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Feedback on Fight Back!

For Fight Back! references, news, follow-ups, and to offer your own
links, feedback, and suggestions for further reading on the protests,
please visit the Fight Back! page, at http://opendemocracy.net/
ourkingdom/ourkingdom/fight-back.

http://www.bit.ly/fightbackUK
A Reader on the Winter of Protest
Editor: Dan Hancox
Editorial Kettle: Guy Aitchison, Siraj Datoo, Cailean Gallagher, Laurie
Penny, Aaron Peters and Paul Sagar
Published by openDemocracy via OurKingdom.
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6
Contents

Contents
NOTE FROM THE EDITOR ........................................................... 12
FOREWORD ................................................................................ 14
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Anthony Barnett, openDemocracy
OVERVIEWS ............................................................................... 32
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Laurie Penny and Rowenna Davies, openDemocracy
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Cailean Gallagher, Oxford Left Review
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Guy Aitchison and Aaron Peters
THE DEMONSTRATIONS ............................................................. 64
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Laurie Penny, New Statesman
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Guy Aitchison, openDemocracy
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Sophie Burge, TheSite.org
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Paul Sagar, Bad Conscience
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Siraj Datoo, The Student Journals
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Jonathan Moses, openDemocracy
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Oliver Huitson, openDemocracy
THE OCCUPATIONS ................................................................... 98
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Oliver Wainwright, Building Design

7
Contents

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Joanna Biggs, London Review of Books
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Genevieve Dawson
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Asher Goldman, Libcom.org
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Owen Hatherley, openDemocracy
THE FLASH MOBS .................................................................... 126
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Johann Hari, The Independent
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Alan Finlayson ,openDemocracy
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THE UNIVERSITIES ................................................................... 140
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Aaron Peters, openDemocracy
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Peter Johnson, openDemocracy
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Rosemary Bechler, openDemocracy
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Trevor Smith, openDemocracy
THE UNDER 19S........................................................................ 178
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Anthony Painter, Left Foot Forward

8
Contents

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Ben Martin
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Ben Braithwaite
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Anna Mason, UK Uncut
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Tasha Bell
THE STATE AND VIOLENCE ...................................................... 198
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Ryan Gallagher, openDemocracy
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Tom Griffin, openDemocracy
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James Butler, Pierce Penniless
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Rory Rowan, Critical Legal Thinking
THE TRADE UNIONS ................................................................. 238
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Len McCluskey, The Guardian
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Keith Ewing, openDemocracy
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John Stuttle, openDemocracy

9
Contents

THE AESTHETICS ..................................................................... 248


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Jesse Darling, Brave New What

10
Contents

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Dan Hancox
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Adam Harper, Rouges Foam
THE GENERATIONS .................................................................. 280
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Anthony Barnett, New Statesman
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Gerry Hassan, The Scotsman
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Nick Pearce, IPPR
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Laurie Penny, The Guardian
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Maeve McKeown, UCL Occupation Blog
AFTERWORDS ..........................................................................306
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Markus Malarkey, Ceasefire
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Guy Aitchison, openDemocracy
APPENDICES ............................................................................ 322
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11
Note From The Editor

Note From The Editor


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12
Note From The Editor

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13
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

Foreword: A Fight For The


Future
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14
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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15
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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16
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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17
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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21
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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22
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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23
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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From protest to politics


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24
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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Here is why:

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25
Foreword: A Fight For The Future


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The new Levellers


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26
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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27
Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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Foreword: A Fight For The Future

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Foreword: A Fight For The Future

31
Overviews

OVERVIEWS

32
You say you want a revolution...

You say you want a


revolution...
Laurie Penny and Rowenna Davies, openDemocracy

How to believe in change? This exchange was published in July 2010


but it prefigures the energy and issues released by the protests that
erupted in November and December, and expresses the frustrations
that were building up well before the Conservative-Liberal
Democrat government announced its plans for higher education.
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33
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34
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40
From the Reactive to the Creative

From the Reactive to the


Creative
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41
From the Reactive to the Creative

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42
From the Reactive to the Creative

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43
From the Reactive to the Creative

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45
The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

The Open-Sourcing of
Political Activism: How the
internet and networks help
build resistance
Guy Aitchison and Aaron Peters

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The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

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The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

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The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

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The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

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The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

