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product. The overall structure of the process includes pre-treatment, solidliquid separation, concentration, and purification and formulation. Evaporation falls into the concentration stage of downstream processing and is widely used to concentrate foods, chemicals, and salvage solvents. The goal of evaporation is to vaporize most of the water from a solution containing a desired product. After initial pre-treatment and separation, a solution often contains over 85% water. This is not suitable for industry usage because of the cost associated with processing such a large quantity of solution, such as the need for larger equipment. Water can be removed from solutions in ways other than evaporation, including membrane processes, liquid-liquid extractions, crystallization, and precipitation. Evaporation can be distinguished from some other drying methods in that the final product of evaporation is a concentrated liquid, not a solid. It is also relatively simple to use and understand since it has been widely used on a large scale. In order to concentrate a product by water removal, an auxiliary phase is used which allows for easy transport of the solvent (water) rather than the solute. Water vapor is used as the auxiliary phase when concentrating non-volatile components, such as proteins and sugars. Heat is added to the solution and part of the solvent is converted into vapor. Heat is the main tool in evaporation, and the process occurs more readily at high temperature and low pressures. Heat is needed to provide enough energy for the molecules of the solvent to leave the solution and move into the air surrounding the solution. The energy needed can be expressed as an excess thermodynamic potential of the water in the solution. Leading to one of the biggest problems in industrial evaporation, the process requires enough energy to remove the water from the solution and to supply the heat of evaporation. When removing the water, more than 99% of the energy needed goes towards supplying the heat of evaporation. The need to overcome the surface tension of the solution also requires energy. The energy requirement of this process is very high because a phase transition must be caused; the water must go from a liquid to a vapor. When designing evaporators, engineers must quantify the amount of steam needed for every mass unit of water removed when a concentration is given. An energy balance must be used based on an assumption that a negligible amount of heat is lost to the system’s surroundings. The heat that needs to be supplied by the condensing steam will approximately equal the heat needed to heat and vaporize the water. Another consideration is the size of the heat exchanger which affects the heat transfer rate. A = heat transfer area q = overall heat transfer rate How an evaporator works The solution containing the desired product is fed into the evaporator and passes a heat source. The applied heat converts the water in the solution into vapor. The vapor is removed from the rest of the solution and is condensed while the now concentrated solution is either fed into a second evaporator or is removed. The evaporator as a machine generally consists of
If up to 98% of a wastes can be vaporized. since it requires a precise evaluation of the actual level of the process liquor inside the tubes. This design is then usually applied to clear. In foods. but only a few can be used when food is being processed. Cutting down waste handling cost is another major application of evaporation for large companies. Recent applications tend to favor the falling film pattern rather than this one. Corrosion can also occur when acidic solutions such as citrus juices are concentrated. when choosing an evaporator. industry can greatly reduce the amount of money that would otherwise be allocated towards waste handling. Submergence is therefore not desired. Foaming can also create a problem since dealing with the excess foam can be costly in time and efficiency. The concentrating and separating section removes the vapor being produced from the solution. Tubes are usually quite long (4+ meters). The surface damage caused can shorten the long-life of evaporators. The condenser condenses the separated vapor. then the vacuum or pump provides pressure to increase circulation. Another example of evaporation is in the recovery of sodium hydroxide in kraft pulping. It is also used as a drying process and can be applied in this way to laboratories where preservation of long-term activity or stabilization is needed (for enzymes for example). Sizing this type of evaporator is usually a delicate task.four sections. especially when the process is applied to the food industry. These evaporators could work inefficiently because of a loss of circulation. which can vary. like coffee. Some evaporators are sensitive to differences in viscosity and consistency of the dilute solution. Legally. Rising film (Long Tube Vertical) evaporator In this type of evaporator. . proteins and polysaccharides can create such deposits that reduce the efficiency of heat transfer. sometimes a small recycle is provided. Evaporation is also used in order to recover expensive solvents such as hexane which would otherwise be wasted. The most common medium consists of parallel tubes but others have plates or coils. Steam is fed into this section. due to heating made (usually by steam) outside the same. non-salting solutions. One of the most important applications of evaporation is that on the food and drink industry. and this needs to be achieved for many different targets today. The heating section contains the heating medium. the disadvantage being to be prone to quick scaling of the internal surface of the tubes. the qualities of the product solution need to be taken into heavy consideration. Quality and flavor of food can also suffer during evaporation. Many foods that are made to last for a considerable amount of time or food that needs a certain consistency. The pump of an evaporator may need to be changed if the evaporator needs to be used to concentrate a highly viscous solution. boiling takes place inside the tubes. This type of evaporator is therefore quite efficient. need to go through an evaporation step during processing. Fouling also occurs when hard deposits form on the surfaces of the heating mediums in the evaporators. Problems Technical problems can arise during evaporations. Overall. Applications The goal of evaporation is to concentrate a target liquid. the creation of water vapor bubbles inside the tube creates an ascensional flow enhancing the heat transfer coefficient. these methods are costly. Antifoam agents are to be used. all producers of waste must dispose of the waste in a methods that abides by environmental guidelines.
