- ,
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B ook s by A n drew W eil , M . D.
T he

by W in ifred Rosen
M arv in ' s

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A n drew W eil ,

an d W in ifred
Rev ised
H ou g hton M u ffin Compan y

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T he orig in al
d- A ctiv e


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A ck n owl edg men ts
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A u thors' Note
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Preface to the
Secon d E dition
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Con ten ts
A ck n owl edg men ts

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Straig ht T al k at the Start

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dru g s
l ar



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3 Straig ht

T he


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acq u ain tan ces

y ou


Y ou


Sec Chapter
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5 Straig ht
abou t

min d.

Dru g s



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H ig h

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7 Straig htial k


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W hat Is a Dru g ?



su bstan ces

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1 0

dru g s.

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1 1


E u rope

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1 3 W hatisaDru g ?

Readin g
T he


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W hy Peopl e U se Dru g s

H u man

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M orphi 1 6
1 8 4 2 —

1 8 0 9 — 1 8 9 4 ) ,

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1 7 1 4 7 / n • - Peoph ( J se


difficu l t

• •

I 1 - w— —
- i- ' -
. _ j . _ P ! k itdR'
Pl arian i
B ottl e.
• . i Iii
cl i il fl t. I I! ' ' • ' b' r' H I!
. ad
i_ n t sri trak t
M tI& r 1 M I$ IU t fl u ' ru t

cou rtesy

1 srs1
wba U n ru pp* 4 .
is fl it I . twi arid fl ISSI with • s l ee
iSg n atan & A % att. . , 4
PU W Vfl eU afl n tl ttRp ss. , j J setal l ed Sn a. Dtn eeasa l aisasteas
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1 8

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ex perimen ts

In X an adu did K u bl a K han
A pl easu re dome decree:
W here A iph, the sacred riv er, ran
T hrou g h cav ern s measu rel ess to
Down to a su n l ess sea.
open in g

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to M orphin e 2 0
Y ou g et in to heroin becau se y ou
hav e a l ot of mon ey in y ou r
pock et, an d y ou can ' t g o to v ideo
g ames al l the time, an d y ou thin k
l ife is v ery triv ial an d v ery borin g ,
an d y ou l ook for other peopl e
who thin k the same.
sev t' n teen - y ear- ol d

started shootin g heroin at the
ag e of twel v e an d was a j u n k ie til l
I was fifteen . I wen t col d tu rk ey
eig ht or n in e times, bu t after each
col d tu rk ey I' d see my ol d frien ds
ag ain , an d then i' d g o back to
heroin .

mu sician s

improv e


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2 1
u se

an Often

Readin g
A n drew

an d

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Rel ation ships with Dru g s

au tomatical l y

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2 3



It dates In ' n i abou t

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iiu y

ston ed


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2 6

Cou rtesy

4 .

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2 7 Rel ation ships

Readin g
Dru g s:

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T y pes of Dru g s

( In - the- B ody )
Dru g s

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2 9

u n der

su g g est

r • I


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— most
— sin ce

Dru g s
Cru de Forms
M ost

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3 1
n ativ es

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M orphin e,

the dru g s

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3 3

Dru g s
Pharmacol og ists

l ig rams,

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C ] \ ' f) t' s of
wi th n atu ral

spu cies.

Dru g s
W hol l y

— in
cru de

Readin g
T here



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Stimu l an ts
T han k G od for tea! W hat wou l d
the worl d do withou t tea?
did it ex ist? I am g l ad I was n ot
born before tea.
s\ dfl C) '

— I


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3 7

( Cou rtesy

I Pfl amon su m. In c
I P 0 B o' 7 6 7 Frq l ishtown N
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3 8

y ou

Y ou

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of Stimu l an ts
Coffee an d Other Caffein e- Con tain in g Pl an ts
Caffein e,

the morn in g I drin k two cu ps
of coffee. If I don ' t, I feel irritabl e.
If I drin k three cu ps, I g et a l ittl e
speedy , bu t with two I feel j u st
abou t rig ht.
— -
thirty - n in c- y ear- u l d

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4 0
Far bey on d al l other pl easu res,
rarer than j ewel s or treasu res,
sweeter than g rape from the v in e.
Y es! Y es! G reatest of pl easu res!
Coffee, coffee, how I l ov e its fl av or,
an d if y ou wou l d win my fav or,
y es! Y es! l et me hav e coffee, l et
me hav e my coffee stron g .


abou t 1 6 9 S. L l oy d' s
was born

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4 1

stron g


Fren ch

_ aI, — p. . - ! !

A l so,

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4 2
W e had a k ettl e; we l et it l eak .
Ou r n ot repairin g it made it worse.
W e hav en ' t had an y tea for a
week . . .
T he bottom is ou t of the U n iv erse.
— -
" Natu ral


ShU til d

' 1

ttu 4 D

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4 3 Stirriu l an ts

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to M orphin e 4 4
Fiv e y ears ag o, hopin g to k ick a
chocol ate habit that was sig n ifi-
can tl y affectin g my l ife, I en rol l ed
in a prog ram at the Shick Cen ter
for the Con trol of Smok in g , A l co-
hol ism, an d Ov ereatin g , in L os
A n g el es. I was then thirty - three.
I cou l d n ot remember the l ast time
I had man ag ed to g et throu g h a
whol e day withou t eatin g choco-
l ate in on e form or an other, u su -
al l y in q u an tities most peopl e
wou l d reg ard as ex cessiv e, if n ot
appal l in g . . . Fran k l y , I am my sti-
fl ed by what happen ed an d to
this day can n ot ex pl ain it. B ein g
addicted to chocol ate was so
mu ch a part of my defin ition of
my sel f that it con stan tl y amazes
me to thin k that I am n ow free
of it.
thirty - tig ht- y ear- ol d

habit- formin g .

an d Cocain e

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4 5

on it.
Compan y




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4 6

ou n ce

l u n g s,

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4 7

an d Rel ated Dru g s
A mphetamin es

I decided to try an d mak e u p for
l ost time by stay in g u p al l n ig ht to
stu dy for my E u ropean history
ex am, bu t by midn ig ht the tex t
was bl u rrin g before my ey es . . .
A n u ppercl assman took pity on me
an d offered me a g reen - an d- white
capsu l e al on g with the promise
that my drowsin ess wou l d be
cu red by tak in g it. I took it withou t
a secon d thou g ht, an d within hal f
an hou r or so fou n d my sel f stu dy -
in g l ik e mad. Not on l y was I corn
pl etel y en g rossed in E u ropean
history , I fel t ex hil arated; I was
actu al l y en j oy in g my sel f . . . I g ot
an A on my history ex am as I
was su re 1 had an d hav e been
in v ol v ed, to some ex ten t, with
amphetamin es ev er sin ce.
forty - two- y ear- ol d

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spark s
en erg y

tU ) fl il - I

dru g s

Dru g s
A s
fl ood

— I

rel iev es fatig u e
an d mil d depression
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5 0
, . T A B S
n ' v u S
I ta Sip sa tak P* fl W bot fat iS pu ca ep
a v fl u fl sc It y eS t U N Ø Ø É 4 ì
M 4 n 4 W PasCrn sn tu ck s
r— —

M A IL COPPOQ U CT SA dC, P. O. SOX 1 4 m$ 7 Q K L A i' $ OM A CtT Y 0 * P3 1 1 3
n ' fl ?
ta_ tn
I t M i
I C4 ' , trA it is :
I I • ts( & I afl M a' • i
su r • ] I sin I
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T his

" W hite

y ears ag o, I fel l madl y in
l ov e with an ex smok er, a man
who, thou g h broad- min ded in
other respects, was a fan atic on
the su bj ect of cig arettes . . . I had
al way s thou g ht I' d be abl e to k ick
my addiction to cig arettes for
someon e I l ov ed. T hat assu mption
tu rn ed ou t to be wron g . In the
en d, when forced to choose be
tween l ov e an d cig arettes, I chose
cig arettes. It was that simpl e. I did
mak e on e resol u tion at the time,
which I hav e stu ck to ev er sin ce.
It was that I wou l d n ev er ag ain
become in v ol v ed with a man who
does n ot smok e cig arettes.
forty - on e- y ear- ol d

Phen y ipropan ol amin e ( PPA ) is

an d Nicotin e
T obacco

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5 1 Stimu l an ts

pl ace

hig her



p ! • iL . . ! * fl 4 ft. . W t1
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sf t N • .
. \ ' a to. '
¾ i— " 1 4 4 $ . l l ik • j + ' fj tj $ tj ! iii
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i U U t
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5 3

an d

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cig arette

E x otic Stimu l an t Pl an ts
B etel .

con es.

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5 5 St

I Iarv estin g betel

Ov er- the- Cou n ter ( OT C) Dru g s
picpacatio[ iS

mak e
Ru l es for U sin g Stimu l an ts Safel y
B ecau se

1 L imit

See —
I. ; - ;
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5 6 5 7

U se



T ak e

A v oid

he abl e to av oid
Readin g

G ol den


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( New

e re
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, _ S as
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t. S
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a a- p

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t . , .
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, • • / . f . . ' : , • ,
SI f • I

( % Vood-
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Depressan ts

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6 0
6 1

T his

( E thy l A l cohol , E than ol )
A l cohol

sk el etal

Is F.
i; i \ I, ' \

Ru m
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6 2
g in

I l ik e al cohol . It is a powerfu l dru g
an d, G od k n ows, for some peopl e
a hel l ish on e, bu t if u sed carefu l l y
it can g iv e g reat pl easu re. A fter a
l on g , hard day , the spl en did warm
g l ow that stron g drin k prov ides
is on e of my fav orite feel in g s;
it starts in the pit of my stomach,
then spreads to my l imbs an d
brain . I k n ow that al cohol is a de-
pressan t, bu t it acts an d feel s l ik e
a g en tl e rel ax an t of the spirit
as wel l as of the phy sical body .
J u st n otice the in creased v iv acity
an d n oise l ev el at a cock tail party
after a drin k has been serv ed to
see how al cohol can pu t peopl e
at ease emotion al l y .
six ty - two- y ear- ol d

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6 3 Depressan ts

W hat three thin g s
M arry ,


— -
I. = P
I t

w_ a.
• . . . ç ' . L ' S 1 $ & L J % ' .
. ii' . _ j
k eep torq efl iriq . Is al cohol a dt' pressan t ora

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M orphin e

Recov ered

. 1 0 ' .
. —

. 1
. 7 -
Dry an d d. c, n i.
• . & '
. A _ v 0 ' . 1 / 0
[ Irid
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• • fl
: —
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A 1 \ S rfl f - 0
— + 1 _ i ' 0 I •
- -
Din y an d del siou s.
M OU L T H A N . 5 0 %
- _ — t- — —

T he p. rc• n l og . s
ok otbol in ib. bl ood. brain , other ø Ø Ofl t.
1 k t hr. en s4 , pwd tmma s i

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drin k ers

Su e —

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to M u rphin e 6 6


A l thou g h I k ept try in g to u se al co•
hol moderatel y , when ev er I' d set
ou t to g et hig h on it, I wou l d al
way s k eep on drin k in g til l I g ot
dru n k , n o matter how man y reso-
l u tion s I made n ot to . . . I' v e tried
v ariou s dru g s sin ce those day s
an d don ' tthin k an y thin g comes
cl ose to al cohol in terms of raw
stren g th an d poten tial for trou bl e.
I cou l dn ' t l earn to con trol it wel l ,
an d I see man y peopl e arou n d me
who hav e the same probl em.

thirty - su v en - y car- ol d

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6 7 Depressan ts

Su g g estion s for U sin g A l cohol W isel y
1 . what

Don ' t

B e

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B arbitu rates an d Other Sl eepin g Pil l s ( " Down ers" )
T his — l oosel y

( ( 1 A l ' rpl iiiie

depen den ce.

A l cohol


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7 0
T he barbitu rate addict presen ts a
shock in g spectacl e. H e can n ot co-
ordin ate, he stag g ers, fal l s off
stool s, g oes to sl eep in the middl e
of a sen ten ce, drops food ou t of
his mou th. H e is con fu sed, q u arrel -
some, an d stu pid. A n d he al most
al way s u ses other dru g s, an y thin g
he can l ay his han ds on : al cohol ,
ben zedrin e, opiates, marij u an a.
B arbitu rate u sers are l ook ed
down on in addict society : " G oof-
bal l bu ms. T hey g ot n o cl ass to
them. " 4 I • It seems to me that bar-
bitu rates cau se the worst pos-
sibl e form of addiction , u n sig htl y ,
deterioratin g , difficu l t to treat.
W il l iam
L u au / i


peopl e

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• 1 •

• • fu el

Certain l y ,

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7 2
T here is n o q u estion that Q u aa-
l u de can be dan g erou s when u sed
irrespon sibl y , or that it can be ad
dictin g . A s a recreation al dru g ,
tak en on occasion in a respon sibl e
man n er, it seems to me safe an d
in terestin g an d g iv es me an
ex perien ce differen t from an y -
thin g el se.

thirty - six - y ear- ol d



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I 3 Depressari
T hey

for U sin g Down ers Safel y
I T ak e

Don ' t

M in or T ran q u il izers
T he


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Sin ce

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7 5
paren t
sy n c! rome
. ! .
. . . . - - . : . t- - • . . . • • .
4 ,
• ! • !





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( : hoi' n / a( e t
- - .
7 6
1 7
• IV.
n o
of acu te


l it' L u
S. .

( diazepan i)


E n w4 wn iaN di* tn 4 n ø d
iaj k u tt. • ' ! It may isa' d y cmj r •
s- bfl
U sin g

Certain l y ,

for A v oidin g T rou bl e with T ran q u il izers
1 B e


( G ammahy drox y bu ty rate)

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P1 0 1 7 2 Chu cu l ate

u l
u scd was cther.

M assachu sc. tts

Pu n ch)
G en eral A n esthetics
G en eral


fl * L L V Q U IY f DtI. tONT FU L — i k Ifl T
A n

Icacl iu rl 1 B 4 7 )
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Depressan ts


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an d ) f PhJ J u sv pJ zv .
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it ibs tsn . srn p. t

1 $

by I) .

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8 0

spon din g

I 2 . M oreov er

hav e

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8 1

A bou t Nitrou s Ox ide
Nev er



opiu m
9 0 0 .

I : : •

4 .
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8 2


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8 3


1 9 0 3

' .
. . — SI S . ' s 1 W — — — — . • . ,
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3 1 • C ean an . Sc IStIftfl hI P CStK fl .
CL VCO. NfROiri ' , M ItN' Ss• b . 1 sa4 . ! l t em
I a
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8 4
L au dan u m g av e me repose, n ot
sl eep; bu t y ou , I bel iev e, k n ow
how div in e that repose is, what a
spot of en chan tmen t, a g reen
spot offou n tain s an d fl owers an d
trees in the v ery heart of a waste
of san ds!
Samu el 1 —

effectiv e.

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8 5 L k pressan ts

an d

opiu m
I- hig h L u dl ow M emorial

of thc dru g

' ' U
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ty pes

socicty ,

J u n k is n ot a k ick . It is a way of
l ife.
— —

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8 7


H er-

— Some

T here' s n othin g l ik e a heroin ru sh.
I started shootin g heroin when I
was fou rteen . It' s j u st the most in -
ten se, won derfu l feel in g . I was al
way s in terested in g ettin g hig h.
On e of my fav orite way s when I
was l ittl e was rol l in g down big
hil l s. I did it ov er an d ov er. H eroin
has cau sed me a l ot of probl ems.
l ' m scared of withdrawal , bu t I
k n ow I hav e to do it. I' m al so in ter•
ested in meditation an d thin g s l ik e
that, bu t I worry that I wil l al way s
be tempted to feel the heroin ru sh
ag ain , becau se n othin g el se I' v e
tried comes cl ose to it.
sev en teen - y ear- ol d

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l ess

— as

Smok in g

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8 9


T he first opiate I ev er took was co-
dein e . . . It made me feel rig ht for
the first time in my l ife . . . I n ev er
fel t rig ht from as far back as I can
remember, an d I was al way s
try in g differen t way s to chan g e
how I fel t. I u sed l ots of dru g s, bu t
n on e of them real l y did it for me.
Codein e was a rev el ation , an d I' v e
been an opiate u ser ev er sin ce .
Opiates hav e cau sed me l ots of
trou bl e, bu t what they do for my
head is worth it.
thirty - fou r- y ear- ol d
rock sin g er
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g reatest

A bou t Narcotics
1 . Opiu m

Readin g
M arg aret

A n

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9 1 Depressan ts


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) il OrPJ I1 T It'
— — —
9 2
the Facts


the Peopl e

Psy chedel ics, or
H al l u cin og en s

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ti 9 4
T he

H al l u cin og en s
L SD ( L y serg ic A cid Diethy l amide, A cid, L SD- 2 5 )

9 5

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to 9 6

( Copy rig ht 1 9 7 7 ,

in g ood

0 0 0 NE SB U RY
by G arry T ru deau
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9 1 or


T he

sev eral


tL ik e u tcru s.

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9 8

M u shrooms ( M ag ic
M u shrooms, Psil ocy bin )
M u shrooms

u se,

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9 9 or

T hree
g row in fron t

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to 1 0 0

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1 0 1 Psy chedel ics,

Ibog ain e
Ibog ain c

( Dimethy l try ptamin e) an d 5 - M eODM T

— S ' . - • 4 4 • ! ' ' • 1 ! !
. $ 4 ! •
. H u • . rI. bi
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a . I. : , t min i I I. e . .
abet M # . t
IfIq : ; , , u
i4 1 1 4 1 0 th
I Iu iu n irad book
S 1 9 1 2 1 9 K 4 s
, I' fl I M r .

B ook Compan y )
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I 0 1 Psy chede/ ics.

Ibog ain e
Ibog ain e

( Dimethy l try ptamin e) an d 5 - M eO- DM T
( 5 - M ethox y di methy l try ptamin e)

al on g
' II ' . j
. rj 1 1 . eM v i
cs ! !
1 . • , • • . ii+ iS ! 1 fr
I 1 . F
L • ' . l F 1 - 1 1 1 1
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t •
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• • • !

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to 1 0 2

! .
• K
• t* K , .

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I 0 3 Psv chedel ics,


g iv e

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Y ag é ( A y ahu asca, Caapi)
Y ag é

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1 0 5

stroy s

Rel ated to A dren al in e
an d A mphetamin es
In dol e

an d M escal in e
Pey ote

M y first v iv id show of mescal col -
ou r effects came q u ick l y . I saw the
stars, an d then , of a su dden , here
an d there del icate fl oatin g fi' ms of
col ou r u su al l y del ig htfu l n eu tral
pu rpl es an d pin k s. T hese came
an d wen t n ow here, n ow there.
T hen an abru pt ru sh of cou n tl ess
poin ts of white l ig ht swept across
the fiel d of v iew, as if the u n seen
mil l ion s of the M il k y W ay were to
fl ow a spark l in g riv er before the
ey e. In a min u te this was ov er an d
the fiel d was dark . T hen I beg an
to see zig zag l in es of v ery brig ht
col ou rs a
Irv in

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1 0 6

ag en t in pey ote,

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1 0 8
dcl ic

( DOM )

( M ethy l en ediox y amphetamin e)

( M ethy l en ediox y methamphetamin e;
E cstasy )


psy chotherapy

Psy chedel ics

an d Risk s of Psy chedel ic Dru g s
B ad

- -
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- - -

Su g g estion s an d Precau tion s for the U se of
H al l u cin og en ic Dru g s
1 .

T ak e

1 T ak e

1 1 0
1 1 1
Y ou g et ou t of the dru g ex perien ce
on l y what y ou pu t in to it. T he
" Otherworid" from which y ou
seek il l u min ation is, after al l , on l y
y ou r own psy che.

Su g g ested Readin g
Probabl y

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edition ,

rev ised

J 1 a( e to

Its t
. , . ( q


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L taq Ira aq

j o
p! fl bT T

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% J 1 . 1 1
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1 1 5 M ahj v an a

A merican s

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other peopl e,
marij u an a

— tion

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1 1 7


H ORE ' r
H A VE M owt I
VwT hH
IORE 6 RA 5 S?

T hE mA r ' 1 E
K IL l . A NP T A K E H ( R I4 O' NCY
A M P 5 0 M t
- It
' M RE
A l ; r CA I4 RiA ft fl ' M J
l it crwtr' :
I• n w
A Nt' ' ; oM N
I4 1 R0 W 4
- —

S —

t' . [ ru in - 4 L 4 : L
r , ' , 1 F-
A , ,
P. 1 • 4
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- I
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1 1 8
1 1 9 A l an
T ak en by

\ l an iu an a fl ay q u ite tO\ IC.



I started deal in g dope
' cau se I
was the on l y way I cou l d affor
tobu y dope. Nowido itfor
the mon ey .
— six teen - y ear- ol d
y ou can remember the ' 6 0 s,
y ou weren ' t there.
— Robin
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1 2 0
E v en tu al l y I became a dail y pot
smok er, sometimes startin g in the
morn in g . It was my main way of
rel atin g to other peopl e. H owev er,
I started g ettin g l ess an d l ess
effect from it that I l ik ed. In fact,
it beg an to mak e me g rog g y an d
sl eepy most of the time an d al so
g av e me a cou g h. T hese u n wel -
come effects g ot worse an d worse
u n til I real ized I wou l d hav e to
stop u sin g pot. So I made a reso-
l u tion to q u it compl etel y .
W el l , it su rprised me to fin d
that wasn ' t so easy . It took me
three y ears of try in g before I real l y
g av e u p smok in g marij u an a, ev en
thou g h I n o l on g er g ot pl easan t
effects from it. I n ev er real ized
how mu ch of a habit I had an d
how hook ed Iwas on it . .

than stil l v ery
v ery


bitt few
heav il y
v ery
reason ,

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1 2 1

to su ch

su ade

I hav e mu l tipl e scl erosis. A bou t
three y ears after it was diag n osed
I discov ered marij u an a. A frien d
tol d me it was rel ax in g . M y main
probl em then , aside from partial
bl in dn ess, was ten sen ess an d
tremors in my mu scl es. Pot cu red
it, an d I' v e smok ed reg u l arl y ev er
sin ce, abou t fou r to fiv e times a
week . If I g o withou t it for a week ,
the mu scl e tremors come back .
M ost peopl e with M S hav e re-
peated attack s an d k eep l osin g
body fu n ction . I' m con v in ced
that pot has k ept me in remission
al l these y ears.
— tort- on e- ear- ol d
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1 2 2
ti- man u factu red

patien ts

effectiv e an d


same pot.
T he wil l

— to

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1 2 3 M arij u an a
Su g g estion s A bou t the U se of M arij u an a
- M arij u an a

2 .


tu rn in g


marij u an a

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te 2 4

1 3 .

Readin g
M u ch

M arij u an a edited


Coiin ecti-
cu t:

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1 2 5

U n k n own T hril l ers edited
l ein e
referen ces


mov ie

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Sol v en ts an d In hal an ts;
Del irian ts; PCP
an d K etamin e

Sol v en ts


T aj ar: W hat made y ou wan t t
smel l g as, B u l l et?
B u l l et: W el l , when y ou feel
y ou smel l it an d it mak es y ou
k in d of hot an d k in d of drow!
l ik e y ou was fl oatin g throu g i
air. It mak es y ou feel sort of 1
in side an d differen t from the
y ou were before , . .
T aj ar: B u l l et, how come so m
g as was spil l ed on the cel l ars
B u l l et: Oh, I j u st wan ted to g
more on my rag . If y ou hav e
mak es y ou sort of dream. It ç
al l dark an d y ou see shootin ç
in it, an d this time I saw big f
fl y in g in it. T hey were big am
g reen an d had white win g s.
— from

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1 2 8 1 2 9

that combin ation

— a


— easy

Propel l an ts
A erosol

In hal an ts
A my l Nitrite ( A my s, Poppers, Sn appers, Pearl s,
A spirol , Vaporal )
A my l

— hen ce U n til

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il ate M orphin e
I was first in trodu ced to amy l
n itrite du rin g my sen ior y ear in
col l eg e. T he father of on e of my
frien ds had a heart con dition for
which he u sed the dru g . H e wou l d
amass hu g e n u mbers of poppers
an d g iv e them ou t to an y on e
who wan ted them. . . T he effect
was immediate. M y arms an d
l eg s fel t l ik e l iq u id warmth, an d
at the same time I g ot a pou n din g
in my head. . . W hen I ex hal ed,
my v ision bl u rred, with smal l
bl u e patches fil l in g my fiel d
of v ision . . .
— t v ' v en ty - v car- ol d

peopl e,

an d


Nitrite an d Isobu ty l Nitrite
( L ock er Room, Ru sh)
B u tv l

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1 3 1
Some Precau tion s A bou t Org an ic Sol v en ts
an d In hal an ts
I Org an ic

pl en ty

L ) el iriu m

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1 3 2
del iriu m

T hey are a stran g e

( J imson weed, Datu ra,
B el l adon n a, H en ban e)
T he

deadl y
stran g e

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col d

M u shrooms ( Fl y A g aric, A man ita mu scaria;
Pan ther M u shroom, A man ita pan therin a)
A man itas


( A n drew
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1 3 5 Sol titu !





in estern

Nu tmeg an d
Nu tmeg ,

M ace
g rou n d

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1 3 6
Someon e tol d me y ou cou l d g et
hig h by eatin g n u tmeg . So on e
n ig ht I chok ed down a whol e
can , which was ov er an ou n ce.
A fter three hou rs, 1 fel t l ig ht an d
dreamy . It was a l ittl e l ik e a l ig ht
dose of pot. H owev er, the n ex t
morn in g , I had a spl ittin g head-
ache, my heart was racin g ,
an d my mou th was real l y dry .
I g ot dizzy when ev er I man ag ed
to stan d u p. l t l asted al l day .
I wou l d n ev er eat n u tmeg ag ain .
I don ' t ev en l ik e the taste of
it in food an y more.
— twen ty - two- y ear- ol d

Fl U
T o

peopl e

W arn in g s A bou t Del irian ts

mu st

an d K etamin e
T he

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1 3 7 5 L ) IVCFJ tS
( A n g el Du st, Peace Pil l , H og , A n imal T ran q u il izer,
" T H C, " ' Can n abin ol " )

. 1

in j ect

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1 3 8
I' v e had v ery positiv e ex peri-
en ces with PCPP which is u n u su al ,
sin ce ev ery on e say s it' s a terribl e
dru g . . . For y ears I hav e su ffered
l ower back pain s. W hen ev er I
smok ed PCP I fel t n o pain , an d
cou l d ev en j og comfortabl y .
E v en after the dru g wore off, I ex -
perien ced n o pain from phy sical
activ ities. . . M y thin k in g was
often imag in ativ e an d l u cid.
I l au g hed a l ot. . . I was tak in g
it al l the time, an d peopl e arou n d
me tol d me I was actin g too
crazil y . So 1 stopped. Sometime,
I' d l ik e to ex perimen t with it
ag ain to ex pl ore those phy sical
an d men tal powers it seems to
rel ease in me.


n ot

g hettos l iv es fru stration , an d

repu tation

y ou n g

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1 3 9 Sol v eiu s
K etamin e ( K etal ar, K etaj ect, Su perek )
K etarn in e

u sers,


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rctil i: c

Su g g estion s A bou t PCP an d K eta min e
1 .

B ecau se



Readin g
A ccu rate

B race

1 4 1
- _ _ _
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1 1
M edical Dru g s;
H erbal
Remedies; Smart
Dru g s


Dru g s
I firml y bel iev e that if the
whol e
materia medica as n ow u sed cou l d
be su n k to the bottom
of the sea,
it wou l d be al l the better
man k in d an d al l the worse for
the fishes.
( ii Vi/ cridel l ( 1 8 0 9 —
an d
U t

T ran q u il izers ( T horazin e an d Rel ativ es)
M aj or

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k ! ecu cal

carin g
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j I. . 1 L IF iF • IFt I Ii•
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— hardl y

F! 7
t F
- II
' ' It
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1 4 5


l iv er

( E l av il an d Rel ativ es)
T he

stimu l an ts.

( L ithan e, L ithon ate)
L ithiu m

. bu t her other
sy mptoms:
an x iety , l oss of in terest, an orex ia,
psy chomotor retardation
stron g l y su g g est
an u n derl y in g depression .
when the diag n osis is depression

; , tl f! rl . M en ri! [ rrS$ Ic. r ad ç . ' !
n g
4 ! 4 • . rFn A . . ! re* -
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Side ( fl eas ) { ) . % % ! W iV n
I at n e
car req . . rin g
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C I n case r h . . ' J iv e F ! l tson it a— ' t
F- ' rI: sh! ! • V U n t ird reen
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a• cpi; s - - - ' p rl tE Ofl tn t)
tI! tt A ? h E tA VIL H C;
c! t' t3 ttl 3
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1 0 I that to ! be
• • M ty

ts c4 ] t/ IT hrss n au sea
Ii . ; • . . r! t! L Q 4 L A ; 1 .
hr t. _ ± $ 1 $ • ! 4 1 . ire; ' c t! i Shil l r4 y
1 s: S arid ik ! ii !
in c! u d. n g ri 4 th 1 . 1 ! . ) ft ' ) f I r
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n n - ' ! : rT
c. rce.
Cai . 0 a 2 4 ! ir• ! ts rer. Q i1 . - 1 ! t!
actv it. ah as 4 or
as • l ay c
! ! • •
atCOIdig T O f , fl ; s
en ? an ( ) , • . Car - an ate
of. . - Ie! . & ic
t L u K 1
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B e* - prescn bu g t r % U - i
j : • 0 !
( . ) & OONM (
Prescription Dru g s Not Common l y T hou g ht
to B e Psy choactiv e
M an y


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with Sü rn ctimes

T hrou g hou t j u n ior
hig h school
an d hig h school 1
su ffered from
bad hay fev er. M y
famil y doctor
prescribed an tihistamin es
for me.
T hey defin itel y
work ed, bu t they
made me feel so
bad. Fin al l y ,
I came to prefer
the hay fev er.
I was happier
sn eezin g than be-
in g so depressed
an d l og y .
On ce, whil e in
col l eg e. I took a
twen ty - fiv e- mil l ig ram tabl et of
T horazin e an d I was
amazed at
how simil ar the
effect was to
the an tihistan tin es.
1 hate that
feel in g
I man ag ed to g et
rid of
most of my
al l erg ies by chan g in g
diet an d l ifesty l e.
1 hav en ' t
tak en an an tihistamin e
in y ears.

A n tihistamin es

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1 4 7 M ecil cal I) ru g s

min d.

( Cortison e an d Rel ativ es)
B esides

— that

man y
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M orphin e
rrion es.

M al e

al so — that

— — are

do n ot

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Cou g h Su ppressan ts
T he

I' v e had asthma al l my l ife an d
am al l erg ic to j u st abou t ev ery -
thin g . . . A s a chil d I took a l ot of
codein e for cou g hs. For the past
ten y ears I' v e been on H y codan ,
which I u n derstan d con tain s a
n arcotic [ hy drocodon el . Orig in -
al l y , I took on e tabl et fou r times a
day ; n ow I tak e two fou r times
a day . If I try to cu t
down the dose
I start cou g hin g an d g et real l y
con g ested. A l so, I g et u pset an d
can ' t sl eep.
If! thin k abou t it, I g u ess I
k n ow I' m addicted, bu t I don ' t
l ik e to face that. I' v e n ev er had
an y thin g to do with dru g s. . .
— fifty - two- y ear- ol d

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ref ) M orphin e

1 5 1 L \ J CL II.
G astroin testin al Dru g s
On e
1 ,

B ron chodil ators

— has

A n al g esics
Pharmacol og ists

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1 5 2
A 1 ' th1
Ov er- the- Cou n ter ( OT C) Preparation s
Cou g h Sy ru ps
OT C sy ru ps

be n on n arcotic.

Capsu l es
dru g

Decon g estan ts
On e

i\ l an y
u sers


Su ppressan ts
W e

U ppers
Pu re

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withou t g oin g hu n g r' ;
- -
smadoE sy 1 2 - H OU R
— -
T his

mu l an ts.
as bu y ers. Ol der

Down ers

A n al g esics
A l thou g h


1 5 5 M ediod) fl ru es
H erbal Remedies

* activ e
In g redien t is caffein e.
Its l ik e hav in g two cu ps
of coffee sq u eezed
In to on e l ittl e
W hether y cu re
stu dy in g , driv in g . or
work in g iate. y ctil l stay
al ert tar hairs.
T his

k eeps y ou
g oin g
when the
g oin g g ets
rou g h.
1 5 6
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 5 7 —

n x in , .

! fl C ii' en -


q u al ity them as

Dru g s
Sin ce

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Piracetam k eeps me al ert when I
am driv in g . It al so hel ps me formu -
l ate n ew an d differen t ideas when
l am tak in g essay tests in school .
— twcl l ry - ( mc- y ear- ol d worn an

an d Rel ativ es ( Ox iracetam, A n iracetam,
Pramiracetam, an d Py rog l u tamate)
T hese


( Dehy droepian drosteron e)

( Dimethy l amin oethan ol )
T his

1 5 9 M edical


H y derg in e

( E l depry l . Depren y l )

methamphetamin e
probabl y
( Diapid)

fol l ows

cau sed by hig h doses


1 0 0
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Su g g ested Readin g
T here



E ffectiv en ess

of Dose an d Q u al ity
W hen

1 2
Probl ems with Dru g s

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Dru g s

— al l

Probl ems
A cu te Probl ems
Ov erdosin g


A n al y sis A n on y mou s

. : Ii! ( —
Ph arm C hem,
Dept. 4 4 , 3 9 2 5 B ohan n on Driv e. M en l o
Park , CA 9 4 0 2 5 .
I 4 1 5 )
' i. i. ,
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( ( ) A l ( ) ! J J u ) J fl e

— - - - — —
. .
. - - -
— - _

Chron ic
M edical
Probl ems
A n y


in to

— - -

an d Preg n an cy
W omen
— — du rin g

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; r; , hin e 1 6 6 I
1 6 7 / robh' , n . c I
Psy chiatric Probl ems
T he

reaction s.

Paran oia

y ou n g

an d B ehav ioral Probl ems
Dru g - tak in g

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I g u ess my dru g of choice is win e.
iwo g l asses of g ood win e pu t
me in j u st the rig ht state after a
try in g day . J ohn drin k s win e, too.
bu t for g ettin g hig h he prefers
marij u an a.
In the past few y ears, ou r dif-
feren t preferen ces in dru g s hav e
become a probl em for u s. M y n ot
l ik in g marij u an a separates me
from J ohn ' s cl osest frien ds an d
weak en s ou r rel ation ship. I don ' t
thin k married peopl e hav e to do
ev ery thin g tog ether, bu t this is
somethin g importan t, an d my in -
abil ity to share J ohn ' s hig hs both-
ers me. A l so, I fin d I resen t his
smok in g frien ds, sin ce I' m the ou t-
sider, the ' straig ht wife, ' when
they are arou n d. Vet I k n ow that
it I obj ect, I wil l j u st driv e him
ou t of the hou se to g et hig h with
them el sewhere.
— thirty - fiv e- y ear- ol d

1 6 9 Prohl en q . s with

Probl ems
T he


M on ey is the main reason why
my frien ds an d Ideal dru g s. A l so,
there' s a l ot of statu s in it. I mean ,
if y ou ' v e g ot mon ey an d dru g s
y ou ' v e au tomatical l y g ot power
an d prestig e. Peopl e say y ou ' re
crazy to tak e the risk , bu t at
the same time they ' re en v iou s
of y ou , an d that' s the tru th.
— sev en

Chil d

Probl ems
G ettin g

— prej u dices


I hav e been a crimin al ev er sin ce
the day I smok ed my first j oin t.
— forty -

T o thin k that a man shou l d be al -
l owed a g u n an d n ot a dru g !
— A l ex an der

ion of dru g s
sig n ifican tl y
dru g s
re n o stu dies
whil e they
the resu l ts
hen it
sk , an d that
men tal
sy choactiv e

in cl u din g

man -
n of

su hiect

1 7 1 Probl ems
an d A ddiction



T he

certain ex ten t peopl e cal l choose what they arc depen den t on .
T c, l , acco addicts who g iv e u p smok in g by becomin g compu l siv e
og g ers may n ot he an y freer, bu t they may l iv e l on g er, he heal th -
icr an d feel better abou t themsel v es.
Depen den ce on dru g s may be better than depen den ce on some
thin g s an d worse than depen den ce on others
bu t su ch v al u e
j u dg men ts are difficu l t to mak e withou t referen ce to particu l ar
in div idu al s an d situ ation s. Is it better to be depen den t on sk y div -
in g or sn ortin g cok e? On mastu rbatin g or eatin g chocol ate? On
fig htin g or shootin g heroin ?
G ood rel ation ships with dru g s do n ot in v ol v e depen den ce.
On ce y ou become depen den t on a dru g it may be difficu l t or
impossibl e to g et back in to a g ood rel ation ship with it. M ost
ex perts on al cohol ism say that al cohol ics can n ot l earn to be social
drin k ers; their on l y choice is between con tin u ed al cohol ism an d
abstin en ce. M ost peopl e who smok e cig arettes n on addictiv el y
n ev er were addicted smok ers; they formed g ood rel ation ships
with cig arettes an d main tain ed them. T he su rest way to av oid
depen den ce on dru g s is n ev er to u se them, If y ou do u se dru g s an d
wan t to av oid becomin g depen den t, y ou wil l hav e to tak e steps to
create g ood rel ation ships with them rig ht from the start.
T he treatmen t of dru g addiction has become big bu sin ess.
Priv ate treatmen t cen ters charg e thou san ds of dol l ars a week to
g et peopl e off cocain e, al cohol , marij u an a, n arcotics! an d tran q u il -
izers. T wel v e- step prog rams model ed on A l cohol ics A n on y mou s
hav e prol iferated in al l cities, an d special prog rams n ow ex ist to
treat the rel ativ es of depen den t person s
A du l t Chil dren of A l -
cohol ics an d Codepen den ts A n on y mou s, for ex ampl e. Despite the
boom in the treatmen t in du stry the rate of addiction has on l y
in creased.
W e thin k addiction is a basic hu man probl em whose roots g o
v ery deep. M u st of u s hav e at some poin t been wou n ded n o
matter what k in d of famil y we g rew u p in , or what k in d of society
we l iv e in . W e l on g for a sen se of compl eten ess an d whol en ess,
an d most often search for satisfaction ou tside of ou rsel v es. Iron i-
cal l y whatev er satisfaction we g ain from dru g s, food, sex , mon ey
an d other
sou rces' of pl easu re real l y comes from in side of u s.
T hat is, we proj ect ou r
power on to ex tern al su bstan ces an d ac-
tiv ities, al l owin g them to mak e
u s feel better temporaril y . T his
is a v ery stran g e sort of mag ic. W e g iv e away ou r power in ex -
chan g e for a tran sien t sen se of whol en ess then su ffer becau se
the obj ects of ou r crav in g seem to con trol
u s. A ddiction can be
cu red on l y when we con sciou sl y ex perien ce this
process) recl aim
ou r power an d recog n ize that ou r wou n ds mu st be hea] ed from
within .
Su g g ested Readin g
T he au tobiog raphical hook s l isted in the Su g g ested Readin g sec-
tion s of precedin g chapters g iv e firsthan d description s of probl ems
with v an ou s dru g s.
T wo book s written for a hig h- school au dien ce are Ou r
Dru g s:
l atter is discu ssed in the Su g g ested
Readin g section for Chapter 4 . For a fiction al accoimt of dru g
depen den ce amon g hig h- school stu den ts, see G o
Y ork : A v on B ook s, 1 9 7 2 ) , which was made in to a tel ev ision mov ie.
Con seq u en ces
M ichael D. Newcomb an d Peter M . B en tl er
( Newbu ry Park , Cal iforn ia: SA G E Pu bl ication s, 1 9 8 8 ) is an an al y -
sis based u pon a stu dy that fol l owed 7 0 0 teen - ag ers in L os A n g el es
Cou n ty for eig ht y ears. See al so A
Pattern s l ames L . Soren sen an d G u il l ermo
B emal San Fran cisco: H arper & Row, 1 9 8 7 ) .
In ou r society women are especial l y v u l n erabl e to dru g de-
pen den ce. A n en l ig hten in g discu ssion of the reason s for their
v u l n erabil ity can he fou n d in T he M u riel Nel l is
( B oston : H ou g hton M iffl in , 1 9 8 0 ) .
Stan ton Peel e' s T he A ddiction : Compu l siv e E x pe-
M assachu setts: L ex in g -
ton B ook s, 1 9 8 5 ) is on e of the most in sig htfu l commen taries on
addictiv e behav ior. See al so Chapter 7 of A n drew W eil ' s Natu ral

H ou g hton M iffl in , 1 9 9 0 ] .
Some in sig ht in to the dan g ers of dru g deal in g an d smu g g l in g is
prov ided by two en tertain in g book s of tru e- l ife adv en tu re: Robert
Sabbag ' s Sn owb] in d:
Y ork : B ohhs- M erril l , 1 9 7 6 } an d J erry K amstra' s W eed Y ork :
H arper & Row, 1 9 7 4 ) , which con cern s marij u an a. T he fil m M id-
a horrify in g story of the con seq u en ces of
g ettin g bu sted for dru g smu g g l in g abroad.
For an an al y sis of how ou r dru g l aws create more probl ems
than they sol v e, see T he H on est
Norv a] M orris an d G ordon H awk in s ( Chicag o: U n iv er-
sity of Chicag o Press 1 9 6 9 ) . A readabl e history of how those l aws
came in to bein g is g iv en in T he
Narcotic Dav id F New H av en , Con n ecticu t:
Y al e U n iv ersity Press, 1 9 7 3 ) . Dru g
J ames B . B ak al ar an d L ester G rin spoon ( Cambridg e, E n g l an d:
Cambridg e U n iv ersity Press, 1 9 S4 ) is a bal an ced an al y sis of the
arg u men ts for an d ag ain st v ariou s ty pes of dru g con trol .
1 7 2
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _
— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- 1 7 3
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1 3
A l tern ativ es to
T ak in g Dru g s
A s

7 ak 2 n g

ex perien ces

by the brain ' s
differen t


psil ocy hin

a" en thu siastic
psy chedel ics
when he the facu l ty
at l ater

From Chocol ate to M orphin e

G u il d)
peopl e dou bt their own
an d fear their abil ities are n ot su fficien t to meet the deman ds of
l ife.
feel in g

mak in g

— a



1 7 1 A l tern ativ es to T hk in g Dru g s

— an d

isn ' t

Readin g

Speak in g in ton g u es mak es me
hig h. It mak es me ex perien ce
an al tered state of con sciou s-
n ess. It l ets me g l impse an other
real ity — in fin ite real ities — be-
y on d the scope of my n ormal '
state of Con sciou sn ess.
— thiT ty '

Fin al W ords

1 4
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ex ag g eration

— say ,
— we

1 8 1 T hIhI!
tiu n assoerl tiIl g with

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treatmen t

First Person A ccou n ts
becau se
Commen ts
sol id



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First- Person A ccou n ts
an d Commen ts
Dru g s in H ig h School A l ot

— twen ty - eig ht- y ear- ol d
Coffee Can tata J ohan n



con tin u es

A ppen dix
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1 8 6 _ • • _ _ - . .
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. 1 ?
Y es Y es G reatest W
an d if y ou win me hav e coffee, l et
W el l , pretty

ex hau sted] Now l isten ! From y ou r dress al l owan ce I wil l tak e
on e hal f. Y ou r n ex t birthday shou l d soon he
n o presen t wil l
y ou g et from me.
. . . how cru el ! B u t I wil l forg iv e
y ou an d Con sol ation
fin d in Coffee. .
Father: Now, heark en to my l ast word. If Coffee
y ou mu st hav e,
then a hu sban d y ou shal l n ot hav e,
Dau g hter: 0 father! 0 horror! Not a hu sban d?
Father: I swear it, an d 1 mean
Dau g hter: 0 harsh decree! 0 cru el choice, between a hu sban d a] id
my J oy . I' l l striv e n o my coffee I su rren der.
Father: A t l ast y ou hav e reg ain ed y ou r sen ses.
[ T he dau g hter sin g s a mel an chol y aria of resig n ation . j
T en or: A n d n ow behol d the happy father
as forth he g oes in search
of a hu sban d, rich an d han dsome, for his dau g hter,
B u t the crafty
l ittl e maiden has q u ite made
u p her min d, that, crc she g iv es
con sen t to marriag e, her l ov er mu st mak e a sol emn promise that
she may hav e her coffee when ev er an d wherev er she pl eases,
Coffee H as Nev er Fail ed M e
In the morn in g I drin k two cu ps of
coffee. If I don ' t I fee] irritabl e. If
I drin k three cu ps, I g et a l ittl e
speedy bu t with two! feel iu st abou t rig ht.
If I drin k coffee after abou t three in the aftern oon ,
I can n ot fal l
asl eep when l ik e to abou t el ev en - thirty . If I drin k coffee
after din n er,
as l itt] e as a hal f cu p, I l ie awak e l on g past midn ig ht. 1 ff hav e
thin g importan t or risk y to do the
n ex t day , especial l y some pu bl ic
performan ce coffee l ate in the day in v ariabl y
In teracts with my n er-
v ou sn ess to produ ce stark in son i n ia.
T his sl eepl essn ess after coffee feel s pharmacol og ical ,
I can reach a

son ic of the fl oatin g state that
u su al l y
sl eep for me, bu t then I iu st han g
on the edg e, n ev er
q u ite sl ippin g in to u n con sciou sn ess W hen I
g et u p the n ex t morn in g
an g ry at my sel f for n ot hav in g sl ept) , I feel rel ax ed hu t
n ot rested by
my hou rs in bed.
W hen I k n ow that I hav e
a l on g driv e ahead of me, on e that wil l
mean driv in g l ate in to the n ig ht or straig ht throu g h
it, I don ' t drin k
coffee for two or three day s before.
1 settl e for l ower doses of caffein e
in tea or col a. ) On the n ig ht of the
driv e 1 drin k coffee twice, H rst a
cu p or two when I

two cu ps or
more abou t three hou rs l ater. If I hav e been drin k in g
coffee steadil y
for the few day s befn re, I
seen , to g et iess stimu l an t effect from
drin k in g it at n ig ht. It is al most
a matter of " sav in g u p' the coffee
I wu u d Ii a v i' eon su med on the t w r three day s precedin g an d
the ii drin k in g it on a particu l ar n ig ht to k eep me awak e on the toad.
U sed in this way , coffee has been a g reat hel p to me an d has n ev er
fail ed me.
— tin

A ddiction M y wife an d I hav e dru n k a l ot of coffee for man y
y ears. I a cig arette smok er bu t stopped with g reat
difficu l ty
twel v e y ears ag o; she stil l smok es, an d I don ' t thin k she wil l ev er he
abl e to stop. beg in the day with two cu ps of coffee an d drin k abou t
six more cu ps u n til din n ertime. Recen tl y we started drin k in g
fein ated coffee with din n er, becau se we fou n d the reg u l ar k in d made
it for u s to fal l asl eep at bedtime.
A few y ears ag o I dev el oped a shak e in my l eft han d. T he doctors
cal l it a tremor an d hav e n o ex pl an ation or treatmen t for it. hr the
past y ear it g ot worse an d made me sel f- con sciou s. A
n u mber of
peopl e tol d me that caffein e mig ht be cau sin g it or, at l east, mak in g it
worse, so 1 thou g ht it wou l d he a g ood idea to cu t it ou t.
Sin ce! n ev er
thou g ht that coffee did mu ch for me or was mu ch of a dru g , I
l ev er
thou g ht it wou l d be hard for me to stop.
M y al so thou g ht of coffee as j u st a pl easan t drin k that we
l ik ed, an d she ag reed that we shou l d switch to decaffein ated com-
pl etel y . So we did. I didn ' t n otice an y differen ce the first day , bu t on
the secon d day I g ot v ery tired at my office an d started to g et a had
headache. I decided to come home earl y . W hen I arriv ed, I fou n d my
wife l y in g on the cou ch g roan in g . She said she had on e of the worst
headaches of her l ife an d cou l dn ' t ev en stan d u p. Sin ce my headache
was steadil y g ettin g worse, I real ized we mu st be ex perien cin g a
reaction to l ack of caffein e. I my wife that, bu t refu sed to
bel iev e I it. I to k itchen
of stron g coffee. W ithin ten min u tes drin k in g
we fel t ou r headaches as if by Fel t
l ik e sel v es. It aston ished how we
my wife cou l d scarcel y bel iev e sin ce ev en l ess
aware than 1 can addictin g dru g .
we hav e been wean ou rsel v es off caffein e by
g radu al l y decaffein ated for reg u l ar. ou r
hal f so hu t can n ot the cu ps
the y ear of try in g . determin ed do it,
howev er, an d I k n ow wel l the addiction what it
was g av e u s motiv ation we n eeded,

the Chocol ate H abit
Fiv e y ears ag o, hopin g to k ick a
chocol ate habit that was sig n ifican tl y affectin g my l ife, I en rol ] ed in a
prog ram at the Shick Cen ter for the Con trol of
Smok in g , A l cohol ism,
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1 8 8
1 8 9
an d Ov ereatin g , in L os A n g el es. I was then thirty - three. I cou l d n or
remember the l ast time I had man ag ed to g et throu g h a whol e day
withou t eatin g chocol ate in on e form or an other u su al l y in q u an tities
most peopl e wou l d reg ard as ex cessiv e if appal l in g .
n ot ov erweig ht, I in du l g ed man y


— v an il l a, for
— appeal

with Cocain e I first tried cocain e in the earl y

acq u ired.

