Visu(tl~Surv.s' Farm.URE.s Stated TIle Fast S tatel7wnt . and Tu.ey Proced ute Drawing .g of llound. M. 'THE STANDIN'G FIG'URE Variety in the Standing Pose IiLLUS111AT.1lYe Nearly . Simple Lightiin.odelin.-o\.frcnn the Alod'el 88 89 91 92 v.~d Fonn IV. 100 10ID.. DRA \VIN'G THE LI\.ting 107 108 [0. There .[ON$ The ':Veight nn (Jne Foot 00 94 Distnbuted w eight. 'Turning and TuJis.. T'./ .A.g on the Figure True M.. I Ll.iflg .rni:ng .85 86 87 Grouping Sh~ldow h-t asses The M«in Valu...l'STR.and' Twisting T urfling T'urning: (jnd 104 105 Twisting 100 .1'iootofny Te~1 A Typical Problem. .

.m" '.' "..Balance Springlike 120 121 ." . '_' .t Pen and Pen.'. ".k Leg ." 129 130 ILLurnl~TIONS B(tlance Bulltflce 131 .s : .cil A.g Poses The Til. ' ' .. Relating One Contour to Another Defintng by Edg'tJ.7' t:dking Poses Snapsh.ATI. ".onva1'd LWOtrem.' 'T'lIl"E TIP"'P'ED" J.weep ~.ent Mone.. - 111 ]12 1m.I.vtth Just Tone and Accent 32 l~ -q(l' Stressing C on. IN'-E .." " .'.ppnulClt 'l.122 ~tot_jeJnent j.LA" .'V'I'l' F'O"RW'"'A.at~ of Runnin. INC.'.Two A:f ethods Dle~n{. Q.. " 1l ' . '" " ..ot the Eye Action Too Fast Twisted F.' '" [ '~ R"'END"E'RlM'-N' 'G . D'.~ENT'1 :.'.' ..Jl.nenJ 1teOO to Toe 123 124 ][25 F (£St &lovement Pwh rOf the Bac.I 4 115 116 118 119 The 1\4echani.'S:tructi'Oll T 1'00 M it~ru>teStudies Rhy:thrn 184 135 136.ing wit/. " '... NC'E v' ' A..cs of Movement ILL usr8A nONS Sntl./ 142 143 A Typ~c~m. 111...1)sfu)'t8 of \\.Typical iProh]ern .r..ped Line of .:ck Sketcll. Rhythm DLL 'USTRA TIDONS Rhythrll Cras8ing Lines olllhyth1?l ""'5" 138 139 140 141 Outline ".ng Form of A.ATypical Problem ')"III.nn ~j[O' '\lE-'I\.. 126 ~ 121 'j' . 0'"F· DALA' 'NC...s and Shadow without .. ... R'H' 'y"lf"HM" J!.LUD'ING ILL'USTR.CO'NTENTS.'E'..' " .S ][ : . "..ONS Qui. Problem .L:\.

Study in Fore'shortening' Cemented' Tu&ue Of)erl'ay~ Spatter and Brush Dr.CONTEN'TS~ l.awing 165 1. F !ue' i 'Treatmen: t ' 154 155 156.·:lJ· 172.am 'P'apf!'1Studies .' " 'ra. 15.66 .Pen ShJd'ies A Typic~l Problem 168 169 111 xr. 141' '\ 148 14\9 Planning a Pen Drn. A ' ..g or' Bending Getting Full Val1Je Range with Ink and Pencil lnk and P'cncil in C ombinatiQil Pen 150 151 152 15S.oo P'lanes 173 Bone..r .w.tu1esinto the Head Sbuli'es 118 Studies .neeling and Sitting K'n6eling and' T'wMtin.' 159 p" m.udy COMBe G.at M i8~ "~G'''' ¥. Block» a.Light o.nd Sh~w Feahtres 174 175 176 1'71 Setting the Fe.J: A Typical Problem x TIlE RECLINING.. B '" t '. 179 180 .g Sketches of Re.1'l'. Dratmng .and M'U$cles' o..f the Hcad The Muscle's in . ~OI5'e:r.i"'.(J.·r'USr~. D' .. FICUR.BUlW!ng ad "..smATIONS H e.-. THJE: HEAD~ HANDS~ AND FEET' ILLu.nique - 146.NCL'UDIN'G ILLUSTRATIO'I\~S 145 ILLUS'mA'.lng 1.cl'ill"lug' Pose's 160 161 164.g .nONS Crouching Th.oung and Old '~t ..wing K.. St.e I ncompl'et'c Statement May Be Interesting Poi'n.t Tech.

e YOtU' Way 204 12 . G I ~ Meke StUll'ies Like Theee of Your F~iend.. Life .3 PrOl)omon Jlcz"ds of the' . INCLU'Dl.IIalftunes ana Shadotm EUn"iination atld Subot(..' 195 196. Draw FigureI' T.TR.C'ON'TENTS. ]fJ7 1'99 2100 . 201 202 203 Ahou t Your Prices..$ 181 182 18.hen Cost'Uitle Clothing Htudi:ed frotn. Problem . L.Brush and Spa"ter Illustration A l~Vl). CLOSING CHAT How Artists Work H:l1U l~rng'Your Studio .g D"Ulpery Dratv the .Unation study trom. Iutrod uerung Yourself Do I..e'ad Baby Heads 184 185 186 187" FIGURE IN COSTUrvlE 189 Hands ThB Foot A TYp'iC:tlJ1 Problem XII..LETE ILLUSTRA TIONl"S.~ci:tl.Baby fI. lLLUS..A. ..Tl ON'S. THlE C'O:MP'..jfle 190 l01 192 193 ]'9'41 RendeJin.

the diHicu t~ enthnsiaxm. that u naccountahle fro]ll.ent essentials :]s at men tal procedi considered as to whether.llJ 1 ' ualitv. I recall how : information that the pO"\ver that eventually tics 'that would frustrate Let us try to define that ~ q' hurdles lukewarm . craftsYOUI'1)U book to npp. L'OHl author.8L job to do.s.~ veal'S the u c( ~d n. enough to '15 . I 'have waited for such a On in drawing hut tha.o·. Perhaps ill can help you. his plcturc tens. of ha viug toO for practical rnigh.. up' b) become I[}.v. f urther hook of to me.hole plllpOSe. ] searched marketable. na ng 1:0 maxe pport nilyself. which makes an artis t .3. it bears important Every inch. \iv.He wiU place his area of greatlesser. s u hj eel: to its 'harest and I' position k men t.a]ti.y accept s. pic- ture he stresses what is of greatest im poI'tancc ~ tes wha 1: must he there but is of ..elf-su. can- almost undeniable..:mrnply beca use it exjs:bs.culty has always. tbin:[k:s. and knowledge. I sincerely hope SOl oj what 'he sees and how he feels. at art or 1" JeJl.. you in that predicament. Ii in the field of corn mercial art ~who in. in the earlier days of Iny own expert- cnee.pporting. you gready wish to make a living at it. He \ViU search diHgenUy for means to make that character exp.iigc~ pur-· a pose. fb:rough every min ute you are now' living. \ vant to 'You) also possessed of " of roost eln!ci.ctator·. the subject of Ilgl1r:e dn~'wiug has been apparent: an efih:. If there is. the annals of art the ability to achieve lust .ArH~R: _: - For m a 11 v . Not f'al back in.u and pose tha t is to be the all important theme.f\l"J OPENING CHAT DEAH R . You love to dra w. tention to that character by every means avail- ~h.LU.. the difii.importance for I think I lave lived. 'Vv.:. some wonder i!l' a spe.ick.t lend a helping hand 1.leIa".e and putting 'wo!lrk.nd. and that vou feel .hOIU -self wi th pen an d pen ei] is no t only ur geut t I have come in. need. us the Importance ur ge which seemingly comes speak the language of art.ear to the Tnany I assume that the des ire to express which could be recommended young arrists with lacl . ]n other words. He' wHI first draw atl' practice. What is the most direct answer the shnpiest interpretation can make '( Stripping a. could be written oulv hv a man actuallv encc had met and countered PIO i). nowhere. of the surface of Ids work should be lationship to a.~. lifelike appearance luigJh t ha... any chance.11 n~akiIlg my work neing in the not unusual S. He sees) a. frantically.io.ress the emotion in acial e.t he wishes Irom his toes. Perhaps I can compile some of the informa tion that experience want and.l fee] that talent means little such a hook. been in finding it and sorting out what is of practical est contrast abouit the head of the most important character.ve ] not only assumethat my reader is interested mused. Then within and SU hordina hi S. his ex per 1- I feel also that tale n t m ust be in a capf:\city for unlimited pany \V"[ th with the actual effort. it was the predica- d go. here rules the 0Pl)ortunity to serve you. Across. not often been stressed.ementa] approach to the able.xpress. Mbelieve success He In it into that the g:reater chances of v. Fjually..~ YOU mU8~' ~ do I have come to the realization l'cgfH(UeSS that as HI[ sotnething about U. re- forced to hun to some thing else. he plans and.lstra tion of ahi]] ty .. which provides tha t m US t I·J>C'C 1arified. rather than in sheer technical does 'not :pa$s\ru.o f 1 vt. YOtt wish to dra V{\~le]l. me you '~O underval ue the Sue work that has been done.ng of that message he re. this wide COllntryT there are manv .e~. I do not preten d tells. abou t it. of one's ability • " unless coupled with an insatiable desire to give an exce l1en t persoual deJnol.:ieut and ." Every bit of work he docs starts t out with the premise that it 'has a ]nt~ss. and since the mental a pproach 'bas.

As a. Snhordination inay be achieved bv diUusion ~ ~ closeness of color and .' . Accentuation .deve]op your w. So the real concentration is centered on you and yOlur i and fuudamentais that "were helpful to me..a(t at which I have spent so many I take this.e. determined to establlshed a fellowship with 'mlY reader 1c is achieved by the opposite in each case.know more than the experience of one mdrvidual.~ the practical hints and devices that 'win undoubtedly make dra.. . ynur personali ty" years. in value.gh uright well rover many of the problems that wil] doubtless come to others. f to the emotional and dramatic. own viewpoint. or any added device.ra 1 req uirernents. S. on to hun.~nce your indivtduality come first. detail.experience of my contemporaries. and since 111)' own expert- that you ~UUL"t know at onee tlla. If I have any blue chips.pre fer . important to sell you strongly on yourself. Perhaps everything ~ wtthin ~ Your picture area.bv ~ value to Surro un ding areas. me an link1. or that 'gave Illy oJ ' . the other f ence does not 'vary greatly from the averag'e.. They will of your knowledgE:.. everything. in art we are dealin g. to.fit were possible ~to suhordina te EOY end of yom' pencil ra ther than the business end. 'we are feitcd with realism par €xceUence? until mere ]ile1j:kerepresentation is not enough.offer ~ny material \vnhout setting 11p myself and Rly wor k as a criterion. However ~one individual exp~r]. 'Everything be are:Hcction. but learning from the other lello. I lay them before 'binli p so that he ma. vo ur ~0bservation ~ your Iikes and disJ ~ if 'wide enou. characterization. and accell tua tion.IJr[C®· the requirements are almost universal. and that th. I 'would .is. Your pictures ale your by-product. where the 11uman element is. coura.ray to write books. So befure we talk at all about drawing~ it is.. There is no other course than snm ahow to gP beyond 0bvious fact to :pertb1J. \-vith something to 'ithe utmost. an'a therebv become an artist. a Htile of you. to phlll1t that: urge SiQ defsell-improvement initely in your consciousness can speak of the idea1izations.v. 'will add no more than can he achieved in phot:oblTaLphy. You. l)y sllrnp 1ification of insistent detail. by sharpness.i\N OPE'NIN(.e]lt:act.ess to . I t should he obvious tha t~ .]irme of do. In fact. Opportunity to impress npon you. art procedure.age~ standing on one's own lc\et. 01 the. to simplification.vings more salable. but it has not been in books. I C:ElJ. 16 possible for indivtdual decision and self -exprf~ssion. and your thinking. Equally de-Sning that is not the ". experimen tatiou wi th your own ideas. to selection and taste." At least I am.first of all. about your pil.t B10st of It . ']ng over tha t which you can improve.. leave the reader as nee as plain old cour. There is a. It has taken 111ea ~ ifetime tOo reali ze th a t.i'ng th~t nly courage 'might be strained au d ninety per cent what you drrlU). an d should be.ay. w elco min g' him to the L-r. a book that stressed the Importance of myself as the caretaker of ]]]g_ ~ . I work follows along in the wake of what: mental you are making.y j01Il.portant than tec. It Is really ~. ] . ~. edge and detail. I cannot prof. Today with color photogra phy and the excellence CI-lAT and forever seeking enl~glltenrnent. ability.~ my reader? how important you really are in the whole of.hnique. that he .n ass..]' good taste. subordination.ge to . or hy omission. I use my experience merely to clari~y the genc. but 1can see no harm in the author realfzin g. far removed fn:H[L1 a cold science. I have never found. or tech- nical a pprnach ~ and. your expcrience.. camera goin g SUT~ perhaps [even. Iormula.COIr'U:::'Srorn .iul.. contrast. in the ganle. sala ble . So 1111lions of those pro'b]e'm:s rna y provide iike solutions I call layout an assortment of facts u liles" you.further in that respect.":tures is.dealing with persona]! tics. student 1 thought there 'was [II Iormula of SO~H~ khtd that I would get hold of somewhere. rigid disci p.re is something more . It is ten per cen t 'how yon dra \V j obs erving for voursclf. of stayhealth v men tally and physicall v. a. capture his interest.

in.test problem here is to 'provide you with a sol[d basis that will nurture individuality and not produce imitation.ing InaJ. eo-ordinate all the basic factors 1upon 'which good draw.hnpart a livi. A'N.. AnatOTI1Y. experiences are bundled..able as the weather . inspired m'rlOlllellt when the M1L'. advertising publisher. 'Good drawing 'ms a eo-ordination which t. I was a.{Tom basic merits. There agen.butter pro blem? \Vhenever May I assume that YoOu as a young artist ence comes best duough y01!ll' O\VIl e:llort or observatiou. and individual 'fe-eHng: come' into play. te' taWent at the start. U nartists fortuna tely mos t of us are medi OCTe." FrOIO that point on yOUT' earnings win increase in ratio to your improvement . whether exposed to' the eye or concealed beneath drapery YoOu achieve suiI:h':'i. without ques'1l110St tion. Use another's style as a crutch on.atternpt to <1" I to be thrown out and done OV(~r. Trends of popularity are as change. Otherwise' 'the read~.dvised. or the study of an old In. most commercial of outstanding ability had no more than a venlLg:c of' many lac- tors.IJ. It IDea 11S that a. for the sale of duplication alone. as the study of anatomy. AT 1 ngure drawing must he good drawing. bad dnt''Ning sprin gs from basic faults as surely as good drawing springs . all understood and handled expertly. technical rendering and tn?'iea] problems to be solved. T. er is only grea. new and d iffe. to g(J back houle? That experience has made me much mnre tolerant of an tnauspicious beginIling than m mJight otherwise have 'been.when we start out. a lithograph house. for new \vays to apply them.at deal more to the professional than to the beginner. It rn ust he of idealistic rather th an literal Or' normal proportion. as in a deUca surgical operation. an artist's valuable asset. 'by and large. Of an art dealer' s that 'win not gladly open its doors to real abili ty that is. You could make . fundamentals for. and emotion must be convincing.. Its action Of g'cst1Jlre~ its. Let us say that each factor becomes an mstrument or part of a me. Every artist will do goo d one-s.ng qualify.g: depends.rent . . he is. it must abo seek out and.cy~ a magazine ]$ not aJ'. It is pos.ent technical ability. taught but + one angle. htlt you must d iligun tly search.ehing.ff:> at any time in any one or more of the factors..rOll! . either my work or that of any other judi vidual.' C'~-H'l"\.the earltest phase of' lea:lil.'~d "b . together to form . Good dra\ving 'is neither an accident nor the 'result of ~1. left to Hounder are faci ng a bread-and. . and then.'.point. figure-must be (_'ODvincing' and appealing at the same time.rcostume.1 expressio«.J one'S.a]ues remain con stant.es lend a guiding hand. It must consider both aesthetics and sales possthilities.It is mediocrity to 1O. lust as they do everywhere else. : 'd" '.1tnt that a certain amount of imitauon in. the reading of a book.he door is closed.aster. The light ~n:d shadow III1J8t be so handled as to ..perspective. thin out at the "top.. TIle aaatomy must be 'COITect:. sihlc for anybo~y to be (. and itl':gooddrawing'" means a gn. of course. The Therefore a useful book of figure dl'. . thl:OUgh self-instruction.' .no more fatal error than to .lI. make a eritica] analysis to detormine w'by a drawing is' bad. It !R us t he rei a ted in perspective to a constant eye lever or vie~-. I grc. May I confess that two weeks after entering art 5 choo].'" .""aiting for you.ans 0.o. IndividuaHty of expression is. The experi- partially informed.y he necessary in order that self -expression rna y have an essential blfl::ckgrourui. v. But there can he no progress in any art or cralt without an accumulation of individual experience. and i:t has given me additional mcentive in tea. 1 dup liea te.. These .. .1y~until you ean walk alone. It is 'when the moans of expression is develope91 as a whole that Inspiration .b bad WIl h an: -nan ae au ill iave 4>1. The artist should.. there wtll he an income .awing cannot treat one phase alone.' OPE-NING . In the fields of practical art the ranks. uSl1lally he 'will be forced to go hack to. expression. dramatic quality.