High heat transfer coefficients are required in order to achieve equally balanced heat transfer resistances. such as naval ships and passenger ships. In the majority of applications the heating medium is placed on the outside of the tubes. Falling Film Evaporators A falling film evaporator is an industrial device to concentrate solutions. The evaporator is a special type of heat exchanger. is the use of the Reverse Osmosis principle for fresh water production instead of evaporators. Partial evaporation is achieved and the vapour passes through a demister before reaching the condenser section. For this reason. The fluid distributor has to be designed carefully in order to maintain an even liquid distribution for all tubes along which the solution falls. from where it is pumped to the storage tanks. Sea water is pumped through the condenser section to cool the vapour sufficiently to precipitate it. Sterilisation is carried out after the evaporator.hence the name. the process fluid to be evaporated flows downwards by gravity as a continuous film. In this system. In all cases. The combination of these effects allows very high heat transfer coefficients. progressing downwards (falling) . but there are also applications where the process fluid evaporates on the outside of horizontal or vertical tubes. Evaporators are usually of the shell-and-tube type (known as an Atlas Plant) or of the Plate Type (such as the type designed by Alfa Laval). increasing the shear force acting on the liquid film and therefore also the velocity of the solution. condensing steam is commonly used as a heating medium. Because the cooling water (which is chemically treated fresh water) is at a temperature of 70-80 degrees C. separation between the liquid phase (the solution) and the gaseous phase takes place inside the tubes. especially with heat sensitive components. as can fluctuations in engine load. In order to maintain conservation of mass as this process proceeds. it would not be possible to flash off any water vapour unless the pressure in the heat exhanger vessel was dropped. a brine-air ejector venturi is used to create a vacuum inside the vessel. The result can be a high film velocity of a progressively thinner film resulting in increasingly turbulent flow. In general evaporation takes place inside vertical tubes. in which case heat transfer is controlled purely by conduction through the film. A Salinometer monitors salt content and diverts the flow of distillate from the storage tanks if the salt content exceeds the alarm limit. thus reducing their reliance on shore-based supplies. Diesel engined ships often utilise waste heat as an energy source for producing fresh water. The fluid will create a film along the tube walls. the evaporator is adjusted as seawater temperature changes. the downward vapor velocity downwards increases. Temperature. The distillate gathers in a tray. The heat transfer coefficient on the evaporating side of the tube is mostly determined by the hydrodynamic flow conditions of the film. Therefore. Steam ships must be able to produce high quality distillate in order to maintain boiler-water levels. To alleviate this problem. For low massflows or high viscosities the film flow can be laminar. An alternative in some vessels. For internally evaporating fluids. Therefore in this condition the heat transfer coefficient decreases with increased . and shut down altogether when the ship is manoeuvring. where it is cooled by concentrated sea water (brine). Sea water temperature can interfere with production.Marine Use Large ships usually carry evaporating plants to produce fresh water. production and vacuum are controlled by regulating the system valves. the engine cooling water is passed through a heat exchanger.
