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CHAPTER 3

MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

In this chapter, an introduction to the Microstrip Patch Antenna is followed by its
advantages and disadvantages. Next, some feed modeling techniques are discussed. Finally, a
detailed explanation of Microstrip patch antenna analysis and its theory are discussed, and also
the working mechanism is explained.

3.1 Introduction

In its most basic form, a Microstrip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one
side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side as shown in Figure 3.1.
The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any
possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric
substrate.

Figure 3.1 Structure of a Microstrip Patch Antenna
Ground Plane
Patch
Dielectric Substrate
t
h
W
L
32
In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction, the patch is generally square,
rectangular, circular, triangular, elliptical or some other common shape as shown in Figure 3.2.
For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually
o o
L λ λ 5 . 0 3333 . 0 < < , where
o
λ is
the free-space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that
o
t λ << (where t is the
patch thickness). The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0.003
o o
h λ λ 05 . 0 ≤ ≤ . The
dielectric constant of the substrate (
r
ε ) is typically in the range 12 2 . 2 ≤ ≤
r
ε .

Figure 3.2 Common shapes of microstrip patch elements

Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the
patch edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate
having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger
bandwidth and better radiation [5]. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size.
In order to design a compact Microstrip patch antenna, higher dielectric constants must be used
which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a compromise must be reached
between antenna dimensions and antenna performance.

Microstrip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications due
to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas in
handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc... The telemetry and
Square Rectangular Dipole Circular
Elliptical Triangular Circular Ring
33
communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often Microstrip
patch antennas. Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite
communication. Some of their principal advantages discussed by [5] and Kumar and Ray [9] are
given below:
• Light weight and low volume.
• Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface.
• Low fabrication cost, hence can be manufactured in large quantities.
• Supports both, linear as well as circular polarization.
• Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs).
• Capable of dual and triple frequency operations.
• Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces.
Microstrip patch antennas suffer from a number of disadvantages as compared to
conventional antennas. Some of their major disadvantages discussed by [9] and Garg et al [10]
are given below:
• Narrow bandwidth
• Low efficiency
• Low Gain
• Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions
• Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas
• Low power handling capacity.
• Surface wave excitation
Microstrip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). Q represents the
losses associated with the antenna and a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency.
Q can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. But as the thickness
increases, an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface
wave. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is
ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends and causes degradation of the antenna characteristics.
However, surface waves can be minimized by use of photonic bandgap structures as discussed
by Qian et al [11]. Other problems such as lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be
overcome by using an array configuration for the elements.

34
3.3 Feed Techniques

Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. These methods can be
classified into two categories- contacting and non-contacting. In the contacting method, the RF
power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line.
In the non-contacting scheme, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between
the microstrip line and the radiating patch [5]. The four most popular feed techniques used are
the microstrip line, coaxial probe (both contacting schemes), aperture coupling and proximity
coupling (both non-contacting schemes).

3.3.1 Microstrip Line Feed

In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the
microstrip patch as shown in Figure 3.3. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to
the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the
same substrate to provide a planar structure.

Figure 3.3 Microstrip Line Feed

The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the
patch without the need for any additional matching element. This is achieved by properly
controlling the inset position. Hence this is an easy feeding scheme, since it provides ease of
Substrate
Ground Plane
Microstrip Feed
Patch
35
fabrication and simplicity in modeling as well as impedance matching. However as the thickness
of the dielectric substrate being used, increases, surface waves and spurious feed radiation also
increases, which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna [5]. The feed radiation also leads to
undesired cross polarized radiation.

3.3.2 Coaxial Feed

The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding Microstrip
patch antennas. As seen from Figure 3.4, the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends
through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is
connected to the ground plane.

Figure 3.4 Probe fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any
desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. This feed method is
easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. However, its major disadvantage is that it
Ground Plane
Coaxial
Connector
Substrate
Patch
36
provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the substrate
and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane, thus not making it completely planar for
thick substrates (
o
h λ 02 . 0 > ). Also, for thicker substrates, the increased probe length makes the
input impedance more inductive, leading to matching problems [9]. It is seen above that for a
thick dielectric substrate, which provides broad bandwidth, the microstrip line feed and the
coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. The non-contacting feed techniques which
have been discussed below, solve these problems.

3.3.3 Aperture Coupled Feed

In this type of feed technique, the radiating patch and the microstrip feed line are
separated by the ground plane as shown in Figure 3.5. Coupling between the patch and the feed
line is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane.

