It is a matter of great disappointment that the µIndigenous History of India¶ is not yet compactly written by any unbiased author. Indian history is shrouded with the 'projection¶ of the history of the Northern parts, rather than the history of the whole o f India. When scholars discuss the matters of Culture or Civilization, they give all details of the Socio-Cultural aspects of the northern regions of India, even before 1500 BC, and it is normally seen that the regions, south of the Vindhyas, are totally rejected. But, right in the middle of the discussion, we observe that they narrate all the glories of a civilization similar to South India, without mentioning its name. In short, the scholars are inclined to take all the meritorious aspects of the South -Indian culture, put it in the pocket of the North -Indian treasure-bag and project it through a multi-faceted lens to the world of Aryan culture, whereas a basic analysis of Indian history reveals that the very roots of Indian history, including the North, re sts strongly bound to the South India. Even some of the Western scholars too are seen victims to the Aryan thought process. The root cause for this unfortunate happening is analysed to be the Arya-Dravida issue still prevailing in India. Any historian coul d easily find out that the present face value of culture existing in South India is the photo-copy of the same Civilization which was existing in India even some 30,000 years ago or earlier. This continuity of civilization, the scholar would never find in any other parts of the globe. It simply continues. There are people still living here with comparatively µless change¶ in them, in their character, nobility, attitude, system of living, nature of hospitality, their art, culture, knowledge, literary profici ency, and also the mind to keep up the system of law with a sense for justice. These aspects have been proved even by the analysis of their genetic features. Those are the type of the people presently concentrated in the Southern parts of India, but spread all over India, known by the name NADARS. The first historian of the world, Herodotus, mentions about them; the modern µGenetic Analysis¶ declares their antiquity; various Temple Depictions(Madurai meenakshi, Kanarak, Java) declare their history; The etymological, archaeological, Ithihasic, Puranic and the Literary analysis, properly done, connect the NADARS

from Kanyakumari to Kashmir. The only µCaution¶ that we have to take is not to become prey to the µConventional¶ understanding and analysis of history , but take a µCritical¶ approach with the help of all the available data of literary, archaeological, linguistic and the modern Genetic analysis, all put together to make an independent opinion of a new and Basic true history of India. This is what the His tory of Nadars is. It may look strange and µNovel¶ to some of the viewers. For example: the modern world and the present literature look down about the culture of the µToddy Tappers¶ of India, who are termed in Sanskrit as Tvashtri or Vrishnis, whereas the earliest Inscription found in India (6th century BC) is that of a ³Toddy Tapper´ in the old Tamil script, written on an earthen µKalassa¶ as ³Naackan Uurra´ . A good comparative analysis proves that this µOnce Great Palmyrah Culture¶ can be seen depicted in our Jaina and the later Hindu Temples. This is proved by the statement of Herodotus that they were great Sailors, Warriors and Continental Tradesmen. This µRoot Culture¶ of Martial and Literary Civilization can be still found in the NADARS of the World who are also known as Santors, meaning, Noble people. The Nadars in Early Sangam Period : 9990 to 5550 BC There are great controversy in fixing up the Sangam periods of the Tamils. Three Sangams are recorded in Tamil literatures. Literary reports are found to indicate that there had been five major Uuzhies (Deluges) by which destructions took place to the Tamils and they had to shift their capitals to different places like Ezhuthenganadu, Ezhukurumpanai naadu, Kavaadapuram, Manavoor, Korkai, Then Madurai, V ada Madurai, etc. Tamils consider that Kumari Kandom which was once connected to the African Continent and a vast landscape, now lying submerged under the Oceans, was their ancestral home. The Tamils were lovers of songs and literature. There were several poets in the Courts of the Tamil Kings. In the Sangam period, there was no µCaste system¶ as we see today. You could find poets of any tribal origin in the King¶s Royal Court. Only the land was divided into four types as Marutham (Plain land), Mullai (fore sts /gracing land), Neithel (Sea -shores) and Paalai (Sandy land). A mixed terrain, Kurunji, was occupied by Vedar or hunters. The land with people was called ³Nadu´. The Chief to protect the land was called Naden(Elangulam) Kaalai , Uuran, Kurumpara Naden, Chenon, etc(Elamkulam). When Kingdoms were formed µNaden¶ was designated as Ko = the King or the µRuler¶ otherwise called ³Naden´

In the Samgam period there was no such caste -systems. The people used to go for hunting deer, bull or wild animals. They used to go for fishing. They brought the prey into the community, baked it on fire made on µSandalwood¶ spreading its good smell all over the village; ate the meat with soft drinks got from short and tall Palm -trees. The strong and courageous used to tap the s weet juice of the Palmyrah palm and cherished it with the meat or other cooked food. The same man may go for hunting, or to catch fishes for his need. The children used to drink Palm -juice in the tender yellow leaf of the Palm-tree, folded as a cup. Their houses were roofed by dry leaves of Palmyrah-Palm or Coconut Palm. The children cherished the tender palm-fruits and later made little carts with them and played around, a practice till followed in the South. They used to climb over the heaps of Paddy stac k or run behind the playing deers, or run to the nearby river, taking bath, jumping into the waters, singing songs, or playing flutes. The people were a happy jolly lot living life to its full. Agriculture too was known to them. We find the women folk take cooked rice or porridge for their husbands to the field and also they used to drive away the birds coming to spoil the seeds or crops. There was little difference between the hunter, or the man who ploughed the land, or the toddy tapper who brought the sw eet Amrit from the tall heavenly tree or the man who looked after the cattle or the one who made the earthen pots. If they caught a big shark from the Sea, they would eat its meat and take its huge Bone, plant it in the open field and sing songs around it, and even worship it as their lucky god. It was a happy one community for quite a long time. Their µRuler¶ rather the µChief¶ was called ³NADEN´ (the present NADAR) or he was also addressed as ³KALAI¶, all sons of the same soil of the Palmyrah -Culture. This great Palmyrah-Culture is seen passing through the Ages, all over the globe. It is seen in the National Flag of Bhishmar (flag of Palm -Tree) one of the Martial Heroes (Asans) of the Indian Epics. It is marked in the life of Lord Rama. It is seen with the great god of Indians, the Vrishni -Kula Krishna. The Culture is found depicted in a number of temples of India. It is seen in one way or the other in several kingdoms of India in the South and also among the Rajputs, extending to the North. It is found marked in the Jaina and Buddhist Culture (Depiction found in Java: Art of Indian Asia). It was seen in the great paintings done by King Ravi Varma of Travancore, picturing Shakunthala (18th century AD - unfortunately this palm-tree from his original painting is being hidden in the later reproductions by the killers of