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1 9 0
from bad sin ce cok e made me u rin ate
hu t

throu g h E u ropean H istory I was miserabl e

— as

Speed Freak I

1 9 1 A ppeiidx

— forty
in Col l eg e: A n other View A s

— say

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A "

— forty - n in e- y ear- aid man , corporate ex ecu tiv e
A Non addicted Smok er L ik e M ark T wain I fin d

when ev er!

— thirty - sev en - y ear- ol d

v ersu s Cig arettes T hese

— n ot


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A ppen ciE x
1 9 4 1 9 5 A
W el l , to mak e a l on g story short, I tail ed the test — n ot
hu t repeatedl y al most ev ery day for ten straig ht mon ths in
H ad my l apses been matters merel y between me an d my con -
scien ce, they wou l d hav e been bad en ou g h. B u t as I said my

— forty - on e- y ear- ol d
L ik e A l cohol I l ik e al cohoL It

del ig htfu l


— six ty - two- y ear- ol d
Drin k in g H abits I was six teen when I first g ot dru n k ,

Ov erdose Down ers T he

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9 6
treatmen t

— stick in g

— thirty - eig ht
1 9 1
E x perien ces with Q u aal u de M an y l il y trien ds beg an
methaq u al on e,

— j u st

on Val iu m I hope
u n iv ersity


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Val iu m as a T ool I first

A n esthetic Rev el ation I on ce

— Ol iv er W en del l fl u ) In CS ( 1 8 0 9 — 1 8 9 4 ) , A merican phy sician
an d au thor, from a l ectu re g iv er? in 1 8 7 0
T he Need for Opiates T he ev er


n eed

— thirty - fou r- y ear- ol d
A ddiction I started


t v - t W ( ? - VeU ma ii, iVCT S ty professor
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A ppen dix 2 0 0
2 0 1 I

an d Psil ocy bin I hav e

an d

DM 1 Disaster T he ev er

— thirty - fiv e- y ear- ol d
Vision s M y

col ou r
— n ow

Smok ed a T oad In 1 9 9 0

cou l dn ' t

— thirty - three- y ear- ol d
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T he L ov e Dru g s I first thou g ht
ev er

man ,
Psy chedel ic T herapy A s a cl in ical psy chol og ist

Pot I smok ed marij u an a

— paran oia,

— forty - on e- y ear- ol d
an d Driv in g Y ou wan t

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A ppen diX
2 0 4

l an d

as M edicin e T wen ty

G asol in e On e

2 0 5 : 1
accou n t G reat G od
Fu r? ,

W el l I was

W hat
W el l ,

A n d

T hen I beg an

W hy
B ecau se
A n d

M ary

W el l ,

B u l l et,

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2 0 7
T aj ar; Ok ay B u l l et, that' s al l for n OW . y ou for bein g so
tru thfu l with me.

in the Pool I was first in trodu ced to amy l

— twen ty - y ear- ol d stu den t
In Datu ra Cou n try I was on a campin g

tel l

an d


mu st

— wen t man , ran ch han d
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2 0 8 2 0 9 I
I A te the Pan ther A rn an ita On

mau i

— thirty - on e- y ear- ol d
E x perien ces with PCP I' v e

G ood A bou t PCP I' v e tried
tak en

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2 1 0
to smok e a oin t. I didn ' t k n ow came al on g an d produ ced
j oin t. I- Ic l it it an d han ded it to mc. I took a deep on it an d on l y
n oticed the taste of PCP 1 had the smok e in my l u n g s- I cou l dn ' t
bel iev e wou l d do that to me, bu t before I cou l d say
an y thin g ! I was cal l ed the
I I cou l d
hardl y
II I ex perien ced

dru g . fou n d

Su mmer Soon after I beg an work in a pharmacol og y l ab,
I met a cowork er who shared my desire to al ter ordin ary con sciou s-
n ess by mean s of dru g s. On e su mmer day du rin g ou r l u n ch break , he
han ded me the pack ag e in sert from a box of k etan iin e. A fter readin g
the precau tion s warn in g of possibl e hal l u cin ation s, del iriu m, an d
dissociativ e states we decided to try it that ev en in g .
W e wan ted to in j ect a su han esthetic dose, bu t n either of u s k n ew
how to cal cu l ate a recreation al ' dose or how to g iv e in iection s. In
retrospect, I bel iev e it was this u n certain ty that made ou r first trip on
k etamin e on e of the best. Robert shot first, in j ectin g the dru g in to the
mu scl e of his l eg . T hen I took abou t twice as mu ch, in j ectin g it in to
my arm mu scl e.
W ithin fiv e min u tes of the in j ection I came on to the dru g . A t
first, al l my org an s fel t l ik e l ead especial l y my stomach, an d I
thou g ht 1 mig ht hav e to v omit. T hese phy sical sen sation s q u ick l y
g av e way to an in credibl e dreaml ik e state. I l ay down an d tried to
tal k , bu t my words were g arbl ed, an d my mou th fel t n u mb. T here
al so seemed to be a del ay between speak in g an d hearin g what I said,
so that I k ept repeatin g my sel f in a v ain attempt to catch u p' an d
hear what I j u st said.
T he brick wal l s of the room beg an to v ibrate. I had to cl ose my
ey es to av oid an other rou n d of n au sea. W ith my ey es cl osed I en tered
a n ew dimen sion fil l ed with mu l ticol ored trian g l es, rotatin g cl ock -
wise, W hen I tried to g et u p an d wal k , the fl oor heav ed u p an d down ,
remin iscen t of a boat on a stormy sea. I sat down an d fel t detached
from my phy sical bein g , l apsin g in to a state of semicon sciou sn ess.
T his l asted for what seemed l ik e hou rs) bu t by the time I retu rn ed to
n ear- n ormal real ity , on l y forty - fiv e min u tes had passed sin ce the
in j ection .
2 1 1
T his H rst ex perien ce in spired Robert an d me to repeat ou r ex pl o-
ration s with k etamin e. W e took it ev ery day for the n ex t two mon ths.
It an in terestin g time. I hav en ' t u sed the dru g sin ce then .
— . wen
to Cou g h Pil l s I' v e had asthma al l my l ife an d am al l erg ic
to l u st abou t ev ery thin g . A l l erg ic sk in rashes an d asthma are my
big g est been in the hospital for the asthma a l ot
times an d to con trol it I hav e to a l ot of medication , in cl u din g
cortison e pil l s for cou g hin g .
A s a chil d I l ot of codein e for cou g hs. For the past ten y ears
I' v e H y codan , con tain s a [ hy dro-
Orig in al l y I on e tabl et fou r times a day ; n ow
III cu t the I start an d
real l y con g ested. A l so) u pset an d can ' t sl eep.
I it, I g u ess I bu t I l ik e
that. I' v e n ev er had an y thin g to do with an d n o on e in my
famil y peopl e I wou l d thin k of me an M ost
doctors g iv e me the F- Iy codan withou t too man y q u estion s, bu t
sometimes I' v e to sev eral differen t on es to g et en ou g h prescrip-
tion s so that I hav e to worry abou t ru n n in g ou t. I I
try to stop the H y codan , I can face the day
it. I can do.
fl / tv - I
W on ders of Su dafed I su spect most peopl e tak e an tihista-
min es l u st becau se they hav e brain washed by the pharmaceu ti-
cal in du stry . con cl u ded l on g that I wou l d mu ch rather pu t u p
with sy mptoms of a than en du re the depression an tihista-
min es g iv e me.
ag o, I came down a head col d j u st as a l ow
pressu re ov er the E ast
on e of my to c1 osc a so of con stan t tu g g in g at my
it was becomin g I con su l ted my l ocal pharmacist, who,
hearin g of my av ersion to an tihistamin u s, recommen ded Su dafed.

had n ev er heard of
T he Su dafed work ed rig ht dry in g u p my sin u ses
an d u n bl ock in g the con g ested ear withou t produ cin g an y of the hated
effects of It real l y zapped than
coffee. Su dafed 1 5 stimu l attn g thou g h n ow
when ev er I hav e a tak e it too in day ) be
abl e to asl eep that n ig ht. I g reat dru g an d am su rprised
more peopl e don ' t k n ow it.
forty - y ear- ol d
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wel l
piracetam at doses of on l y 8 0 0 mg P that I decided to g iv e her a smal l
raise so she cou l d afford it. She tak es piracetam in stead of headin g for
the coffee tak es it is
an d in tel l ig en t actin g ,
empl oy ee.
I first H y derg in e six y ears ag o with some fascin atin g resu l ts.
v isit to see my at Christmas, he an d I tak in g 9
per day of H y derg in e in the hope it hel p
l on g - term T he resu l ts were apparen t to u s both within two
day s. H e was in his forties an d cou l d remember ev en ts from when he
was in twen ties. T hey were as cl ear in if
pen ed y esterday . . . . I was in my
the chil dhood y ears. A u n iq u e been
presen ted to u s to sit down an d share in the j oy s that ou r l ife
brou g ht u s. W hat a
Du rin g my fin al y ear as an u n derg radu ate I decided to chan g e maj ors
from psy chol og y mathematics. I
an d I k n ew I had to fin ish in on e y ear an d then g et a j ob. I started
u sin g v asopressin , pemol in e, an d a g ood
v itamin with l arg e amou n ts of chol in e. T his particu l ar com-
en ormou sl y I fl ew that
y ear tak in g a fu l l of u pper- l ev el each se-
mester. Not on l y did I compl ete the maj or in the al l otted time, bu t
my g rades were better than I was u sed to, I was g ettin g A ' s in stead of
a In
words, ev ery thin g wen t perfectl y accordin g to pl an an d I real l y
don ' t thin k I cou l d hav e don e it withou t the smart dru g s.
abov e

Dru g s: A Dissen tin g View I thin k my min d is j u st fin e, an d
i' v e g ot a g reat memory . B u t I' d heard SE ) mu ch abou t these smart
dru g s, I thou g ht I' d g iv e a try . First, I took a
mon th, a hig h dose: 2 0 mil l ig rams a day It cost a fortu n e, an d do y ou
k n ow what the resu l t was? Nothin g . A bsol u tel y n othin g . as
wel l been swal l owin g corn
Nex t I E l depry l . frien d it
was ag ain fl oored by the price. T his on e I tried off an d on for three
week s, Nothin g .
Fin al l y for the Vasopressin n asal
a day for two week s. T his time I did g et an effect; it made my

n ose ru n l ik e a fau cet. I meal ] , n on stop, day an d n ig ht. A s for the
in tel l ig en ce an d ahil ity to con cen trate an d re
member, I an y of occu rrin g . thin k
in the fu tu re.

Poison in g Cof ton poison rn g the term u sed to describe
the body ' s reaction to a particl e of fiber, l ik e cotton , or of some other
foreig n su bstan ce that g ets in j ected in to the bl oodstream. It u su al l y
appears in two to fou r hou rs after in j ection an d cau ses mu scl e
cramps, chil l s, col d sweats, an d n au sea. A fter two or three hou rs of
discomfort, it passes away , l eav in g the v ictim ex hau sted.
T his my of cotton poison in g after tal k in g
peop] e hav e ex perien ced it after ex perien cin g M y
reaction was differen t in that it k ept recu rrin g . I stil l don ' t
u n derstan d it.
On e n ig ht I was with two frien ds, an d we were shootin g some
dru g . I don ' t remember whether it was Dern erol , Dil au did, or heroin
that we were u sin g , bu t it was somethin g of that n atu re. W e pu t the
dru g in a spoon an d u sed steamin g hot water to dil u te it; then we
drew the l iq u id in to a sy rin g e a piece of cig arette fil ter. W e
al l u sed the same n eedl e, an d we cl ean ed it thorou g hl y between u ses
with steamin g hot water. E v ery thin g was don e in the n ormal fashion
an d we al l g ot
two an d a hal f hou rs I beg an to feel col d. I tu rn ed off
cool er an d pu t on an ex tra shirt, an d! fel t a l ittl e better. It didn ' t
tak e l on g before I was col d ag ain . my if too, were
col d, bu t they said they were v ery warm.
I g ot col der an d col der an d brok e ou t in g oose hu mps. I beg an to
shiv er an d break ou t in a sweat. M y mu scl es were v ery ten se from the
col dn ess, an d I fel t as if I was waitin g for a bu s in a win dy sn owstorm
withou t a coat. I was cl u tchin g at my chest, shiv erin g , an d the mu s-
cl es in my shou l ders beg an to cramp from bein g so ten se.
T hen I started to sweat v ery heav il y an d beg an v omitin g . M y head
was spin n in g an d throbbin g . I k n ow what was g oin g on .
On e of my frien ds said I had cotton poison in g . H e said that he had
had it before an d there was n o way of stoppin g it. It wou l d probabl y
l ast an other hou r or two. H e wen t in to the bathroom an d ran a hot
bath for me that was the on l y thin g that wou l d hel p, he said. It did
hel p some. I was stil l col d, bu t the hot water rel iev ed the back ache. I
k ept sweatin g an d throwin g u p, thou g h. I don ' t k n ow how l on g it
took , bu t I was fin al l y abl e to g et ou t of the tu b an d g o to bed,
compl etel y ex hau sted,
T he n ex t day I was ok ay , bu t the day after the whol e thin g came
back , j u st the same, an d I hadn ' t shot an y more dru g s j u st smok ed a
l ot of pot an d dran k beer. Ov er the n ex t few day s, I k ept hav in g
recu rren ces an d they k ept g ettin g worse. I thou g ht I was g oin g to die
a few times. No on e had ev er heard of cotton poison in g recu rrin g l ik e
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ix 2 1 4
2 1 5
that. I fin al l y W en t to a doctor hu t he had n ev er ev en heard of cotton
poison in g , an d I had to ex pl ain it to him. hel p at al l .
Fin al l y , after I g ot sick ev ery other day for a week the whal e thin g
wen t it sin ce.
I' v e

pain s. I' v e don e hal l u cin og en s were stran g e I on ce l ay
down ou t
day s at a time

prison , n o dru g dru g - rel ated ex perien ce been so
to deal with, so u n pl easan t an d so pain fu l as my episode of
cotton poison in g .
twen ty - three- y ear- ol d
Reaction s A s a doctor in terested in dru g reaction s, I' v e had
occasion to treat man y cases of dru g pan ic. I work ed in an emerg en cy
room in San Fran cisco du rin g the big , earl y day s of pot an d acid an d
u sed to see al l k in ds of peopl e come in thin k in g they were g oin g crazy
or dy in g . I soon l earn ed that these reaction s were more psy chol og ical
than pharmacol og ical .
On e time, a father an d mother came in with their teen - ag e dau g h-
ter. T he g irl was a pot smok er an d had been pressu rin g her mother to
try it. Fin al l y the mother ag reed hu t, sin ce she didn ' t k n ow how to
smok e, the dau g hter bak ed u p some pot brown ies. T he mother ate
on e. A n hou r l ater she was hy sterical , thin k in g she had been poison ed
an d was l osin g her min d. M ean whil e, the dau g hter had eaten three
brown ies an d j u st fel t v ery hig h. B efore I had a chan ce to do an y thin g ,
a staff psy chiatrist came down an d g ot cau g ht u p in the famil y hy s-
teria. T he father, who had come home from work earl y , was the
worst of the three, pl eadin g with u s to sav e his wife. ) T he psy chiatrist
g av e the mother an in j ection of T horazin e an d admitted her to the
psy chiatric ward. She stay ed ag itated an d pan ick ed for fou r day s. I
cou l d hav e tal k ed her down in an hou r, if I had j u st been abl e to g et
her away from her hu sban d an d cal m her.
T he best method I hit u pon for deal in g with dru g pan ics in the
emerg en cy room was to l et the patien ts k n ow I did n ot con sider their
probl ems seriou s. W hen a cou pl e of teen - ag ers wou l d come in with a
strick en frien d I' d j u st say , Ok ay , hav e a seat an d rel ax , I' l l be with
y ou as soon as I can - " T hen I' d mostl y ig n ore them. W hen they
deman ded atten tion for the crisis, I' d say , L ook , there arc peopl e here
who real l y hav e thin g s wron g with them that I hav e to deal with.
Y ou r frien d is j u st u pset an d al l he n eeds is to cal m down . So g et him
to breathe deepl y an d reg u l arl y an d I' l l come back as soon as I tak e
care of the real probl ems in here, "
U su al l y by the time I' d come back , the v ictim wou l d be l ook in g
better, an d the whol e g rou p wou l d j u st wan t to mak e a g racefu l ex it
k ron i the hospital . Of cou rse, if its an ol der person thin k in g they are
dy in g of a heart attack or somethin g , y ou shou l d g o throu g h the
motion s of ex amin in g them an d tel l in g them firml y that their phy si-
cal heal th is fin e. I n ev er g iv e tran q u il izers or sedativ es to pan ic
v ictims, j u st reassu ran ce an d cal min g v ibes. T he worst thin g y ou can
do is g iv e the impression that y ou thin k somethin g is real l y wron g .
— forty - y ear- ol d
T astes in Dru g s M y hu sban d an d! met in col l eg e in the
l ate 1 9 6 0 s. W e were both in v ol v ed in an tiwar pol ities an d did some
ex perimen tin g with g rou p l iv in g an d u sin g dru g s, mostl y marij u an a
an d psy chedel ics. I fou n d the ex perien ces in terestin g bu t after a
whil e did n ot wan t to repeat them freq u en tl y . M y hu sban d, on the
other han d, thou g ht marij u an a was the g reatest thin g he had ev er
discov ered, Smok in g it became an importan t ritu al for him.
Ov er the y ears con tin u ed to smok e it. On ce in a whil e, I j oin
him, bu t I' v e come to fin d! don ' t l ik e the effect al l that mu ch. I can t
con cen trate wel l when I' m ston ed an d sometimes feel men tal l y scat-
tered an d v u l n erabl e, I g u ess my dru g of choice is win e. T wo g l asses
of g ood win e pu t me in j u st the rig ht state after a try in g day . fohn
drin k s win e, too, bu t for g ettin g hig h he prefers marij u an a.
In the past few y ears, ou r differen t preferen ces in dru g s hav e be-
come a probl em for u s. M y n ot l ik in g marij u an a separates me from
J ohn ' s cl osest frien ds an d weak en s ou r rel ation ship. I don ' t thin k
married peopl e hav e to do ev ery thin g tog ether, bu t this is somethin g
importan t, an d my in abil ity to share fohn ' s hig hs bothers me. A l so, I
fin d I resen t his smok in g frien ds, sin ce I' m the ou tsider, the straig ht
wife" when they are arou n d. Y et I k n ow that if I obj ect, I wil l j u st
driv e him ou t of the hou se to g et hig h with them el sewhere.
W e try to tal k abou t ou r probl em bu t hav e n ot come u p with an
an swer. I j u st don ' t l ik e marij u an a an d he does. It may seem l ik e a
l ittl e matter, bu t when we are hav in g a hard time with each other, it
comes to sy mbol ize al l of the differen ces that k eep u s from sharin g
fu l l y with each other, an d I can see it harmin g ou r marriag e. I don ' t
k n ow other cou pl es who hav e this probl em.
— thirty - fl v e- y ear- o! d
M other' s Con cern E v en thou g h my son has a l earn in g disabil ity ,
which al way s made thin g s hard for him at school , it n ev er occu rred
to me whil e he was g rowin g u p that he wou l dn ' t tu rn ou t al l rig ht in
the en d. Now, howev er, I' m n ot so su re. In the three y ears sin ce he
first became in v ol v ed with dru g s, startin g at ag e fou rteen , he has been
arrested twice for bizarre behav ior) an d hospital ized three times, the
l ast time for a period of more than eig ht mon ths. A l thou g h his sev ere
probl ems beg an when he first tried L SD, n ow ev en pot can trig g er a
psy chotic episode.
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2 1 6
U n l ik e his frien ds, an d ev en his y ou n g er brother, my son can n ot
han dl e dru g s. For him they are simpl y poison s. this.
the social pressu re on him to tak e dru g s is often more than he can
withstan d. an d my repeated appeal s, his frien ds
con tin u e to su ppl y with dru g s, ev en g oin g so far as smu g g l e
them in to the hospital the l ast time he was there.

E cstasy of L ov e
W here,


to Ru n n in g I watched my roommate

an d

2 1 1 A
H e al so it was the g reatest hig h
his l ife. So I g u ess I wasn ' t when , l ater,
train in g marathon , A fter he
of marathon s ev ery an d
al way s either them, ru n n in g recov erin g
from H is tome aM beg an to driv e
G reg ru n an d 1 0 0 - mil e then
hu t his
Sometimes when
he' s circu m-
stan ces, an d to
l ik e
become l ife
heal thy he n o in sig ht
or an y on e who tries him
abou tit.
— twen ty - six - y ear- ol d
T u rn M e On I

in T on g u es I ton g u es.

— bey on d —
tak es

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I was on ce in a remote wil den icas area of B ritiu b Col u mbia oii

in fin ite real ities

' J Iu aaaI y
n al s.
Sl an g
hou se: A ty pe stron g

prin cipl e: T he

A n

In ten se
In referen ce

T he a

A l ocal ized

Refrain in g

Peopl e

acid: T he v in eg ar.
A stimu l atory

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G l ossarY
2 2 0
2 2 1

A n y

L oss
Sl an g
H av in g


du st: Sl an g
tran q u il izer: Sl an g

Pharmaceu tical

L ack

U n con sciou sn ess


trip: A n

B arbitu rates,
Cy cl ic

In fl ammation

Sl an g


A n

A n

Cen tral n erv ou s sy stem: T he brain
A l ow- g rowin g pl an t the

T he treatmen t

T he

Chron ic: Persistin g

Sl an g

su bstan ces: Pl an ts an d chemical s l isted

A n in ten se

T o
T he tran sparen t,

A smok abl e,
T o ex perien ce

T o adu l terate

Dru g s cau se
A state of men tal
Fev er
In abil ity

Dru g s that

M el an chol y
T o recov er from

I) Psy choactiv e

U No l on g er
n ow,
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B arbitu rates,
Di' s: Del iriu m
from an d other men -
A PCP- l aced

T hin
A chron ic

dru g s: Dru g s
A protein l iv in g

On e a g rou p

A feel in g g reat
Sl an g dose mood- al terin g

A recu rren ce sy mptoms

ou t: T o pan ic
A smok abl e v erb,
G amma- amin o- bu ty ric

Sl an g
tract: T he tu bu l ar

G ram: A u n it

T he perception somethin g

Dru g s that stimu l ate

mescal in e,

Sl an g

oil : A dark ,

A person

shops: Stores that

In fl ammation of
v iru s.

A n al tered

Sl an g
A chemical

A bn ormal l y
T he con dition of

A smok abl e
sy stem: T hose

A characteristic

In abil ity to sl eep.
T he state poison
from stimu l ation

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2 2 5
In tramu scu l ar: W ithin the in j ection

W ithin

Sl an g
A heroin
g as: Sl an g
A state of
A form

an esthetic: A su bstan ce bl ock s

dru g s: T abl ets an d

T abl ets
mu shrooms: M u shrooms

T o in j ect dru g
In femal es,

M essed u p: Stron g l y
A l l

On e a g ram.
On e of
dru g s: Psy choactiv e

scl erosis: A n

On e

u se

A chemical
A chemical
Ny stag mu s: Rapid, in v ol u n tary , j erk in g mov emen ts

Ov erdose,

OT C: Ov er- the- cou n ter,

Del u sion s


disease: A

g l an d: A

u se: T he

Pop: T o swal l ow
Sl an g term
Sl an g


T otal
Sy n on y m for hal l u cin og en s.
dru g s: Dru g s that affect the min d, especial l y

L oss of abil ity

A ty pe of l ou d,

time: In psy chol og y ,

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Recreation al dru g s: A n y

A stick y
tract: T he the
n ose,
Chron ic

off: T o

A su dden ,

T he

T o
A cl ass

dru g s: Dru g s

isol ation tan k : A n

E x pectation

E n v iron men t

T o in j ect
H ig h- g rade,
T he

pil l s: B arbitu rates an d
T o in hal e

T o in hal e

2 2 1
Spacy : Detached

zip, "
A combin ation of a

A microscopic

A l arg e famil y

Dru g s

1 ) In tox icated

dru g s: Psy choactiv e
A state

U n der the

B el ow
Sl an g
n erv ou s sy stem: T hat


dru g s: Dru g s

A prohibition

A person

H av in g
A sol u tion of a su bstan ce,

A n in hal ation from a cig arette or pipe. A l so u sed as a v erb.
In pharmacol og y ,
dru g
ov er

Poison ou s.
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T raffick in g : In

seriou s crime than simpl e possession .
A n ex perien ce psy choactiv e

chemist: A chemist man u factu res psy choactiv e
dru g s
Stimu l an ts.
1 ) Peopl e who who u se
psy choactiv e dru g s to
M en tal imag es produ ced in
with cl osed; al so, of
real ities or the su pern atu ral as if with the ey es.
Vol atil e: E v aporatin g rapidl y at n ormal temperatu res an d pressu res.
W in dowpan e: Sl an g term for L SD in the form of tin y ,

W ithdrawal : 1 ) T he process of stoppin g the u se of a dru g that has
been tak en reg n l arl y . 2 ) A n y cl u ster of sy mptoms that appears when
a dru g that has been tak en reg u l arl y is stopped an d that disappears
when the dru g is rein stitu ted. A l so cal l ed a withdrawal sy n drome.
In dex
A bu se, 2 , 1 7 9 — 8 2 medical
iSo, — mix ed with
7 7 ,
T y l en ol ) ,

1 2 8 , 1 6 2 — 6 3
1 5 8
7 2 , 7 4 ,

A ddiction ,

— toward, 1 2 , iS

sex —
2 0 , 6 2 ,

2 0

— —

A man ita dn a I 5 ,

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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
— I
2 3 1
In dn
A n ii ripty l in e E l av il I, ' 4 4
A rropin e iso
( T hemotherapy ' 2 1
Freu d' s u se of, r 6 ,
9 ,
A mn esia 1 3 2 , 1 3 3 , 1 3 4
A y ahu asca 1 0 4 — 5
Chewin g g u m, s 1
hy drochl oride 3 3 , 4 6
A mobarbital A my ral 6 9 , 7 !
Chj l dre, i an d adol escen ts dru g u se
medical appl ication s of, ' 6 ,

sy n drome, 1 1 9 , 1 6 7
B ach J ohan n Sebastian
4 0 — 4 !
9 3

ex perimen tation an d 4 — s,
mix ed with al cohol , 7 1 , 1 6 3
A mphetamin es 2 0 ,
3 7 , 4 8 , co, 7 5

en dc, carditis
6 — 7 , 1 6 9 — 7 0
mix ed with other dru g s, 8 8
dan g ers of u sin g , i6 ;
' B ad trips
9 6 1 o8 , ' 6 6
2 0 7
person al ity chan g es an d, 1 6 7
discu ssed
B al zac, H on ore de,
4 1
Chl oral hy drate, 7 2
refin ed form of, 3 2
first- person commen ts
on , 1 9 8 —
B arbital , 6 9
Chl ordiazepox ide L ibriu n i) , 7 4 4 3 n
2 0 0
B arbitu rates 6 9 7 3
Chl oroform 7 8 , 1 2 7
Codein e methy l morphin e) 8 3 , 8 9 ,
in n asal decon g estan ts
B au del aire Charl es
1 9 , 1 , 6
T el din , Chior-
psy chedel ic5 rel ated to,
9 5 ,
B ehav ioral proh! ems dru g
u se an d,
T rimeton ) , 1 4 6
as cou g h su ppressan t 1 4 8 , 1 4 9
1 0 5 — 9
1 6 7 — 6 9
Chl orpromazin e T horazin e) ,
n , Codcpen den ts A n on y mou s 1 7 2
A my l n itrite 1 2 9 — 3 0 ,
i3 r,
B el J adon n a deadl y
n ig htshade)
1 4 3 , 1 4 6 , 2 2 2
Coffee, 9 , 3 1 , 4 5 , 5 6 , 1 5 4 , i8 o
A my s 1 2 9 3 o
1 3 2 — 3 4
Chl or- T rimcton 1 4 6
cig arettes an d, 1 6 3
A my tal , 6 9 , 7 '
B en adry l , 1 4 6
Chocol ate, 9 , , 6
discu ssed, 3 9 — 4 2
A n abol ic steroids, ' 4 8 — 4 9
B en zedrin e 4 8
addiction to, 4 4
first- person commen ts on , 1 9 4 —
A n al g esics
B en zen e, 1 2 6
discu ssed
9 5
" mil d, "
B en zodiazepin es 7 4 , 7 6
first- person commen ts on , 1 9 5 — in dig estion from,
OT C, 1 5 5

rel ig iou s an d cu l tu ral attitu des
See al so rel iev ers
B iorhy thms,
Chol in e, 2 2 0
toward ii
A n drog en s ' 4 8
B l ood, B en j amin Pau l
7 9 fl
Christian Scien ce, io
social in teraction an d, ' 7
A n esthetics
4 5 , iS— Si, 1 3 0 , ' 3 9
" B l u es, "
Cig arette smok in g 2 6 , 4 6
( hftee 4 0 ,
first person
commen ts on , 2 0 6
B l u e v el v et, "
1 4 7
to, so— 5 , , 8 5 , 8 8 , 8 9 ,
9 4
A n g el du st, ' 3 7 — 1 3 8 ,
1 4 0 , 2 1 6 — 1 3
B ody bu il din g 1 4 8 — 4 9
1 2 0 , 1 7 2
Cog n itiv e en han cers, iç S— 6 o
A n imal tran q u il izers
B recher E dward M . ,
2 7 4
coffee an d, 1 6 3
Col a, 4 2
A n tian x iety dru g s,
B romphen iramin e
7 4 6
first- person commen ts on , zoo—
Col d medication s 4 9 , 5 S, 1 3 4 , 1 4 6 ,
A n tidepressan ts
3 0 , 1 4 4

i I
2 0 2
1 5 2
A n tidiu retic hormon e
A n N) ' 5 9
" B u rn - ou ts" 1 6 7
l ov e v s, 5 0 , 2 o1 2
Col eridg e, Samu el T ay l or, 1 9 , 8 4
A n tihistamin e5 ,
ss, 1 5 4 , iSo
B u rrou g hs, W il l iam S, i6
l u n g can cer an d, r, ' 6 4
Col u mbu s, Christopher 8 2
discu ssed, 1 4 6 — 4 7
B u ty l n itrite, 1 3 0 ,
1 3 1
preg n an cy an d, 1 6 ç
Coma 5 9 , 7 8 , ' 3 7 , 1 6 3
first- person
commen ts on , 2 1 9
secon d- han d smok e, 5 1 ,
5 4 Corn paziiie, 1 4 3
A n x iety , 7 4 , 7 6
Caapi, 1 0 4 — 5
See aJ so T obacco an d
Compoz, T 5 4
n arcotics an d, 8 6 , 8 8
Cacao, 4 3 — 4 4
n icotin e
Con fession s an E n g l ish Opiu m
pan ic reaction s, 1 1 6 ,
1 1 7 , T 6 6 ,
Caffedrin e 1 5 3 — 5 4
Cirrhosis of the l iv er, 6 s, 8 6 , 1 6 4 ,
E ater Dc Q u in cey ) , 8 4
2 2 2 — 2 3
Caffein e, 6 ,
9 , II, 3 1 , 4 5 , 1 5 1
Con sciou sn ess n eed for v ariation s
A phrodisiacs
in appetite
su ppressan ts Is 3
Coca, 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 0 , 2 3 , 3 0 , 3 2 , 4 4
in , 7 , 1 4 — IS, 5 3 , 1 2 7 , 1 7 4
A ppetite su pressan ts,
3 8 , 4 9 — 5 0
in col d remedies
cocain e in , 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 4 ,
4 5 See 0 1 5 0 H al l u cin og en s
5 5
discu ssed,
3 9 4 4
discu ssed,
Corticos teroi ds, 1 4 7 — 4 8
A recol in e,
in l ook - al ik e dru g s,
4 9 ,
medical appl icarion sof, 4 6 Cortison e, 1 4 7 — 4 8
A rtistic creativ ity dru g
u se an d,
in OT C dru g s,
s, 1
3 — 5 4 , ' s
Coca- Col a, 4 5
Cotton poison in g ) za 1 — 2 2
rS— an
8 ee al so Coffee
Cocain e, 2 0 , 2 3 ,
Cou g h su ppressan ts, 1 4 9 , 2 1 9
A sphy x iation So
Can cer l u n g
addiction tO, 2 2 ,
4 5 , 4 6 — 4 7 n arcotic, 5 3 , 8 4
A spirin , 3 3 ,
Can n abin o] 1 3 7 — 3 8 ,
1 4 0
crack , 2 3 , 4 5 , 4 6 ,
4 7 , ' 6 4 sy ru ps, OT C, 1 5 2
A spirol , 1 2 9 — 3 0
Can n abis See M arij u an a
depression an d, 1 6 6
Crack . See Cocain e
A sthma 1 3 4 , 1 4 8 ,
rç ,
Can n abis Sat/ v a,
1 1 4
discu ssed, 4 4 4 7
Crashin g , 4 6 , 4 9 , ' 6 6
ephedrin e for,
Cel estial Season in g s'
M orn in g
first- person commen ts on , 1 9 7 —
marij u an a for, 1 2 1
T hu n der rca,
4 3
9 8
Dal man e, 7 4
A tiv an , 7 4
" Chasin g the drag on , '
8 9
Darv on , 1 5 1
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In dex
2 3 2
Datu ra, 3 4 ,
Desig n er dru g s, ' 0 9
Datu m 1

Datu m stru m On Ion ] , 1 3 2 , 1 3 3

Dehy droepian drosteron c s
1 5 8
1 3 1 — 3 6
Dex edrin e, 4 8
8 3 ,
Depen den ce, 2 6
al cohol ,

— Diacety l morphin e. See H eroin

1 7 1 — 7 2
down ers, r6 6 7 7
dru g s u sed treat disease, on , —
— medical appl ication s
on M DM A , ether. See E ther
8 4 , 8 6 , 8 8 Diet pi1 1 s, 5 5
on Dimen hy drin ate Dran iamin eh 1 4 7
1 7 1 Din ietan e, 1 4 6
4 1 , ' 6 6 Dimethy l amin oethan ol DM A E I,
on —
Dirn ethy l try ptamin c
— — 1 0 5 , 2 0 8

— —
Dissociativ e
mix ed

— 2 0 8
sedativ e- hy pn otics, ç
— Don n e,

Depression , —

2 3 3 IIU J L ' X
ov erdose g a - bu t y ric

G astroin testin al
Dramamin e,

— —
6 — s 7
" G l ass"

— for,
E du cation , — 1 2 8
E du cation , — 7 2
E l av il , 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 — I

3 3 ,

1 7 5 H al l u cin ation s,
— 8 9

H amil ton , A . E ( " T aj ar" , 2 1 2 — 1 4
E pin ephrin e, 1 0 3
E q u an il ,

E strog en , 1 4 8
1 5 5 — c]
E thchl orv y n ol H eroin
E ther —
2 0 6 8 5 ,

5 9 ,
8 8 ,
in j ection s

mix ed

Fl u ox etin e preg n an cy
treatmen t, —

Fl y

Focd —
1 3 0 H ig hs, i6 , 1 7 4 — 7 3
Freebasin g ,
— H , sran u n e,

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_ _ _ _ _ — - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ —
H og , — —
Ol iv er W en del l , 6 , u n k ics, 8 9 , i
G aze Ny stag mu s
1 6 9 iv ,
H ormon eS, K etaj ect, r 7 9 — 4 0
A DH , 9 —

first- person —

L ithiu m,
L ithon ate,

8 3 ,


2 3 5
M an drak e, 1 3 2 , i3 3

4 8


— —

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2 3 6
Nitrite in hal an ts L cofl t. l n asal decon g c5 ta' ts,
bu ty l n itrite, 1 3 0 , pil l s, , 3 3 , 1 4 6 ,
n itrite, i 3 0 ,

5 4

— 1 1 7 , 1 6 6

— — 3 4 — 3 5 , ir6

— 1 9 1 1 ,

— —

— —

Org an ic — Peer —

Ov ereaters —
dru g s,

Phen cy cl idin e. See PCP
Phen erg an ,
Phen oharbital , 5 0 ,
Phen y l propan ol amin e

col d

2 3 1 in Iex
7 2 , n e, I oi
Pl an t dru g s,

9 4

PM A , pl an t

— —
Psy chosis,

— —

Q u aal u de,

M U M A , —
ro7 — 8 ,

— 2 0 8 —

Rital in ,

— ' Roid

from, io

3 0 , —
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2 3 8
Sal t, 9 Shaman ism, 9 4 , 9 9 ,
0 4 , 3 5
Schizophren ia,
T hick Cen ter for the Con trol of
Scopol amin e, i 3 2 — 3 4 , so Smok in g A l cohol ism, an d
Secobarbital Secon al ) , 3 4 , 6 9 , 7 0 ,
Ov ereatin g , 4 4 , 1 9 5 — 9 6
2 0 3 Siberian g in sen g , 1 5 7
Secon al , 3 4 , 6 9 , 7 0 , 2 0 3 Sin semil l a,
Sedativ e- hy pn otics Sk in
al cohol , 6 o— 6 8 for motion sick n ess, i
barbitu rates an d other sl eepin g for smok in g , si
pil l s, —
— — 7 4
tol eran ce 6 3 , 8 4 — 8 5 first- person 2 0 3 4
withdrawal from, 8 5 OT C, 1 4 6 , 1 5 4
Sedativ es, 1 5 5 Smart 1 5 7 5 9 , 2 2 0 — l i
Sel dan e, Smok in g , 1 0 3
Sel eg il in e,

cocain e, 2 3 , 3 3 , 4 5
Semisy n thetic — —
heroin , 8 7 , 8 9
marij u an a, 1 1 4 , 1 1 5 — 1 7 , u S
Seroton in , 3 0 See al so Cig arette smok in g ;
T obacco

bad 3 1 , 8 7 — 8 8
dru g an d, 2 3 — 2 4 , 2 5 , 1 6 2 , 1 7 5 amphetamin es,

marij u an a an d, — ii6 an g el 1 3 7
psy chedel ics 9 4 , 9 6 , 1 0 5 , cocain e,
1 0 9 — 1 0 dan g er
Settin g 2 6 — 1 8 , 1 3 1 , 2 1 2 — 1 4
al cohol 6 3 , 6 4 sn u ff, 5 1 , 5 2 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 3
bad 1 7 ,
dru g u se an d, 8 5 — 8 6 , 1 7 5 2 0 - 2 1
down ers an d, 7 0 Social dru g s an d, 1 6 7 — 6 9
marij u an a an d, ii 6 Sol v en ts, 2 6 — 2 8 , ' 3 1 ,
2 1 2 — 1 4
1 0 9 — 1 0 Sombu l ex ,
Somin ex ,
al cohol 6 z— 6 3 Sopor,
amy l an d, 7 9 — So
down ers 7 2 Speak in g —
edu cation , —
5 7 " Speedbal l , '
remov ers, 1 i6
hormon es, 1 4 7 , ' 4 8 — 4 9 , ' 5 8
psy chedel ics 1 0 9 Steroids rel ativ es) ,
1 4 7 4 9
taboos 1 5 2 , 1 5 4 , 1 7 4
Shak espeare, — bron chodil ators, —
2 3 9 In dex
3 6 T M A ,
depen den ce on , 7 9 , 4 , , r6 6 T oad
discu ssed, — T obacco an d n icotin e, 9 , 2 2 , 1 6 ,
k in ds of 1 6 4
betel ,
4 ,
c addiction
coca chewin g , 5 1 — 5 2
coffee discu ssed, —
— heroin ,
ephedrin e, 5 5 , iç 5
toward, — 2 0 — 2 1 , 5 —

tobacco —
4 T ol eran ce,
y ohimbe, 5 4 , to al cohol , 6 3 , 6 4
mix ed depressan ts, 7 0 — to down ers,
7 1 , 8 8 to heroin , 3 °
1 6 3 to marij u an a, r6 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 2
psy chedel ics —
rio —



Su dafed, 2 1 9 T ox icpsy chosis, —
Su g ar, 4 3 — 4 4
9 3 , 9 6 maj or, — ' 4 6
Su per- K , min or,
sy s tern , 3 7 , T reatmen t dru g 1 5 0 ,
9 5

Sy n thetic —
T rifl u operazin e
T ril afon ,
T aboos, 2 0 T ripel en n arn in e
min e) , 1 4 6 1 4 7
T ea, 4 2 , 4 3 , 1 5 4 T ripol idin e A ctidil 1 4 6
T el drin , T rips, 9 3 — 9 6 , ' oS u 6 6
T erfen adin e
T estin g " T ' s
T estin g bl u es, "
T wil ig ht
T hal idomide, 1 0 9
T I- IC — 1 0 9
1 9 , 1 2 1 , 1 7 7 T y l en oi,
T heobrorn in e,

5 T U ppers
6 9
T hioridazin e OT C,
T horazin e, 1 4 3 , 1 4 6 , 2 2 2 See

U rin e
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Val erian ,

— —

9 6 — 9 7

W ithdrawal , 8 4 , 1 7 1


A n drew W eil , M . D. , raised
Phil adel phia, deg ree in biol og y
from H arv ard in 1 9 6 4 an d an M . D.
deg ree from H arv ard M edical iii I 9 6 8 .
Dr. of Div ision
Social M edicin e at
A rizon a

ROB B I* ,
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H E A L tH
FPT $ 1 3
— -
T en

H /
Cov er M ichacl a
IIH I 1 1 1 1 III
3 2 8 1 7 2 6 8 2 9
M u H l iii
A rhu s K ommu n es B ibi.
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Books by Andrew Weil, M.D.
The Natural Mind:

A New Way of Looking at DTUgS and

the Higher Consciousness The Marriage of the Sun and Moon: A Quest for Unity in Consciousnes1c Health and Healing: tin ders tan ding Con yen don al and Alternative Medicine Natural Health, Natural Medicine: A Comprehensive Manual for We/mess and Self-Care

Books by Winifred Rosen
Marvin's Manhole

Ralph Proves the Pudding Hiram Makes Friends Henrietta, The Wild Woman of Borneo Cruisin for a Brui sin Henfletta and the Day of the Iguana Dragons Hate to Be Discreet Henrietta and the Gong from Hong Kong Three Romances

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Everything You Need to Know About Mind-Altering Drugs
Andrew Weil, .D. and Winifred Rosen


and Updated

Houghton Muffin Company

Boston I New York

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Dr KONGELIGE BIBLIOTEK KØBENHAVN PDF compression. 1. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Andrew. ed. 1983. Psychotropic drugs. Houghton Mifflin 2 1 5 Park Avenue South. of: Chocolate to morphine.Copyright © 1983. write to Permissions. New York 10003. ISBN 0-395-66079-3 1. OCR. RM315. Includes bibliographical references. Chocolatc to morphinc. date. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Well. 92-3 1727 CIP Printed in the United States of America CRS 10987654 The original title of this book was Chocolate to Morphine: Understanding Mm d-Active Drugs. New York. Winifred. Title. SYcil. ltev. From chocolate to morphine everything you need to know mind-altering drugs I Andrew Weil and Winifred Rosen.8— dc2O 1993 II. III.W44 613. Andrew. 1 993 by Andrew Weil and Winifred Rosen All rights rcservcd For information about permission to reproduce selections from this 1)00k. Rosen. : about cm.

food. Friends who helped us complete the manuscript include Richard Carey. Howard Kotler. Tim Plowman. Sue Fleishman. came up with recommendations for additional reading and some good cartoons. Jeff Steingartcn helped us in the early stages of our work. David Smith. Leif Zerkin. I)r. Ethan Nadelmann. OCR. support. and information. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Jonathan Meader. We thank Dr. Jeremy Bigwood also provided illustrations. and Signe Warner for their part in tying together the many pieces of this work. Karen Frankian. as did Woody Wickham and Norman Zinberg. Dody Fugate of the University of Arizona gave us outstanding photographic service. and help in finding published source materials. Helen Shewman. Ken and Maria Robbins provided photographs. Sara 1)avidson. as well as good suggestions and needed infusions of energy. Special thanks go to Zig Schmitt for his company. editor of the Journal of PsychoacLive Drugs. PDF compression. and Stanley and Jenine Moss.Acknowledgments HONEY WILLIAMS AND BUDD COLBY gave us the original idea for this book when they complained that they could not find anything good on the subject to give teen-agers to read. Dr. Tod Mikuriya. We are much indebted to DL Michael Aldrich and the Fitz Hugh Ludlow Memorial Library in San Francisco for assistance in finding illustrations for the text. Jake Myers. Richard Evans Schultes and the staff of the Harvard Botanical Museum for their help with illustrations and Anita McClellan.

