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Published by Mudasser Hussain

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Published by: Mudasser Hussain on Feb 15, 2011
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  • Introduction
  • Categories of Casting Processes
  • Types of Casting to be Covered
  • Overview of Sand Casting
  • Making the Sand Mold
  • The Pattern
  • Types of Patterns
  • Core
  • Core in Mold
  • Desirable Mold Properties
  • Foundry Sands
  • Binders Used with Foundry Sands
  • Types of Sand Mold
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • Die Casting Machines
  • Hot-Chamber Die Casting
  • Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machine
  • Molds for Die Casting
  • Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process)
  • Comparison
  • Additional Steps After Solidification
  • Casting Quality
  • General Defects: Misrun
  • General Defects: Cold Shut
  • General Defects: Cold Shot
  • General Defects: Shrinkage Cavity
  • Metals for Casting
  • Draft
  • Typical Shrinkage Allowance
  • Typical Pattern Machining Allowance


Engineering Practices

‡ Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. ‡ First casting: 5000-3000 BC ‡ Versatility ‡ Many types of metals ‡ Rapid production ‡ Wide range of shapes and sizes ‡ Complex parts as an integral unit

Categories of Casting Processes

± ±

Expendable mold processes - mold is sacrificed to remove part
Advantage: more complex shapes possible Disadvantage: production rates often limited by time to make mold rather than casting itself


Permanent mold processes - mold is made of metal and can be used to make many castings
± ± Advantage: higher production rates Disadvantage: geometries limited by need to open mold

Types of Casting to be Covered ‡ Sand Casting ‡ Die Casting ‡ Investment Casting .

Sand Casting .

including metals with high melting temperatures. ‡ Most widely used casting process. such as steel.Overview of Sand Casting ‡ This is an expandable mold process. nickel. accounting for a significant majority of total cast ‡ Nearly all alloys can be sand casted. and titanium ‡ Castings range in size from small to very large ‡ Production quantities from one to millions .

.Figure : A large sand casting weighing over 680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame (photo courtesy of Elkhart Foundry).

sand or metal shape that is inserted into the mold to create internal features .bottom half of the flask ‡ Core.approximate duplicate of the part to be cast ‡ Molding material.material that is packed around the pattern to provide the mold cavity ‡ Flask.top half of the flask ‡ Drag.rigid frame that holds the molding aggregate ‡ Cope.Terms ‡ Pattern.

network of channels that delivers the molten metal to the mold ‡ Pouring cup.combination of the mold material and cores ‡ Riser-additional void in the mold that provides additional metal to compensate for shrinkage ‡ Gating system.Terms ‡ Mold cavity.portion of the gating system that controls the delivery of the metal ‡ Sprue.horizontal channels .vertical portion of the gating system ‡ Runners.

Terms ‡ Gates.describes both the process and the product when molten metal is poured and solidified .separates the cope and drag ‡ Draft.controlled entrances ‡ Parting line.angle or taper on a pattern that allows for easy removal of the casting from the mold ‡ Casting.


Mold cavity is produced having the desired shape and size of the part ± Takes shrinkage into account ± Single-use or permanent mold 2. Melting process ± Provides molten material at the proper temperature 3. Pouring technique ± Molten metal is poured into the mold at a proper rate to ensure that erosion and or defects are minimized .Steps Involved in the Process Six basic steps of casting 1.

and inspection operations ± Excess material along parting lines may have to be machined . finishing. Cleaning.Steps Involved in the Process 4. Mold removal ± The casting is removed from the mold ‡ Single-use molds are broken away from the casting ‡ Permanent molds must be designed so that removal does not damage the part 6. Solidification process ± Controlled solidification allows the product to have desired properties ± Mold should be designed so that shrinkage is controlled 5.

then separating the mold into two halves and removing the pattern ‡ The mold must also contain gating and riser system ‡ If casting is to have internal surfaces. a core must be included in mold ‡ A new sand mold must be made for each part produced .Making the Sand Mold ‡ The cavity in the sand mold is formed by packing sand around a pattern.