000 years or more. in Kanyakumari district was roofed by good Palm -leaves. According to Herodotus. there were three Regiments based on the Palm tree products (History of Cholas). Even in the early 1700 -s. we can assume that the argument put forward by the Tamil enthusiasts are gaining . Thomas in India . the great Wooden Palace of the world. there was depicted a bifurcated ¶Lulub¶ (Auluvachy ..408 BC). (earlier name. But.example: the painting now kept at Trivandrum Temple Museum). but the Aryan enthusiasts pull down it to the 1st century AD to 4th or even 8th century AD. the a small branch of the male flower-stalk of Palm-Tree.000(Prehistoric India) back from now. and the archaeological finds of µHuman Inhabitation in Southern India¶ estimated to be around 60. They were dependant on the µDate Palms¶ equivalent to the Ittanatt branch of the Nadars. In t he ancient Indian Army of the Tamils and the Cholas. The ancient Israel had a settlement of Warrior Class called Palmachin and their commando units were called ³Palmach Brigade´ (Introducing Israel). early history of the Jews shows that along with the seven candle sticks and the Trumpet of their symbols. Moreover.M. the modern science of Genetic Studies have proved that the Age of NADARS. Puth upparakkal Palace) of Kalkulam. early Israelites had a ³Fish -Gate´ for them. the Padmanabhapuram. In the world history also there is a strong reflection of this Palm Culture. The Tamil enthusi asts take it even to 175. the originators of the Phoenicians were Th e Purple trading Toddy Tapers from South Kerala(Herodotus.A Critical View).000 years ago. whereas it deserves a deeper research in itself. They were also called the ³Palm -Asians´.1870. However. A study of the present NADARS show that they were the Masters of this great Culture in a Multifaceted Arts and Sciences. (Kanyakumari Aspects & Architects). was attached to it (St. It was replaced by the modern µCeramic Tiled Roof¶ only in c. the Periods of Sangam Age is variably disputed. We need µTrue¶ researchers to settle this dispute of Age.000 to 170. These Palmasians were responsible for establishing the µPalmyra¶ city of Italy (Herodotus 400-408 BC). So we see in history that the Palmyrah Culture of the great Sangam Period of the Tamils is spread over various Nations of the world and it is not to be igno red at all.history in the recent years .Vaidyanathan Asan (a Nadar) as the Palace Contractor. by C. like the Parimalaikallars are about 150. If this factor is taken for good. Symbolical to the µFish -Flag¶ of the Tamil Pandya Kings.male) ie.

Nadars from Dravidian King Manuvaivasva t to Bharata War: ( 3100 BC-1950 BC) A King namely µManu Niithi Kavalan¶ is referred to in the history of the Nadars. In fact. 3100 BC . Valamkaimaalai. This is a period coming more closer to the events of world history. Sweet-smelling franklins from the Chera country. 970-931 BC(The Bible). the history we have today has made Manuvaivasvat and all the kings down from him. But for many reasons 1500 -1000 BC is taken as the period of Bharata War by historians. in their Palm-leaf Text. the Choladesa has been the meeting place of the North and South for several centuries for several reasons. and valuable Pearls and Peacocks from the Pandya Nadens. But. had supplied the entire food for the warriors. the Age of NADARS too will go many hundreds of years more than what now is considered. This period is also considered to be the period prior to µAryan Invasion¶. This king is referred to in the history of the Cholas also. involved by the whole of India. and other history of the South.more percentage of acceptability than the other. (History and Culture of Indian People). We have to be thankful at least this much is mentioned about the Chera Nadans of that period. not much is mentioned about his fame. the world is beginn ing to know about India (it is around c. probably from Ophiir). probably. as Rulers or Chieftains. This period. Fortunately. One Inscription namely the Aihole Inscription points out the period of war to be around 3102 BC. consisting of 56 kingdoms from South to North. He was a Dravidian King. This is also a period in which the famous Bharata War is supposed to have been fought. If so. with scientific evidences. including the great King Ramachandra and the King Krishna as Aryan characters whe reas we . The SPECIAL alleles found in the blood group of the NADARS also vouch for this. Perunchottu Udayanar or Perumchottru Cheral Athen. or rather. we have some history from the King Manuvaivasvat downwards.1950 BC is a very critical one in the history of India. Although the epics tell us that the King of Chera country. that the King Solomon of the Bible sends his emissaries to collect Tusks. kingdom. and was opposing the foreign invasions. In fact. If so. fine woods. the history of the whole of the Athen Kings is buried under the sands of time. and East to West (History and culture of Indian people). say that the Nadars had a very glorious time even before the great Sangam Periods of the Tamils. we can strongly.

Now the point is. Historical research reveals that Manuvaivasvat was the ancestor of Yayathi . There is one book. could not give us any Inscriptional data before 2nd or 4th century AD. The earliest source of history for India is only the Data got from the Jatakas and such Jaina or Buddhist literature in Pali language. which is now almost proved to be a form of Thamizhi (Prof. all been the original Tamil or Dravidian materials which have been just rendered in a newly coined language in a very later stage. because. The Dravidian Lineages . Of course. why these things are referred to here in the context of the history of Nadars? Yes these factors are brough t to our notice. that the history of Nadars would rest . For more details the book. linked up to the history of Nadars as members of the Naden dynasty. and Tamils from the Nadar (Santor) Clan. Velayudha Perumal Chellam) gives us inscriptional samples even beyond 6th century BC. may be referred to. whereas the Tamil language and the Prakrit. Modern researchers and linguists have almost proved. namely Amarar Puranam which explains the origin and dynastical relations of these kings of this period and later.Nadars through the Ages. prove this.Naishidha -Yadu«etc. But this theory is going to form the foundatio n of new evidences going to come on the basis of modern scientific analysis in the future. or at least have formed the opinion that the so called Vedic Language and Vedic Literatu re. Apart from it we have only the seals of Indus Valley which were found out only around 1920 AD. along with still more branches of clans of Nadans. many have written history on some presumptions.have many information from the literature that these kings were Dravidians. Nadars in the Indus Valley Period: 3000 BC ± 1500BC In the context of the available data on Indian history. the period in between 3000 BC and 1500 BC is a very remote one. in literature. Before finding out such seals. there are too many objections to the acceptance of this theory. So we are not to neglect it right away. It is difficult to explain that how those original Tamil / Prakrit or Pali records were destroyed when Sanskritisati on took place in a still later period. The Sanskrit language which claims to be the earliest language of the world. A number of epithets used for these kings. For such a longer period. it is on solving these problems. who were the ancestors of the Naden Kings with whom were thriving many Chedi Kings (Dynastic chart given in The History and Culture of Indian People).. we have only some references of Tamil literature and some oral history based on folklores or just Puranic stories.

at Cheraman Devi in the present Tamilnadu. the scientists or the historians have to account for the antiquity of the Nadars as proved by the Genetic Science.000 years. i n a later period) also helps to strengthen this argument.000 BC to c. one Inscription given by a Kashmiri King in a Pandya / Chera territory of the Tamils. have moved farther northwards much earlier than 3000 BC and had formed a great Civilization there which had thrived at least for 5000 years. rather claimed now. Anyway. The results of genetic analysis also suits this phenomenon. the question arises. logically. and also through the eastern parts. This is calculated roughly from the organic contents in the soil aki n to animal and human inhabitation in this areas where they had lived. Incidentally. as believed by some branch of the aboriginals of America that they were a branch of the Vedar (Hunting groups) of India. or through the Pacific coasts. So the theory of Afric o-Lamurian origin of Nadars co-existing with these Veder or Vettuvar helps to solve this problem..8000 BC. than compared to Southern India. the Lamurian people.75. that they had almost a history of 40. (of course. through Southern parts of India. crossing over Bering Land Bridge which got exposed during the Ice Age from c. Sometime ago it was believed that the Incas. we had such Vedars who were very much linked up with the Nadars called Vettuvan. if not more. strengthens this movement of the Tamils to the northern and to far eastern regions in such a remote period. So. Kashmir. at the same time it has been strongly suggested and almost proved that those µNative Indians¶ were the early immigrants from north eastern parts of India or Asia through a Mongolia n belt. etc. The period of Indus Valley civilization is almost fixed to be as around 3000 -1500 BC. The fact that µTamil Linguistic Pockets¶ still existing in Northern regions like Baluchistan. . If it is accepted so. where was their origin? There is ano ther theory.upon. or the Red-Indians (Native Americans) had no history at all. In the Sangam Age. entering Mexico and southwards. Archaeological findings have proved that the human inhabitation in northern India is lagging behind almost by 3000-5000 years. But it has been proved now or. But. etc.