Many "street" drugs. and marijuana. we do not give them. by the most common brand names.Authors' Note chemical name that describes the molecule. when relevant.1 amethyl5ephenyh2Ha 1 . The chemical name of this same drug is 7-chloro. such as cocaine. LSD. enclosed in parentheses and capitalized. we will use it to refer to the drug after the first reference.1. We have selected comments about mind-active drugs and accounts of experiences with them from users and nonusers of all ages. Thus: diazepam (Valium). beginningonpage 185. If the brand name is much better known than the generic PDF compression.4-benzodiazepin-2-one. do not have brand names. For example. For fuller transcripts. OCR. a generic or common name. see the appendix. MANY DRUGS MENTIONED in this book have three names: a name. and a brand name owned by a company that markets the drug. Because chemical names are long and cumbersome and useful only to chemists. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . as in the case of Valium.3edihydro. Valium is the brand name of a tranquilizer whose generic name is diazepam. Short excerpts from many of these selections appear in the margins of the text. We have tried to stick to generic names. which arc printed in lowercase letters and followed.

making calm discussion still less common. Since this book first appeared. people will recognize the need for a real change of thinking and strategy. there are fewer facilities to treat theme Nothing that has happened has caused us to change the views we expressed in 1983. The present atmosphere is even more charged. PDF compression. and although more people than ever arc in trouble with drugs. we expected it to be controversial. We have made additions to the book (about crack and AIDS. bcfore the federal government had declared an all-out war on drugs. but never imagined that some people would be so threatened by it that they would try to ban it from schools and libraries. Crack cocaine was as yet unknown. and public hysteria about illegal drugs was less intense than it is today. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . We hope the reappearance of this book will help catalyze that change. criminal vioIencc associated with drugs and drug prohibition has intcnsified and spread. We believe that as the failure of present policy becomes harder and harder to deny. have increased. Intelligent action based on good information can turn the situation around. especially cocaine. for example) and have rewritten sections to bring it up to date. OCR. We thought our book took a reasonable. middle-of-the-road approach to the drug problem. supplies of drugs. but we stand by its basic message: that education based on truthful information is the only solution to the drug problem.Preface to the Second Edition Tnt FTRST EDITION of this book appeared in 1983.

Contents Acknowledgments v Authors' Note Preface to the Second Edition Straight Talk at the Start vii ix I I 2 What Is a Drug? 9 14 3 Why People Use Drugs 4 Relationships with Drugs 22 28 5 Types of Drugs 6 Stimulants 36 59 93 11. PcP and Ketamine 126 PDF compression. Deliriants. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .4 7 Depressants 8 Psychedelics. or Hallucinogens 9 Marijuana I 0 Solvents and Inhalants. OCR.

Herbal Remedies. OCR. Smart Dmgs 142 161 12 ProblemswithDrugs I 3 Alternatives to Taking Drugs I 4 Final Words Appendix: First-Person Accounts and Comments Glossary Index 174 179 185 219 229 PDF compression.Contents Xii I I Medical Drugs. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .

As a recognized expert. more people abuse drugs now than ever bcforc. and the drug laws have directly created ugly and everenlarging criminal networks that corrupt society and cause far worse damage than the substances they distribute. and sources of disapproved substances. Drug use has invaded all classes and ethnic groups and has spread to younger and younger children. Western society has attempted to deal with its drug problems through negative actions: by various wars on drug abuse implemented by repressive laws. outrageous propaganda. He has a medical degree from Harvard and a rich background of travel among drug-using cultures in other parts of the world. They had to confront the explosion of drug use of that era and find out for themselves the benefits and dangers of substances they never learned about at home or in school. OCR. Also. from the deserts of east Africa to the jungles of South America. History teaches that it is vain to hope that drugs will ever disappear and that any effort to eliminate them from society is doomed to failure. One Andrew Weil has since become a professional health of us counselor. Thc authors of this book were teen-agers and college students in the 1960s. During most of this century. to testify on PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and attacks on users. He draws on his training and his professional and pen sonal experience with most of the substances described in these pages. These wars have been consistently lost.Straight Talk at the Start DRUGS ARE HERE TO STAY. he is frequently invited to lecture on drugs to audiences of doctors as well as students. suppliers. More people arc taking more drugs now than ever before.

Both of us believe that the present drug problem can only change for the better if society alters its strategy drastically. and energy fighting the hopeless battle against existing drug abuse. (Some people may prefer to see heroin addicts in methadone treatment rathcr than seeking heroin on the street. In this hook we are not going to argue for or against drugs and will not side with either those who endorse them or those who oppose them. we will follow a middle course by presenting neutral information and will ask people on both sides to change some basic conceptions about drugs as a result of reading this material. For most abusers the only practical choice is total abstinence or continued abuse. One is to teach people. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . money. OCR. work to prevent abuse. but let us not kid ourselves: the "treatment' is just addiction to another narcotic. Real drug abusers are those in bad relationships with drugs. Preventing drug abuse is a realistic goal. how to satisfy their needs and desires without recourse to drugs. to write about them for textbooks and popu lar magazines. society must begin to help people avoid becoming abusers in the first place. and unfortunately little can be done to help them. she has long been interested in psychology and mental health.) If society cannot do much about drug abuse once it develops. unless they want to change. At the outset. As long as society continues to call all those who take disapproved substances "drug abusers.From Chocolate to Morphine 2 in court trials. whether the drugs are approved or disapproved by society. The other of us Winifred Rosen is a writer. Once people get into had relationships with drugs it is very hard to get them out. The daughter of a psychoanalyst. The drugs S See Chapter 4." it will have an insoluble problem of enormous proportions. She now does landscape gardening as well as writing. As a former high-school teacher and veteran of the 1960s. We have been writing and traveling together on and off ever since we first met in San Francisco in 1968 (where we both sewed for a time as volunteers in the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic). PDF compression. it certainly can. and should. Instead. Two approaches are possible. and to consult about them with government offidais. she has talked extensively about drugs with people of all ages and social backgrounds. the author of more than a dozen books for young people. especially young people. we will insist that readers learn to distinguish drug use from drug abuse. Instead of wasting so much time.

It will be harder for them to support programs that teach young people how to form good rela- people so tionships with drugs. OCR. making many mistakes in the difficult process of learning the effects of drugs and adopting rules for living with them. t See Chapter 2. and give them information that will enable them to use drugs nonahusively should they choose to use them. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Grownups will give you much misinformation about them and will often be dishonest or hypocritical about their own drug use. make the prohibited substances look more attractive to young audiences. The burden of this task will fall mainly upon parents and secondarily upon teachers. and film strips that take this approach stimulate curiosity. All of them can be used wisely or stupidly. Parents and teachers will probably be open to efforts to interest children in alternatives to drugs. The kind of instruction we would like to see will hear no resemblance to what is called "drug education" today. See PDF compression. and make authorities appear ridiculous. We have tried to make this hook accessible to young peoplc by keeping our language arid ideas simple and straightforward. a thinly thsguised attempt to scare young people away from disapproved drugs by greatly exaggerating the dangers of these substances. we struggled to get the facts. it is not a process that can be mane dated by law or accomplished by public policy.t You will see many of your ' Chapter 2. Drug education as it fløW exists is. thcy will continue to he users and never become abusers. We know how hard it is to grow up in a drug-filled world and hope our experience will he of use to younger generations. However. ideas rooted in fear and prejudice. To our teen-age readers we offer some gcneral advice at the start: You are growing up in a world well stocked with drugs. information like this was not available to the general public. pamphlets. lectures. As teen-agers.3 Straight Talk atthe Start second is to teach people how to form good relationships with drugs so that if they choose to use drugs. The most that responsible adults can do is try to interest children in alternativcs to drugs. laws and 0 public policies must not undermine the work of parents and teachers by perpetuating irrational ideas about drugs. More often than not. When we were growing up. With drugs so available and disposed to experiment with them. at best. good drug education is vital.

web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . You may feel left out of certain groups if yuu abstain. Some of the strongest and most dangerous drugs are legal. concentrate. and what precautions you should take to contain their potential for harrn. keep in mind that being arrested can bring terrible consequences to you and your family. Drugs are likely to be a source of friction hetwuen you and your parents. make sure you know what the drugs are. The fact that grownups exaggerate the dangers of drugs they disapprove nf does not mean those drugs have no dangers.From Chocolate to Morphine 4 acquaintances become involved with drugs and will have many opportunities to experiment with them yourself if have not already done so. do not make the mistake of supposing that just because a drug is legal it is safe. You are less likely to encounter problems if take dflutc forms of natural drugs by mouth on occasion. Keep this in mind if you find yourselt under pressure to take drugs. On the other hand. Drugs can interfere with your education by making it hard to pay attention. l)LIt you will not really be missing anything. where they come from. or by involving you with people who reinforce negative attitudes about school. you have to be there. tSee Chapters 6—11. whether approved or disapproved. * You are more likely to get into trouble if you take concena trated drugs frequently. PDF compression. or just because the drugs happen to he around. That is a perfectly reasonable choice and may allow you more freedom than your drug-taking pccrs. Even if school bores ). consider that they might have good reasons. Don't use drugs unconsciously and don't spend time around people who do. and maintaining them takes work.ou. such as valid fears *Scc Chapter 13. and remember. OCR. particularly if you take them to escape feelings of unhappiness or boredom. t a Sec Chapter 4. If you are tempted to experiment with illegal drugs. especially if you take them for positive reasons according to rules you set for yourself. and mastering classroom skills is your ticket tO freedom and independence in adult life. It is a bad idea to take drugs in school. If your parents get upset with you for taking drugs.t Remember that forming good relationships with drugs is not easy. how they are likely to affect your body. A]] drLIgs are dangerous. The only way you can he absolutely sure of avoiding problems with drugs is never to use them. All of the experiences people have with drugs can be had in other ways. * If you do decide to experiment with drugs.

Secpagc 120. What advice would you give your child if you found out he was taking drugs? talk honestly with them and to hear their side with an Question your parents about the drugs they use. Drugs arc just one way of doing it. Maybe they will agree to give up theirs if you will give up yours. and if you come to rely on them before you are grown up. We sympathize with parents today. OCR. Examine your own drug use before you question your child's. but they are difficult to master and will fail you if you take them too of tcn.5 Straight Talk aithe Shirt about your safety. tSec page 97. Think about how you would feel in their place. What alternatives to drug use can your parents suggest? If you can convince them that your drug use is responsible. If their fears come from ignorance or misinformation. remember that wanting to change your consciousness is not a symptom of mental illness or an unhealthy need to escape from reality. try to educate them. Finally. you may not be able to appreciate a whole range of nondrug experiences that are more subtle but more rewarding over time. Be willing to mind. you may be able to allay their anxiety. health. Before you react to the discovery that a son or daughter is using drugs. It is normal to want to vary your conscious experience. There is no question that drugs can get you high. Insisting that marijuana leads to heroin* or that LSD breaks chromosomest is a sure way to lose a child's attention and respect for your credibility about drug use. Try to see what your experiences have in common with theirs. tScc Chapter 13. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . * Chapter 3. * Sec PDF compression. you should keep several points in mind: A period of experimentation with drugs is today a normal phase of adolescence a rite of passage that most children pass through unscathed. You are much more likely than your own parents to have to confront the issue of a child's involvement with drugs. Be sure you have accurate information about the drugs your child is using before you attempt to give advice.t * We hope that parents will read this book and use the information in it to help their children. or psychological growth. Give them this book to read as a background to your discussions of drug use. not by being emotional but by being well infornied about the drugs you use. Children today are often well informed and contemptuous of antidrug information they know to he false. though.

you hay C the right to ban them. GrownUl)S enjoy racing cars and boats. and tranquil. and how easy was it for you to discuss thcm with yoUr parents when you were discovered? Remember that though the specific issues change from generation to generation. The more you encourage within your home and the better your own ships are with the drugs use. Keep in mind that the main reason children experiment with dru gs is to experience other states of consciousness. judge. caffeine.From Chocolate to Morphine 6 your relationships with alcohol. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Of coursc. drinkIf * a Sec Chapter 3. your stand is further weakened by your own violation of drug laws. police officer. Meet your drug-using child with an open mind. tobacco. you must realize that your child may then use illegal substances outside the house. he or she will welcome guideline S. The low incidence of alcoholism among Jews has long been ascribed to the integration of occasional social and ritual use of alcohol into Jewish family life. or warden. If your child respects you and the ways you use alcohol. and other substances. If you use illegal substances. izers are not as good as they might a position against drug use may have little impact on your child. PDF compression. It is important to create a climate of trust in which you and your child can communicate openly about difficult subjects like sex and drugs. Make rules and set limits for your child about drugs. Try to rememhcr how you felt as a tcen-ager. the more effective you will be at passing healthy drug attitudes and habits on to your child. It is well known that alcoholics tend to come from families where one or both rardnts are alcoholic. OCR. the basic conflicts and problems between cents and parents arc universal and remarkably constant. As we will stress throughout this hook. if you feel strongly that you do no t want illegal drugs i fl the house. What forbidden activities did you engage in. hut it is less well known that alcoholics also tend to come from families where both parents are teetotalers. High states app cal to young people as much as they do to adults. Apparently the absence of a parental role model for successful drinking is the determining factor. caffeine. For example. dancing. Providing models of intelligent drug use is the best way to assure that your child will use drugs rather than abuse them (if he uses them at all). Rc realistic about the rules you make. hang-gliding. a drug user is not necessarily a drug abuser. Good communication is impossible when a parent assumes the role of detective. The primary responsibility for preventing drug abuse in your child is yours.

be prepared to forgo If you your own drug use. is a drug. We cannot blame them. they must bow to so many pressures that often they cannot follow intuition or conscience. experiences with. since students will certainly ask. since we know *Se pages 60—68. Given the political dimensions of the drug controversy many teachers may just want to avoid the whole issue. too. Is it better to provide support for your child by expressing trust and offering reliable information about these issues or to force your child to seek information and experience without guidance and in risky ways? We believe the answer is obvious. OCR. is an adolescent rite of passage parents have to deal with. honesty and consistency arc required for teachers to have credibility with their students. Alcohol is not an alternative. Both of us have taught in schools and colleges and are aware that schools are now popular places for the distribution and consumpa tion of drugs. he prepared to suggest alternatives. PDF compression. Also. It. Acknowledging the falsity of the information may gain them the respect of studcnts and allow them to influence drug use for the better. We know that teachers are likely to be distressed by the prevalence of drug use among children today.7 Straightialk at the Start ing. and conflicts about drugs. As in parental discussions of sex and drugs with tceflagerS. like drugs. hut when they have to talk about heated. in matters concerning sex and drugs alike. Teachers have a special role in influencing children. We would like to see teachers inform themselves about drugs and work within the limits imposed on them to make classrooms places where young people feel free to discuss interest in. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . to do so teachers will have to clarify their own attitudes and be prepared to answer questions about their own uses and habits. emotional subjects like drugs. and the advantage of its kgality is more than offset by its many dangers for users of any age. Teachers must frequently present drug education programs based on incorrect information and irrational attitudes. especially when they encounter increasing numbers of students who cannot concentrate and have trouble learning because they are int(. and many other consciousness-changing activities. the use of drugs to have them. Don't make your child feel it is wrong to want these experiences. which. but it may also cost the teachers their jobs.)xicated on one substance or another. Just as with successful sex education. consider the parallel problem of sexual experimcntation. smoking. Finally.

we have included first-person observations by others to create a more balanced overall picture. whenever possible. including our own experience. and users and nonusers regardless of age. OCR. members of the clergy teachers. we intend it for doctors. we hope they will try to find ways to change attitudes for the better. Still. We have gathered this information from many sources. lawmakers.Prom Chocolate to Morphine 8 how vulnerable their positions are. We have tried throughout to indicate how society can work to prevent drug abuse by encouraging the use of alternatives to drugs and encouraging the formation of good relationships with drugs when people choose to use them. Although we have written this book so that young people can read it. because teachers can contribute so much toward the prevention of drug abuse. PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and.

or a poison? The body can burn it as a fuel. and can also be addicting. In the same way. In the case of medical drugs substances such as penicillin. it can be addicting. just like sugar or starch. The difference between a drug and a poison is also unclear. used only to treat physical illness the distinction may be easier to make. A common definition of the word drug is any substance that in small amounts produces significant changes in the body. Like heroin. but it causes intoxication and can kill in overdose. MOST PEOPLE WOULD AGREE . perception. Many people who drink alcohol crusade against drtig abuse. but it contains a chemical related to caffeine. a drug.What Is a Drug? that heroin is a drug. PDF compression. But talking about psychoactive drugs -substances that affect mood. mind. many cigarette addicts have no idea that tobacco is a strong drug. and many peopTe who depend on coffee do hot realize that they are addicted to a stimulant. and thought . OCR. Is alcohol a food. never acknowledging that they themselves are involved with a powerful drug. But is sugar a drug? Sugar is also a white powder that strongly affects the body. This definition does not clearly distinguish drugs from some foods.is tricky. or both. and many poisons are useful drugs in low enough doses. is a stimulant. How ahoutchocolate? Most people think of it as a food or flavor. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Is salt a drug? Many people think they cannot live without it. All drugs become poisons in high enough doses. and it has dramatic effects on the body. and some expcrts say it affects mental function and mood as well. The decision to call some substanccs drugs and others not is often arbitrary. It is a white powder that produces striking changes in the body and mind in tiny doses.

drug-taking is SO common that it seems to be a basic human Societies must come to terms with peopic's fascination with drugs. Poison is bad. who were unable to grow drug plants and had tO wait for white nien to bring alcohol. Drugs may be good or had. They believe that God intends us to deal with illness without drugs. Different people and different cultures answer them in different ways. in order to change their mood or feel pleasure. people have strong emotional reactions to PDF compression. and whether thcy arc seen as good or bad depends on who is looking at them. and poisons are not clear-cut categories. Drug use is universal. the question of good or bad gets even thornieL The whole subject of pleasure triggers intense controversy. comnmnity1 or nation. however. Usually the use of certain drugs is approved and integrated into the life of a tribe. Sccond. OCR. (Courtesy of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) them. Many people agrec that drugs are good when doctors give them to patients in order to makc them better. foods.) In fact.. (The one CXCCpe tion is the Eskimos. but they do not have easy answers. about 1 900. drugs.From Chocolate to Morphine 10 Turkish men smoking tobacco in water pipes in a Constantinoplt' coffee house. such as Christian Scientists. Every human culture in every age of history has used one or more psychoactive drugs. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . do not share that view. Food is good. Some religious groups. Should pleasure C(mc as a reward for work or sufferiiig Should people feel guilty if they experience pleasure without suffering for it in sonic way? Should work itself bc unpleasant? These questions are very important to us. sometimes in formal rituals and In the first place. When people take psychoactive drugs on their own.

There are and caffeine are viewed with suspicion by the subgroups within our society. Furthermore. and qat (a strongly stirnulat- ins icaf). rfh most fervent members of the counterculture that arose in the 1960s regard marijuana and psychedelics as hencficial while rejecting nut oniy alcohol. when coffee came to Europe in the seventeenth century. all nonmedical drugs other than alcohol. The approval of somc drugs for some purposes usually goes hand in hand with the disapproval of other drugs for other purposes. Muslims may tolerate the use of opium. Everybody is willing to call certain drugs bad. but had strict prohibitions Sirting tea leaves in old Japan. the Roman Catholic Church opposed it as an evil drug but continued to regard wine as a traditional sacrament. tobacco. however. Classic heroin addicts. attitudes about which drugs are good or bad tend to change over time within a given culture. but teach that opiates and alcohol are harmful. In agreement from our own society. may reject psychedelics and marijuana as dangerous but think of narcotics as desirable and necessary. that hold very different opinions. (Courtesy of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) against alcohol. tobacco. some early Muslim sects encouraged thc usc of coffee in religious ritus. When tobacco first came tO Europe from the New World it provoked such strong PDF compression. Some yogis in India use marijuana ritually. or junkies. OCR. Many North American Indians who use peyote and tobacco in religious rituals consider alcohol a cursc. but are very strict in their exclusion of alcohol. marijuana. but there is little culturc to the next as to which these are. For example. On the other hand. and coffcc but most other legal and illegal drugs as well.11 Is a Drug? ceremonies. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .

remember that these may be secondary justifications of pre-existing views that are deep-seated and rooted in emotion. In this book PDF compression. behave. In this century Americans' attitudes toward alcohol have shifted from nonchalant tolerance to antagonism strong enough to result in national prohibition. The reasons and justifications come later. When you hear arguments on the merits or dangers of drugs. and relate to each other. Students of behavior tell us that dividing the world into good and evil is a fundamental human need. and back to near-universal acceptance. Actually. Because psychoactive drugs can give pleasure and can change the ways people think. But within a century its use was accepted and even encouraged by governments eager to exploit its revenue-earning potential. Food. and thcn prohibit. or try to destroy them. reasons for taboos are secondary. even by scientific cxperts. the basic process is the dividing of important things into good and evil a form of magical thinking that tries to gain control over sources of fear. and pleasure are very important. Jews like to think they do not eat pork because pigs are unclean and may have carried disease in former times. The debate over marijuana is mostly a conflict between an older generation that viewed the drug as evil and a younger generation that found it preferable to alcohol. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . perceive the world. The existence of evil provokes fear and demands explanation. People tend to create taboos about the activities and suba stances that are most important to them. most important.) Because drugs are so connected with people's fears and desires. (It is always easy for both sides to produce statistics and "scientific evidence" to support opposing views. again. OCR. Homosexuality is taboo in most modern Western cultures. there is little agreement from culture to culture as to what is good and what is bad. This is how taboos arise. sex. People who adhere to taboos justify them with logical reasons. Christians argue that homosexuality is a sin because it perverts God's intended use of sex for procreation. and many taboos surround them although. Why is there sickness? Why is there death? Why do crops fail? Why is there war? And. Muslims and Jews eat beef but not pork1 some groups in India eat pork but not beef.From Chocolate toMorphine — 12 opposition that authorities in some countries tried to stamp it out by imposing the death penalty for users. they invite magical thinking and taboos. but has been fully ace cepted in the past and is still accepted today in certain parts of the world. avoid. it is very hard to find neutral information on them. how should we act to contain evil and avoid disaster? One attempt at a solution is to attribute evil to external things.

especially young people. whether legal or illegal. We are concerned with the relationships people form with drugs.O. OCR. Box 27568. Hyde (New York: McGraw-Hill. Szasz is a psychiatrist New terested in the assumptions that lead people to call some kinds of behavior sick or wrong. 1975). A book written for juniorehigh and highaschool students that gives a good overview of the subject is Mind Drugs third edition) edited by Margaret 0. 1974). Al] Arounders: Physical and Mental Effects of Drugs of Abuse by Darryl S. 1990). Addicts. Doubleday/Anchor. We cannot say that we have no biases about drugs. Suggested Reading best book on the subject of how societies classify drugs as good and evil is Ceremonial ChemistTy: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs. See also the pamphlet Drugs ofAbuse: An Introduction to Their Actions & Potential Hazards (9th revised edition. and Pushers by Thomas Szasz (Garden City. 1990) by Samuel Irwin. Arizona 85285). Cohen (Ashland. His discussion of drugs and drug users as scapegoats is excellent. We believe that by presenting neutral information about these substances. but rather to help people learn to live in a world where drugs exist and not get hurt by them. but we think we know what they are. come to terms with drugs. Our strongest conviction is that drugs themselves are neither good nor bad. Tempe. Our purpose is not to encourage or discourage the use of any drug. Inaba and William E. Downers. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . they are powerful substances that can be put to good or bad uses. approved or unapproved. distributed by the Do It Now Foundation The (P. we can help people. PDF compression. Oregon: Cinemed. A good general book on psychoactive drugs is Uppers. rather.— 13 WhatisaDrug? we try to give unbiased facts about all psychoactive drugs people arc likely to encounter today.

are born with a need for periodic variations in consciousness. it seems. Of course there are many other ways to alter consciousness. exercising. deep breathing) followed by mutual chest-squeezing or choking. some also experiment with hypcrventilation (rapid. the desire to change consciousness does not seem to be a product of a particular culture but rather to arise from something basically human. and includes nearly all the activities that people put most of their time. OCR. and tickling to produce paralyzing laughter. The behavior of young children sup-. daydreaming. This DRUGS ARE FASCiNATING suggests that changing COflSCiOUSflCSS is something people like to do. chanting. participating in religious rituals.Why People Use Drugs because they can change our awareThe basic rcason people take drugs is to vary their conscious experience. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . ports this idea. making music. often despite parental objections. Human beings. Infants rock themselves into blissful states. watching fireworks. meditating. such as dizzincss or nausea. the whole experience is so reinforcing that children do it again and again. fasting. such as listening to music. The list is probably endless. surfing. hiking in the wilderness (if you live in a city). Even though these practices may produce some uncomfortable results. is a powerful technique to change awareness. As children grow older they find that certain available PDF compression. Since children all over the world engage in these activities. energy. many children discover that whirling. going to a movie or play. dancing. and hard-earned money into. falling in love. jumping into cold water after taking a hot sauna. visiting a city (if you live in the wilderness). or spinning. having sex.

These include: To aid religious practices. Throughout history. Madjuana was used for this purpose in ancient India. Highs are states of consciousness marked by feelings of euphoria. Many drug users talk about getting high. and energy. Among primitive people. Alcohol has been used for religious purposes in many parts of the world. In fact. just as laughter and dreaming at night seem to be vital to our wellbeing. concentration. PDF compression. and many psychedelie plants are still so used today by indians in North and South America. lightness. seif-transcendence. people also take drugs for other. quick route to these experiences. people have used drug-induced states to transcend their sense of separateness and feel more at one with nature. The attractiveness of drugs is that they provide an easy.15 Why People Use Drug. psychoactive plants are often considered sacred gifts from gods and spirits to unite people with the higher realms. and the supernatural. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . (Free Lance Photographers Guild) in both children and grownups. more practical reasons. God. Perhaps that is why a desire to alter normal consciousness exists in everyone and why people pursue the experiences even though there are sometimes uncomfortable side effects. having high experiences from time to time may be necessary to our physical and mental health. OCR. Although the desire for high states is at the root of drug-taking Wine is used ceremonially in both Judaic and Christian rites. the Last Supper was the J ewish Passover feast. According to the Cospels.c substances put them in similar states. the role of wine in Roman Catholic and judaic rites persists as an example. People who never take drugs also seek out highs.

William S. doctors and patients have always relied heavily on them for dealing with the symptoms of illness. both legal and illegal ones. poet. Sometimes the medical problem will PDF compression. who has experimented with ketamine. who experimented extensively with mescaline in the 1950s. 1920) Bottom: Oliver Wendell Holmes ( 1809—1894). (From it4edicine: An Hictnrical Outline. In recent years. copyright 1931 by the Williams & Wilkins Co.. in this fashion. Top: William James ( 1842— 1910). web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and John Lilly. keeping their experiences to themselves. Roston: Atlantic Monthly Press.") Tincture of marijuana was also a popular remedy. diazepam (Valium) has held that distinction. (One ernie nent physician of the day even called morphine "God's own medicine. a psychologist and guru. the nineteenth-century American physi- cian. a medical rcsearcher and philosopher. and author. or to escape from pain and boredom. used to treat everything from menstrual cramps to epilepsy. who experimented with ether. Ameria can writer and physician. At the end ot the nineteenth century. Baltimorej To treat disease. Many others who have followed this path have done so privately. and alcohol were mainstays of nineteenth-century medicine. the Harvard psychologist and philosopher of the late flinCe teenth century. (From The Letters of William edited by Henry james. cocaine was promoted as a miracle drug and cure-all. Opium. To alter moods. Because psychoactive drugs really make people feel different. The pharmaceutical industry has both encouraged and capitalized on this notion. lethargy. who used nitrous oxide. Sigmund Freud. with the result that the majority of legal medical drugs sold today are aimed at changing undesired moods. or insomnia.. William James. He left us a record of his investigations in a book called The Doors of Perception. American psycholue gist and philosopher. the íather psychoanalysis. Many people take drugs to relieve anxiety. or sharing them only with intimate companions. The idea that unwanted moods are disease states treatable by taking medicines has become very popular in our society. OCR. Young people see their parents use drugs in this way and are also influenced by advertising that directly promotes such behavioL Many people of all ages use nonmedical drugs. This kind of treatment may work by distracting a patient's attention from symptoms and shifting it instead toward the good feeling of a high. a contemporary American novelist and user of opiates? Richard Alpert (Ram Dass). who has extensive experience with LSD and other psychedelics. morphine. depression. Burroughs. One of the most Lamous modern examples was the British writer and philosopher Aldous Huxley.From Chocolate to Morphi ne 16 To explore the self Curious individuals throughout history have taken psychoactive substances to explore and investigate parts of their own minds not ordinarily accessible. and coca wine was the most widely prescribed drug for a time. Some other well-known "explorers" are Oliver Wendell Holmes. who took cocaine.

the problem will persist 1srs1 wba Unrupp*4. "Let's have a drink" is one of the most frequent phrases in use today. (Froni the Viii Niariani of 1901. Disapproved drugs may draw people together even more strongly by establishing a bond of common defiance of authority. however. is and has always been one of the principal appetites of the soul.twi arid flISSI iSgnatan & A %att. and euphoria. taking drugs togcther is a ritual excuse for intimacy. arid at least 01W POPe. if only for a fcw moments. poor. One of the characteristics of sensory pleasure is that it becomes dulled with repetition. stinmiants. qucuns. used by kings.t i_nt sri trakt MtI&r 1MI$IUt flu' rut promote and enhance social interaclion.. and there are only so many ways of achiev- PDF compression. strangers often became instant comrades simply by passing a joint to is flit I . In different cultures other drugs perform the same function.llsst$n. even among strangers. promote easy conversation. Because alcohol lowers inhibitions in most people. was made in Paris in the late 1 and bccamc the niost medical prescription in the world.4 with •s lee PUWVfl eUaflntlttRp ss. So important is this function of psychoactive drugs that many people would find it difficult to relate to others if deprived of them. It is an invitation share time and communication around the consumption of a psychoactive drug. and limited that the urge to escape. on dates people often drink to reduce anxiety and feelings of awkwardness.jJ setalled Sn a. For example. coffee breaks and cocktail ("happy") hours arc examples of the way approved drugs arc used for this purpose.Peoph (Jse Drugs then go away on its own._j. Often. containing in extract of Pcruviin coca Icaves. OCR. much as we take coffee breaks. drinking kava in groups at night is the equivalent of an American cocktail party. Hunun beings arc pleasure-seeking animals who are very inventive when it comes to finding ways to excite their senses and gratify their appetites. busincssmen and women have drinks at lunch to encourage openness and congeniality. Similarly.. •. 1981 courtesy of Fit: Hugh Ludlow Mem( )rial Library) .i Iii I!' '•' M F cli ilflt. and chewing coca leaves with a friend establishes an important social bond._ P -i-' kitdR' ! Plariani Bottle." To . Aside from the ritual significance with which drugs arc invested.17 147/n•. South American Indians take coca breaks together. escape boredom and despair. at the best so monotonous. their pharmacological effects may also enhance social interaction. Like sharing food. such as cocaine. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . By producing alertness IViariani winc.. if there is no treatment of the underlying cause of the symptoms. III I b'r' HI! . To enhance sensory experience arid pleasure. ••r IVdlId I 1-w— It— and the patient may go on to use the drug again and again until dependence results. Rcneficial Plant Rescarch Association Reprint Edition. At the big rock concerts and Vietnam War protests of the I 960s. In the words of Aldous Huxley. leaders Of SoCiety. "Most men and women Icad lives at the worst so painful. Dtneeasa laisasteas back and forth.ad aIftt. For South Sea ers. the longing to transcend themselves.

To stimulate arti. Psychedelic drugs. psychoactive drugs can make familiar experiences new and interesting again0 The use of drugs in combination with sex is as old as thc hills. OCR. as is drug use with such activities as dancing. hut the possibilities of sexual positions and techniques are limited. Writers have traditional 1 y used psychoactive substances as sources of inspira- PDF compression. and listening to or playing music. eating. Pot lovers say that turning on is the perfect way for a line meal to begin. By making people feel differcnt!. Drinking wine with meals is an example of this behavior that dates back to prehistory and is still encouraged by society. (Of course.) Because drugs can. Some men say that a good cigar and a glass of brandy make a fine meal complete.From Chocolate to Morphine 18 (Fitz Hugh Ludlow Memorial Library) ing pleasure. thought. psychedelics can also turn an unpleasant situation into a living nightniare. and energy have gone into sex as into any human activity. especially. many people seek them out and consume them iii an effort to get more enjoyment out o life. are intensificrs of experience and can make a sunsct more fascinating than a movie. make the ordinary extraordinary. temporarily at least. As much time. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .ctic creativity and perlormance.

and journalists have found their inspiration in hol. The French poet Charles Baudclairc took hashish as well as opium for creative inspiration. the yarn paintings of the Huichol Indians of Mexico come directly from peyote sessions. Sigmund Freud's early writings were inspired by cocaine.19 Why People Use Drugs tion. Lnnumcrahlc novelists.nown Mexican artist of the twentieth century. the sacred river. His compatriot. OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . For example. The English poet Coleridge's famous visionary poem "Kubla Khan" was a transcription of one of his opium drcams. Some traditional peoples turn psychedelic visions into art. the novelist Alexandre Dumas. The American writer Edgar Allan Poe relied on opiates. for a time he actively promoted cocaine as a miracle drug. playwrights. some of the weirdness of his tales probably derives from his drug experiences. by Samuel rEdylor C&eridge { I 772—1834) A Huichol yarn painting. spirits. Diego Rivera. showing the sacred deer. The famous American abstract painter Jackson Poh In Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure dome decree: Where Aiph. the hestak. was a user of marijuana. joined him in experiments with hashish. Many have paid the high price of becoming alcoholics. opening Iincs of "Kubla Khan" ( 1 798). and three peyote (Dodv Fugate) PDF compression. poets. Other artists find visions in their own imagination but use psychoactive drugs to help them do the work of translating their visions into art. ran Through caverns measureless to man Down to a sunless sea.

ht ruin people to view the world in novel perspectives and to gain insights they can later express artistically. musicians were among its most enthusiastic users. Many professional athletes today follow in this tradition: baseball players chew tobacco. doctors. Breaking taboos is an obvious way to thaITo rebel. OCR. Iorrncr heroin addict lenge the values of the "establishment. carrying news and messages to all parts of the kingdom. Adolescence usually entails the assertion of independence. Also. relay runners used coca in order to he able to cover vast distances in the high Andes. Unfortunately. our society's attempt to control drug-taking by making some substances illegal plays into the hands of rebellious children. he dicd at agc forty-four in a car crash. It is not surprising that adolescence is also a time of frequent experimentation with drugs. Young people often see drugs as symbols of maturity and sophistication. Because drugs are so surrounded by taboos. they invite rebellious behavior. Many people who would not seek out drugs on their own take them to go along with the crowd. iddjct started shooting heroin at the age of twelve and was a junkie till I was fifteen. There has been little scientific study of the relationship hetween drugs and creativity. heroin. Even some older pcople who have not entirely outgrown adolescent traits express rehclliousncss in the ways they take drugs. A man or woman who does not drink with business colleagues is likely to feel like a freak. sevt'nteen-year-old gi ri." Children quickly learn they can upset parents. and you can't go to video games all the time. In the ancient inca enipire of Peru. often by rejecting parental values. and many still use it today. truckers will often complete long drives on little sleep and a lot of amphetamines. along with peer pressure. and you think life is very trivial and very boring. - girl. Whcn marijuana first surfaced in Amcrica in the 1920s. football Tb improve and basketball players often take amphetamines and cocaine. only to feel accepted in much the same way that they might adopt faddish styles of dress that do not suit them. teachers. I went cold turkey eight or nine times. high states permit some You get into heroin because you have a lot of money in your pocket. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . the result of driving'while intoxicated. Some of the best-known jazz musicians have been heroin addicts.Froni C/inca/ate to Morphine 20 luck was an alcoholic. and fear that To 1go PDF compression. Warriors throughout history have fortifled themselves with alcohol before battle to boost their courage and decrease sensitivity to pain. Possibly. Various drugs enable some people to perform out-of-the-ordinary feats. both to compose anti to perform. and then i'd go back to I physical performance. but after each cold turkey I'd see my old friends again. Some teen-agers start smoking tobacco and marijuana even though they don't like thcir effects. and you look for other people who think the same. and other grown-up authorities by taking forbidden substances.

In The Joyous Cosmology. It gives a broad overview of different ways of using many drugs. Often an individual or small group will take tip the use of a prohibited substance or abuse a permitted one in order to feel special or create a sense of identity.S 21 Why People Drug\ if they do not use them they will be denied entry into in-crowds. alan PDF compression. There are so many reasons why people might take drugs that it may be hard to say which ones are operating in any given instance. some people adopt unusual or affected drug styles to get attention and recognition. A person may take one drug for one reason and another for another reason. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . 1982). doubt influenced by his experiences with the drug. Edgar Allan Poe (1809—I 849). or take one drug for several reasons at once. 1972. Society and Drugs by Richard H. For an account of the healing power of laughter. see Anatomy by Norman Cousins (New York: Berkley. Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness (New York: Vintage. Just as punk rockers wear outlandish clothes and make-up. is an anthology covering many times and cultures. Mainline Lady: Women s Writings on the Drug Experience. 1970) is a good survey of drug use throughout history in various cultures. Suggested Reading Andrew Well's The \11(J(uflh] Mind: A New Way of Looking at (Boston: I {oughton Mifflin. Drugs and (lie Higher revised edition. the American writer and and his was partial to laudanurn (tincture of opium). Blum and Associates (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. edited by Cynthia Palmer and Michael Horowitz (New York: William Morrow. Watts experimented with these substances as an explorer of the mind and a searcher for religious experience. else does it" probably isn't a Using drugs because very good reason. Cigarette and alcohol advertising capitalize on these attitudes and fears. macabre tales were tio (Photo World/Free Lan cc Photographers Guild) Shaman Woman. OCR. hut it is certainly a very common one. 1986) examines drug-taking as a method of changing consciousness and speculates on why altered states of consciousness are important to us. 1980). /b establish an identity. people sometimes take drugs purely out of habit and not for any reason at all. philosopher Alan Watts gives a colorful picture of states of consciousness induced by hallucinogenic drugs. 1965). Then again.

Unfortunately. marijuana. by which they usually fllcafl all illcgal substances. devoted to finding out what drugs do. OCR. any drug can be used in a nonahusive fashion. anyone using thcrn is automatically guilty of drug abuse. and without abusing them. In their view. there is a whole scicnce. rather. Many factors determinc relationships with drugs. the drug itself is one important factor. On the other hand. thereby impoverishing their families. Drug abuse is not simply a matter of what drug a person chooses to consume. But what is drug abuse? To say that it is the use of a drug of abuse is circular and meaningless. Diffcrent people show different responses to the same dose of the same THE DESIRE TO CALl. it depends on the relationship an individual forms with that drug.Relationships with Drugs drugs good and others bad has given rise to the term drugs 01 abuse. effects of drugs are difficult to specify. Addicts who squander all their money on cocaine. even if it is illegal or disapproved. alcohol. Government officials and medical doctors frequently talk about drugs of abuse. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . are abusers of that drug. that is. Cigarette smokers with respiratory disease who continue to smoke are clearly abusing tobacco. Alcoholics who are unable to hold down jobs are abusers of alcohol. some PDF compression. There are many pcop]c who tobacco. Students who cannot concentrate on classroom activities because they arc stoned are abusing marijuana. pharmacology. they remain healthy and fulfill their social and economic obligations. We think that the use of any drug becomes ahusivewhcn it threatens a person's healthor impairs social or economic functioning. Obviously.


Relation S/iij)S viiili

drug, probably because people differ in biochemistry, just as they do in appearance. Even the same person may respond differently to the sarnc dosc of the same drug at different times. Pharmacologists attempt to minimize these variations by giving drugs to animals and people under controlled laboratory conditions. The

results of these experiments enable them to classify drugs into different categories. For example, they can show most psychoactive drugs to hc either stimulants or depressants of the nervous
system. Laboratory experiments also show us that the dose of a drug is a crucial variable. High doses of a substance may produce very

different effccts from low doses. Moderate doses of alcohol will give many people feelings of well-being and relaxation; high doses may cause incoordination, confusion, and sickness. The way a drug is put into the body also shapes its effects. When you take a drug by mouth it enters the bloodstream slowly, and its influence on the nervous system is less intense than when you bypass the gastrointestinal tract by sniffing, smoking, or injecting it. High doses of drugs introduced by one of these more direct routes are likely to he more harmful and more addicting over time. These pharmacological facts can explain some of the variatiOflS WC see in the relationships people form with drugs. For instance, South American Indians who chew coca leaves ily swallow low doses of cocaine and do not become abusers of

A Brazilian Indian smoking. a French drawing dated 155S. (Fitz Hugh Ludlow

that stimulant. People who put much larger doses of powder
cocaine in their noses or who smoke crack cocaine are much more likely to develop medical, social, and psychological problems. The abuse potential of snorting or smoking coke is far greater than the abuse potential of chewing coca. In other words, people are more likely to form good relationships with coca than with cocaine, and this difference clearly has some basis in pharmacology. However, the laboratory is not the rea' world, and pharmacology can only explain certain aspects of human relationships with drugs. When people take drugs in the real world their experiences are often not what pharmacologists would predict. The reason is that outside the laboratory other factors can completely change the effects of drugs. One such factor is called set; set is what a person expects to happen when he or she takes a drug. Expectation is shaped by all of past experience what a person has heard

aboLit the drug, read about it, seen of it, thought about it, and wants it to do. Sometimes it is not easy to find out what people expect of a drug because their rcal feelings might be hidden from themselves. A teen-age boy smoking marijuana for the first time

This carved stone head from Colombia shows a coca user, cheek bulged out with
It dates In 'ni about 1 400. (N'lichacl It. Aldrich)

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From Chocolate to Morphine


sciously he may be terrified of losing his mind or getting So stoned he will never come down. Such unconscious fears can determine reactions to marijuana more than the actual effect of the drug. Set can also be as important as pharmacology in shaping longterm relationships with drugs. For example, some people expect nurijuana to make them relaxed and tired and so will use it only occasionally at bedtime to help fall asleep, whereas others, who feel that pot reduces their anxiety and makes it easier to relate to people, use it so frequently throughout the day that they become dependent on it.

iiuy think he is eager to have a new experience, whcrcas uncon-

A "snioke-iui" in Square Park, New York 1968. (Shelly Rusten, Free Lance Photographers Guild)

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Setting is another factor that modifies pharmacology. Setting is the cnviroiiment in which a drLlg is used not just the physical environment but also the social and cultural environment. During the Vietnam War many American soldiers got into the habit of smoking large amounts o the high-grade heroin that was cheap and easily available to them in Southeast Asia. They rolled it into cigarettes with tobacco or marijuana and used it primarily to escape boredom, because for many American soldiers Vietnam was, more than anything else, boring, and because heroin seems to make time pass more quickly. Pharmacologists would have predicted that most of these soldiers would become heroin addicts, but in fact, most of them stopped using opiates as soon as they came home. It was the special setting of army life in Vietnam that shaped this pattern of drug use, and when people left that setting most of them stopped easily. Set and setting together can modify pharmacology drastically. Therefore, talking about the effects drugs in the real world is not so simple. Effects of drugs are relative to particular people, places, and timcs. In ancient India, marijuana was eaten for rcligious purposes; people used it for its effects on consciousness in socially accepted ways. In England and America during the nineteenth century, doctors gave tincture of marijuana to sick people as a remedy, and most patients never reported getting high on it, probably because they (lid not expect to and so ignored the psychoactive effects. In the United States in the I 920s, members of certain subcultures began smoking marijuana to feel high a practice regarded as deviant by the dominant culture. Many early marijuana smokers panicked and some even committed acts of violcnce under its influence. Today, the smoking of marijuana is accepted in many circles, and users think it decreases aggression and hostility. The fact that effects of psychoactive drugs can change so much front person to person, from culture to culture, and from age to age points up the folly of calling any drug good or bad. But if there is no such thing as a drug of abuse, still there is drug abuse, and learning to recognize it is important. Only in analyzing people's relationships with drugs can good and bad have meaning. Some people may he upset by the notion that you can have a good relationship with a drug, but chances are they fail to acknowledge that many socially accepted substances are, in fact, drugs. Good relationships with drugs have four common characteristics:

is a drug and Recognitiuri that the substance you are awareness of ttThat it tines to %'our body. People who wind up

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A necessary first step is to acknowledge the nature of thc substances in USC and to understand their effects. People in the worst relationships with drugs often use them very heavily but get the least out of them." All drugs have the potential to cause trouble tinless people take care not to let their use of them get out of control. that is a good relationship with the drug. can maintain a useful effect from it over time. marijuana an herb. Freud was an early enthusiast for cocaine as well as addicted cigar smoker (twenty a day). If the experience you like from a drug begins to fade. (National Library of Mcdicine.From Chocolate to Morphine 26 sigmund Freud (1856—1939). approved or disapproved. People vary in their susceptibility to the adverse effects of drugs. the effects they like seem to diminish. can easily separate himself or herself from it. Whether a drug is legal or illegal. Using drugs in ways that produce adverse effects on health and behavior and continuing their use in spite of these effects is the defining characteristic * of drug abuse. Bad relationships with drugs begin with ignorance of the naturc of the substance and loss of the desired effect with increasing 'i)cpendence on drugs is discussed at length in Chapter 12. The father of psychoanalysis. If you ignore the warning and continue consuming the drug at the same frequency. 2. Frequency of use is the critical factor in determining whether the effect of a drug will last over time. if the user is aware of its nature. Some people can snort cocaine frequently and remain physically and psychologically healthy and socially productive. and diet pills just "appetite suppressants. People in good relationships with drugs can take them or leave them. He later repudiated cocaine. OCR. you will begin to slide into a worse and worse relationship with it. and can remain free from adverse effects. obtamed from a physician or bought on the black market. 3_ Eaw of separation from zzce of the drug. Freedom from adverse effects on health or behavior. 4. People who begin to use drugs regularly often find that their early experiences with them are the best. PDF compression. as they use the drugs more and more frequently. This curious pattern happens with all drugs and can be very frustrating. Some individuals can smoke cigarettes all their lives and never develop lung disease. One of the more striking featurcs of a had relationship with a drug is dependence: it controls you more than you control it. They think coffee is just a beverage. that is a sign you are using too much too often. Experience of a useful effect of the drug over time. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . but contintied smoking for most of his life and died of a tobaccorelated oral cancer. Others cannot. Courtesy of the New York Psychoanalytic Inst Itutc Archives) in thc worst relationships with drugs often have little understanding of the substances they use.

