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Mobility Management Techniques To Improve QoS In Mobile Networks Using Intelleigent Agent Decision Making Protocol

Mobility Management Techniques To Improve QoS In Mobile Networks Using Intelleigent Agent Decision Making Protocol

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Mobility Management (MM) is one of the major issues of Mobile networks that should be taken into account for providing Quality of Service (QoS) and to meet the subscribers demand (satisfaction). Mobility management techniques are divided into two types (i) Location Management (LM) and (ii) Handoff Management (HM). The LM is used for tracking where the subscribers are locate, and based on that permitting calls, Short Message Service (SMS) and other mobile phone services are delivered to them with the assistance of Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol (IADMP). The Redundant Update Remove Algorithm (RURA) which is used for reducing the updation between BSC and MSC. Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU) reduces the location updates between Mobile Node (MN) and MSC using IADMP. To provide ubiquitous communication for subscribers without any break in the communication, HM protocols play main role in Mobile Networks. In HM process there are four protocols, (i) Double Threshold Protocol (DTP) (ii) Better Base Station Selection Protocol (BBSSP) using Relative Signal Strength (RSS) (iii) IADMP and (iv) Hybrid Decision Making Protocol (HDMP) are used. The Performances of these protocols are analysed. The HDMP and ETU provide QoS in Mobile Networks.
Mobility Management (MM) is one of the major issues of Mobile networks that should be taken into account for providing Quality of Service (QoS) and to meet the subscribers demand (satisfaction). Mobility management techniques are divided into two types (i) Location Management (LM) and (ii) Handoff Management (HM). The LM is used for tracking where the subscribers are locate, and based on that permitting calls, Short Message Service (SMS) and other mobile phone services are delivered to them with the assistance of Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol (IADMP). The Redundant Update Remove Algorithm (RURA) which is used for reducing the updation between BSC and MSC. Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU) reduces the location updates between Mobile Node (MN) and MSC using IADMP. To provide ubiquitous communication for subscribers without any break in the communication, HM protocols play main role in Mobile Networks. In HM process there are four protocols, (i) Double Threshold Protocol (DTP) (ii) Better Base Station Selection Protocol (BBSSP) using Relative Signal Strength (RSS) (iii) IADMP and (iv) Hybrid Decision Making Protocol (HDMP) are used. The Performances of these protocols are analysed. The HDMP and ETU provide QoS in Mobile Networks.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

1, January 2011

Mobility Management Techniques To Improve QoS In Mobile Networks Using Intelleigent Agent Decision Making Protocol
Selvan.C
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India selvantrichy@yahoo.com Dr. R.Shanmugalakshmi Department of Computer Science and Engineering Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India shanmuga_lakshmi@yahoo.co.in

Abstract—Mobility Management (MM) is one of
the major issues of Mobile networks that should be taken into account for providing Quality of Service (QoS) and to meet the subscribers demand (satisfaction). Mobility management

I.

INTRODUCTION

Mobility Management (MM) [3] is one of the major functions of a GSM or other Network. The aims of MM are to track where the subscribers are so that calls can be sent to them, and to record the subscriber services. Mobile networks to provide quality of service (QoS) is challenging for the service providers. By introducing Intelligent Agent in MM it is possible to meet the QoS. The MM is divided into two major divisions as Location Management (LM) and Handoff Management (HM). The various MM techniques used in mobile networks are shown in Figure 1.

techniques are divided into two types (i) Location Management (LM) and (ii) Handoff Management (HM). The LM is used for tracking where the subscribers are locate, and based on that permitting calls, Short Message Service (SMS) and other mobile phone services are delivered to them with the assistance of Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol (IADMP). The Redundant Update Remove Algorithm (RURA) which is used for reducing the updation between BSC and MSC. Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU) reduces the location updates between Mobile Node (MN) and MSC using IADMP. To provide ubiquitous communication for subscribers without any break in the communication, HM protocols play main role in Mobile Networks. In HM process there are four protocols, (i) Double Threshold Protocol (DTP) (ii) Better Base Station Selection Protocol (BBSSP) using Relative Signal Strength (RSS) (iii) IADMP and (iv) Hybrid Decision Making Protocol (HDMP) are used. The Performances of these protocols are analysed. The HDMP and ETU provide QoS in Mobile Networks.