The great Indus Valley Civilization is a good example to this. The great Dravidian character of µPeace-Loving nature is known from its people. Science. This confusion is the result of the political upheavals of this particular period. It is also possible. that the Aryan people had tried to negotiate. or at least to think that the Tamils were occupying those regions in the se period. The exact nature of the Aryan attack or its nature and di rect effects are not recorded anywhere. their philosophy and their religious principles of non-violence held high till this dates. the Scripts found in the Indus Valley Seals. Mathivanan). Niithi. This should have continued for a period of time. Whether the Indus Valley had been destroyed by such a deluge is to be further thought out and confirmed. to the extent of deciph ering done. Perumal. This is supported by the historical report du ring the times of Alexander the great that one branch of NADARS namely the Ganas (Kana) have strongly resisted his advance farther in India. if at a ll they . Nadars Through the Aryan Invasion (1500 BC . all vouch for the NADARS existing in the whole of India during these period. Aryans. as such are known to have their character of destroying the enemies and desolating the areas by cutting down even the trees and natural resources and burning them all. wherever they win their wars is known to the world historians (History and culture of indian people). It is not possible to think that the Aryan invasion was done in a single day or in a single attempt. also help us to confirm. Calculating the Culture. literary evidences equipped with the scientific evidences of antiquity.It has been the opinion of some of the researchers who had conducted physical verification of the soil of some regions of the Himalayas that the huge percentage of sandy soils present there lead to infer the region was once occupied by the Ocean on a very remote period. Many Tamil words have been found there like µArasan. The invading Aryans are not known to have possessed any art of writing . Mastery of Arts. is learnt to be early Dravidian or Tamil. persuade and win over the at least a section of the indigenous people to exploit their treasure of knowledge by alluring or by threatening and by using such forms of tactics. as Warriors or even as Rulers. However.. Ko.(Prof. Velan «etc.600 BC) As a matter of fact there are some sections of people considering NADARS as Aryans. for the strong presence of Nadars in the period in question.

later. they would have transcribed all the knowledge of the Dravidians at least within one hundred to two hundred years. after slowly getting acquainted with the Dravidian Arts and Sciences (the process is not yet complete. Aryans had the habit of changing the language system of that location slowly. Hence. but still continues in Kerala). Pataliputra. to suit their politics. as days went on. But the writings and popularizing the Aryan language starts only after the 6th or 7 th century AD.. Unfortunately the writers of history were mostly Aryan supporters and there . reaching 600 BC is considered to be the end of Vedic age. had established their kingdom in the nearby forests and also with their kindred groups in the southern parts. finally reaching the most southern regions of their early ancestors in the later period of history. it. it is probable that the Aryans had at least some mixing with the indigenous people and this might have developed a new breed of rulers in the northern provinces and the major indigenous Nadans have receded t o the southern regions in slow pace. Bihar. In the history of Buddhism and Jainism too we do not have the total history. The earlier periods are shrouded with myths. diversions and mutilations. These people are now known by different names because. but. Thus we get a concentrated Nadar population in the Southern tips of Kerala and Tamilnadu State whereas their kindred gr oups are thrown scattered over a span of vast areas in the northern regions to the east and west.knew. Those who have remained out of the fold of the Aryans. Ujjaini. As a matter of fact it should be considered as the ¶end of the uncorrupte d Tamil Age¶ because it is only after this period that new implementation of the Aryan propaganda slowly taking shape. productively. Nadars in the times of Sri Buddha and Mahavirra: (5th & 6th century BC) Plainly speaking. as they did at last in Kerala (16th century AD). never had a one hundred percent acceptation from the indigenous people. This period. by 600 BC the Aryans thought they could wind up with their monopoly over the aboriginals. So in the meantime. it is only from the times of Shri Buddha and Mahaviira that we get some light on Indian history. as the British had done in India. Takshila. etc. This becomes very evident when we analyze the history and ancestry of the rulers of the kingdoms like Kaikeya. wh ere the earlier Nadans were ruling before the Aryan invasion.

from the family of the mother of Mahavira. enlisted among the 63 Sages. The wor ld famous Tamil Poet. Those remote histories are almost lost for us. duly quoted from the 20 volumes of The History and Culture of the Indian People( especially. Nagercoil. Mahavira was only the 24th Thirthankara of the Jains. He is known among the Jains as ³Kundakunda Acharya´. the Kshatriya groups of this period. at Chitharal Hills. The relation of Nadars with the Lichchavis and the Jnatrikas are explained in the book: The Dravidian Lineages.599). Like Sri Buddha. Lord Mahaviira was born in a Kshatriya family of Nadars (Nata-putta) of Northern India. Calculating in this order. He is from the Kshatriya race to whom Sri Buddha. in Ku ndagrama.). King Bimbisara married a woman named ³Chellana´. were belonging to. in the Jnatrika or Lichchavi Gotra of Nyaya Clan of ancient Mahavamsam (of Nadars). from 599BC (12. History and culture of Indian people)in pali and 'Nayanar'in Tamil (State Manual of Travancore). Nadars Through the Ages. We do not have the full history of the other 23 Thirthankaras. near Patna (Vaisali).4. through His teaching s of Ahimsa and Non-Violence and Dhyana. vol. There are symbols of Jainism even today in the South India. some pleading for the Northern provinces and many suggesting a Southern origin for him. and different parts of Kerala where most of the Ezhava brothers were once fully Jains. and had Revolutionized the Religious Thought Process of the whole of India. .was religious and political struggles and rivalries going on between the so called Sanskritised Vedic groups of Aryans and the aboriginal rulers. Kazhugumalai. starting from Saint Adinatha. like the Nadars. It is known that each Thirthankara is born at the interval of about 250 years. There are disputes among the scholars about the place of birth of Adinatha. Emperor Asoka. Mahavira had lived 72 years. Thiruvalluvar Nayanar. when 8000 Nadar Jains we re sent to the gallows in a single day. He is also called 'Nayaputta' after the code of Dhamma. for which the Nadars are given the title jnayasthan or jnatri (Dravdian Lineages. Mahavira also was one of the Nine branches of Litchchavi -Mallas(History and culture of Indian people).II. except the list of them.. etc. Jainism preached by Him was accepted by almost all the Kings of India at a time. till it was inhumanly butchered by the Aryan invaders through Sanskritisaion during and after 8th century AD. it would have been morr than 6000 years now that Adinatha was born. is considered as a Jain poet.