27 Relationships with Drugs frcqucncy of use. Indian sweat baths. Andrew Weil presents a numbcr of case examples of substances and techniques that can make people high. for example. rfb relationships with drugs. coca leaves. with eventual impairment of health or social functioning. no mutter how accepted reputation. PDF compression. there are only good and bad it is. pamphlets. In The Marriage of the Sun and Moon: A Quest for Unity in Consciousness (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. mann. OCR. and marijuana1 others do not uncontrolled laughter. eating mangoes and hot chilies. and progress to difficulty in leaving the drug alone. including works of fiction. Any drug can be used successfully. The ways people think about these substances anti activities determine the relationships formed with them. 1980) is an annotated listing of books. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Some involve drugs such as magic mushrooms. and watching eclipses of the sun. 1980). and gives addresses for ordering Drugs: these materials. and any are no good or bad drugs. Suggested Reading by Sharon A Multimedia Sourcebook for Young Ashcnhrenner Charles and Sari Feldman (New York: Neal Schu-. no matter how bad its can he abused. and films.

such as causing a nerve cell to fire an electrical impulse or preventing it from firing one. produced by our own bodies or by plants. OCR. using a term with Greek roots meaning "made within. But why should our brains have receptors designed to fit molecules made by poppy plants? Some researchers The human body. thoughts. Only when a drug molecule plugs into a receptor that fits it does it produce an effect.Types of Drugs be classified according to whether they are natural or manmade." Interestingly enough. This principle is the cornerstone of current theory about drugs and the nervous system. We call these subst ances endogenous drugs. PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS can Endogenous (In-the-Body) Drugs actions. should be aware of them. pharmacologists learned that morphine and heroin attach to special opiate receptors on nerve cells in certain parts of the brain. crude mixtures of substances or single. By 1950. especia Ily in the brain and certain glands. brain researchers had conic to understand that psychoactive drugs work by fitting into special receptor sites on nerve cells just as keys fit into locks. The discovery of endogenous drugs is a recent scientific breakthrough. nukes powerful chemicals that affect our moods. they resemble many of the external chemicals people take to change their consciousness. and users. For example. especially. purified chemicals. arid PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . These differences may influence the relationships people form with drugs.

your endorphin system might be in high gear. Endorphins are flOW under intense investigation because they are likely to reveal much about the workings of our minds and bodies. they are the oncs who find opiates especially pleasant and come to rely on them to cope with the pain and stress of day existence. producing most of the effects of poppy drugs.29 4 Types of Drugs hf r • I 2 I. Old botanical drawing of an P°PPY1 showing details of the unripe pods with incisions to permit the flow of opium. Some people may he born with an inability to make enough endorphins. including euphoria and reduction of pain. possi bly. Why have the human brain and the poppy evolved chemicals with when they are so unlike each other? Is this fact a similar mere coincidence or does it suggest a deep relationship between people and plants that underlies the age-old inclination to experiment with vegetable drugs? And what does it say about the "nat- PDF compression. People who have high tolerance for pain may produce more of these endogenous narcotics. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . In 1975 this suggestion was confirmed with thc discovery of a group ot chemicals called endorphins. OCR. When you wake up one day feeling high and unfazed by the problems that ordinarily get you down. . Endorphins are the brain's own narcotics. Fi4 9 : suggested that opiatc receptors really exist for other substanccs made by the brain itself moiccules whose shapes happen to be similar to those of opiates. (Courtesy of the Harvard College Library) The discovery of endorphins also raises interesting questions.

unwanted side effects. It makes its own downers in the form of serotonin and GABA (ganirna-amino-butyric acid). they arc vury powerful and efficient in producing their effects. have come up with clever ways of preparing and ingesting them to maximize the desired effects or make them easier to take. Possibly.From Chacohite to Morphine 30 uralness" of taking drugs? It is possible that endorphins and other endogenous agents arc the basis of at! the highs people experience. Probably the body than also makes its own psychedelics —. are weak. Sex hormones can be powerful antidepressants. working better in a laboratory. Traditional peoples do not tamper with the chemical composition of the plants. For example. It will be interesting to know how the use of external drugs affects the production of internal ones. South American Indians have found that drying coca leaves and mixing them with ashes or other alkalis increases their stimulant effect. and so creates a cheuñcal basis for dependence and addiction. Scientists are just beginning to learn about them and will certainly have much to say on the subject in years to come. They have also learned to make a powerful snuff from the resin of the virola tree (a DMT-containing plant) in order to take PDF compression. and there are hune dreds of plants with psychoactive properties. may have found ways to stimulate the production or re'ease of tlicir OWfl neurocheniicals.most likcly DMT (dimethyltryptarninc) or a close relative of it --— since the pineal gland. it also makes representatives of most of the other categories of drugs discussed in this book. It certainly makes its OWfl uppers in the form of adrenaline and noradrenaline. People who get high by meditating or running1 for example. or have peoples who use these plants. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . People have put flioSt c-ri them to use in one part of the world or another at one time or another. regular USC (_)f a drug from outside decreases or shuts off the manufacture of the corresponding endogenous substance. Not only does the body make its own narcotics. such as Native Americans. secretes hormones with a very similar molecular Because the drugs our bodies make are designed to fit exactly into receptors on nerves. deep ill the brain. Often drug plants taste had. OCR. whether obtained with drugs or without. uu1 Natural Drugs Crude Forms Most psychoactive drugs come from plants. cheniicals that SlOW down transmission in the centri1 nervous system. however.

[)octors and pharmacologists refer to these predominating chemicals as the "active principles" of the plants. both immediate and long-term. which would he fine except that it implies all the other constituents are inactive and unirn portant. These safety factors and PDF compression. in the mid-1800s. 1'he relationships people form with plants are different from those they form with white powders. Crude natural drugs tend to he less toxic. In the sanic way. whereas purified chemicals can be put into the hloodstrearn more directly. they rely instead on refined white powders derived from plants. smoking. refined preparations may approach 100 percent purity.) By contrast. crude plants usually go into the body through the mouth and stomach. In a simi Ear Old World natives learned to roast coffee beans and extract them with hot watcr to prepare a flavorful and stiniulating bcveragc. and that (Jr1C may account for the most drarnati1 effects of the plant. They soon succeeded in isolating many and making them available in pure form. iliost doctors regard green medicinal plants as old-fashioned and unscientific. and users tend to stay in better relationships with them over time. One reason for this difference is that plants are dilute preparations. caffeine is the predominant constituent of coffee. scientists first began to identify the active principles of well-known drug plants. since the active principles are combined not only with other drugs hut also with inert vegetable matter. Finally. OCR. Often more of one chemical will he present than of any other. Today. Harmful effects. Because pharmacologists have also lost intercHt in plants arid study only isolated active principlcs. they know little about how whole plants differ in thcir effects from refined drugs. all of which contribute to the effect of the whole. Drugs plants commonly contain less than S percent of an active principie. or injecting (you can't snort a coca leaf). Cocaine is the main drug in coca leaves and is responsible for the numbness in the mouth and much of the stimulation that coca chewers like.31 of psychedelic trips. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . the many other compounds in drug plants often a single plant will contain twenty or more activ e componcnts may modify the active principles. (Coca rarely has moic than (15 percent cocaine. Crude plant drugs contain complex mixtures of chemicals. such as by snorting. are more likely to appear when people put drugs directly into their hloodstreams without giving their bodies a chance to process them. i)octors quickly began to treat patients with these purified derivatives. In addition. making them safer or softening their harsher actions on the body.

we can still call them natural drugs because the molecules already exist in nature. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . can easily be synthesized in laboratories. All the cocaine and morphine on the black market and in pharmacies are extracted from coca leaves and opium poppies. Blackernarket cocaine is usually made in prirnitive jungle factories.From to Morphine 32 fiers are lost when the active principles are isolated from the crude drugs that nature provides. and mescaline are all examples of drugs that Refined Forms occur in plants but are commonly available in refined form as white powders. (Jake Myers) PDF compression. have more complex molecular structures. Some of them. Natural drugs in whole plant form are the safest types of drugs. In other cases the process is so simple that unskilled people can do it in kitchens. it is likely to contain many impurities. They always have lower potentials for abuse. Chemists can make them in laboratories. they would he wisc to use natural plant forms in order to give themselves the best chance of avoiding prohiems. Coca leaves arc first soaked in a solvcnt to extract the drugs they contain. Others. sold both legally and illegally. OCR. but even when they are. An illegal cocainc in Peru. of course. but it is not cost efficient to do so. such as cocaine and morphine. requiring sophisticated techniques and equipment. such as mescaline. cocaine. If people choose to takc drugs. Extraction and purification of some plant drugs is long and complicated. Morphine.

hut aspirin is a more powerful pain reliever than willow bark. As we have noted. Semisynthetic Drugs Pharmacologists often take refined natural drugs and change their Mescaline crystals.33 of Drug+s Whether natural drugs are manufactured by chemists or extractcd from plants. A slightly more complicated transformation is the addition of chemical groups to a natural drug molecule to make it stronger. because they interact more smoothly with the body's own chemistry. however. the effects of the two tend to he similar. OCR. a similar but more potent drug. while in other cases the results are completely novel. LSI) (lysergic acid diethylamide) is an example of a sernisynthetic drug with novel properties. it takes less heroin than morphine to produce the same effect. 400 mila ligrams. German chemists created aspirin by adding an acetic acid group to a natural pain-relieving chemical found in the bark of some willow trees. a typical dose.) A similar addition of two acetic acid groups to morphine turns it into heroin. A very simple change is to combine an insoluble drug from a plant with an acid to make a water-soluble salt. Since their structures tend to be doscr to those of endogenous drugs. which is usually smoked because it will not dissolve. At the end of the nineteenth century. it is important to distinguish between natural drugs in the dilute forms of crude plants and refined powders with much higher toxicity and abuse potential. It was made from a natural chemical in a fungus called ergot that attacks grasses and grains. The ability of chemists to create new drugs from natural cornpounds raises an old argument about whether human beings should tamper with nature. These transformations of natural drugs result in new substances called seniisynthetic drugs. That is. (It is also much more toxic. In this way the "frechase" form of cocaine. We think people are meant to interact PDF compression. but the original chemical (lysergic acid) is toxic and has little psychoactivity. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Sometimes their experiments just intensify the actions of the original compounds. is turned into cocaine hydrochloride. North American indians drank willow-bark teas to treat headaches and rheumatism. (Jeremy Bigwood) chemical structures to vary their properties. as in the exampies of aspirin and heroin. a water-soluble compound that can he inhaled or injected. Chemists like to make semisynthetic drugs because it is easier to play with an existing molecule than to start from scratch. they may he safer than drugs nature never thought of.

Al OT/)hi ii C

wi th the natural world and modify its creations. In Ian, people cart improve on nature. A fine example is the development of

age the reader to keep in mind thLIt dilute, natural forms of sub-

]\'f)t's of

excellent varieties of fruits and vegetables from unimpressive wild spucies. The issue for us is whether the results o the manipulations are beneficia' or harmful. Plant selection and breeding that aim to enhance flavor and nutrition are clearly worthwhile. on the other hand, the production of square, hard, tasteless tomatoes to facilitate mass packing and shipping is inspired by greed for money rather than a desire to benefit humanity.

stances are always safer and may give users the best chance to build stable relationships with the drugs they take.

Suggested Reading
There is no good book on the different types of drugs discussed in

In the same way, when chemists tinker with natural drugs they should attempt to maximize desirable qualities. Extreme
potency is not necessarily desirable, because it often goes hand in hand with great toxicity. We pay a high price today for our rejection of natural medicines in favor of potent chemicals. The tendency of pharmacologists and doctors to regard more potent drugs as more modern and more scientific encourages the use of dangerous derivatives of plants when often the milder, natural originals would do as well.

this chapter or on the new discoveries about endogenous drugs. An interesting book on the plant sources of natural drugs is Wilham Emboden's Narcotic Plants (New York: Macmillan, 1979). Emboden is a botanist who uses the word narcotic as a synonym for psychoactive. The book covers all categories of psychoactive plants: depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and deliriants. It includes many illustrations and color plates and much information on the traditions and uses of these plants in all parts of the

Synthetic Drugs
Wholly synthetic drugs are made from scratch in the laboratory

Guide to i'svchoactive Drugs by Richard Seymour arid David E. Smith (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1987) is a good, readable reference book. See also Uppers, Downers, All Arounders (citedonpage 13).

and do not occur naturally. Valium, PCP (phencyclidine), and secobarbital (Seconal) are examples. It may be that synthetic drugs are the most dangerous of all and the hardest to form good relationships with, but it is risky to make such sweeping judgments. Very recently, researchers discovered Valium receptors in the human brain, making them think that the body must produce some internal analog to that completely synthetic tranquilizer. Did the chemists who created Valium in a laboratory just hit upon that molecule by chance? Has Valium become so popular because its effect resembles that of an endogerious substance ; Or might Valium receptors have developed in the brain in response to use of the drug? It is interesting to speculate Ofl these questions, even though science may never be able to answer them.
In the following pages we describe all the psychoactive drugs that people are likely to encounter, both those that are legal and those that are not. We discuss them category by category, explaining how they work and what their benefits and dangers are. In any category, such as stimulants, some drugs may be natural — in crude or refined form some may be semisynthetic, and some totally synthetic. We do not dwell on these differences but encour-

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Thank God for tea! What would the world do without tea? how did it exist? I am glad I was not born before tea. s\ dflC)' Sfliith 1 77 1 — 84S), English clcrgynian, writer, and wit


adrenal glands.

alert and energetic by activating or exciting the nervous system. There are many stimulant drugs in current USC; arc plants found in nature, othurs arc chemicals made in the laboratory. These different drugs produce somcwhat different effects, lasting for varying lengths of time, but all of them raise thc energy level of the nervous system in roughly the same way. nih individual nerves in bodies c(-)nlrnunicatc with each other both electrically anti chemically. A nerve impulse is an electric discharge that moves quickly along the fiber of a nervc cell. The fiber may end at a muscle, a gland, or another nerve cell, hut there is always a tiny space between the end o the nerve fiber and the next cell. To bridge this gap, the nerve fiber releases small amounts o powerful chemicals called neurotransmitters that affect the next cell. Some neurotransrnittcrs arc strong stimulants that cause muscle cells to contract, gland cells to secrete, and other nerve cells to fire off electrical discharges. The most cornmon stimulant neurotransrnitter is a chemical called noradrcnaline or norepinephrine. This chemical is closely related to the hormone adrenaline (or epinephrine), which is produced by our
is a Latin word meaning "on the kidney," because thc adrenal glands

STIMULANTS ARE DRUGS that make people feel more

tbc kidneys like little caps. EpinepllroA means the thing in Greek. in America the Ptirke-Davis pharmaceutical company succeeded in registcring Adrenalin as a tr;idcmark icr its brand of adrenal hormone, and as a result American scientists generally use the murc cumbersome words epinephsit Liii

!ItIt arid norepincp!lrine. We prefer the Latin form.

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Stirn ulan ts

Stimulant drugs work by causing nerve fibers to release noradrenaline and other stimulating neurotransrn i ttcrs. Although different stimulants bring about this release in different ways, the end result is always the same: the release of more stimulating neurotransmitters. So, the stimulation people feel when they take stimulant drugs is simply a result of the body's own chemical energy going to work in the nervous system. The drug just makes the body expend it sooner and in greater quantity than it would

This release of chemical energy in the form of noradrenalinc causes certain predictable changes in the mind and body. It makes a person feel wakeful, alert, and, often, happy. It makes the heart beat faster and may cause the blood pressure to rise. Recause it produces changes in blood flow, the fingertips and tip of the nose may become cold. It gives a feeling of butterflies in the stomach and may cause a laxative effect. Some of these changes are mediated by a branch of the nervous system called the sympathetic nervous system. [he nuin function of the sympathetic nervous system is to respond to emergencies by preparing the body for fight or flight. It does so by shutting down nonessential functions and speeding up vital ones. The sympathetic nervous system relics on noradrenalinc as its chernical messenger.

Now, noradrcnaline acts in many of the same ways as adrena-

line, the hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, also in response to emergencies. Experiences that cause the adrenals to secrete adrenaline into the bloodstream produce feelings very much like those of stimulant drugs. The rush of excitement one gets on a roller coaster ride, for example, may feel a lot like the effect of a dose of amphetamine, and no doubt both these techniques are popular for the same reason because they give people a sense o increased mental and physical energy, and make thcm feel, ternporarily at least, more alive. In recent years scientists have begun to find out many interesting things about biorhythms, the cycles by which our vital processes wax and wane. The most obvious daily hiorhythm is that of sleeping and waking. Production of hormones and neurotransmitters has its own ups and downs, and these cycles probably explain why people feel naturally stimulated at certain times and naturally lethargic at others. A common pattern is to feel energetic and able to concentrate well in the morning hut to become tired and mentally sluggish in the late afternoon. One reason that stimulant drugs are popular is that they give temporary control over rhythms of wakefulness and the ups and

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( Courtesy of Pandamoniurn,


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the body shifts energy away from the stomach and intestines to the brain. you can mobilize it to concentrate by taking a stimulant drug and thereby forcing your nervous system to release some of its storedeup chemical energy. all digestive functions become nonessential compared to such as blood circulation and speed of muscular response. Far from making everyone cheerful and alert. diarrhea.. The reason stimulant drugs suppress hunger probably has to do with the preparation of the body for emergencies. therefore. In emergencies. these drugs make many people anxious. and blood vessels. moreover. But one of life's basic rules Is . only to find later that they had written the same line over and over or scribbled the whole exam on one illegible page. Under stress. Or if you have to drive a long distance at night when your whole nervous system is ready for sleep. just as some peopIe find roller coaster rides unpleasant. Denver. Not eating. boredom. You Never (1et Something for Nothing (or. strong. wakeful. happy. some people Find their effects unpleasant. you have a mental task to do at 3 P. energetic. They may enable people to concentrate longer and better or to perform physical work more efficiently and with greater endurance. and urinary frequency and urgency. when your brain wants to rest. Others get such distressing symptoms as heart palpitations. jittery. Or if you arc feeling depressed when you have to go out and niect important people. Instead of automatically improving physical and mental performance. Because the nerves and muscles receive more attention under the effect of stimulants. and resistan t to hunger. and unable to sit still. a stimulant might brighten your iiiood for a while.From Chocolate to Morphine 38 (Reprinted from the Rocky MOLlfltQifl News. making it possible to think about something other than food and concentrate better on the task at hand. stimulants sound attractive: they can ma Ice you feel alert. stimulants sometimes just make people do poor work faster. and fatigue. these drugs may improve certain kinds of physical and mental performance for a time. tends to further increase one's energy and sense of alertness. not everyone is affected by stimulants in the same way. OCR. Of course. Some people are SO sensitive to stimulants that they cannot sleep at all even twelve hours after taking a sniall dose. at first glance. Cob rado) hunger. you can stay awake by putting a stimulant into your body. heart. Still. There are famous stories of college students who wrote what they imagined to he brilliant final exams under the influence of amphetamines. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . There's No Such downs of mOod. This probably explains why these drugs are especially popular with students and athletes.M. Another reason people like stimulants is that they suppress Jt PDF compression.

h trouble is that many people are not willing to let their bodies readjust. rj. The price you pay for the good feeling a is a not-so-good feeling when the stimulant stimulant gives wears off. or do any of the tasks of everyday life. In many ways coffee seems to be more powerful than refined caffeine or other caffeine-containing plants. instead of miraculously delivering free gifts of cosmic energy. If I don't. move their bowels. and depression. People who take stimulants reguTarly find they cannot function normally without them. If I drink three cups.39 as a Free Lunch). Its bright red fruits. Kinds of Stimulants Coffee and Other Caffeine-Containing Plants Caffeine. In adniinisrrator PDF compression. if you are willing to pay this price and let the body rca charge itself. Unfortunately. mental f atigue.thirty-ninc-year-uld man. and stimulants are no exception to this rule. la:iness. lethargy. Now. The raw beans are gray-green and odorless. but the effects of coffee and caffeine differ. For. each contain two secds. I feel irritable. Stim ti/an t c The most serious problems with stinuilant drugs tesult from the way they work. hut when roasted they turn dark brown and develop their characteristic aroma and flavor. or beans. A shrubby tree native to Ethiopia. so they take another dose of the drug. when they are used in this way. sleepiness. I get a little speedy. the most popular natural stimulant. It's very easy to fall into a pattern of using stimulants all the time in order to avoid the down feeling that follows the initial up. the body is left with less energy than usual and must replenish its supplies. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Without them they just don't feel like doing much of anything. stimulants merely force the body to give up some of its own energy reserves. marked by the very same feelings they take stimulants to avoid: namely. OCR. but with two I feel just about right. is found in a number of plants throughout the world. People experience this depiction of energy as a "down" or "low" state. there is nothing wrong with using stimulants now and then. stimulants quickly produce dependence. they want to feel good again right away. need them just tü open their eyes in the morning. by EthioLegend has it that coffee was first discovered long the morning I drink two cups of coffee. So when the effect of a stimue lant wears off. work. called cherries. The drug was first isolated from coffee in I 82 1 aiid was named for that plant. —. coffee is now cultivated in many tropical countries throughout the world.

More than a thousand years ago. He pian nonuds who noticcd that their domestic animals became Lloyd's Coffee House. These niystics confined their use of coffee to occasional ceremoflies. coffee. by jokinn Sebastian Bach 750) frisky after eating the fruits of the trees. yes! Yes! let me have coffee. rarer than jewels or treasures. but as coffee became more widely known. Yes! Yes! Greatest of pleasures! Coffee. and eventually they learned to make a flavorful drink from the roasted seeds. how I love its flavor. groups of Muslims in the Middle East began using coffee in religious rituals and cerernoflies. about 169S. coffee soon established itself there and all over the world. let me have my coffee strong. When people tried eating the seeds. coffee stirred up great opposition as a new and unapproved drug. and stay up all night praying and chanting. drink large amounts of coffee. Groups of men would meet one night a week. Johann Sebastian Bach is rumored to have been a coffee addict. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and if you would win my favor. sweeter than grape from the vine. many ot them found they couldn't stop. London. Authorities tried to prohibit its use. they got frisky too. but of course their efforts were to no avail. When people started to drink coffee every day in large amounts. Inc. other people began to usc it. OCR. (The Hettman Archive. When it first came to Europe in the seventeenth century. Lloyd's of London was born here and I with it the modern insurance industry.) PDF compression. not for religious reasons but just because they liked its stimulant effect.rrom Chccolate to Morphine 40 Far beyond all other pleasures. Coffee houses sprang up in all European cities. — from the Coffec Cantata. and whole populations became dependent on the drug almost overnight.

so approved. where coffee is regularly consumed in large quantities. Hc drank largcr and larger amounts of brews SO strong they looked likc thick soup. anxiety. one that is hard on certain parts of the body. they suffer real withdrawal symptoms if they stop using coffee suddenly.41 tollcd the virtuLs of the new drink in his famous Coffee Cantata. there are nearly as many brands of antacids as there are brands of coffee. Photo World/Free Lance Photographers Guild) PDF compression. and insomnia. as well as the less safe solvent-extracted brands. for example. They disappear rapidly if the user takes caffeine in any form. _aI. Many regular users cannot th ink clearly in the morning untfl they have had their first cup. Symptoms are lethargy. (In the United States. Today dependence on coffee is very common in Western society. increasing risk of heart attacks. This is true of water-processed decal. and a distinctive throbbing (vascular) headache that is often severe. Coffee also makes many people shaky by upsetting the delicate balance between nerves and muscles. let alone a powerful drug that can cause dence and illness.) It is irritating to the bladder. it contains other active substances from the coffee bean that can be irritating to the nervous.- S ! ! Honon5 de Baizac ( 1 799-S the great French I t a writer. OCR. The truth is that coffee is a strong stimulant. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . in Today C(I)ffcc is a thoroughly approved drug fact. cardiovascular. and unnary systems. or do th ciT work Also. and many people who drink a lot of it have indigestion the time. It is a cause of headaches. Wi thout it they can't concentrate. The withdrawal reaction begins 24 to 36 hou rs after the last dose. then complained of the stomach cramps they gavc him. The French writer Baizac could nut work without coffcc. There is no agreement on this possibility among scientists. that many pcople who drink it regularly arc surprised to learn it is a drug at all. especially in women. It is irritating to the stomach. The evidence for this effect remains contradictory. irritability. Nau sea and vomiting may occur. hut pregnant women should remember that coffee and caffeine are drugs and should not consume them in large amounts. (Paul Thompson. rflOSt of . which may contain residues of toxic chemicals. Coftce and caffeine may also raise serum cholesterol. move their bowels. and is a frequent cause of urinary cornplaints. These syniptoms will last from 36 t 0 72 hours. Coffee and caffeine have been accused of causing birth defects. Note that decaffeinated coffee is not inert. tOt). heart palpitati ons. Such problems all come from using coffee tot) frequently so that the body never gcts a chance to replenish its stores of chemical energy and comes to rely more and more on the external drug. gastrointestinal..—p. In addition to small amounts of caffeine (enough to stimulate sensitive individuals). was also a gnat coflcc addict.

enough sugar to damage their teeth (and possibly upset their metabolism). Also. The label this Old bottle reads.Froni Chocolate tO Morphine 42 We had a kettle. Bottled cola drinks have very little cola nut in them and do not taste like cola nuts at all. Tea addiction is not uncommon in England. Our not repairing it made it worse. they conduct tea ceremonies. The combination of sugar and caffeine seems to be especially habit-forming. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . from a tropical tree. cola drinks are riot unhealthy if used in moderation. list cattcinc as in ingredient. the cola nec. tea drinking has been a national pastime and habit cver since the early seventeenth century. Ireland." by 936) Rudyard Kipling ( I to be as powerful or as Other caffeine beverages don't even though they may contain as much caffeine toxic as coffec OX equivalent drugs. powdered green t ca that is whipped with water strong form of tea was develinto a I)itter. In some African countries cola nuts are so valuable they are used a money. they contain a lot of sugar. We haven't had any tea for a week. and people can become dependent on them. tea is a stimulant. which may lower cholesterol and help prevent cancer. oped in Zen Buddhist monasterie S tO help monks stay awake during li)ng hours of nmditation. OCR. and if you drink it in large amounts or make it strong enough. In England. including jittcriness and insomnia. and cases of dependence on tea are less common in our society. or nut. not to mention large doses of caffeine.. frothy beverage. The nuts have a bitter. The bottom is out of the Universe. of course. Cola is a caffeine-containing seed. "Thcra peutically. and people chew them for their stimulating effect." (Michael R. Many people drink enormous amounts of cola. and Asia. it is usually synthetic caffeine or caffeine extracted from coffee or tea. Recent medical research suggests health benefits of green tea. Though they do contain caffeine. In addition.. you can get powerful effects. people who like them should just he aware of their nature and their potential for abuse. —. Parents especially should remember that so-called "soft drinks" are actually drugs that can affect the health and moods of their children. The national drink of Brazil is guarand 'The popularity of stimulating cola drinks has led manufacturers to add catfeinc to sonic other flavors of carhonatcd bcvcrages. If you do not want to take drugs with ShUtild make a habit of reading the information on bottles and cans. they are also consuming calories. Tea is not nearly so irritating to the body as coffee. when it was introduced from the Orient. and though they may think they arc merely quenching their thirst. These soft drinks are also drugs. elaborate rituals built around the consumption of incitcha. In other parts of the world. aromatic taste. we let it leak."Natural Theology. as with '1 ! ttu4D An extract of cola nut in aitcohol formerly was used in medicine. Like other stimulants. PDF compression. a special. Japanese people drink green tea throughout the day. I)rinks so fortified must soda. Aldrich) coffee. people use a number of less well 1* known caffeine plants. kola guarani and coca.

sLich as Celestial Seasonings' Morning Thun- der. It. Maté leaves can be bought in most health food stores and are ingredients in some herbal tea mixtures. Chocolate contains only a small amount of caffeine. but their consumption usually follows the same sort of pattern as with coffee. because chocolate addiction looks different from other forms of stimulant dependence. OCR. other components of chocolate must he involved. source of chocolate and cocoa. too. and cases Of chocolate dependence are easy to find. fat. Most chocoholics are women and many of them crave chocolate most intensely just before their menstrual periods. In moderation chocolate is a pleasant and interesting addition to the diet. ground-up beans. who considered it a sacred plant and used it in religious rituals. The pods grow directly Irvin the trunk and (Harvard Botanical Museum) butter mixed with sugar. theobromine cannot account for all aspects of chocolate addiction. and its sceds are cacao beans. so no one knows for sure. with most of the fat removed. Women who develop an addictive relationship with chocolate usually eat it in cyclic binges rather than contine ually and often say it acts on them like an instant antidepressant. Regular chocolate is made by adding extra fat to roasted. Packages of mate sometimes misrepresent the product as a caffeine-free herbal tea. hut has a lot of theobromine. ground-up beans. These are bcing marketed as new organic stimulants from the Amazon jungle. Very little research has been done on chocolate. Cacao was known to the ancient Aztecs. Recently. especially since the combination of sugar. *The tree is called cacao (pronounced cah-COW). contains a stimulating drug. a close relative with similar effects. but overusc may not be wise. One of the most famous sources of caffeine is chocolate." People who regularly consume chocolate or go on chocolate-eating binges may not realize they are involved with a drug. which is made from the leaves of a holly plant.* Chocolate. which cone tains a lot of fat and is very bitter. PDF compression. By itself. The roasted. White chocolatc is just cocoa A cacao tree. tablets of guaraná powder have appeared in health food stores in the United States under such brand names as ZOOM and ZINC.43 Stirriulants (pronounced made from the seeds of a jungle shrub. As there is no reason to think that theobrornine affects men and women differently. also made from the seeds of a tropical trcc. or cocoa beans. are cocoa. and cola drinks. must be mixed with sugar to make it palatable. tea. It contains mow caffcine than coffce and is often made into sweet. carbonated drinks. You probably know a few "chocoholics. Sonic kinds of maté taste like smoky tea. The fat in them is cocoa butter. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . In Argentina the most popular caffeine drink is mate (proe nounced mah-TAY).

hoping to kick a chocolate habit that was significantly affecting my life. coca users put dricd leaves in the mouth and work them into a large wad. then peopic begin to expcrience the usual effects Indian women in Peru sort- ing coca leaves. Coca and Cocaine Coca. There are several varieties of coca: sonic taste likc green tea. swallowing the juices. cocaine being the most important. Today the plant is legal in Peru and Bolivia. They suck on this wad for thirty minutes or so. Being addicted to chocolate was so much a part of my definition of myself that it constantly amazes me to think that I am now free of it. and Overeating. if not appalling . humid valleys of the eastern slopes of the Andes. I could not remember the last time I had managed to get through a whole day without eating chocolate in one form or another. I am mystifled by what happened and to this day cannot explain it. To get an effect from coca. The other drugs arc present in smaller amounts and seem to modify the stimulating effect of the cocaine. coca leaves contain many vitamins and minerals that are probably important in the diets of Indians who use them. In addition. OCR. such as lime (the powdered niineral) or ashes. the mouth and tongue become numb. I was then thirty-three. . usually in quantities most people would regard as excessive. where millions of Indians still chew coca leaves every a stimulant and medicine. in Los Angeles. has been cultivated by the Indians of South America for thousands o years. I enrolled in a program at the Shick Center for the Control of Smoking.) thirty-tight-year-old social worker Coca contains fourteen drugs. Alcoholism. is not related day to cocoa. some like wintergreen. a shrub native to the hot. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and drugs can he SO habit-forming. . Frankly. after which they spit out the residue.Fruni Chocolate to Morphine 44 Five years ago. must be added to the wad of leaves. People who tend to gain weight easily should be especially careful about their intake of chocolate. by the way. (limothy Plowman) PDF compression. After a few minutes of chewing coca. (Coca. a tiny amount of some alkali.

* which gives even faster. and crack use quickly reached epidemic proportions in cities throughout America. that is. Smoking puts cocaine into the bloodstream even faster than intravenous injection and gives similar effects very intense and very brief. that is. smokable form of the drug marketed as small pellets. scientists isolated cocaine from the leaves and made it available to doctors in the form ofa pure whitc powdcr. (Michael R. Used in this way. Since then. It is always cut (diluted) with various substances before reach- ing consumers here. and many became dcpendent on it. PDF compression. All illegal cocaine conies from leaves grown and processed in South America. Unlike coffee. the stimulaitt effects come on very fast.S percent). In the iRSOs doctors began to prescribe cocaine for all sorts of medical problems. even though it works and is actually much safer that way. It soon became apparcnt that this kind of treatment was not a good idea. laws were passed against the widespread use of coca and cocaine. Coca-Cola began as one of these early preparations.45 S tin:i Luau ts of stimulants. and today doctors use cocaine only for certain operations in the eye. and are very short-lived. Coca and cocaine are very different. Some people shoot cocaine. they snuff the powder up their noses. Safer local anesthetics were invented in laboratories. more intense. In the late 1800s coca became very popular in Europe and America in the form ot tonics and wines. Few people take cocaine by mouth. and the difference shows how it is easier to form good relationships with natural drugs than with isolated and refined ones. a huge black market has developed to supply cocaine to the many people who like the feeling it gives. Colombian Indian coca chcwcr. then rubbing the whitc powder on the leaves. and some people SfllOkC a special form of cocaine called freebase in water pipes. It first appeared in the mid. OCR.1 980. which had always been terribly painful and difficult. As the flrst'localanesthetic. At the same time. Aldrich) Coca leaves contain low concentrations of cocaine (usually only U. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . It may also hc more powcrful than caffeine in producing a good mood.s. So. inject it intravenously. throat. and shorter effects. nose. Crack cocaine is a relatively new. especially eye operations. coca soothes the stomach and doesn't produce jittcrincss. Most people snort cocaine. are very intense. cocaine revolutionized surger\. Other coca products swiftly disappeared from the shelves of drugstores. He adds powdcrcd to the wad ot leaves in mouth by moistening a stick. in the early 1900s. including dependence on opiates and alcohol. The Coca-Ct)la Company tOok COCaJflC out of its drink (it still contains a drug-tree extract of the leaves as a flavor). and mouth. because many patients suffered ill cffccts from COCJiflC. in combination with other drugs that modify its 'fhc health problems of intravenous drug USC arc discusscd in Chaptcr 12. clipping it in the lime container in his othcr hand.

trying to get back the good feeling." is therefore very intense. the addictiveness of this stimulant is great. enters the bloodstream all at once.) Cocaine addictiori almost always interferes with social and economic functioning. while smoking crack may be had for the lungs and is even more likely to lead to overuse and a stubborn habit. Both powder and crack cocaine can increase the workload of the heart and cause irregular heartbeats. hut deaths from cocaine are rare. sluggish. What's more. and general feelings of discomfort. rarely have any problems with coca leaf. and use the stimulation to help them work or socialize.From Chocolate to Morphine 46 cocaine is highly diluted by inactive leaf material. in the 1980s. Besides. but it lasts only a short time. They also use it as a medicine for a variety of illnesses. diR ounce of pure. even though all they get from it after a while arc the unpleasant effects characteristic of all stimulants used in excess: anxiety. OCR. and with valuable nutrients. especially digestive oncs Among South American Indians there is little abuse of coca leaf. When cocaine hydrochloride was first isolated in the late iSSOs it revolutionized surgery and was widely prescrihcd for a time. Sensational news stories about crack. or veins. Now. On the black market. usuafly disappearing within fifteen minutes to a half-hour. since addicts often alienate families and friends. (Jeremy J3igwood) Use and abuse of cocaine have skyrocketed in recent years. lose PDF compression. pharmaceutical cocaine would he worth upwards of S2000. Many people can't leave this drug alone if they have it. provoking much public alarm. First of all. unhappy. its medical application is limited. Relatively pure street cocaine may contain 60 percent of the drug. it is the psychological and social dangers of cocaine that should be emphasized in drug education. but its popularity as a recreational drug is growing by leaps and bounds. feeling tired. In this natural form. Then the user may crash. The stimulation. when it is put directly into the flOSC. so dangerous as to justify the most repressive measures. lungs. insomnia. or "rush. on the other hand. these crusaders often exaggerate its dangers. getting takes work: you have to chew a mouthful stimulation from of leaves for half an hour. cocaine enter the bloodstream slowly through the mouth and stomach. Indians in South America. snorting too much powder cocaine leads to irritation of the nose. They can take it or leave it. which. led directly to escalations of the current war on drugs. continue to get good effects from it over time. at least its physical toxicity. users tend to go on using it. In their enthusiasm to fight cocaine. with graphic descriptions of inner-city crack houses and impaired "crack babies" born to addicted mothers. For drug warriors crack is the new devil drug. small amounts of effects in a good way. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and the body has a great capacity to metabolize and eliminate the drug from the systunt Actually. Because cocaine can make people feel so good for so short a time and not so good immediately thereafter. (Smok- ing crack is as addictive as smoking cigarettes.

they failed to do). and so have encouraged thc cdgc growth of a vast black market in cocaine. experimented with giving amphetamines to factory workers. forty-two-year-old woman. isolated. hoping to make them more productive (which. li-i the 1950s and 1960s. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .000 a year and more). but one should he aware that the possibility of using this drug to excess is very real. and spcnd phcnorncnal amounts of money on their habits ($15. probably because the intensely pleasureful but very short effect of cocaine is more seductive and invites repetitive dosing. in the long run. I was actually enjoying myself . They become paranoid. I felt exhilarated. I took it without a second thought. Soldiers in World War Il received rations of amphetamines to make them march longer and fight better. and that excessive cocaine use can have devastating effects on one's life. It cannot handle amphetamines as efficiently. Not only was I corn pletely engrossed in European history. I heir chemical structures resemble those of adrenaline and noradrerialine. the U. people can establish stable relationships with amphetamines more easily than they can with cocaine.47 N tini Luau ts jobs. many of which turned up on the black market. and within half an hour or so found myself studying like mad. An upperclassman took pity on me and offered me a green-and-white capsule along with the promise that my drowsiness would be cured by taking it.. I got an A on my history exam as I was sure 1 had and have been involved. time-consuming. Treatfl1Cllt of this addictive behavior is difficult. It is even more difficult to limit intake of crack cocaine to levels compatible with good physical and emotional health. the body's own stimulants.S. among them the Soviet Union. The body has a great capacity to metabolize and eliminate cocaine: the liver can detoxify a lethal dose of cocaine every thirty minutes. amphetamines were tolerated and their use was even encouraged by authorities. At the same time. and also costly. but by midnight the text was blurring before my eyes . It seems a shame that the laws and policies on drugs in our society have led to the disappearance of coca along with know!- its uses and hcncfits. Amphetamines are more toxic than cocaine and. cause worse problems. OCR. writer PDF compression. they have made it profitable to smuggle the concentrated drug. to some extent. . A single oral dose of amphetamine usually stimulates the body for at least four hours. pharmaceutical industry manufactLlrcd eiwrmous quantities of amphetamines. Their effects resemble those of cocaine hut are much longer lasting. The governments of several countries. unable to stop thinking about their next dose. For many years after their invention. The companies urged doctors to I decided to try and make up for lost time by staying up all night to study for my European history exam.. At the same time. when abused. Occasional snorting of powdcr cocaine in social situations is probably not harmful for most people. and depressed. Doctors in this country have prescribed them in great quantity for even more questionable reasons. . with amphetamines ever since. Amphetamines and Related Drugs Amphetamines are synthetic stimulants that were invented in Germany in the !930s. by outlawing something that many people want.

Some are legaily manufactured for over-the-counter sale in drugstores. paranoid. Today many people snort powdered amphetamines in the same way as cocaine. The drug subculture itself." it is similar to crack cocaine but stimulates the brain for a much longer tirnc. but all have the same basic effect. black markets in them grew. Beginning in the 1970s. sometimes use them to play big games. is not a good idea. the diagnosis' of hyperactivity often falls on children who simply misbehave or don't pay attene PDF compression. they often complicate matters by creating another kind of dependence. the root of the problem it introduces young people to pO\\TCrful drugs and encourages among grownups the false notion that all of life's problems can be solved by taking pills. After only a few weeks." A new smokable form of methamphetamine has appeared recently. they are tablets and capsules made to look like pharmaceutical amphetamines but contain no controlled '-wbstances. realizing the dangers of shooting amphetamines. There are a number of different amphetamines. or fat.iii (. and as so often happens. It As amphetamines (and other stimulants) have calming effects on young children. For unknown reasons.Ln. warned people about it with the phrase "speed kills'. OCR. Not only do the drugs fail to help their problems. "LOokAIjke" Drugs both legal and illegal sources of amphetamines have dried up. they stayed up for days on end. this change prornoted abuse. Truckers and other drivers sometimes take them for long-distance travel on highways. and even psychotic. either singly or in combination. they became emaciated and generally unhealthy. Athletes. them sparks energy — F I a relieves chronic fatigue and mild depression During the days of unrestricted prescription of amphctarnine and amphetaminelike stimulants. Young "speed freaks" who fell into this pattern of use experienced very had effects on their bodies and minds. Today we know that regular usc of amphetamines. A few other resemble amdrugs methyiphenidate (Ritalin). not only faiR to gct to A number of people find amphetamines useful for specific purposes. for exampk phetamines in effect even though they have a different chemical structure. criticism of the promotional practices of pharmaceutical companies and of the prescribing practices of physicians brought about severe restrictions on the medical use of these compounds. Some writers take them to work. taken by mouth on occasion for specific purposes or projects amphetamines do not usually cause problems. and some even inject them intravenously. Intravenous use of amphetamines first appeared in the late l960s. ephedrine. One of the more controversial uses still permitted is the control of hyperactivity in young children. just because they like the feeling of stimulation. Most of the cases of amphetamine abuse in the past thirty years have involved legally manufactured and prescribed drugs. Look-alikes contain caffeine. such as football players. Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and methamphetamine (Methedrine) are effective in lower doses but otherwise are similar to the parent compound. Plain amphetamine (Benzedrine) was the first to becomc popular. especially at night.!li)cflhiItt' tü Mi)Tp/liflt' 48 tU)fl il-I 49 school. Actors and dancers take them occasionally to perform. Problems arise when people take amphetamines all the time. some college students use them to study for or take exams. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . especially if people rest afterward. pharmaceutical companics did not hesitate to suggest that these drugs nude people happy and productive. Called "ice" or "glass. Smoking ice is as hazardous as injecting any amphetamine. Today amphetamines can be prescribed for only a few conditions. Ephedrine is a natural stimulant with a chemical structure resembling adrenaline that produces more anxiety and less euphoria than amphetamines. depressed. In the days of legal most users took them by mouth. or phenyipropanolamine. Called look-alikes. others appear in head shops or are sold by mail order or on the street. As legal supplies and uses of amphetamines dwindled. They became jumpy. then "crashed" into stupors. especially by people who are neurotic. Used in this way that is. For example. a flood of bogus products has appeared. prescribe their products for depressed housewives and people with weight problems. Unfortunately.