Figure 1. Overview of Mobility Management Techniques

Keywords-component; Location Management;Handoff Mangement; Intelligent Agent; Enhanced Temporal Updation; RUR Algorithm; IADMP

In Location Management [5], the ability to manage information about the current location of mobile nodes based on their last update is a significant issue. That enables the network to discover the current attachment point of the mobile user for call delivery. Location Management is further divided into (1) Paging and (2) Call delivery and (3) Location updation.

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An important issue in the design of Mobile network is how to manage the locations of mobile nodes and giving continuous connections to the subscribers wherever they go. The Mobile networks encompass the mobility management to provide ubiquitous and continuous communication to the subscribers, billing for the usage and further use. An important issue in the design of Mobile network is how to manage the locations of mobile nodes and giving continuous connections to the subscribers wherever they go. The Mobile networks encompass the mobility management to provide ubiquitous and continuous communication to the subscribers, billing for the usage and further use. II. LOCATION MANAGEMENT

B. Paging Paging is one of the fundamental mobility management procedures of a GSM network and also other cellular networks. MSC will request the BSC to scan all the active nodes under its coverage [1]. The BSC will send all the data to MSC after scanning all the nodes. The Visitor Location Register (VLR) which normally knows the current location of the subscriber to the level of a location area. The VLR also knows which BSC controls cells in that location area. The VLR sends a paging request message to each of the relevant BSC. The BSC then send a paging request to every single cell within the location area. This paging request is broadcast on the cell broadcast channel to which the mobile is listening. C. Call Delivery When a mobile node tries to communicate with other mobile node, the call reaches MSC first through BSC, after that only the connection will be established to concern mobile node through BSC. Whenever the call comes from same or other network, the connection is established based on the Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). TMSI is the identity most commonly sent between the mobile node and the network. An important use of the TMSI is in paging of the mobile. D. Updation The Location update procedure allows a mobile node to inform its active state to MSC through BSC. The updation is divided into three (1) Spatial updation (2) Temporal updation and (3) Enhanced Temporal Updation. This updation will be stored into the MSC through BSC. This updation process will take place periodically. The mobile node sends a message (location update request) to the network about its current location. 1) Spatial Updation: The Spatial updation allows a Mobile Node (MN) to inform to the cellular network whenever it moves from one location area to the next. The mobile nodes should send updation to base station for receiving calls if any comes. When the mobile node does not send the updation it might be considered as a not reachable MN or switched off MN.

The Location Management (LM) maintains the location of the Mobile Nodes to provide services. A micro cell [15] maximum coverage area is called location of a mobile node. A group of locations is called a location area. The LM is divided into three functions, updation follows paging and call delivery. The updating function makes the Mobile Node to update its place to the corresponding BSC. Paging operation is performed by the BSC to track all the locations of the mobile nodes at a time and periodically. A. Analysis of Location Area A GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) network is a radio network of individual cells, called as base stations. Each base station covers a small geographical area which is division of a uniquely identified location area. By integrating the coverage of each of these base stations, a cellular network provides radio coverage over a much wider area. A group of base stations is named as location area.

Figure 2. Geographical location area

2) Temporal Updation: The Temporal updation is performed based on the periodic time. The setting of interval time will be controlled by MSC. In the existing system the MN will inform the location of its exact place periodically. The location of the mobile node will be carried out to MSC through BSC. Figure 4 gives the detailed operation of the existing update of the temporal updation. In this Figure 4, MN sends LU (Location Update) signal to BSC, the BSC forwards signal to MSC for updation. At the same time BSC sends Acknowledgement (ACK) to MN. After receiving signal from BSC, the MSC sends Location Acknowledgement (LA) to is BSC. At last the BSC forwards the LA signal to MN. time taken for single updation between MN and MSC. The operations are performed regularly by the mobile network. In this method, the update function takes place whenever the MN

Figure 3. Geometrical location area

Figure 2, shows the geographical representation of location area and its divisions and the geometrical representation of location area were shown in Figure 3.

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sends update signal. Even though the mobile node is in the same location cell, the BSC forwards the update signal to MSC when it uses temporal updation. To solve this issue, the RURA (Redundant Update Remove Algorithm) is used. This algorithm removes the unnecessary updation between BSC and MSC.