Not considering the vapour separator. corrosive viscous solutions Forced circulation evaporators can handle salting. making it ideal for heat-sensitive product such as milk. The hold up time is short & liquid doesn't get overheated. . They are not suitable for salting & severely scaling liquids or solutions. Short tube vertical Evaporators • • • Reclusively less expensive Facilitate easy de-scaling Can be widely used in sugar industry. pharmaceuticals and many others. Under turbulent conditions the heat transfer coefficient increases with increased flow. Short tube evaporators are the oldest but still widely used. They are most widely used in Sugar Industry in evaporation of cane-sugar juice. These evaporators have relatively high hold up or residence time thus not suitable for heat sensitive liquids. Forced Circulation Evaporators • • Can handle salting. Therefore they are often used in deep vacuum applications. They are best suitable for crystalline products. scaling and fouling liquids Best suitable for crystalline products. These are unsuited to salting or severely scaling liquids. simple in construction. corrosive & viscous solutions. Rising Film Evaporators • • • Useful for moderately heal sensitive product Compact and simple design Most suitable for corrosive liquids In rising film feed solution forms a rising film in the tubes.6K. Falling film evaporators are not suitable for crystallizing liquids. They are suitable for corrosive liquids. These evaporators are compact.mass flow. feed solution forms a film in the evaporator tubes & gets evaporated. They suffer frequently from plugging of tubes. Falling Film Evaporators are also characterised by very low pressure drops. scaling & fouling liquids. salting in tubes & poor circulation. Evaporation takes place at very low mean temperature differences between heating medium and process stream. therefore these devices are ideal for heat recovery in multi stage processes  A further advantage of the falling film evaporator is the very short residence time of the liquid and the absence of superheating of the same. These are best suited for heat sensitive materials such as fruit juices. typically between 3 . fruit juice. Falling Film Evaporators • • The feed gets distributed and thin film is formed Hold up and residence time is short hence liquid does not get overheated In Falling film evaporators. the residence time inside the tubes is measured in seconds. With increased mass flow the film becomes wavy laminar and then turbulent.
The length of the boiling tubes will typically not exceed 23 ft (7m). At the same time the production of vapor increases and the product is pressed as a thin film on the walls of the tubes. This type of evaporator is often used with product recirculation. where some of the formed concentrate is reintroduced back to the feed inlet in order to produce sufficient liquid loading inside the heating tubes. We offer single effect or multi-effect evaporators according to product properties & /or clients requirement with or without thermal compression to lower temperatures & reduce residence time of product. and the liquid rises upwards. propeller calendria type evaporator can be used for crystalline products. A good example is the Roberts evaporator. A number of different designs have been developed using this basic principle. Otherwise the energy of the vapor flow is not sufficient to convey the liquid and to produce the rising film. The ascending force of this steam produced during the boiling causes liquid and vapors to flow upwards in parallel flow. This type is seldom used as a crystallizing evaporator. This type of evaporator has a wide circulation tube in the center of the heating . This is advantageous during evaporation of highly viscous products and products that have a tendency to foul the heating surfaces. which is the oldest type of circulation evaporator. This co-current upward movement against gravity has the beneficial effect of creating a high degree of turbulence in the liquid. By installing a propeller.They are relatively inexpensive & easy de-scaling. steam begins to form. Rising Film Evaporators Rising Film Evaporators These operate on a "thermo-siphon" principle. Feed product (A) enters the bottom of the heating tubes and as it heats. They suffer from mild scaling but can be cleaned mechanically. A: Product B: Vapor C: Concentrate D: Heating Steam E: Condensate Figure 1: Rising Film Evaporator Usually there must be a rather high temperature difference between the heating and boiling sides of this type of evaporator.
