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Eletronics Lab Report - Diodes

# Eletronics Lab Report - Diodes

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EGR220

Than & Bhavin

Lab #1

Introduction and Objectives
Since Diodes are one of the fundamental electronic devices, which has various applications, it is important to know their characteristics and how they work. Therefore, in this lab, we were instructed to measure and analyze the static characteristic of diodes. The primary objectives of this lab are: 1. To analyze and understand the nature of I-V curve of the diode 2. To understand about the revers saturation current Is, and the ideality f
EGR220

Than & Bhavin

Lab #1

Introduction and Objectives
Since Diodes are one of the fundamental electronic devices, which has various applications, it is important to know their characteristics and how they work. Therefore, in this lab, we were instructed to measure and analyze the static characteristic of diodes. The primary objectives of this lab are: 1. To analyze and understand the nature of I-V curve of the diode 2. To understand about the revers saturation current Is, and the ideality f

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03/25/2014

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# EGR220

Than & Bhavin

Lab #1

Introduction and Objectives
Since Diodes are one of the fundamental electronic devices, which has various applications, it is important to know their characteristics and how they work. Therefore, in this lab, we were instructed to measure and analyze the static characteristic of diodes. The primary objectives of this lab are: 1. To analyze and understand the nature of I-V curve of the diode 2. To understand about the revers saturation current Is, and the ideality factor n of the diode. 3. To be able to collect data and to plot them on semi-log scale 4. To be able to calculate current through and voltage across the diode using piece-wise linear model

measure the diode current (Vr /R) and the other was placed across the diode to measure diode voltage. However, because both probes have a common ground, we could not get a proper I-V curve. Therefore, we re-designed the circuit as follows by using a resistor with low resistance (3Ώ) (to avoid unnecessary voltage drop).

Equipments and Components used
In this lab, the equipments and components we used are:- diodes: 1N914 (x3), 1N 60 (x3); resistors: 100Ω @ 1W (or more) (x1), 1KΩ(x2); a breadboard, a waveform generator, ±20V power supply, a multimeter, an Oscilloscope to capture the I-V curve, wires and cords. Figure 2: Circuit Design for capturing I-V curve of Diode We built the above circuit and captured the oscilloscope image of the I-V curve of 1N914 and 1N60, and figured out the values of VDO and RD, by moving the cursors of oscilloscope display. We found that VDO for 1N914 is about 0.6±0.5V, RD = (VD-VDO) / ID =35Ώ and VDO for 1N60 is about 0.3V, RD = 11Ω.

Procedures
Procedure 1: Capturing I-V curve of the Diode

Figure 1 In order to capture the I-V curve of the Diode on Oscilloscope, we used time varying voltage source ( ±5V Sine Wave with frequency of 1kHz) to trace forward and reverse characteristic of the diode. One oscilloscope probe was placed across the resistor to

Figure 3: I-V characteristic of Si Diode

Procedure 2: Measuring and Plotting of Diode Current Voltage Point by Point
By using the circuit in figure 1, we measured the diode

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EGR220

Than & Bhavin

Lab #1

voltage and current of 1N914 and 1N60, by giving the source voltage, ranging from -10V to 10V using 0.5 voltage increment. In order to calculate the ideality factor n, we used the following formulas [1]:

I2 / I1 = e(V2 – V1)/nVT n = (V2 – V1) / VT ln(I2-I1)

(1) (2)

where VT = 25mV at room temperature. By plugging in the two diode currents and voltage, we calculated that the value of n for 1N914 is 2.2 ± 0.09 and that of 1N60 is 2.3± 0.01. From our calculation, we concluded that the value of n must be 2 for both 1N914 and 1N60. By using n = 2, we, then, calculated the Is Value for both 1N914 and 1N60, using the following formulas [1].

Linear Vs Expoential I-V Curve (1N914)

I = Is (e V/nVT – 1) I ≈ Ise V/nVT Is ≈ Ie –V/nVT

(3) (4) (5)
Current (mA)

Our calculation shows that the value of Is for 1N914 is 2.88±0.003 ×10-7 A, and that of 1N60 is 1.0±0.3 × 10-3 A. According the formula (3), in the reverse bias region, the reverse current would be approximated with negative Is as the exponential term would disappear. However, in the lab, due to systematic errors (because of measurement methods and faulty devices), we were not able to detect the reverse current. Then,

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

-5

-2

0.67

0.78

0.83

0.88

0.91

0.93

-7.99

-3.47

Voltage (V)

we plotted the data we measured, using both semi-log and linear scale. From the linear graphs, we tried to find the VDO and then calculated for RD for both 1N914 and 1N60, [1] by RD = (VDO – VD) / ID (6)

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0.96

-9.5

-6.5

-0.5

EGR220
Linear Vs. Exponential I-V Curve (1N60) 100 90 80 70 60
Current (mA)

Than & Bhavin

Lab #1

ID2 = 2.13 mA, in circuit 4(b), we found both ID1 and ID2 = 0A because the voltage at the junction is less than VDO and so, no current cannot pass through the diodes. For 1N60, in circuit 4 (a) we got ID1 = 0A and ID2 = 2.37 mA, in circuit 4(b), we also found both ID1 and ID2 = 0A. From our measurements, for 1N914, we got ID1 = 0 A and ID2 = 1.48 mA for circuit 4(a). and ID1 and ID2 = 0 A for circuit 4(b). For 1N60, we got ID1 = 0A and ID2 = 1.67 mA for circuit 4(a) and ID1 and ID2 = 0A for circuit 4(b). Although the errors are within the range of 40%: 2.13 – 1.48 = 0.65 × 10-3 and 2.37 – 1.67 = 0.7 × 10-3, considering the fact that our calculation was based on piece-wise linear model, not the actual exponential model, and there might be errors accumulated from measurements and calculation of VDO and RD, we assumed that the results are within the acceptable range.

50 40 30 20 10 0
-8 -5 -2 0.4 -9.5 -6.5 -3.5 -0.5 0.48 0.52 0.55 0.57 0.59 0.6

Voltage

From our linear graphs, we found that VDO for 1N914 is approximately 0.65V and VDO for 1N60 is approximately 0.3V. Then we calculated RD for both 1N914 and 1N60. RD for 1N914 is approximately 34.29Ω and that of1N60 is 7.92 Ω. Procedure 3:Finding diode currents with estimations and comparing those results with the actual measurements

Discussion
Since didoes are non-linear devices, their characteristic are much different from that of resistors, which are linear devices. The relationship between voltage and current for diodes are theoretically modeled with a complex exponential function, which depends on many factors, such as temperature, ideality factor etc. However, for some applications, which do not need so much accuracy, piece-wise linear model, could be used instead of complex model. In our case, the error was 40% of actual observations. Obviously, piece-wise linear model can give us a faster and easier method to calculate, it is not useful enough to cope with accuracy demanding applications.

Figure 4 By using the values of RD and VDO, we calculated the currents through the diodes by using piecewise linear model. For 1N914, in circuit 4 (a) we got ID1 = 0A and

References
[1] Sedra, Adel S., and Smith. Kenneth C. “Microelectronics Circuits”. 5th. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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