They were related to King Prasenajit and the ³Mallas´. a wealthy µNobleman¶ and mother. Ko -karunthadakan in Southern India. Even before this. They were one of the a great µRepublican¶ tribes of the Gana or Kana branch of Nadars. Nadars in Bimbisara. But. and Tolkappiyanar (9th century BC). the foreigners had finally to succumb to the strong standing of the aboriginals. The problem for the temporary upper hand on the Mahavira¶s tribe by the Aryans was the µdisunity¶ among the Kshatriyas. Asoka. Karthikeya was their god (History and Culture of Indian People. Skanda (Kandan -Murugan) or. Like the Lichchavis. the Nadars thrived strong for quite a long time with all prosperity . they accepted him not only as their king. the Nadars had in the South great linguistic and literary scholars like Athencottu Asan. As among the present Southern Nadars. the Mallas also claim their origin from Ikshavakus. Historian B.Law explains: ³Indian traditions represents them as Kshatriyas. vol.The Aryans did not recognize the Kshatriyahood of either Sri Buddha or Mahavirra. They were Jnatrikas or Nata-putta (children of Nata). Sunga periods ( 545 BC -273 / 75 BC) Saint Mahavira¶s parents were Sidhartha. They were closely related to the Youdheyas ( war professionals). but also as their god. It is . we had lots of Jaina and Buddhist Pallis or Aramas were established through out the Southern provinces. Ikshavaku is termed as Okkaka(History and culture of indian people). an eminent Lichchavi princess of Vaisali. But. Even the Kshatriyah ood of Lord Krishna was disputed in the beginning by the Aryan invaders. The µkindred groups¶ of the Lichchavis are called ³Voharika´. sister of Chetaka. This disunity can be seen repeatedly reminded by Sri Buddha. the anc estors of Nadars. as well as one of the later Aye Kings. Bimbisara married a Lichchavi princess related to the mother of Mahavira (Nirayavalli Sutra). Trisala. The ruling Clan of Lichchavis was firmly established during the days of Mahavi ra and Gautama Buddha´. when he was found invincible.II). They were called Bahudhanyakas. During the times of Mahavira and Sri Buddha (in spite of their differences in certain principles of Henayana / Mahayana.C. There were nine important families (branches) of µMallas¶ and eighteen Gana -rajas (Kana) divisions. The Nadars too had the title ³Mallas´(Warrior or Wrestlers) which they used to write in th eir land dealings and governing strength of arms (The Dravidian Lineages«). the Gana (Kana) was one of the Nine branches of the Kshatriya Lachchavis of Jnatrika Gotra of Mahavira¶s family. King Bimbisara was related to these tr ibes. During this period. In pali language.

These titles can be seen used in Inscriptions also (Thanchai Peru-udayar Koil Inscriptions). the north Indian authors probably do not know the real meaning of this. The Mallas. .Law connects the Sri Buddha. Certain things are to be noticed here. Historian B. Yet. He is the god of Nadars from the Mullai regions of the Sangam period. He is also called Murugan or Karthikeyan.707 rajas or members who had a ceremonial consecration.termed as ³Voharikarar´(share-holders). like the King in a kingdom. Karthick or Karthikeyan are terms known to the tribes of Bimbisara. We are st ill to go to dig up the south Indian history. Bahudhanyaka. Modernism has given him many up gradations. This is a term used for war-like Nadars (or Santors). which is impossible in the context of large scale mutilations done to Indian history. they are also called by the name. They were known in the Northern Provinces as ³Ratnins´. This is equivalent to the Ratnins of northern India. in the Tamil language. This is specified in their book of history of the Nadars. So. King Bimbisara was known by the name. ³Panayan´ (having the flag of Palm -Tree . The common ancestor for these tribes Ikshavaku or Okkaka. and the Lichchavis trace their origin from the Ikshavaku (Okkaka). like the Nadars. ³Sreniya Bimbisara´ as the Gramani Nadans of Southern India.C. Originally he was a µHill-godµ. Further. Bhishmar) is another title. According to the Census Report of India -1901 AD. As a matter of fact. the number of Gana (Kana) equivalent Republican group in Travancore was 1. He is called in Tamil. There is another branch of Nadars called the Gramani. The important µgod of war¶ for them is ³Skanda´ who is originated in the South India. Valamkai Uyir Kondor is the title used by the ruling tribe of the Nadars. the prin ciple still continued even to the later period. as still used in Vilavancode region where the Nadars are almost 85 percent now. Uravainmurai is another equivalent term for Voharika as used among the major Nadar groups of South India. the Lichchavi assembly consisted of 7. Although the number has been reduced in terms of period and political restraints. each member with the title of a µrajaµ as p revalent among the Nadar Uravinmurai. even from the Sanga period.771. the Valamkaimaalai. It is not a straight cut history. also to this usage. Mallas or Malla Marthandan are titles used by the Nadars even few decades ago. According to the Jatakas. sometimes they are confusing. the south Indian connections are very clear to make a suggestion for a µOne Race Rule¶ in the ancient India. There are many inscriptions and even Copper Plates. in spite of many hurdles and omissions.

´ (The Dravidian Lineages«). Mayurakas are connected with Kartikeya or Skanda of the Tamil Sangam period. It is no wonder that we find such huge number of Edicts all over India. who ga ve India the noble of the Nobles. Chief among kings. Bimbisara is reckoned as 544 -493 BC. an epithet of Nadars. including Sri Lanka. begets one of the famous kings of India. Bindusara (Simha Sena). a Santor king. He was a symbol of Peace to the World. The Chedis and Bhojas take their root . Lichchavis.vol.Ayu-Nahusha-Yayati-Anu-Anavas-Usinara-Nriga-Yaudheya. the Modhva). from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.000 kingdoms which he managed as the Chief.C. in places like Arcot. They are the Madhovira (Madhera or perhaps. Travancore. even up to Sri Lanka.C.Law). Trichinapally... meaning. Asoka was successful in establishing 84. trace their origin from Yadu. with the Vajjis. To quote few lines from one of the important works Indian Socio-Political history: ³While the period of the great Nadar king. the Nanda dynasty is considered around 364-324 BC. ³The Yaudheyas take their root from Atri-Ikshvaku-Nabhaga-NabhanadishthaBudha-Pururavas. Ramnad. They are related to the Vrishnis to which the king Vasudeva Krishna belonged to. and then comes the prominent Moriyas or Guptas in 324-300 BC. Malabar and countries like Chera. the pe ople on the background as a strong race are the Vratya Kshatriyas. Coorg. Mallas. Although efforts are seen to vanquish the origin of the Mauriyas.the Lichchvis. Chandra Gupta is known to have been born to a village headman.II). Adamvira (Admera) and Lankhavira (Lakvira) (H. the Vajjis. Thus Chandra Gupta who had the Moriya or Skanda -Kartikeya traits of the South. Vajjian. Thirunelveli. and the connection with the tribes like Tvashtri or Talayi ns (Panayan or Palm-flag holder) are revealed. otherwise written as Vrijian.etc. Chola and Pandya. as : Yadu -Kroshtri-Yadavas-Vaidarbha-Satvatas-Vrishnis.. Because of the great royal principles of Voharika or Uravinmurai. Among them. a Gramani Nadar. Athen-ur. All these periods. etc.000 Stupas or Viharas in the capitals of 84. the Ganas . Historically they are connected also to the modern Mattamayurakas of Rohtak (B. From these their relations with the South. He is also ter med as Vrisha or Vrishala. The Vrishni Nadars as well as Krishna. the Message of Peace given by Asoka. Madura. µSanta -Asoka¶. three important branches are marked.

