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**Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method
**

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 21

The MomentDistribution Method: Frames with Sidesway

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The number of unknowns is this case are: joint rotations θ B and θ C and member rotationψ . one also needs to evaluate joint translations (sidesway). 3. that frames which are unsymmetrical or frames which are loaded unsymmetrically usually get displaced either to the right or to the left. Joint B and C get translated by the same amount as axial deformations are not considered and hence only one independent member rotation need to be considered. Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway. The procedure to analyze rigid frames undergoing lateral displacement using moment-distribution method is explained in section 21. For example in frame shown in Fig 21. Kharagpur . It has been pointed in lesson 17. the loading is symmetrical but the geometry of frame is unsymmetrical and hence sidesway needs to be considered in the analysis. Version 2 CE IIT. rigid frames restrained against sidesway are analyzed using moment-distribution method. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams.1.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. Extend moment-distribution method for frames undergoing sidesway. 2.2 using an example. 4. in such frames apart from evaluating joint rotations. Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway by the moment-distribution method. Draw free-body diagrams of plane frame. In other words. 21. 5.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.

The structure shown in Fig.2b. 21.2b.they are .2b and Fig. Fig 21. 21. The systems shown in figures 21. sidesway is prevented by artificial support at C . M CD and M DC be the balanced moments obtained by distributing fixed end moments due to applied loads while allowing only joint rotations ( θ B and θ C ) and preventing sidesway. the method of superposition is used. Kharagpur . In system 21. M CB . For analyzing frames with sidesway. M BA . 21.2 Procedure A special procedure is required to analyze frames with sidesway using momentdistribution method.2c are analyzed separately and superposed to obtain the final answer.2c. The procedure to calculate independent rotations is explained in lesson 22. In the first step. Apply all the external loads on frame shown in Fig.21. 21. ' ' ' ' ' ' Let M AB . Since for the frame. Now. Version 2 CE IIT. sidesway is prevented. moment-distribution method as discussed in the previous lesson is applied and beam end moments are calculated.2b and 21. identify the number of independent rotations (ψ ) in the structure. calculate reactions H A1 and H D1 (ref.2a is expressed as the sum of two systems: Fig.3a). M BC .

1) R = P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) (21.H A1 = ' ' M AB + M BA Pa + h2 h2 H D1 again. ' ' M CD + M DC = h1 (21.2) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

from statics calculate horizontal force F due to arbitrary sidesway Δ' . Version 2 CE IIT.2c apply a horizontal force F in the opposite direction of R . However. Kharagpur . M CD and M DC are the balanced moment obtained by distributing the fixed end moments due to assumed sidesway Δ' at joints B and C . member rotations ψ are related to joint '' '' '' '' '' '' translation which is known. there is no way one could analyze the frame for horizontal force F . Since joint displacement is known beforehand. Now. by moment-distribution method as sway comes in to picture. Now k F = R . Calculate the fixed end beam moments in the column AB and CD for the imposed horizontal displacement. Instead of applying F . In this case.In Fig 21. M CB . Let M AB . M BA . one could use moment-distribution method to analyse this frame. M BC . then the superposition of beam end moments of system (b) and k times (c) gives the results for the original structure. apply arbitrary known displacement / sidesway Δ' as shown in the figure.

H A2 . k= P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) ( H A2 + H D 2 ) (21. then the above procedure needs to be modified and is discussed in the next lesson. Version 2 CE IIT. H D1 and H D 2 in 21.2.4). by method of superposition kF = R or k = R / F Substituting the values of R and F from equations (21.4) F = ( H A2 + H D 2 ) In Fig 21.3) (21. Kharagpur .5) Now substituting the values of H A1 .5. beam end moment in the original structure is obtained as.2) and (21. M original = M system ( b ) + kM system ( c ) (21.6) If there is more than one independent member rotation.H A2 '' '' M AB + M BA = h2 '' '' M CD + M DC h1 H D2 = (21. ⎛ M ' + M ' BA Pa ⎞ M ' CD + M ' DC ⎟+ P − ⎜ AB + ⎜ h2 h2 ⎟ h1 ⎝ ⎠ k= ⎛ M ' ' AB + M ' ' BA M ' 'CD + M ' ' DC ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ h2 h1 ⎝ ⎠ Hence.