= t0+ t1 + t2 , Tt - Total time for reaching MSC, - Time taken for location updation with ACK, The update signal is sent to BSC from MN in t1 time. The update signal is sent from BSC to MSC in t2 time. When the redundant signal comes from the Mobile node, the BSC will not respond to MSC and Mobile node. But it will update its buffer with time stamp. The TABLE I. shows the movement records [7] of a single mobile node, for three hours using the temporal updation. The updation takes place every 10 minutes once. It updated 21 times for three hours. The Table II shows the movement records of a single mobile node using RURA; it needs only six updates for three hours. The updation takes place every 10 minutes once.
TABLE I. UPDATING RECORDS USING TEMPORAL UPDATION

Figure 4. Existing System - Location Update

a) RURA (Redundant Update Remove Algorithm) RURA removes the redundant update when the mobile node updates the same location. Figure 5, describes the functions of the mobile network using RURA. The BSC encompasses the RURA which never allow the same update to MSC. The Location Updation (LU) signal from MN and BSC, ACK signal from MSC and BSC are shown in figure 5.

TABLE II. Figure 5. Functions of Updating Location using RURA

UPDATING RECORDS USING RURA

Whenever the location update takes place, the BSC will check the location symbol with existing buffer value, suppose the transmitted symbol not equal to existing symbol, it will update into the MSC otherwise it will not inform to the MSC.

Figure 6. Timing diagram for RURA

In figure 6 t0 – Starting time for updation in Mobile node, t1 – Time taken to reach BSC, t2 – Time taken to reach MSC, Tt

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TABLE III.

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT UPDATION TECHNIQUES

Figure 8 shows the graphical representation of packet updation using different updation techniques.

Figure 7. RURA Algorithms

Figure 7 explains the RURA algorithm. The MN signal is checked with existing BSC buffer, whether equal to or not. If the MSC signal is not equal to BSC buffer value, the MN signal will be stored into the BSC buffer as well as the MN signal will be forwarded to the MSC. The proposed RUR Algorithm reduces the updates only between BSC and MSC. In order to reduce the updates in BSC and also in MSC, a new technique known as Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU) is introduced. 3) Enhanced Temporal Updation: The Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU) is a temporal updation technique which is performed based on (1) RURA and (2) IADMP (Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol). The RURA removes the redundant location updates. The MSC encompasses IA which has an IADMP (Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol). This Protocol predicts the updation of the MN. When the MN updation has to take place, when the MN updation has not to take place and how long the updates are needed? And how long no need? For these questions are answerable based on the movement history and call history [16] of MN. The IA analyse the each MN movement history and call history using data mining [[6], [2], [11]] process. IADMA sends the signal to the MSC to send update-lock-temp signal to Mobile node. The MSC temporarily stops the Mobile node updates using update-lock-temp signal. This signal will be sent from MSC to Mobile node through BSC. This updatelock-temp signal will be released automatically after the fixed time. Whenever the update-lock-temp signal is released by the mobile node, it will be informed to MSC. This information also will be analysed by IADMP for future use. Hence the Combination of IADM Protocol and RUR Algorithm is known as Enhanced Temporal Updation (ETU). The TABLE III shows the comparison of packet updation using different updation techniques. The number of updation is reduced in ETU compared to spatial updation and temporal updation.

Figure 8. Mobile Nodes Vs Packet Update TABLE IV shows the Comparison of delay in different updation techniques. Here the delay means, the time taken by the mobile node to receive the acknowledgement signal from MSC. The delay is reduced in ETU compared to other techniques. TABLE IV.
TECHNIQUES

COMPARISON

OF

DELAY

IN

DIFFERENT

UPDATION

Figure 9, a graph plotted for Mobile Nodes Vs Delay. The Enhanced Temporal updation technique compared with other techniques, the ETU takes less updation delay. In ETU the packet updation and delay are reduced compared to other techniques. Hence ETU technique provides QoS to Mobile networks.

Figure 9. Mobile Nodes Vs Delay

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III.

HANDOFF MANAGEMENT

In Cellular Telecommunications, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel to the core network. In Cellular communication handoff is the key matter to provide continuous service to the mobile nodes without any break. A single cell [8] does not cover the whole service area. There are two basic reasons for a handoff such as (1) The mobile node moves out of the range of cell (2) The received signal level decreases continuously until it fall below the minimal requirement for communication [12].Hence Horizontal Handoff refers the same network handoff. The vertical Handoff refers the different network Handoff. A. Analysis of Handoff Techniques The Efficiency of the system handoffs [4] depends on the five characteristics (1) Minimum handoff latency (2) Low packet loss (3) Limited handoff failure (4) Intelligent Agent success rate high (5) Better Base Station Selection. An analytical model has been previously developed for evaluating the performance of handoff algorithms based on Relative Signal Strength (RSS) [[4], [10]] measurements, i.e., the difference of signal strength from two Base stations, Absolute Signal Strength (ASS) which is the averaged value of the received signal level from current serving Base station measured by the mobile unit. The Measurement reports [8] including the quality of current link are sent to BSC by the Mobile node about every half second. The BSC receive the Mobile node signal and take decision, then it sends Handoffrequest signal to MSC. Then MSC will send the signal to the BSC that activate the next Base station. Then the mobile node is taken over by the activated base station. The acknowledged signal is sent by mobile node to BSC and then BSC to MSC.