. except some references here and there. Certain wars are also described with the Sri -Lankan. Chola and Pandyas are known to be existing from the Sangam period . Even in this period there are wars fought in Ujjaini. according to history. The story of the rebel soldier. king. whereas the Kurus. There are references that the Nadar Heroes named Vijaya (Visaiyan) are taking the word of Ahimsa to the southern part s of Ceylon. Karikaala Chola is one of the major kings ruling in this period. Vrishni kula Kri shna is a Yadava. from the atmosphere created by the Persian invasions around 500 / 37 0 BC. This is recorded in some writings as Hida. II. Valamkaimaalai. at Anuradhapuram [may be in a different occasion]. and many siding with him to form a future diversified b ranches of dynasties in India. Their history is vanished almost to the thin air. This is rec orded in the Palm-leaf Text. perhaps. history of a king supported by the tactics of Aryan politics starts from here. Nadars in Later Chera. vol.fromVaidarbhas and Satvatas respectively.I. a branch of Nadars are going pilgrimage to Java and finally making settlement there and establishing a . who is the descendant of Ayu (Aye)´ (Taken from The History and Culture of Indian People. There are many wars fought for this king by the Yaudheya Nadars.. Matsyas are traced out from Puru. III. quoted in The Dravidian Lineages«) Period of Asoka is calculated to be around 273 -236 BC. and the decline of the aboriginal dynastic nobility starts. Pandavas. 2nd and 4th centuries about the history of the Southern Nadars. In Tamil he is known as Ayar Kula or of Idaya. many of the Nadar groups receding to the Eastern and Southern parts. during the period calculated to be around 187 -75 BC. Late comes the degraded Sungas. Chola. We have many references in the 1st. This is the golden period of Lichchavi or Vajji-kula Nadars. and places in the South like Sri-Lanka. The strength of his group is getting the foundation. This is connected with their predecessor ¶Nahusha (Nada). There is a bunch of writings about him. Pushyamitra is known to history. IV. with lot of infiltration to the northern parts of India than to the South. and the southern links are slowly beginning to be buried down. In the 4th century AD. This creates a situation to project a north India oriented history in our country. Pandyas (1st century AD -10th century AD) The Chera. Perhaps. with a large group opposing it.

The . and traveled North East. Thomas in India. lots of new philosophies are coming up grown in the new atmosphere of the influence of Christianity and the earlier principles of Jaini sm and Buddhism. Thomas. The great Tamil epic Thirukkural is supposed to be one among them.. One king named Santan is referred to in history in the 4th century AD (The History and Culture of Indian People -1-20). Twelve Royal families from the Chera country are observed to have become Christians at the instance of St. etc. one of the disciples of Jesus Christ. However. This has caused the beginning of degradation of the Basic Culture of Nadars and the Civilization of the country. had been influenced by this new age. from whence on the manipulations of history. in the Court of Gondophorus.. who had strted preadhing right from Taxila. and Southwards.(Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai). Thomas. (St. During these periods. 1st century is marked by many international incidents like the visit of St. which made a turning point in Indian history. of their non-violence and Dhamma. going down and down as we reach the 7th and 8th century AD. He is the famous / ill famed Adi Sankara (788-820). like the Chanakkya who travelled from the South to the North. during the period of Chandra Gupta. the writing of Keralolpathy is a book of myth which is getting devalued these days from the view points of modern genetic and archaeological research. Aryan influence is becom ing more and more during these period. This influence has gone to the extent that 8000 Jains were sent to the gallows in a single day. (during the period of Thirunavaukkarasu) and thousands and thousands of Nadar Sanmargis and their Jaina and Buddha Viharas were hunted and destroyed. In 7th century a Promoter of Aryanism is born in Kerala.kingdom there. who was known to be responsible for bringing the µCaste System¶ in India. It is even proposed that the Vedantha of Saivisim. Laws. Vaishnavism etc.A Critical View). In this period. are started. He is known to have adviced to popularise even open immoral dealings prostitution among the bhikkunis . tooth and flesh of the Nadar Saints of Jainism . This originates in the Andhara country during the times of ³Prabhakar³ a Brahmanic Aryan activist who was thirsty of the blood. because. the economy and the language of the country were a lso degenerated. But the modern researches show much different from such mythical conclusions. He travelled from Kanyakumari to Kashmir . But the conventional belief is that it was the Nambutiris who had become the first Christians. The people who lived without much of disparity were divided into many Caste -groups.

As the regulations were changed up to the gluttonous habit of the Aryans. in the north.original method of ³King -Priest ³ phenomenon had been changed to priority to first Priest. takes a turn. it is somewhat going straight till the beginning of 11th century AD. as a trick of the Aryan design. especially between the Cheras and the Pandyas. civilization and politics in India as a whole. There was a big Univeristy under the Aye Nadans. but. This is seen in one of the inscriptions at the famous Parthipasekarapuram temple in South India. as Kshatriya was offered lot of specialties. It should be ascertained that many of the Nadar kings had supported this new ideologies in which. tarnishes the real Indian color of culture. But the South India was somewhat safe with a greater unity among the Chera. now turned to be somebody little lower. However. Nadars in Muslim Invasion period (11th / 15th century AD) An analysis of history shows us that the history of Nadars. The Perumals of Malabar and Eraniyel have become just co -existent with their kindred groups. Chola and Pandyas. although buried. During the 8th and 9th century AD. As a matter of fac t. and then µto the King¶ or Kshatriya gradation (History and c ulture of Indian people Volume 1 to 4). Things slowly began to go up -down. a tarnishing turn. The famous Aye kings are seen struggling to keep up the ir independence. suppressed. the King. the essence of things are seen going on the influence of Brahmanic method. and intimidated by the Cholas. sometimes coming up to power and sometimes remaining dormant as it reached about the 10th century AD. influenced by the new Brahmanic priestly class on the basis of Mantric or Achara regulations. although it had begun from 7th century AD. almost from 10th century. till the Tamil country was attacked by the Muslim invaders. The Persian invasion of 500 / 370 BC . it is . although we see lot of new progress on the basis of a mixed culture is coming up for Nadars and the general population of the country. Commoners were objected from learning. but lot of new turnings happening around and after the 11th century AD. the downfall of Nadar kingdom happens during the invasion of Moguls from 11th to the 13 century AD. it finally lost its identity and the Ayes were almost dissolved with the Perumals and the Thiruppappu Nadans of Travancore. who were once his own partners (Uravinmurai). During these period. luxuries and many sensualities for his pleasures at the cost of the subjects. in th e present Kanyakumari district.