Figure 3.5 Aperture-coupled feed

The coupling aperture is usually centered under the patch, leading to lower cross-
polarization due to symmetry of the configuration. The amount of coupling from the feed line to
the patch is determined by the shape, size and location of the aperture. Since the ground plane
separates the patch and the feed line, spurious radiation is minimized. Generally, a high dielectric
Ground Plane
Substrate 2
Substrate 1
Microstrip Line
Patch Aperture/Slot
37
material is used for the bottom substrate and a thick, low dielectric constant material is used for
the top substrate to optimize radiation from the patch [5]. The major disadvantage of this feed
technique is that it is difficult to fabricate due to multiple layers, which also increases the
antenna thickness. This feeding scheme also provides narrow bandwidth.

3.3.4 Proximity Coupled Feed

This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme. As
shown in Figure 3.6, two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two
substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. The main advantage of this
feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth (as
high as 13%) [5], due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna. This
scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media, one for the patch and one
for the feed line to optimize the individual performances.

Figure 3.6 Proximity-coupled Feed

Matching can be achieved by controlling the length of the feed line and the width-to-line
ratio of the patch. The major disadvantage of this feed scheme is that it is difficult to fabricate
Microstrip Line
Patch
Substrate 1
Substrate 2
38
because of the two dielectric layers which need proper alignment. Also, there is an increase in
the overall thickness of the antenna.
Table 3.1 below summarizes the characteristics of the different feed techniques.

Table 3.1 Comparing the different feed techniques [4]
Characteristics Microstrip Line
Feed
Coaxial Feed Aperture
coupled Feed
Proximity
coupled Feed
Spurious feed
More More Less Minimum
Reliability Better Poor due to
soldering
Good Good
Ease of
fabrication
Easy Soldering and
drilling needed
Alignment
required
Alignment
required
Impedance
Matching
Easy Easy Easy Easy
Bandwidth
(achieved with
impedance
matching)
2-5% 2-5% 2-5% 13%

3.4 Methods of Analysis

The most popular models for the analysis of Microstrip patch antennas are the
transmission line model, cavity model, and full wave model [5] (which include primarily integral
equations/Moment Method). The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives good
physical insight but it is less accurate. The cavity model is more accurate and gives good
physical insight but is complex in nature. The full wave models are extremely accurate, versatile
and can treat single elements, finite and infinite arrays, stacked elements, arbitrary shaped
elements and coupling. These give less insight as compared to the two models mentioned above
and are far more complex in nature.

39
3.4.1 Transmission Line Model

This model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots of width W and height h ,
separated by a transmission line of length L. The microstrip is essentially a nonhomogeneous
line of two dielectrics, typically the substrate and air.

Figure 3.7 Microstrip Line Figure 3.8 Electric Field Lines

Hence, as seen from Figure 3.8, most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and
parts of some lines in air. As a result, this transmission line cannot support pure transverse-
electric-magnetic (TEM) mode of transmission, since the phase velocities would be different in
the air and the substrate. Instead, the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasi-TEM
mode. Hence, an effective dielectric constant (
reff
ε ) must be obtained in order to account for the
fringing and the wave propagation in the line. The value of
reff
ε is slightly less then
r
ε because
the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate
but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 3.8 above. The expression for
reff
ε is given by
Balanis [12] as:

2
1
12 1
2
1
2
1

+

+
+
=
W
h
r r
reff
ε ε
ε (3.1)
Where
reff
ε = Effective dielectric constant

r
ε = Dielectric constant of substrate
h = Height of dielectric substrate
W = Width of the patch
Ground Plane
Dielectric Substrate
h W
Strip conductor
40
Consider Figure 3.9 below, which shows a rectangular microstrip patch antenna of
length L , width W resting on a substrate of height h . The co-ordinate axis is selected such that
the length is along the x direction, width is along the y direction and the height is along the z
direction.

Figure 3.9 Microstrip Patch Antenna

In order to operate in the fundamental
10
TM mode, the length of the patch must be
slightly less than 2 / λ where λ is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to
reff o
ε λ / where
o
λ is the free space wavelength. The
10
TM mode implies that the field varies
one 2 / λ cycle along the length, and there is no variation along the width of the patch. In the
Figure 3.10 shown below, the microstrip patch antenna is represented by two slots, separated by
a transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends. Along the width of the patch,
the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends. The fields at the edges
can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground plane.