Sand Casting Production Sequence Figure: Steps in the production sequence in sand casting. The steps include not only the casting operation but also pattern-making and mold-making. .

Sand Casting .

The Pattern
A full-sized model of the part, slightly enlarged to account for shrinkage and machining allowances in the casting ‡ Pattern materials:
± Wood - common material because it is easy to work, but it warps (a deviation from flatness due to uneven drying of wood) ± Metal - more expensive to make, but lasts much longer ± Plastic - compromise between wood and metal

Types of Patterns
Figure : Types of patterns used in sand casting: (a) solid pattern (b) split pattern (c) match-plate pattern (d) cope and drag pattern

Full-scale model of interior surfaces of part ‡ It is inserted into the mold cavity prior to pouring ‡ The molten metal flows and solidifies between the mold cavity and the core to form the casting's external and internal surfaces ‡ May require supports to hold it in position in the mold cavity during pouring, called chaplets

Core in Mold Figure : (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets. (c) casting with internal cavity. . (b) possible chaplet design.

can sand from broken mold be reused to make other molds? .to allow hot air and gases to pass through voids in sand ‡ Thermal stability .to resist cracking on contact with molten metal ‡ Collapsibility .to maintain shape and resist erosion ‡ Permeability .ability to give way and allow casting to shrink without cracking the casting ‡ Reusability .Desirable Mold Properties ‡ Strength .

compared to round grains ± Disadvantage: interlocking tends to reduce permeability .Foundry Sands Silica (SiO2) or silica mixed with other minerals ‡ Good refractory (A refractory material is one that retains its strength at high temperatures.) properties . allowing gases to escape during pouring ‡ Irregular grain shapes strengthen molds due to interlocking.capacity to endure high temperatures ‡ Small grain size yields better surface finish on the cast part ‡ Large grain size is more permeable.

sodium silicate and phosphate) ‡ Additives are sometimes combined with the mixture to increase strength and/or permeability . and 7% clay ‡ Other bonding agents also used in sand molds: ± Organic resins (e g .Binders Used with Foundry Sands ‡ Sand is held together by a mixture of water and bonding clay ± Typical mix: 90% sand. phenolic resins) ± Inorganic binders (e g . 3% water.

using torches or heating lamps . clay. ± ³Green" means mold contains moisture at time of pouring and uses clay and water for bonding ± Binder used with Green Sand is molasses ‡ Dry-sand mold .Types of Sand Mold ‡ Green-sand molds . and water.mixture of sand.drying mold cavity surface of a green-sand mold to a depth of 10 to 25 mm.organic binders rather than clay ± And mold is baked to improve strength ‡ Skin-dried mold .

.Advantages and Limitations Process Advantages: ‡ Product is ~finished right out of mold.g. brittleness ‡ Some methods require many steps (e. porosity. ~low strength. ‡ High complexity with few steps (usually) ‡ No machining waste General Disadvantages: ‡ Expensive and time-consuming patterns/molds/dies ‡ Solidification issues: shrinkage. Investment casting) .

Die Casting .

Overview of Die Casting ‡ This is a permanent mold process. hence the name die casting ‡ Use of high pressure to force metal into die cavity is what distinguishes this from other permanent mold processes . then mold is opened and part is removed ‡ Molds in this casting operation are called dies. ‡ Pressure is maintained during solidification. ‡ In this process molten metal is injected into mold cavity under high pressure.

Hot-chamber machine 2.Die Casting Machines ‡ Designed to hold and accurately close two mold halves and keep them closed while liquid metal is forced into cavity ‡ Two main types: 1. Cold-chamber machine .

and magnesium . lead. and a piston injects liquid metal under high pressure into the die ‡ High production rates .Hot-Chamber Die Casting Metal is melted in a container.500 parts per hour not uncommon ‡ Applications limited to low melting-point metals that do not chemically attack plunger and other mechanical components ‡ Casting metals: zinc. tin.

molten metal flows into the chamber .Hot-Chamber Die Casting Figure: Cycle in hot-chamber casting: (1) with die closed and plunger withdrawn.