with iis p. dress in the warld win not be effecU ve on a badly drawn figure .. here .and splutter.e ANee..oJ various direction..pr()vlded yon have mastered fundan]en tals.vll for' an advertisement.interesting Lu.f]rying as much as possible hom those in my pag·es.gures.f]gun~soriginal and convincing..IJ:n+ I. from the Imagtna ~ {ion. 'Ve . It is IIty purpose· front start to 6uisb of this.a~ng lias practicafly no commercia] val ue . an d the accessories 'will aU be yours .e young.Expression or emotion cannot possibly be drawn into a face that . Withevery p'~. A thin. to :suggest t..]S not only . one that win gi ve considerable range Irom ugb t to dark.de~Jize the everyday material about you .. the live model in school or elsewhere..r skill in dra Yling Irom thetln.funds of the averag.shall dra w the nude for the pW"pose of better understanding the draped fi.er or a calendar will not change appreeia bly .. sible to draw' from.PENINee"e C . are dt·a\. Use one that is . that you. figure as a living thing! its power of movement ]!'elated book to lend you a hand to the top of the hilt but upon reaching the' crest to p~lsh you over and lea ve you to your own mornen b. 'weak and gray dr. Then we shall 'try to understand light for \-vhat ~t is. Perhaps the best way is.usuaJly variants of the old. Try to get t·he. is aHected 'by it.e shaH consider the head and its: structure separately. ist..ge. line foT. the Iiv. as something to ·be dupliem I cated.. would. You cannot paint in color successfuUy without some ccuceptlon of Hg'bt and oolor values.We shall think of the figme . utilizing· as best " your fi. 'Get used to using a soft penci~.. Qe'.~t the side of I the book.e. In other 'WOI-ds~we shall provide a foundH tion that will enable you to make your .[JJS possessed of hu11: and weight~ as being exposed to Hgll t and therefore shadow.e: should be sup'p~ei1m. and. f8 . for all form presel!:iS the general~PFoh~ern of . to illusrrate a story! or for a post. YOUT job i:s to glodfy and i. The interpretation. ..g J to its. ptlt into your' work=are far more important.meaning behind the ilia wing much more than rile dra wing itself..g. It . New...bave access to them. and how {'orIll. h. Try fig~.ental demands tlpOn your knowledge. I could 6nd know~n. can take·photos or . Technique ]S not so important as the YOilIng artist is Inclined to be'Hev. In this vO]l~rne I shan by to treat the. riot permit that" If you study n~y drawings in the light of a model posing for you. costume and.hat you use the hook in whatever manner suits you best. adding 'what ideal ~ ization you th mk should be there. Set up figures rougll1y. can the fundamentals 'we have.. contour. the drama.ave lnred and p. The sWUclIing to a pen and black drawing ink . Other iqIilJds of drawing: such as..en~~ ed.. rather than thinking of fu.~ddthe best models.exible" Pull the pen to make your line. excellent to w(l[[kon. never push it at the paper) Ior it \ViU orn~~y catch .gute.t'he fuudlam.' ••• . Charcoal is a fir).11you... W.e suggest you p~aceYOUl' pad. the costume. Keep your' penen as busy as possible. e J1 '. s. of that the limited .~:ndemotional q nalities-« the idealiza tiun you.might be a good plan to read the eutire book' at the start so. structure and its movement separated iI1~ to several kinds. " .. 'C'"'IJHA···'·T .nspoorly construcred.]~Ules. make them do all sorts of actions. Whether ..ing . or even hope to huild a composttion of fig:ures 'tlntH you know how to draw' them in absolute perspective . planes ~light and shadow.A large tissue or layout pad is. . try you. and hence set into space as we know it. setting·~.. the process should never stop.t has real value commercially. working . 'M!] 'hetter uuderstand the general plan of pl-ocedufC. creative ideas are . the pose.e mediurn Ios study. do so by aU means.line and 'tone for tone. ' e..kn ow Ied.fairly :fl. the type. So are YOlU· selection and 'taste in. ' . I ·think you will in the end derive greater benefit. .till ]Jf.u·es y. If It is pos . art . The smartest you.

and other djm. unq.an. rou ghs:>the setting crown of ideas" sugg.The :first coopter of. This. . '\vhf. He ~fal be able to pr:ep. asa .culties~ The reader is. to the final work IDlewill not be confused with new problems of perspective. sp~. / 1/ l / structure we are Iater to huild. In otller words.} nde to the aetaal a little dilferently from the ngllle.cim1g. fur the eeneentrated effort involved.-os.e.round.ell 'he sells himself to the p. is the work with..pe'ctiv. this book will b€ rrea ted others.l£ajI"ysletches.. ana One to p~y good dividends. This part of the hook win be of especial value to t'ne layout' man and 'lltfij· the artist for d~epreparation of prelim:in..pre.estions of actions and p0s. and to la y the g.]. di:eut In that respectit is most important since it really creates oppo~ttUlify.uestionah.e!. where the :(i.guJ'ie must be drawn without tbe use of models or copy. urged to gjve this chapt1er hws utmost attenUon since j.' this work mtelligen d y so-that when 'he gets.y the most importaut chapter in the book. This is the sort of work the artist does in advance of the finished work.wor It of the ".t is.

n' ~I . ~'L. 1 ......... ~I II 1 II- :.i ".. ..t . I-~ .. .. I • r" ... ·1 ~ 'l - I l~ . .I ~ . r . •r ..' 0' ...

\Vha t is.give frnstra ti on and for lorn hope to people? \Vha t is the ges. with the comic or simple lin C once you arri ve at yo. fact is. a rTO ga l1JCC: rn terms of light and shadow. form and color? ''V\lhat lines . Start at once to take a new interes t in people. the fi l:l is hed building.S.TIC D\eaHng \. This knowledge C(}11l18 will in time beom.figure man in that he has a constant l1~ar e t H he is capa hle of good k .1d '\'1vi d.blllre draf tsman. the figure un- less you can dra.I speak of this to 'build within you that confidence that al] is well cannot succeed completely with. so that hefoT{~ a brick is laid we fil. a mes- sag. the fact that all figure drawing is. space" to have adverttsmg space there must he attractively illustrated ma. ral deeora tion.a)' soe. g.l1)l iUustratJion to the realms of Hnc art]. based On the same fundamen bib.the .c:ssprin. dru "rings of the '~. an in te gral part. J)]"e!SS]UD. Thki. trai ture. environment. 'Ill ntrustworthyf tllese q 1iestion s and be able to. So .I.. So starts the eha in of uses of which the artist is. hring'S a further great advantage to the . In a war poster ha I[l.aJi these u.01..enul]"[c relief from moncton y? . T'H'E .V is a certain childish face ador~ Yo 1 must search for the answers [0 a'hl. It it f nei tes us to action. but it can on']y Irom human asllects. the sueccssfu 1 artist cannot set hinlseH apart. make them clear to your puhlic.rpOSt~~ and wi th a !Specified dale of deltverv.vay up' through and. [The nt::ttrlet is constant because his work fits into so rna 11 y notches in the cycle of buy in g an d selling which mus t al wa ys be present 'bar= fin g f naneial collapse . yOllI' real concern is m aking the journey. . a variety of ex- observa tion and uuderstandin g. of ]ife it runs the gal'll u t emotion.t distil'll gl li~h them. l)Ooradvertising. let.It tells us what a product looks like and (J(~'S bes eri through covers and Sb.surroundings carel ully. however. magazine every kind of poster. us take ]rote of the broad field of opportu ni ty afforded the fi. gesture. work.tnre in re lation to the emotion? VVll1J. wh ich can he app1 ied 110 matter what IIJsethe work is put to. Startin g. tjrne when the artist withdrew to . rr destina tiou. and. To top it all. encompassing so much that it ever remains new and stim ulatlng.\V the details of the setting. or Coupled with this.l!'a\\ring presents the broadest opportunity alive a 1. display. Look fur typical characters everywhere" F amiliarize yourself with the cllaracteri~ tics and details tha.ywant eHo!rt offer so great pLlCC a Hgulre in a similar atmosphere.~azil. Today.e? a certain adult Iace suspicious a nd. characters bet ter in no 'Other the clothes and gazine it m akes an idea .great advanrage all these uses are so interrelated that sue- cess in one alrnes t assures success in anoth cr.1:es~ billboards ~ and nth er medi urns. It projects of earning of any artistic endeav- visually.. it becomes the most fascinating of' any art effort beca use it offers such endless variety. Some day you m~i. He must do a certain definite manner 1 job> in a to a delluite pu.c th at can l)e expressed how we can use it.a. 0 bservi aud the and to Try to develop the habit of ~ g your I You interpretation What other ttelds of fa)' interest . There was .vith the a part of you.lev{spape. art has become an integral part For suhject. before our eyes. sculpture .r it extei Itis ~ an the Art j nits broades 1 sense is a language. The in terrcla tion of . '~'ay.an d the standpoint that l111iJ even the mani iers of other times.8Ld verU:Sc\ to advertise one must have adv e rtis in g. of character.gs from bare attic to live in seclusion for an ideal.APPROA~CHTO FIGURE D'RAWING As we begin the book.£'t.. a plate oJ apples sufficed. To sen one mus t .of our lives. Fi gun:~ fnnll d.

22 have a broader appeal.e'l·p~eting Ufe on a f. . Clark h:rothers sider your particular background.atching another man Remember: P'aint.uaUy dr.l artist.ground. for example. You are not thinking and o bserving for yourself. . be'g'.rew up in poverty can create [ust as much bea uty in dra. he is . is the :persons] in terpretation of the . loves a gnaded 01.hat does a gil·1 do with 'her hands 'when she says". dcviemop~ng: an inf. drew them bea utifully. everyda y acquaintance.~n now' to. horses.ee. Yet none could have arrived there without betng abIe to draw well. collect a . Todl~ygreat interest has developed. Harry Ani artists have no jealously guaruioo profess:im1. N eMIy every success! 01. You have· to reason..individua. But that is a serious mistake.0 leI \-Yes t and frontier days" and ha ve been most . brought up on a.mlled from loocl. good t '''? You must ha ve more than mere technical ahili ty to' produce a g:ood dra." Learn to observe significant details. a pOignan t.ainst tIle stellar perfonnanoe of your employer.e intimate knowledge you have' ga.'." Simple ]]. Don't ~g. Harold von Schmidt.eriority complex.tatpt'lito know much more about Iife.ome'liness is its g'eneral keynote. As a.. derson 'loves plain American.. loves (he outdoors" rural life. "Oh.cide what type of drlt'Wing you want to coneentrate on.ncb of our illiustration~ however. Our advertismg and IID.. it would be' wise to con. people .1"'.. and expressions..'.:i."ld".or.':' ~' " ': \_.al secrets. No back. artist has a partfcular interest or drive. in the "American Scene.t. it IDS a dis- Icouraging experience+ The reason Is that you are connnually m~tdhi:ng your humble .wing. ~faucle Fangel loved bahies and. Y'QiU must be concerned with more than Martha's OOiTdress.eftorts ag. the pioneer. A]I of us tend b) dis'OOlInt our own experience and knowledge~to consider (?'Uf background dun and commonplace. If you have been. Often it is an absQ[T~ lion in some one phase of life.e. W. "Cosh.n()reth. so 'by w. you are much more liJeely to succeed m fu. More often.iste.I U ShUIt~ or slacks ~ How do the folds of her dress break at the Hoor when she sfts down? I do not :strongly recommend becoming "helper" to a successful artist jn order to gain background. 'His tendel' and sympathetic attitude toward trumanrnty. f.~rm than in depiictwng' Long Island society life.r when she appeals to' the doctor. JOll '''hit-cODlh and Al Parker are a~ the top because they can set dOW'l1. The.successfu~ at it. of experience.. that has done a lifetime of work. Norman RockweU~ a great portrayer of character. 11:~s wor. if such it uu~y 'be called. i.s w hen h e says! ""G''':II' rna t"_S ernn . Precisely why does: ~. matter of Iact. I'm tired r '~?What does a mother' s face r~'g._. c '. is barren o:f artistic material.. None of 'fl'1ese people could have' reached the pinnacle without 'their inner drives.~'.. You are us.g. a shoe that has seen better days'. than not. "H I could just watch that man wnr1k) r:mu sure I could get ." Fundamentals you must master.~ breathes the fire that ffisn him.{Be of the details that ~ give a setting Us "atmosphere. be coll1ing an ~.0 ha ld. the little white rottag.ensu L .arm. them out far vOUTSJemt ~ Before' Y()lJ de. hut yO]] can never do.~up-to-the-min ute portrayal of yOWlg' America. for' instance. He h]m~selfproba bly does not know his own "seeret. pass-jon that g:ives direction to his technical skill. de- .'" :' II .~'artha in a formal gow']l look so difl.g.tting ahead does not happen that way..eruning!. that' s wnnderful r'?' Orr. The artist who .0 ateh emotional gestu. and his art is nke~y to have a. How often have I heard students say. fondness for drawing the .head in Ge.with her feet when she drops into a chair and says .the old family doctor.:'".' O=BS-'E'R'\lE ""0' U'R' S"'U' "'R'R"O'lTTNDlN'G' S' '.S. and action.\vin_g nun bh_~~downsheds as another artist might: m drawing ornate and 1uxurious settings.' I.r't. Implemented by his marvelous technical abi1ity~ has 'won him 'his place in the world of art. "Is there nn ?H h ope~' 0"T a cl .. The only mystery. . dranu:l.mttator..

tex[m€ ~001or~light. :10.of necessity limit that Ionn some way.gg. . a lEi.THE NUDE· AS A B. of the figu. COO1~yit from the flat to the' round.t is wise to bear in mind this newer trend. . a land1H~apeli animal. If you. but if.gs. The first involves no eonsiderarion of . the artist :is confronted with the same . Linear dra 'Wing-for.everything has p1roportion~ three dimensions. rather lithere is a silhouette of 00]1tour. see from a Sll1Lglleviewpoint" '~!'e must .gives' it . and thickness (in so fa]!:'B!$ he is able on the flat surface ).dj. he. typed or eatal 0b111.rop~fly Iength. .city. But gradually leach one will be chosen.ed you win have to work h~U'l~ to . edges. hence . A vocational course wi thout such srody ']S a deplora l)'~ewaste of time. he '\¥iH.Hgh t and shadow.'reund..any art career tha t requires figure drawmg. r edge of the structure and fonn. Solld drawing: attempts to render bulk or threedi~nensi:onal quaJity on a &t plane of . Perha ps it might be' said that dratwing in g. in. however. widen your :s.h~g principles (. be' as reasonable to The eye' perceives form much more readily hy contour or edge than 'by the modeling. ~·1 . ithm dl~ category of 1l._. and since the fibl'UI"eS of the two sexes differ so radicall y in construction and .est Its bulk. l~~~. w though if can be accompanied by the use of lig:ht .:B..errneatho The artist w'ho cannot put: 'llie' figum'e togethe[ properly doe'S not have one chance in a thousand of success--enher as. Furthermore. So we draw a line-an outline: An outline truly .. painter.c'b of the .ru-t. It is impossible to draw the c]othed or draped fi~lre withou t a knowl~-&~ L"'l . I . 'pain ling.ow'. ow.m]S~ . Therefore U: .. If you are offended by the sight of the body the .U in paint !L'r In .in slacks is not a 'man an to handle any sari.' I .·\ J U1. a psa'ocular texture' such. not attempt to render the subtleties .1" \\Ihich a humble hackgr. and the. The fundamentals of pl$liinting and." . : (.I ha ve tried to supply drawings that will Serve as a sahstitute. It is possible. not tax your tech:uical ca pk1J. suita ble data as in actual (Irawing or. r •.paper or canvas.cope. and planes or mndeling .ht ..ce (a woman ..J'Y CvH.' that may b·e 'v..wing: of a f(g~U'eand s tin s u..'". I have been engaged in almost every t.. book.1I"'lI -lJIU' sions that Ina y call for a bit of still life..and shadthat vou will not be H .· Mos t artists spend as much time in 00 btain ]ng. It 'would. wit'hout light and shadow ~ to make a Bat Or outline d. The nude human ..Almighty gave us to live in. The latter.d not analyze the rnany diJl. and.]8 logical to begin. 'my experience confirms the fact that t'he study of the nude :~sindispensable' t-o .in space or in terms of li. be~on. he will have . learn to observe.~jior eu I'. th~n proceed to. ~.and shad. with the figure :hlJ.ive up thought 'Of a career fn . example..AStS mand the sophistiea ted. '~~JI. It means lea'rning broad dra w.gure draftsman 01:' as a.1 to herome a surgeon without studying anatomy..YP~ of commereial art.ereuces.".: '.1. 19tt dimension-start out with proportion. 'render the hull .g are the same. Yet there is meally no outllne on form.at rendering. pan ts ~even when she has a short haircut) ~it is Fantastic to conceive of' a study oj[ figur.app~alan.. Ior the thing he does best..road~y ~'Peakil1g? tlu.ound..have to set down p. as an satin 0:[( knitted wool. [£ you do not want to.e are twa kinds of dra'wing: ]inear.I. then put this book aside at once and likewise g.enf~raldoes. and.form as we can. and solid. Life classes g.g.u lr_ ~i.p~blellTIs~he \ViU have to consider the horizon and vi..'ny :v _:~"~ obtained J_.of values.ev~wy eonside ration.[lt"3 that I am talking: about in this.. upon the' W8LY '~ig~l falls upon it and the way light aft fects it~value and eol Or . the eleffi e'..=. you can alwa ys do research Oi1L au y unfamiliar S1Jl'hj'eL{. encompassing as mu. of subject on demand.ener~lly work from the living model.~. because the n~11deringof all form is based.g]] Or scale. medium however. the demands should.1 . j' wru e '..E.e drawing that .. a floor plan=em braces dc-s. breadth..aU of' us are either male 01' female..a1l6g:ure study.e~omnl...figure ill ust serve as the basis Ior . to consider ~in short. drawim. Sfnce .r.J. smart..ra. is no handicap~ It is true th~t most artists must be prepared expet.