falling film. The Roberts evaporator is still widely used in the sugar industry. Basically these units consist of a vertical single pass shell and tube heat exchanger discharging into a relatively small vapor head. Used Evaporators Evaporators are used to concentrate a solution. a finer and faster moving film results. As the liquid in the tubes boil the vapor generated from boiling fills the core of the tube forcing the liquid to the side wall. The driving force for flow of liquid through the tubes is the difference in density between the liquid in the down comer and the tubes. Another method of increasing the utilization of energy is to use a Thermo Compression evaporator. Long tube evaporators are the most economical design. Long tube vertical evaporators accomplish more evaporation than in all other types combined. As the liquid moves up the tube more vapor is formed and the remaining liquid thins out and moves more rapidly up the tube increasing the heat transfer coefficients and reducing the residence time Falling Film – feed liquor enters the top of the tube and flows down the tube wall as a thin film. Units may be once through or recirculating. called a vapor separator. separating the vapor from the solution. and the tube diameters are from 0. Types of Evaporators Short tube vertical evaporators are natural circulation evaporators. yielding higher heat transfer coefficients and reduced contact times. The tube bundle contains a large circular down comer that returns concentrated liquid above the top tube sheet to below the bottom tube sheet for product withdrawal. and rising/falling film types.tube bundle through which concentrate flows back to the bottom of the tube bundle. The flow of vapor and liquid may be co-current in which the vapor-liquid separation takes place at the bottom. They are also categorized individually as rising film. or counter-current where the liquid is drawn from the bottom and the vapor from the top . All evaporation equipment contains a heat exchanger for heating the process solution and a means to effectively separate the vapor from the residual liquid. Evaporator performance is rated by Lbs per hour or Kg per hour of evaporation. The greatest increase in steam economy is achieved by reusing the vaporized solvent. This type is also called a MVR or mechanical vapor recompression. depending upon the application. Since the film is moving in the direction of gravity.75” to 2” OD. This is done in a Multiple Effect Evaporator by using the vapor from one effect as the heating medium for another effect in which boiling takes place at a lower temperature and pressure. Tube length is typically12’ to 36’. in which the vapor is compressed so that it will condense at a temperature high enough to permit its use as the heating medium in the same evaporator. They are also natural circulation evaporators. These units consist of short tubes 4-6 feet long and 2” to 4” in diameter set between two horizontal tube sheets that span the evaporator body diameter. • • Rising Film – feed liquor enters at the bottom of the tube and boils part way up the tube with the mixture of liquid and vapor leaving at the top.
essentially a large diameter jacketed tube. Suitable for high temperature application. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS • • Chemical Industry CRITICAL DESIGN FEATURES • • Effluent Treatment Plants FEATURES OF COMP RISING FILM EVAPORATORS • • • Ideal for liquids which attain high viscosity and have fouling tendency. in which the product is vigorously agitated and continuously removed from the tube wall by scraper blades or wipers mounted on a shaft rotating inside the tube. Forced circulation leads to high tube side velocities and higher heat transfer coefficients and smaller heating surfaces. the liquid and vapours flow upwards in a parallel flow. Easy removal of deposits can be . These evaporators are flexible enough to be converted to Forced Circulation Evaporators. Wide data bank of coefficient from which the best possible heat transfer coefficient is selected. The heating medium may be steam or hot oil on the jacket side. Thin Film or Wiped Film are agitated evaporators . The temperature difference in the rising film evaporators should be high between the heating chest and boiling chamber to ensure the RISING FILM EVAPORATORS circulation and formation of a climbing film. COMP offers a complete range of Rising Film Evaporators of both short and long tube design. In Rising Film Evaporator. Circulation is maintained regardless of the evaporation rate so this type of evaporator is well suited to crystallizing operations where solids must be maintained in suspension at all times. The material to be processed is continuously spread as a thin film on the tube walls by the mechanical agitator. Force circulation is achieved by using pumps. Better steam economy as compared to • • Properly selected vapour fractions. The pump withdraws liquor from the flash chamber and forces it through the heating element back to the flash chamber. Simultaneously the vapour quantity also increase thereby forming a "Climbing" film on the walls of a tube. which are produced during boiling. as well as products that crystallize. highly viscous and moderately scaling liquids. This permits processing of extremely viscous and heat sensitive materials.Forced circulation evaporators are made in a variety of arrangements for services where the feed and/or product liquor has a tendency to salt or scale and where the viscosities of the solutions are so high that natural circulation is not feasible. Due to this there is a high turbulence in the liquid and these evaporators are advantageous for heat sensitive. due to the ascending force of the vapour bubbles. Rest same as Falling Film Evaporator.