.Hot-Chamber Die Casting Figure: Cycle in hot-chamber casting: (2) plunger forces metal in chamber to flow into die. maintaining pressure during cooling and solidification.

Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machine Molten metal is poured into unheated chamber from external melting container. brass. lead) . tin. and a piston injects metal under high pressure into die cavity ‡ High production but not usually as fast as hot-chamber machines because of pouring step ‡ Casting metals: aluminum. and magnesium alloys ‡ Advantages of hot-chamber process favor its use on low melting-point alloys (zinc.

Cold-Chamber Die Casting Figure: Cycle in cold-chamber casting: (1) with die closed and ram withdrawn. molten metal is poured into the chamber .

maintaining pressure during cooling and solidification.Cold-Chamber Die Casting Figure: Cycle in cold-chamber casting: (2) ram forces metal to flow into die. .

mold steel ‡ Tungsten and molybdenum (good refractory qualities) used to die cast steel and cast iron ‡ Ejector pins required to remove part from die when it opens ‡ Lubricants must be sprayed into cavities to prevent sticking .Molds for Die Casting ‡ Usually made of tool steel.

Advantages and Limitations ‡ Advantages of die casting: ± ± ± ± Economical for large production quantities Good accuracy and surface finish Thin sections are possible Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die .

Investment Casting .

" which refers to coating of refractory material around wax pattern ‡ It is a precision casting process ."to cover completely.Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process) A pattern made of wax is coated with a refractory material to make mold.capable of producing castings of high accuracy and intricate detail . after which wax is melted away prior to pouring molten metal ‡ "Investment" comes from a less familiar definition of "invest" .

Investment Casting Figure: Steps in investment casting: (1) wax patterns are produced. (2) several patterns are attached to a sprue to form a pattern tree .

(4) the full mold is formed by covering the coated tree with sufficient refractory material to make it rigid .Investment Casting Figure: Steps in investment casting: (3) the pattern tree is coated with a thin layer of refractory material.

and it solidifies . (6) the mold is preheated to a high temperature.Investment Casting Figure: Steps in investment casting: (5) the mold is held in an inverted position and heated to melt the wax and permit it to drip out of the cavity. the molten metal is poured.

Investment Casting Figure: Steps in investment casting: (7) the mold is broken away from the finished casting and the parts are separated from the sprue .

). .Investment Casting Figure: A one-piece compressor stator with 108 separate airfoils made by investment casting (photo courtesy of Howmet Corp.

Advantages and Limitations ‡ Advantages of investment casting: ± ± ± ± Parts of great complexity and intricacy can be cast Close dimensional control and good surface finish Wax can usually be recovered for reuse Additional machining is not normally required .this is a net shape process ‡ Disadvantages ± Many processing steps are required ± Relatively expensive process .

Moderate Geometry. Complex Geometry. Moderately Smooth Surface Finish Die Casting High Temperature Alloy.Comparison Sand Casting High Temperature Alloy. Rough Surface Finish Investment Casting High Temperature Alloy. Smooth Surface 45 . Complex Geometry.

if required ‡ Heat treatment .Additional Steps After Solidification ‡ Trimming ‡ Removing the core ‡ Surface cleaning ‡ Inspection ‡ Repair.

Casting Quality ‡ There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in a casting operation. resulting in quality defects in the product ‡ The defects can be classified as follows: ± General defects common to all casting processes ± Defects related to casting process .

General Defects: Misrun A casting that has solidified before completely filling mold cavity Misrun .

General Defects: Cold Shut Two portions of metal flow together but there is a lack of fusion due to premature freezing Cold shut .

General Defects: Cold Shot Metal splatters during pouring and solid globules form and become entrapped in casting Cold shot .

General Defects: Shrinkage Cavity Depression in surface or internal void caused by solidification shrinkage that restricts amount of molten metal available in last region to freeze Shrinkage cavity .