even rivalries among the traditional brotherhood of the Chera Chola Pandyas had occur red. Slowly the temples have begun to flow into the hands of the new Brahmanical allies. The fall of the Nadars . Influenced by this new cultural turning. The Chandella Nadans were the Ittanat branch (Iitta -Natta = Inthappana oriented Nadars) of 39 branches of Nadar tribe of South (as in Travancore ). Most of the . and there developed a great war that lasted for more than one hundred years between the Cholas. This is a Brahmanical tactics to promote some of the lower level communities who had sided with the Brahmanical norms and the whims of the new invaders to help. As in the north. thrash down the Nadar rulers. After the war. like in the Khajuraho temple depictions. especially after the period of Soundara Pandyan. controlled by little Chieftains.(16th-18th century AD) History records that the major wealth and treasures of Nadars were taken in several carts by the Muslim invaders.seen that a number of servants of Nadars are turning their back to the Nadars in their friendship with the new invaders thereby betraying their own salt. like the Kothais and the Tiruppapur of south Kerala. although some new matrimonial relations have been maintai ned by the Cholas and the Cheras. except among the Aivar Rajakkal of the south. in the south also moral deterioration has started after the Muslim invasions and Erotic sensuality had been promoted to the destruction of the Basic aboriginal Root -Culture and Civilization of the Jainistic nature. and Cholas and the Cheras (Rejendra Cholan. This is almost a period that a new system of Devadasis in the temples of the country are being introduced. and Pandyas. But the rivalry fire was continued to be kind led by the new forces that by another one hundred years. To show such betrayals. The repeated Mugul invasions to the Tamil country has opened the way for the entry of the Vijayanagara lords and finally the Nayaks into the Nadar Kingdom. They are of the Khejur-Palm or Date-Palm flag holders or artisans. Lot of sensual appeals have been promoted during this time in the south. the country was again reduced to smaller bits. as it was already started by the Chandlean kings of Madhya Pradesh around the 10th century AD and the middle of 11th century AD. at least there are two inscriptions dated 1453 AD. Raja raja Cholan period). the larger kingdom of the Nadars were almost lost. Only a few Nadars had independent kingdoms. issued in the middle of Tamilagam.

and only certain minor Chieftains. it was a mixture of Sanskrit and Tamil. that the Nambutiri groups of Kerala formed a new language for Kerala. called the Malayalam. Yet. the real Royal orders were recorded in Copper plates and Inscriptions in the original �Vi llavan Code� language of the Nadars. the new language. Muslims from the Nadar community have started becoming Christians in large numbers. and th e Christian Missionaries had made it a good �Fishing-field � from the Nadar community. A few conservative Nadan families have tried to re -organise and resist the enemies in order to re-capture powers. whose descendants are still alive. here and there were hiding in some forest tracts. Manipravalam. Many families have even followed pseudo names for the hiding. and the major group in the southern Kanyakumari and Thirunelvelly districts. Kali Kaatha Perumal Naden. Here some have been betrayed or killed. Initially. Kerala was the worst affected country for the Nadars. as back as 1798-1810. Navab Kumara Marthandan Nadar were a few among them. of course. Alwar Naden. . one of the famous Perumal kings from the Nadar tribe who ruled the land was Udaya Martanda Kulasekhara Perumal of Eraniyel. the Nambutiris (a mixed fallen Brahmo-kshatriyas) have become the supreme law givers of the country. With this new language. but Kalai kaatha Perumal Naden has accepted Catholic Christian religion and worked for social causes. Hence the original Jains. But. the new lords.royalties from the Nadar groups have either surrendered to the Nayaks or taken side with the Brahmanical supremacy. etc. Malayalam. it was the tactics of the Sanskritised groups of Aryans to change the language of the country or the regions. without kingdom. Malayalam has been created by the Aryan force and their Agents. and some escaping to the ancestral brothers in the nearby Chera Country. So. This period had seen the great down fall of the Nadars in Kerala as well as in the Tamil country. Yet. It is to be recorded here that �Tamil� was the undisputed language in the Chera country all along. through Ezhuthachchan and Kunjan Nambiyar. it was in the 16th century AD. but with certain records of their royalty. Mysore. It was known by the name. added with new vocabularies. This period has seen the worst of eradication of the real history of the Nadars. Hindus. when it has become to the middle of 17th century AD. But. This is proved in many of the inscriptions of south India. before implanting their new social ideologies. paving way for the new way of Social Revolutions.

an Aye Nadan. the struggles of the Nadars. (The History and Culture of Indian People. and sometimes as the Nagas etc. Rudiments of depiction in S ri Nagaramman temple at Nagercoil too is an example to this. are proof for it. it is very strange to observe that in the South. These wars had gone for more than one hundred years. But. vol II. when the group of Sangha or Gana (Kana) branch of Nadars had resisted his advance. When we know that Mahavira a son of a Nadar (Nata-Putra) tribe of Lichchavis. by King Ko-Karunthadakkan. we observe that they go in a multi -religious forms. from the gotra of Sri Buddha. This is followed by the destruction of almost all the Jain shrines from South India. III) it is not any wonder to say that the history of the Nadars are not to be taken so ligh tly. or sometimes as Vaishnavites. repeatedly had taken against the brother countries. There might be hundreds of struggles. and renovated in the 9th century AD. a proof of this is seen in the inscription lying in the Chitharal Thiruchanathu Jain temple built during Asokas period. The Chola kings who were instigated to fight against the principles of non -violence of the Nadar kingdoms in the 10th and 11th century AD. Even though there .(1600-1900 AD) As a matter of fact. they secretly or sometimes. the Chola king compelled the extermination of 8000 Nadar Jain saints in a s ingle day by sending them to the gallows. The earliest relics are still observed in the Kazhugumalai temple at Madurai. the Pandya and Chera Nadans. Nadars who had a strong philosophy of µPeace Loving¶ attitude like the great Buddhists and Jains. they never retreated. But. around 326 BC. and the consequences had crushed them with abolishing (being compelled) of their faith in Buddhism and Jai nism. Kanyakumari district. were not for any war.Social Struggles of Nadars . South India was embraced by Jainism and the way of character that the Nadars adhered to even this day. openly held to their fait h and rituals even up to 1918. analyzed from the available history. After the Chola expedition the other brothers. Instigated by Brahmanic (new or modern Arya) religion. the Pandyas and the Cheras. their brutal fall was inflicted through their own brethren. when compelled to war. a racial character that they even today hold to the ground. sometimes following Saivism. has started from the attack of Alexander the great. But.

can not wea r cloths on the upper part of the body. By the beginning of 18th and 19th century AD. they were attacked even in sociological norms. etc. there had occurred many debacles for the Nadars. Now. or as envisaged in the French Revolutions.. This has a great impact on the Cheras also. The in -fights among the royal brothers like that of the Sundara Pandyan. etc. We are to remember that it was during these . although we find that some Chieftains are still having their good establishments. have engulfed the power of the NADALVARS. during the period of Nayaks from 1566 to around 1700 AD. 1600 -1700 AD. This period is the most DARK PERIOD in the history of the Nadars. (through Velu Thampy Dalawa (1801-1809) who killed many number of Nadar land owners and confiscated their wealth in a very large number and had given to his allied groups of Nairs and Pillamar that the world had not seen before (The Dravidian Lineges). by the beginning of the 20th century AD. their true history being marred and buried. These all indicate the heavy punishment imposed on a vanquished ruler who had been captured by the victor. creating new rules that they shall not enter into the temples. the Dutch. being snatched off their lands and wealth by the Palayakkara (Nayaks). French. by humiliating . siding with the new arrivals. the newly formed political situation with the presence of the British . We find that lots of fleeing from the Tamil Pandya country to the Chera land. the Nadars are reduced to a economically backward community.. This age is followed by the imposition of taxation (HEAVY AS 120 TYPES OF TAXES ON THE NADARS) SO THAT THEY CAN NEVER THINK OF COMING BACK TO POWER FOR GENERATIONS. and must perform uliyam ( free service without wages). the later days were in friction and sometimes in rebellion. the Ettuviittil Pillamar. especially betrayed by their accountants and advisers.. informs us that this is the after-effect of the Muslim invasion and the process starts even from the period around 149 3. One inscription dated 1493 from Kallidaikurchi. had invited newer problems to them and finally came the fatal Nayaks to establish their power in the Nadar oriented Pandya territory.. as was seen imposed on tribes like the Israelites. till then had remained subjugated to the Nadar Supremacy. As the invasions of the Moguls came to the Southern Pandya country around 12th century AD.had been marriage alliance between the Cholas and the Chera kings. instigated by the Pillamar or the Vellala community. Those were such sorts of evils that the Nadars had to fight in the latter 19th and 20th century AD. who. Further.