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62
The Open-Sourcing of Political Activism: How the internet and networks help build resistance

63
The Demonstrations

THE
DEMONSTRATIONS
After the publication of the Browne Report in October 2010, there
was a surge of dissent and debate, in response to the radical changes to
the British education system that lay ahead. To take part in the
protest movement in November and December was to experience an
intense, ever-evolving process that began with a traditional march,
and ended with a siege of parliament itself.
On 10 November, the first major demonstration against the
Conservative-Lib Dem coalition proposals took place. Over 50,000
students and sympathetic parties took to the streets, and several
hundred occupied the Conservative HQ at Millbank Tower in
London, cheered on by thousands more. In the month that followed
Millbank, a series of street demonstrations took place in the capital,
supported by numerous other actions, protests and occupations across
the country in opposition to the government's fees and cuts agenda.
Each of the major protests was characterised by different tactics
and effects – and widely identified by the Twitter hashtags protesters
used to follow developments: #dayx, #dayx2, and #dayx3.
The first, #dayx, was characterised by the iconoclastic storming
and occupation of Millbank.
The second, #dayx2, became known as ‘the cat-and-mouse protest’,
because it saw separate tributaries of the main demonstration
spontaneously split off to escape Police kettling, running miles
through the London snow from Victoria to Bank, from the Barbican
to Trafalgar Square.

64
The Demonstrations

The third, #dayx3, took place on the day the House of Commons
voted in favour of the rise in tuition fees: as the vote was passed,
shortly after 5.30pm, thousands of protesters remained kettled
directly outside in Parliament Square. The protesters variously
danced, chanted, made new friends, clashed with Riot Police, and
even tried to storm the Treasury building – later, over a thousand
protesters were kettled on Westminster Bridge, in a situation so
dangerous a doctor warned that a Hillsborough type disaster had
been only narrowly averted.
Each demonstration was different, in its tactics, and in the effect it
produced. As Jonathan Moses writes in this section, “a British
institution – the protest march – was undergoing a transformative
moment”.

65
Inside the Millbank Tower riots

Inside the Millbank Tower


riots
Laurie Penny, New Statesman

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66
Inside the Millbank Tower riots

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Inside the Millbank Tower riots

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70
The Significance of Millbank

The Significance of Millbank


Guy Aitchison, openDemocracy

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The Significance of Millbank

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75
I was held at a student protest for five hours

I was held at a student


protest for five hours
Sophie Burge, TheSite.org

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78
On Riots and Kettles, Protests and Violence

On Riots and Kettles,


Protests and Violence
Paul Sagar, Bad Conscience

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89
Postmodernism in the Streets: the tactics of protest are changing

Postmodernism in the
Streets: the tactics of
protest are changing
Jonathan Moses, openDemocracy

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93
Kettling – an attack on the right to protest

Kettling – an attack on the


right to protest
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97
The Occupations

THE OCCUPATIONS
While students and activists took to the streets in protest, there were
the in-between times to think about – and the need to inculcate
greater support, awareness, and activist skills within the student
movement: over 30 universities across the country went into
occupation, many for weeks, with students living, eating, and
sleeping in the occupied space. This had great practical benefits,
creating spaces to share ideas, build solidarity networks, and plan
future protests and actions – and it was also, as Owen Hatherley
argues, a symbolic response to the wider privatisation of public space
that New Labour had pursued: “It is a protest against the coalition,
to be sure, but it's also a magnificent rejection of the fear, quietism
and atomisation that was the result of earlier policies. The students'
use of space is fearless.”

98
Beyond The Occupation

Beyond The Occupation


Oliver Wainwright, Building Design

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Beyond The Occupation

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30 Hours in the Radical Camera

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109
30 Hours in the Radical Camera

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111
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113
30 Hours in the Radical Camera

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114
Interview with a Royal Holloway anarchist

Interview with a Royal


Holloway anarchist
Asher Goldman, Libcom.org

This is an excerpt from an interview with Dan, a former member of


the Aotearoa Workers Solidarity Movement who is now living in
the UK, and was involved in a two day long occupation at his
university in London.
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118
The Occupation of Space

The Occupation of Space


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The Occupation of Space

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(?::B;I;N>7I

121
The Occupation of Space

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122
The Occupation of Space

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123
The Occupation of Space

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/>;H?EJFEB?9;I7FFHE79>JEJ>?IKDFH;:?9J78?B?JO>7I8;;D