The simplest and. By contrast. SOUle artists prefer the }.5. Even if YOll stu r t with a bent wire" you need not make it entirely monotonous.Hghtest outline dr.err~'J4 hea vy lines.y time you can V. But. r hythmie ". .e~ heads as ght an absolute measure. .. .to-width d ifferenee between contour and. sOInething to turn to.egs even a . when individuality relationship standing your drawings are dull.t r.sU:ten.e.hat 'is that rect. Hike the: contours of an undulating page 26.Ii. Note that at . it rna..awTake up yoW' pencil and 'begin to swing it '.AT and shadow. "". TIle s.r three times" for you win use them. in your' subject and state them stron gly. Do not surround alone' passesses so much variation tho.angle? limitation to the form (the edges of a cuhe) Of' a rounded and disappearing Ihnitation (the contour of a sp]l~'e ).-WH.outline beeause :he can define contours against otl1Ler m asses or build out the form in relief by the use of val rues" You must understand '[he rs LINE? bel' that line is. What line.A.:fI!I"}~· your proportions to snit the particular problem. tha t is near a very a con- light area.. N O\V! grasping your pencil lightJy between thumb and Index Bnger) dr.gure ]. See if you car I draw a straight v line and then set down another parallel to it. Wha t is the heigh. Line 6. When . bu t he is usuallv made tall On pages 26 to 29 you will find various p:ro.~ be a revelation y .. Your ~dea.g.. line . . line. eight and vitality.A normal person wi]} fall short of our ideal by half a head-- landscape. That edge Inay he a sharp straight tangle. to do: First get a soft pencil that win make a good black. 'Y ou cannot outline . Look for' two kinds of lines: the Bowing' Or rhythmic line" w·t~a"'"ing it about' the Iorm. for the sale of-stability and structure> the contrasting straight or .en let it down. alike. J ~ ~ 1 portions in head units. l"hrat is a . ine can have infinite 'variety) or it can be inL .two. n. You need not take . a .ortenin g m order to plod nee the effect of solid f orm. s tu. shown. ou are dra wing a y 0011 tour he will measure only seven and .em.5 the head. ~ one.. pick out the blacks. Then bear down as though you really mean t it That is a ~" aria hle" line.. U~. omit it entirely. o. ICofl." '~. over your paper. if the foot is shown tipped. can \vorry ever it for the res ~ of your days.:fJL haJJI'heads instead of eight.scs with .~hat is a 1". consciousl y or not.8! figure with a bell t wire and hope to render its solid! aspect. dem ands fo.res'R'b.r areas. You can start expressing your with the kinds of line you draw. lea ve areas of white where subject is white or very Avoid puuing lig:h t.]1ttle longer than. most convenient unit for measnri ng the fi..r characteristics that should he mentioned ~ere. ing can he inventive and expressive. every time you set up a figure .lo~]j . can give it more \1I.iiIln.c any' proportions YOU wish. suggest that you co]nparc this list with your own work to see if you can locate some of the characteristics for improvemen t.'found certain J tour that is dark and strong! you. ..t .ure? An ideal figrue must fit w]thi'n a certain recSee drawing" Now to the figuI·. and. It is remarkable "t'hat 1TIOSt beginners' work looks..tiy g1ay thro1lghout. A contour is an cd ge.dy these carefull y and dra w ·them ~ . You can vary the weizht of line. 1\-1 any contours pass in front of one another.gure drawing.angular line . tense} y m ono ton0us .11. of an ideal fig. Analyzin.f man 'n1ay hav. \VhCl1 the line represents down in perspectl ve it will add considerable length and be about right . you can use a light Iine or even.5"tudired. grays al~' If you ha ve considered a line as merel y a to you t:hat ]iue ~ VOll ~ overstated things that in light light with mark. 1. . The painter dispet. even as land- sCifJJpedra wing. "free 3" th.a'~l lightly or delicately.1 ha v . A piece of wire pr'csents a line.

then work . or pastel 'with. .res into th. If you Snd yourself stippling and pecking yon ron he pretty sure it \vi. A bbc-k and whi te dirawing looks. The tend'CfiCy to Un-ted .est . 7. Use a real water ('0101' pa. in sa~ne'pioture..fron~ a drawing stand= point. subjects should have mood 4.gthe color into the \v€ t area. 1'1~ghlighti1 in chalk. An Qt. YOll g in Iittle strokes. ~ 10. attractive shapes.fct8. F eaiures '1u1Spluced in (J head. sorllefuing else. and wash hlJg in the halftones and darks over the o.». Make your subject in one med iurn. On not combine wax .. If you arc d. Wa ter color should have a feeling of elden diums effectivel" . Other. 'M'a.col:orto he effective should 'be broad in treatment. or expression. and not too finicky.flTeren t me.of the paper unless w bole space is to be squared off" 9.in a. eessfullv. what the construction lines of the head are a Til d how spaced. I would su.gg. Do not shade 'ipeck}"" strokes. I t takes a very skilHul artist to do ~his sue- with a. (See Head Drawing". or action or sentiment to make itt interesting. by peekin It is be tter to pu t your color on white for: clarity. Everv picture should h ave some illtercst if ~' l!.n not he ]Iked. al] eravon.oing a vignett. . If you ha YC done so. cream paper. {} ninteresting subf.pencil. If you are unable to handle water color in any 0 the! wa y than.arrangement. that is not well. Lovely effec.: possible other' than a teclu1ica~: demons tration. Later on 'you mav com biue d. start over.Hng ana. This gets intensely monotonous to anyone inspeeting a 'beginn:er"s work.. Heads should portray character.k'e it all pencil.'u...pre- tar the "ae- II you have to use tinted paper. 'vV(). Some watercolorists work by washing in a. 5.have to g() over \vhat you have once put down.S' 2. \¥ ater ' . ~ 6. Do not "pet" in your line_. with la. Take a head. / paper. for it ea n get v. anything else. especially dark 01' shaded pencil sllO\ving' through. -serubbing out the lights with a soh spon:ge or brush.and dirty~. 1. ad paint has the advantage that it stays wet long enough to maneu Vel the eolor as you wish. Bad . Yet most beginners Il10St Trv never to break the surface of vour . w. Use the side of the lead wi th the pencil 1aid almost flat for your modeling and shadows. but do not start that wav. the better. 1t gives a certain con sistency.p er 0'1' board. Keep untouched areas scrupulously clea]"[ with a kneaded eraser.papeTs. mu lti tuae of little .rge loose washes. tri(~'kymedi . known.1s are obtained by (lampening an area flrst and then :Ho. ~ . draw it cleanly with long sw.erabundance of small fuzzy Une.' g:encral tone" brown or red eonte era von on a tan or ..BEGINN"ER. Don't run over to the edge ."vin. Too P'1Ulny m€diu. Spray with fixarlve.eep. better ora whitepaper than. Rubbed ."Vater color is perhaps the urn of all.M'tuuly in U roil.. Learn. )list a costume does not make a picture. try pastel which can be spread and rubbed at will. lIse or color that has done somethin g of its own and dried that way.c'ry messy on a soft and very absorbent patpe'r.ed he-ad" plan inb:::-n:s.craynus. Copies. ) Build the featu.riginal tone..1. This is very bad.RK 8. GeneraHy water-enlorists . The less YOll . For instance it fer not to 'leave a Jot of . The heads are usually badly HS'hted.ccs. take to it.ith pencil. 3'. Keep your dra \vings Hat.ol movie stars.e correct sIla.all pastel. color that is harmonious . all water color ~ or all " pen and ink. 11 on thfn papeI"~ mount on heavier stock. .

'\V11s·t id f ~ . -Th w. '..rntive widtTh1 s at b etween a I" .mtenors. and 'back.For ~.guIe~ 'The shoulders. The elbows are about on a line with the navel.~. The knees are [ust above the lower Iquarter of the .y accurately relate your Ggure·. 'Tt. • I.n'.UIU.''.. I I I' .. . ear ne -a " Dlpp drops just below the crotch.to Iurniture shoulders.given.' .at k of ~ iddJe t'I.e~glt!. It is.pa. .' ~ FT. I . . calves.- ...I . t! ~3 ~ eo d 3 W. desi d h . MALE FEET '< M~le'h G]U V'e ··6 FT l~. The proportions are also._ J' I' If" . \ I.I ie 11·"""'1e wi er thian ODe hell' unit..< I.lle fi.f"B 'T'a k'e any. .. ... r . Note d~e com. . Nate that the space· d '. Draw t. Two and one' third of these units win be the relative w~dth £:0[' 'the male flgwe. ~ I. )1 i .6. : " __ i" 'J '\ a- 'V o' ~ i r . I. \ " \" l j. 'J' : I Ii .gurc in the three positions: front.1\ . " . are one-sixth 0.hI' .£ the 'w~y down.. .... \ . IS one' h d l181t.. hips. '(:/\" j~" "J 'y ..I.or pate po:mnts f or . . side.esrrec top of head and heels . as . In feet 50 dta t you :ma.VIi!' : b.ms't. ·an . and. ~ t'" '~$ I' .DEAL PROPORTION~ --2iI'~~a:--=".. .~llre.]s .lvide into e:ighths. But fix in yom: mind the di visions.~ea.liJldti(t' > ) . ..e '\h ru f~' 'q.J · . not necessary at this stage to attempt to render the ana tomy CQr~ rectly.

I.lD:E.L [}R.' IS :urnpor antilL '( 'a t yO!:n '. \Vrists are even with crotch. f=.2 h«. e) aec ve 0":. . e - . . ~111. na!'ve].= .~.e.TION. lth ustune W nipples and navel are one head apart. .it .' '.s' \.s even a little longer from the knees down. t ~'h l)OW 1S ab . \! ' . ~ ~I qu . across. but both are dropped 'below the 'head.{I'~~·ttV>i!.' '1i-.' I 'r "'-_G' ~. ' " 2 "B'oao~ 'K"a. bowS'~W'o~rt· . 1".el': it Ior a. I -.\ ..ods' w~ e . below tthe waist '1~' " thee rna. In front the thighs.~~\~ . HE'Al) UNITS :~!41. division s.II. 1-h 'gh-' In .is.. are slight~ ly lower than tn the male.A. F'ive feet e:ig'bt .OPOR.E. oi' 7'IV .. I \'j -------. shorter legs and somewhat: heavier thighs:. the average girl has. The waistline meesures 'One head unit.!"..l!i.Q~.t learn the 'variations between the male and fe'male figwre ._ . consmereo an lea.= f J I I ~ \ -~-- The female figure is relatively narrower=two heads at the widest point The nipples.eve-"r WIU~. Note carefu llv that the female. IS ..".. h eeis ') 1. Th£!l.J..I. are ~lightlYwider than the armpits.tiFT IE.1 J' \ I '\ I . The ells anove tlae nave I. 'FEMAl_.. 1. ~.S.. S'FT' \ ~i ~'~~ . narrower in back. ldered ·d mehes (.'.. "1' ibo'". gill L Aetuall y~ of course.QS - . It is optlcnal whether 01" not you draw the I'c_g.


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·9, HEADS· A.S· N·O~·At...

'uSeI' ,m"' NOS" S:HOOLS.






You can see at a glance '\vhy the aetual or norma] proportions are not very satisfactory, AU academic drawings 'based on normal p,ropottions have this dumpy, old-fashinned look. Most fashion artists stretch. the figure even beyond elg:ht heads, and in aUegoriCc.'ll or heroic Hgul'·es the "superhuman" tYl1e - nine heads -- 1]1ay be used e£l'c.cti el Y: Nore at what poin t, or head v

unit" the l11:kldle of the ·figur.e faHs in ead)", ""It would he well to draw the side .and, hack '~nthese various proportions, using the prev ious page .for a g'eneral guide bot. changing: t!te I)FOpOrUon,. You can control the it PllC'ar~1lnce of hei ght or shortness in ,any figur.e h): the relative size o~ the head you use,






with a G.,,·'e-vear-Q].d bov, you have 'here his relalive height. 'Children under tell are made a little' shorter and, chn h hh~r th ~Innormal, since this cfIect is considered more desirable: those O"V'6'r ten, a. ]i HIe tal ler than normal - for the same l'easo n..
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These l'u:oportions have rr)ee11. worked out wu'h a g1feat deal of effort and, as far as Mknow ~have never before he en put. down for the artist, r11'6 scale assumes that tlle chH,d will grow' to be an ideal adult of eight head nni ts, If" for insta nee, Y";Jou waul tu un'llw ,l;lJ! man or a woman (about Imlf

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A.. " .j.I. til-tg iJ.ANT USES OF THE '"'MAD "OR FlAT D.'A.I' TH'E FL. ! I .T 'D'JAGRAM. ?11 Ut"G J aWt'" L . OTHE'r~ ]M'PQR'T..uRAM. ( - ~ "(QI)' WI ~~ bu'l ~J .o~Q I • i .t r1t e d'!~¢:~s.

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5:r..AD' UNITS . •r / __ 5~' ..3./ ' / .:.. U./ .'" / ~'- .. '~a4"Jril!!Jk ~ [NI (i ...PR()PORTION'S 'B. . -: ) .~ \ \.• -POI"'.I J / _---.1AS.Y ARC.AND HE...sOCK 1i.'...S .] .fOR" .A~iC:S .

.tLa...) 1111 fiGuRt: S Ex p~.kM€d~S ·!iusarttd:) . BOI.D~.'R i :if.kKees) H. PROP'ORTION ~IN RELi\TION TO TH·E HORIZON aH. {~qure$ trom 2.3 How to :bu:~ dyOUr" ~ :1 pictU'~e· ~ .'!.lf e~e..A.l1lc." DII"ld~.1 (lve~l(ot Hor~.6 " .... Pu ie : Hor·u:oK.'i 6E...ti. D~vHJe ' ·a5. v£for-e·' ·to sa~ Hot" izo.e PO:i I~t~holle}'~~· ~ .nID 4t~s.i ~ m 0 I""(!.~:zJOIN.... .€ at e tke' 5tl'w.. I'-'\.M(. ~ L=~ __ ~~~~ ~~~~ __ ~~~ __ ~~ __ ~~~~ . rKJJl s~.'Jw.~ ."'I I 5 .po.~.1f .. -!i<:.CD..I!"'~. Q~o.y.ldltrflS. ~ ·1ll1¥ttc¥ 10 tkJ"'\1:o... PI-ACE 11) ~VE.zo'M. txnM VOO'[~'pICWV1e F you w'(.tg . ros s a i I sl.oud~d'.t..To .d lq.q lJ'reS 'OYL a j exe ~ piaM.r Fi.~:m3...m~..(l]n \ v...