Kavara. Although elaborate studies are not conducted on the Nadars of the Northern States. their conditions too had been reduced to that of a backward position. etc. Alwars. Then the movement was followed by Sri Narayan Guru. Hence leaders like Guru Nanak.Chattambiswamigal. At the same time. and even to the Sikh communities of the North also. or Jayaswals (Madhvas) Gouds. it took almost 200 years for them to fight back all the odds. Shinde. It was this period that Edward Thurston has studied the Castes of India and wrote the great book Castes and Tribes of India. through Alwar Naden. closer to them in order to give a thrashing blow to the fallen true kshatriaya Nadans. Choudhuries (Chiefs). his holy Sainthood prevailed him to come out successful in his stand for Revolutionary freedom. But the Nadars had shown the face of Revolt as early as 1559. and many of the Jaina and Buddhists. Mudisoodum Perumal. and upgraded them to the position. But. Bhandare. who had defied the laws of the Nayaks and fought to enter the temple. even put under the den of Lions. The Aryanism and the latter 'modern' Brahmanism. before they could finally get their rights registered through legal declaration in the 20th century AD. the Brahmins took hold of another earlier lower com munities as the Shudras. etc. Naturally. put in jail. and also in a chamber of brimstone. . Villa as (Bhills). Saint Ayya Vaikundaswamigal was arrested.. Mandel s (like the Gramani Nadans). Bhoole.1660. Ahlvalia. have reduced the Nadar Kshatriyas to poverty. except the few families in power who were boosted by the Brahmins to get free gifts of huge lands and wealth for them. He was guided by many of the Brahmanic (modern) groups who have misguided the history to a great extent. and after a few decades. and many of the aboriginal Kshatriya castes had been ousted by them saying they were unclean or unworthy of gods and µworshipµ. Kalikaatha Perumal Nadar. Kalal (Kalar). by Chattambiswamigal for nthe cause of the Shudras. He even defied the written conditions of the King to make comprise with him to quit the Revolutions.. Sri Narayana Guru. have come up to revolutioise the society in the country.{Nairs} or Pillai. Bhoumick (Lords of Soil). Ambedkar. This has happened to the Sens. Idigas.periods that the history of India was written being initiated by many foreign powers like the British and the Dutch. etc. Iyyankaali.. . By this time the temple s have all become the total play grounds for the Brahmins. Bhants. the Nadars have missed many of their historical fabrics being recorded in the texts. but.

These new groups have got support for them even from the new outsiders.These revolutions have shown the path f or Dalit leaders like Babasahib Ambedkar and many others in the later years. they also wanted to spread enormous superstitions like 'Head -born. as the Aryan Brahmins took charge of the affairs. who were officiating as the Priests. Surya-kula.Christian missionaries also have helped Nadars in the process Turning Down the History There was a time in India when the ruling king. the Brahmins (Modern) took charge of the top rank saying themselves that they are the representatives of god (or as the newly invented HEAD -BORN) and hence they are to be ON THE TOP OF ALL THE RANKS. Buddhism and Jainism have held the traditional ranking grades till very late. in the earlier tradition.(as we see in the early traditions of King Desaratha or Rama of ancient times) for Homa. British or the Dutch. the rudiment po wer of Indian Kshatriyas (mainly their wealth) are being used for mobilizing certain µNew Agenda¶ at the cost of the larger Kshatriyas population. against the true Kshatriyas. Even in Independent India. .. To keep the people uneducated or ignorant of the affairs . ousting the traditional King -Priests of the normal ways. than the so called Vedic Texts. in the later period. and the other rituals. etc. it was the king himself. Thigh-born. or his representative from the kindred groups. like the Mugals. These sort of critical history is seldom recorded or even totally omitted or eradicated in the 11th or 14th century AD. Aryanism (Modern Brahmanism) has reverted the traditional system of ranking and brought crucial change into the system of governess and thereby in history also. Recording of these sort of secondary development of ranking was given more projection only through the later literature. and the modern Brahmins created a group of people to follow and implement their law by supporting and lifting up a new rival class. Such analytical history had not been written yet to highlight the real facts of events of history in India. But. or the Sudras from the lower levels. was the success of the Aryan Brahmins as preached by Manusmrithi. Yagna. through repeated versions of Manusmriti. slowly. and then only came the 2nd rank to the Brahmin (ancient or traditional Priest). But. or the common people using the µWealthy Kshatriyas¶. 'Naden' or the Kshatriyas were considered on the top ranks of reverence and power. and he was the top ranking authority. In addition to this. (Ko). But. Moon Race'.

the Sal-Sudras (Nairs and Pillais) made an impression that Kerala was traditionally a Matriarchal country. with the consent of her family h eads (Elamkulam Kunjan Pilla). who. there are incidents that the Nadars chose or selected a male member from the kings¶ sister¶s children. King Martanda Varma (1729 -1758) was an example to this. It was against this practice of µimmoralising Nair Women¶ that Sri Chatampi Swamigal has agitated and fought for the cause of the Nair hereditary rights (the Nambutiri Brahmins never gave heir rights to their chil dren born in Sudra -Nair women). when there was no µMALE CHILD AVAILABLE¶ in the Royal family. with the help of the Brahmanical (modern) writers. Menon (children born in Nair women for the Arya Brahmin). a series of castes like the Sal-Shudra. they did not give the right of heir to the children. In order to get the upper hand to the Aryan Brahmins (modern). because they never had the possibility to know their fathers. It was only around 1920 -s that they got their rights registered by the government through a separate declaration. Because of this practice. the Nairs could not get girls for their men a nd they had to lead a fight organized by Chattambi swami gal. the Aryans blindly declared that all the Indian inhabitants were ³S hudras´ unfit to hold Kshatriyahood. or the Pillai. But. Travancore State Declaration. almost a thousand years before the advent of the . as any other Kshatriya groups of India had their Patriarchal system from the very beginning of their history. in 1920. But according to the Aihole Inscription. Nair. as a matter of fact. There are many other examples also.and so on. At the same time. the Aryan invasion or the period of the Brahmin race (modern) starts from 1500 -1000 BC. as their women were. for their rights (Elamkulam. under the influence of the Brahmin Nanbutiries. were engaged with the same woman. This was only a camouflaging of true history. They said it was a sin for a Shudra to listen to the Vedas or to pronounce them. they took the µWealthy Shudras¶ in their hand to procreate through their women folk. They could go to any extent of lies. making new generations to fight the cause of the Aryans as they did among the Nairs of Kerala in th e period from the 15th to 19th century AD. or even to learn letters. According to the recorded history. one after the other. This has created a new race. Although Arya Brahmins procreated children in the Shudra or Nair women. the famous Bharata War.). etc. The Brhamins followed the patriarchal system whereas the children of Brahmins in the Nair women could follow only matriarchal system like the other Shudra caste. But the Nadars. But. a vital Event of Indian history had occurred in 3102 BC.