124
The Occupation of Space

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125
The Flash Mobs

THE FLASH MOBS


UK Uncut, taxes and direct action
It was the snide retort of countless mainstream media commentators
that the student protests were entirely narcissistic: concerned only
with disruption to their own lives as undergraduates. This ignored
the reality on the ground – that protesters carried banners, chanted,
and held views indicating dissent with government policies far
beyond the rise in tuition fees. But to grab the attention of those same
mainstream media commentators was going to need a different
approach. Step forward UK Uncut, whose witty, daring flash mobs
targeted major high street shops, to spread the word that while
government cuts would disproportionately hit the poorest members of
society, ultra-rich corporations were evading billions of pounds they
owed to the exchequer: and thus, to everyone. As Alan Finlayson
writes: “Media corporations, polluting industries and greedy banks
take actions that affect us directly. In challenging or resisting those
effects, why dilute energies by diverting them through the Whitehall
bureaucracy?” In other words: let’s cut out the middle-men.

126
Protest works. Just look at the proof

Protest works. Just look at


the proof
Johann Hari, The Independent

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9ED:;CD?D=7DEJ>;HC?BB?EDF;EFB;JEJ>;:EB;GK;K;
4;J
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127
Protest works. Just look at the proof

KD8;B?;L78B;97L;]?DY
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M7IFHECEJ?D=1E:7<ED;ED7J7N]F7O;H<KD:;:JH?FJE$D:?7

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1E:7<ED;J>HEK=>J>;9EKHJI<EHJ>;8?BB?EDI?DJ7NJ>;O>7L;
<7?B;:JEF7OJ>;H;
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9EHFEH7J?EDI<7?BJEF7O7<KHJ>;Hd 8D7O;7H?DJ7N;IJ>;O
B;=7BBOEM; M>?B;J>;H?9>7LE?:EH;L7:;KFJEd  8D

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87DD;H
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7D:J>;=EL;HDC;DJ>7L;:ED;
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JEKAKD9KJ
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128
Protest works. Just look at the proof

4EKC?=>J7IA^IEM>7J2>7J>7I8;;D9>7D=;:/E
KD:;HIJ7D:>EM7D:M>OFHEJ;IJB?A;J>?I97DMEHA OEKD;;:
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129
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130
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131
The philosophical significance of UK Uncut

The philosophical
significance of UK Uncut
Alan Finlayson, openDemocracy

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132
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135
The philosophical significance of UK Uncut

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136
'Santa Glue-In' as 55 Anti-Cuts Protests Hit Tax Dodgers Across The Country

'Santa Glue-In' as 55 Anti-


Cuts Protests Hit Tax
Dodgers Across The Country
UK Uncut, Big Society Revenue & Customs
Press release: Posted on Sat 18th
Dec 2010, 2:33pm
For Immediate Release
UK UNCUT: 'SANTA GLUE IN' AS 55 ANTI-CUTS
PROTESTS HIT TAX DODGERS ACROSS THE
COUNTRY
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'Santa Glue-In' as 55 Anti-Cuts Protests Hit Tax Dodgers Across The Country

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139
The Universities

THE UNIVERSITIES
The Browne report into higher education published on 6 October did
more than raise a lot of questions. Out of it came the policy of tripling
student fees in the form of loans, removing any direct government
grants to the humanities: marketising higher education and tearing
down any public interest in its intrinsic values. At the same time it
presumed a distinctly old-fashioned approach. “Policy-makers are
persisting with an institutional model that was created in the midst
of a different age,” writes Aaron Peters. At the heart of the crisis of
university funding lies a debate about the future of higher education,
one played out in a series of exchanges between Alan Finlayson and
Tony Curzon Price. Ultimately: what are universities for?