h Substrate
Ground Plane
Microstrip Feed Patch
W
L
x
y
z
41

Figure 3.10 Top View of Antenna Figure 3.11 Side View of Antenna

It is seen from Figure 3.11 that the normal components of the electric field at the two
edges along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is 2 / λ
long and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. The tangential components
(seen in Figure 3.11), which are in phase, means that the resulting fields combine to give
maximum radiated field normal to the surface of the structure. Hence the edges along the width
can be represented as two radiating slots, which are 2 / λ apart and excited in phase and radiating
in the half space above the ground plane. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as
radiating slots and electrically the patch of the microstrip antenna looks greater than its physical
dimensions. The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended on each end
by a distance L ∆ , which is given empirically by Hammerstad [13] as:

( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
= ∆
8 . 0 258 . 0
264 . 0 3 . 0
412 . 0
h
W
h
W
h L
reff
reff
ε
ε
(3.2)

L
W
Patch
Ground
Plane
L ∆

h
Patch
Ground Plane
L
V
E
H
E
H
E
V
E
42

The effective length of the patch
eff
L now becomes:
L L L
eff
∆ + = 2 (3.3)
For a given resonance frequency
o
f , the effective length is given by [9] as:

reff o
eff
f
c
L
ε 2
= (3.4)
For a rectangular Microstrip patch antenna, the resonance frequency for any
mn
TM mode is
given by James and Hall [14] as:

2
1
2 2
2

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
W
n
L
m c
f
reff
o
ε
(3.5)
Where m and n are modes along L and W respectively.
For efficient radiation, the width W is given by Bahl and Bhartia [15] as:

( )
2
1
2
+
=
r
o
f
c
W
ε
(3.6)

3.4.2 Cavity Model

Although the transmission line model discussed in the previous section is easy to use, it
has some inherent disadvantages. Specifically, it is useful for patches of rectangular design and it
ignores field variations along the radiating edges. These disadvantages can be overcome by using
the cavity model. A brief overview of this model is given below.
In this model, the interior region of the dielectric substrate is modeled as a cavity
bounded by electric walls on the top and bottom. The basis for this assumption is the following
observations for thin substrates ( ) λ << h [10].
• Since the substrate is thin, the fields in the interior region do not vary much in the z
direction, i.e. normal to the patch.
• The electric field is z directed only, and the magnetic field has only the transverse
components
x
H and
y
H in the region bounded by the patch metallization and the ground
plane. This observation provides for the electric walls at the top and the bottom.
43

Figure 3.12 Charge distribution and current density creation on the microstrip patch

Consider Figure 3.12 shown above. When the microstrip patch is provided power, a
charge distribution is seen on the upper and lower surfaces of the patch and at the bottom of the
ground plane. This charge distribution is controlled by two mechanisms-an attractive mechanism
and a repulsive mechanism as discussed by Richards [16]. The attractive mechanism is between
the opposite charges on the bottom side of the patch and the ground plane, which helps in
keeping the charge concentration intact at the bottom of the patch. The repulsive mechanism is
between the like charges on the bottom surface of the patch, which causes pushing of some
charges from the bottom, to the top of the patch. As a result of this charge movement, currents
flow at the top and bottom surface of the patch. The cavity model assumes that the height to
width ratio (i.e. height of substrate and width of the patch) is very small and as a result of this the
attractive mechanism dominates and causes most of the charge concentration and the current to
be below the patch surface. Much less current would flow on the top surface of the patch and as
the height to width ratio further decreases, the current on the top surface of the patch would be
almost equal to zero, which would not allow the creation of any tangential magnetic field
components to the patch edges. Hence, the four sidewalls could be modeled as perfectly
magnetic conducting surfaces. This implies that the magnetic fields and the electric field
distribution beneath the patch would not be disturbed. However, in practice, a finite width to
height ratio would be there and this would not make the tangential magnetic fields to be
completely zero, but they being very small, the side walls could be approximated to be perfectly
magnetic conducting [5].
- - -
- - -
-
-
+ + +
+ + +
+
+
W
h
t
J
b
J
+ + + + + + - - - - - - - - -
44
Since the walls of the cavity, as well as the material within it are lossless, the cavity
would not radiate and its input impedance would be purely reactive. Hence, in order to account
for radiation and a loss mechanism, one must introduce a radiation resistance
r
R and a loss
resistance
L
R . A lossy cavity would now represent an antenna and the loss is taken into account
by the effective loss tangent
eff
δ which is given as:

T eff
Q / 1 = δ (3.7)
T
Q is the total antenna quality factor and has been expressed by [4] in the form:

r c d T
Q Q Q Q
1 1 1 1
+ + = (3.8)

d
Q represents the quality factor of the dielectric and is given as :

δ
ω
tan
1
= =
d
T r
d
P
W
Q (3.9)
where
r
ω is the angular resonant frequency.