That assumption turned out to be wrong. occurs in a desert shrub and is used as a treatment for asthma. . In the end. hut such people are rare. Although it is currently authorized for inclusion in many over-thecounter compounds.) Another drawback of look-alikes is their cost: they are a very expensive way to buy the drugs they provide. and although the manufacturers of these products claim it is not a stimulant. (To kill people with a cigar. it has appeared in a number of over-the-counter diet pills. tolerance to the poisonous effects of nicotine develops in a matter of hours (as compared to days or weeks for heroin and months for alcohol). If a person begins smoking regularly. most of the nicotine is destroyed by the heat of burning. When tobacco is smoked. Tobacco and Nicotine Tobacco is one of the most powerful stimulant plants known. and nicotine its active principle is one of the most toxic of all . It was that I would never again become involved with a man who does not smoke cigarettes. I I I I t trAit I is I : •ts(&I sur I: •]I afl Ma' • A sin I i p This ad for look-alike stimulants appeared in the magazine High Times. I had always thought I'd be able to kick my addiction to cigarettes for someone I loved. you'd have to soak the cigar in water till it turned dark. when forced to choose be tween love and cigarettes. its risks may be underestimated! especially when it is combined with caffeine and ephcdrine or taken in high doses. . then make people drink the liquid.. a man who. teacher PDF compression. was a fanatic on the subject of cigarettes . I did make one resolution at the time. OCR. whereas very few cigarette smokers can avoid becoming addicts. In the form of cigarettes. forty-one-year-old woman.TABS n 'vu a I ta Sip S sa tak P* flW bot fat iS pu ca ep ØØÉ4ì UN vfl uflsc It yeS t SI CS sS iS M4n4WPasCrnsn tucks SATISFACTION GUARANTCCD r— I U MAILCOPPOQUCTSAdC. P. it is. many people learn to use alcohol and heroin in nonaddictive ways. drugs. Look-alike drugs have received much bad publicity They are accused of killing some people by causing strokes and disturbances of heartbeat. Several years ago. * Phenyipropanolamine (PPA) is a synthetic drug that is added to many cold remedies as a nasal decongestant.øi ii — n'fl? Mi I I I ta_tn C4'. which I have stuck to ever since. I fell madly in love with an exsmoker.SOX 14m$7QKLAi'$OMACtTY 0* P3113 I. It was that simple. I chose cigarettes. "White crosses" and "blacks" are slang terms for tablets and capsules of amphetamines. though broad-minded in other respects. Occasionally. tobacco is the most addictive drug known. Moreover._________ From Chocolate to Morphine 50 .. phenyipropanolarnine is more likely to account for any toxicity of look-alike stimulants. Recently.O.P. you will meet someone who smokes two or three cigarettes a day or even two or three a week. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .) Nicotine is so strong and dangerous that the body very quickly develops tolerance to it to protect itself. People with high blood pressure or histories of heart irregularities should be wary of them (as they should be of all stimulants). Since caffeine and ephedrine are generally considered safe after many years of use. (People who like amphetamines usually find the effects of look-alikes disappointing and so tend to take higher than recommended doses in an effort to feel more stimulation and euphoria. Interestingly 'Ste page 54. It is harder to break the habit of smoking cigarettes than it is to stop using heroin or alcohol. An average cigar contains enough nicotine to kill several people.

Pipes and cigars are less hazardous than cigarettes because smoke from them is harsher.dJ '1:4 •1J_j .1 aili Ii i. they are less likely than cigarette smokers to become addicted to tobacco so strongly or so last. which has been filtered through a matoftobacco. discouraging deep inhalation.51 Stimulants enough.' s_ . Many smokers of pipes and cigars do not inhale at all and so completely avoid the risk of lung disease. lt¾I 1* I ! I 1l!•. LI. and cigars. II !• . OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .± . howevcr. pipes.. They still put nicotine into the body.U. Pipes and cigars are not without risk. Another health hazard of tobacco is sccondhand smoke. . 1 a to. The main selling point is ihit you can usc it undetected and in where smoking is not permi tted. raising your risks of tobacco-associated diseases. (The smoke coming off the lighted end of a cigarette actually contains more toxins than smoke inhaled through the other end. c • 1)octors know also that regular cigarette smoking is a leading cause of serious disease of the lungs.ilj ' (! siL:•t LI • r •h It] h' +. Tobacco chewers place wads of it in the mouth. heart. I! Here is the way one large bacco company recommends its plain and flavored snuffs.I •. but these methods often fail to curb psychological .•. mouth. these occasional users get high from smoking and like the effect. I t Pt Ut: sf t N . I* lilt i 11. probably because they have healthy lungs and strong CflflstitUtiOfls to begin with. !* fl4 ft.Eut. letting the nicotine diffuse into their systems thrtiugh blood vessels in the tongue and cheeks. If you live or work with smokers you can inhale the equivalent of smoke ing one half to one pack of cigarettes a day. .!•t t ! jH ' I ' f . to help addicts through the physical withdrawal.1 - p I I h•tI!jt . 'I ings for cigarettes. and also increase the risk of cancer of thc lips. In addition. Treatment of tobacco addiction is very difficult. and throat.) Sonic tobacco users take the drug without burning it. Some people smoke heavily all their lives and show no ill effects. such as chewing gum and skin patches. and blood vessels. 144$. since they don't deliver rapid pulses of nicotine to their brains. 1441!! . iii j+'fjtj$tj! j 1$ 4i+ with 'T 11w' an is' 1*11 I •&r that ' U Lii - 4 '-. 'Ihere is ho nwntion that is both tobicco in this less addicting and more stimulating. -.. i . Others use snuff (finely powdered tobacco) by inhaling it or putting pinches of it in the mouth. . !?J ! •. cook tobacco and water to form a paste that they rub on their gums. Many Amazonian Indians if : FI!!L I' IW?S% iriNi Jr-I hi' IU'_4 I1l!% . affecting the heart and circulation... Smukc from cigarettes inhaled deeply delivers concentrated faster than flicOtifle to vital brain centers within a few seconds heroin reaches the brain whcn it is injected into a vein in the arm. 1)octors frequently prescribe substitute forms of nicotine.II4. .llik I • fl&t r. Others are not so lucky.. Ehis fact probably explains why tobacco in the form ol cigarettes Is so addictive. to p Sdway Wt1 !• !• iL. All of these preparations give strong stimulation in the form of high doses of nicotine higher than cigarettes. This does not mean that everyone who smokes will necessarily get lung cancer. • . i I I !a.\' ¾i—" . PDF compression.r w' AbflytM1 bus obwlau. ! in '. fl:. while most addicted smokers do not experience major changes in consciousness. Mata • di: I ! )( . a •i I fl .

users grow tolerant to the worst effects and come to like the sensations in the mouth and nose. causes intense salivation and sneezing. as depicted by two of the major tobacco compani c because burning destroys so much of the nicotine in tobacco. chewing tobacco or taking snuff is less addicting than smoking because it puts nicotine into the blood and brain much less directly. It burns. Nevertheless." some of it with mint and fruit flavoring to make it more acceptable to novices. They promote it as a new and pleasant way to use the drug even in nonsmoking areas. and often produces rapid dizziness and nausea. With repeated trials. An unquestionable plus for snuff arid chewing tobacco is that they do not pollute the air with smoke and nonusers to nicotine and other irritants. tastes terrible. probably because it is easier to use the drug without detection. Tobacco companies now sell snuff as "smokeless tobacco. however.From Chocolate to Morphine 52 The female and male cigae rette addicts. I)espite growing awareness of its toxicity and addictiveness.1 fl) • ! iU Ut e PDF compression. Most people who put tobacco into the mouth or nose for the first time dislike it. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . r • • M: p i j r r . Smokeless tobaccos have recently become popular among teen-agers. OCR.

Certainly. Europeans also used tobacco to alter conscioushess. New World Indians used tobacco in religious and magical rimals thousands of years ago. Because they do not use tobacco except on special occasions. Early tobacco was so harsh that people could not do this often enough to devclop rapid tolerance and addiction. In movies of the 1930s and 1940s. Governments then began to see in tobacco a new source of revenue. pictured as a cosmic pipe smoker. Still. became addicts who needed it just to feel normal. OCR. they have no toleraiice to its effects and SO get very high. In many countries the penalty for people caught possessing tohacco was death. this is an example of how our division of drugs into good and cvii is not at all rational. It was a scarce and precious substance from the New World. all Indian medicine men and women use tobacco ceremonially. all the characters smoke continually. and its uscrs. Its use is even encouraged by extensive advertising that makes smokers seem mature and sexually appealing. and some South American Indians still tist: strong tobacco as a consciousness-altering drug today. as criminal penalties for drug use never do. In North America today. authorities at the time were very upset at what they considered to he a new form of evil and tried their best to prohibit tobacco use. When the Spanish discovered America.53 Stun u/ants tobacco remains a fully acccptcd drug in our society. The development of milder tobaccos that could be inhaled deeply and often gave birth to cigarette addiction as we know it n)day and with it thc risc of the modern tobacco industry. They quickly become very intoxicated. Our government actively supports the tobacco industry with public funds. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century. authorities encouraged the use of tobaccp in the belief that it promoted concentration and relaxation. Needless to say. and as late as the 1950s. which they depend on to this day. they believe tobacco smoke carries thcir prayers to the spirit world. they observed Indians using tohacco and began using it themselves. On special occasions thcy build giant cigars that the men take turns inhaling. More and more people began smoking more and more regularly. instead of getting high on it üflCC in a while. inhaling as deeply as they could and holding the smoke in their lungs to niaxirnize the effect. it lost its special significance. doctors appeared in cigarette ads promoting particular brands as "soothing to the throat. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . (Fitz Hugh Ludlow Memorial Library) PDF compression. and people smoked it occasionally. As tobacco became increasingly common." The Great Spirit of Native American religion. these measures did not work. In the iSOOs. 1)uring World War H cigarettes were standard issue in American soldiers' rations.

Yohimbe. Truck drivers in Kenya are big users of this plant. the bark of an African tree with a bitter. (Dody Fugate) cones. consider the fact that most experimenters fall into this trap and become addicts before thcy know it. In Asia. It will be interesting to see what changes in the patterns of addictive behavior around toha cci. are usually swallowed. Four Exotic Stimulant Plants Betel. OCR. is known as Mormon tea because early PDF compression.From Chocolate to Morphine 54 At the moment. found throughout the wcstern United States. miraa). Smoking is becoming unfashionable. The juice stains their teeth black over time. A recent British government study of adolescents shows that a youngster who smokes more than One cigarette has only a 15 percent chance remaining a nonsmoker. chat. spicy taste. whose fresh leaves and young twigs are eaten for their stimulating effect. combining it with a pinch of lime (the alkaline mineral. Ephedras are leafless bushes that grow' in deserts throughout the world. especially in thc form of cigarettes. a stimulant comparable to calfeine. rilbey are related to pifle trees arid bear tiny Epliedra.). and users say it causes tingling feelings along the spine. It is a shrubby tree. a stimulant and a remedy for asthma. our society's views on tobacco use are changing. Yvhimbe. Retul nut is the seed of a tropical palm tree with a spicy taste. Betel chewing is a habit that is similar to the habits of chewing gum and drinking coffee or cola drinks in industrialized societies. Yohimbe bark is available at some herb stores and can be brewed into a stimulating tea. Several species contain the drug ephedrine. contains a drug called yohimbine that is used in a few prescription medicines to treat sexual impotence in men. not the fruit) and wrapping it in a fresh leat of another plant called the betel pepper. wide area of East Africa and the Middle East. and nonsmokers are demanding smoke-free environmcnts. the leaves of qat. Betel nut contains a drug called arecoline. The leaves lose their power when they dry out. This combination produces a great deal of red juice. Qat contains many active chemicals. - r)ricd Chinese ephedra. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . It is supposed to be an aphrodisiac. some of which resemble amphetamines a a Qat (kliat. If you are thinking about experimenting with tobacco. astringent taste. Qat is popular stimulant in in their structure. Unlike coca. which betel chewers spit out. which have a bitter. American ephedra. millions of people chew it daily.

The dry stems are boiled with water to make a pleasant-tasting tea that can he very stimulating. Another nonprescription stimulant in these products is the synthctic drug phenyipropanolarnine. which arc prohibited by their religion. Chinese ephedra and ephedrine are common ingredients of herbal uppers sold in health food stores. OCR. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs CURl tam ICourtesy of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) aiid utlict uvcl-chc-LuulIccl picpacatio[iS Coil- caffeine to offset the drowsiness caused by antihistamincs. Mormon settlers t Instead of caffeine beverages.55 St u/an I. These sound likc brand names of amphetamines. PDF compression.. All trouble with stimulants arises from using them too often. Because 1 frequency of use. Like all stimulants. If you become involved with stimulants. it is all too easy to let your frequency of use crecp up. Recently it has appeared in over-the-counter diet pills with names such as Dexatrim. Herb storcs sell both American cphcdra and the stronger Chincsc type. If you like the feeling a stimulant gives.-. they make people dependent more often than thin. most people will use one or another at some time. here are some rules that will help you stay in a good relationship with them. I Iarvestingbetel nuts. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Some Rules for Using Stimulants Safely stimulants are so common. they may decrease appetite temporarily. but if used regularly for a long time. Set See Limit 4 pages 1 46—47 for a description of the effects of antihistaniines.

lished in 1901 It is a long description of Incancivilization. You should be able to get up in the morning. Preparations of plants such as coffee and tea are naturally more dilute than refined or synthetic drugs. w. sleep. de Ropp's Drugs and the Mind (New York: Grove Press. 1985) is an use. Suggested Reading good information Ofl the caffeine-containing plants will be found in Robert S. and the more gentle the letdown at the end. 8. and coca and contains valuable information. California: And/Or Press. and taking them to try to avoid the downs only leads to problems. Putting these drugs more directly into the bloodstream (as by snorting. from the time of its isolation from coca leaf in the late PDF compression. Then they can't get moving in the morning and have to take more stimulants. They are not answers to the ups and downs of life. 6. 1978) is a modern account of use of the leaf by Indians in Colombia that discusses the political aspects of coca. smoking. It is about Tea (New York: Dover. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . anti Effects (New York: St. The most famous work on tea is Kakuzo Okakura's The Book of published in 1906. or shooting) accentuates the letdown following the up and encourages hequent administration. Whenever you use stimulants. If you cannot. The healthier you are. Jr. Users pay later for any energy and good feeling stimulants give them. (New York: Random House. and exercise. Martin's Press. Rernemher that stimulants force your body to give up its stores of chemical energy. Joseph Kennedy's Coca Exotica (RuthLrford. Mama Coca by Antonil (London: Hassle Free Press. The more dilute the preparation of a stimulant. being an elegant treatise on Japanese culture and philosophy written to help dispel Western misconceptions about Japan. a profile and ardent defense of that substance by a self-proclaimed chocoholic. OCR. ?vlaintain good habits ofnutrition.56 57 two thiys iii a take a limits! [or example. If you arc going to take a good will flot help stimulant. 19641. They have nothing to recommend them. Dv not take stimulants to help you perform ordinary functiOiis. Take stimulants by mouth. It should not be difficult to use stimulants wisely and stay in good relationships with them. especially if you take them with any regularity. Chocolate devotees may he interested in a recently published book called Some the body. See also Jonathan Ott's The Cacahuoti Eater: Ruminations of cm Unabashed Chocolate Addict (Vashon. Coffee and tea are the subjects of The Book of Coffee and Tea by Men Shardin (New York: St. 1935). much more than tea. 1982). Uses. you should use the stimulation for something a physical or mental task. 1960). for instancc. 5. 1960). 1975) is a report on cocaine in Europe and America. J. Chocolate: The Consuming Passion by Sandra Boynton (New York: Workman. Some peocan't sleep at night because they take too many stimulants during the day. California: And/Or Press. Golden Mortimer's History of Coca: Divine Plant of the was first pubIncas (Berkeley. you will he able to avoid the trap of becoming dependent on them. move your bowels. 3. the easier it is for the body to adjust to it. Do nUt COfflbiflL' stimulants depressants or other drugs. Washington: Natural Products Company 1985). the less you will feel you need outside stimulation. 4. A good excerpt from . Combinations of drugs always complicate matters. and exercise. If it is combined with writings of other authors in The Coca Leaf and Cocaine Papers. rest. A recent work on the same subject is Tea: The Eyelids of Bodhidharma by Eelco Hesse (Berkeley. Faking these drugs just to feel limit your use. you should change your patterns of diet. Relying on stimulants for everyday activity leads to too-frequent use and dependence. A classic book on the colorful history of coffee and human beings is Coffee: The Epic of a Commodity by Heinrich Eduard Jacob (New York: Viking. and make it through the afternoon without drugs. Nor do they give anything for nothing. an older book that is still one of the best and most readable references on psychoactive drugs. This pattern of drug-taking quickly leads to trouble. An interestingbook on the origins and developrnent of Coca-Cola is The Big Drink: The Story of CocaaCola by E. 1975). So they take depressants at night. 7. illustrated history of Richard Ashley's Cocaine: Its History. It also increases the harmful effects on -— }'OU renlain aware of what stiniulants are and how tlicv work. 1975). Martin's Press. Avoid look-alike drugs. edited by George Andrews and l)avid Solomon (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. One side benefit of such purposeful use is that the satisfaction of accomplishment will offset the letdown when the drug wears off. it is important to let your body recharge itself. Take dilute forms of stimulants rather than concentrated ones. Peru. 1982). Kahn. excellent. and are easier to stay in good relationships with. r) Use stiinularitc purpocetulI\.

Bakalar (New York: Basic Books. e. S . I._ S .. It was made into a popular movie. ihe Tranquilizing of America: PjJ/ l'vpping ISOOs anti the American Way of Life by Richard Hughes and Robert Brewin (New York: Harcourt Brace lovanovich. to the present. The lack of good books about tobacco is even more striking.4 S •• • • •Sw 5 aSs e s—re set — aS•*e •SS• .%. - . Reidel Publishing Company. Lee & Shepard. •• * — #— •% 0 -V - . John Barth's novel The Sot. A more technical book and general reference on the subject is Cocaine: A Drug and its Social Evolution by Lcstcr Grinspoon and James B. in which amphetamines figure prominently.• .tëed Factor (New York: Bane tam Books. 1976). I)espite widespread use. Arnold J.t. 1969) looks at reasons why people start smoking and also gives a history of tobacco. .e— _ S •• - e a *' S 'j-" a. 1979) discusses medical uses of amphetamines. 1976) is a doctor's account of problems of professional football players.S. fr (New York: Random House. S ase •e Sb S - e• eSe a . 1974). It is technical in spots and not light reading. Pryor's real-life habit of freebasing cocaine resulted in a near-fatal accident. 1969). The author describes the endless tricks and scltedeccptions used by a hooked smoker. The Book and rrohacco by Carl Ehwa. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Further Confessions of Zeno (Berkeley: University of California Press. as well as the low probability of cure.eh. a ae p I t . as t.• S .e r• — a - •4S - a . Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.e.. distributed in the U. ••/ .e. OCR. To Smoke or Not to Smoke by Luther L. considering that drug's Popularity. -• s-. All/fe means "gourd" in Spanish (%Vood. 1975). s• S I . Terry and l)aniel Horn (New York: Lothrop. f . 1974) is a novel that concerns Sherlock Holmes's cocaine habit. . PDF compression. S0 S • e t ew 4 ! • p - a.•w a a • --- —S esw' a Wa s. The Seven Per Cent Solution by Nicholas Meyer (New York: Dutton. . ee r. Cocaine Changes: The Experience of Using arid Quitting (Philadelphia: Temple University Press. gives general information. One of the few books on the subject is The Speed Culture: Amphetamine USC and Abuse in America by Lester Grinspoon and Peter Hcdblom (Cambridge. ret- eS e. SI . Mandcll's The Nightmare Season (New York: Random House. SI S e-_. Probably the best ac- ward A. Netherlands: D. by Kluwer Academic Publishers.. 1969) revolves around tobacco. especially to control hyperactive children. Kennedy's The Flower of Paradise: The Institutionalized of the Drug Qat in North Yemen (Dordrecht. 'F •t f • I Argentinians drink maté their national caffeine-contaming drink from decorated gourtls. The best book available on qat is John G. ': . amphetamines have attracted less attention from writers than cocaine. Massachusetts). Norwell. 1991) is a thoughtful and thorough analysis of the subject based on extensive interviews. I 9R7. The problems and perils of freeba sing cocaine are brilliantly depicted by comedian Richard Pryor in his fliOVic Richard PryorLive on the Sunset Strip. Wick ham) count of cigarette addiction occurs in a comic novel by halo Svcvo.From 10 Mvrjiliine 58 e re SS • S S as .

Depressant drugs are more dangerous than stimulants because overdoses of them are apt to kill people by interfering with vital brain centers.Depressants DEPRESSANTS ARE DRUGS that lower the energy level of the nervous system. and more alive. Very high doses of depres- sants can cause coma. One theory is that the first parts of the brain to he depressed are inhibitory centers that normally act to dampen mood. inducing sleep. Still higher doses of these drugs can shut down the most vital centers in the brain. Also. Kava is a natural depressant. At first glance. in which all consciousness is lost. in high doses. depressants niakc people sleepy and stuporous only in high doses. a person in a coma is insensible to all input even loud noise and intense pain. from very high doses. it may seem odd that people would want to take substances in order to depress their nervous systems. Who wants to feel groggy and depressed? Actually. they produce a widet variety of effects. reducing sensitivity to outside stimulation and. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Alcohol is a good example. relaxation and euphoria in low doses to unresponsive coma in PDF compression. such as the one that controls respiration. As the dose is increased. in lower doses they often make people relaxed and happy. Scientists don't really know why low doses of depressants make people feel stimulated. more and more parts of the nervous system are slowed down. a leader of the ritual offers a howl of thc prepared drink to arriving guests. alert. OCR. Many depressants are used medically and socially and many are consumed illegally. In fact. while three or four can make them drunk. depressants include some of the most popular drugs affecting mood. with obvious symptoms of reduced brain function. In a kava ceremony on the island of Fiji. resLilting ill a quick death from lack of oxygen. One or two drinks can make people feel cheerful.

What happened. i \ I. Anyone who has interacted with a drunk person knows how powerful and unpleasant alcohol can be in overdose. The original idea of distillers was to concentrate wine to a smaller volume to make it easier to ship it in barrels overseas. chaos. and one of the earliest kinds of beer was made by Indians in tropical America who learned to chew corn to a pulp. and a drunken woman lets her helpless child fall to its doom. sprouted barley (malt) is used to convert the starch of grains to sugar SO that yeast can grow and produce alcohol. Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol. This process increases the alcohol content dramatically: from 12 percent up to 40 or 50 percent. and let it fcrnmnt. Probably. Is F. maintaining an orderly neighborhood. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and warmth. left to stand in a warm place. especially at night. no one waited to add water. At the end of the voyage the brandy was to be diluted with water back to an alcohol content of [2 percent." and certain tranquilizers. induce sleep (the word hypnosis comes from the name of the Greek god of sleep). notic!II refers to this double action.spit it iflto clay pots. In low doses these drugs promote relaxation and restfulness (sedation). dating back only a few hundred years. trayed thc different consequences of regular use of fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages. (The Boston Athenacum) PDF compression. are so well known that they need little description. sugar. Distilled alcohol is a relatively new product. There are enzymes in saliva that can accomplish this. it was obtained by heating wine and then cooling and condensing the vapors in another container. Alcohol is a poison as well as a drug. making alcohol and carbon dioxide as by-products. Anyone who has lived with an alcoholic can attest to the horrors of alcohol addiction. one-celled forms of life found everywhere in the air and on the skins of many fruits. Among other calainities: a man has hanged himself. . because it is easy to discover that fruits and juices. The alcohol content of beer is usually less than half that of wine. Larger doses. Scotch and bourbon whiskeys are made from beerlike preparations of grain Rum is distilled from fermentcd molasses. mix it with water. Our society now manufactures and consumes many distilled liquors. especially in the daytime. In Gin Lane there is disorder. soon ferment into alcoholic mixtures. both good and bad. and death. "sleeping pills. which feeds on sugar. The residents of Beer Street are happy. Anyone who has felt the pleasant stimulation of a glass of wine knows the beneficial side of this drug. Brandy was the first distilled liquor made. Beer is also more nutritious than wine because it has a lot of calories in the form of carbohydrates. both of which can be made into wine with a maximum alcohol content of about 12 percent. Natural sources of sugar available to primitive peoplc were fruit and honey. in high enough doses it kills living things. yeast cells need water. Production of ethyl alcohol depends upon yeast. To grow and multiply. used every day by many millions of people. healthy. Starch is also a potential source of alcohol. i. it is also the oldest drug known to human beings. in standard beermaking. was that In these famous drawings the English artist William Hogarth (1697--i 764) por- when people got their hands on what was in the barrels. and productive. ' \ ' Sedative-Hypnotics This large category of depressants comprises alcohol. of course. especially grapes. Sprouting grains also produce usable enzymes.60 61 Depressants include several distinct categories ol drugs. Yeasts are simple. Suddenly a new and powerful form of alcohol flooded the world. Alcohol is so commonplace and its effects. They keep on growing until they use up all the sugar or until the rising concentration of alcohol kills them. OCR. skeletal man is near death from malnutrition. each with its own benefits and dangers. including the yeasts that make it. Ethanol) Alcohol is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world. but it must be converted to sugar by enzymes before yeast can digest it.

these hard liquors are stronger and more intoxie cating than fermented drinks. Another example of the deceptive nature of alcohol is its sexual effect. cause alertness. Because of their much higher alcohol content. inner body temperature is dropping even as the sens ation of warmth increases. good moods. It is due to increased blood flow to the skin. warnub. Most people find these changes pleasant. hard day. which allows more heat to radiate to the outside of the body. it starts in the pit of my stomach. and as a change from the dull routines of work. It is important to note. Though people often feel they are performingbetter after a few drinks. From earliest times. then spreads to my limbs and brain. Writcrs as far back as Shakespeare have noted this property PDF compression. In men!? however. Our early ancestors probably also noticed that the effects of alcohol were variable and dose-related. and proniotes relaxation. and confidence. OCR. and the dissipation of anxiety and inhibition. removes inhibitions. alcohol and other depressants slow the functioning of the nervous system. the sense of warmth produced by drinking is dcceptive. Similarly. where it causes its effects on mood and behavior. but it acts and feels like a gentle relaxant of the spirit as well as of the physical body. God knows. PS \Fchoaflalyst alcohol falls especially on the liver. including reflexes. its depression of the nervous system can prevent erection and drastically interfere with sexual performs anLe. to feel high. sixty-two-year-old m4in. and efficiency of muscular response. people probably used beer and wine much as we use them today: as social and recreational drugs. feelings of energy. Alcohol is absorbed very quickly from the digestive system. The burden of metabolizing I like alcohol. In fact. such as driving cars in conditions that favor disaster. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . enters the bloodstream. scientific tests show otherwise. to dispel worry and anxiety. so that people inadequately dressed for cold weather who drink in order to feel warm may fall victim to hypotherrnia. and reaches the brain. Unlike stimulants. for some people a hellish one.From Gliocolite to Morphine 62 gin and arc just diluted ethyl alcohol (gin has flavor added). however. that some of the sensations especially the sense of confidence produced by low doses of alcohol may he false. Low concentrations. This is one source of danger in using depressant drugs to feel good: the false sense of confidence can lead people to take unwarranted risks. I know that alcohol is a depressant. It is a powerful drug and. reaction time. particularly at the beginning of drinking. The body has to work hard to eliminate alcohol1 it burns some of it as fuel and excretes some unchanged in the breath and urine. Many people who drink to enhance sex claim that alcohol increases desire. also usually distilled from grain. the splendid warm glow that strong drink provides is one of my favorite feelings. but if used carefully it can give great pleasure. and that some people became dependent on it. Just notice the increased vivacity and noise level at a cocktail party after a drink has been served to see how alcohol can put people at ease emotionally. The effects of alcohol arc directly related to how much of it is in the blood at any time. After a long.

Eating before and during drinking moderates the intensity of alcohol's effects. the faster the blood alcohol level will rise and the sooner a person will get drunk. Is alcohol a dt'pressant ora others and so can handle larger doses. sir. OCR. and won't be affected by doses that nondrinkcrs would certainly feel. some people metabolize alcohol more rapidly than p SI — - I. slows down absorption ot alcohol into the blood. Thcrefore. by the rate at which the body can metabolize and eliminate alcohol. . =P S I I a I t V L' •. have an inborn biochemical quirk that causes them to get drunk on doses of wine or liquor that would hardly affect most Americans or Europeans. sicep. ot Macbeth. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .ç' S 1$&LJ% '. but it takes away the performance.. by the presence or absence of food in the stomach. In Act II. third. This is tolerance. for example. (Copyright ] 980 Los AngeLs Tunes Syndicate. Concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream is determined by several tactors: first. drinking on an empty stomach can result in faster and more intcnsc drunkenness. and fourth. Food in the stomach. Lechery. The stronger the drink. and urine. the pleasant feelings alcohol can provide depend as much on set and setting as on pharmacological action. by the rate of drinking. a• a t4___ w_a. . sir. it provokes the desire. by the concentration of alcohol in the drink. Pcople who drink should be aware that their subjectivc impressions while under the influence of alcohol may not correspond to reality. People who drink alcohol regularly metabolize it faster than people who do not. This may be genetically determined. they can even survive doses of alcohol that would kill nondrinkers._j keep torqefliriq. and it develops quickly to alcohol and other sedative-hypnotics. Some Japanese. early effects of alcohol intoxication and go right to the less desirable ones. Gulping down cocktails and drinking wine like water are good ways to speed through the more pleasant. some people could inherit a tendency to become alcoholic.. as with any psychoactive drug. the following exchange occurs between Macduff and a porter in Macbeth's castle: Macduff: What three things does drink especially provoke? Porter: Marry.63 Depressants (if alcohol. Reprinted with PDF compression. if so. and unprovokes. it is clear that. especially milk.ii'. Further. other people may have lower than normal abilities to metabolize alcohol. nose painting. The same amount of winc that makes someone pleasantly high at a party may make a depressed person in a lonely room even more depressed. it provokes. Finally. sccond. Alcoholics show very high tolerance to the drug. Scene 3.

headache.pwd tmma s hr. Alcohol is strongly diuretic creases the flow of urine. with such symptoms as sour stomach. their mood at the time. People become drunk in very different ways. work. it invery uncomh)rtable. depression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . OCR. Harger. A_v •. causing the body to lose water.From Chocolate to Morphine irss TI. Many traffic accidents are directly related to alcohol in-i toxication. as are many murders. * Scc pages PDF compression. confiding the most intimate details! of their lives to perfect strangers. Ph. and Rulla N. weakness. while others become gloomy.T. Withdrawal from alcohol is a major medical crisis. From Most people who get drunk eventually fall into stuporous sleep. Some of its worst forms..50% .— 64 As alcohol increases in the bloodstream. tolerance. or think clearly. shakiness.'s).1 &' /0 a I •L/ •tk/ •. producing the familiar symptoms (_)f drunkenness: slurred speech. . DIGIIIS 0. Because additional alcohol ("the hair of the dog that bit you") makes a hung-over person feel better in the short run. and this condition may contribute to the discomfort of the next day's hangover. and memory. excessive drinking can lead to further drinking and start people on the path tO dependence. insensitivity to pain. a consequence of alcohol's depressant ef- Drunkenness is a The p. and other ø ØOflt. thought. such as delirium tremens (the I). M. depending on their personalities. SL'cia ti Narcotics by Thurman B. and withdrawal. These symptoms reflect the toxic effects of alcohol on the body and arc that is.1 - . it depresses more and morc of the nervous system. Rice. blood.c.7 [Irid Dry and d. even violent. Some people become boisterous and get belligerent.ni. A1\S '0 rfl I • f - 0 MOUL THAN . '. and the social sctting. Recovered alcoholics tell frightening stories of the lengths to which they went to obtain their drug when deprived. A night of hard drinking can result in serious dehydration if lost water is nut replaced. and of squandering all of their money on drink. I . can he fatal and are more serious than withdrawal from narcotics. tearful. Effects at Alcoholic Drinks. acts of violence. * en s4.D.rc•nlog. othcrs become overly friendly. concinlraton of okotbol in ib. fl obnoxious. brain. deaths. It isn't uncommon for drunk people to kill friends or relatives and have no memory of the incidents the next day.s isdicotid show Hi. When they wake up they arc hung over. Some people and self-pitying._—t- —— Deod drunk. Dcpendence on alcohol is a true addiction. . marked by extreme craving for the drug. L :— 7 Delinquent nnd d%rJlde. and inappropriate behavior. lhbacco.4AN .10'. acand counting for many accidents.. INTOXiCATION serious problem throughout the world.D.0 . ((Thicago: Wheeler Publishing Co.!y —+1_i -- Diny and delsious. 1k t i fect on parts of the brain responsible for reason. and inability to concentrate. incoordination. The craving for alcohol among alcoholics is legendary and has been the subject of many books and films.

Cirrhosis of the liver. The other organs that hear the brunt of alcohol's poisonous effect are the brain and the peripheral nervous system. among them lOSS of sexual potency and inability to digest food. The only groups that seem to he able to help are Alcoholics Anonymous. PDF compression. very resistant to treatment. In fact. anti loss of intellect. All rights reserved) ethic. because alcohol is such a strong and toxic drug. Alcoholics develop shakes. in which normal liver cells arc rcplaccd by useless fibrous tissue. and the Native American Church. Alcoholism is also one of the most stubborn forms of drug addiction. It includes adverse effects on unborn babies of alcoholic mothers ("fetal alcohol syndrome") and increased susceptibility to such infectious diseases as pneumonia and tuberculosis. Reprinted with permission. amnesia. Universal Press Syndicate. which uses peyote in religious rituals and vigorously crusades against drinking among American Indians. which may reflect permancnt damage to nerves. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . some people inherit tendencies to become addicts because of peculiarities of their bioI * * Sue pages 105—7. is a direct and common result of overuse of alcohol and leads to many distressing symptoms. prolonged regular use can cause tremendous physical damage. The list of medical problems associated with excessive drinking is much too long to reproduce here. Hospitals around the world arc filled with chronic medical patients whose bodies are ravaged by alcohol. most regular drinkers are not addicted. OCR. Not all regular drinkers become alcoholics. which depends on an almost religious adherence to a group (Copyright © 1982. Many doctors who work with alcoholics admit they have little success with them.65 Depressan ts WINGTIPS by Michael Goodman Moreover. Possibly.

Alcohol comes mm people's lives at every turn. but Sü arc children of families where both parents are tc. Young people beginning to drink should recognize that this is a problem they will have to deal with by acquiring experience. — thirty-suven-ycar-old man. then. As noted carlier. Recovered alcoholics. and don't have serious psycliological problems learn how to control their intake of alcohol and keep from sliding into the trouble zone. Friends give each other bottles of liquor as holiday gifts. some people cannot learn to drink moderately. But drunkenness isn't much fun. I would al ways keep on drinking till I got drunk. hut talcing more of it dramatically changes the quality of the effects. In certain groups liquor is so much the required social lubricant that nondrinkers feel uiicomfortable and out of Place. but others do not. cullege professor . For example. it is very easy to cross into the zone of unpleasant effects and regret it. come from supportive families. Why.ctotalers. some medical studics suggest that inodcratc drinking decreases th C risk of heart attacks by rcducing the clotting tendency of the blood and by improving cholesterol metabolism. most people like the early effects of the drug. and used to the point that it is hard to avoid. Airlines sd! drinks in flight and placate passengers with free drinks if planes arc subject to undue delays. Many people if they are metabolically normal. alcohol can relieve stress. no matter how many resolutions I made not to . Some physicians think old people benefit from alcohol in small amounts. tt) grow up to be alcoholics. Wine lovers sa y that drinkitig wine with rneals aids digestion. I couldn't learn to control it well. usually become drunks again very quickly if they try to drink socially. On billboards and in magazines the PDF compression. and I see many people around me who have the same problem. It isn't easy for people to learn how to stay within the dose range that makes them feel good. That suggests that the lack in childhood of good role nu)dels for healthy drinking may also be an important factor. Yct our own society has made alcohol its social drug of choice. fur example. whenever I'd set out to get high on it. which resemble those of stimulants. One of the clearest signs of alcoholism is repeated drinking to get drunk. Children of alcoholics are more likely Although I kept trying to use alco• hol moderately. do SO many people consume overdoses of alcohol? This question points up the main problem with alcohol. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Some peopie even claim that alcohol promotes health. It is widely available in many attractive forms. either at the time or the following day. Unfortunately. Used intelligently. I've tried various drugs since those days and don'tthink anything comes close to alcohol in terms of raw strength and potential for trouble. . OCR. There is no question that alcohol is the most toxic of all the diugs discussed in this book. Alcohol is one of the most difficult drugs to control because it is so strong and because the dose-related difference in its effects is so great. These c laims may he true. Alcoholics cannot limit their intake to a social drink or two1 they invariably go much further.Frorii Chocolate to Murphine 66 chemistry or metabolism. extensively advertised.

remember to drink plenty of plain water to offset fluid losses from increased urination. You can also make sure you have food in your stomach bcforc and during drinking. Define what benefits you want from alcohol. Whenever you consume alcohol heavily. and inhibited. on weekends and holidays but not during the week. only time can get it out. you can practice saying no to further drinks when you've had enough.67 Depressants pleasures of drinking are everywhere cxtolled. anxious. Finally. after sunset but not during the day. For example. 3. spend time with people who drink to excess or encourage you to drink more than you want. a person who uses alcohol to relax aftcr a hard day shouldn't drink at the end of an easy one. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . places. You can control the rate of absorption of alcohol into your blood by drinking dilute forms of it rather than concentrated ones (for example. You can practice consuniing alcoholic drinks slowly. If you walk into a party and feel awkward. If you feel feverish and achy from flu. a little alcohol may help you get into the swing of things. both physically and mentally. you are a Muslim or a Mormon or belong to some other group that prohibits its use altogether. Don't 7. rarily better. Learn to regulate the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream. OCR. or before a day is done. Rules about times. and situations that are appropriate for drinking help control the tendency of alcohol to get out 0 hand. You can enjoy these good effects if you learn to usc the drug carefully and purposefully. by adding water to wine and mixers to hard liquor). By doing so you may moderate the next day's hangover. Once it's there. Remember that alcohol is attractive because it can make people feel tempo- 2. 6. It is good to make rules about when and where not to drink. such as anxiety or dee PDF compression. you will have to Icam how to refuse alcohol if you don't want to drink or how to drink it intclligently and not let your use get out of control. 4. Some Suggestions for Using Alcohol Wisely 1. Everyone in our society must learn to come to terms with this powerful drug. People might decide they will drink with friends but not by themselves. Be careful about falling into patterns of rcgular drinking to deal with ongoing emotional problems. No one should drink and drive. 5. going to bed and taking a small drink may be a good remedy.

100 milligrams a day on days that you drink. appeawd in 1903. can leave Sec pages 60—68. It is the result of unwise drinking over time. It is difficult or impossible to deal with problem drinking without outside help. 12. All of these substances are like alcohol. a practice that íavon abuse and can be a sign ol alcoholism. Another group of barbiturates is more rapidly metabolized by the liver. or if people who know you think you do. and since they don't produce much euphoria or stimulation. and nutrition. The second. and secoharbital (Seconal). peer pressures. giving pleasant feelings in low doses.((1 Al'rpliiiie 68 69 I) pressioli. and are known as long-acting barbiturates because their effects last twelve to twenty-four hours. In particular. They are ing pills. few people take them to get high. or downers manufactured both legally and illegally. Miflions of others take downers for nonmethcal reasons: to get high. and they are called short-acting. Young people may think they aren't as susceptible to dependence on alcohol as adults. Sleeping pills can make people feel and look drunk. Barbiturates and Other Sleeping Pills ("Downers") This class of sedative-hypnotic drugs — loosely known as sleephas been around for some time. If you begin to suspect you have problems with drinking. Alcohol contains calories. Alcohol selectively destroys this vitamin. Therefore. no one takes it for fun. appeared in 1912. OCR. called phenobarhital. 10. There are millions of people who take sleeping pills every night and can't fall asleep without them. hexoharbital (Sombulex). They include amoharhital (Amytal).I tthiamine). Alcohol is a difficult drug to control at any age. Some of the barbiturates are slowly metabolized and elirninated by the kidneys. beginning with the earliest experience of the drug. and tendencies tO rebel. . Barbituric acid was discovered in 1864. The best way to protect yourself from the harmful effects of alcohol is not to drink it every day. and most of the statements in the alcohol section apply to downers as well. 9. The manufacturer of this Strong liqueur Scems to be recommending solitary drinking. Since then a number of derivatives of it have been introduced. These drugs behave very much like alcohol. They are used as daytime sedatives more than as nighttime hypnotics. Hundreds of barbituratcs are now known. Finally. When people talk about taking downers they usually mean the short-acting barbiturates or a few similar drugs that will be mentioned later. and many are currently in use. called barbital. there are very short-acting barbiturates that produce almost immediate unconsciousness when inj ected intravenously. K Adolescence. Barbital and phenoharbital arc in this group. pentobarbital (Nembutal). but the evidence contradicts this view. Nobody sits in aplace like this and scotch. take supplemental vitamin B. and alcoholism docsn't appear overnight.. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . watch your intake. 11 If you drink regularly make sure you maintain good habits of rest. AInhol the temporarily. and are widely used. C. and this kind of use is more likely to lead to dependence. especially as they begin to take effect. and there is no shortage of them on the black market. Thiopental (Pentothal) is the main example. bitt it cannot solve the problems. to feel good1 or to party. some people seek them out to change the way they feel. PDF compression. Mcdto calm ical doctors prescribe these substances in low pie during the day and in higher doses to help them sleep at night. dentists and doctors Since it wipes Out use it as an anesthetic for surgical awareness so fast and leaves no meniory of the experience. Their effects last six or seven hours. seek help from professionals. If you are trying to lose weight. with its confusions. exercise. The first barbiturate sleeping drug. They are all known as barbiturates and arc the most important drugs in this class. is a time when unhealthy patterns of dmg use can develop that may persist into later life and be very hard to break.

falls off bar stools. On the street. anything he can lay his hands on: alcohol. he staggers. deteriorating. Some medical patients have strange reactions to prescribed downers. marked. as are people with livet or kidney disease. a practice that greatly increases their toxicity. As with alcohol. Others fight off the sleepiness and say they feel high. sleeping pills are noncaloric. Tolerance to downers occurs. Barbiturate users are looked down on in addict society: "Goofball bums. goes to sleep in the middle of a sentence. benzedrine. claiming that the combined effect is more pleasant. They got no class to It seems to me that barthem. For example. In hospitals. drops food out of his mouth. by convulsions and death. becoming anxious and agitated instead of calmed down. difficult to treat. rub are also flOt as toxic as alcohol over time and don't cause the kind It is especially dangerous to combine alcohol and downers because their depressant effects are additive. quarrelsome. especially to patients who canhot take medicine by mouth. whereas a person taking the same dose in a quiet room might be overcome with lethargy. William S. A dose of alcohol a person is used to plus a dose of a downer that would be all right by itself may add up to coma and death. expectation. Burrougim. can kill when taken in overdose by knocking out the respiratory center of the brain. A few such combina- PDF compression. He is confused." biturates cause the worst possible form of addiction. people run a greater risk of acci— dentally killing themselves with these substances. then graduate to four to get the same effect. marijuana. Many people have died because they were ignorant of this fact. The barbiturate addict presents a shocking spectacle. progress to two. One night the dose they need to fal I asleep might also be the dose that stops their breathing. Since the similarities between downers and alcohol are so numerous. Unlike alcohol. thc body cannot burn them as fuel hut must metabolize them in other ways. and stupid. Other users like to combine downers and stimulants. OCR. but there is an important and curious difference. some users inject barbiturates intravenously (sometimes' crushing and dissolving oral preparations). but injectable forms are available. For this reason. and can produce stubborn addiction with dangerous withdrawal syndromes.From Chocolate to Morphine 70 users with hangovers. Most people take these drugs by mouth. it might be easier to talk about how they differ. A dose of Seconal taken at a wild party might inspire violent excitement. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . As people use them regularly. He cannot coordinate. Old people are likely to L)Ccome intoxicated on ordinary doses. opiates. tolerance to the effects on mood develops faster than tolerance to the lethal dose. the effects of downers on mood are extremely variable. as with alcohol. froni his 4 of liver disease and other medical damage SO common in alcoholics. in sonic cases. And he almost always uses other drugs. hypnotic doses of Nembutal are often given by intramuscular injection. and I • I1UVC1 7\Tu/<i)tj Luau/i ( I 9S9) setting. unsightly. people who get into the habit of taking sleeping pills every night to fall asleep might start out with one a night. Some people who take sleeping pills feel nothing but sleepiness. depending on individual personality.

they may have a higher potential for abuse in the long run because they make it easier to take larger quantities of drugs. OCR. and sleeping pii1s may help during the crisis. people who use a lot of cocaine say that drinking alcohol at the same time reduces the unpleasant side effects of that drug. One example. after periods of PDF compression. Similarly. while the amphetamine reinforces the potential of the barbiturate to produce euphoria. identifiable cause. the loss of a job. and many people fall into the habit of taking them every night Certainly. may produce serious disturbances of sleep. For instance. it is appropriate to take these drugs when insomnia is temporary and due to a specific. Dc penden cc on barbiturates can occur in both medical patients and street users.71 Depressan ts That "good morning" feeling •1• thanks to * glutethimide ••t'hc ng fuel i ng it ter tions are even legally made for medical use. is a mixture of amobarbital and dextroamphetamine (Dcxedrine). Supposedly. Although these combinations probably do no harm when used occasionally. during other kinds of travel. the breakup of a family. the barbiturate counteracts any tendency of the amphetamine to cause anxiety or jitteriness. long plane flights. while the cocaine keeps them from getting drunk and mm imizes hangovers. the death of a close friend or relative. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . even moving. Doctors write vast numbers of prescriptioris for sleeping pills. Dexamyl. Some people take these drugs to hell) them sleep on S taking a sedative is inure likely to be a hangover than what is pictured hcrc.

From (Jhucolate to Morphine


There is no question that Quaalude can be dangerous when used irresponsibly, or that it can be ad dicting. As a recreational drug, taken on occasion in a responsible manner, it seems to me safe and interesting and gives me an experience different from anything else. — thirty-six-year-old (Irug

intense work or stress, and when working shifts. Thcrc is no harm in taking sleeping pills a few nights in a row in such situations. Problems arise when people take them every night over a long tlIlICe Persistent insomnia is always a symptom of other troubic, either physical or emotional. Sleeping pills treat the symptom ouR. Morcovcr, the steep induccd by downers is not the same as natural sleep. It doesn't provide as much dreaming time, for one thing, and is likely to be followed by a hangover. Because druginduccd sleep may not supply all the needs of body and mind, it nuy, over time, aggravate an underlying problem. Although many people take sleeping pills regularly for years without having to increase the dose or suffering any obvious difficulties, this kind of
usage is a form of drLlg dcpcndciice.