571 . Assume EI to be constant for all members. In the first step.583EI Version 2 CE IIT.4b).25 EI . joint C can also rotate and also translate by an unknown amount Δ .4a. Kharagpur DFBA = 0.429 Joint C : . This problem has to be solved in two steps.583EI ∑ K = 0. Also sketch elastic curve. evaluate the beam-end moment by preventing the sidesway. a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 0. K CB = 0. By appropriately superposing the two results.333EI Joint B : ∑ K = 0. K CD = 0.333EI . K BC = 0. the beam end moment of the original structure is obtained.Example 21.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 21. Solution In the given problem. In the second step calculate beam end moments by moment-distribution method for known translation (see Fig 21.25 EI . DFBC = 0.

The moment-distribution for this frame is shown in Fig 21. 3.429 . b) Calculate fixed end moment due to applied loading. M ' BA . DFCD = 0.269 = 3.268 3 = −3.635 kN (←) . (2) Now the frame is prevented from sidesway by providing a support at C as shown in Fig 21.DFCB = 0.m .635 KN (→) .4c. Let M ' AB .636 − 17.635 + 7.m F M CB = −1 0 kN. 3 H D1 = Version 2 CE IIT. F M BA = 0 kN. Kharagpur . H A1 = M ' AB + M ' BA 3 = − 3.571 . Now calculate horizontal reactions at A and D from equations of statics.m . F M DC = 0 kN.m . F M CD = 0 kN.m (1) F M BC = +1 0 kN. M ' CD and M ' DC be the balanced end moments. F M AB = 0 .4b (ii).

Choose any convenient value. Since Δ' is arbitrary.635) = − 10 kN (→) (3) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary known sidesway Δ ' . F M AB = − 150 EI Now calculate 6 EI ψ L =− 6 EI 150 × (− ) = 100 kN. Let Δ' = fixed end beam moments for this arbitrary sidesway.m (4) Version 2 CE IIT.R = 10 − ( −3.m F F M CD = M DC = + 100 kN.635 + 3.m 3 3EI F M BA = 100 kN. Kharagpur .

30 kN (→) Version 2 CE IIT.98 + 76.The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig 24.48 = 43.4d.49 = = 43. Kharagpur .15 kN (←) 3 52. Now calculate horizontal reactions H A 2 and H D 2 .97 + 76.15 kN (←) 3 H A2 = H D2 F = −86. 52.

1161 − 86.m M CD = +7.517 kN.m The actual sway is computed as.48) = +5.49) = +12.244 kN.635 + 0. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −3. k F = R .636 + 0.269 + 0.415 EI The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations. Thus kF cancel out the holding force R such that final result is for the frame without holding force.m M DC = +3.1161(+52. Now actual moments in the frame is obtained by superposing the solution ( ii ) on the solution obtained by multiplying case ( iii ) by k .268 + 0.97) = −13.m M BC = +7.98) = −1. k= − 10 = 0.m M CB = −7. Δ L F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] L 2 EI [2θ B + θ A − 3ψ AB ] L where ψ AB = − F M BA = M BA + Version 2 CE IIT.1161 × 150 EI = 17.268 + 0.1161(+76.1161(+52.Let k be a factor by which the solution of case ( iii ) needs to be multiplied.13 (5) Now the actual end moments in the frame are.1161(−52.98) = +1. Δ = kΔ ' = 0.117 kN.1161(−52.1161(+76. Kharagpur .117 kN.268 + 0.419 kN. Thus.97) = +13.m M BA = −7.418 kN.

In the above equation. except θ A and θ B all other quantities are known. θA = 0 . 21. θB = − 9. Kharagpur . EI The elastic curve is shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.55 .4e. Solving for θ A and θ B .