T
W is the total energy stored in the patch at resonance.

d
P is the dielectric loss.
δ tan is the loss tangent of the dielectric.

c
Q represents the quality factor of the conductor and is given as :

= =
h
P
W
Q
c
T r
c
ω
(3.10)
where
c
P is the conductor loss.
∆ is the skin depth of the conductor.
h is the height of the substrate.

r
Q represents the quality factor for radiation and is given as:

r
T r
r
P
W
Q
ω
= (3.11)
where
r
P is the power radiated from the patch.
Substituting equations (3.8), (3.9), (3.10) and (3.11) in equation (3.7), we get

T r
r
eff
W
P
h ω
δ δ +

+ = tan (3.12)
45
Thus, equation (3.12) describes the total effective loss tangent for the microstrip patch antenna.

3.4.3 Full Wave Solutions-Method of Moments

One of the methods, that provide the full wave analysis for the microstrip patch antenna,
is the Method of Moments. In this method, the surface currents are used to model the microstrip
patch and the volume polarization currents are used to model the fields in the dielectric slab. It
has been shown by Newman and Tulyathan [17] how an integral equation is obtained for these
unknown currents and using the Method of Moments, these electric field integral equations are
converted into matrix equations which can then be solved by various techniques of algebra to
provide the result. A brief overview of the Moment Method described by Harrington [18] and [5]
is given below.
The basic form of the equation to be solved by the Method of Moment is:
h g F = ) ( (3.13)
where F is a known linear operator, g is an unknown function, and h is the source or
excitation function. The aim here is to find g , when F and h are known. The unknown function
g can be expanded as a linear combination of N terms to give:

=
+ + + = =
N
n
N N n n
g a g a g a g a g
1
2 2 1 1
....... (3.14)
where
n
a is an unknown constant and
n
g is a known function usually called a basis or
expansion function. Substituting equation (3.14) in (3.13) and using the linearity property of the
operator F , we can write:

=
=
N
n
n n
h g F a
1
) ( (3.15)
The basis functions
n
g must be selected in such a way, that each ) (
n
g F in the above
equation can be calculated. The unknown constants
n
a cannot be determined directly because
there are N unknowns, but only one equation. One method of finding these constants is the
method of weighted residuals. In this method, a set of trial solutions is established with one or
more variable parameters. The residuals are a measure of the difference between the trial
solution and the true solution. The variable parameters are selected in a way which guarantees a
best fit of the trial functions based on the minimization of the residuals. This is done by defining
46
a set of N weighting (or testing) functions
N m
w w w w ,..... , } {
2 1
= in the domain of the
operator F . Taking the inner product of these functions, equation (3.15) becomes:

=
〉 〈 = 〉 〈
N
n
m n m n
h w g F w a
1
, ) ( , (3.16)
where N m ,..... 2 , 1 =
Writing in Matrix form as shown in [5], we get:
| || | | |
m n mn
h a F = (3.17)
where
| |

〉 〉〈 〈
〉 〉〈 〈
=
M
M
......... ) ( , ) ( ,
......... ) ( , ) ( ,
2 2 1 2
2 1 1 1
g F w g F w
g F w g F w
F
mn
| |

=
N
n
a
a
a
a
a
M
3
2
1
| |

〉 〈
〉 〈
〉 〈
〉 〈
=
h w
h w
h w
h w
h
N
m
,
,
,
,
3
2
1
M

The unknown constants
n
a can now be found using algebraic techniques such as LU
decomposition or Gaussian elimination. It must be remembered that the weighting functions
must be selected appropriately so that elements of } {
n
w are not only linearly independent but
they also minimize the computations required to evaluate the inner product. One such choice of
the weighting functions may be to let the weighting and the basis function be the same, that is,
.
n n
g w = This is called as the Galerkin’s Method as described by Kantorovich and Akilov [19].
From the antenna theory point of view, we can write the Electric field integral equation as:
) (J f E
e
= (3.18)
where E is the known incident electric field.
J is the unknown induced current.

e
f is the linear operator.
The first step in the moment method solution process would be to expand J as a finite sum of
basis function given as:

=
=
M
i
i i
b J J
1
(3.19)
47
where
i
b is the ith basis function and
i
J is an unknown coefficient. The second step involves the
defining of a set of M linearly independent weighting functions,
j
w . Taking the inner product on
both sides and substituting equation (3.19) in equation (3.18) we get:

=
〉 〈 = 〉 〈
M
i
i i e j j
b J f w E w
1
) , ( , , (3.20)
where M j ,..... 2 , 1 =
Writing in Matrix form as,
| || | | |
j ij
E J Z = (3.21)
where 〉 〈 = ) ( ,
i e j ij
b f w Z
〉 〈 = H w E
j j
,
J is the current vector containing the unknown quantities.
The vector E contains the known incident field quantities and the terms of the Z matrix
are functions of geometry. The unknown coefficients of the induced current are the terms of the
J vector. Using any of the algebraic schemes mentioned earlier, these equations can be solved to
give the current and then the other parameters such as the scattered electric and magnetic fields
can be calculated directly from the induced currents. Thus, the Moment Method has been briefly
explained for use in antenna problems. The software used in this thesis, Zeland Inc’s IE3D [20]
is a Moment Method simulator. Further details about the software will be provided in the next
chapter.

larger bandwidth and better radiation [5]. the length L of the patch is usually 0.2 ≤ ε r ≤ 12 ..05λo . rectangular.5λo . triangular. the patch is generally square. The dielectric constant of the substrate ( ε r ) is typically in the range 2. elliptical or some other common shape as shown in Figure 3. Square Rectangular Dipole Circular Triangular Circular Ring Elliptical Figure 3. such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. Hence a compromise must be reached between antenna dimensions and antenna performance. circular.2 Advantages and Disadvantages Microstrip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications due to their low-profile structure. where λo is the free-space wavelength. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones. higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t << λo (where t is the patch thickness). 3. a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency. For good antenna performance. pagers etc. In order to design a compact Microstrip patch antenna. The telemetry and 32 .2.In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction.. The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0. However.003 λo ≤ h ≤ 0. For a rectangular patch.3333λo < L < 0.2 Common shapes of microstrip patch elements Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane.

Supports both. Low fabrication cost. Q can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite communication. Capable of dual and triple frequency operations. Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface. 33 . hence can be manufactured in large quantities. Some of their major disadvantages discussed by [9] and Garg et al [10] are given below: • • • • • • • Narrow bandwidth Low efficiency Low Gain Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas Low power handling capacity. However. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends and causes degradation of the antenna characteristics. Q represents the losses associated with the antenna and a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. Microstrip patch antennas suffer from a number of disadvantages as compared to conventional antennas. Surface wave excitation Microstrip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). But as the thickness increases. Some of their principal advantages discussed by [5] and Kumar and Ray [9] are given below: • • • • • • • Light weight and low volume. Other problems such as lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be overcome by using an array configuration for the elements. Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces. Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs).communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often Microstrip patch antennas. an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface wave. surface waves can be minimized by use of photonic bandgap structures as discussed by Qian et al [11]. linear as well as circular polarization.

In the non-contacting scheme. a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the microstrip patch as shown in Figure 3. Microstrip Feed Patch Substrate Ground Plane Figure 3. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure. coaxial probe (both contacting schemes). since it provides ease of 34 .1 Microstrip Line Feed In this type of feed technique. The four most popular feed techniques used are the microstrip line.3 Feed Techniques Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. aperture coupling and proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes). Hence this is an easy feeding scheme. electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch [5]. In the contacting method. This is achieved by properly controlling the inset position. 3. These methods can be classified into two categories.3.3 Microstrip Line Feed The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the patch without the need for any additional matching element.contacting and non-contacting. the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line.3.3.

This feed method is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. The feed radiation also leads to undesired cross polarized radiation.fabrication and simplicity in modeling as well as impedance matching. 3. However. Patch Substrate Coaxial Connector Ground Plane Figure 3. surface waves and spurious feed radiation also increases.3.4 Probe fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna [5]. As seen from Figure 3. increases. its major disadvantage is that it 35 . the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch. while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane.2 Coaxial Feed The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding Microstrip patch antennas.4. However as the thickness of the dielectric substrate being used.

for thicker substrates. the microstrip line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. size and location of the aperture. a high dielectric 36 .3 Aperture Coupled Feed In this type of feed technique. leading to matching problems [9].provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the substrate and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane. 3. The non-contacting feed techniques which have been discussed below.3. Also. Since the ground plane separates the patch and the feed line. the increased probe length makes the input impedance more inductive. Patch Microstrip Line Aperture/Slot Ground Plane Substrate 1 Substrate 2 Figure 3. It is seen above that for a thick dielectric substrate.02λo ). solve these problems.5. which provides broad bandwidth. Generally.5 Aperture-coupled feed The coupling aperture is usually centered under the patch. thus not making it completely planar for thick substrates ( h > 0. leading to lower crosspolarization due to symmetry of the configuration. The amount of coupling from the feed line to the patch is determined by the shape. the radiating patch and the microstrip feed line are separated by the ground plane as shown in Figure 3. spurious radiation is minimized. Coupling between the patch and the feed line is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane.

This scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media. low dielectric constant material is used for the top substrate to optimize radiation from the patch [5]. Patch Microstrip Line Substrate 1 Substrate 2 Figure 3. which also increases the antenna thickness.6 Proximity-coupled Feed Matching can be achieved by controlling the length of the feed line and the width-to-line ratio of the patch. The main advantage of this feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth (as high as 13%) [5].material is used for the bottom substrate and a thick.6.3. This feeding scheme also provides narrow bandwidth. The major disadvantage of this feed technique is that it is difficult to fabricate due to multiple layers. 3. As shown in Figure 3. two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. one for the patch and one for the feed line to optimize the individual performances. The major disadvantage of this feed scheme is that it is difficult to fabricate 37 . due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna.4 Proximity Coupled Feed This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme.

38 .because of the two dielectric layers which need proper alignment. arbitrary shaped elements and coupling. The cavity model is more accurate and gives good physical insight but is complex in nature. versatile and can treat single elements.1 Comparing the different feed techniques [4] Microstrip Line Coaxial Feed Aperture Feed More Better Easy Easy 2-5% More Poor due to soldering Soldering and drilling needed Easy 2-5% Alignment required Easy 2-5% coupled Feed Less Good Proximity coupled Feed Minimum Good Alignment required Easy 13% 3. The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives good physical insight but it is less accurate. The full wave models are extremely accurate. These give less insight as compared to the two models mentioned above and are far more complex in nature. and full wave model [5] (which include primarily integral equations/Moment Method). there is an increase in the overall thickness of the antenna. Characteristics Spurious feed radiation Reliability Ease of fabrication Impedance Matching Bandwidth (achieved with impedance matching) Table 3. cavity model. Table 3.1 below summarizes the characteristics of the different feed techniques.4 Methods of Analysis The most popular models for the analysis of Microstrip patch antennas are the transmission line model. Also. finite and infinite arrays. stacked elements.

as seen from Figure 3.4. Hence. an effective dielectric constant ( ε reff ) must be obtained in order to account for the fringing and the wave propagation in the line.8 Electric Field Lines Hence. typically the substrate and air. The microstrip is essentially a nonhomogeneous line of two dielectrics.7 Microstrip Line Figure 3. The expression for ε reff is given by Balanis [12] as: ε reff = Where ε reff = = = = ε r +1 ε r −1  2 + 2 h 1 + 12 W    − 1 2 (3. As a result. Strip conductor Dielectric Substrate h W Ground Plane Figure 3. separated by a transmission line of length L.1) Effective dielectric constant Dielectric constant of substrate Height of dielectric substrate Width of the patch εr h W 39 .1 Transmission Line Model This model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots of width W and height h . Instead. since the phase velocities would be different in the air and the substrate.3. the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasi-TEM mode.8. this transmission line cannot support pure transverseelectric-magnetic (TEM) mode of transmission.8 above. most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and parts of some lines in air. The value of ε reff is slightly less then ε r because the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 3.

The co-ordinate axis is selected such that the length is along the x direction. width W resting on a substrate of height h .Consider Figure 3.9 Microstrip Patch Antenna In order to operate in the fundamental TM 10 mode. 40 . The TM 10 mode implies that the field varies one λ / 2 cycle along the length. which shows a rectangular microstrip patch antenna of length L . In the Figure 3.10 shown below. Along the width of the patch. Microstrip Feed Patch W L h Substrate z Ground Plane y x Figure 3. The fields at the edges can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground plane.9 below. the microstrip patch antenna is represented by two slots. the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends. and there is no variation along the width of the patch. separated by a transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends. the length of the patch must be slightly less than λ / 2 where λ is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to λo / ε reff where λo is the free space wavelength. width is along the y direction and the height is along the z direction.