Taking downers as a means of dealing with feelings of depresSiOfl or low self-esteem is probably the riskiest way of using them. Like alcohol, these drugs may mask the symptoms temporarily, but time they often increase anxiety and depression, encouraging further drug-taking in a downward spiral that can end in suicide. As noted earlier, there arc a number of nonbarbiturate downers, the most popular of which in the past was methaqualone, marketed under such brand names as Quaalude, Sopor, and Mandrax. Its effects are equivalent to those of the barbiturates, although on its own it is less likely to depress the respiratory center in overdose. Still, deaths have occurred as a result of combinations of alcohol and methaqualone. Street users talk about "luding out" that is, taking Quaaludes and wine to produce a numb, euphoric state. Quaalude has gained a Street reputation as a sex enhaiicer and party drug. Like all downers, it can lower inhibitions and reduec anxiety in the same way as alcohol. But also like

alcohol, it will interfere with sexual performance in males and may make it more difficult for women to experience orgasm. RcaI Quaalude is seldom available today, hut look-alike tablets contaming no methaqualone are commonly sold to gullible buyers on the black market. Anothvr downer, chioral hydrate, is the oldest sleeping drug still in medical use. Although rare today, abuse of it was not uncommon in the last century. Slipped into alcoholic drinks, it was the notorious "Mickey Finn" or "knockout drops" used to drug unsuspecting people into unconsciousness in order to rob or

shanghai them. Still other nonharbiturate downers include glutethirnide (Doridcn), methyprylon (Noludar), etbchlorvynol (Placidyl), and paraldehyde. All of these drugs are used in medicine as hypnotics.

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Depressari t.s

They sometimes find their way to the black markct, where users of illegal downers buy them. Their benefits and dangers are the

same as those of the barbiturates.

Suggestions for Using Downers Safely
I . Take

sleeping pills by mouth in doses no higher than those recommended by doctors, pharmacists, or manufacturcrs.

(Often lower doses will do.) 2. I)on't drive or operate machinery while under the influence of these drugs. Like alcohol, they impair judgment, coordination, and rcflexes. Exercise extreme caution about using downers in combination with alcohol or other depressant drugs. 4. 1)on't tall into the habit of relying on downers for sleep. Insomnia can usually! be overcome by improving health; getting more exercise; cutting down on intake of stimulants, including caffeine and tobacco; taking warm baths before bed; and by many other means not involving drugs. 5. Be wary of relying on these drugs to get you out of had moods. 6. Don't take downers regularly in combination with stimulants just because you like the feeling. 7. Don't take downers if you are ill, especially not if you have any liver or kidney problems, unless a doctor prescribes them for you. 8. If you find yourself becoming dependent on downers, with developing tolerance or any unusual physical or mental symptoms, seek professional help.

The Minor Tranquilizers The third and last class of sedative-hypnotics consists of relae tively new drugs, products of the modern pharmaceutical industry. Dating back only to the mid-1950s, these drugs are called minor tranquilizers, a misleading name. The word minor is supposed to distinguish them from the "major" tranquilizers compounds such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), which are used to manage psychotic patients. Actually, these two kinds of tranare chemically and pharmacologically unrelated. Minor tranquilizers are not, as their name implies, mild drugs. There is nothing minor about their effects, the problems they can cause, or
their potential for abuse.


pages 1

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From Chocolate to Morphine


their invention, the minor tranquilizers have achicvcd enormous popularity in medicine. Doctors have written millions upon millions of prescriptions for them, and pharmaceutical cornpanics have made billions of dollars by promoting and selling them as antianxiety agents. In fact, these drugs have been among

the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. The first minor tranquilizer to be released to the world was meprobamate; it appeared in 1954 under the brand name Mutown,* and within a short time after uts appearance, people were holding Miltown parties taking the drug socially and recreationally, just to get high. The moSt popular minor tranquilizers appeared in the 1960s a family of drugs called benzodiazepiries. Some of the most famous are chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), flurazepam (1)alrnane), triazolam (Halcion), alprazolam (Xaiiax), and lorazepam (Ativan). The manufacturer of Librium and Valium, OflCC a small company selling vitamins and antacids, is now one of the most powerful pharmaceutical corporations in the world. The pharmaceutical industry has tried hard to COflVIflCC doetors and patients that these chemicals arc revolutionary drugs that specifically reduce anxiety, making people calm and relaxed. In fact, the minor tranquilizers are just another variation on the theme of alcohol and other sedative-hypnotics, with the same tendency to produce adverse effects and dependence. Compared to barbiturates, the minor tranquilizers are safer in overdose and somewhat less dangerous in combination with alcühol. Also, the minor tranquilizers are useful in relaxing tense muscles. As daytime sedatives, they produce less drowsiness than barbiturates, but they can still make driving dangerous anti interfere with other motor skills, as well as with memory and clear thinking. As nighttime hypnotics, they induce sleep and may be preferable to barbiturates if anxiety or muscle tension is present if patients need a sleeping pill for more than a few nights in a

Street users of the minor tranquilizers take them for the same reasons they take illegal downers: to improve niood, reduce anxiety and inhibitions, and promote social interaction. In most cases, abuse of the minor tranquilizers, particularly of

Valium, Librium, and Miltown, has resulted from irresponsible practices of marketing and prescribing. In promoting these drugs, the manufacturers portrayed stresses of everyday life as disease

It was also marketed later as Equanil.

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! .75 Depressants The battered parent sync! rome . pop a Librium if the news freaks you out). and Miltown to anxious women. . --. • • ..t--• . Manutacturcrs ot the minor tranquili:ers were especially creative. . OCR. . 4." and to "the newcomer in town who can't niake friends.:. Other ads have suggested giving tranquilizers to harried mothers and bored housewives. ! . ads in medical journals recommended Librium for the college girl whose "newly stimulated intellectual curiosity may make her more sen- sitivc to and apprehensive about unstable national and world conditions" (in other words. Increase ing opposition to these practices has curtailed them to some extent. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .." Critics of this kind of salesmanship point out that women seem to be targets far more often than men. ! . they have since urged doctors to give Valium. as this example from the 1 9W)s shows. to "the woman who can't get along with her new daughter-in-law. For example. Just as pharmaccutical companies encouraged doctors to prescribe amphetamines to depressed housewivL's in the I 960s. Pharmaceutical companies have svrnctinn. r S •!•! S I t I states treatable by prescribing their products. PDF compression. Librium.s invented new diseases to sell thcir products.

5 grams). the result is the same. don't use them every day. A1( 76 When tometbing minit Ease to 17 be TI Emotional Crisis. A teaspoon of GHB powder (about 2.uu! bag. At the turn of the century. It is very difficult to wean people off benzodiazepines since the withdrawal is unpleasant and dangerous. especially with higher doses.. I. 3. but prescribing them fur weeks or ITlOflthS at a time to people who arc anxious. whether on medical prescription or for fun. where it was often dcscribed as a nutrient rather than a drug... The maker of Valium and Librium at one time pushed the idea of using these drugs to treat alcoholics. OCR. Most people find the effect pleasant. which can help convert fat to niuscie. thc minor tranquilizers have their place in medicine.. Take them intermittently or occasionally to avoid falling into a pattern of habitual use. ready tu when something must lit' &'IrI&± Lu eaim the patient irt 2. and can cause unpleasant reactions and dependence. In studies going hack to 1960.. oi• IV. or unahlc tO slccp is SyniptornatiC treatment of thc \sOfSt Sort. If you take these drugs.") Throughout history. scientists have found it to be a safe inducer of sleep that does not cause tolerance or addiction. S1erncal. adverse effects are more likely.trrcjes Enw4wniaN di*tn4nød iajkutt. When the alcoholics drank less. Be in :. All of the cautions about downers apply to the minor tranquilizers as well. (One expert on alcoholism has called Valium "whiskey in a pill. made in small amounts in the Using tranquilizers to deal with everyday difficulties causes the same problem association with all depressant drugs: term dependence of a particularly stubborn kind. I I I Certainly. dissolved in warm water and taken on an empty stomach. especially in situations that require full alertness. It does not pose the risks of other drugs in this class. depressed. and many doctors followed their advice. the doctors brain as a metabolite of the sedative neurotransrnitter GABA.%I. I S St C S. GHB (Gammahydroxybutyrate) GHB is an endogenous downer. cocaine was doled out for all sorts of complaints. produces within T 5 minutes a dramatic effect akin to alcohol or methaqualone intoxication. There is no treatment of the underlying causes of anxiety. satisfy patients' desires for medicine. and make doctors feel they have been useful or at least make the patients go away. such as driving. Psychoactive drugs change the way people feel. Unlike most psychoactive drugs and certainly most depressants. merely the creation of a legal drug habit. doctors have relied on mood-altering drugs to deal with difficult patients.rrtr. When combined with alcoh&. Even though the health consequences of dependence on tranquilizers may be less severe than those of dependence on alcohol. similar in effect to alcohol. opium and alcohol were the mainstays of medical trcatmeiit along with cannabis (manjuana). and manufacturers sold it through mail-order catalogs and tO health food stores. The Food and Drug Administration has declared GHB to be a prescription drug and has halted distribution oF it through the imagined they had achieved something. In the early I 990s synthetic GHB became popular among bodybuilders because it stimulates the pituitary gland to release growth hon mone. The drug was unregulated. but all they had really done was to substitute one sedative-hypnotic for another. but users should be aware of the potential dangers of overdoses. no I-eennstittition To gain 'nU! mmediate of acute s-bfl aware that these drugs are strong depressants. but in somc individuals. GHB increases rather than suppresses dreaming. and the sleep it induces closely resembles natural sleep. A hundred years ago. Today.( -- :hoi'n/a(e t . web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Valium and Xnnax are some of the PDF compression. GHB can cause nausea and marked incoordination along with "hypersomnolence" (a kind of temporary stupor). •'!It may isa'd ycmjr H•+ calm her irnnwdiately Injectable * (diazepani) Ready to use. fliOst widely consumed Suggestions for Avoiding Trouble with Tranquilizers 1 .

Years ago. General Anesthetics General anesthetics arc powerful depressants used in surgery to make people insensible to pain. Icacliurl tø the i'tlLrr 1B47) ( Reproduced by permission of Punch) PDF compression.tts General Hospital. Another disadvantage of ether is that overdoses of it rapidly put people into deep comas and Stop their respiration. thc anesthetic uscd was cther. depressing brain function within seconds. more correctly. and for many years people havc cxpcrimcnted with them to get high and tO explore their minds. The first public dcrnoiistratIOR ul aflcsthesia. Massachusetts General Hospital. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . gcneral anesthetics produce changes in consciousness similar to alcohol and sedative-hypnotics. Like all depressants. general anesthetics can kill by shutting down the respiratory center and other vital functions. patients had to he tied down. They are gases or volatile liquids administered by inhalation through masks over the face or tubes in the throat. therefore. In response. (Courtesy of Massachusc. people sometimes sniffed the fumes of liquid chloroform or swallowed small amounts in order to experience what disapproving critics called a "cheap drunk. During surgery. Most are never seen outsidc operating rooms. surgery was horribly painful. Great care must be taken when ether is in use to prevent violent explosions from accidental sparks or flames. The stronger ones quickly produce complete unconsciousness. Prior to 1846. and their screams could be heard far from operating Tai ii fl*LLV QUIYf DtI. Ether is a volatile liquid. easily administered to peoplc through breathing masks. when a dentist in Boston demonstrated that ether could safely rendcr patients insensible to the pain of operations. or laughing gas is still in common nonmedical use. but a few have been popular recreational drugs in the past." The era of surgical anesthesia began in 1 846. it is no longer used. and its main disadvantage is that its fumes make an extremely explosive mixture with air. Boston) WONDERFUL EFflCTS 01' ETHES TN A CASE OP SCOLDING win. a state that lasts as long as the drug is administered and for a short time afterward. OCR. general anesthetics enter the blood very rapidly. Chloroformis one of the oldest drugs in this group. and one nitrous oxide. When breathed. It has a strong chemical smell. 1846. a specially trained doctor or technician must monitor the administration of the drugs and the moment-to-moment condition of the patient.tONTFUL—i kIflT An EngRi. In low doses. diethyl ether) is still widely used to induce unconsciousness hefore surgery. black-market manufacture of it has increased. Today ether (or. Since it is very toxic.P10172 Chuculate to Morphine 18 mail and through health food stores.

Philadelphia: F A. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .. but which evaporate as soon as normal consciousness returns. *n (S (ba' nJer LIEI4T t*. see *111 surer I.1 relatively nontoxic. Tltflfl I 1$ I 845 advertis- ing a denionstrition of the effects of laughing gas (nitrotis oxide). Tb' h s.D. Davis Co. aS _ 4S fl a ad it ibs tsn .1 S. Occasionally. rub discovery of ether anesthesia revolutionized surgery.s S. Nitrous oxide is such a drug. don't smell as bad. THE be larkS Sn an w81tbi Iaasran . many people played with it just to cxperience its unusual effects on consciousness.& .a$a . A few writers of the time claimed that ether gave them profound insights into the nature of reality and even mystical revelations. last as long as the gas is breathed. (From Clinical Anesthesia. S aS DIJCI VLSI OR FM?. then shift to ether and stronger drugs when the patients become totally relaxed and semiconscious. at. the reactions were highly variable. It is often used by itself in dentistry and minor surgery.. most people probably tried the drug only once or twice out IITlIfl uIDr. quickly found to produce interesting changes in consciousness. which come on within seconds. Se. As might he expected. fl. Nitrous oxide is a weaker drug than ether and the other general anesthetics. f. eafcflnIasratja nery rapnl. uge8. 4 flu. not producing complete loss of consciousness or anesthesia deep enough for major surgery.n. they tend to look for other drugs that are less toxic.1be U.c d's the. Nitrous Oxide. ak. just as with alcoe ho!. nitrous oxide was it. many hospital anesthesiologists like to begin operations hy having patients breathe nitrous oxide.-. na kSSSS. Used in this way. A gas with only a faint odot1. 4/.M4nS atjr S. M. U1!LEIAILU. — a— a tb-. A" nua . Pcoplc have heen experimenting with nitrous oxide as a cudosity for the past two hundred years. Oddly enough. SI bt S N. But though there are reports of a few "ether addicts" from this period.. St Ir. Sc Is rrprnabMkp. People would gather for the express purpose of sniffing the fumes or . . II GAS! WILl U 15711 IT of curiosity. he cornt An 1 874 book by the American physician Benjamin Paul Blood was titled The ion and the G'is! )f PhJJusvpJzv. OCR.' . A nesthetic ( PDF compression.a geSerl aSk. Discovered in the late 1 700s. then disappear . the effects came on in a few minutes and ended within a halfehour. In addition. Eastwood.dI. people still experiment with ether.Ss Sre S S a— The lust7 tad pnp.t will S the La XLXCTRICITT. no one thought to use it in surgery until after the demonstration of ether anesthesia.Depressants rooms. but if they like the effect it gives. and philosophers have breathed nitrous oxide over and over in pursuit of elusive insights revelations that seem overpowering under the influci-ice of the gas. øbkb saM Sn S PPgrrf. it is be prepsnd ad .H at tklt as w i-itS na•4aen tsnfl S. Its effects.* — rir " S .t $ Sb Pnbsbly a.k* I.. d th.ett4 S. tbb S lbs Is. N. Till (had ae appttbreMea . Nor is it so strong as to stop respiration. as well as insensitivity to pain.aft .. all Is ihe adlesn wb. writers. GALLOU OF CU will —a' lbemach ç. and also nonflammable although it will support combustion the way oxygen does and should be kept away from flames.g N. r• S OflAND N 1W tnnfl St drinking tiny doses of the liquid. rSI.' Ga.4. W.L. Artists. 1964) suddenly when it is stopped. Ether parties were popular throughout the 1800s. Even before this event as long ago as I 800 ether was a wellknown curiosity. Rifi be a4&. When the English poet laureate Robert Southey tried the gas at a nitrous oxide party in london in the 1790s. 'te if aS p. edited by I). and won't blow so easily.srnp.

Moreover its use in nonmedical settings presents several hazards that users should keep in mind. Physicians and dentists have long considered nitrous oxidc to be a safe pharmacological agent. the laughers would stop in sudden confusion when the effect of the drug came to its abrupt end. Balloons of njtrous oxide have been offered for sale at some rock concerts. Others have been badly hurt by accidentally pulling It is unlikely that people it> sponding to this ad were intercstcd in whipped cream. Second. Some people even buy cans of instant whipped cream and attempt to get the gas out of the cans without the cream. Serious injuries have resulted from people inhaling laughing gas while standing in front of open windows. there is some cvideuce that excessive or prolonged use of it can damage the bone marrow and nervous system by intcrfcring with the action of vitamin Be I 2. OCR. In these rowdy settings. Therefore. it should be mixed with oxygen if it is to be breathed for more than a few minutes. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Being anesthctizcd. Breathing it di rectly from pressurized tanks is dangerous for two reasons. and people have died o1 asphyxiation by breathing straight nitrous oxide through face masks. One way to avoid these dangers is to fill balloons from tanks and breathe from the balloons. First. The name "laughinggas" comes from a time when traveling mcdi cinc shows and carnivals would invite the public to pay a sinai! pncc for a iiiinutc's worth of nitrous oxide. a magazinc of the drug subculture. or when operating machinery. a user may be unaware of such injuries until too late. it is unwise to try the gas unless one is in a comfortable sitting or lying position. lips. Realizing that peopic like to get high on it. Often. when driving cars. Neverthekss. PDF compression.From to Morphine 80 mented afterward that the atmosphere of the highcst of all possible heavens was no doubt composed of nitrous oxide. the gas comnionly produced silliness and uncontrollable laughter. and anyone who breathes it while standing will soon reel about and fall dnwn. many others have used nitrous oxide for less spiritual ends. and (most serious) vocal cords. it ran in High Tinies. nitrous oxide is available in many dentists' offices. Further. who use it to pressurize instant whipped cream cans. nitrous oxide rapidly leads to complete loss of motor control. At private parties. On the other hand. cold enough to cause gas flowing from such tanks is very cold frostbite of noses. Many more people obtain smaller cylinders of the gas from restaurant suppliers. A fair number of tanks of the gas regularly disappear from hospi tals and nmdical supply houses to find their way into the homes of recreational users. some dentists give nitrous oxide even for routine procedures such as cleaning teeth. oxygen tanks are rarely supplied. especially to get hilariously intoxicated. because nitrous oxide does not support life.

Ripening pods. but their depressant action is different from that of sedative-hypnotics or general anesthetics. The parent of all narcotic drugs is opium. I ::• Warnings About Nitrous Oxide 1. 4." Stupor is a state of reduced sensibility that has given rise to our familiar adjective stupid. Never breathe nitrous oxide directly from a pressurized tank. Do not use nitrous oxide reguhirly over long periods of time. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Never breathe nitrous oxide standing up or while doing anything requiring normal iriotor coordination. China. 3. 2. OCR.81 L)epressan ts heavy tanks of nitrous oxide over onto themselves while intoxicated. They may also feel hung over for some time after. Never breathe nitrous oxide for more than a few minutes at a time. about I 900. (Jeremy Bigwood) Narcotics word narcotic comes from a Greek word meaning "stupor. Addicdon to nitrous oxide is a real possibility. especially if they have just eaten. People who breathe nitrous oxide for more than a few minutes at a time may experience nausea. a dark. (Courtesy of the Swiss ledera! Institute of Technology) PDF compression. Narcotics are drugs that can produce stupors by depressing brain function. Addicts may suffer serious mood and personality changes in addition to the bone marrow and nervous system aircady mentioned. gummy solid An elegant opium den in Hankou.

While still unripe. a combined with camphor. Two that survive into our own times are paregoric. Named for Morpheus. Throughout history opium has been an important item of cornmerce. this juicc is crude opium. Opium can be taken by mouth or it can be smoked. the green pods. Many oral preparations of opium wcrc made in thL past. begin to ripen and swell.From Chocolate to Morphine 82 MORPHINE SULfATE M O*PHINI Morphine was the first active principle ever extracted from a drug plant. (Jeremy Rigwood) Ri(ght: Injectahlc codeine. Crude opium tastes very bitter and contains more than twenty different drugs. hut since smoking was unknown in Europe and Asia until Columbus brought news of it from the New World. When dricd. (Jeremy Rigwuod) made from the opium poppy. and deodorized dilute tincture of tincture of opium. of which the most important is morphine. One of the oldest of all drugs. the Greek god of dreams. morphine was isolated PDF compression. If the pods are allowed to ripen fully. the ancient Greeks recognized its pain-relieving properties. containing many tiny seeds. the pods contain a milky juice that can be collected by letting it ooze from knife cuts. probably native to southern Europe and western Asia but now cultivated all OVCr the world. opium was used in prehistoric times. OCR. Opium poppies arc lively flowcrs. they turn brown and dry. and in some periods it was the most widely used medical drug. opium smoking did not exist before 1 492. foriiwrly known as laudarium. As the flowers wither. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Its isolation from opium in 1803 marked tim beginning of the modern era of drug treatmeiit. whereupon the cdible seeds can be gathered for use in cooking. which is more concentrated.

Some people become anxious. Tb. many hundreds of opiates are known. SI S .NfROiri '. • .1sa4. dating back only to the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853. they also cause nausea and sweating. Sc IStIftflhI P CStKfl. relaxation. Today. restless. In fact. They differ from each other in potency. suppression of the cough center and stimulation of the vomiting center. Reprinted by permission) of action. s%s CLVCO. PDF compression. More active by mouth than other narcotics. in duration Heroin enjoyed brief popularny as a cough immediately after its invendon.. Codeine (methylmorphine) is another natural constituent of 0J)iUIT1. because it was the first time that an active principle was extracted from a drug plant. •s — 31 110t4*4•11. This advertiscrnent appeared in a 1903 medical journal. and doctors frequently prescribe it today to treat for moderate pain. chemists began to experiment with variations on molecUles of morphine and other compounds of opium. and wakeful after taking fall into a kind of twilight sleep marked by vivid opiates. it produces thc same is more potcnt than morphine effect in smaller doses but otherwise the two are very similar. all of the opiates produce similar effects. Opium and opiates cause the pupils of the eyes to contract. OCR. In the late 1800s. which can be profuse and uncomfortable. Interestingly enough. they do not do so as reliably as the sedative-hypnotics. Injection of drugs is relatively recent. in how active they are by mouth. it is a far more powerful and dangerous drug than when taken by mouth. especially by injection.. and more active by injection lend themselves more easily to abuse. and others arc purely synthetic. One of the drugs they produced was heroin. Is C eanan. — . and in how much mood change they cause relative to their physical effects. Given by injection. Opiates that are more potent.MItN' Ss•b .. Morphine is prcparcd as a soluble white powder that can be mixed with water and injected into the body.'s 1 W —-—— '. like heroin. Na 1SSS7 !lt em Ia Drugs derived from morphine and other opium compounds are called opiates. High doses of opiates. Heroin (diacetylmorphine) that is. the world's first morphine addict was the wife of the man who came up with that device. Larger doses often produce vomiting and depression of breathing. dreams. a simple derivative of morphine first made available in 1898. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . They may also cause mental clouding and inability to concentrate. heroin is promptly converted back into morphine in the body. (© 1903 by the New York Times Company. In the brain. can cause death by stopping respiration.83 Depressants from opium in 1803 by a German pharmacist an event that markcd the beginning of the modern era of drug treatmcnt. sometimes to tiny pinpoints. just like other strong depressants. it is a weaker pain reliever than morphine. Although they may induce sleep. a s . — . and drowsiness. some are sernisynthetic dcrivativcs. like Demerol. these drugs cause relief of pain. shorter-acting. In general. The main effects ot opium and its derivatives are on the brain and the bowel.

a problem that was probably recognized even by ancient peoples when the only form available was crude opium from poppies.From Chocolate to Morphine 84 Because narcotics paralyze intestinal muscles. what a spot of enchantment. from a 1798 letter to George 1 Coleridge popular beliefs about narcotics are untrue. and withdrawal developed from observations of opiate addicts. OCR. tolerance. I believe. Yet narcotics have generated more fear and argument than any other class of drugs. to relax and rest. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . a number of writers and artists were laudanurn addicts with phenomenal habits. Thomas Dc Quincey. nausea. In England in the early 1S(JOs. Many Laudanum gave me repose. consumed as much as two quarts of laudanum a week. is their potential to cause addiction. with physical components. Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery. Anyone who has experienced the rapid relief of terrible pain by narcotics knows what blessings they can be. restlessness. Hancock. If the drug is stopped even after a short period of use. repeated every four to six hours if necessary. of course. Opium and its derivatives have earned a secure place in treatment over many years of medical experience. particularly when it is accompanied by painful cramps. Such doses would certainly kill nontolerant persons. As noted earlier. and many of our current notions of drug abuse are based on it. When medical patients receive morphine by injection every four hours. the fundamental principle that addiction consists of three features craving for the drug. they can also indirectly promote healing. toler- Samuel Taylor Coleridge. to feel better. howcver. doctors pitscribc thcm to treat diarrhea. and increased sensitivity to pain. when they are really needed. In proper doses. Tolerance to narcotics also develops rapidly and can reach striking levels. headache. In medicine today. The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The reason. not sleep. Thcrc is an important difference between tolerance to narcotics and tolerance to sedative-hypnotics. London) PDF compression. Regular use commonly results in chronic constipation. mild withdrawal symptoms may occur including sweating. They are also prescribed to control bad coughs. can develop quickly with repeated administration. for example. weakness. know how divine that repose is. opiates are safe and cxtrcrnely effective. narcotics are the main drugs used to treat severe pain. a green spot offountains and flowers and trees in the very heart of a waste of sands! Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 772— 1S34). By allowing sick and injured people to take their minds off pain. The usual pain-relieving dose of tincture of opium (laudanum) is twenty drops in a glass of water. Narcotics addiction provides the classic model of drug dependence. but you. (Painting by R. some degree of dependence can occur in as few as twenty-four hours. best known for his Confessions o1 an English Opium Eater took up to eight thousand drops a day. For example. There is no question that dependence on narcotics. and the whole subject is highly contaminated by prejudice and emotion.

thc Victorian writcr. for instance. still an addict. turning normal people into fiends and degenerates. rather than from the properties of heroin itselL* Withdrawal from narcotics is also less hazardous than withdrawal from Alcohol. by accidcnt. and setting than of the drugs. death. however. This is not the case with narcotics. expectation. author of Confessions Of an opium Eater (Fit: I-high Ludlow Memorial Library) PDF compression. an addict used to a certain dose of impure street heroin may buy a packct of thc drug that. The antisocial behavior of some opiate addicts seems more a function of personality. despite lifelong. There are many documented cases of opium and morphine addicts who. The strong craving that characterizes opiate addiction has inspired many critics of the drugs to suggest that narcotics destroy the will and moral sense. and they arc less stnmg than cravings for cigarettes. Some addicts even claim that opiates help them to resist disease. which makes them safer drugs. and degeneration of the nervous system so commonly seen in chronic alcoholics. OCR. it would make an interesting subject of research. Medical patients who become addicted to niorphine in hospital settings usuafly do not conform to stereocxarnplc. a more addictive drug. cultural background. People can take opium and opiates every day for years and remain in good health. The worst medical effect of regular opiate use is severe and chronic constipation. Also. hut hardly compares to the cirrhosis of the liver. he can unwittingly take too niuch. injccting what he thinks is thu right dose. Narcotic withdrawal can be intensely unpleasant. cravings for opiates are no different from cravings for alcohol among alcoholics. the physical consequences of long-term narcotics use are minor compared to those of alcohol. remaining healthy to the end. but it is not life-threatening. Thomas Dc Quincey. it is possible that the drug somehow suppresses this kind of rcaction. a process that can — and does result in fatal accidents. Since the symptoms of heroin withdrawal resemble those of a respiratory flu. sometimes. which can he distressing. and the minor tranqui]izcrs can produce violent withdrawal. Actually.85 Lkpressants ance to the activc dose of some sedative-hypnotics develops more rapidly than does tolerance to the lethal dose.S 1K59). No one has investigated this claim of addicts. marked by convulsions and. provided they keep up good habits of hygiene and nutrition. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . who started taking laudanum for a toothache as a college student. but such deaths result from poor quality control in street supplies of the drugs. died at seventyfour. hasn't been cut as much as usual. survived to ripe old ages. Heroin ads dicts occasionally die of overdoses. downers. For * t\ ''U Thomas Dc Quinccv ( 1 7M. heavy habits. Many heroin users say they don't get colds or other respiratory infections as long as they take their drug.

It swallows up many people. putposelcss. As with other depressants. There are numer(JUS cascs on record of doctors and nurses who were opiate addicts. and those who seek out opiates as a means of dealing with life's everyday difficultics. from reality and its demands. selves from narcotics once they arc better and leave the hospital setting. People who can afford to support opiate habits legally often lead normal lives while also being addicts. OCR. When ordinary people look at heroin addicts. In reality it isn't very dilierent from morphine. seem to make time pass more rapidly. Because it is more potent than morphine. Heroin is often portrayed as the very worst of all possible drugs. It is legal in England. a "devil drug1" always productive of evil and somehow especially dangerous. in poor health. temporarily. an(1 the kinds of addiction are worse than PDF compression. psychologically damaged. It is nOt only the downtrodden poor of urban ghettos who become heroin dicts. Visible addicts tend to be in trouble. yet seemed outwardly normal. where doctors do use it.From Chocolate to Morphine 86 types of addicts. a society ensures that its heroin addicts will all be criminals. It is a way of life. and is rightly a cause for serious concern. and unable to get out of their grim predicam ents. By making heroin illegal. They often have little difficulty separating them- Junk is not a kick. in and unproductive lives of great hardship and cost to socicty. unhappy. what they mostly see are victims of grinding social forces. even doctors cannot obtain it to use on patients. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . depression. or boredom. serious dependencc is most likely to develop when people use the drugs to screen out feelings of anxiety. Heroin is strictly illegal in the United States. a crucial difference exists between people who become addicted by chance or through medical circumstance. Burroughs. Many of these conditions are due more to society's blunders in trying to control the abuse of drugs than to heroin itself. and fulfilled their professional and social responsihilities. It is clear that drug laws have done people from becoming addicts. In today's world. but the children of a Il social and economic classcs and many of their parents as well. however. There are as nothing to many addicts as ever. mv olved with crime. Apparently. an accepted medical drug. cspccially the young. sometimes with good results. heroin addiction has reached epidemic proportions. Narcotics may he particularly seductive because they insulate people from discomfort and pain. from his (1953) novel . it is sometimes a better pain reliever in small doses for people who are too sensitive to the nauseating effect of morphine. —— S. and create an inner world of security and comfort into which users can retreat.

" Nonintravenous heroin doesn't give nearly as intense a rush and so is less addicting. and a genera! feeling of discomfort. The power of the heroin rush to make people uninterested in other experiences and totally committed to heroin is so overwhelming as to he an argument against ever trying the drug at all. because nothing else I've tried comes close to it. paticnt in a private addiction trcatrncnt center able sensation they have ever felt. Some say it is the most pleasur- There's nothing like a heroin rush. into a muscle. or live in healthy surroundings. or injcctcd under the skin. but I worry that I will always be tempted to feel the heroin rush again. By any of these routes it is much more powerful than by mouth. One of my favorite ways when I was little was rolling down big hills. they experience little besides nausea. rfl} aspects of addiction that are attributable directly to heroin have to do with the high potency of the drug. don't even try it once. It seems obvious that many of the worst features of heroin addiction are due to this social situation rather than to the pharmacological effects of opiates. wonderful feeling. you aren't likely to eat well. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . by whatcvcr route. I was al ways interested in getting high. I did it over and over. Oddly enough. People who get this experience from "mainlining" herfind it hard to appreciate other kinds of highs. or into a vein. OCR. and then become drowsy. and the tendency for people to use it intravenously. After a few doses. sweating. l'm scared of withdrawal. It's just the most intense. seventeen-year-old woman. People who snort heroin can do so off and health Chapter 12. dont find it pleasant. Prohibition of opiates has directly spawned an ugly criminal underworld that supplies heroin to addicts at grossly inflated prices: up to $1. snuffed up the nose.rnore often than not. most pcoplc who try heroin for the fIrst time. One junkie oiI•1 not all do expressed this sentiment in a much-quoted line: "It's so good. sleep regularly. I started shooting heroin when I was fourteen. however particularly when it is injected directly into the bloodstream — Some people experience an intense "rush" of good feeling that lasts for a few minutes. When you have to come up with several hundred dollars a day to buy a drug you must have to avoid feeling sick.87 Depressants before those laws were passed. To hear heroin addicts talk about the intensity of this rush is both fascinating and frightening. I'm also inter• ested in meditation and things like that. much more powerful than orgasm. especially nondrug highs. which tend to be more suhtlc. Her* oin can he smoked (mixed with tobacco or marijuana). associated with iiitravenous drug use are discussed in PDF compression.000 a gram for material of questionable purity that may be cut with substances more hazardous than the drug itself. Heroin addicts are usually unproductive because they have little time for anything hut scoring heroin and then nodding out in isolation. Heroin has caused me a lot of problems. but I know I have to do it. its short duration of action. Addicts with habits costing several hundrcd dollars a day are forced to resort to daily criminal activity in order to avoid the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal.

supplying addicts with pure. Whole opium. Because it is a gummy solid. Fur instance. The physical component of an opiate habit can he broken fairly easily by withdrawing people gradually and treating symptoms as they develop. In street jargon. of course. and high doses cause unpleasant nausca. when eaten. or to boost their con fidence before a public performance. OCR. is a much safer drug less concentrated. and unless he takes another fix these feelings will grow more and more intense. Even people who inject it subcutaneously ("skin-popping") can sometimes avoid full-blown dependence. so the practice is risky. and many ncvcr thought they would become addicts. and junkies often go back to being junkies even after being drug-free for months or years. Once physical dependence develops the need to avoid withdrawal hccomes a powerful motive for taking more of the drug. As with cigarette addiction. usually shooting the drug only in certain situations to reduce anxiety in personal relationships. and some combine other drugs with their heroin. much more so than combinations of stimulants and depressants taken by mouth. Taking opium orally doesn't - give a rush. Most junkies began as chippers. It's too bad that heroin has become the most popular street opiate.From Chocolate to Morphine 88 on for long periods of time without becoming strongly addicted. this sort of occasional use of heroin is known as "chipping. There is no question that some users can mainline heroin only once in a while. the relapse rate is very high. sonic addicts mix heroin that gives an intense euphoric and cocaine into a cftect. Three to eight hours after his last dose. Many junkies are as addicted to giving themselves intravenous experiment with shooting other drugs. Treatments of narcotics addiction are not very satisfactory. however. longer acting. it cannot he injected directly into the bloodstream. a high percentage of chippers eventually go on to become addicts. being able to confine thcir use of the drug to occasional sprees. or to feel good at weekend parties. and easier to form stable relationships with. and though people can certainly become addicted to it — as they did in England and America in the l800s the risk is much less. legal heroin in some sort of supervised setting has been pro- PDF compression. a heroin addict will begin to feel sick. injections as they are to the effects of heroin. Some of them Heroin maintenance that is. for example. this practice is dangerous." and it secms that some lucky individuals remain successful chippers over months and even years. encouraging users to moderate their intake. Unfortunately. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Smoking opium puts drugs into the blood and brain more directly and has a higher potential for abuse.

Like a cigarette addict. It does block the effect of heroin. you will never become addicted. Other addicts. can use methadone programs to help them break their heroin habits once and for all. but none of them really did it for me. thirty-four-year-old woman. OCR. and so may reduce a junkie's motivation to shoot heroin. I used lots of drugs. I never felt right from as far back as I can remember. All it does is substitute one narcotic for another. Might addiction he the result of suppression of the brain's own opiatelike molecules. the risk of addiction is real. Oral methadone is an addicting narcotic hut givcs little euphoria. and I've been an opiate user ever since Opiates have caused me lots of trouble. and I was always trying different ways to change how I felt. less restricting ways. Though the medical dangers of heroin have certainly been exaggerated. If you do not use it. . you will not use it. the addict remains an addict. and he will become really sick if he cannot get it. Nowadays. . particularly by means of "chasing the dragon. heroin use is becoming more and more common invading affluent and respectable segments of society. a synthetic opiate that is active by mouth and has a long duration of effcct. after a time. In some circles it is fashionable to try heroin or use it occasionally. the answers are still hidden. or differences in fortunately. the endorphins? Why do son-ic people who try opiates find them so compelling that they go on to become addicts. Codeine was a revelation. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . albeit in a less destructive way. unwilling to aban- don its prohibitionist mentality. but what they do for my head is worth it. the junkie cannot go anywhere or do anything without thinking about where his next fix is corning from. has been unwilling to try it. if they are highly motivated. If you do not try heroin. . Nor does it show heroin users how to get high in more natural. Some addicts sign into methadone programs only to take a break from the street scene. but our society." the practice of heating brown Asian heroin on tinfoil and inhaling the vapors. Opiate molecules interact with special receptor sites on nerve cells in the brain. it has supported maintenance with methadone. even as an expcrimcnt. The real problem with it is that it doesn't go to the root of addiction. thcy go right back to their old ways. Many questions about opiate addiction remain unanswered. while others do not? Is this a matter of differences in brain chemistry. heroin addiction limits personal freedom. Instead. No matter how you look at it. .89 Depressants posed as a possibic treatment. rock singer . it is impossible to say who is at PDF compression. however. is that it is The main advantage of methadone better than leading a criminal life. he cannot buy his drug for a reasonable price at the corner store. How much of it is biochemical and how much is psychological? The first opiate I ever took was coIt made me feel right for deine the first time in my life . It offers them no help with the problems that led them to abuse heroin in the first place. Un- Given these uncertainties. Unlike the cigarette addict. .

Fur a view of the use and abuse of alcohol on this side of the Atlantic. about an alcoholic writer played by Ray Milland.From Chocolate to Morphine 90 risk of addiction and who is not. or just to feel good in the abscnce of physical pain. and no way of taking the drugs so as to protect yourself from that possibility. Brown. and think you can avoid going on to intravenous use and addiction. 4. Berton Roueché's !Th NeLUTQ) Spirit: A Portrait of Alcohol (Boston: Littic. remember: most junkies thought that. Never iniect a narcotic into the body for nonmedical purposes. once addiction develops. 1981 ). Brown. The connection hetween violent crimc and alcohol is explored in The Crocodile Man: A Case of Brain Chemistry and Criminal Violence by André Mayer and Michael Wheeler (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. starring Jack Lemmon and Lec Remick. Hyde's Alcohol: Drink or Drug? (New York: McGraw- Hill. 1974) is a good book written for adolescent readers. Several excellent films dramatize the problem of alcoholism. Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited (Boston: Little. can easily lead to habitual USC and addiction. Days of Wine and Roses. by any method. OCR. 1979). 1981). Rorabaugh (New York: Oxford University Press. If you begin to use narcotics regularly. There is no assurance that you will not become an addict once you start using opiates regularly. Opium and its derivatives are powerful drugs that should be reserved for treating severe physical pain and discomfort. 2. An account of writers with alcohol problems is Donald Newlove's Those Drinking Days: Myself and Other Write ers (New York: Horizon Press. see The Alcohol Republic: An American Tradition by W. 3. One classic is The Lost Weekend. Furthermore. Suggested Reading Margaret 0. 1960) is a welhwritten account of the uses of alcohol from ancient times to the present. A more technical book is [Jnth-'r the in/ILience: A Guide to the Myths and Realities of Alcoholism by James R. 1945. 5. 1979) describes the evolution ol an English alcoholic. If you ever try a narcotic intravenously and feel overwhelming pleasure. J. is an agonizing portrait of a pair of alcoholics PDF compression. too. Taking narcotics to reduce anxiety or depression. reprinted in paper. never repeat it. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Precautions About Narcotics 1 . Milam and Katherine Ketcham (Seattle: Madrona. 1982). there greatest is flu reliable method of breaking it.

1979). both authors are physicians. A number of novels concern opium. Louisa May Alcott wrote a short story about opium: "A Marble Woman: or. The minor tranquilizers and their of manufacturers are strongly criticized in The America: Pill Popping and the American Way of Life by Richard hughes and Robert Brewin (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Only When I Laugh. which was also made into a movie. his and People: Opium and Its Use in Laos (Berkeley. The Mysterious Model. starring Marsha Mason as an alcoholic mother. first published in 1821. with Saunie Salyer (Berkeley. The history of opium dating back to ancient times is presented in Flowers in the Blood: The Story of Opium by Dean Latimer and Teff Goldberg (New York: Franklin Watts. 1967). One woman's personal story of addiction to Valium is told in Pm Dancing as Fast as I Can by Barbara Gordon (New York: Harper & Row. The Mooncione (New York: Penguin. California: And/Or Press. 1982) is a fascinating biography of the man who became world-famous at the age of thirty-six. Brecher and the editors of Consumer ReJ)OTtS (Boston: Little. A novel in which downers figure prominently is Jacqueline Susann's Valley of the Dolls (New York: Bantam. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and Wilkie Collins's classic from 1873. The best information on general anesthetics will be found in Licit and Illicit Drugs by Edward M. One of the few resource books on downers is Barbiturates: Their Use and Misuse by Donald R. Wesson and David E. takes a somewhat more humorous view of the problem drinker. recently adapted for the screen. written in 1870 and concluded by Leon Garfield (New York: Pantheon. when appeared. 1980). based on the life of the late rock singer Janis Joplin. California: University of California Press.91 Depressants whose lives are destroyed by drinking. is available in a modern edition (New York: Penguin. Pipes. Smith (New York: Human Sciences Press. The Mystery of Edwin Druod. 1966). Brown. 1976). 1973). 1979). An equally moving account of a person ravaged by alcohol (and other drugs) is The Rose. Joseph Westermeyer's Poppies. 1971). 1977). I 972). 1 982) is an interesting analysis by a psychiatrist/anthropologist. edited by Madeleine Stern (New York: William Morrow. an excellent hook that also has a good section on sedative-hypnotics. ': PDF compression. among them Charles Dickens's last work. A short but entertaining and informative book on nitrous oxide is Laughing Gas (Nitrous Oxide) edited by Michael Sheldin and David Wallechinsky. OCR. Thomas Dc Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater. The Opium Eater: A Life of Thomas I)e Quincey by Grevel Lindop (New York: Taplinger." collected in Plots and Counterplots: More Unknown Thrillers of Louisa May Alcott. 1981).

meaning "causers of hallucinations. Eugene O'Ncill's play Long Day's Tourney into Night. Alexander Trocchi's novel Cain's Book (New York: Grove Press.) —— — ilOrPJI1TIt' 92 readable and factual book on heroin is Richard Ashley's and the Facts (New York: St. Another is Junky by William S. 'The 1972). and not sensational. A number of creative writers have left us autobiographical records of their involvement with opium and opiates. OCR. Opium and the People by Virginia Ber- Psychedelics. based on the belief THE PLANIS AND CHEMICALS that they made people temporarily insane. and justice.) Many of the subjects who volunteered for the early research with these chemicals liked their effects very much. 1982). writer. Many nonusers arc fearful of them. 1977). and Don Des Jarais (Knoxville. 1987) is a superb history o opiate use and control in Britairia An excellent book that humanizes perceptions of heroin addicts during this century is Addicts Who Survived: An Oral History of Narcotic tJce in America. regarding them as dangerous agents capable of driving people to insanity and suicide. also made into a movie. crime. One of the best-known novels about heroin addiction is Nelson Algren's I 949 book The Man with the Golden Arm (New York: Penguin. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The battle over names goes on. We will use pcvche(IeIicc and hailucinogens interchangeably. Burroughs (New York: Penguin. New York: Grove Press. nightmarish world of the heroin addict. 1960) is a vivid picture of the often discussed in this chapter are some of the most colorful and controversial of all drugs. and filmmaker Jean Cocteau (translated by Margaret Crosland and Sinclair Road. At about the same time. Heroin. it was made into a popular movie starring Frank Sinatra. One of the best is Opium: The Diary of a Cure by the French artist. More recent movies dealing with opiates are McCabe and Mrs. they thought of them in positive ways and frequently wanted to repeat the experiences with friends outside laboratories." Since hallucinations are common symptoms of schizophrenia. persuasive. Alcister Crowley's Diary ofa Drug Fiend (New York: Samuel Weiser. 19831. When they first came to the attention of scientists in Europe and America in the 1 950s. is a harrowing account of his mother's addiction to morphine. Miller and Christine F. See also John Kaplan's The Hardest Drug: Heroin and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. which was first published in 1953 under the pseudonym William Lee. they sought a more favorable name for the substances and came up with psychedeiics. Herman Joseph. Unlike the doctors studying the drugs. Some users have recommended them enthusiastically. 1 980). I 923—1 965 by David Courtwright. this term carries the suggestion that the drug state is abnormal and unhealthy. they were called psychutomimetics. a word coined from Greek roots meaning '1rnind manifesting. the medical profession was using the term hallucinogens for the same compounds. Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. A newer book that suggests how society might reduce the destructiveness of heroin abuse by legalizing the drug tor medical purposes and allowing doctors to take control Of it is The Heroin Solution by Arnold S. claiming they are keys to understanding our minds and the origins of religious feelings. or Hallucinogens ridge and Griffith Edwards (New Haven. As this group of devotees grew in number. Trebach (New Haven: Yale University A Press. His analysis of the heroin problem is reasoned." The implication is that psychedelic drugs can develop unused potentials of the human mind. Trebach is a law professor and expert on drugs. 1977). Martin's Press. (Psychiatrists now recognize that psychosis and the states induced by these drugs are very different. PDF compression. 1989). a West German film based on the real case of a teen-age prostitute and heroin addict. Connecticut: Yale University Press. So heated is the debate over whether these drugs are good or evil that it's hard even to find a neutral name for them. 1970) is an autobiographical novel about two English aristocrats addicted to heroin and cocaine.

a chemical in ergot. union with God. and some people take them frequently all their lives without suffcring physical damage or dependence In the right hands they can bring about dramatic cures of both physical and mental illnesscs. psychedelic is a plant called iboga. he was interested in developing medical drugs from compounds in ergot. In the l960c. called indole. a sensation of butterflies in the stomach. The various psychedelics differ mainly in their duration of action and how fast their effects come on. Even in huge overdose. particularly to the primitive religion called shamanism. In purel\ medical terms. and feelings of cold in the extremitics. instead. black-market LSD began to appear. Indole Hallucinogens LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. leaving long-lasting psychological scars. black spurs of fungus replace the grains and contam a number of drugs. . Most hallucinogenic plants taste bitter and cause nausea!. and religion. first made it in a laboratory in 1938 from lysergic acid. psvchedelics do not kill. LSD remained mostly in the hands of researchers. and they use the visions to locate missing persons or lost objects and to diagnose illness. At flrst. specially trained individuals called shamans attempt to contr& the forces of good and evil within the tribal community by cornmunicating between the human world and the spirit world. including lysergic acid.s.ti 94 The substances in this class probably have thc lowest potential for abuse of any psychoactive drugs. and a PDF compression. OCR.. because all oi the hallucipharnticological actions. It is a semisynthetic drug. At the time. All nogenic drugs have SoniC of them are strong stimulants. or other unpleasant physical symptoms at the onset of their effects. contain a molecular structure known as the indole ring and are related to hormones made in the brain by the pincal gland. But many people who tried the drug found it so interesting that they publicized its effects and began taking it on their own. By contrast. The hard. often by consuming hallucinogenic plants. they closely resemble molecules of adrenaline and the amphc tam I nes. when the psychedelic movement started in Europe and America.000 micrograms. (Sandoz. For the most part.) An LSD trip lasts ten to twelve hours. Among these people. people who took IJSD in the early days had positive trips. rnysticil OflCFICSS with a! I things. Yet these same drugs can cause the most frightening experiences imaginable. Very few natural psychedelics are native to the Old World and there is little traditional use of them there. visions and other sensory changes seem to come from taking these plants in particular ways. Ergot growing on rye. To contact the spirit world. The drugs in the second family lack the indole ring. medicine. producing its effects in doses as small as 25 micrograms. (A microgram is one millionth of a gram.. In 1943 Hofmann accidentally consumed some LSD and so discovered its psychoactivitv. the fungus that attacks cereal grains. and there are 28 grains in an ounce. A Swiss chemist. with heaviest use occurring among Indians of Mexico and Colomhia.. the use of hallucinogens is tied to native practices of magic. most of the LSD in circulathin was pure pharmaceutical material from the Swiss laboratory that originally made it. And they all stimulate the syrnpathetic nervous system. the Swiss pharmaceutical company he worked for supplied LSD as a research drug to doctors and hospitals throughout the world. Throughout the I 950s. Primitive peopic discovered hallucinogenic plants and began using them long before recorded history Though many such plants exist. In certain tribes. probably the one that has been tried by the most people. Easel. for instance. on where and how. In shamanism. Indians who believe in thc importance of visions and who eat hallucinogenic plants at night in front of fires while chanting and praying under the direction of skilled shamans are much more likely to have visions than non-Indians who eat the same plants for purely recreational purposes. shamans put themselves in altered statcs of consciousness. The first. LSD is one of the most potent drugs known. Shamans (or medicine men) also take psychedelics to see visions. causing increised brain activity and wakcfulncss. especially psychiatrists. fhey talked about expericncing powerful feelings of love. An average postage stamp weighs about 60. especially rye. whose root is made into a drink consumed in religious rituals by a few tribes of west Africa. In fact. Beginning in the late I 940s. Then they induce unusual states of consciousness and fantastic visions seen with the eyes closed. not found in nature. the mental effects of psychedelics are completely dcpendent on set and setting on who takes them and why. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The main Old World 95 Physical effects are nmre cunstant. LSD-25) LSD is the most famous of the psychedelics. However. vomiting. and are by no means invariable occurrences. usually causing widely dilated eyes. many peopic consume the plants at the same time in group vision-seeking rituals. the precursor of LSD. hundreds of tribes of New World Indians use dozens of different hallucinogenic plants in tropical areas of North and South America. Acid. the safest of all known drugs. Ltd. most are concentrated in North and South America. They often treat illness by administering psychedelics to sick people. Albert Hofmann. These substances fall into two broad chemical families.