583EI Version 2 CE IIT. At joint B : K BC = 0.333EI ∑ K = 0. Neglect axial deformations.583EI DFBA = 0. K BA = 0.25 EI K CD = 0. At joint C : DFBC = 0.429 ∑ K = 0.25 EI . Kharagpur . K CB = 0.5a by moment-distribution method.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. 21.571 .Example 21.333EI . a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors. Solution: In this frame joint rotations B and C and translation of joint B and C need to be evaluated. The moment of inertia of all the members is shown in the figure.

5b).0 kN. DFCD = 0.571 b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading. F M CD = 0 kN. M BA = −9. 21. 21. F M DC = 0 kN.m c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C .m .e. The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig. F M AB = 12 × 3 × 32 F = 9.m F M BC = 0 kN.DFCB = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.5c. Kharagpur .429 . Case A in Fig.0 kN.m 62 F M CB = 0 kN. Carry out momentdistribution ( i.m .m .

154 − 0. ψ= × (− 6 6 EI L 150 .347 − 0. Version 2 CE IIT.23 kN ( → ) H A1 = d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ' (case B.m . EI F M AB = − F M BA = +50 kN.694 − 3.614 + 6 = 7.Now calculate horizontal reaction at A and D from equations of statics. 21.578 H D1 = = −0.m .577) = −5.347 kN ( ← ) 6 −1.5c) Calculate fixed end moments for the arbitrary sidesway of Δ' = 6 E (2 I ) 12 EI 150 ) = +50 kN. Kharagpur . Fig.577 kN ( → ) 3 R = 12 − (7. 11.

911 + 41. the shear condition for the frame is (vide Fig.F M CD = − 6E(I ) 6 EI 150 ) = +100 kN.285 = = 39. calculate reactions H A 2 and H D 2 .57 + 73. 21. The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig.347 kN (→) e) Final results Now. Kharagpur . H A2 = H D2 32.5d.457 = 12.395 kN (←) 6 46.952 kN (←) 3 F = −(12. Using equations of static equilibrium.m .952) = −52.395 + 39.m .5b) Version 2 CE IIT. 21. ψ =− × (− 3 3EI L F M DC = +100 kN.

911) = 0.129(+73.( H A1 + H D1 ) + k ( H A2 + H D 2 ) = 12 (7. Kharagpur .457) = +4.m M CD = −1.35 EI 150 EI = The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations.344 − 0.129(−46.952) = 12 k = 0.876 kN.629 kN.694 + 0.395 + 39.285) = +8.m Version 2 CE IIT.129(+46. F M AB − M AB = + 2 E (2 I ) 2θ A + θ B − 3ψ L [ ] ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ or [2θ A + θ B ] = [2θ B + θ A ] = L 4 EI L 4 EI 12 EIψ ⎤ L ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F ⎢ M AB − M AB + L ⎥ = 4 EI ⎢ M AB − ⎜ M AB − L ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ L ⎡ 12 EIψ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F M BA − M BA + = ⎢ M BA − ⎜ M BA − L ⎢ L ⎥ 4 EI ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ M AB = +17.457) = +17.039 kN.m M BC = 3.039 kN.129(+32. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = 11.m M DC = −0.129(+41.629 kN.129 × 19.154 + 0.578 + 0.m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0.614 + 0.911) = −0.614 + 0.129(−32.129 Now the actual end moments in the frame are.853 kN.853 kN.m M CB = −1.577) + k (12.154 + 0.m M BA = −3.457) = −4.

6a.m kN.45 F AB F BA kN.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. 21.129(50) = 15.M BA = 0.55) ⎝ 2⎠ = = 0.769 θB = EI Example 21.55 ⎛ 1⎞ change in near end + ⎜ .m ( M ) = 9 + 0. Version 2 CE IIT.629 kN.0 3EI 6 4. The moment of inertia of all the members are shown in the figure.45) + ⎜ − ⎟ (0.⎟ change in far end ⎝ 2⎠ θA = 3EI L ⎛ 1⎞ (17.m ( M ) = −9 + 0. Kharagpur .039 − 15.129(50) = −2.629 + 2.

m (2) c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C .1 K BC = 0.6b. DFCD = 0.392 EI At joint B : ∑ K = 0.561 ∑ K = 0. Carry out momentdistribution for this case as shown in Fig.892EI DFCB = 0.50 kN.50 kN.439 . Version 2 CE IIT.50 EI K CB = 0. 21. At joint C : DFBC = 0.392 EI .439 (1) b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading. K CD = 0. F F F F M AB = M BA = M CD = M DC = 0 kN.892EI DFBA = 0.50 EI . 5 .m F M CB = −2.m F M BC = 2.Solution: a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 2 EI = 0.561 . Kharagpur .