Special designs of vapour separators for foaming products.• • falling film evaporator. Versatility to change to forced circulation type evaporator if product behavior is likely to change. usually low pressure steam.. The steam temperature is a function of the steam pressure. generally tube and chest heat exchangers. The vacuum keeps the product temperature low and the difference in temperatures high. The product is also at its boiling point. the steam condenses in the coils and gives up its latent heat. especially in older vacuum pans. At its boiling point. The basic components of this process consist of: • • • • heat-exchanger vacuum vapour separator condenser The heat exchanger is enclosed in a large chamber and transfers heat from the heating medium. If the steam temperature is too high. Evaporator Designs Types of single effect evaporators: • • • • • Batch Pan Rising film Falling film Plate evaporators Scraped surface . The condenser condenses the vapours from inside the heat exchanger and may act as the vacuum source. channelling solids back to the heat exchanger and the vapours out to the condenser. to the product usually via indirect contact surfaces. Principle of Operation The driving force for heat transfer is the difference in temperature between the steam in the coils and the product in the pan. It is sometimes a part of the actual heat exchanger. but at other pressures the boiling point changes. Water boils at 100° C at 1 atm. Low capital cost. burn-on/fouling increases so there are limits to how high steam temperatures can go. The boiling point can be elevated with an increase in solute concentration. Evaporation Evaporation refers to the process of heating liquid to the boiling point to remove water as vapour. The vapour separator removes entrained solids from the vapours. • achieved by increasing feed rate or reducing steam rate. but more likely a separate unit in newer installations. heat damage can be minimized by evaporation under vacuum to reduce the boiling point. This boiling point elevation works on the same principles as freezing point depression. Because milk is heat sensitive. The steam is produced in large boilers.
This can be done by adding energy to the vapour in the form of a steam jet. A uniform film distribution at the feed inlet is much more difficult to obtain. Rising film evaporators consist of a heat exchanger isolated from the vapour separator. thermo compression or by a mechanical compressor. steam jacketed vessels. The boiling milk creates vapours which can be recompressed for high steam econonmy. mechanical vapour recompression. The liquid rises by percolation from the vapours formed near the bottom of the heating tubes. the heat transfer characteristics are poor. The steam entering the first effect calandria is at slightly less pressure than the supply steam. The residence time is 20-30 sec. There is . Batch plants are of historical significance.due to the viscous effects of the products as they become more concentrated Each effect operates at a lower pressure and temperature than the effect preceding it so as to maintain a temperature difference and continue the evaporation procedure. they are mixed with very high pressure steam. The tubes are 8-12 meters long and 30-50 mm in diameter. As the vapours exit from the first effect. They are similar in components to the rising film type except that the thin liquid film moves downward under gravity in the tubes. as opposed to 3-4 min. The heat exchanger. as well as a vacuum source and a condenser. Each effect would consist a heat transfer surface. therefore. consists of 10 to 15 meter long tubes in a tube chest which is heated with steam. This is the reason why this development came slowly and it is only within the last decade that falling film has superceded all other designs. The vapour separator is at the bottom which decreases the product hold-up during shut down. The vapours are a tremendous source of low pressure steam and must be reused. They consist of spherical shaped. The falling film evaporators are the most widely used in the food industry. Through recompression. modern evaporation plants are far-removed from this basic idea. The vapours from the preceding effect are used as the heat source in the next effect. The heating is due only to natural convection. The operating costs of evaporation are relative to the number of effects and the temperature at which they operate. The thin liquid film moves rapidly upwards. Thermo Compression (TC) Involves the use of a steam-jet booster to recompress part of the exit vapours from the first effect. or calandria. There are two advantages to multiple effect evaporators: • economy . This development of this type of modern evaporator has given way to the falling film evaporator. in the rising film type. The heat transfer per unit volume is small requiring long residence times. The product may be recycled if necessary to arrive at the desired final concentration.they evaporate more water per kg steam by re-using vapours as heat sources in subsequent effects • improve heat transfer . Specially designed nozzles or spray distributors at the feed inlet permit it to handle more viscous products.Batch pan evaporators are the simplest and oldest. a vapour separator. Multiple Effect Evaporators Two or more evaporator units can be run in sequence to produce a multiple effect evaporator. The vapours are removed from the preceding effect at the boiling temperature of the product at that effect so that no temperature difference would exist if the vacuum were not increased. the pressure and temperature of the vapours are increased.
all the vapour is recompressed in an MVR evaporator. followed by two or more traditional effects. Vapours are mechanically compressed by radial compressors or simple fans using electrical energy. usually only the first effect is coupled with multiple effect evaporators. in single effect. in multiple effect.usually more vapours from the first effect than the second effect can use. all the vapours are recompressed therefore no condensing water is needed. can have MVR on first effect. or can recompress vapours from all effects. . Mechanical Vapour Recompression (MVR) Whereas only part of the vapour is recompressed using TC. There are several variations.
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