OCR. Trudeau. Such descriptions made other people. and a few had lasting psychological problems. Street LSD comes in a bewildering array of forms. bad trips were rare. but because people had learned how to use it intelligently. They almost always did return. G. Bad trips are more likely to occur when people take LSD in !'harmateutical 1StJ-25. but some of them renmined depressed and anxious for days afterward. objects shimmer with energy. not because fewer people were taking the drug. bad trips were common. and mosiic patterns appear on all surfaces. such as seeing flowers breathe.From Chocviate to Morphine 96 deeper understanding of thcmselvcs. it was apparent that not everyone who takes LSD has a good time. Some people kid bad trips: they became anxious and panicky. From the very first. the media seized on them and madc it seem as if LSD were a new drug menace that threatened to turn teen-agers into lunatics. however. with friends who knew what to expect. afraid they were losing their minds and would be unable to return to ordinary reality. Even though these cases were exceptiona]. when the drug wore off twelve hours later. By the I 970s. B. and since not many people were familiar with the effects of LSD. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . especially young people. When people are panicked they often behave in violent and irrational ways. eager to try tim drug fur themselves. Throughout the l960s blackmarket LSD was unreliable. In the 1960s some bad trips on LS[) may have led to accidents and suicides. All rights reserved) inappropriate settings. from small by Garry Trudeau 000NESBURY PDF compression. They took rcasonahTe doses in good settings (such as a familiar room or a peaceful field in the country). sonietirnes contaminated with other drugs. especially if they have never taken it fore and if they take high doses. (Jcrcmy J3igwood) (Copyright 'I 1977. Some described vivid sensory changes. Reprinted with permission of Press Syndicatc.

producing too much discomfort relative to effects they like. or lysergic acid amide. taking them only when they can't get the hallucinogenic mushrooms they prefer. The seeds. they. Wedding Bells (pink). found in thc seeds of certain morning-glories. must he cracked or ground up to release the drug. For these reasons they are not popular. too. which have hard. a creeping plant that covers many Hawaiian beaches and whose flowers are often dried and sold by florists. (R. Despite loud arguments and much bad publicity about the medical dangers of LSIJ in the 1970s. Devotees of psychedelics say that morning-glory seeds are dclinitely second-rate. indigestible coats. Morning-Glory Seeds The closest substance to LSD that occurs in nature is a chemical called ergine. injures the brain. Not all thc varieties of morning-glories available from seed companies are psych(iactive. it takes a great many to produce a noticeahic psychedelic effect. Pearly Gates (white). Pregnant WOrflCfl should not take it. and Flying Saucers (blue with white stripes). or a whole cupful. PDF compression. or causes any other physical harm. A dozen of the large. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . or Hallucinogt'ns tablets of all colors and tiny transparent gelatin chips ("windowOf paper snaked in solutions of the drug or pane") tO stamped with ink designs containing it. hard seeds will produce a strong intoxication. Another problem is that commercial morning-glory seeds arc now dipped in poisons to discourage peoplc from eating sometimes without any caution to the buyer. Also. vomiting. even the Mexican Indians who use niorning-glory seeds regard them as a back-up psychedelic. The windowpane and papcr forms are likely to be the purest. they are mildly toxic. One species of morning-glory that is stronger than others is the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. but. frequently make people feel sick. C. S M )rning-glory. since they are too small to contain contaminants. and other uncomfortable side dfects.91 . even up to several hundred. the best known arc Heavenly Blue (with large blue flowers). LSD causus contractions of the utcrus. there is no evide nce that it damages chromosomes. frequently causing nausea. Because the concentration of LSD-like activity in the seeds of these plants is low. Indians in southern Mexico were eating morning-glory sceds for ritual purposes before the Spanish arrived. Wasson) tLike other ergut dcrivativcs. OCR. Of those that are. and SOme still use them today.

Photograph by John Lupo) Mushrooms (Magic Mushrooms. and chemists found that their psychoactive properties came from psilocybin. used in ceremonies so sacred that Indians carefully concealed them from Europeans until thc present century.From Chocolate to Morphine 98 Hawaiian Raby Woodrosc (a species of morning-glory Argyreia nervosa). 1881. Courtesy of Dr. (From Familicir Indian Flowers by Lena Lowis. Psilocybin) Mushrooms are the most important natural of southern Mexico. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Otto Solbrig. It until the 1 950s that descriptions of Mexican mushrooms came to tilL attention of thc world. Gray Herbarium. an indole hallucinogen similar to LSD hut with a shorter duration of action: four tO SiX hours. Harvard University. London. botanists began to identify the mushrooms in use. PDF compression. OCR. Soon after.

web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . For some years. and are held for purposcs of treating illness. As natural substances with a reputation for producing interesting experiences and fewer bad trips than LSD. They take p'ace at night. Three more mush- rooms grow in front of him. OCR. in Central lii this drawing from an A:e tee manuscript of the sixa tccnth century. foreseeing the future in visions. called in I'silocybe cubenSiS. some of this material eventually found its way to the street. by candlelight. Since the late 1 970s this situation has changed. and today are curious blends of shamanism and Roman Catholic ritual. a man a god stands behind him. mostly from Europe and North America. One of the principal species. traveled there to take magic mushrooms in remote Indian villages. In the first place. magic mushrooms have been in great demand on thc black market.99 V Psycheclelics or flullucinogens . and putting people in contact with the supernatural world. scientists believed that mushrooms containing psilocybin grcw only in southern Mexico. supplying it to researchers. It occurs in Southeast Asia. and during the late 1960s and early 1970s thousands oi people. is a large mushroom that grows in cow pass tures in warm climates. several Swiss pharmaceutical companies manufactured pure psilocybin. For a time. As with LSD. but underground chemists never manufactured it because thu synthesis is too costly. solve ing problems. psilocyhin mushrooms have been found in great numbers parts of the world. Mexican mushroom ceremonies are conducted by shamans. For a long timc they were unavailable. usually women. though unscnipulous dealers often sold ordinary supermarket mushrooms laced with LSD and other drugs at high prices to unsuspecting customers. of the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana) PDF compression.

and in utiny southeastern states. in recent years. It is important. collecting wild mushrooms of any sort rcquires knowledge and practice. Needless to say. In certain areas. to get advice on potency and dosages before eating mushrooms in order to avoid unpleasant effects from too high doses. Real. unadultcrated mushrooms are flOW ohtamable on the black market. all along thc Gulf Coast of the United States. many people have mastered the technique. kits that include spores of the mushrooms have been widely sold through the mail and in stores. Both wild and cultivated mushrooms vary greatly in potency. therefore. Psilocyhin mushrooms can also be cultivated. OCR. thousands of people have produced and distributed magic mushrooms. Taking advantage of this loophole In the law. the mushrooms are SO abundant that collectors can easily gather enough for sale as well as for their own use. Some grow in Europe as well. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Although growing mushrooms from spores is much harder than growing green plants from seeds. PDF compression. (Jeremy Bigwood) /'si](lcybe and South America. they weren't illegal. because some mushrooms are very No UflC should attempt to pick magic mushrooms without knowing how to recognize tlwm. Since the spores didn't contain psilocyhin. P'd/ocybe cubensi1\ is the easiest variety to grow. More than a dozen species of psychoactive mushrooms grow in fields and woods of the Pacific Northwest.Froni ChOCOThte to Morphine 100 growing in cultivation on grain. (inc mediumesized mushroom of a potent strain may give the same effect as twenty of a mild strain.

$ f • • . .t I •1 1' II. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . * —S '..bi • .t *1 a . St I $• . M#.$ 4! .tdni i I I I. It is a compound easily made in laboratories. •Th ) Ibogaine Ibogainc is the active principle of the African hallucinogenic plant iboga. ibogaine has been in the news as a possible new treatment for opiate addiction. scientists began to study this exotic drug in animals. Recently. H ! •j —i. i .•• I. IfIq abet : .!. the bright-red fly agaric (mushroom) with white dots on the cap. I•. t j. PDF compression. •. mushrooms are generally easier to take than the other hallucinogenic plants. It is a simple chemical closely resembling certain hormones made in the brain.. an enzyme in the stomach breaks it down before it can enter the bloodstream. After several heroin addicts discovered that a single ibogaine session eliminated their cravings for narcotics.I• •! ' 4. Onc rcason people prefer mushrooms to other psychedelics is their ease of consumption. the pure drug can be made synthetically and sometimes appears (in the black market. Africans who drink iboga in all-night ceremonies that include vigorous dancing may stay up the next day and night until the stimulation wears off. hut much more research is needed hetore ihogaine becomes an accepted treatment for addiction.u I i4114 10th I Iuiunirad book S . DMT may be our own endogenous psychedelic. .e . and some are mildly toxic until they are cooked. 1912 19K4 (Copyright © 1982 Homcstcad Book Company) DMT is the drug responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of several plants used by South American Indians. Indians who use DMT-containing 'Amurtita rnuccaria. It is discusscd in Chapter 10. Psychedelic nmshrooms may taste better and are less likely to causc discomfort if they are dried or lightly cooked before being eaten.t .• • 44 •!'' u •1!! •. I:Js. . It is a long-acting psychedelic resembling LSD in effect. II j%-½ I • I 44$ 4. Early reports suggest that it may work. Another is that the effects are shorter. .. and therefore are less demanding on the body. Still. along with other deliriant drugs..¾s. DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) and 5-MeODMT me) . usually ending after six hours. 9 aid c.. DMT is peculiar among the psychedelics in that it cannot be taken by mouth. but it is an even stronger stimulant. I' s fl I Mr ..t mini I I. • 4 i.. 101 Psychedelics. II. People usually feel sluggish the day after taking LSD or other long-acting psychedelics. Eventually they fall into a deep sleep.I ' •J . ! Ip.rI. OCR. in the I 960s synthetic DMT was sold in quantity on the black market. ntrui : . rrhough the iboga root is almost unknown outside Africa. is not a trw hallucinogen. or Hallucinogens Many wild mushrooms are hard to digcst raw. and it is likely that the brain also produces DMT itself. This is less common with mushrooms.

Fr ! Ibogaine Ibogaine is the active principle of the African hallucinogenic plant ihoga. s • . -. Ut - : - 1' trtJ4. along with other deliriant drugs.J . DMT is peculiar among the psychedelics in that it cannot be taken by nmuth..l . Recently. the pure drug can be made synthetically and sometimes appears ons the black market. Still. but it is an even stronger stimulant. •. This is less common with mushrooms. •. * ' II ' . or Hallucinogen Many wild mushrooms are hard to digest raw. Psychcdclic mushrooms may taste better and are less likely to cause discomfort if they arc dried or lightly cooked before being eaten. scientists began to study this exotic drug in animals. .. Early reports suggest that it may work. and therefore are less demanding on the body. Though the iboga root is almost unknown outside Africa. People usually fed sluggish the day after taking LSD or other long-acting psychedelics. It is a long-acting psychedelic resembling LSD in effect. in the 1960s synthetic DMT was sold in quantity on the black market. After several heroin addicts discovered that a single ibogainc session eliminated their cravings for narcotics. usually ending after six hours. cs eMvi . an enzyme in the stomach breaks it down before it can enter the bloodstream. t• F . F ! - S . Africans who drink ihoga in all-night ceremonies that include vigorous dancing may stay up the next day and night until the stimulation wears off. ! liss UFF. Another is that the effects are shorter.4 4. mushrooms are generally casier to take than the other hallucinogenic plants.F ii+iS ! 1fr L - •'. F 1-1111 F I !! . •• I 1. It is discussed in Chaptcr 10. Eventually they fall into a deep sleep. and it is likely that the brain also produces DMT itself. Indians who use I)MT-containing Amunita TIIUSCLIThJ. Meidis *'ITIq ' is ¾ ii: IA. OCR. the bright-rcd fly agaric (mushroom) with whitu Juts on the cap. rj11. . ibogaine has been in the news as a possible new treatment for opiate addiction. and some are mildly toxic until they arc cooked. DMT may be our own endogenous psychedelic. • . I.j ! ! 1. F .!' •.I. DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) and 5-MeO-DMT PDF compression.. It is a simple chemical closely resembling certain hormones made in the brain... FL. It is a compound easily made in laboratories. is not a true hallucinogcn.I01 Psychede/ics.!# s777 hi • !td+FP% ! F I I I I a I I •••! (Copyright 1982 Homestead Book Couipany) (5-Methoxydi methyltryptamine) DMT is the drug responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of several plants uscd by South American Indians. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .. but much more research is needed before ibogaine beconics an accepted treatment for addiction.. One reaa son people prefer mushrooms to other psychedelics is their ease of consumption.

yop() causes a very intense rntoxication beginning within seconds hut lasting only thirty minutes or less. While under its influence.tO tcflefl1inute trip of remarkable intensity. (R. OCR. blackemarket chemical either smoke it or. 4 •t*K. a single inhalation of such a joint will be sufficient to initiate a five. or oregano in order to smoke it. It is made from the resin of a huge jungle tree. inject it intramuscularly. sing.. mint. A typical DMT snuff of South is yopo. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .From C'hoccilaie to Morphine 102 plants often prepare them as powdered snuffs. Schultes) . less frequently. ! . Sometimes. Black-market DMT is usually a brown solid that smells like users place tiny bits of it in the ends of joints made with marijuana. Taken in this way. dried. Users of the isolated.t ' . used by tribes of the Amazonian forests. E. The effect may begin before a person can remove the joint from his lips and South American Indians using a DMT-containing snuff. and sec visions of gods and spirits. Indians dance. cookcd down. and pounded into a fine powder which the men blow forcefully into each other's noses through long tubes. ! • a a •K A a S PDF compression.

These can be milked without harming the toad. smoking destroys most of the toxic constituents. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . PDF compression. they cannot easily be integrated into daily life in the way that highs of alcohol. and cocaine can be. introduced directly into the bloodstream by smoking or injection. this experience can be quite frightening to someone unprepared for it. After fifteen minutes. the smoker experiences complete dissolution of real- ity. Fans of DMT say it gives an ultimate psychedelic rush. and. Licking toads is dangerous. Short-acting drugs. Apparently. That addiction to DMT and 5-MeO-1)MT is unknown is due in part to the rapid development of tolerance to their interesting effects. but it can cause serious poisoning if it gets in the eyes or mouth. tend sudden. a huge toad found in southern Arizona. The dramatic effects of these two tryptamines are good cxamples of the correlation between route of administration. it has far fewer fans than its chemical cousin. When smoked regularly. The reason is that 5-MeO-DMT is often morc frightening than delightful. Users say the experience is gentler than smoking the synthetic drug. Some users describe this trip as "a rocket ship into the void. but although synthetic 5-MeO1)MT has been readily available in North America. and after thirty minutes users again feel normal. the strong effects subside. and the venom can be dried and smoked. dramatic changes in consciousness. a new natural source of this drug has recently creatcd interest among psychedelic explorers. Because of its short tiolTi of action. The Sonoran I )cscrt toad. Nonetheless. as nütcd in the section on narcotics. Another reason is the "high impact" of these experiences. to give "rushes" Some people arc especially fascinated by drug rushes. or Hallucinogens usually reaches its peak within the first minute. It gives an equally powerful rush whcn smoked. Articles in tabloid newspapers have sensationalized this story. and intensity of effect. DMT is known as the businessman's trip. the pursuit of a rush can be the basis of addictive use." These two tryptarnines usually occur together the plant sources of South American snuffs. needless to say. OCR. A close chemical relative of DMT is 5eMeOaDMT. reporting inaccurately that pcoplc arc licking toads to get high. while sparing the5-McO-DMT. due ration of action.I 03 Psvchedelics. produces large amounts of 5-McO-DMT in its venom glands. Some users lose all awareness of their surroundings. Only the Sonoran Desert toad's venom is psychoactive (other species are purely toxic). marijuana. being overwhelmed by visual hallucinations. they soon become ineffective. but instead of visual hallucinations.

it lasts from six to ten hours. then cook them in water for several hours. you do not get the results you want.From Chocolate to Morphine 104 Yagé growing in the jungle in Colombia. They use thc drink in all-night vision-seeking rituals with shamans or in large tribal ceremonies. YagO first causes intense vomiting and diarrhea. The body develops rapid tolerance to them. and most users save them for special occasions. especially PDF compression. Caapi) Yagé (pronounced yab-HAY) is a strong psychedelic drink made from a woody vine of the Amazon forests. E. and then a more relaxed and dreamy state than that produced by! LSD. sometimes adding other plants to heighten the effect. a drug rarely seen on the black market. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The woody vine is the source of a psychedelic drink. Schultes) All of the psychedclics share these characteristics. (R. OCR. Indians pound up lengths of the vine with stones. SO that if you try to take them often. Even peopic who really like these drugs don't take them every day. Yagé (Ayahuasca. such as coming-of-age rites for adolescent boys. Indians say the spirit of the vine enters their bodies and makes them see visions of jungles and jungle animals. The plant owes most of its activity to harmine.

1 819—1 914). How did Indians discover this remarkable combination of plants? Anthropologists and botanists say they did so by trial and error. When the Spanish conquered Mexico. In the late I 800s the use of peyote spread northward to Indians in the United States. the plant most commonly added to yagé in making the drink is a leaf containing DMT. Typi- tally. calling it sinful and diabolic. As it moved north. These came and went now here. therefore. it is native to the Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas and northPeyote is a central Mexico. the drug is supposed to enable them to see the future and commun icate telepathically over great distances. the Roman Catholic Church tried to stamp out peyote use. The drugs in this second family of psychedelics may also he felt quickly. peyote became even more popular. I saw the stars. The tops of the cactus. Also. In a minute this was over and the field was dark. but to iio avail.105 4 I'svchedelics. Indians say the additioii makes for better and brighter When scientists first learned of this practice. arid in this form it is a longer acting. cut off at ground level. Further research has now shown that harmine inactivates the enzyme that dee DMT. as with other psychedelics. dry into peyote "buttons" that retain their potency for a long time. here and there delicate floating fi'ms of colour usually delightful neutral purples and pinks. of a sudden. now there. Combined with yagë. Given the number of plants in the Amazonian jungles. then eating it in elaborate ceremonies. hut their onset is more gradual. Some Indians in Mexico have used peyote since before recorded history. Weir Mitchell 1. hairy tufts. Some users find them less "electric" than LSI) and its relatives. Then an abrupt rush of countless points of white light swept across the field of view. spineless cactus with white. an American a physician and rlo\tllst who drank an extract of peyote in I 896 Peyote and Mescaline small. that would mean a great deal of trial and error. Then I began to see zigzag lines of very bright colours Irvin an essay by Dr. who invented new rituals around it. they dismissed it as useless on the grounds that DMT is destroyed in the stomach. Seeing visions on yagé. My first vivid show of mescal colour effects came quickly. Hallucinogens Related to Adrenaline and Amphetamines Indole hallucinogens make people feel high very rapidly. less intense stroys drug that doesn't produce a rush. or Hallucinogens jaguars. as if the unseen millions of the Milky Way were to flow a sparkling river before the eye. DMT becomes orally active. Indians of the midwest- PDF compression. making long pilgrimages to the desert to collect it. Curiously enough. OCR. S. and then. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . reaching a peak after several hours. depends very much on and setting. although in high doses the adrenaline relatives are more toxic than the indoles. The Indians themselves say they were inspired by visions that the spirit of yagë showed them the other leaves and the method of cooking the two together. their effects begin in twenty to forty minutes and reach a peak within the first hour or two.

and PCP." with vials of mescaline sulfatc. axed helpless victims to death. cocaine. heroin. while Indian women under its influence supposedly ripped off their clothes in sexual frenzies. em nurijuana. Rarely have they had any basis in fact. Indians crazy and Upon eating the cactus. Churches and government agencies charged that peyote made stories circulated of Indian men who. PDF compression.From Chocolate to Morphine 106 I F A typical dose of dried peyote "buttons. The similarity of the early peyote stories to those told about other psychoactive drugs is striking. the explosion of this psychedelic movement among Indians generated intense opposition by non-Indians.) The very same charges have been made about LSD. newspapers would doubtless have rca ported peyote-crazed Indians jumping out of them. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . (Jeremy Rigwood) plains organized a new religion based on it and helped spread its use all the way to Canada. Not surprisingly. Mescaline. the primary hallucinogenic agent in peyote. thinking they could fly. was First isolated around the turn of the century. (If there were high-rise tipis. OCR.

I 4 107 Psychedelics. vomiting. this situation could change. the discomfort usually passes. especially in religious ceremonies. and the hairs are just cellulose. probably indigestible but certainly not poisonous. Indians organized formal churches and fought in courts for their right to cat the cactus. the British writer and philosopher. The meetings take place around a fire. or Hallucinogens In response to official efforts to suppress the use of peyote. and include a great deal of singing. A typical dose of peyote is six to twelve buttons. experimented extensively with mescaline in the 1950s. and some non-Indians even take the tea as an enema in order to avoid the bad taste and effects on the stomach. all coordinated by a leader. In fact. as well as curcs of alcoholism. Aldous Huxley (1S94—1963). Indians have used peyote legally in Native American Church ceremonies. and psychologists experimented with it on themscives. It is the only naturally occurring psychedelic in this family of adrenaline- related drugs. Eventually. After an hour or two of sickand it commonly ness. OCR. Peyote has a nauseating. an addiction notos riously resistant to treatment by conventional means. Sometimes the ritual includes elements of Christian worship. The Native American Church began in this way. often in tipis. People who try it for the first time often find it hard to swallow. bitter taste that is not soon forgotten. Throughout the twentieth century. (Courtesy of Laura Huxley) A persistent myth in the drug subculture is that the white hairs in the centers of peyote buttons contain strychnine. better able to deal with their problems. although most states have prohibited non-Indians from participating. However. or "road man!' Peyote is eaten throughout the night. philosophers. and praying. there is no strychnine in peyote (or any other hallucinogenic plant). a 1990 Supreme Court dccision regarding the Church declared that guarantees of religious freedom did not extend to the use of illegal drugs. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . a few artists. last all night. Chief among these is mescaline. Some users boil them in water to make a tea. Church members tell many stories of cures of illness resulting from peyote meetings. Mescaline was isolated from peyote in the late lS9Os. Peyote is hitter arid causes nausea because it has a lot of drugs in it more than forty separate compounds. chanting. nausea and vomiting do nut occur. and participants ask the spirit of the cactus to help make them better people. Native American Church "meetings" begin after dark. hut there was no general demand for it until the psyche- PDF compression. which is supposed to account for the sickness. it won its court battles and now boasts hundreds of thousands of members throughout North America. Indians say that with repeatcd use. which accounts for much of the hallucinogenic effect.

MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It became illegal when government sci- STP (DOM) STP is a synthetic drug closely resembling mescaline in its chernical structure. People often feel sluggish and drained of energy the day after taking MDA. it is gentler on the body. Then black-riiarkct niescal Inc began tü appear." features synthesized music and light shows. The problem was overdose. In the late 1960s. A few cases of dependence on MDMA have been reported. Thu acid house phenomenon has been growing in Europe (particularly in thu Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and in American cities. and better at physical activities. There is no truth to these stories. Because of its shorter entists suggested that it caused permanent damage to certain nerve cells in the brain. both compounds may enhance the pleasure of touching.. chemically related to amphetamine. Although it is a strong stimulant. In doses of 100 to I 50 milligrams. it produces a feeling of physical and mental wellbeing. This episode left STP with such a bad reputation that few people seek it out. MDMA rarely causes had trips. Ecstasy) A newer drug. since tile drug commands a higher price than LSI). and Adam). euphoric potential. MDM. herpes outbreaks. intensifying their action and potential for harm. MDA (Methylenedioxyamphetamine) Chemical variations of the amphetamine molecule have resulted in a number of synthetic psychedelics in this family. and high doses can cause unpleasant muscular tension. hut they also derend on dose PDF compression. and tendency to affect visual perception. and so forth. and strange stories circulate about it. Designer Psychedelics A number of other synthetic drugs exist in this series. Some enthusiasts have sworn off the drug entirely because they feel so run down after using it and find themselves more susceptible to colds. H) AIOTPIIUJt' 108 109 - or H - - dclic revolution of the 1 960s. writers often refer to them as "designer psychedelics. especially in the face and jaw. Taken by mouth in reasonable doses 25 milligrams) and in good settings. It has gained a strong reputation as an enhancer of empathy between people and an aid to psychotherapy and counseling. some tablets contained twenty times the recommended amount. MDMA remains one of the most popular illegal drugs in Europe and America. The most common complaint about it from longtime users is that sensitivity to dayafter fatigue seems to increase as people get older. Research has failed to support this idea. Real mescaline cnmes as long. first made in Germany in 1910 but not discovered to be psychoactive until much later. OCR." Most are pharmacological curiosities. The pure drug may cause initial nausea. It produces a twelveehour intoxication with strong stimulation and may be less euphoric than mescaline. but they interfere with erection in men and with orgasm in both men and women. HOWe\TCI. PMA. In the drug subculture. Some users say it makes them more coordinated. MDMA (usually called Ecstasy but also known as XTC. In other circles it has gained an equally strong reputation as a party drug. though not as frequently as peyote. peoe plc who take it say it calms them and promotes relaxation. They differ from other drugs in this section and from each other in duration of action. 2CB. Some people snort them or inject them intravenously. many sold LSD as niescaline. MDA is the oldest and best known. more energetic. with less day-after fatigue. dancing. Its effects last up to twelve hours and generally reseme bic those of the whole cactus. Most bad trips &re related to set and setting. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . MDMA has also been very popular in the gay community and in gay bars. 2CT2. TMA. it rarely changes visual perceptions. being used especially in dance clubs that feature "acid house" music and wild ( 1 custom-made by psychedelic chemists. and some physicians and psychotherapists are still trying to convince the government that it should be made S available for both research and treatment. called "rave. rarely seen on the street. needlelike white crystals. As sexual drugs.lilt. Since they are duration of action. they resemble cases of amphetamine dependence. Unlike mescaline. with names like MMDA. hut the drug remains illegal. One is that it causes the spinal cord to liquefy. A newer version. MDA is known as the "love drug" because it's supposed to inspire loving feelings in groups of people. Benefits and Risks of Psychedelic Drugs Bad trips are the greatcst danger of hallucinogenic drugs. it was blamed for an epidemic of bad trips lasting many hours. half a gram is the usual dose. Combining these drugs with alcohol or other depressants also increases the possibility of adverse effects. gives the same general effect but lasts four to six hours instead of ten to twelve. but both MDA and MDMA can cause bad reactions at high doses. and other infections. For a number of years after its introduction MDMA was an uncontrolled substance.

and with street drugs it's not easy to determine how much is enough. Do not combine psychedelics with other drugs. Take psychedelics only in comfortable settings üfl occasions when you have no responsibilities for at least the next twelve hours. Taking psychedehcs just because they are available is less likely to produce valuable results. they may make you superdepressed. especially LSD. and capsules are suspect. PDF compression. Suggestions and Precautions for the Use of Hallucinogenic Drugs Know your sources. from his book Flesh of the Gods ( 1972) Even good psychedelics can cause unpleasant effects if you take too much of them. Do not take psychedelics on a full you are less likely to feel nausea or other discomfort if your stomach is relatively empty. . operate machinery. if you are going to 3. I I' 11 The best experiences with these drugs result from saving them for special occasions and the right circumstances.. and soon the flashbacks themselves fade away. only mushrooms and peyote huttons are likely to he genuine. 5. All powders. take these drugs you must be extremely careful about when. 1. Peter Furst. Other stimulants allow people to perform ordinary activities. They act as intensifiers of experience. pills. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .I ' IV -- . only your own psyche. they may intensify that discomfort to an unbearable degree. Taking them frequently and carelessly reduces their potential to show you interesting aspects of yourself and the world around you. but it is not appropriate to take psychedelics and expect to go about your business. Actually many people who have never taken drugs also have flashbacks or experiences very much. Do not attempt to pick wild psilocybin mushrooms without knowing what you are doing. it may be appropriate to take a hypnotic dose of a sleeping pill or minor tranquilizer. However. 6. The benefits people have claimed from using psychedelics range from cures of mental and physical problems to increased appreciation of the beauty of nature to better understanding of themselves to just having good times. See the Suggested Reading at the end of this chapter.l). Therefore. after all. Psychedelics do not necessarily produce any particular mood or state of mind. Suggested Reading Probably because they are so colorful and controversial. 4. The "Otherworid" from which you seek illumination is. They demand that you set time aside from ordinary routines. They are more likely to cause bad reactions by other routes of administration. they may deepen your friendship. later become worried about flashbacks brief recurrences of psychedelic symptoms that nuy include visual changes and "spacy" feelings. Do not drive. If you take them when you are depressed. 1 1 Take psychedelics by mouth. psyche- delics are the subject of more books than most of the other categories of drugs. Cultivated psilocybin mushrooms vary greatly in Get advice about dose before eating any. You get out of the drug experience only what you put into it.\iu!j)1JilIt - 110 111 ()f the drug. OCR. As people worry less about their symptoms. like them. If you take them with someone you feel uncomfortable with. Many fake and adulterated versions of psychedelics are sold on the street. There is an extensive literature on the value of using these substances occasionally and intelligently. Some medical doctors and psychologists have been able to cure patients of serious emotional disorders by means of psychedelic therapy. and unable to sleep at the end of an experience with one of these drugs. which makes it seem that these are normal events in the nervous system. Since lcgal sources of pure do not exist. they cannot easily be combined with everyday activity. or engage in hazardous activities while under their influence. If you feel agitated. Possibly. Because hallucinogens are strong stimulants that make people feel very different from normal. Taking them to get yourself out of bad moods may intensify those moods. Do not take psychedelics unless you arc in good physical and psychologi cal shape. and with whom you take them. If you take them when you are elated. If you are trying one of the hallucinogenic drugs for the first time. their abuse potential is low just because they make this demand. Remember that you may feel tired and drained of energy the following day 8. If you take them with a friend you feel totally comfortable with.!'. they may make you superelated. 7. restless. Many of the hooks are good. where. Some people who take psychedelics. The best treatment for flashbacks is reassurance that nothing is seriously wrong. Remember that hallucinogenic drugs can affect perception and thinking. 2. 9. users are faced with the problcm of not knowing what they are buying. the interesting effects of psychedelics sometimes wear off while their stinmiation continues. they pay less attention to them. 10. Anxiety about these experiences is more the problem than the flashbacks themselves. anthropologist. take it with an experienced companion.

is au inexpensive and excellent listing of all the world's psychedelic plants. Schultes has also written P/ants of the Gods: Origins of Hallucinogenic Use (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1970). (q Plains: A Richard Evans SchultLs's Gtücle (New Ycirk: Golden Press. Smith. A more comprehensive and scholarly work is Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered by Lcstcr Grinspoon and James B. 1979). 1976. Los Angeles: P.. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor I . California: Wingbow Press. Stewart's I'evote Religion: A Jlisturv (Norman. 1987) is a fascinating account of the place of LSD in American culture. 1992) is an entertaining and articulate speculation on the influence of psilocybin on human evolution and the value of the psychedelic experience. OCR. which is a fascinating speculation on the possible use of a psychedelic One of the few published works on MDA is Claudio Naranjo's The Healing Journey (New York: Ballantine Books. The best descriptions of thc effects of yagé will be found in F. Anderson's Peyote: The Divine Cac- PDF compression. it contains a complete bibliography and discusses the uses of hallucinogens in psychotherapy1. A good science-fiction novel on PsYchedelics is A Time of Changes by Robert Silverberg (New York: Signet. Aldous Huxley's writings on mescaline and other psychedelics are collected in MokLs)1a: on Psychedelics uric! the Vision- ander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin (Berkeley. 19821 covers the chemical psychcdclics as well as the plants and is filled with history. East' Rider and Midnight Cowboy both have brief hallucinatory scenes. Albert Hofmann reflects Ofl his gift to the world in LSD: Mv Horowitz and Cynthia Palmer York: Stonehill. reedition. he is coauthor of The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysturies (Ncw York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. a much larger and morc beautiful work on the same subject. Olcla- Its t . Gordon Wasson and Carl A. California: Transform Press. 1975). pictures. I hV i. Albert Hofrnann. PIHKAL: A Chemical Love Story by Alex( homa: University of Oklahoma Press. Another useful guide is 1--lallucinogenic Plants of North America by Jonathan Ott (Berkeley. This book includes excerpts from Huxley's most famous work on the subject. 1978). edited by Jonathan Ott and Jeremy Bigwood (Seattle: Madrona. description. and Psilocybe Mushrooms and 'iheirAllies by Paul Stamets (Seattle: Homestead Book Co. Terrence McKenna's Food of the Gods (New York: Bantam. 1980. jt)Sfl is the gripping of a young anthropol ogist 'who lived a South Indian tribe. Bakalar (New York: Basic Books. 1 976). Two books on magic mushrooms are TeorianOcatl: Ilallucinogenic Mushrooms of North America. Ruck. potion in ancient Greek relligious rites. P. For an analysis of the role of peyote in American Indian cultures by an historian svlm studied thc subject for fifty years. With R. 1977). Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream by jay Stevens (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press. the Indians value altered of eonsciousness and usc a OMT snLLff. with illustrations by Elrncr W. In ctillaboration with the discoverer of LSD. ark' Experience (1931—1963). Tarcher. Bruce Lamb's Wizard of the Upper Amazon : The Story of Man tie] COrdova Rios (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. So far the onTv movie to focus on the psychedelic cxpcrience in a positivc way is The Emerald Forest. 1975). see C. The best recent work on peyotc is Edward F. and anecdotes. 1978). edited by! Michael Problem Child (New York: McGraw-Hill. A more distorted picture is presented in A Itered States. it cusses the authohs uses of MDiX and other hallucinogenic drugs in psychotherapy. 1971). 1991) is an unusual autobiographical account by a renowned psychedelic chemist that includes detailed descriptions of many designer psychedelics. Pc ter Stafford 's Psychedelics En cvclopeclia revised cdi tion. translated by Jonathan Ott).. his I 954 essay Tb Doors of Perception (New York: Harper & Row. 1 978).. 1 979).iida t)oiiner 'york: 1)clacortc Iress.J1a(e to MaUTJ)I11fJ1' 112 113 tIlLS [Tucson: tiniveisitv Ut 1\i I) rLthss.

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it spread to other subgroups. finally. reached the United States. Moreover.115 Mahjvana neither a stimulant nor a depressant. it has grown steadily more popular and today is the most widely used of all the illegal drugs. Marijuana smoking began in the United States after World War I. (Timothy P1 ow man) PDF compression. but has some features of both. Over the years. and even when tincture of cannabis was widely used in Western medicine in the iSOOs. Many of its early users were musicians. because it can be used frequently or continually in combination with everyday acAs a psychoactive drug. OCR. but was rarely associated with the white middle class until the 1960s. Since then. cannabis has a much longer history in other parts of the world than it does in Western countries. Introduced by Mexican migrant workers. when it became a prominent symbol of the youth movement on college campuses. it caught on first among black people in southern cities. Europeans and Americans grew the plant exclusively for its fiber for many years. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . few people took it to get high or reported that they felt high when they did take it. the practice traveled north to Mexico and. The knowledge of how to smoke hemp was probably brought to Brazil by black slaves who used the plant in Africa. Marijuana growing on thc United States governments experimental farm at the University of Mississippi. and it is not necessarily mild. but its effects are different from those of the true hallucinogens. the abuse potential of marijuana is considerably higher than that of psychedelics. Many people regard it as a mild psychedelic.

OCR. the doniinant culture still views it as a dangerous drug. It makes the heart beat somewhat faster. often smoking it simply out of habit. because they arc so variable more so than those of other drugs. As with other psychoactive substances. weed. grass. People sometimes have strange illusions. such as seeing a room expand or feeling as though their legs have become enormously long. Bad reactions to marijuana are more likely when high doses of strong material arc taken in had settings. although it can become the basis of a panic reaction in anxious first-time users. In this Ii ighly charged )sphcre. With repeated use. Increased heart rate is easily ignored. the effects of mariluana are hard to describe. It was the drug of deviant subcultures and minority races even hefore it got mixed up with hippies and revolutionaries. causes the mouth and eyes to become dry. likely to lead to heroin. And because pllarnuc(. including pot.From Chocolate to Morph i ize 116 which is known by many slang names. people have to learn to associate changes of consciousness with the physical effects of the drug. Listening to music. nurijuana ing at all. their early experiences with it are often quite lively. and reddens the whites of the eyes. and much of it is not worth reading. but some is inherent in the drug.)logists and niedical doctors are just as caught up in the politics of marijuana as other people. Much marijuana research sets nut to prove preconceived ideas. who may interpret it to mean they are having heart attacks. mostly as a result (if its associations. People who smoke marijuana for the first time often feel noth- Fnmi the very first. it's difficult to get neutral information about the drug. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . When people learn to get high on marijuana. Despite its status as the niost widely used illegal drug today. Of these. especially by inex- PDF compression. however. drawn under the influence of hashish. eating. and making love can become more than usually absorbing. and all sensory experiences become novel and interesting. Only people who wear contact lenses are likely to notice the dryness of the eyes. the physical effects of mari- juana are not spectacular. and dope provoked a great deal of contention. Compared to other drugs. even if they take high doses of strong pot. Sonic of this variation has to do with set and setting. arguinents about marijuana tend to he more political than factual. Very heavy users usually feel little from the drug. Politics aside. Everything may strike them funny. Time seems long and drawn out. worse than alcohol and u)hacco. these remarkable effects tend to fade away. Hugh Ludlow Memorial Library) dryness of the mouth. the most noticeable change is the Charles Baudelaire (I 1S67): a — I by the French poet from 1814. Regular users may find that pot makes them relaxed or more sociable without greatly affecting their perceptions or moods.

'. t'. .4 ISV" -I perienced users. The effects of smoking marijuana usually diminish after an hour and disappear after two or three hours. 1 •4 - 4.117 [Wan luana p HORE' r HAVE Mowt I Pot' GRASS ? I KILl. easily treated with reassurance that everything will he all right as soon as the drug wears oft. Some of the very potent sinsemilla ("without seed") is as potent as hashish and can he disorienting to people who are not used to it. some kinds of pot are more sedative than others.J'4j.4L4:L r C END . Some people.oMN Ii £LLCEYOW! -— I S— THE -. It makes some people depressed and irritable. and others groggy for several hours.. In recent years. 1F- NIAPT A. others use it to help them fall asleep. (From The Further Ac! t tires oft/ic Tab tilt) hi Freak Brothers by Gilbert Shelton.r CAI4 RiAft fl'MJ 'M RE I• 'A lit crwtr': r I41R0W4 1L ASHOTOV ANt' nw '. PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . feel tired or "fuzzy" the next morning. Possibly. Most are simple panic reactions.A P. if they have smoked a lot of pot. Inc. OCR. ANP TAKE H(R I4O'NCY AMP CRIPPISCD LADY mAr '1E ThE AUTTLL OLD 50Mt IORE 6RA5S? VwThH -It Al YEAH! .) ' 1 Sortie users find that marijuana stimulates them and keeps them awake at night.[ ru in. stronger and stronger marijuana has become available. Copyright Rip Off Press.