round-trip time. The speed estimation unit measures the speed of the mobile node. Based on the speed of the Mobile node and signal strength, the handoff is initiated in prior to support seamless communication. When the Mobile nodes move close to next base station, the base station informs to BSC about its very low signal. Then BSC takes decision and request the MSC for handoff. Many cases this kind of handoff initiations are failed. For example, the person carrying mobile node may go very close to Base station but he may change his direction at last minute. In this situation the handoff process may be wasted. In order to avoid this IADM Protocol is introduced to analyse the movement history of the Mobile node. At last IADMP will suggest whether handoff initiation should be done or not. Better base station is identified by BBSSP. B. IADMP (Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol) The Intelligent Agent Decision Making protocol is used to provide QoS in mobile networks. The IADMP does the following works i) Predicts the updation of the mobile node based on the mobile nodes service history and ii) Take the decision which base station is better when the handoff take place based on the mobile nodes handoff history. In this work Apriori Algorithm is used for mining frequent itemsets.
TABLE V. MOVEMENT HISTORY OF MOBILE NODE

The table V refers the data records of mobile node movements based on location history. In the initial process it collects all the details from MSC. The IADMP does the data mining process to find the frequent data sets using Apriori algorithm. The Apriori algorithm, the first step, it scans all of the transactions in order to count the number of occurrences of each item. Here number 2 is taken as a minimum support count. The algorithm counts the each candidate frequent occurrences, the frequency of the occurrences less than 2 means it will not consider for future use, otherwise it will be taken into account to take decision. At last the high frequently occurring pattern is retrieved. Using this pattern, decision is taken by the IADMP. C. HDMP (Hybrid Decision Making Protocol) The Hybrid DMP performs the functions based on the BBSS Protocol using RSS with IADMP information. The IADMP makes decision from the history of the Mobile node which is based on the data mining operations. The BBSS Protocol finds the better base station using signal strengths. Figure 11 shows the procedure for Hybrid DMP.

Figure 10. Proposed Handoff Architecture

As shown in Figure 10 the Proposed Handoff architecture [9] has seven modules. The Neighbour Discover unit discovers the neighbouring base station based on signal strength and

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Figure 12. Destination time Vs Signal Strength

Figure 12 shows the graph for Destination time Vs Signal strength. When the mobile node moves to base station the destination time decreasing, simultaneously the signal strength of the mobile node increases.
TABLE VIII. COMPARISON OF DELAY IN DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS

Figure 11. Hybrid DMP

The HDMP (Hybrid Decision Making Protocol) is a mixing of IADMP and BBSSP. The HDMP is compared with Double Threshold Protocol (DTP) and BBSSP. The simulation works are performed with different speed of mobile node and the results are tabulated in table VI.
TABLE VI. MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS OF MOBILE NODE

The table VIII shows the comparison of different protocols, in this table delay refers to the time taken to send signal from Mobile node to MSC through BSC, as well as acknowledgement signal is sent back from Mobile node to correspondent BSC to remove old information. The Double Threshold Protocol has two threshold points to alert the handoff initiation. In this protocol the delay is high as shown in the table VIII. The Better Base Station Selection Protocol (BBSSP) selects the better base station for handoff using RSS (Relative Signal Strength) and ASS (Absolute Signal Strength). Hence the IADMP (Intelligent Agent Decision Making Protocol) takes less delay than BBSSP when handoff occurs. The HDMP (Hybrid Decision Making Protocol) is the combination of BBSSP and IADMP. The HDMP makes less delay than other protocols.