140
Universities in an age of information abundance

Universities in an age of
information abundance
Aaron Peters, openDemocracy

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141
Universities in an age of information abundance

Information wants to be free


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The rise of the university


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Britain, greet the age of privatised Higher Education – an argument and a debate

Britain, greet the age of


privatised Higher Education
– an argument and a debate
Alan Finlayson and Tony Curzon Price, openDemocracy

Alan Finlayson:
I: What is really going on
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171
Universities should be more inventive than the profit motive

Universities should be more


inventive than the profit
motive
Rosemary Bechler, openDemocracy

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175
I defied the Whips and voted against my government

I defied the Whips and voted


against my government
Trevor Smith, openDemocracy

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176
I defied the Whips and voted against my government

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177
The Under 19s

THE UNDER 19S


The Education Maintenance Allowance and the
electorally disenfranchised
It was a striking aspect of the student demonstrations in London that
the presence on the streets was not, despite right-wing commentators’
suggestions to the contrary, one composed of privileged middle-class
undergraduates, dilettantes from Oxbridge aged 18-21. Because,
along with the stratospheric tuition fees rise, the Conservative-Lib
Dem coalition had announced the abolition of the Education
Maintenance Allowance (EMA), a means-tested government stipend
which had seen an increase in the numbers of students from poorer
backgrounds staying on in post-16 education. With its abolition,
many under 18s from poorer backgrounds would simply not be able to
afford to stay on to do A levels – at a time of record-breaking youth
unemployment, no less. To make matters worse, these young people
had not even had the right to vote for the coalition that was
currently selling their futures down the river – though of course, they
were old enough to pay taxes to it. “We’re from the slums of London,
how do they expect us to pay £9,000 for uni fees, and no EMA…
What’s stopping us from doing drug deals on the streets anymore?”
one protesting teenager asked the BBC.

Whether through UK Uncut actions or at the student


demonstrations, a generation of young people barely old enough to
remember Tony Blair were learning very quickly about political
protest, and risking detention to exercise their democratic rights to do
so.

178
The real nature of the EMA debate

The real nature of the EMA


debate
Anthony Painter, Left Foot Forward

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EMA Stories: My Brother, Charlie Martin

EMA Stories: My Brother,


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EMA Stories: My Brother, Charlie Martin

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187
EMA Stories: An umbilical cord to education

EMA Stories: An umbilical


cord to education
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189
We are not the Topshop generation

We are not the Topshop


generation
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The State and Violence

THE STATE AND


VIOLENCE
If any illustration were needed of the establishment’s relationship
with the democratic right to protest, it came on #dayx3. As the
tuition fees bill was passed, the Metropolitan Police kettled protesters
in Parliament Square and on Westminster Bridge for eight hours.
The next day’s newspapers ignored the horrors of the kettle, choosing
instead to regard the brief scare encountered by Prince Charles the
Duchess of Cornwall as the day’s only story. In the parliamentary
debate later that day, Home Secretary Theresa May reiterated in the
House of Commons three times that there had been no kettle in
Parliament Square – regurgitating, no doubt, the information passed
to her by the Met.

Tied up in this web of establishment self-preservation is a key myth:


unlike those hot-headed foreigners, British people “just don’t do”
protest, proceeding with calm, Whiggish decorum – though the entire
history of progress and change in this country proves otherwise.

As James Butler writes, “the rotting sump of hereditary privilege”


still presides over this sceptred isle. Is it any wonder that this
government’s ideological cuts target the poorest members of society,
when 18 of the 23 members of the cabinet are millionaires? Yet
Butler’s phrase should not lull us into thinking the establishment is
not canny in its ability to adapt to new threats to its power: and in
the tactical brutality of the Police kettle, we have its newest
incarnation. It is up to us – as it has been throughout British history
– to stay one step ahead.

198
Riotous Protest – an English tradition

Riotous Protest – an English


tradition
Daniel Trilling, New Statesman

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205
Sharing The Pain: The emotional politics of austerity and its opponents

Sharing The Pain: The


emotional politics of
austerity and its opponents
Jeremy Gilbert, New Statesman

Keep Calm and Carry On?


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The Media, the police and protest: now both sides of the story can be reported

The Media, the police and


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The military response to direct action, General Kitson's manual

The military response to


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Kitson's manual
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Geographies of the Kettle:


Containment, Spectacle &
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Rory Rowan, Critical Legal Thinking

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237
The Trade Unions

THE TRADE UNIONS


Recent British history tells us that the institutions at the heart of
popular protest are the trade unions – though many protesters were
not even born at the time of the miners’ strike, let alone in the winter
of discontent or earlier. With a few exceptions, the leadership of the
trade unions were almost comically slow to react to the threats to
working people presented by this government. Students laughed, then
sighed, that while they were organising occupations and almost
weekly mass demonstrations, union leaders were planning to do their
bit by scheduling a protest for the end of March.