At its worst. There is no question that young people who lack motivation often snioke a lot of pot and do very little else. Smoking marijuana regularly can. the drug enforcement authorities arc again pressing tor use in uther countries and in the imiior paraquat Ofl marijuana fiCldSr and Florida. paraquat-contaminated Mexican marijuana began rE) find its way to users t hie the coughs of some cigarette smokers. Psychological problems related to regular use of marijuana arc also subjects of controversy. Althnugh public outcry put. but these are ba*'Li on poor research. Opponents of the drug charge that it interferes with memory and intellectual functioning and leads to an amotivational syndrome in which people lose their initiative and wirill to work. downers. heavy marijuana use does not seem to cause other medical problems. causing chronic. actor If resemble dependence on any other psychoactive drug. its persistence in body fat would be cause for concern. and the active pTinciples arc easily cxtractcd in alcohol or fat. and the effect conies on very fast. The effects of these combinations are not predictable. Studies of pop ulations that have smoked cannabis for many years do not reveal obvious illnesses that can be linked to marijuana. They can make people extrcmel\ disoriented and delirious. but THC and marijuana are less toxic than most of the drugs discussed in this book. The risk depends on how much users smoke over how long a ti Inc. significantly irritate the respiratory tract. The exact dangers ot but it certain that it paraquat arc Apparcntly it can cannot be good for VOU. over time. warnings of the medical dangers of cannabis have been well publicized. though not dangerous medically. but it is doubtful that marijuana made them that Heavy pot I started dealing dope 'cause I was the only way I could affor tobuydope. slowcr to conic on. often conducted by passionate foes of the drug. hut sOiflC drug support tor Cdli analyze tor it-. with longel-lasting effects. Perhaps because oral use requires more preparation and produces stronger effects. it would still look hcalthy and could be sold to way. The main problem with oral use is the risk of overdosage. and can probably produce lung and bronchial disease in susceptible individuals. Of course.ed t(i kill cu to spray drug entorccnicn't JUrht 'titles hcgan encouraging in Ihe this helicopters on the illegal marijuana fields ut that imnicdiatclv after it haivested thci i grinvcrs SOOLI I earned it usual. Dependence on marijuana certainly occurs and has become more common as use of the drug has increased. you weren't there. niarijuana tea is not very difective.118 119 Alan rather thati is ti stronger drug. Occasional use is no more of a health problem than the occasional use of alcohol. As for its effects on meniory and intellect. such as alcohol. if they have their way. and it is \rery ditterent from the pattern ot quick elinlination of water-soluble drugs. Much has been made of the fact that tctrahydrocannahinol.. and are often followed by stupor and hangover. Because thc in \\rater. These effects seem to disappear when people cut down on their use of the drug or stop using it altogether. the most active chemical in cannabis resin. it it is contanunated w ith American plants. Thcrc cause serious lung damage over time labs is iiui easy way tO spot paraquat on a sample of pot. Nowido itfor the money. But draniatic withdrawal syndromes don't occur when people asleep a VCrV \laniuana flay be quite tO\IC. stimulants. Although this is true. Although some users like to eat cannabis most prefer to smoke it because less trouble. paiaquat producing states. Because marijuana is not as powerful or as toxic as most of the other drugs. people who eat marijuana are less likely to become dependent on it than people who smoke it. the right dosage is hard to estimate. — Robin WiltizUTls. mariiuana dependence consists of chain smoking. an end to the Mcxic. with reports of everything from brain damage to injury of the immune and reproductive systems. Still. But resin is the crude drug can be added to food. It does not exactly you can remember the '60s. as if suffering from a high fever. Taken by body lit. in mixing alcohol with downers). and those same young people would probably he Whcther they eat it or smoke it. it is not 1t problem in itself. marijuana smoke may contain more tars than tobacco smoke. there is no special pharmacological danger in mixing it (as there is. or THC. The medical safety' of marijuana is great. dry coughs that resern- ing their time in other ways or with other drugs it pot were not availabi e. Since the stomach absorbs the drug unevenly. staving atound for weeks alter the last dose of niarijui iii is siflOkCd. such as he a risk to all usurs who do not grow their ()%%rfl Pot fl( will know will) grew it. accumulates in :ii-i the united States. depending more on the individual than on the drugs. users frequently combine marijuana with other drugs. OCR. In this sprayed. Aside from respiratory irritation. the only question is how bad it may affect other organs well. In poisonous chemical hcrbicidc u'. hut PDF compression. and it easy to take toO much. Overdoses of cannabis are unpleasant. Ii THC were a very toxic drug. — sixteen-year-old boy snioking is more likely to be a symptom of amotivation than a cause of it.iir pn igram. regular users often say that marijuana makes their minds fuzzy and can interfere with memory. Some thnughuul leidsiators have urged that paraquat be users of contanudistinctive odor or colt it that %%rould %%'ith that is inst a su nated material. Further. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . It does not kill people in overdose or produce other symptoms of obvious toxicity. from the moment of getting up in the morning to the time of falling a pattern similar to that of many cigarette smokers. users should be aware that combinations they are not used to may disagree with them and nuy produce unexpectedly strong effects. say. and even psychedelics.

bitt few marijuana users take narcotics. Many junkies also drank alcohol heavily before they discovered hcroin. Unlike alcohol. perhaps by themselves. forty one-yea u-old nun. It took me three years of trying before I really gave up smoking marijuana. alcohol. . It was my main way of relating to other people. sometimes at very young ages. the habit is not easy to break. people liegin smoking pot only in special. they cannot imagine smoking if at other times. such as strong sedation and chronic coughs. marijuana smoke can gradually pervade all their waking hours. This leads heavy uscrs to keep searching for more potent pot SO they can feel StOned again. even though I no longer got pleasant effects from it. Some heavy users are unable to stop smoking even though they longer get useful effects from pot and. while marijuana is a "had" drug and so invites false attributions Possibly.ychoactivc properties of niar IJLUJI1I. even a twenty-four-hour break froni the routine ot snM)knlg ilI day long will allow a hcavy user tO become sensitive again to the p'. it can still he very hard to break and very upsetting to people who find themselves caught up in it. it began to make me groggy and sleepy most of the time and also gave me a cough. however. get effects they actively dislike. In fact. So I made a resolution to quit completely. The reason. It doesn't appear overnight like cigarette addiction. Although dependence on marijuana has fewer physical cornponents than dependence on inure toxic drugs. Many junkies smoked marijuana before they tried opiates. but there is no quality of marijuana that induces its users to become consumers of other substances. in fact. Tolerance to marijuana also occurs. it does not invariably depress PDF compression. or in a matter weeks like heroin addiction. Users may then begin to smoke during the day. sometimes starting in the morning. hut rather builds up over a long time. is that alcohol enjoys general social approval.Fruni CIinc ult! h' to tt4orphin e 120 (knly stop using and craving for the drug is riot nearly as intense as for tobacco. or narctaics. With time. usually social. I never realized how much of a habit I had and how hooked Iwas on it . OCR. At first. In most cases. and unless precautions are taken. of course. tolerance develops. Even the strongest vanetics seeni to lose their power if people smoke them day in and day out. because the drug causes such strong effects. situations. because the distribution networks of these drugs overlap somewhat. In fact. Well. Even in heaviest usage marijuana does not lead to heroin or any other drug. Mariluana dependence can be sneaky in its development. Adaptation to marijuana enables users to learn to perform well under its influence. These unwelcome effects got worse and worse until I realized I would have to stop using pot. all they really need to do is cut hack Ofl their trequcncy of uSC. With increasing use. and also people learn to adapt to being high. it surprised me to find that wasn't so easy. I started getting less and less effect from it that I liked. yet no one argues that alcohol leads to heroin. At that point. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Eventually I became a daily pot smoker. Soon they can perform normal activities while under the influence of marijuana. Iflariiuana users are niore likely than nonusers to try psychedelics and cocaine. There are now sell-help groups modeled on Alcoholics Anonymous for people with unwanted marijuana habits. However.

Most people with MS have repeated attacks and keep losing body function. Yet THC is not the same as whole marijuana and may not be as safe. ski. A friend told me it was relaxing. fly airplanes. hut a if it is smoked the smoke may make them cough. My main problem then. p4irttiiflc rootci PDF compression.t that marijuana can drastically interfere with performance in some circ umstances. several pharmaceutical conlpaflies have come up with synthetic drugs related to THC and have I have multiple sclerosis. federal agencies won't permit doctors to prescribe the natural plant. aside from partial blindness. which involves very toxic drugs that often cause intense stomach upsets.121 a ri ju an a reflexes and rcaction tinies. Finally. Marijuana reduces this pressure. Some users feel that order to bring helps them c(IncclItratc and enables them to work better. Eve. hut it is certainly not a good one. especially tasks they have never done while stoned. and some doctors today feel that it is still a valuable remedy for some ailments. Although many paticnts prefer the effect of marijuana to that of pure THC. I'm convinced that pot has kept me in remission all these years. and I've smoked regularly ever since. For teenagers who drive recklessly to begin with. or give them hard tasks to perform. Many of them get away with it because they are experienced users with practice. Most scientific tests show that marijuana impairs performance of all sorts. Reeentl). and engage in other hazardous activities after smoking. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .n experienced uscrs need routine tasks tink to practice a given task under the influence of marijuana in UP to normal. a serious eye disease in which tluid pressure builds up in the eyeball. If I go without it for a week. Devotees of marijuana like to argue its merits. it can he especially dan ge n u s. the muscle tremors come back. give it in much higher doses than they are used to. It also specific treatment for glaucoma. about four to five times a week. About three years after it was diagnosed I discovered marijuana. — tort-one-ear-old man. People who aren't used to its effects svill hut he able to drive cars welt or do any number of other while stoned. Current federal laws prohibit all uses of marijuana. Many marijuana smokers drive cars. Pot cured it. cannabis was used in medicine in the past. Cannabis may also help asthma patients breathe easier. it relaxes stiff muscles in a condition called spastic paralysis that results from brain injuries and diseases such as multiple sclerosis. scuba Jive. was tenseness and tremors in my muscles. trying to suade others that it is really a beneficial drug. and many states have now legalized marijuana for specific therapeutic uses. Doctors have used them successfully with cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Both THC and marijuana are good treatments for nausea and vomiting. ln fact. It is easy to come Up with such results if you give marijuana to people who are not used to it. Pot and driving may not he as bad a combination for everyone as drinking and driving. This effect was first discovered by teen-aget's with leukemia who happened U) be pot heads. This does not change the fac. but synthetic TI-IC is available for research. causing losses of vision. but cven they have to learn to adapt to its effects. OCR.

Of the same principle applies to getting high from pot. you are likely to find yourself using pot more than you should — to the point where all the interesting and useful effects of the drug disappear anti you are left with a stubborn. they are less effective and more toxic than nuriiuana. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The less frequently you use it. such as hangovers. the ease of integrating marijuana smoking with all activities. further encourages overuse. from parties to sports to watching television. when in fact they should he cutting down to increase their sensitivity.Froni Chocolate to Morphin t' 122 vcrn men ti-manufactured marijuana cigarettes A few patients with glaucoma have been able to obtain them legally for the ti vatnwflt of that eye disease. becoming more and more of a repetitive habit and less and less of a useful way of changing consciousness. from headaches to menstrual cramps. Also. they usc the marijuana to get high and use the high as a way of taking their minds off discomfort. unproductive habit. Rigwood) tried to market them as antinausca remedies. Unless you set rules for when and where you will smoke. The less frequently you smoke marijuana. Probably. favors habitual use. PDF compression. OCR. Sometimes taking your attention away from the symptoms a minor ailment will allow it to subside. the more likely it is to work for you as a medicine. many people find that pot relieves the symptoms of various mild ailments. the better and more intense will be your experiences with it. The absence ot dramatic negative effects. tolerance to the interesting effects of the drug often encourages users to smoke more of it. In general. The main danger of smoking marijuana is simply that it will get away from you. Aside from these specific uses.

Be careful about combining marijuana with other psychoactivc drugs. you will have to take precautions if you want to keep enjoying them. and just because its easier to function on pot is no reason to use it. You can resume after a break and get them hack. or only when you have no work to do. * 2. 5. Being detected as a marijuana user can cost you your job and land you in a lot of trouble. you may want to use pot only with certain friends. Consider using marijuana by eating it in some form rather it. The trick is to keep frequency of use below the level where you become insensitive to marijuana's interesting effects on consciousness. stop using it. Be careful about set. 7. If you develop a cough or wheeze. but the risk of dependence is less. Remember that it can he dangerous to drive. the more likely you are to become dependent. Such rules arc necessary if you want to prevent your use from turning into a habit that gives you little satisfaction. Do not use it just because other people do or because it is available. operate machinery. 6. Do not use marijuana on the . and you can easily rirove that to \" 0 LI r self.123 Marijuana Some Suggestions About the Use of Marijuana - Marijuana is illegal. Those actions will just increase the problem. it is more trouble to take by mouth anti the than elf ucts are ditferent. Be aware of the dangers associated with acquiring an illegal drug. PDF compression. Odd as it may sound. The more situations in which you allow yourself to S1Th)ke. [1 you find the effects you like from marijuana becoming less intense or disappearing altogether. especially if trying marijuana for the first time. marijuana may he doing harm to your respira- 12. L). and setting. If you hnd that the effects you like are disappearing. Set limits on usage. less is more. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . or engage in hazardous activities under the influence of marijuana. Aldrich) ii. Most people would not drink alcohol in those situations. the worst things you can do arc smoke more or look for stronger pot.ob or at school. 9. (Michael R. 4. If YOU get effects you like from marijuana. Define what benefits you want from pot. The drug can cause illusions of time and space and always takes getting used to. For example. 1 (1. OCR. only on weekends. or become more susceptible to chest colds.

Margolis and Richard Clorfene (New York: Ballantine. 1 970) is a balanced study of marijuana policy that concludes with a recommendation for legalization. Try to (10 without it for a while. One example of a crusading antimarijuana hook is Keep 0/f (lit' Grass by Gabriel C. Netherlands: Mouton Publishers. Stop using it. hut few books worth reading exist. A HR tory o1 Murihuana Proliibjtjvjj in the United Stares (CharIottesville. One example of a proJ marijuana hook. California: And/Or Press. The Marijuana edited by David Solomon (New York: Bohhs-Merrill. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1979). Nahas (New York: Peig. you may need outside help in breaking the habit. written for users. If you cannot. 1 983) for a thoughtful historical analysis. or switch to eating It! 13. Virginia: University Press of Virginia. 1978). sockilogical. '1 he best general history of marijuana is Manhuana: The Twelve Thowand by Ernest L. One of the most readable and informative books on effects and uses of pot is High Culture: Marijuana in the LI yes of Americans by William Novak tNew York: Knopf. is a fine collection of articles that looks at marijuana from various perspecti yes.From i te to Morph jne I 24 tory tract. Abel (London: Plenum Press. cut down on use. consider the possibility that it is controlling you more than you arc controlling it. 1980). The origins and developInent of marijuana prohibition in America arc discussed in Richard J. 1974). 1981) is about the plant itself. is an anthology of historical. Also see Jerome L. edited by Vera Rubin (The Hague. and medical articles that is still valuable reading.. 1971) is a comprehensive overview o the drug by a psychiatrist. 1980). PDF compression. It is lavishly illustrated. hn Kaplan's Marijuana: The New Prohibit ion (New York: Meridian Books. The 5trangc Career of Marihuana: Politics a rid the hleologv of Control in Amenicu (Westport. Marijuana Botany by Robert Connell Clarke (Berkeley. Coiinecticut: Lreenwood Press.imon Press. 1975). 1966). Alanhuana Recons/dered by Lester Grinspoon (Cambridge. Cannabis and Culture. It you find that you are using marijuana more than you want and are not getting useful effects from it. Suggested Reading Much has been published about marijuana in recent years. OCR. Whitebreads Marihuana Conviction. Bonnie and Charles H. literary. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . is A Child\ Garden of Grass by Jack S.

Although teen-agers make tip the hulk of the movie-going public. in Plots and Counterplot$: Titled "Perilous Play. usually to the tielight of nmstly stoned audiences. edited by MiR. Its hero. A modern COmIC novel filled with references to marijuana is The Fan Man by William Kotzwinkle (New York: Avon Books. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .s in Babylon by Steve Chapple (New York: Pocket Books. 1984). see T. PDF compression. and Peter Fonda's classic from the 1 VóOs. Coraghessan Boyle's !3ucldinç Prospect A Pa'toral (New York: Viking. L:asv Rider An outrageous antimarijuana now plays on propaganda film from the 1 930s. For a wonderful novel that tells the story of an eventful tew months of growing marijuana in the backwoods of California. a delightful character named Horse Badorties." it is More Unknown Thrillers (if Louisa Mciv Alcott. OCR. Outlaw. 1976). about marijuana in jamaica in the i 970s.IL'leine Stern (New York: William Morrow. few films have capitalized on the popularity of marijuana among young people. is never without pot. The Harder lb Come. 1984) is a true-life adventure of marijuana growing and enforcement in America of the early 1 980s.125 Louisa May Alcott wrote a short story about hashish iii 1865. Reefer college campuses and in "art" movie houses. 1974). Four notable exceptions arc Up in Smoki and Nice Dreams with Cheech and Chong.

and since organic solvents are commonly found around the house. Children '\ ho regularly sniff solvents develop tolerance to them. Bullet? Bullet: Well. paint thinner. significant numbers of schoolchildren have tried or used glue in attempts to get high. and death. Ittusea. and finally.127 LuAu ' tend U) CJILSC di::iness. then putting the bags over their heads. blindness. Since many children U* technique for changing awareness. Sonic (-)f the simplest organic are clear. and di::%\. Deliriants. the effects arc similar to the dizzy excitement that comes as a from spinning around. heart. hut they arc Inure ment of some children. hut ITlOSt of it concerns factory workers who breathe the fumes all day long over months and years or rare individuals who drink the liquids. It makes you feel sort of 1 inside and different from the you were before . the organic solvents produce effects resembling low doses of general anesthetics. hot. lighter fluid. THE DRUGS DESCRIBEID in this chapter are a strange assortment and nitrous oxide. many children conic to experfirst introiment with them. They were big am green and had white wings. dissolve grease and oil. legislative hearings. Sonic young people find thit. and only glue-sniffing became enormously popular. and varnish. Beginning about 1959. PCP and Ketamine lUcifliltions and vivid waking drcanis. Often these chemicals are a duction to consciousness-change by means of drugs. this use never attracted much notice. Some of them are more toxic than the substances discussed earlier. Tajar: Bullet. Although there is no physical withdrawal as with alcohol and narcotics. The main effect of all this attention was to stimulate curiosity about glue-sniffing and cause a tremendous increase in the numbers of people doing it. Organic Solvents chemistry the word OTjWflIC refers to compounds of carbon. arrest and imprison- Tajar: What made you want t smell gas. make good fuels because they burn readily. a — from an interview gasoline sniffer. but some find it interesting and repeatedly sniff certain household products or gasoline to change their state of consciousProducts containing organic solvents include SOJTIC glues (rubber cement and model airplane glue). Some. As psychoactive drugs. There medical evidence of harm trom exposure to organic sulvents. newspapers dramatized the hazards of glue-sniffing. and spot removers. If you have makes you sort of dream. Parents' groups and police officials then called for laws against it. like gasoline. making it seem extremely dangerous. iii Lid' and I by Edward M. anti other unconitorttoxic induce visLial halIn high doses they able ph\Hical Solvents and Inhalants. Many people dislike breathing solvent fumes. experienced users regard them as second-rate or substitute drugs.. Others. and this time I saw big f flying in it. OCR. All of the scare stories exaggerated the dangers of solvent inhalation. ether. Then came a hysterical nationwide crusade against gluc-snifflng with scare stories in newspapers. newspapers in the United States began to focus attention on glue-sniffing as a new drug menace spreading among children in cities of the West and of chemicals and plants that do not fit neatly into other categories. Probably some people have sniffed solvents occasionally over the years just as some people have played with chloroform. For the most part. making them useful as cleaning fluids and solvents. volatile liquids made by distilling petroleum.. and liver damage. destruction of the bone marrow. Brcchcr the editors ol &iulsumer Repc odors and make people feel lightheaded. gasoline sniffing was the most popular form of organic solvent use. unable to do their work or pay attention to what really matters. A few children died from lack of oxygen by putting glue in plastic bags. Sniffing of other substances was rare and caused no concern. how come so m gas was spilled on the cellars Bullet: Oh. and. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The fumes of these organic solvents have strong chemical In Midwest. Only glue-sniffing received this kind of attention. These liquids have many uses in industry. Cans and bottles them usually carry warning labels about using them only with good ventilation. Just like grown-up drunks. saying that it certainly led to brain. though all of them have their devoted fans.. solvent-sniffing children niay spend most of their waking time in stupors. Young PeoPle who sniff solvents occasionally are IlOt likely to develop SerIOUS medical problems. Sei:ing upon these cases. not worth taking unless preferred drugs are unavailable. Today. when you feel you smell it and it makes you kind of hot and kind of drow! like you was floating througi air. At the beginning of the 1960s. like beinene and toluene. PDF compression. I just wanted to g more on my rag. It ç all dark and you see shootinç in it. however.. the sniffing habit can he very difficult to break.

Since these changes favor accidents. Inhalation puts these chemicals into the blood and brain very last. Others turn the cans upside (IOWFI 50 that univ Freon conies out. and today. it would be sill\' to sniff solvent driving or thung anything requiring good reflexes. The inajority of sniffers arc between the ages of ten and seven- inhale them. the organic solvents are always considered low-class and second-rate. Vaporal) Amyl nitrite is a simple chemical that has been used for more than a hundred years to relieve heart pain in people who suffer from coronary artery disease. Until recently. in pregnant \vlamen. OCR. (They break with an audible "pop" — hence the common street name poppers. few girls used solvents. Although some people used it recreationally. Nitrite Inhalants Amyl Nitrite (Amys. and still others inhale the sprays through cloth tiltcrs. and die other dcprcssants. reducing the workload of the heart. When children grow up and discover other drugs that arc less toxic and more useful. and until recently. Fumes of sonic of the solvents can irritate the membranes of thc tiüsc. Freon. gasoline. For example. many users of street drugs experimented with amyl nitrite as a quick. Many Native American boys also sniff — a source of great concern on many Indian reservations. available to anyone. It appealed especially to tend to regard glue. They usually last from fifteen minutes to half an hour after sniffing stops. a throbbing feeling iii the head (or even a brief. It conies in inhalers and in cloth-covered glass capsules that can be crushed in the hand and sniffed. and the rest as cheap highs — easy to obtain and not very good. on the other hand. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . it is unwise to mix sniffing with drinking. they generally stop playing around with solvents. amyl nitrite was a prescription drug. most aerosol products contained types of Huorocarbons known by the brand name Freon.. Among people who have tried many drugs. usually siiilpier organic Culu- pounds that also cause changes in people and with complete lack of oxygen. Inhaling aerosol propellants is a bit more complicated than inhaling solvents because the propellants come mixed with other substances. Some peopk breathe fumes directly! from containers. seem to prefer other drugs. Snappers. Pearls. legal high. with children of certain ethnic groups predominating. warmth and flushing of the skin. paint thinner. teen. Solvcnt fumes may raise the risk of birth defects. Aerosol Propellants Aerosol spray cans are pressurized with other organic chemicals.128 129 \r )/ hi!104h1 I As with alcuhol. others put solvents or glue on or in paper bags. The popularity of solvents among children reflects their easy availability and dramatic power to change consciousness fast rather than any really desirable qualities about them. occasional dizziness and nausea. SC) the effects conic on almost immediately. the pain quickly disappears because the drug dilates arteries throughout the body. No 01W knows why these differences exist. Then the Food and Drug Adniinistration removed the prescription requirement. The most COffhIllOfl snifters have been Hispanic males. Some users solve this problem by spraying the can into a bag or balloon so that the particles separate from the gas by adhering to the sides. ) Until 1960. what comes out is a cloud of tiny droplets of black paint and gas. when you press the button on a can of black spray paint. most buyers were heart patients who carned it with them for medical purposes and did not think of it as a mind-changing substance. so that amyl nitrite became an over-the-counter drug. pounding headache). Recause scientists now recognize that Iluorocarht ills fllaflLlfactUrt'rS the earth's have switched to other propellants. Poppers. Inhaling black paint does not get you high and can niake you very sick. yellowish liquid with a strong chemical smell. both because that combination puts a great deal o stress on the liver and hecause it can depresH respiration to a dangerous degree. Other effects are a sudden fall in blood pressure. If they breathe the fumes of amyl nitrite. much inferior to drugs such as alcohol and marijuana. Amyl nitrite is a clear. the older patterns may he changing. of st)IVCI1 ts can d SOfItfltLitj( 'n and of iudgnient and coordination. Such people often feel severe chest pain when they exert themselves. and a dramatically altered state of consciousness that reminds some fainting or going under general anesthesia. with rising use of all drugs among young people. Black children. Overdoses of fumes may lead to llflLOflSC1()USDCSS. when inhaled. risks to the user. Aspirol. incstiictics. produces the same effects as the organic solsents and Presents the PDF compression. death is a rcal Also. During the 1 960s.

and to those who liked the highs of general anesthctics. student Butyl Nitrite and Isobutyl Nitrite (Locker Room. however. As recreational use of amyl nitrite spread. authorities opposed its unrestricted sale. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and even peopk who inhale it Irequently do not seem to suffer ill effects. deep inhalation last oni for a few minutes and arc often I was first introduced to amyl nitrite during my senior year in college. Butvl nitrite and isohutvl nitrite are close chemical relatives of PDF compression. it is possible that long-term use has physical consequences doctors do not vet recogni:e. glaucoma. TI effects of a single. OCR. rillicy conic in small bottles or aerosol cans with labels identifying them as 'liquid incense" or "room odori:er/' hut everyone who buys thi"* products knows what they are for. l3utyl nitrite and isobutvl liitrite are of recent appearance as recreational drugs. in 1969. when inhaled. The strong chemical odor of amyl nit rite is suggestive of materials that are hard on the body. — t v'venty-vcar-old nian. He would amass huge numbers of poppers and give them out to anyone who wanted them. Finalh. with small blue patches filling my field .) pregnaiit Women. for continuous breathing. My arms and legs felt like liquid warmth. ending uverthe-counter distribution. It should not he inhaled in situations requiring muscular coordination or caret iii posture. it may he harmful t(. . it should be used with good ventilation and never he put into closet] containers. but amyl nitrite. Although some heterosexual men and use it in this way. . to thOse who liked to sniff organic solvtmts. medical followed by less pleasant sensations. The father of one of my friends had a heart condition for which he used the drug.From Gb L'L( ilate to Morphine 130 people. . inhaled during a sexual act!! the drug is supposed to intensify the expcrieflcc and prolong and intunsify orgasm. breaks down easily and leaves the body very quickly. They arc solid by mail order and over the counter iii head shops. poppers had a special reputation as enhancers of sexual experience. that method can lead to suffocation. my vision blurred. especially in gay COmfl1UflitieS. users should be careful to keep it away from their eyes. The effect was immediate. Because amyl nitrite causes a sudden drop in blood pressure. Their effects are the same as those of poppers. Rush) amyl nitrite that are not under any drug regulations. of vision. It is considered one of the safest drugs in medicine. As with organic solvents. it is still in wide use. irlaic honiosexuals have been the grcatcst fans of amyl nitrite.. the Food and Drug Administ ration reimposed the prescription requirement. and at the same time I got a pounding in my head. it can produce loss of coordination and fainting. When I exhaled. high blood pressure. All nitrites are poisonous in excess.. but gay men may pass the drug back and forth many times while having sex. Today. Still. Also. It should not be used at all by people with anemia. it is probably mt wise to overdo it. such as plastic bags. In addition. Also. Because the liquid drug can corrode the cornea. or recent head injuries.

Never use them near open flames or sparks. For example. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Deliriants L)elirium is a state of mental disturbance marked by confusion and disorientation. much like alcoholism. Usually. Regular sniffing of solvents can become a stubborn drug habit. or what year it is. butyl.131 and Some Precautions About Organic Solvents and Inhalants I - Organic solvents are highly flammable. you flay tieed outside help to break it. and attention. 4. Do not sniff solvents while drinking alcohol or using other depressants. lf PDF compression. seeing and hearing things that are not there. and isohutyl nitrite are less toxic than organic solvents and not a. Most psychoactive drugs will cause delirium in overdoses by being temporarily toxic to the brain. If you sniff solvents. 2. People in delirium cannot think clearly and may not remember who they are. They should be used only with good ventilation and not breathed continuously. OCR. or engaging in other hazardous activities requiring good reflexes. the delirium ends. If you develop this pattern of use. when the fever comes down. 11.s flammable. Do not sniff solvents if you have a history of liver dkease. Never sniff solvents while driving. 8. 10. (Courtesy of Pacific We'tern [)istrihuting Corp. delirium is a temporary condition resulting from some disorder of the brain. As the drug overdose is metabolized and eliminated. If you can remember the experience of a high fever as a young child. People have died of asphyxiation by putting their heads in plastic bags containing small amounts of solvents. They may also hallucinate. a high fever will cause delirium. 5. Only inhale nitrites when you are in a comfortable sitting or lying position. operating machinery. get plenty of fresh air afterward to flush the chemical out of your system. you know what delirium is. 7. where they are.) 9. coordination. the toxic psychosis resolves. Remember that people who are most experienced with psychoactive drugs always say that organic solvents are secondrate. This kind of delirium is called a toxIc psychosis because it is a malfunction of the brain owing to the presence of a toxin in the body. 3. Arnyl. 6. Be careful not to get liquid nitrites in your eyes.

some have dangerous fruit. more vivid than ordinary reality. Some of them have been used for thousands of years often very uncomtortabk. and black magic. These effects may last for twelve to forty-eight hours after a single dose of datura. and some of them are dangerous. as pictured in an herbal from 1636. low doses of it went into over-the-counter sleeping pills. brewed into teas. experiencing monsters chasing them. people intoxicated on this plant have drowned by stumbling into deep bodies (if water. usually uncomfortable ones such as nausea. The ability of plants containing scopolamine to disconnect people from ordinary reality accounts for their popularity in certam circles. Roots. have the experience of flying and to meet the I)evil in their visions. or thornapple. headache. rape. But the tension just kept building and building. Although medical doctors consider datura very dangerous. Datura. including vivid hallucinations that may seem so real that people lose all contact with ordinary reality. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . a drug that Datura . populated by monsters and devils and tiled with violent. They are rank. henhane. and Somehow I there was something absolutely horrible about that. Until recently. It is in wide use as a recreational drug. have taken serious I a I 1 s. making them the most dangerous. interference with ejaculation. in the West. often in combination with alcohol. and prostration. snioked. All ()g these methods iflfl)XiCatiOfl. For example. rapid heart rate. Drug crisis centers throughout the United States see frequent cases of had trips on datura. for example. hot. witchcraft. difficulty in urinating. among teen-agers on Indian reservations in the West. or All parts of these plants contain scopolamine. eggplants. mandrake. causes delirium and can be seriously poisonous in high doses. disorienUflion. and. Today datura seems to appeal mostly to young people seeking strong intoxication. widely dilated eyes (making bright light painful). they remain popular. The mental effects are equally dramatic: restlessness. in men. sweet and hot peppers. American Indian medicine men have used jimsonweed and sacred datura to initiate young men into the mysteries of the spirit world and to seek visions in group religious rituals. Even their names are sinister: henhane.132 delirium 133 (11fl1 is very strong. The plant is easily available in many places and is very powerful. or sacred datura. it will probably not do physical harm to the average healthy person. Belladonna. Cause delirium at subtoxic doses. dizziness. OCR. possibly in an effort to quench the thirst and fever caLised by scopolamine. The lowest concentration of scopolamine is in the roots. The ocean of cream Was just on the point of curdling. The iiieiital experiences are van- even ground up in fat and rubbed iii the skin. the\ may have degree of aiiiricsia far the experience. slipping them to unsuspecting victims to make it easier to rob. Witches in medieval Europe used deadly nightshade (belladonna). and deadly nightshade. Depending on what causes the delirium. and potatoes. and mandrake to Nightshades (Jimsonweed. and although many people find them unpleasant. They are a strange group of plants and chemicals derived from them. inability to focus the eyes at close distances. In North America the main poisonous nightshades are two species of datuia: Datura stramoniurn. in the East and Daturu meteloicies. hairy plants strange smells and peculiar flowers. It also includes tobacco and some poisonous plants that are inSmous because of their associations with crime. seeds. called deliriants. leaves. dry skin and a feverish feeling. and put scopolJnune ifl. Because scopolamine usuall).U) the and The effects (it scopolamine are very able. too. The main danger of datura is accidental death or injury resulting from disorientation. and flowers can all be eaten." Some drugs. Going into other worlds is fascinating. Sacred datura is SO called because of its long involvement with Native American magic and religion. Highest concentrations are in the seeds. Others. fren:ied energy to induce altered states of consciousness. and some PDF compression. Here is one nun's description of a visual hallucination he had as a child during a high fever: "I was standing on a cliff luoking down at an ocean of cream. hut the worlds datura takes people to can be frightening. Nevertheless.strumoniurn: jimsonweed. Henbane) The nightshade family of plants includes some very popular foods: tomatoes. or kidnap them. It is one of the most vivid memories of my childhood. (Fit: Hugh Ludlow Niemorial Library) Scopolanuine is still used as a medical drug. there max' he effects iS well. Criminals have used them for centuries in all parts of the world. and the tension was unbearable.r leaves you with some amnesia. They certainly do not appeal to all people. pcoplc not it clearly alter- that is. Nightshades look scary. or jinmonwccd. and other symptoms of delirium. too. some find them powerfully fascinating. constipation. that the cream was just about to curdle. They include parched mouth and burning thirst. it is often hard to remember these hallucinations clearly when the drug wears off. making them the safest parts of the plant to consume.

Fly agarics growing in the Sacred datura. Some of them are deadly. growing along a roadside near Tucson.From Chocolate to Morphine 134 cold and allergy tablets still include it to dry up runny noses. is a big mushroom with white dots on a red or orange cap. Panther Mushroom. Amanita muscaria. OCR. the fly agaric. (Andrew WciU PDF compression. Amanita Mushrooms (Fly Agaric. Some are edible and delicious. the most poisonous of all wild mushrooms. Two are neither deadly nor edible as food but are used as psychoactive drugs. I)atura metdrmlt\. Arizona. Amanita pantherina) Amanitas are a family of large. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Low can he applied to the skin in special patches to prevent motion sickness. the name liv comes from an old practice of chopping this mushroom into a saucer of milk to attract and kill flies. beautiful mushrooms that grow in many parts of the world. a practice that does not scum beneficial to either mother or baby because it produces a predictable violent delirium. Jimsonweed leaves have beeii rolled into cigarettes for the treatment of asthma.) The Aiiianit(1 Ely agaric is often pictured in illustrations o fairy tales and cannot he mistaken for any other mushroom. Higher doses used to he given by injection to doses women iii labor ("Twilight Sleep") to make them amnesic for the experience of childbirth. and tincture of belladonna is still used to treat gastrointestinal spasms. (Agirit: is an 01(1 word for mushroom.

The red peel of the cap. and pumpkin pie. Also. Moderate doses cause a dreamy intoxication that some people find pleasant. can he dried and smoked. These different preparations may produce different results. or Amanitu panthenna. It grows in woods in the Pacific Northwest and other parts 0 the world. the mushrooms seem to vary greatly in strength and effect depending on where and when they grow and what trees they grow around. the reddest mushrooms being strongest A man jUt in USCLJTW was tile traditional intoxicant of a number of primitive tribes of Siberia people who did not have access to other drugs but did have a shamanistic religion similar to that of - many Native Americans. PDF compression. Amaitha pant growing in the woods in estern Washington State. Higher doses of them are found in a close relative of The panther mushroom. Nutmeg and Mace Nutmeg. or it can be brewed into a tea and drunk. eggnog. Those in the western states are red or orange. cooked. (Jcrcniv U. the panther's effects are very variable. substances that resemble GABA. one of the brain's )wn neurotransmitters. which is easily removed. It would be foolish to experiment with either of these mushmoms wi th nit good advice from s meone experienced with them about exact dose and method of preparation.135 Sol VC'fltI\ titu! Inliatinb eastern United States are yellow and not usually psychoactive. a brown mushroom with white dots called the panther mushroom. the ground spice that goes into cookies. and a few eaters of it have injured themselves as a result of accidents while they were delirious. People have consumed the fly agaric in many forms. Again. contains a drug called myristicin that may be converted in the body to one of the amphetaminelike psychedelics. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . High doses can produce delirious excitement and signit]cant toxicity.stimate a manageable dose and easy to take too much. OCR. so that it may be hard to (. (Jr dried. hut there are often uncomfortahie physical symptonis.gwood) Amanitu muscuria. the responsible chemicals are ibotenic acid and muscirnol. News stories about the intoxicating effect of this mushroom in the 1960s led many young people in California and other western states to experiment with it as a new natural high. The effect comes on within thirty minutes anti lasts for four to eight hours. The whole mushroom call he eaten fresh. and in recent years many people have also experimented with it a way of altering consciousness. I ugh doses of the panther can make people very sick for up to twelve hours. their pharmacological power correlates with cap color.

From Chocolate to MOTJJIJIflC


Someone told me you could get high by eating nutmeg. So one night I choked down a whole can, which was over an ounce. After three hours, 1 felt light and dreamy. It was a little like a light dose of pot. However, the next morning, I had a splitting headache, my heart was racing, and my mouth was really dry. I got dizzy whenever I managed to stand up. lt lasted all day. I would never eat nutmeg again. I don't even like the taste of it in food anymore. — twenty-two-year-old mail,

Nutmeg is the seed ot a tropical tree. The outer covering of this sued is ground into a similar spice, called mace, that often flavors cakes. Both nutmeg and mace have a long history of use as psychoactive drugs, especially by people who can't obtain better

To get high on nutmeg or mace you have to eat a lot them: from a tablespoon up to a whole spice-can full. In that quantity

thcse spices taste awful. They are also fairly toxic and regularly leave people with heavy hangovers the next day. The effects are variable, ranging from mild feelings of floating to full-blown deliraim. Most people who try nutmeg out of curiosity do not come back for a second try. Frequent users are usually found only iii certain prisons or other situations where more desit able drugs are unobtainable.


Some Warnings About Deliriants
I. Delirium is an abnormal condition of the brain in which mental function is temporarily deranged. A delirious person doing anything other than lying still in a safe place is a good candidate for a serious accident.

2. Never take deliriant drugs by yourself. Make sure someone not under the influence of the drug is there to watch out for yOU. 3. If \1(41 must experiment with jimsonweed or other nightshades, use the root rather than leaves or seeds.

4. Do not experiment with Amanita muscaria or Amarillo
pantherma without good advice about dose and preparation from an experienced person in the area where the mushrooms grow. Smoking the dried colored peel of these mushrooms is the mildest way of taking them. If you eat nutmeg or mace in an effort to get high, he prepared
for a terrific hangover the next day.


PCP and Ketamine

last two drugs in this chapter are strange synthetic comare not depressants. In fact, they stimulate the vital func-

pounds different from any other drugs. They are often called anesthetics, but unlike the general anesthetics discussed in Chapter 7,

tions of heartbeat and respiration, even though they produce some

mental effects resembling anesthesia. Other people call them
psyèhedelics, but they are very different from those drugs, too.

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1 37


(ifiti 1IlI)(]j(jfJ(S

pcp (Angel Dust, Peace Pill, Hog, Animal Tranquilizer,
"THC," 'Cannabinol") Pcp (phencyclidinel was invented in a pharmaceutical lahciratory in the latc 19M)s and was introduced into clinical urredicinc ill thc United States in 1963 under the trade name Sernyl. It was marketed as a surgical but did not make reopic LiiiCOJ1SCiOUS in the same way as ether. Rather, it "dissociated"
COflSC1OUSI1CSS from the body so that Iatiellts were not bothered

by surgical procedures even though they retained some kind of

awareness. Enthusiasm about the medical value of PCP diminished when reports began tO) come iii of unpleasant side effects iii many patients. These reactions included strange mental states, such as feelings of being out 1 the body, and visual disturbances that som.e patients found frightening. In I 965 the drug was withdrawn from use fur humans, but two years later it was reintroduced as a veterinary anesthetic tinder the name Sernylan. Animals could not tell their veterinarians that they disliked the side

Shortly thereafter PCP appeared on the black market. It is a cheap and easy drug to make, prodtices a strong intoxication, and can he solti to unsuspecting buyers as other, more desirable drugs. For instance, pills of PCP have often been sold as synthetic THC, the chief component of marijuana. (In fact, synthetic THC is very rare and expensive and is almost never available on the black .1 Supermarket mushrooms, treated with PCI3 alone or with PCP and tM), were sold as magic mushrooms throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCP-LSD combinations have also been sold as mescaline and psiloeybin. PCP conies as both pills and a powder. The form, called angel dust, can be sprinkled in joints made of marijuana or inactive herbs such as parsley, mint, and oregano; or it can be dissolved in an organic solvent and sprayed on these materials. \iVheii the solvent evaporates, it leaves an even residue of the drug. Such joints are called dusters. Some people snort angel dust, and very few inject it. By any route PCP produces distinctive effects. It causes decreased sensitivity to pain and a peculiar rubbery feeling in the legs with impaired coordination. It may also cause dizziness and nausea, Hushing, sweating, and abnormal movemerits of the eyes. '[he mental effects are very variable hut often include a feeling of disconnection from the body and from external reality, apatlis, disorganization of thinking, a drunklike state, and distortions of time and space perception. Overdoses can cause convulsions and coma. When it is smoked, PCP's effects come on within a few

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From Chocolate to Murphine


minutes, peak within live to thirty minutes, and last for four to Six hours. Oral doses may last longer, and some people say they (it) not feel normal for up to twenty-four hours after a single oral

I've had very positive experiences with PCPP which is unusual, since everyone says it's a terrible drug.. . For years I have suffered lower back pains. Whenever I smoked PCP I felt no pain, and could even jog comfortably. Even after the drug wore off, I experienced no pain from physical activities. . . My thinking was often imaginative and lucid. I laughed a lot. . . I was taking it all the time, and people around me told me I was acting too crazily. So 1 stopped. Sometime, I'd like to experiment with it again to explore those physical and mental powers it seems to release in me.

Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s most who took 13cr tüük it unwittingly thinking they were taking something else mescaline, psilocybin, or some sort of supcrrnarijuana. It caifle in all kind.s of disguises. Few people took it for its OWIi nmrits, and it had an unsavory reputation, often being disparaged as an "animal tranquili :er." En more recent years, however, PCP has become even more prevalent, and some people seek it out as their drug of choice. The PCP lovers who have received most publicity arc teen-agers from urban ghettos whose lives are filled with anger, frustration, and VIO1CflCL'. Maybe they like the feeling of being cut oft from the grim reality of their environment or from their Own emotions. Because of heavy use of PCP by such persons, the drug has now gained reputation for causing crime, violence, and insanity among young people. No doubt some PCP-related murders have occurred, but newspapers, predictably, have blown the drugs association with violence out of all proportion, leading to legislative hearings and stiffer laws on PCP, as well as great hysteria about a new drug menace. There does not seem to he anything about the pharmacology of PCP that automatically makes users become violent (Jr commit crimes. Clearly, high doses can make people agitated and confused, but tendencies to criminal violence are inherent in certain people, not in certain drugs. PCP users who are not angry and violent to begin with tin not become raving lunatics after smoking angel dust. The recent rash of scare stories about PCP seems to reflect society's need to have "devil drugs" more than it does the

nature of PCP.

The main arguments are that its effects seem neither very interesting nor very productive br most people.
Some users take it in ways they find valuable for example, as a social or party drug much like alcohol and downers but many young persons take it just to get "messed up" or feel disconnected from reality. Also, the adulteration of other thugs with PCP is a deplorable practice, especially when these are sold or given to unsuspecting people. Adverse reactions to PCP can include inability to talk or corn-

man, screentiter

municate, a blank stare and rohotlike attitude) rigid muscles, confusion, agitation, and paranoid thinking. Heavy users times develop problems with speech and memory that may last
for some time after they stop taking the drug.

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young segment of the population that is prone tO commit crimes. PDF compression. Because ketaminc comes in an injectable form and because many of its users are medical personnel. and supplies of it arc easily diverted froiii hospitals and pharmacies into the hands of recreational users. Ketamine users tend to be better educated. Ketaject. a number of people have experimented with ketaniinc as a recreational drug.body experiences. it tends to he taken by injection. or insanity any im )Te than marijuana causes revolutions. since many patients become frightened when they find in this unusual condition. it is not closely watched. and much more experienced with drugs than most PCP users. Like PC13 ketamine produces an unusual kind of anesthesia. it is a legal prescription drug intended for use as an anusthctic. wealthier. Some ketarn inc enthusiasts like to take it while lying in sensory isolation tanks in attempts to have out-of-the. In recent years. Given in this way it produces an altered state of consciousness that begins in a tew minutes and lasts about half . however. Ketamine conies in small bottles as a solution to be injected into patients. PCP does not cause crime. violence. in which the patient's awareness becomes detached from the body and from external reality. to the drug.'n hour. Since it is not a controlled substance. including nurses arid other professionals. The fact that ketamine remained an uncontrolled substance while PCP came to be seen as the chiet dcvii drug of the 1980s is a good illustration of how images of drugs are shaped by their users. yet ketaminc users (usually successful professionals) lie peacefully in dissociative states. ketaminc has produced a number o bad reactions. with the result that ketamine has a very different reputation and following from its notorious relative. Just as marijuana has never shaken off its association with deviants. causing no one any harm. and rebels. there has been no move to take ketamine off the market. usually intramuscularly. Like PCP. Superek) Ketarnine is a close relative of PCP. So far. minorities. OCR.139 Solveius and Ketamine (Ketalar. older. The pharm acology of ketamine is practically the same as that of PCP. floating disconnection from external reality. all ketaminc is legally manufactured. so PCP is now linked with an violent. and raising few alarms in society. They are able to take exact doses of pure material. either intravenously or intranmscularly. but they have been very different from PCP users. called a dissociative state. The feeling is one of dreamy. Many of its fans are doctors who have introduced their friends. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . producing very similar etfccts. in the first place.

Descrip- tions of uses of Amanita muscaria will be found in Narcotic Plants of the Old World. find difficulties in cofl1iuUniCation. All street psyche- defies in pill or powder form are suspect. 8. remember that it is essentially the same as PCP. and judgment. edited by Hedw ig Schlciffcr (Monticello. D. snorted. If you take PCI) deliberately. or ketaiiiinc lasts longer. Suggested Reading Accurate information on solvent sniffing will be found in Licit and Illicit Drugs by Edward 1M. There are a numhcr of good books on plants of the nightshade family and the strange effects they produce. Brecher and the editors of Consumer Reports (Boston : Little. 9. OCR. henhane. 1986). dramatic effect. high doses (It ketarninc can be as unpleasant as high doses of PCP. it is even more important to know the dose so that you don't get more intoxicated than you intend. and the peak effect is less dramatic. 1 Vh9) discusses the edibic nightshades and tobacco as well as the deltriant members of the Harold A. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . In Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. centrates on belladonna. If you take PCP by mouth. A sophisticated book that tC)cUSeS A dolescent on solvent use in Scotland is Solvent Epic/em ic by Joyce Watson (London and Wolfeboro. Some users prefer to smoke because they know right away how high they are. Hansen's The VVltcJYs Gardtmn (Santa Cnn. cut down or stop taking it altogether. New Hampshire: Croom Helm. As with other drugs. By am route. By the oral route. Heiser's PDF compression. 1. 1972). and datura. do fbi: do things under its influence that require those functions to be normal. con- Some Suggestions About PCP and Keta mine 1. users do it can be evaporated to solid crystals tht can he powdered and just like PCP. 1979). autobiographical work The Scientist: A Novel Autobiography (Philadelphia: Lippincott. avoid high doses. mandrake. thought. Jonathan Ott includes Amanita muscaria and Amunita paiitherina in his Hallucinogenic Plants olNorth America California: Wiughow Press. Because PCP affects coordination. 3. The cornbitied effects can be unpleasant and difficult to control.1 41 -___ rctili:c tilat they can take the drug 1v safer rolitcs than injection. Do not take PCP with depressants or stimulants. Tnt to avoid taking PCP unintentionally. man. I 978). 1979).. as arc funny-tasting joints that give strange rushes. 7. it is not wise to take it in settings or with people that might add to those problems. Used in RituaLs and Everyday Life: An 01 Texts frmn Ancient Tinies to the Present. New York: Lubrecht & Cramer. California: Unity Press. If 'yTOIJ take PCP regularly and find you have trouble thinking clearly or remembering. Because PCP can produce agitation. R. If you meet people who want you to try ketarnine. Charles B. H. the oral route is safer. l'tIr(JrLh)XJCUI 1'Inits (San Francisco: \'V. Smoking PCP gives a rapid. confusion. Ketanñne liquid Linturttinatclv. 6. 1976. Brown. revised edition. Remember also that