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..GS . VPo'~ FI.r'~G.of the .Y not he actually visible. an . .. Obviously . but your eyelevel determines it..1~ MA"" the figur.fi.CUR.. ~I!= rp. an open]> lla t p] ane of land or water is visib le..[ES1'. no matter how close or distan t A picture can have only one horizon} and only one station l)o.··T~ANY.fi. ' f11i1 Me[Pl~ APPl' E...~GB - Ai.!'.This applies when aU figures G.everything else < .figure at pre.gure:s.. The horizon moves up or dOVHl with the observer.11) . espeeiall Y 'of the complete figure is not shown.L.es are at d]He:ren t levels..gllres are relative.r poQ ~~T . there is a good book on the subject. The solution is. (' On page 37 there is: an explanation an of how' to proceed when should be drawn tothe same horizon and seeded so that the . nud the relative size of the :£ig:ureor 'portion . P'ICTURE V.G··~f:ffi ' I y. Either the whole figure or any part of it can then 'he scaled with the horizon.in1. ) YOilJ1 can place at point anywhere w.of the subject. The horizon on.f..A. ... It is not possible to look over the horizon.~.!.5 . . For Instance. The importan t thing is tha t .l\R is: taken.POT I. Perspecuoe Made Easy.Ny .N'r$fUNq ~T F I. to dra".7'. PART Of f~GUR£ ..p..e1or lens level . Alnong hills or indoors it Ula.i thin your space and.FIl\D1NG PItO'PORTION "'i'6. . as the hea:d measurement and applied to standing figures.q OJ! v.cise1y that sput.2. for it is constituted by the eye lev."po~. not understand perspective. available at most booksellers .NY S. CD to the sitting :6.~ a key figure for standing or s. Many artis ts ha ve Jifficu Ity In placi ng figures in their picture and properly rerrating them to each other.1"e on the same gtound plone.gun:~sretain thensize rela tinnships. ~ AT A.If you do.'I::(.I?'.N Y'OUR.. draw a key hors"e or CO\\' or chair or boat. .itting poses.

-~--~ . s dt':ClWK re Ia.s 1.t -~ pi.::. M.ac. SrLMt. . '.l. d '-e. ~ m.Vrt e Utoe by ~ k iI~q_ Ltr..O".. c.e? --- ~-O'. Ol't 1Ka H~r'....Th~ ktul.1 .illve to Hte . tM.Q ~ qla·VO.o~' edM...Yl.o~ 1M(Z HOR..uts ~~ at a.p.K.e ~ai qrou!~ Ip... r~ l1Q' .sl:tuldlU'lLJ WO~Q!K at left "t.~ '1.IZbN \ \\ S.....z.- y.~ .Q ~" N ate t~'r-ll. iot ekJ.lO I s1.tiL one .~nd tke..~.oted WOWLe.7 ...r l1t.~'" f iq u~s 3<l.fs.sL'~'Ua l~ iq u :v-e.tj~ ..e.

A.WE BEGIN TO D'R... FOUR.""I!)~a''r' : lknr-c'__" .5 I eft All.. ..$ . FRAME 1It::.AW:: FIRST THE 'MAN'NIKIN .'P 5'~.._!M~.I(.

A.M'O\'EMENT r- I . .A C'et4fTIE.~ 39 • .~I!.: '1"!-It~ Ml\J\INIK.R.~ - ~N T*1 ~ . FQ:R LIFB Afi'e> 4C"~O'N FROM 11fE 'VERY Be./ 5'ri()VL'O ""EA.rrtE IMAllN L! N~ Of" BA~"'''''''C~ .- - - - 114ili!. Wa.).~lOUle -..TR. So'.:----------.lVE.'1l.( \ \ "~ .M~aoUS sr:Uc. '~ \I j \ I I \ l . \ '~\ - T.Ci..(. .ET us 'STR. ~~ ..e=CT ION .~NNJNa~ DRAW"l)RAW. tfV. PQ'NT .IN' FRAM:E - 'L. OF GRAYIT'(:"~$.~GtiT OIVE..~ O~ R. .l!.>~ .. ~L .~K~ ti -. I / \ I \ \ I THE.se ARE "3fAT'ONARV PIVOTS # "'fIRV '1iQ"'!FliilU.

....S". -me. ~f...1IJi w .. .... ..LLA60Ul HIM...1ii ~CK'_" I' ~R~CJiPO~l'ION' lJ NE.=t::LLOW PA. .. 3/4 ~~N'T ALL..URViE. nME you 5PENl) ON TrHS I......'I' ..A"N Jl. I. C.. F=-~~IT 15A'~ K ~/~ ~ACK S'~ri7~. LEGS PUS. 'lHE..ME .Y5 13·'0OlrV'"DE.HD.DET'AILS OF T:HE Mi\NNIKI-'·· FRA..


~usr HAV:~ THES'E TiHREE I..~ PiAN E MA:Y S'I:...s.W'E PROD'UCE .RY .A ~ lE 11tl S ASJU M'E WE HAVE Guru N'ES OF .~NE.r«J'U'N:D fOR. II 21 t I So..CT" 'l11E omu N iE5 ."S PA 5..LE N (rn:~ [ . '1 ."Ji.AS WIE:ll AS tHE ~DGE5'. BUT pm TO'GE:'THER'i..A. .APPEN"10 ro 'r.ALWAYS .lJE5 FORWAQO TO A" CCt1t1ON CENTER.. DR:6'W tNi"':" WE _~_ M.MOiN OBJE:. THE.cENf" PLAN E. 'THiNG YOU M. 'BY MOV~NG' C~RC.PG E.'IIII.ECOHE ABLE.jUq-GEST ~OL~Vll~ 'WAlCH HOW l:.l.. .'OW TAKE A COM. 'DRAW\NG.L 11 D-Ilr. THREE CIRCtES 5E1' .lHE OUT~' l.FORM TNE .FER E.jO'LJ'D~' A. E.\ THINK t\~LA.5AlQN.ill.A.T~ULY' K~. VE.. 50l~D5 D~MENSIONS".5Y UNTIL YOU .QWING AlLO'f"rH6 .~ THl5 WiLL NOT BE E. - I i I -~~"""""""""""'_==----i:"'"1. OINE .ON 3 AOJ.S: .Ij BE.fS' ~ ...A.oF ~c.N T').1 . All.5.~' T~Y E TO fEE:L 1 HIE (Y~ ~DD'L CONTOUR.M.50UD'.usr .A'NOTH.2 BREADU1.3 TH~CKNE. I!. I ~I '10'1" .B.E ..L ~ B N. ~ . " B..CAN .

them down mto actual bone and muscle. oped iinto the more . win be affected :b1l appearanc.~H. Over it is draped a .. but consider them merely as parts Interlocked or 'l<ved. "lay" fi.. I am of the opinion that to teach anatomy belol. it Inay also he treated in perspective" No artist could possibly a H:ord. nle figure set up as suggested in the following pages." feel" of Us Parts ill. it can always be devel ..UOllS if. . The chest is . It has weight tha t must be held up by a.fr.chunks attached in certain \v. We must have some direct and quick way of inclicating or setting IIP an experimental ngure . If only art directors: would base their la youts on such mannikin 6gures.out an h area it occupIes WI: :~nthe fi -nnde]"standing' of . very .er mus eles . It wilill not only S'(H"Ve for :rQU gil sketches. The mannikin in.£iguH'. \Ve will not neat their physlological detail here.one "\\·1th which we can teU a slto. between the 'two pelvi.gure~to indica te joints and the ge ner aI propor tion of £rame\vork and masses.s. all stand.. There is actually a "-shaped bone here. believe that the student will do much better to set up the Hgure this wa y and get the . tedious and SUperB.art beJEote the horse.T. as an understructure for pose or action 11erllaps to cover "vith clothin g.ged tog'e the r . whereas other masses are fun and.raw a muscle correctly without a lair estimate of the .. per ha ps to workout a :pose that he will fiaish with a mode]. eudrung . Then YOll can more' easily grasp the plac~ng and functions of the muscles and what they do to the surface. and heads would not run off tho pag'e when drawn correctly.vhf. giveu us a general framework to which we can now' add a simplification of the buJlk Or solid aspect of the figure .eUigendy approach his final 'work without a preliminary draft.gl1T<e drawing. or as ..u[' le p-lUJ~O.NNIKIN The foregoing has.hould.gesnto tlle thi ghI' and in front there i is the bulg'e of the 'knee" Learn to dra ~r this mannikin as well. A V is f:orrIH=d by the slant above the middle crease. the calf \~'led.d" as far as we arc concerned.S would. If you have the frame and masses to be ghw . on the same floor. will usua~ly suffice. Hence the: huJuan :Hgtu~. you can. th. here.eIl is extremel y mo bile. Since it is in lIlJOportion in. The 'but~ . ."e pIOportioa=before bulk and mass and action-is to put the <. J If you have never stu. The flesh y m asses or bulk £01. The thorax. we went through the \i\.fi~ct the surface.fi.HE MA. 'Vvedged. anato nly ~you may not know that tbe muscles fall naturally into .ggshaped a. hole procedure of Jii.ays to the frame. Think of the figure Jn a plastic sense. 'You cannot d. . I. to the hips by two masses on either side.ED rather squan~· 'c-reases.g:ure'~you need not be greatly concerned with the actual mnseles or how they a.' hollow. and frame. and.He toeks start halfwa y around ~n 'back. lows the fnune" SOUle of these rn asses are knl t togetl1Ler quite closely and adhere to the bony structure. 'The artist wiU want: to make' roughs and sketches that can serve r FIGURE something with three dimensions. he both. or chest. y'ou can later break.ry. eve-ry time we drew a figure.e by action.an'1e\vorlk .]'1th.elooks. bull. than a care. 'Over the cape in Iron t~ the . Properly done. as.cape of muscle extend]ng across the chest and down the back to the bas. the actual drawing of the 6gure from life or copy. 1t would.rdshed dr awin g.the finished. In back. btl t \viU a 150 become an ideal approach to.. from the hips. a model Ior all his rough prelimmary work-for layouts and ideas. The mannlkin serves a d o.e of the spine.t.ful anatomlcal rendering. is a. You will use it: much more often. lthi t. -gurc witr . is 'c'.mucb like our mannikin.joined . drawing is used much as.fck and. action than to be gin at once with tb e ]wve model.When you are drawing a mannikin fi. Yet he cannot jn.c j bones ilia t support the spine.died. slant downward.~.vh y it is there and of how it works.b?"OUjlS or ..

'r:wE-Wlll.'F1E..lES SU·"" PLil F' .. - - IDE.I A '511IMIPLER'MANINIKlrM u: 1H~. m eR t'S TOO' o DI Ff I GUL1I. MUS 'C.o. 'WITH S~MiPll.GeT TH~~.R. .LE CON. e.G ff:.TH E.S1"RUCrtDN LATtE. 44 .'OUtP'5 Of..VE'lQPWNO THE PReV1QU3 FRAME.'O:RD'UPS 'U\IO' ON TOP..O MUS'C~E.5TUDV - -- THE ~ACTUAL"'" - BONEAND MUSC..

_---. tH. .N ._: .i: rmER fROM Ail3·0\J..'l4. 'NARFtO·W E"t'E tE VE.. . . _..E..... ..Y INEA.ON. .PR.. ·NIK ·N HeR!=.L..Ie. FROM lH IS YOu ·GET nu: . THe F~G u R.__'\..E '" ~ -.~ .._.'E OR ·BE L...tN C i' PLE Of PcRS P'E C"''UVE 1H THE ROUND RJRM S .'QW'..AD:D'ING PERSPECTlVE T() FfilE S.' '~E S .AG·R.R n·u:: - oow.INOn HOW 'lJ. [ll... 45 _. A -. IS .o' . r.OLJ:D rvIA.Q'UP OF CVU NIDe..


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RK.O·11J.iI'. .. J .F'WEDG'5 1111'.': '. '. ~1. "iIi'l)P Li N~ I PASS.. LA'l" E R j. £. MODE. I .' LA'.~ E: L E!' 5''..N E ft." :. -- [ Oll r..5" ''iia.lIi IN!..5: lU"4'1j)£.2.. • S""'·H'· O"-"'U'LD""'. l50N:E. PUNCH ~ 0 TO THE IFIGUtRf..~ PORTANT TH ~H'utS: TO La OK FQ R..I' lOW 'OU'1":SI bE 'TH.. "J' 1 It.. ~ " SU~'FACE CMARACTE~~5nC$ • TlAAT G·IVE.LY ~ " CAl.J.L i.. ...~ ".E. H IG I. [ . DRAWN WITH. KE'f..·R.A.EG ~tti. 'N' -0 'V 'u ~. E:.i. ~LANO'M.p "H.F'UL.···· V'·.. vou WJ L. M I . W"fi E.: ". ' . KNO:-"'W''. U .YO' '_ J. UN~ ~IND'S 'lK-r-----!('.. wu..... CI! . ." I'~) LOW 11\\151 ~)'E. " 'M US C L E.".GU~E.' ~ ...R ~.'" I~ N ~l F'" f"lA' . AN~ .S F~O'M III ~I[ P'PE.'N:·'D·M·: A' ·R' K:·S'. 1 '. ~Tli=A16ifl D $TIFF ~ "" STUDY 1'"H'ESE. ~.'S·' .. '.~Y Pis.'l HoA'IE '''~E. n A 11"'10 " .At-41~(:1. DAc'K ".F' ~ I G'H ON iiIfIIlE.[00' TH.~I~ 'E..lBOW 1'5 H EVEifit.P YOUR j.. VOtJ' TA K:~.n..c5:..N.OUT' A..... ~ l"-. .E. :L. [I'll CAR:E." '.E ACTUA 'b. U '8' .

StlRFA.s ·.~. ...ANU VO"T A "". IMUS~' CILE.NCA.. 1':'.. ~DY'" .1----- _ _.- . ~..·.. IESL"'iJ:'WQI ID'~~ P Lt: :$ " .ECT fi.ON THE._.:~ ~. ~ .'II T'IiJIII ~ ~'1'.- ~.... I13QN~ f~ pS L ~" 'Or. --'"w.~W'S " ~~~~~~~_'~~~~~~~·E··~~E~3~... IS eJ~. riSE~T YOU CAN .~ P._~"""IitF-----.1.1t....' . . IEiACK or TH E: M..Sd _..J.._y V~W.CE.cK VleW.______. ....'U'lI.1... .. ...a'U~E.OU" ~~ :S.I~: ': IRIRROW OFS...'V~ S-A.... U'Iil._~_ _ ~ ~".. ... CHARACTERISTI~CS .O 'CCJfYl E ISAC K II ... '"'rl:ii!'.:_. P.. Ni D '~(i.....A..-lII.' £7 ""'-. N" r-= ~ '..T1U'V"EP' lliE..P~NE is t1EEP'E5T WH E. ......_..Alt-.'!~r~l.::. ...r:: ~ In 'H'~ .N Kl. 'WHEI~ YOU HAVIE . .V. " .:...N Ft... ' ..~j::..R:'GW:$ ~ 1= U R..' l:7'n' g~~...~-===.TO 'MfiMORiZ E.vomE .'" lJ v 'GH."Jj' .E..' lIT A'!j .t""iIiII h lIZ" " . S ANti VON'T GET ~_~r. flG'UR1::..


53 .

1'7'0 KNe..ClU Of.5~".EkO'W~ FEMA. ~~'I-:.\. 1liR£E. .-~ T "..l.~'TH MALE AT OR JUSt' I3. AS.EA.THE FEMALE M'ANNIKl" TWf..._E.~L TOI 7.. 'N. MAlN.ONT iO IN.E'.E R~a. SJM'!?'I. ll'E.5 CQM. TM E.s. 'D!FFE RENeE ..E'M1Al£ PROPOJt'f'ONS. A.E UP TO IlHE U NiE OF TrI'E. I WAi$f ..5 .N I~S U'~ T1~E PE.~VEL (MALE ...E. 6R.!t TOP'OFIHU[). lNCH'E5 BI:LOW).'SttO'u f) ER5 N ARIRQWER~ L CAPE-ll DROP 5 l N ~R.'S TS.~--~~~----~~~1r~ ~ OFr I<N~" ._TO.lU\lt ~5AeO\fE TIH'E N~:vtEt.~\r-~.LvIS (()~ 5C. l flEMAlE WA~ST. E C PEl V f 5 Wi OER ANO . B~"FWt: EN THE MALE ANrD FEMAlE MANINI KI....'S)~ "THE H ~p BON. .E Ill$.GE:'iTING F. AI(IE :~..Y ARE lWU OR.~". S"MAU':6R..~.DE'E P E-R. WAt. 'WAYO~ .

lUI:. AND' MANN[~K:I N_.E USE: . I I -mE "3 DIVr510'N. You AR. 1H.5 NElEO NOT 'BE.Of ~ME.. L .SET "'(ou ~ve_ .E UF..tGE:D 10' .SK. UPR'UGHT ~ I MAN Y .5P~N D "nME-.ETCHES .BU" t'r MAY BE THE MOST' VALLI A'eL~ SINGLE AS.··R~ VA. AND THOtJGHI ON IT.:s U N DlE.:5TUDIENT...