‘The revolution will already be over by then!’ some joked. Slowly the
reality of the situation dawned, and Unite leader Len McCluskey
penned a comment piece for The Guardian suggesting that they
would have to make up for lost time. With 490,000 public sector
redundancies predicted for the lifetime of this parliament, the student
protest movement will need the solidarity of trade unions – and
wants it too. On whose terms this happens is very much up for grabs;
but the students have certainly set the pace.

238
Unions, get set for battle

Unions, get set for battle


Len McCluskey, The Guardian

Len McCluskey is General Secretary of Unite


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241
Just what does the Guardian think trade unions are for?

Just what does the Guardian


think trade unions are for?
Keith Ewing, openDemocracy

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Just what does the Guardian think trade unions are for?

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244
Comment on Keith Ewing

Comment on Keith Ewing


John Stuttle, openDemocracy

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245
Comment on Keith Ewing

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246
Comment on Keith Ewing

247
The Aesthetics

THE AESTHETICS
Sound and vision in the protest movement
Protest in the era of mass culture is nothing without its aesthetics –
the wit, imagery, sonics and imagination of the protesters provide an
outlet for their creativity, and the tools for their rebellion. As Adam
Harper notes, aesthetics are both the means and the manifestation of
protest. This is true of the hilarious, cutting home-made protest signs
photographed by Jesse Darling, and in the zeitgeist-capturing music
of the EMA kids, for whom rebellion means the right to celebrate
their culture by dancing in Parliament Square – while they are
denied the same right closer to home in ‘the banlieues of London’.
Ultimately, as Harper argues, protest aesthetics mean forging the
right to construct a new vision of reality – and it’s exciting, it’s
creative, and above all, it’s subversive.

248
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

On [Protest] Signs & the


Signified
Jesse Darling, Brave New What

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249
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

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250
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

251
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

252
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

253
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

254
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

255
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

256
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

257
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

258
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

259
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

260
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

261
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

262
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

263
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

264
On [Protest] Signs & the Signified

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265
This is our riot: POW!

This is our riot: POW!


Dan Hancox

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279
The Generations

THE GENERATIONS
Old politics and new movements
The spectre of the 68ers looms large over the current protests – partly
because of the schematic similarities to that movement, and perhaps
more so, because the veterans of that era are of exactly the right age
to be passing comment on the current wave of youth uprisings; as
politicians, academics and journalists. Yet what has been striking
about this student movement has been its eagerness to shed such
comparisons with 1968, despite its romance, and to learn from the
lessons of its predecessors. The relationship between this generation
and those who hold the reins of power (mainstream or otherwise)
remains part of an ongoing debate. The left-wing parties, with their
more traditional hierarchies and decision-making processes, have
been the subject of hostility from some of the student protesters, who
fear they will seek to ‘take over’ what remains a strikingly leaderless
movement, and do so for their own ends. As long as this debate
remains comradely, and the broad goals the same, it is one that will
continue to be voiced in public. As Anthony Barnett concludes, the
tens has every possibility to trump the sixties – not least because
“what is on offer from the political system today seems exhausted, its
institutions corrupted, its constitution a shambles, and reinvention
essential”.

280
Will the ‘Tens’ trump the ‘Sixties’?

Will the ‘Tens’ trump the


‘Sixties’?
Anthony Barnett, New Statesman

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Out with the old politics


Laurie Penny, The Guardian

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Is the students’ conflict intergenerational?

Is the students’ conflict


intergenerational?
Maeve McKeown, UCL Occupation Blog

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305
Afterwords

AFTERWORDS

306
Why we shouldn’t centralise the student movement: protest, tactics and ways forward

Why we shouldn’t centralise


the student movement:
protest, tactics and ways
forward
Markus Malarkey, Ceasefire

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Organised autonomy, not centralised control


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319
What next for the UK's student movement?

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320
What next for the UK's student movement?