5d.Now calculate reactions from free body diagram shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. 21. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .522 − 0.762 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 2.456 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT.458 kN ( → ) from (4) H D1 = 1.998 kN ( ↑ ) (5) Thus from (3) H A1 = −1.526 + 0.Column AB ∑M A = 0 ⇒ 5H A1 + 1.284 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 1.526 − 10 ×1 = 0 V1 = 5.522 − 1.002 kN ( ↑ ) V2 = 4.29 Column CD ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D1 − 1.764 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = −2.

Kharagpur .75 EI The member rotations for this arbitrary sidesway is shown in Fig. 21.6e. Version 2 CE IIT.002 kN ( ← ) (7) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ ' . Calculate fixed end beam moments for arbitrary sidesway of Δ '= 12.∑F X =0 H A1 + H D1 + R − 5 = 0 R = +5.

0 kN.ψ AB = BB " Δ =− 1 . Now reactions can be calculated from statics. Version 2 CE IIT.m The moment-distribution for the arbitrary sway is shown in Fig.m F M CD = − 6 EI CD 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.m F M BC = − 6 EI BC 6 E ( I ) ⎛ 12.0 kN.m LBC 2 ⎝ 5 EI ⎠ F M CB = −7. LAB LAB 2Δ ' Δ2 = = 0.1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M DC = +6.0 kN.4Δ ' 5 Δ1 = Δ' 5. 21.ψ CD = − (clockwise) 5 5 Δ 2 2Δ ' tan α Δ ' = = (counterclockwise) 2 2 5 F M AB = − 6 EI AB 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.6f.0 kN.1Δ ' = cos α 5 ψ AB = − ψ BC = Δ' Δ' (clockwise) .75 ⎞ ψ BC = − ⎜ ⎟ = −7.65 kN.65 kN.m LAB 5.75 ⎞ ψ CD = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6. Kharagpur .75 ⎞ ψ AB = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6.1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M BA = +6.m LCD 5.

Kharagpur .567 kN ( ↓ ) .883 kN ( ← ) from 4 H D 2 = 3.567 − 6.283 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 12.283 − 6.567 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = 12.85 ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D 2 − 6.883 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT.567 = 0 (5) V1 = −6.Column AB ∑M Column CD A = 0 ⇒ 5H A2 − 6.567 kN ( ↑ ) Thus from 3 H A2 = +3. V2 = +6.567 + 6.85 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 6.

m M CD = 1.764 + 0. Kharagpur . The numerical examples are explained with the help of free-body diagrams.644(6.m M BA = −1.644(+6.567) = −2.644(+6.751 kN.762 + 0.75 EI Summary In this lesson.m M CB = −1.212 EI 12.766 kN ( ← ) (7) e) Final results kF =R k= 5.567) = 5.526 + 0.644 7. the moments in the frame is obtained.526 + 0.m M DC = 0.F = 7.283) = 4.644(−6.522 + 0.644 × = 8.644(−6. The moment-distribution method is applied in two steps: in the first step.703 kN.808 kN.644(6.703 kN.282 kN.m M BC = 1. the frames which are not restrained against sidesway are identified and solved by the moment-distribution method. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −0.m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0. The deflected shape of the frame is sketched to understand its deformation under external loads. Version 2 CE IIT.522 + 0.766 Now the actual end moments in the frame are. the frame which is undergoing an arbitrary but known sidesway is analysed. Using shear equation for the frame.751 kN. the frame prevented from sidesway but subjected to external loads is analysed and subsequently.283) = +3.567) = 2.567) = − − 5.002 = 0.

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