Hence the edges along the width can be represented as two radiating slots. which are in phase.11 Side View of Antenna It is seen from Figure 3.10 Top View of Antenna Figure 3. The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended on each end by a distance ∆L . which is given empirically by Hammerstad [13] as: (ε ∆L = 0. The tangential components (seen in Figure 3.8  h  (3.258) + 0.412h reff (ε reff W  + 0.11 that the normal components of the electric field at the two edges along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is λ / 2 long and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as radiating slots and electrically the patch of the microstrip antenna looks greater than its physical dimensions.3) + 0. which are λ / 2 apart and excited in phase and radiating in the half space above the ground plane.Radiating Slots Ground Plane L EV EH Patch L EH EV W h ∆L Patch Ground Plane Figure 3.2) 41 . means that the resulting fields combine to give maximum radiated field normal to the surface of the structure.264  h  W   − 0.11).

In this model. normal to the patch. The basis for this assumption is the following observations for thin substrates ( h << λ ) [10].4.e. For efficient radiation. and the magnetic field has only the transverse components H x and H y in the region bounded by the patch metallization and the ground plane. This observation provides for the electric walls at the top and the bottom. The electric field is z directed only. Specifically. the interior region of the dielectric substrate is modeled as a cavity bounded by electric walls on the top and bottom.The effective length of the patch Leff now becomes: Leff = L + 2∆L For a given resonance frequency f o . the fields in the interior region do not vary much in the z direction. it has some inherent disadvantages. 42 .6) 3. the width W is given by Bahl and Bhartia [15] as: W = 2 fo c (ε r + 1) 2 (3. A brief overview of this model is given below. These disadvantages can be overcome by using the cavity model.3) (3.4) For a rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. the resonance frequency for any TM mn mode is given by James and Hall [14] as: fo = c 2 ε reff  m  2  n  2  2   +     L   W     1 (3. • • Since the substrate is thin. i.5) Where m and n are modes along L and W respectively. the effective length is given by [9] as: Leff = c 2 f o ε reff (3. it is useful for patches of rectangular design and it ignores field variations along the radiating edges.2 Cavity Model Although the transmission line model discussed in the previous section is easy to use.

However. When the microstrip patch is provided power. the four sidewalls could be modeled as perfectly magnetic conducting surfaces. The cavity model assumes that the height to width ratio (i. The attractive mechanism is between the opposite charges on the bottom side of the patch and the ground plane.12 shown above. which would not allow the creation of any tangential magnetic field components to the patch edges. Hence. This charge distribution is controlled by two mechanisms-an attractive mechanism and a repulsive mechanism as discussed by Richards [16]. but they being very small. which helps in keeping the charge concentration intact at the bottom of the patch. which causes pushing of some charges from the bottom. to the top of the patch. Much less current would flow on the top surface of the patch and as the height to width ratio further decreases. 43 .e. the current on the top surface of the patch would be almost equal to zero. This implies that the magnetic fields and the electric field distribution beneath the patch would not be disturbed. currents flow at the top and bottom surface of the patch. As a result of this charge movement.12 Charge distribution and current density creation on the microstrip patch Consider Figure 3. the side walls could be approximated to be perfectly magnetic conducting [5]. height of substrate and width of the patch) is very small and as a result of this the attractive mechanism dominates and causes most of the charge concentration and the current to be below the patch surface.W --.--h ++++++ +++ + + + ++ Jt Jb --------- Figure 3. a charge distribution is seen on the upper and lower surfaces of the patch and at the bottom of the ground plane. a finite width to height ratio would be there and this would not make the tangential magnetic fields to be completely zero. The repulsive mechanism is between the like charges on the bottom surface of the patch. in practice.

• Qc represents the quality factor of the conductor and is given as : Qc = ω rWT Pc = h ∆ (3.12) 44 .11) where Pr is the power radiated from the patch. A lossy cavity would now represent an antenna and the loss is taken into account by the effective loss tangent δ eff which is given as: δ eff = 1 / QT QT is the total antenna quality factor and has been expressed by [4] in the form: (3.10) and (3.8) ω rWT Pd = 1 tan δ (3. the cavity would not radiate and its input impedance would be purely reactive. Substituting equations (3.9) where ω r is the angular resonant frequency. we get Pr ∆ + h ω rWT δ eff = tan δ + (3.8). h is the height of the substrate. tan δ is the loss tangent of the dielectric. in order to account for radiation and a loss mechanism. ∆ is the skin depth of the conductor.7).11) in equation (3.10) where Pc is the conductor loss. Pd is the dielectric loss.Since the walls of the cavity. WT is the total energy stored in the patch at resonance.9). (3. • Qr represents the quality factor for radiation and is given as: Qr = ω rWT Pr (3. one must introduce a radiation resistance Rr and a loss resistance R L . as well as the material within it are lossless. Hence. (3.7) 1 1 1 1 = + + QT Qd Qc Qr • Qd represents the quality factor of the dielectric and is given as : Qd = (3.