. . 'alll""'r '.J!...th® muscles fn~e to propel the Hm'bs. "".. to c~rry the extra burden of the unborn ch]}d.e out .[ .g€'..."~. .'!Gi .it.·l-.elk~~te". or thigl[ bone. .yof anatomy ~the fe:rnale skel. i pHabl.[ recessions In the surface. the longer waistline lower bn ttoeks.. muscle. capable of unhmi ted movement and oJ performing count- 'less.'i '~(WI ~ .. figures. orr: rfb case.unThan bo dy is in deed an 'en g[mtracle.. This extra s'~Ten.U 'fhe muscles can usually ]he transstr1JU.' '_Y'.b.~1~1.-i"i.ley are swinging back and forth. j' wear ou t-.these bones protrude" ]t_ .~ 8'1. The . . 1-11 e-"'PI' U~~. The Iurther JIOlll go in tl~c~t.. JLIIL.ktlU pru:otects the eyes" the brain..~~avi. and the delicate inner pM~S.. in the 'male.. iI!. .'t.ud. these fundanlAe~ntal d~ffer- enees until Y<JU can set up an unmistakable 'male It is very' important fo]:'the artist to !now' that no bone is perfecHy sb\"ll:'i1g'ht. AND 'MU.. ri. "seop" for stability..""''''.e the ]arger pelvis.cr when H. The hair guish the female most and breasts 0.d:Th.tof a heavy ]oad.f proportion.LJ~ .er. These dffferences account fot the wider shoulders and 'IHHrOWer hips of the male.. perfe cdy straigh[ bone wHI be become dimples 0.gnre in 'Cfn:n~ctpl'opairHon.s:t0:£ steel parts .fuUe:r?rnun del' .[tna~'Slocket p..·1.. rn.JI£iil re-I..1-. orgalllS.IIiL'-.[ climi)"iha toe the necessity o.. ...H!rHlly m'tlSC~B'Sof .lll !Vi by c~rUla!g€ a.ogether and upright (11'18 held The: waistline :[:5 Thlig:h. the buttocks are .j'l' which are . An arm or a ~eg female B. and wider hips of the female..£ 'course'! dis tinfig[n~e'. ann wris L5 are :5J1]: '. _ ~!I' The .g:hthe spine 'has a r].!ike-a.".... have been 'set up" I have kept the held nuns alongside so dmt.Than '\vith a.. what the' \\ ~. ..· .. er ~U'ul ore arched. for example. \Vhcn the' body be COules fa.].. The 'hands are smaller and much more d.~r and stronger .. -~..s.. All the 'bones 'f. The Iemals is dH- f.!.. '.~..1J :pro:minent~more stra p. neerlng pelvis in the Female and die proportionately llax..'~e']eton" These are bOJ.. the pel vis.~~lll -] ~c'L'~.e l~.nd.. -J!.).Il'\. It poss. alldl the rihs. T'~:u.aged.']l. .e'" re sml'i::L.and.e "' thin or .lll~e.chief dj{ferem~e~etween the male and W'orliiLlg from life 0.~~~.. Bones .s'h(juhJ.. The muscles.1f1·' tess uev : .~I~ it.ru:.0 'vc'~:gh. ' wtg..in '[llJt~ f.n"g.. in gell'eral. You .:~~. are llexJ.dl.L~I!. t[l sks.~:stelS i great :lle}[~..n.. TI~ou.::.th.~ 'I \ .g.i.J!.iii . where the hones are so near the surface that th.~lethiighs: are Ratter and a " W':ider '. M ade of soh an d. WlThere protection is most ']lee)ded:~ the hone C~)IneSclosest 'to the surface. yml.:.W1~~~.l'ing..' S muc h 11.~nclhe ~ointsoperate t ona b~U~.!~~""i"j.'~""[...D '~he bones has much to do 'with the rh vthm and action of Curvatur.ty.CW1' e.. IDiBLy relate the hones to the ..' Jj.e'tolllS are the' proportionately ITmrger more .. protection to delicate orgacrrs and :par~8. The r~bsand pelvis protect t}U5 ~u:mmlt~...• if.I.un..ger thorax... ~ into the sptne.est~ng: t becomes. _g. or renewing iU'seif over a period of' Ume' in \~lhi..T... .f Th..r'eat trochanter of th~. they are fastened .propcn:t[on.. ".femur extends out farther. ..._'"_ . is largely taken over hy f.es on the male g.r.lnine.ey aHect the CQn~ i tour.0 " '1. dra wn w.:JI.e ma b. In photo graphs will not knowing ana tOl"my and reeognize .n ces..g.a. but those o. On the OlJpolSite p~ge the male and female skeletons.n . to toe. .. desig:ned. elastic yet strong.::'!-"..1LY pro...k'.A]?· anl"1lID'''' 11" al ~V'..ole structure collapses 'wuh a loss 01 OOlt1LS'CiOIDtSnes:sj" Strain UpCH'Th. ~l! ]'.~ . to be a little more oblique...u.g'd as i:t appea'[f's..SCLES " .. .. The jaw is Iess devel- The skeleton. .are m le:S.. and the femur. thOlllgb.~ ately la'rg. T1.e'"·"rm'''' tJU.l. lik. \.n.. lI"f'Iillb A can . '.\'r ~". 11/\11'''' I.. 10 1}..l' 'I c.'ll.. 'wid.I.1I')e ~U'. T.ro~!l..b:~}j.::. elp.thougll 'stn:n. of' the t~~. other.and lower. .1' ~ reer a ar ..id l~ase.t these spots...ll~ THE. operating on self-gelGLera ted pn~ver~ would and rep\rum. Thev a1.1g~is really not so oped.li! l.:l1.erent Irom head.gure at ~vvnl :N ote the black squa.dl :~u1. ~ 1I .. j.:.the bony the t'highs and 'buUnek. .d. ut they are Thne:rely tts b l' obvious characteristics.p.g:tiH-lou'ling. .·.. BONES.~tial. 'the bones..gthis... . Concentrate O[ upon. a. The \-vll.The ~.Ii'..' 1-.lILll.cl"Wedl 'te) .b]e... ...·. too.e..8!~NO :form a. ~~~. .:'J '1i.:0cause the Female arms to :BtlILr. The neck j s more slender.e...Oi ale..the' s'b:·cm..~]' .

I would instinct]ve'~y draw them .delPartme'Ht~.lteof tlnil' to ShOi':V .:~.ed'J' lit til healthy'. Ign()rallCC of the demands upon you..g~Jre ellawin g ha. the hips it ~ntle ..Hl h. SptH:~taLl study should be' given to the' . 'The nose is: round.n.) If IT1}' fi g:ures seen} ~bs urdly tall remember that I am gi:ving: rou .e l'(!'g:s are b).i~ rn9: 110[ easy h) And. Children sbouc~d. knee:~' an d ankle.slt'r(). """ld'' .ph" because of' 'the ex. If yoltt get iuto charaoter unusu ally tall and s til] please a f ashion editor."." narrower.' faults. some of .tUld.s..etllI'S too I~:uJ'g.6Jl.e dnl'wing.the cheeks s~ighd'y hoHo\ved.al WOJl'II~ on any commissibn of im- portanee should be drawn from a Illod~l or good OO:iP.s" I t is mere l' a \v.~. dra wn very In uch as they appear. sidere cl voluptuous appeal would be plain.e t . SUn'}n . fact that short pcup].'\\' short ~:g[IJ..ge. " .e.ave tlh~ Wool of inla:tleJlct_. Th ' upper lip protrudes somewha t... narrow-shouldered. Thev are usually a harder W'O 'k. Otherwi se yom dr-a wrung '\~l. Keep a1] ehtldren ~JP six or eight y~'lr.a"ggended fnreshortenlng by the lenses. J '1~7JJ. 'l t much slope..r . . short -armed or -legged. When t:b.res.i.s traced from a pbotogra. The .·' he handsare f~lt a l\d (H~np'~ed.art d irector OJ.The ears are slnalt thicll. th nee'k "" W :_:0. . ·1hi knees should be sma ]eg Is elon ga. Tllr(~ ess -nC!e of sueeessful male Bg)tWl'e . since i.".e0:1' prrotID'ud ~rllig'h"l ~~'t)y male drawn g. operate a camera ~s. simllJp~y won't go.' ing: j~ that jl: be k1ep't m.. diJnp~.te'.~JClOOUllt f.. Do not dr:~:~v . with tapering calves.. e durn- sherter than. k' -'1. mien prominen ~ and wen cleSned.he conception aecepted as a.w them Without good wor king: Ina terial.asculwn. dumpy.u.gle.~'" 'The c. .a n. The thi·' hs and less are made longer and more slender. lla'll.~and -O~·i!'esaJ.e ideal "type mus t look Th. .drs.~naf.-'mu5 cl d male mod LSi.-.! w~Unot do the whole job. thn:rij.g:c~'her:. a short wife will tend to draw short women.beets are ful] and round.ss in fi... these ]. short.m" ~..a. o[ Ba'b:' s obviously '!iJ~. The shoulders are drawn a.c~~: the A ron.kes m uy .ghl Oil I J' .be. From e'illgb t to twelve they can be. It mwght be \\ e 1 to . 'Umo' '~1Jlm.er thall.~. q~dte to cbu hhy.become a lmos t a cult v~tha~' artists of the ~i~:idldJe g.the req[ulren ents nF S'l11lCceSSfld :figur.' ~et'e''wu]n. . and small and concave art the . 'Wrutho.ted fro rn the kru~>e'~o\vn t wi th snvlIlU anlde.Y of some kmJld".Qi[~ 'ber. Nothing wi i1 kin a sa le so qu ickly as f a t~ ness OF shortness. In fact.g. well understood it is almost fa tal to try to dlig. a 1ude laJl'g. Iat. lm. The face should be lean .s ]arg:c~ headed. \vith A.... The male hands s-.drs w. the eyebrows fairly thick ( rever :wnn. son e of IUV fig": rres here are even r ..The . h ead should be. wide-hipped. rny .y one of the ahove ml~tta."smart" {.\'~e '~fO:':orUODs gf.1 f.h}.~ help..u.~~. The art director seldom.~ely.. there is considera ble taper and.~s...'irppcar too ~ar. or pl~l'I"dg}i'" B'Il1t a.. They wi not look too tall 'to the art g" you Inay do a f at feUow~ but don't make him too young.. Lim bs look short: and heavy.e ) tlle :mou~l fl!lU~ the.e~n-f'aoed I-urrd.~"1l shoukl be plump.n. praeti ' ally 6U th openings. . ill h .. Oud:i:n. Hu le wider dwan normal.e-p'~e[ 'tJI' o[ bone and mnsel . 'gUT€: d at [no'l.: hoo'~. A. standard. of course) '.l. round. are apt to dl'a.gu re 11n13l.t must 'OOln.o~r ] hi 8 dislike.elliI under.."vid@ shouldered and at least six £-t more heads) tall. '''''"II)bJ.. chin j the '\vnrk of Hlllt it 'who use models and go?d copy. : 'II..mnem"lt'i. dr:~'IJ._'~n in dli.the $]' ou]d[ '~oUrch~d "the br~d. The £igu:r~ is._y and be n. the chin Is w. 111€ eyes.bhe:r~ or a wa:x. IJe si nply says 'he dees not like JOUf drawf ~..ould he exaggcratedi a" 1]tHe in size and in th.'If tll'~'5'Cdistortions aI'1f6 not corrected.fa h': ly close '~O the (ei.'Wound hands en a. A. The .b'umps and bumps are-sand why they ate the. your drawing wiU slmpl y look photographic.[Ii" "~~T 'Ii'il.Y actually boi .s·". fat toda y.~ a wid and dum py ]oo~. to the s'hQ(r~fingers". ~ .¥l]. (It is a curious. '. .' ' .'~lld".~" J.erna]e figuf'e has: SOlne m anuish co 1tours. thougl the relative size of t h '. Most artists Own ~ud.. :Iands .". Jra W'il normal. points out youii. is as great a handicap as ignorance of anatomy ~ n huy~er.)ony and muscular.~.tU the structure 'Of babies is. Soft .

e.UM re. ~----~~----====------~~~-----------------------·-------=~~--------'~--------~------~----· 1 ..= RVS .. HUM E!.T[~iU-A I !' 5 Ti'~iA ~'~ULA I. 1 3: ...~' •• C Ib~ •q 2 . :SAC I~.A.s .5C.-..sc.POl. II I I I ':l. I f='iEiLV~S 2..3 tt UM t... C::L_.klJ·.PUI!.M uR 4 " P.ii:\.A .o.L. S C.s.A 2:. -4 iRA'OIY.N'A...:" U'.~rvIPORTANT BONES. V I C L.

s '2. MINOR.~:DEtrOiD ~ €\U~'~~$ .g !$.Li.- . pac -:r:OR. .3 S"~~N'O H.MUSCLES ON TH'E FR()NT O'F' 'THE FIGU.J .S~ft~'T Q. ~ os MAG'N U S f.o.I~E I ·P'ECTORA. TfiitAP e:z I us . ~·tC e ~~.".~ MA.. ~ M U"eo OOR$.' ~.I.. L.YO i O' 60.5 .A.Ft_ -4 'L.

E. ~.P1 ~'Ae.0" Pi . ANiG I!JU SClf1l1J L . !1i.J._ RW.Al P.-f:\fA. G'ItC'VP '11!~.OF THE FIGLIRE e"REClOIt '.'C:~OU[p .Z i ua 61 .OM 8.ll'OR ~ '"t'Et}Ir.~ 'SPmNA.

r iJlRNE ID .£)(CRS..~. O~'T'M 18R.!I."'_.'5 s TRfc :JA 3a 2.IIL[IIS .HA 2.Ar --= ! 'QRA®o -'~-~P I .)F.M~Fl CAiFtPl U LNAR. 'UUi~ 8 il'1i COM Mtll'!"-II'~ s· 'n ~ OP 11'!I19 TH~IMB.1~. 'U "oli E.:! I'l' r: . 9 flE..p~.R. DR.5" D'Ie: W Hi eN ~A IN o :1 '15.' 'if.W'OR ~RlPl yJ.-. BU: ..4 R I'S 'LaNG iJ'::i\1 ~" "'~.. I'~' ~"t rFl!. KE..!J.~ ~ .l'S II I FLJEbl.S.PO.'~13i AiN.t l!~NG'lU~ 6.I:.ALIU 5.JL:TO 1[iIi -"._~J. C-AJRPiI ~IAL.8 "1 9 &~3 FlleJ:GRc~~rl UU'lARI~.. '1-4.Cotn~~u_'.OUTe...EMI'OII{Y . H II)J MI!. .l\W THESE ARMIS TO HELP FIX fHEIM liN.IA 1Ii.~' SUPIN'n..Y HlIIME.! UtH' . M.QR!iP. 1'1 4 INME~ 8~Hl ~A.~' . :B"T.lEISOIJ. ex..o'!ot~iil 111m. !I K~. YOUR. ~2 PALM . .l~ ~~o LoN Ci .!IUJ 5 :5 lll'L!i. liE.~.OR ..1g:. :!h"IOWS iON op.I'tIAR!S 10 PRoNAl!i'OR.

A:RM~ V. J I ..LES: !O'P: THE . .A.M'U'ISC.RIED VIEWS. I i .

J S B 'V·. '"IIFCU~.3 06. P.. VA'STU-' bAl 'Co RA i.GI'TQlUaM I· s: IBAN!b 'Of j.~M io So Le U' 15.0 Do u-c 'tQ ~ M:.S AN'f ~eu.Nl: I.~.. LI 0< T~..~ Eo U is .J ·0 WTE:U~· M el~' ~ ..Mlli ME:M.R.~. i. . WNGUi!j. 1!~hA.CJcIU I I.S!Ei.T !'7 PE..:.TIEiN ~oQ.51 .. o ~~ ~'M T c.$ .._ 1.31 2..~ 3' 11" PATE.~M E. TEN SOli.~·~. 9 QA.. I:)I. iUS 19 ..S' ~)(. Za.QS U·S .- !-lii~' r6 RI: CTU 5 Frl..:8~M i T'. '~A.lr~!~ e. 5 J~ 4. M.N Q'S U S. t\I.c..LQ'~.1 L1S a 21 BiC~PS ~:O'i!uS 12.:50~S .4 'feN I~'N OIF ~ipIj ~ II!.E LAl. V:A~W:S ~.t.e i A II.s: II·~.'I.6..MOI~ I:S .A.LLA R... G:NI IV.. 120 .A:$ TY.MUSC. II ~ IAL:j. .5 ~A.M:~M.. (J 'V·S 18 _G LUiFi~)'$ :M~ iM 'Ui. P IEc"n M P! !J~..1E..S CIf.I-~~A.L'ES OF THR LEG.i'I!i'~t ~. FRONT 'VIE\V ·~UA.' M~:~ f A!!.~U" e.