321
Appendices

APPENDICES

322
Campaigns and Resources

Campaigns and Resources


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323
Campaigns and Resources

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324
Campaigns and Resources

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325
Discussion

Discussion
The Great Unrest
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326
Discussion

OurKingdom
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Sixty Second Legal Check List

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330
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9EDJ79J;:M?J>?DJME>EKHI
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B;=7B7:L?9;^M;IJHED=BOH;9ECC;D:J>7JOEK7BM7OI7IA<EH
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:KJO IE7IAJ>;CM>7JJ>;O7H;:E?D=7D:M>O(7A;7DEJ;
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FEII?8B;

2>7JJE:EW

$<7HH;IJ;:

332
Green and Black Bust Card

]*DJ>;:7OB;J"B;=7BJ;7CADEM7D:A;;F?DJEK9>
M?J> =89B;=7BH?I;KF
D;JIEM;97DJH79AEKJ9EC;I

$<OEKI7M ;NF;H?;D9;:?D7FFHEFH?7J;FEB?9;8;>7L?EH
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$D9BK:;
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9EC
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GBC LEGAL TEAM: 07946 541 511 BINDMANS
SOLICITORS: 020 7833 4433
+B;7I;DEJ;';=7B*8I;HL;HI7H;DEJ79J?D=7IIEB?9?JEHI J>;?H
D7C;?IDEJ?DJ;D:;:JE?CFBOJ>;O7H;B;=7BBOGK7B?<?;:EH
H;9E=D?I;:JE79J7I7IEB?9?JEH

333
Occupation Cheat Sheet

Occupation Cheat Sheet


Third Estate

So, you want to have an occupation?


*99KF7J?ED>7I8;;D7JH7:?J?ED7BCE:;E<IJK:;DJFHEJ;IJ
<EHJ>;B7IJ O;7HI
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H;I?IJ7D9;

$DH;IFEDI;JEJ>;KF9EC?D=M>?J;F7F;HED>?=>;H
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J>?DA78EKJM>;DFB7DD?D=7D:HKDD?D=7DE99KF7J?ED

Choosing a location
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334
Occupation Cheat Sheet


H?D=B7FJEFI>EEI;IEC;M>;H;M?J>$DJ;HD;J799;II
_;7I?;HDEM?DJ>;I;:7OIE<M?<?` EHC7A;IKH;OEK8H?D=
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Formulating Demands
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8OC7D7=;C;DJJEI7FOEKH;D;H=O

335
Occupation Cheat Sheet

Starting the occupation


/>;H;?IDEI;JM7OJEIJ7HJOEKHE99KF7J?ED 7D:M>7J
>7FF;DIM?BB:;F;D:ED7H7D=;E<<79JEHI IK9>7IM>7JJOF;
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7=EE:M7OJE=;JBEJIE<F;EFB;J>;H;<HECJ>;IJ7HJ


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Internal Politics
$J?I7BIE?CFEHJ7DJJ>7JE99KF7J?EDI7H;HKD?D7:;CE9H7J?9
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C7:; EHIBEMJ>;C:EMD9EDI?:;H78BO


$<J>;H;I7C?NE<FEB?J?97B879A=HEKD:I?DJ>;HEEC J>;D
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M7LO>7D:I
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EJ>;H

336
Occupation Cheat Sheet


$J[IFHE878BO787:?:;7JE>7L;7B;7:;H
';7:;HIJ;D:JE8;
:?9AI 7D:7BIEC7A;F;EFB;<7HCEH;9KBF78B;JEJ>;
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Media
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J>HEK=>EKJJ>;E99KF7J?ED
/>;I;I>EKB:8;I;DJJEBE97B

337
Occupation Cheat Sheet

7D:D7J?ED7BFH;II FEIJ;:EDOEKHM;8I?J; 7D:ED


$D:OC;:?7


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D:?<OEK7H;=E?D=JE:EIEC;J>?D=?BB;=7B 9EL;HOEKH<79;

Occupation as an open space



#7L?D=OEKHE99KF7J?ED7I7DEF;DIF79;97D8;=H;7J
$<
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C7O;L;D7JJH79JIOCF7J>;J?9IJK:;DJIJE@E?DOEKH97KI;

338
Occupation Cheat Sheet


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E99KF7J?ED_J>?I>7FF;D;:7JJ>;(?::B;I;NE99KF7J?ED?D
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=E?D=

Supporting other occupations


2;>EF;J>7JJ>;H;M?BB8;7M>EB;BE7:E<E99KF7J?EDI
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2>;DOEKHE99KF7J?ED<?D?I>;I =E7D:L?I?JEJ>;H
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Ending the occupation



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M>;DJ>;J?C;9EC;I


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