The residuals are a measure of the difference between the trial solution and the true solution... Substituting equation (3.. The aim here is to find g . equation (3.12) describes the total effective loss tangent for the microstrip patch antenna. It has been shown by Newman and Tulyathan [17] how an integral equation is obtained for these unknown currents and using the Method of Moments. we can write: N ∑a n =1 n F (gn ) = h (3.14) where a n is an unknown constant and g n is a known function usually called a basis or expansion function. The variable parameters are selected in a way which guarantees a best fit of the trial functions based on the minimization of the residuals. This is done by defining 45 .. One method of finding these constants is the method of weighted residuals. In this method.4. but only one equation.13) where F is a known linear operator. and h is the source or excitation function.Thus. that provide the full wave analysis for the microstrip patch antenna. The basic form of the equation to be solved by the Method of Moment is: F (g) = h (3.3 Full Wave Solutions-Method of Moments One of the methods.15) The basis functions g n must be selected in such a way. these electric field integral equations are converted into matrix equations which can then be solved by various techniques of algebra to provide the result. a set of trial solutions is established with one or more variable parameters. when F and h are known. is the Method of Moments.. g is an unknown function. The unknown constants a n cannot be determined directly because there are N unknowns. that each F ( g n ) in the above equation can be calculated. In this method. the surface currents are used to model the microstrip patch and the volume polarization currents are used to model the fields in the dielectric slab.13) and using the linearity property of the operator F .14) in (3. + a N g N n =1 N (3. 3. A brief overview of the Moment Method described by Harrington [18] and [5] is given below.. The unknown function g can be expanded as a linear combination of N terms to give: g = ∑ a n g n = a1 g1 + a 2 g 2 + .

.. wn = g n ..17) a1  a   2 [a n ] = a3    M  a N    〈 w1 . J is the unknown induced current.  〈 w . F ( g )〉〈 w .. h〉     M  〈 w N . The first step in the moment method solution process would be to expand J as a finite sum of basis function given as: J = ∑ J i bi i =1 M (3. h〉   〈 w . One such choice of the weighting functions may be to let the weighting and the basis function be the same.a set of N weighting (or testing) functions {wm } = w1 ....wN in the domain of the operator F .... h〉 (3.. From the antenna theory point of view.16) where m = 1. we get: [Fmn ][a n ] = [hm ] where 〈 w1 . It must be remembered that the weighting functions must be selected appropriately so that elements of {wn } are not only linearly independent but they also minimize the computations required to evaluate the inner product. (3.15) becomes: ∑a n =1 N n 〈 wm . Taking the inner product of these functions.... 1 2 2  [Fmn ] =  2 M    M  (3. F ( g n )〉 = 〈 wm . F ( g 2 )〉... This is called as the Galerkin’s Method as described by Kantorovich and Akilov [19]. we can write the Electric field integral equation as: E = f e (J ) where E is the known incident electric field.N Writing in Matrix form as shown in [5]... F ( g )〉. w2 . that is.. h〉    The unknown constants a n can now be found using algebraic techniques such as LU decomposition or Gaussian elimination.19) 46 .. h〉    2 [hm ] = 〈 w3 . equation (3.....18) f e is the linear operator.2. F ( g1 )〉〈 w1 ...

Thus.21) where Z ij = 〈 w j .18) we get: 〈 w j . Further details about the software will be provided in the next chapter.M Writing in Matrix form as. w j . The software used in this thesis. f e (bi )〉 E j = 〈w j . these equations can be solved to give the current and then the other parameters such as the scattered electric and magnetic fields can be calculated directly from the induced currents.2. f e ( J i . H 〉 J is the current vector containing the unknown quantities. The second step involves the defining of a set of M linearly independent weighting functions.. 47 . Zeland Inc’s IE3D [20] is a Moment Method simulator. bi )〉 i =1 M (3. [Z ][J ] = [E ] ij j (3.. E 〉 = ∑ 〈 w j . The unknown coefficients of the induced current are the terms of the J vector. the Moment Method has been briefly explained for use in antenna problems. Using any of the algebraic schemes mentioned earlier. Taking the inner product on both sides and substituting equation (3.where bi is the ith basis function and J i is an unknown coefficient..19) in equation (3.. The vector E contains the known incident field quantities and the terms of the Z matrix are functions of geometry..20) where j = 1.

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