Metals for Casting ‡ Most commercial castings are made of alloys rather than pure metals ± Alloys are generally easier to cast. and properties of product are better ‡ Casting alloys can be classified as: ± Ferrous ± Nonferrous .

Product Design Considerations ‡ Geometric simplicity: ± Although casting can be used to produce complex part geometries. simplifying the part design usually improves castability ± Avoiding unnecessary complexities: ‡ Simplifies mold-making ‡ Reduces the need for cores ‡ Improves the strength of the casting .

Product Design Considerations ‡ Corners on the casting: ± Sharp corners and angles should be avoided. since they are sources of stress concentrations and may cause hot tearing and cracks ± Generous fillets should be designed on inside corners and sharp edges should be blended .

Product Design Considerations ‡ Draft Guidelines: ± In expendable mold casting. purpose is to aid in removal of the part from the mold ‡ Draft = 2r to 3r for permanent mold processes ± Similar tapers should be allowed if solid cores are used . draft facilitates removal of pattern from mold ‡ Draft = 1r for sand casting ± In permanent mold casting.

and (b) redesign .Draft ‡ Minor changes in part design can reduce need for coring (a) original design.

Product Design Considerations ‡ Dimensional Tolerances and Surface Finish: ± Significant differences in dimensional accuracies and finishes can be achieved in castings. depending on process: ‡ Poor dimensional accuracies and finish for sand casting ‡ Good dimensional accuracies and finish for die casting and investment casting .

5 and 3 mm (1/16 and 1/4 in) . called the machining allowance.Product Design Considerations ‡ Machining Allowances: ± Almost all sand castings must be machined to achieve the required dimensions and part features ± Additional material. is left on the casting in those surfaces where machining is necessary ± Typical machining allowances for sand castings are around 1.

« 11 ....«. 13 Aluminum bronze «««««««««««.13 White cast iron ««««««««««««....«. 8 ..«« 21 Magnesium alloys (25%) «««««««««.« 21 Copper-nickel ««««««««««««««....« 21 Yellow brass (thick sections) «««...««.. 26 ...... 21 Manganese steel ««««««««««««. 16 Gun metal «««««««««««««..«..21 Chromium steel ««««««««««««.16 Lead ««««««««««««««««....... 21 Tin bronze «««««««««««««..Typical Shrinkage Allowance Metal or alloy Shrinkage allowances mm / m Aluminum alloy ««««««««««««.... 26 Magnesium «««««««««««««..16 Carbon steel «««««««««««««« 16 .« 13 Gray cast iron (a) «««««««««««..«« 13 Yellow brass (thin sections) «... 21 Nickel «««««««««««««««««.««..«.«...««. 21 Zinc «««««««««««««««««.. 21 Phosphor bronze «««««««««««« 11 . 16 Manganese bronze «««««««««««.«.«.« 26 Tin «««««««««««««««««.

305««««««««««««« 305 ..9 3..6 1.4 7.. 76 .4 6.««««««««««««..8 4.««««««««««««..««««««««««««.2 4.4 6.. For nonferrous alloys Up to 76.8 6.9 9. For cast steels Up to 152.6 2.4 3. Bore Allowances.4 3.2 4...4 7.4 2.8 .2 4.8 6.1 7.4 6. mm side For cast irons Up to 152..305««««««««««««« 305 ..2 3.510..6 1.2 3.4 6. mm Surface Cope 3.««««««««««««.0 4.4 7. 152 .2 1.9 3. 510 .6 12.2 3.««««««««««««« 152 ..4 6.915««««««««««««« 915 .1524««««««««««««.1524««««««««««««..««««««««««««.««««««««««««. 152 .4 7.1524««««««««««««.2 6. 510 .8 4.915««««««««««««« 915 .915««««««««««««« 915 .4 3.4 6.9 2.510.. 510 .0 1.305««««««««««««« 305 .6 2.0 4.2 3.510.7 1.2 4.152.2 4.8 6.6 2.Typical Pattern Machining Allowance Pattern size.4 6..4 3.

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