Table VII shows the measurement analysis of Handoff. The handoff initiation takes place before Mobile node reaches the destination.
TABLE VII. MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS OF HANDOFF

Figure 13. Graphs for Comparison of Handoff Protocols

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Figure 13 shows the comparison of delay for different handoff Protocols. As shown in the graph HDMP takes less delay in Handoff. IV. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

[8] [9]

[10]

In mobility management, the following techniques are implemented i) RUR Algorithm ii) ETU (Enhanced Temporal Updation) technique iii) DTP (Double Threshold Protocol) iv) IADMP (Intelligent Decision Making Protocol) and v) HDMP (Hybrid Decision Making Protocol) using Network simulator 2. A. Conclusion Location management and Handoff management protocols are implemented and improved the Quality of Service in mobile networks. The proposed handoff architecture is designed to provide the continuous service to mobile user. The Service providers and subscribers are more benefited due to the technical advancement. Hence these protocols and algorithm can be used in the next generation wireless communications systems to reduce the location management signalling costs.

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[13]

[14] [15] [16]

Jochen H.Schiller(2006), “Mobile Communications” Pearson Education, Ltd. Liebsch.M, A.Singh, H.Chaskar, D.Funato and E.Shim, (2004), “Candidate Access Router Discovery”, Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, draft-ietf-seamoby-card-protocol-07.txt. Ning Zhang and Jack M.Holtzman (1996), ”Analysis of Handoff algorithms using absolute and Relative measurements” IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 45, No. 1. Patricia Serrano-Alvarado, Claudia Roncancio, Michel Adiba, (2004), “A Survey of Mobile Transactions”, Source Distributed and Parallel Databases archive Vol. 16 , Issue 2 . Shantidev Mohanty and Ian F.Akyildiz, (2006), ”A Cross-Layer (Layer 2 + 3) Handoff Management Protocol for Next-Generation Wireless Systems”, IEEE Transactions. Shiow-yang Wu and Hsiu-Hao Fan (2010), “Activity-Based Proactive Data Management in Mobile Environments” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 9, No. 3. The Ns Manual http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/nsdocumentation.Html Theodore S. Rappaport (2007), “Wireless Communications Principles and Practice” Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd. New Delhi. Xian Wang, Pingzhi Fan, Jie Li and Yi Pan, (2008) Modeling and Cost Analysis of Movement-Based Location Management for PCS Networks With HLR/VLR Architecture, General Location Area and Cell Residence Time Distributions”, IEEE Transactions on Vehhicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 6. AUTHORS PROFILE

B. Future Enhancement In coming years, IADMP will play major role in mobile computing. The Intelligent Agent decision making protocol will be adapted with existing protocols without making any difficulties. Of course, numerous protocols may be created to improve QoS but the requirement of the subscribers necessity may be varying based on the technological advancement. It may increase the software maintenance cost and system complexity, but there is no question for failure of the handoff failure. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to express our cordial thanks to Dr. V. Lakshmi Prabha for her full support and valuable suggestions to continue our research work. REFERENCES
[1] Abhishek Roy, Archan Misra and Sajal K. Das (2007), “Location Update versus Paging Trade-Off in Cellular Networks: An Approach Based on Vector Quantization”, Vol 6, pp. 1426 – 1440. Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F.Korth and S.Sudarshan(2006), MC Graw Hill Highe Education publication, “Database System Concepts” pp. 723-753. I.F. Akyildiz et al. (2007), “Mobility Management for Next Generation Wireless Systems” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 8, pp. 1347-1384. Ezil Sam Leni. A and Srivatsa. S. KH (2008), “A Handoff Technique to Improve TCP Performance in Next Generation Wireless Networks”, Information Technology Journal 7(3). pp. 504-509. Ian F.Akyildiz and Wenye Wang (2002), “A Dynamic Location Management Scheme for Next Generation Multitier PCS Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless communications, Vol. 1, No. 1. Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber (2001), “Data Mining Concepts and Techniques”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers (An imprint of Elsevier). Jin Soung Yoo, Shashi Shekhar. (2009), “Similarity-Profiled Temporal Association Mining” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. Identify applicable sponsor/s here. (sponsors)

Selvan.C is doing his research in the area of Mobile Computing in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. His research work is supported by University Grant Commission, New Delhi, India. He has registered his research in Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. His area of interest is Mobile Computing and Mobile Communication. He is the student member of IEEE. Dr.R.Shanmugalakshmi is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. She has published more than 40 International / National Journals. Her research area includes Image processing, Neural Networks and Mobile Computing. She has received Vijya Ratna Award from India International Friendship Society in the year of 1996. She has received Mahila Jyothi Award from Integrated Council for Socio-Economic Progress in the year 2001 and she has received Eminent Educationalist Award from International Institute of Management, New Delhi in the year of 2008. She is a member of Computer Society of India, ISTE and FIE.

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