_ ~-~I ~'E.~1.E.fio!i....UC~i '~e -L--!I~~b" 1~''Il _"...T'OM'/' DV WA.'n.MOR. ..STAY WL'1l'H I'''' 1.~ 1 114~ 5 UBJ ~.l.N~'~.a ANATO M. T.'VV" TN E. 'THE. _.t"i.~.!1..V . NO (J'T r\ lEA. 5U e j E'iC'1'".W CU16. Ai Ii(N'O'W ~0 L. M 03'1: LlE.iI ' !SACK 'VI ~W WAY T~ E. IE. . A.G ~'N.Y·5m . 'OF.~ 1N TI·U~-5E.ME AUT~~'OA.6.TH Eo R.__ if..S ~ 1M E'.E E.!\I:'111 . "'"""P.'E. I~Hl E cu=' '---0 AC~ U'~ a'E T-O 8't C EO.S FR:OM ME. OOOtC'.W'~ K'MOW'~. . Q. ~ ':( CgV'ER. ~~ e.DIAaRAM~.. eoOKS ~rr '~l:. a.~ aET eo K. i. Hi :Ir IOUT'~ 5TA"f W' rn~-1'''' UN'if!.f~:1"1. 30· _ C'Of..A". . eRU)GMA!N.~.'I'I!.~i P-~~I I CA.OMM'E:. '~. .5'f!.A..b 'YOU FtlIliTH El: R ~ .I!i... cr IS MOR.'.S 'EX'CEU-U f .V '1"1-11 AN I~i aL'50 AVERY FI~NE BOOk.L'TEIt T"" '~'103.E..

1- 66 .


. ...'::.' ~ -=-"I' ~'... I. it up or bump iutn d /. a lack of conception of the solliid. ~. :e light plaue.. planes may 'be those that arc still receiving subdued..::'i"~-:~ l' r I .' .'" II. "!"'V -. the whole composition becomes 'light that comes directly behind.. ives lUS the most ~ .t."... and fiJm." and the third planes... The transition from outltn e and specific construction to the r. --:t.".est the solid is that theoretieany a dra '\ving reptesen ts the Iorm -[ a n fr011lJ .• . .. ' '....J.~-:..it from Oil!' is the next step between and shadow.!!>'''''~.~ m . hut we eannot sec..' 'Ii _ _.... ~~~~ .." . reflection.:~ I !)"'\'H'" J. the nintment..m'" _.'()! lree .:..-~ _~.TEN'' IN'.ght plan. _'...e' rendered ill ight and The £irst and brightest planes are caned the '~]ight planes.. li.:.A s the con tou 's and edges tu nil awa y from us and the light.!J_''_::I~'. . Hence (Ill planes are reiatu:e to th 68 .··C·'··"K' FO""""RM:""S"" P'.[anes are the "halftone planes..L -.I _ _ .• ~".. -~' i ght-to-dark' ] \\!hen white paper is used for the drawing. 111 ..gur.is called "simple Ii gh ti ng.. (2-) haUtoue.. ." _. The only-reason an outlme dra\ving' can Siugg.t plane" Set the is. . ll ..'G1'..• T ' '-" _ ••..-:'R... hut it does.::1 \J.::I! 1 ii .nts the grea tes t cal Hg:ht-that Is..nstincti vel TIl ree]5- og:nizc~ the solid hy the way ']ight fans upon it.cY. __ "'.'.J. ..'I ..• ~ ~'.L ... Often the studen t is una hIe to ]TI ale this jurn:p.....". oerf eel ren eli t ion of Iorrn.. ~ . . ~ .' . which are unable to reeei ve direct hgh ting because of their an gle:> are called "shadow plaues Within the shade. inc]llJe "halftone. ' [ ... .-I: -'" 1 l.«."··..ot' i' (. and hU.eial ]ight~ unless contro'illed.ii::::".1 _' ~ -tt:~J J"1: -:..'.:..e rendered without a clear grasp of this principle. .IJg to happen to fonn direction. " . wher 1 h-(')111 an v "' viewpoint.Y' to the wt rul d be the th e p~'lJ.."ND L .l:'> ". L i"" -'. but the priw::i.:. r' -~ 1. .: "" A·...-._I~. ..direction of light ~ and (4) rellected Hgh t This.. Daylight is. and.__ .. In shu dow. .''--.'N· 'ES"'" 'FOIR~.~... reflected ]ight~ these arecalled "planes of.'ESHO':. it wou ld he we 11to goir.'II'N"'I[G. Sunlight na turallv~ g..s... .-.~ . :". -6. l' '.. :..Q. the middle or closer part _'_""'._.11'1 B-·LO." 'wldch Before yon plunge into the intr: kl row wha t is igh t strikes it Q me the Iull light and the shad()'~r.r t J.. the artist. 111 a y ~ ..'... "Ii '.-" ==i... ... . Th e camera .~"w.:\_rUfi. Tn all cases other than flatfront hghHng! the fornl is rendered hy the (:01"- Jnay start with any plane as Lh.~:". )lle H 0\V can a solid form be and \veig:ht~lhat j t? \VC set 'into space? How do we conceive of it so that we know it has "bulk can pick.." ~ . ••.. 1 '. . -~ a hodgepodgo.. .'~ r... on] y wa y that :f orm can he fen dered wi thou t the en ances ::.1f purpose.." Form cannot ll. Since the ligllJ[ can h.ep:res{~..['"..~1. softer and more difhlsed. . . .. ..TIOt...:.' .. . - .. ."' p.. the plane uJdch is at right u'u.. The shadow is really there also.. The plaues are worked out in the simple or-del' of: (1) Hgilt. the plLulle across the breast top Mg~lt]ng s side..c:. the same plane l'ig '.~ • .3.1t is unq uestion abl Y the best fOoT O'l1..' . made to c the organiza ti~~ of the n H.i'"""'~~I l' . ~. Or the turning Y t away of the Iorrn fHHU the source Of Hgtht.' ~ .~'HTI.!.llie still holds" ..c :" ·--7" .LA"·.t.. is th e Hy in.point is..1:\.~U fro II 1 t he ri g 11 -angle ph-Ilne.I. inconsistent with natural light and highly confusing to the student..::~'H ~. (3) shadow=which is at the..-=-.. the darkest and where the phUlC: parallels the ~rheanswer is tlil at our eye j.. .... ':" . . As far as the artist is concerned) when there no light there is no Iorm.li.L" l' ::.... ~''''to.~":'. ~"o>:' are rha L the artis t Cal] icacies of Hgl1t shadow. ~ . 'i' • po'" '" .e.iI: ..~ " . rect interpretation of the direction of the planes . G. " ::1I0:-:"!l1~.~. -':"''..l' et there are in termedia te steps that ca n make tIThe renderi 11 g of the third dimension (thickness) fairly Sln11" .. In :Hghtl..per tIll( ~on~ti I y r. :.gles to the $OUref~of' light. Move {he light to the plane would heluulc a halftone ligbt below..L.edupon the 5:1111 principle.o shadow is quite a h urdle._ . . 1 .. .=L.-. The difficulty arises hom. v _~t.. he [lee the fornl cas ts no shadow visible to us.---._ --.. .M. ..•.lJ_ l)e a b1C "-~". .::_ -ss-« '"II' . When there are several sources of light.. ~.. they lend to darken until they begin to look' like h 11es" sharp at the cd ges and softeniug as they approach ""'>T-.e I nlher words! in front." The next p.. _"... .

'while'retainin. If we are to compose the mannikin of simplified blocks.nware . s. .n~ work: actually thinking of the mass.S seen by the eve of the observer. It is the mterpreta tion ana process. l'JJO'weV'cr "'Gnislt is not necessarily art. the Iorm frOID one point is Hke ~ooking at a gun 'barrel aimed directly at yuu. When it is too .phic and literal interpretation.en halftone and .im:pHfica Uon. vVe can take a.. most oft.t. On 11!agcs 78 and '79 'we place the siJrnpHBed fo:nn of the head under vario'Ulikind S of ligh tiu g. We go a step further with the mannikin on page 73 and attempt to' eliminate the stiffness of the jointed. parts. to give an inkling of wha t I 'mean.sd~l[~t . ing though m terms of masses.By drawing block forms 'we L'Ut out the extreme subtleties of 'halftone. to represent .SS and drRw' a circle perfectly. a delicate gr.ges70 and 11 I have tried.general '~l nM. ~ bulk. produced. a good deal better in the end than the.ethe big.. of ~n. weigbt of .iii ' thalt in dra win g or pain tlng. The more detailed and involved we . s:traight p1anes into .. 1ined . the simplification is. difficult to approach withou t a simplifica tion and massin g of these tones.\n .r would start wit}l a block of stone or mar ble. d'· Onume IS rare lv suffleient no wever .. something of th. tlo.smaller ones until the rounded effect 'has 'been. . and round f. Or ~we can start 'Mth a big hlock~as the sculpto.SS would be and whcl'. Pages 76 and are an in terpretation of the rounded figure Sa ttened in to planes that go a step f1Lu:fh.e~we With this approach" we take the art -store wooden mannikin and.cn. or massi mg. II the. e hew . Ian p~l.g all we can of the bigness of eonceptton. but we have left no trace of ourselves in w:h. it heeomes entirely factual The' camera can do that.er than our simplest block forms. It is the big form that does the ]0 h=not the little an d the exact.e it he~o:n.exact photogra.ge 'into its big forms and woddng for bulk rather than intrica te detail. since viewin g. and. remembering at aU times what each .it.adation of ]ignt and UOH ms.ie~and conviction. how shall we shape those hlocks'?' Your 'Way is as good as mine..g these terms we itakrS: solids (pag. that will create interest.\J1ter we haY'l"! masterer] the In y01. Actual measurement of' ~cn gHl cannot be made. the recedin g sections. You may q tion why \VIE do not at once proceed to the :6n~ i5hed. It is hke going around a circle \vith a. It is looking: at our mannikin a little differently.get~ the less y n 1 69 . use it as a basis for setting: up a figur'e (page 7. sections.9J. We must think of the contours and farm (!S.e individ nal procedure and structural '~llllality . win to arrlve at a massed Or bulk eMect. + ~I can soften it at its.eient...away the ex: ~ cess aodl'blocl: ]D .Hill u.~ ~ ::r.goes back into space'~ .nrrn.at we lui.es.rectiort of the Ola. larg. still think . 'with the Iorm in the slmpIest possible terms .B is conceived of as havin g mass and bulk.needed as well. COlillpa.s~la.e 74. serfes of short!' sb. It is somewhat like trying to paint a tree 'by pa&nting every leaf instead of massing the foHa. Bu t rounded surfaces produce such. The answer is .2) . smooth. . This is foreshorten~ "' in g.·. We then su1bd~vid. Strangely enou gh~.(Hvidual conception l' that ~sart and' -thal has value. ~ e Bn. shadow that it is. as shown on page 75.lSSthat we want. It is your sele etion of relevan t f~cb..er 'plalfil. or that part: of it which .3 shollhlld remain. Contin. Here the SurfR'C. \\l'e must depend chiefly upon line to render the form. The' effect is sculptural.' whole.'\veeping conception earlies with lilt vitality pUrpOs. This ts the real approach to' solidity" ~i".. Sh.ve se t down. ed.g5in relation [0 the.g:es to mold it into the more rounded fa'rIll.d.Hlpe them any way you.uu)utl~ed down and polished. RetainiYl. l. 111 a drawing. H Y01l include al] the lite'fal facts and aetuali ties!! the result wiU be l)'oring.uing a plane as a Shlg]C tone on a surface as long as we can rbef~f~ hlnll11g U in another direc- AND LIGI-ITING Iorcef ul and powerful is our HU3ssage.r su .ESIIORTEN'lNG Let us' 50 tart.FO'R. Actually the' fi~rU'e is very rounded.up one behind the other.) and HI') them.: ~rle:s. A s.

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I ..&..:. ' ..I. PHO'l'OG'~ p' ~~It C.. ' .0..J.)(~OM.N e is FOItJM$ .if. gUALITY~ t'lO TWO. WE . .AND' V1TA i "IEE Pl.E 'rn[~Ol.. ~'.S5 OF. \ t '~I"~lrON 01=1 l..o.~ .. I!.4 s W lit L.~ 15.~'"Sl. ''fOb ~~W''!f"\!.QF ROVt4 pE.AS L..E •N HE R.V~ S'QOA~D F-nO'tJ~ 'PURPQr.. M. .. MIA i N .UJL_~ ~IOR PJ!..~T I N. ST U"6-RM S . .L. . PA'st: .E.. .. .lf) L~K._ J!]o. C. t' " j' ~. '''''.E. H~ ROVNC>ED' PL~N ~. IN.co.J rIGS .LP ~ ToNe:. IN1PAR. 41ND .sUiC!iJ '~ti._. i'S "f'H1~ . iIJ'" J' ~ ...E. $l"!iil"OO'W..F~C~ f'"O~M....~. . H..fir ~._.A..l'~po.1i'Un·'S' W~U 'd .AI L Fa R.. ~' R~ M.' o.."'. "fO!NE ~b.p r 'llHe.a 0 'P'~IN i!.FrTDNi~ A.FI'T') 'iIl-I!!. ~:t!.1rL ~ H~ .SHA 'DOW..tS'A ce.. IrN...L. 'Dee M :3AT I ~ 'IFACr!lOR..Y \ ~.J4..I!. 51 ! 1 'W ~_"THEiN EOa~'S "It) So F-l"C: N 'C) =r \-t E:.i'U R. . A rhJ '1!OI!J ~I"!I M" . ~' rr SI"lOU~' BE AVO!....P'lANES PlAiMES A"2.. iPiitOUnV. ES "J 'pJ.A. ~ u . De.s 1... p.M!! SM:O OTH N ~:S S .::~ p .S ~ ~r~ INTO E.a'e '1'1"IAT IoN !i1·~r(.Ta ~. iii' ~ "T~ i~ THIIa.S .lj CT U R. .! S re' Ur'S!!:: 'l~E... 1"'!A.~JI'G EDN E S. A "" .. W'G'Irn.e . '1"H E ~e 'I[ HA W'E:. PLAN E.lHAR.. FOrt ReN rFiJ N'G 1d G .\Crtq AN e.. U$E' 01= PLA.')'. rnWARD l'Hi E.TTic. " ' ..Fl·0 II . \ • p . Eo S I' M Pl'p..A'Niil!'S.. ...~rf! S ~'R..1-1 EU..A" I:IigW • . ~.A ~oUNJ D ~ ~ rS. SQ U'AR/. ..rl Q "f~ ~ S'TIi.e" 'S ~ • N A ~ A.oS Mott . E:..1'(0 Fi'DU N IONE."' T"{.~v III"'!U~~ 'i H':I! sO'F5..I!.NM.. Po.$ ()f" ROON 00 0 ~M R..N E S.['U ~Q . ' t...' "fW [II!.. . ~ ~ II) IV" DUA L I'll 4~E. ltIOS-:-' AI!tI3: THO'I ~ W Q'~"'. '!::.0. ' '".~q.U G tilE Si m.AN I!!S· ~ A of: TH~ C. Q'..iI!I "~ a':io NO.o:::.''-'.e. AS ACTUA L ~~ rQI VE.' .S ...'::L..~arrr HA. --r 1M e.W" 'f. TKAL FtL....''I~M ~I"'TH ~ Ti!FIl!NK.'..1"4'0 AT THE SAM E.$ Itf:I ". 11I"lI' .N S.A. M E...'itTONE tN 'TI-!. AU~. ""PU E)('T ItE. "'" ".'V' ~ N '4.5 ~..~.. rpo R M 1 END. il"IA~. . " lu.'li"!.AINIE:S AJ.. t a L.~ FORM Do '. . :F..RTA! N 'GoO~r A...' OF' !!...N. PUJU!.l!~"""~~ I'PI.M ~:s A SA..i:l.. ~.

HADQW~. OR . COPY 'j YOU DRAW MO D EL nlE PLAN E.fTONE . AT A·LL ·TIME.E'-nia ~U~.AM'D StlA.'N ~.~ ts NO S'E'l OP'P'.PLANES THE. w.'N OV. ARJE QIv.~~HO CONFU.D" EVEN W~E.ACE FOIM C K.~1i5.s'~ON ~'~ONIES'i . FROMI .N'aW'~THOUT A OR.5 UCH AS e.eo~"'(Ol.Q't:.III G HT) M.-eN Dj~NG AT liME WA ST'. . Y1~E. RE'M'EMI8: Wl\~N E.A\r\1 .WO'Rl< FoR THE.L THI:&' .sIMPL'I.DOW' WtHeN 'waKK'~Na Wt~T'H IH&.an. ! ""'HORK~.'IURIa. F'~ E. FOR.A.ODE.AINQi S WU1-l M..CAIJ 'SE..AtfTONE AND 5~ADO'W '.. "~I~~Q"rr.§.E1"'.tM v\NLl F\T TH~ PU:..s14c.A.. U(iiHJ~ H~L.'R.PLAN e s ~A'L.MOVEMiNT Of TH~ .N.$. E DR.EiR'POWE.NP S. WH~..~ LI'VE: .OfHERW ~SE YOU' MAY HAVE.S~ !5U'''Ic.AIN ~NtES OF'.O\'e Me!NT .L OR. .A.R5. M.'iS.F·roNE.." TH!E Pt.eN M:ArN~Y "'rC> SHOW HOW TJ-IE' FORMS YOU HAV - CO~y ~YOU STi'kt-..~ MOb'c..

D<S UA Ll.~ICt!:... 'U QIM'l ~.'U:P'~. ~Ulill iPlJltM. ~D'm"~I~1'Ift:'i' :1"11!i~IT) ~lfit~.~ FL~ 1i 1..Cny. flIIi. ""_ ~!OI!Ii'III'II!Cl I«JW' ~CIE :!!I. .!...'".l !~Y.t.~N 18iOiIiH .10 Mr1' Nilidi"".CU'I.AU.$.lii\:i I-1i1i' liQu~... .l."I1" MO.~:!i.a:lS:SCR..'iIi'''' i . '!i.... "'~'\le. "'E\iil!R.(~"IDtIl~C. il. I . 7.~iQ1U6LL"f" II!UMIiN~'1~.

Th~ o... .from light through halttone to shadow .g~ correspond~ng. could not ha ve been placed in 'the i. 'if the value is ~"'off~:" lorm.:f...:. on a si:mp~i= S..iling in eq ual li. Fi..1 ~tA:'r E:1r='F~'TS.. '- - 'lO. is a front lightin. under it. never U1L1. 12.tIDection (refraction). the mass 'Of ~ha.~manner.of light 0]1.e.i~ 9:'tI fl ~.V~ 'D~RIe. OCC1ll'S beea use the ruight 'was raised. the artist loves them.1i. True mo~ling of f01!'In cannot he' approached any other 'way.. to the b'ea tmen t of' a Ha:fand unshaded outline dr.s:ide reflects some of the Hg'bt in a lumiJlLOl.g t' -1 ".tNGE' '" ~ UIi:! 'HTED . The Iorm has bCicn rounded to give you the gnu:lattion . possible. Since the photoig..g:.migh~:be the use of a. It ._.J. . :H ]8 better to make your OWn photographs" o~ at least supervise t~e lighting o~· ~~ - .~e[[e i rne l~:_" I·"".. An .g the "ac. e. The d~\z:zlrung light upon._ . . the object.gb:t as opposed he-' eome eom petitive wi:th.~. .iIi.ay be ohtained lly t p. . water is another exrunp le of refractton. ' .CT 1..~K SUG~II-:..dentical spot.LIGHTING Here ·t:he camera Iends us a..T~ve.'~. v L ...light~ and the to.shadows.ald. the . means lig:bt~n.l"t. however. the areas in.. II:~d this been. dler. Camera and light.bt~ll.Un-l1t ~ ~ areas within the shadow. ~.. .. source.PYor he :photogr. 4. mirror..)'N..~ny photograp'hoic co.'ii'!iQO · ~'T"F. One exception. In ilia ~v~ng. of course.. . !1A.'\vru1ch. is inoortl~e reel.. ./ e-.g'. reflected-.:"(' 'FRO'M ~1rEc. t lI·~·ght·r '. To P W ~'T 'He.. That. t=o-'~ E'U:. When there is a single source .efl.~¥~e. n .ap'lDJer ha tes T . maintained.'~ 79 .. ~I<Y ": 'I\. 1.. tuar~ Hght as it faUs. .l:.ow~d..--.nly sh ado w~ under the ehm.nothing withm . (Number 8). . however:..nER7'f O~Q. dupliea tion of the light source ra ther than re. "'" LoG ~rrGRoI. !I.g.~ shadow area should ever be as Hg~lt as '~hat within a l~g~t atfNl~ because r... since to chan. renders lIL -1rAlO"'t 1·'S the 1!I!. '" u~fR:. Simple :)j.'I~ fonlil in its actual contours and. ~~~rr'~~ 1 -..ge the: normal 'Or true value of the plane . would. a litde b) allow the camera to be placed..~dl-tla 01 formless ]_ig'h.e would have been no shadow.tlll~gm.]~.cYTOP.ected ~ight is never so suong: as its.C7T 'LO'1Ni <.SOUWCC' and the reflected li ght of that j. bulk. Number 1.ed Iorm.ghiring from every directio'l1i .... i:::OOIli" 1f'O. be a..a·wing. helping hand by ShOMn..o change and.from a sing:le: .l~': nerfII. Of: NO.dow :rns.Wty of the mMS of U. source U·LLI... .rapher may not have reasoned this 'Out. The . upset t die form.R.O:5'f~ • Ol~::::: ~~ iN &.. 'P.sh.!I!!I.

DO NOT ~C.L ~1"LFroN\I!.L" 80 .'.S..~iIiON'r=3\i. CAST S'M.R'E il'MW ~'KADCW~'" ~~~T .'V..QDEl :~RO'M 13. L' 0'" 'lE R THt~ M P S'~A"QW3..PLELIGHTIN'G' ON THE FIG.ot-rr.. 1.10H r.. HA. ~bvE~ IMO DE. PON".. il<E. . ~KE!tJ:~ MAkE: FO'~ SHADOWS' Tao M. TA~N.1S AL.I~ADOW' 10 THe l.K .I S~M.~CiOWS nJtE.

.the Rj.~ ]-t·.. however dlfi't the range 'of Ugb. } " •.IPS E iI a east shadow "to :pick up SOID.. ~i~Dr I HIGH LlOH'T ~.Q HT :' 'at tA'S'T ~~IT body! its si1houette falls.. 1:.t ga. Tlus I.. ' ./ t.J.nci.. NOON .. YOU.W i. ~.r l:l:j I.ah~e to noon.ght (C). .l.'iI ~ ~ oN (D) 'r 1"1 When Ug. The simplest 'way to expb~illthe fundamental plr. b glven.o t. .ogethe~. I the.~~ .I'D. l'ang~... [. ban wuh light £Qc used upon it .i..gll hght in ... 'Th. s: /: j .p'lgmellt.• k.1el'e:&cted Iight.f.jus t as the sun lig'hts the ear th" The area on the balm closest to the ~ight is the hi"gh IDi.s ~£' you use t'hem ~nb~nigent]y~ Be . . Ie" nowever.. 8 ~~~~~--~~~'8t There are many dlings you can learn from p'hoto.. 'If there and is. i .1.. '.po~s "b'~ iii .S. I.. ' :.~he adjac0'!1t Ugh t t th -arkest ' d... by a .AI :lnU$11!.an~ organization of the... p'Jane.e d. cannot pOfssibly put down tt~c fun. S'~DOW ~E 'C. " ie S 11 .e: . aura \lVillS OOJL'l'€'.ll.e m0011~9 reflector of the sun' s light" shadow' I.you. than in ... ."" 81 . !Ii. If we move on 'the s uriu._.~:::: ..t to dar k is much grea ter in the eye.0 'f' the shad'D"~S~ ~sca llC_-...ple of rendedng IDight :i\'~'ldj$hodo'w is: to 't'biml of a.T .eroopb~d.VES. .tbe halftOl1C'.-4~r---~.~O.~ (.ni.gh~ and th~n t...e artist should be itble to look ... l Treatmen to!:f ug-h.' .se four £undam~nt~l areas. SHADOW ~ ~N U:lHT ~ I -l"I •• "Piil! ..~~-~~~. '". .-.ght.il1Y 'tIle direction.'Ii--~' .~ 011 to .o last Ught (.. rhe shadow:" or the f~flected ligh. up-o:n.ght (A) CO'I11-" pat.p-. C'..at any given place on ms $Ubfact and deter-mine to which.die. C~.. .. . I v • ~ .t. Otherwise a drawing win not hold t.gr~pTh._~ cA.J C~'iifi'!i. ~ea it belongs ~ . '. m or:e]". '. J have to ~''i!"_ _"_. .' 0._ '.'''' t sh . i '.... . .TRUE MOD:ELING O'F ROUNDE:D FO:RM.~Il~"flhj'_ .th.. .ade into the halltontC area ( B ) ~ 'whicn Illay 'be eompared to t\Yili.. HA L P: TO N 'E TW i L~.'ce Q\f 1 ~. Correet values ..L I.ai 11>"11' f'.. .Slon110 less than structural form. '1::..f... notbing to :r.O'W'.A .-k .' tam u:ru.or -'cas ' . comes up~ it will r.~s~nt.'. we nud tha t ~he lig~t b"il1S imperceptlbl y toO . member. ~au .ht . . _.eHect ~ight in to i dl@' 'L.B + ).ct the: ligbt~ there is true darkness: however. sphere a \V~y t'~~(]:ln 'hi.d b II!. .~~I.

r- en dra '~/ing. .th~ ha ftocncs ac Id .!·~·. '~. of " .~ .: aeon ." It is less compllcat d than it looks.. the attta. 'id iu d. and...:Il(- .cm.: _ ".t' 'Ie l.II'ICa ol.0'£ the 'mielthod.'persp'e ctiv'e ito itbe 6~rlie ~Iov~ment and a.-a ooa..(.ln ntnl sktH-"nteHige:nt measurement.~E·'IO'OS 10.a:lf}':" ' 0 I '('(lll1·oh·orating th~ a. rny own method for d a ". Because .d bori20.11Uda.. of n~p(Jnduel. .]f'~cy .ol]o.IG' 'R':" E' . 8eaJi'uUfuID l g1''a.<:I'OSS th '[O["m1Th. '1 e- T to M deb.o'N·. of . 'E 'L_' " F -1'· ..E}l" oolll~dl.Itis boek.r.. Rnger.dle nf a sol. .." a pniut Ialls outside tlle· . ot 'be used] 'fOIi 'tn.'S ·f.ked. sa y 11. iOb- serve.'i:.p. 1001 rot ~hc :. pro'porUo(£J$.'!"\~O'l"k. 'al:~l.~. sh~d.rily. . {Ou l)ng!f.p in frnnt of you.\v that C' be " .. ·~".: '~i I can -~c :. Thl's i~. ..r~ll.u~.Val. tinuatiou of the ]i 1il e to sec w hCl'lC it emerges. mere ~1 ~ O'V ~ pic..dleml:e Ito draw Irom 'llihC l~.clcl fv. ms of Jlh·ht..ililto draw a husky young man.h~elydarkened ) ] the po~nt vonr pen . out with a kneaded eraser. arms npHhed.l fr~1ft1fH..u y de~D'e.t!hlcst under the left .io:it~.orm have to d raw somethiu 0' set l. You r ha ve set }~()~ ' ligTh s ource ·~(J\. 'Ii. "'!ben d.' e S:Ul00 tnJ p\~pC"fS if i1he si.n'llay be produ .owever. 'wi~h a rag tU d. smeoth pa.wiugs :~n." manmkm and sUJ:l.lsh~d 'by si. have: absorbed aU ·tll. he r Jlbans hip.. -o:rd. OIF. na r {)11J y be TU bLed. and shadow. hes " 31 e: r r.vb g pages 86 and 87! look Over l:-1' wh en 'VOU a figure.ing: \ :·lfl cheek 'v Ith the mode L 'r:~lispr incwpl' ~ abo i'llnstr alec on 'page 89 apl'i.rn" 8JJ.: 1j}1. . Be 0 'Ou Im.:u:~'hjJeVied.1pJUlcd bwlding oM'tl.ccu.!]r 'C~~":aVhlg. 'tal dlc grain. . '100.and l'~. for have included \d.eof accuracy in freehand drawing.e ~1 ts gh The f undamentals of 1ight and shadow The true modchng of . off'~'om paps_: lU ' :dd..T~~e d ~laHtnn. stump of paper.g with the.~.cln.e :p. .esand d. the unlv 'lllan 1 ku{).figu~.ed ito dfle whole mass 0.t1edJ. I .ctffiOilil T'~H.ys.iI of IIOfi f l'e 00 litOUFS ~~tld the side .l'~ :Gg'-!w~Y Hl 'b ~pl 110 fi'il1d it.ghUJ.. . It is castes l to slght in vertlcal ~mll. ou y are dJlfn\~ijfil'[blgwuh a p~n~ s11alcl!O~~'S and ha.. ·l~AW-·-G THE LlV .arm of the .vICn.t ls ~()ru. '\.dn".greatf'-St Hg~.1 iiI] d (lie s'ha..gu:n~... loom The anatnmie eonstmetien The plal es by which we build ]~ght ~]ldl shadow Foreshorten il1g' ture of tn. ..3. and the angles estah].~ '~:. SUppOSi6 yuu l.ehele~·.0t.<.. .!e d.on the . I \ .i.!..g :rno" el b sure you. my ~h oulder as I procee d wit 11. :£or tihe 11. PRIOCE'D...·re . m.. are nnt ~~t <lowu. find. ..~TlI1d provid '!'S a.1Ules. Y( HI must possess still another 1. 10:\1\1 look for the t hole ms ss of 1 ght H5 i O[~[los.orlil want to interpret you in b .a.'l~) lie lin! . shad O\1. or a.~f~:(J. C .~ 1 alftone. It is a plan of finding ]{!V(~]points and p]urnh poiHt~ .TMa't:iOrlS o:f ULC-S.0'£ (I:ruB lead.. ~'~O' ar d lsens sed.s any s ubj .83 :\'11 I. tt...I But a brusb or pencH adap'_: i'bell-to mass.a:\i"!~ ~..~ Vt~J'J.n t.JflfCCtlv placed one l)oi-)'[:p 11roL>eedl..the .ell:\.lcti.!C'ss of .[uts d i. '~\!iU . First.·illg:.c~d:ra. ..to others and :Eiually 1. 'The whole Rgu.ock iu these 1ft~a. 'peudBd upon ito Qff@. "~.:." such as a .vim.rectly ~lC1'O'S or l under each other are 'quI('kl.lJd to the tiL gh t~ U it: so that there '\viU b a var'k~d play of l[:ghl .suwJ measureI Ij.t.~ lines so that importan t .. th.'.ses.'g{~nt b'eca.ud.H~·g.~OIUf d'[I'~ - sug'f'1j' t'ina:t ~ J'-".r. allgl~s of :poiul(S: ".usc ynur ann ]S ]1.d in eH:i1Uer l()encd nr ehareoal by nibbrun.ad~s.j- d llplfc~~.elnar ~.fi..PO. and darks tU"C :poss\jjh~e]l ~.' :n of dille h:itJUhllne a.).1 tc 11. Sketch h l contours of the .iVhcll ".'c.'t lead pel ~s uS'E . On page 88 sec a._.Ena.nd. . Or ment lines that.c~ to bellfmc ) ou . Gilll d..only by oofilb:'].dcaTIli1re(l 6gure LT~e genc:w:a.plan of approach that I cHH the "visual survey.

E..8 H"l~TONa !5"+ D K.DoW.A B~LQ'NGS..EAS AND.. IS. o RI!!.'~" . Iti.J .S i - WHeN OiRAW\iNG Ff{'OM At.LJs.L~. THE: C 5KA..DOv\' l\"lASSE." "".. O!~ '~H'.C~'Da TO WHAT C.FTON~ SHAD'QW.FLECT sueF~'CE AR.GROUPING SH.CT "~T C~~ '". .tilT . ft. A"D" 0'"V'" ? u .E.Q"LF'lO. IT LI'GHT".:5HAOOW MASSEJ"~ S. '~Al..lO[)V AU-.A.S'S eACH' .!E'F:'L.. P!HOTOS"DRAW nu! CONTOURS' OF' rn e Ie: 'HALFTONE .1t'\I UFE.. . DE. OR.AR. If(..ANID' .

... _... ~ /.~ A SHARP. TI ME:5. ~":¥ '"$-" . mNT'5:.'.' -: . i / / ./ . ".. _ ~"_- . _e» .IE 'TH. '_ ... VAkU es.A~ MO~."M.c.Q FI N. .:.HIE VA. " . " . PENiC. '" . ~'.P. h . STA.(Ot!... ('~ .QR- Tt1 Eo Er. ." ... .· ..: i: " t I 1t .-=.(.o>N 'ONLY. LAST T.:-.. 'f ' • . IE' .:50M I=.L Y OR..AN D TH.. 01= 'J:.I<~'D' ~~ . POU~T ~fe...'Ll) ES WOR..//i.ES OR.E. .R.Ai'V.3'T I N 'G • TaU ~:S ~ .'_< ..~. ..\lU N.TED . --. ~. A SUQ. " .o ..$t5 . : U S.A_ OR.~ I' v. 'L S ~ eo...iL P~W'l'NG TON.. IT !~3 F.T'HE MAIN VAL'U'ES..:~. W"H ~N ..-rnR..WH4Ci n- MAY BE STaPP E D' '~'E::FO'RiE 5 IDE. .~~ •. ~.

. ~~~ ~~ f:) " •. •• . ._" I . Y' S 1.M ~'N"T OF V'A'LUES .I I .'~.TliE FAST ST"ATE."L. H l H..~ -r/t' \ '.. . 'MA eow....~~... .. e 'E S s 'EN"T'I AIL I'M !fA. / '5.s. Soil: M ~ i.AT e D' A If.S:'" S 'K"E'T 'C.'. .G ....!.I"" I .



just ahove the right kneeca p (a hou t ~.... down. NO''Ii'f... 'EJl.' this point on the model. 2. ~~ ...a perpendicular through these points as the m ]...r~. from it .. her hair. .ddle line of subject.~ .ure" 7. N OW'~ holding pencil at 30100.e~ pOi~lts underneath. IPOIINT... ulum h line.w . ·e' -'. Take the greatest width of the pose. For the angles ~ sigh.·.&1G w1L ~ e.... _...·.L '10. and establish a.: important other. Your two lines wiThl cross at this point..directly underneath. straight across." ILne from the head! sight straight up and down. Lay Ii .:.~t and. etc ) . The known point Is the nose.Y'.....t strai g'id on tb:rOLl gh.~::-. w '·]·lh· r'~" "_'_. point on the lfne where it faHs under a known poin t.. It is the 'middle point of your S1Th bject... 3.j' 'rR 1... I~ ~i~~.. From the middle poin t get il uarter points (up and .SUR& &Y 'HQ4.. ~~~-------- .] 8" If you constantly check points opposi t. all ~L_ a.__ -. .Now locate the middlle point erosswa ys on your mode]. =I~ I. Loea leethe middle point of line (l!f)-.. pOints that fall beneath one anJ.'$ 1.tlbjecf s 'righ t heel 'was. the knee under the nipple]. 4.... Start by blocking in 'head and torso and. This locates dgla t nipple. Establish two points. 'n:l . (In my drawing the s. all the 'way up and down the jif]_g. at the forehead.. t Dra. ~~----~~---~------~=~.I down).'t In fDly drawing i~ come ..:' S leng~h! find the 'middle point on the suh] eel before you..ate . COInpare it to the heigh.AR. nipples. on your pa:per as the desired he..I. \..~.~ I W~~~~~ the width equ~']lyon e3Lch.~gll of pose (~i and bottom). . and.Rentember ~:~~:::out inan '. ... and[ where th e angles emerge...ctL.. after ha ving es ta bli~hed he:igh t~ wid th and division pO-In ts:-:yOUl~ dra win g w.t[ fill" \.). (See' line of che. 6.. side 'Of your middle ~~~~~~~~~ point up and....~~~~ .J~ ~ '~' ~ ~ ____..~ 5' I. 1Pa!N~S IPl!UMe.HI be accurate.M:S ~GrH • • i... .it ]sI 1 ".EVEl. .~ < . I'NG peHelL. and you will :kl)jO'W . .' NJ..•.W:4Y~ AT .. ~ -:..



~ 'j j






__ ~-.-~.::;>..._,





1\ \

( ~'i





R.EM.~M13ER. -nu S P~.N (i I,¥~S T1HE,A<TUA'L,. UvE PRO·PQR.TI ,ON:5 ~ M.A."@; A'!"4i"t AD.J.u.s" r... n~~"NT,.5YOtJ' '\IV I'Sf' M: "00 GO ALONQ. U,AJ"...... AD 0 A '- n'TL~ I H k;RN(i1'H,. Y


T'HO RlI:O~T ~,GijE,'~


3O,t-'\'1:i, ~F ~



'MAIiIIt't(;. ~



A t>J;U,~'P...lT

~N, HriCl-ie50 ANit5"'CU'P "'I'U(ftf'r~cFl- TI:I-I:5 CAW ee. • (i ~'\tE.'!5, PROPORTI O'N,.o.;'T~'Wllt)"'Ir."W TO ,"",~.a~'T •.




Mneb. of the essential equi pnlent for professio: Ia]
6 gure dravri:ng is .described in the ·pre'ceding chapters, You have now learned a ..means of , expression," rnust learn
.." ., 'I


women? Is there a drama tic \\lay of expressing

the ~uhjccit'?

wn~. . head a

or whole



serve to emphasize

hut your·

u.. sc

of th~t knowledge is you individually,

~:he idea? Should several figlu'es make UI.P tile ,coInpos]tion? Will a, settin g

just beginning.

this point onward

and Ioeale- help or can the message be conveyed
better withou t these? Where and how win 1t be

to express


showin g your particular 'Taste in the selection of
models, choice of ,pose, dra m a tic sense aliir] 1nterpreta tion, characterization

r,ep,rod.ueed-ne-wspa pel"~magazin


poster? Yo III


in h)



and technical

medium is to be used" A billboard,

for example, and fh.e
T1:1 ust

renderlng, Routine lno\v~edge and fact 'thus become the basis ;for what is: often referred to as inspiration,
ow spiritual quality, subjects that are little d.iiscussed In art textbooks, The' truth is that there

will require a. sim pIe,. Hat background use of largt~, he~l;.,ds:tl since the message
taken in at a


gh·~ncc. Newspaper


should ~ pta nned for rep rod uction ie paper+i.e. line or s.irnple treatment

?ill cheap

are no hard-and- fast Ttl los. The best advice is to watch for tile individual spark and fan it into
flame whe» you flud it. For lny :part;- I have fou nd

subtlety :in. the halftone. For the magazine,
where the reader has more time, needed.

you ma Y use

the tJomplet€ figure and even backgrcund,

that most students possess initiative, are o:pen to
suggcsUon.~ and are thorough] y c:gu,pahle of bein g

l-h~tendency ~however" is to simplily

and. to strip dra wings of all that is not of ma jor importance, 'Vith the second step you advance to the -practi c-al in terpreta tion of the :[dea. 1-:'] minate what i

ably. I believe filat when the quaH.ti~s, ueeessary.Ior acceptable drawing are pointed! out you Ina y he he lped
inspired. to expness -themsclvcs

tremendously to bridge the gap between amateur and professional dra win g",
broad approaches are needed. First :is the conception, or ';'What have y()'u to say?"


to he impractical, For 'instance, do approach a billboard subiect with several

complete :Il,gures", for
ri ght]y chouse large





carry f rom ~ distance, G:n~nHng, then" that you

Second is the in terpretation ~or ,,,: How can yt)U say it?''" Both call for fee]ing and individual ex,pression, Both call for ini tin tive, know led.ge and

heads ~·wl1 atare the types

you want? \Vhat are the expressions? \Vhat are the poses? 'Can, you do. bett.ell if you get out your
camera and. nai] down an express [on, that you know eannot hc:~ held ~)ythe hour'? -Can

mvenrlveness ..

Let us take the' Hr.st l:jtep. Before you pick up your peIDLC]t or take a photogr.aph), or hire a model, you must understand your problem and Jits purpose ,. You. must search for an idea and
interpret it. if the job at hand I'~{Illil1'es R dFa w-




in g designed to sell something, ask yourself the

M other over here and. have room feu the letter.Engalso? Would she he better over there? What will you choose for a hackb,trDund'? Wl~Rt will he the style and color of her dress·? Yon begin, at this p oint? to experimen t wi til. til un1hnaiJ. impressions on.

following: To whom must this drawing appeal?
Shall it he directed toward a selected or gen.er al class of buyer? .. \re the huyers going fro 'be men -

tissue pad


til you can say,

"'That's it," and then, \¥ifh all the vigor that iJ; in. you~ proceed to J)r~ve~that

tha (s, it .l"


'·~ J amateur and the professional is that the la tter 00]1Fageo~ls. the girl can put her But hands 'On her hips. on the model ~o express 'best what you 'have in mind.g be8itJi~just .director who can.J • to advantage. balance. you are bJing for a definite "straightfrom-the=tih.ng even in the standing pose. It is surprising.tand·it~fig~tTe do .gamut of [expression is there for yOU to choose from. One that is llinb~l".gure_<.'fld'_ Ing" There Me so ]"nany na tural gestures possihle. a br~gllildy ligh ted Sri bjeet. Give importance to a!pOJft]On To relieve the static feelmg. Even though the.. Drop one knee.a t to do 'with the hands'of his.'0]1tinually ..ers" unless..f .f'unnies. Von. to observe ho~~{ luany wa ys there are iI~ which t-o stand uP: Plan the s1tanding H. This attitnde rem inds one too much of theold photographs.I tty to get them to act out: situa Huns.8h Of emotion.1y strikes out In ills own way. The whole.~re y getting the b impudence. piU[ng of on e persO!I:l8LH ty ag~inst another. space. Dra W' a lot of litUe '·'. Try to. art director rnay go so Iar as to lav out the zenera idea. u Sometim es .t or lie dOVJ111. The principal differ.par ts of a figure can bc' most tn shadow head.e... A you (:. .cept keep them -glued to th. puU out Thier vanity case.RIET'~:{ IN' Tl-IE S.sta.gi-' T native artist.ti.s. do your job.beyond the natural or' logi cat which is almost as bad.a~ ble 01 movement. fi.'ngel' h.= cant pa. Another IYU. does not know wh. Twist the hody) drop one e hip. s i.M(l.ould.s.piS:uck:t smoke a cigarette.eli. tip and turn the head or i"lUOW the' &g~lreto lean upon or be supported hy something. £ix.~S possible.of geU~nghis likeness.a. a .r . Endless variety i1:1 pus ing is.81 tense momen t demanding rigidity in the figure do you.n. IIar.~ti . possible. put the \\leight on one leg.f go..k:c e:oer!1' 1 g. be original.er. put one hand Up' £0 the face~ do anything that keeps your dnnving froID:1l looking.~ but there are a thousand ways of' Join g these things.'C:'11. of course. cap.. I usually read ~dgni6.'O:nce. Sometimes a silhouette may 'be stronge~' and more eompelling than.VA. There .ul" can be most expressive. S_g:un. get the elboW'S a t diff(~e]l t levels.§:!kf'efuHy ~ remember.he.\ n's work was done for his OVilTI PU11Jose and for anether problerrl:l. too.gain" there is no piec(7! uK copy that you can lay down in front of you which 'Will comple tely answer yOUT needs. When I illus tra te a story.e.e. was held 'in a elamp duI"ing the :process . [ob for you. while the Fonner gropes for a wa y 'Of expressing him- self.~let them. turn 'the torso.. [Only when you portray . kneel OJ[' en HJ.]asp the hands. or a.~ 'th.. arrest the la tent 'lTIOVenJJe1l1 t.rel'Jeat. and .ess an .. mike a wooden dummy.rts of [the menuscript to the models .f.1t pon U.."! Ionn a few ha hits that . apply U. just as nrighlal in c. f.or o:f u.er aUitude'~'" to sugg.sJng' geshlr. in which G:randpa"s sb-ong(~5t and most concen trated Hgl1.]5. With the standing figure ev'erything is relaxation.e. and a distrilruHon of weight An v sort of gesture is a r. that it shoumd nut be hard to . he still is ask]ug for your interpretation. . example.cs. to combine with the telling ofa story" to expr. find. A t: the same time I by ro tl~inl. $. If you show ~egs.t defiance. Experiment with the Hghtin.ad\rly good rule 'is never to have face and eyes Iooklng straigh t ahead and set S(toat-ely on the should. £01" until you.. he unilna. There is no art.suggest that the standing: figuJre is.ide.eolf)h~ stand up. Do anything ex.]ug that although stan ding still is a static pose~ you can . . of how I would act under the circumstances 'f n the story.~' from 'hands han. A l.ging motionless at the sides.TA " DIN G POSE There is no book 'in the \~1\Q1rld that will do.arruJt:hin. A. 1 of the fig~). or both.g.n placement. . as natura. be ill't[er[e. the danger of overacting. Sec that either hes:d Or shoulders are turned or Upped. make. H 3]Se' a :heel.~S being static. her hair.. floor side hy side . c.en ce between the ~ I~ ~ self-conscious gkl has the feeHng that she never knows wha tr to do with her ba]]d~".ads:. each thhlg you do.ption and exeeution as you possihly can.

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" When you have made a series of roughs~ show the two you ]ike best to the art rurectOlF~ who takes them to his client. '101 . Blank O.~rt director says to you.. P er IF" '..y use pencil.H page up and down in the Sa tevepost. Raise the crotch to the middle of the 6gun~..nl board and should be .e up 8.e o. ph. th ]n t .iowm g. ..g Company) sugges:ting QUI next ad. Make the 'whole dra wing as ap_. Sinc-e your dra wing will be reproduced by halftone engr~.g:ht and. pe.ppHed ]a ter + 'U se a standin g pose.You ma. charcoal.piece ha thi ng suit.'s one of yOUT' pencil sketches. possible.strat:h.e mo d•. litho . Please dra w them actual size for. shadow on the fi.o~o. . The drawing should be made on Uristol.. and ink) brushy or drybrush.-rO'lLlnd ~ and the ad is to occm:py a lla. Pencil will do. and the art director says "Get your mndel and 5 can lull if you prefer . K. You.ving).A TYPICAL PROBLE.]I h the Blank :KnitUn. You also ha ve the choice of pen.~ e tng tut N dtJ"ector·.:· "Please roug'h out some ]itde figures for pose only ~ an. The page size is nine-and -three-eighths by twelve-an done~elghth .~" l\1 r. me SOUle use for the hands. against a white haJckg.. an advertis= take some snaps.g!'a Make her 'e(gh t heads tall. I"s eyes". '~Mr.ches.. . The chanoes are you will have to ideulize he]' figure w hC]ll you make your dr~). H ave her hair ). the n~aga:zine..1Lt OU~.peJ. Indica te a one.Mng from this ph. Use li.gure. Trtm the hips and thighs if nec'€z:lsary.rang. Never roll a drawing that is to be repro du ced. OF wash.f' values with whi-ch to work . Details of the bathing suit will be stl.aling as. i '}l lap.."JJ~n7 Wo U£pencil. The Ggure will he C1." show' to to _ I The next step is b) photog:ra ph a friend in a hathi ng suit. or Hl1l1.~.Elank Hl:cs these.M A typical problel1l w{wked old with. She might he smilingover hershoulder at you.kept Hat. You are to have the left 'half of te pag.I·d down.in. Afterward the art direetor tells you. you have a fuU .. 'Our d icnt wants outdoor sunlit lighting and cautions us against g'ttting a squint .

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: rz . a building cunapsi]lg~ are all examples of suspended action.01'1 of action and make Htde sketches .d .. I have tried -to show this sweep or the line completed. There 8l1'e in stances.et up· and. [extended. If you can study the action in .u1:um of dly inches away. Another exam l)le is: that .at this point At times wtth ~ hit of blur. be best expressed if you use the: s tart or finish of the s "veep. and lie would appear only [00 be (l. brn. for instance. au a [clock appears to be rn oving when it is. t action cit her as he is wound up. punches . THE FIC·URE. l' .£fet..oosij. n~.1" as. .wn u. Fix in your mind the w.g would have no action pictorially.alfChdly]. so rn uch the better.Perha ps Mcan best describe s \veep .I..resses movement best at the start or Ilnish of the swing. of "sweep.-\ hammer raised.a. some :n an dust.rOIO your fa ce hcreas yen] tnight not withdraw at all from a Hs~ two ! \\-" that the Ibn bs have jus t followed. a diver in mid-air. n1011t .rasn. l'he prize 6gh ter has learned r!lake goo. has faIleI over and sp~lled its eonten ts. Irom a nail5~rlgg~sts a harder blow ~'Hujmore movement than. The cartoonist can add terrificall y to th e sense of motion 'hy dr.of a lua.~ .!oj ""'S mac kl'"" '''' . Another to means oJ sllus tra:tin. b t you may not .~ U1' jus t as he.dinstinctively duck £fO'Ul a fist dra wn ~ way baek f. ~ .oving hand Or foot..A fence. 1C. at ei ther extreme of its swing.p under him or f •. The cartoonist can . the most movement. ''''5' 'VIS h. ~.Uy the action can.hole swee..h. (..8>(1]. lIL'" I! ". c .front of a rrarge J~ irror. go']fcr exp..l'Vea suggestion. .. if it were For psyeholo observer ShOW]l close to the nail. .ybe disappomting unless you keep these facts in mind.g faster.a wing 'his sweep wi th 'Jines hack of a m. You ·~NOU]..~~ts go of the ball..•<zowie. This is called "suspel ided action.l:n.y studio. gic:r-J effect in drawing.p you can help the . The only way to get s\veep in the line is to have your fij!(Pd~1 go rh. ~~ horse in..d use of this psychology m his short. .g action is to show a glas~ that its result or e.. however ~when the middle of the action ]$ best.l.ng: tha t the movement which immedia tel y precedes the pose is still felt On the foUowing pages. 41:1.1JJ llu ~~H~ f allen dUWH after a blow.dch'essing the ball in his ordinary stance. There should he a mirror in ever.VI. the act of clearing a .rolllgi[ the entire move . with an ann or hand just abovei t. a facial expression . do it even if it does seem 'a little silly. USU::il!.g th~ i11 t~ stant that sliI!gg.t. A horse seems ltD be g:( )]n.g .:ilO!' • wrttt e Hi. \VhClil his legs are either dll'a..0bservo it c. J..ests.IN ACTION: l~URNIN[G·AN'D TVVISTING Every good action ~ose should ~H. it is essen1'he to cornp:]ete the full tial to acquire 'the fun nlnge of movement. read y to tJu-ow'..' wt th w an the arm that hit him still extended.. If you were to show hii'll On the pnint of hitting the haU~ your drawin. mus [ 'be made motion. The actual movement has been corn p leted.A baseball pitcher sugge~ ts the U10\5. knowin g them helps you click the 5111 u tter ~"Ilt the precise moment. The pend. by sa yi.. or to sense the motion that has just been IT you perform the action" it hel ps to give you the feel of it.. Some of your "action' camera shots.

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