There are several hundred of such Uttupurahas in Kerala. The most highly projected king of the Aryan Brahmins. is a son of a Nambutiri Brahmin. they have accepted him in the group of µAryan gods¶ later. For example. now. Yet. The Vrishni Kula Nadar King: 'Krishna¶ was living in India in 1950 -1400 BC. Sri Mannathu Padmanabhan. they made the aboriginal Vrishni Kula Nadar King. to µCLEAN¶ the Indian rulers to become a Kshatriya by passing him through the mouth of a COW MADE OF PURE GOLD AND MAKE HIM PASS THROUGH ITS GENITAL and the GOLDEN COW is to be given free to the Arya Brahmin. but. and no history books written as an upper class till a few decades ago. a series of 'upper -class' claims are given by them from the last 40-50 years. whereas the NADARS would never welcome such a Brahmin (modern) in their household. The great Dravidian king. when they saw the resistance from the Vrishnis otherwise called the Panayans (Tanjore Peruvudayar Inscriptions) . The so called 'Nairs of Kerala' are known to have had no noble history or special nomenclature.Aryan Brahmins. These are the juggleries done to the Indian history and to the history of the Nadars by the Aryan invaders. µManuvaivasvat¶ was living in India in c 3100 BC. not to speak of any pride at all. Lord -King µRama¶ was living in India around c1950 or calculated in between 2350 -1950 BC. GOD¶S OWN COUNTRY for the feast made to ten thousand Brahmi ns in the specially made Uttupurahs (feasting Halls). and the country is called. But. ³Yayati´ (Nada) was living in In dia in c 3000 BC. except as 'Shudras' in all their records. Valmiki was living around the period c2350 -1950 BC. their Caste-Leader of the sixties. The Dravidian Sage. (The History and Culture of Indian People -Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. the newly arrived Aryan Brahmins declared him and the indigenous Indians were µunfit to rule the land¶ because they all were ³Mlechchas´ or unclean in front of their sight and the Brahmins (modern) invented a new method in 19th century AD. As they are mostly a mixed breed of Nambutiris and Pillais in Sudra women. What was the principles involved behind all these ritual formalities except the pure exploitation of the wealth of the land by land or gold? When they wrote history. The king becomes a 'Pure' Ksdhatriya fit to rule the land. till 1920. The Dravidian Sage. in Kerala. and they feel proud on it to declare it to the public. Krishna a Demon(History and culture of indian people) and a Mleccha. in India (Dravidian Lineages). The last ten or twenty years are filled with such fake editing and literary projections far from truth(A peoples revolt in Travancore). they get all the support of the 'Modern Brahmins' and their allied groups. There are incidents that . 1956).

the following Court Cases may be just indicated: 1. The Chithambara Chiravai Case of Niila Martandan Nadar 4 The Sri Kerala Kothai Nadan Case 5 The Cheraman Perumal Trust Case 6. The Paulose Nadar Versus Nambutiri Case. However.the Nadas have 'Killed' their daughters whenever such demand or attempt made from such 'super-quarters' (The Draidian Lineages . As the Cases are still pending in Courts. The Thachchanvilai Anandapadmanabhan Case 3. That is the sort of training given to them for generations together through the verses of Manusmriti Of course. « 7. They have invented some µFake Researcher. we need more details to make it public. WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE WESTERNER.Nadars Through the Ages). But. even joining hands with a Westerner¶ to pull along the soft Neck of the COW OF THE INDUS VALLEY by applying the modern Computer and elongating its head to make it A HORSE. The Trippapu Puthupparakkal Pand aravagai Vannichi Valli Case 2. Forts/ Properties More than Seven Court Cases are recorded in South Travancore alone and the number will go to dozens if we make a search for more of the other States also. Nadar Antiquity ± Genetic Research . The Thomman Thiruppappu Pallivagai Case. the µThought Banks of Indians¶ are becoming more prone to analyze the facts before accepting it totally Pending Court Cases on Nadar Palaces. because he knows that anything told by an outsider will be accepted by the Indians.. when new researchers have done 'Sweating Researc hes¶ and brought out many of the hidden truths to light. TO ESTABLISH HIS SUPREMACY. now . an Aryan HORSE. the same Aryan Brahmins (modern) forsake all their old claims of ³High Born Aryan Origin´ and try to become as indigenous as any of the Parayas or Pulayas or any µforest tribe¶ of India to establish his citizenship here with its glorious past. etc.

The analysis revealed that the Nadar caste of South India have several characters shared with East Asian populations consistent with the demographic history of Sout h India. The study suggests that a comparatively lesser degree of genetic admixture occurred between the South Indian and North Indian racial groups than that between South Indian and East Asian groups´. To confirm whether it is a ¶Lemurian Link¶ or otherwise is our problem. Even if some one would have any aversion for an µAfrican link or Lemurian link¶ of origin. Sridharan B. the antiquity of this race as reported on the basis of genetic analysis done to a Nadar woman from Kanyakumari district and same stock of Dravidian root. Cw*02022..B*51011 are of high frequency in both these populations but are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world.70000 years (having an African route). th ere are many scholars and historians suggesting for a Lemurian origin. B and C alleles frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were determined by high -resolution typing of genomic DNA. B*15011.50000 t o 1. As a matter of fact. B*3501. HLA -A. as well as specific features including several unique alleles such as A*03011. is given to be 1. The present study shows that the Nadar caste has several unique alleles and haplotypes at high frequency that are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world´ (Shankarkumar U. haplotypes such as A*31011Cw*02022-B*3501. B*51011.The most scientific analysis of genetics done recently by a very reputed organization gives the following information about the Nadars: ³South India is one of the oldest geophysica l regions mainly occupied by Dravidian language-speaking people. But prompt archaeological . This is very much supported by the very ancient Tamil literature also. Pitchappan RM) Another report of genetic analysis on the Nadars gives the following information: ³The hierarchical cluster analysis for DRB1 data from the Indian caste and population groups showed that the Nadars cluster with Kashmiri Brahmins and North Indians. Sridharan B). we are to accept the scientific facts. In addition. A*03011-Cw*04011-B*4406 and A*2402101- Cw*04011. A*31011. Here a random panel of 61 unrelated Nadar healthy individuals from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed and compared with other populations of India and the world. (Shankarkumar U. one of Piramalaikallar. However.

Unless we get it straightened. The above Scientific Genetic information reveals the following facts: 1. Nadars are linked up with the Kashmiri Brahmins (Pundits) and the North -East Asian Tribes.surveys are yet to be undertaken officially. High Born. Patarak. it is possible to straighten the history of India from its present zig-zag camouflaged projection. it is very difficult to analyze it too. This is a word widely confused to divert the whole Indian history. because. except the detection of the µAdam¶s Bridge¶. Double -Born or Dhwaja. The Nadars are comparatively a µless corrupted¶ race 3. But the 5th point certainly requires some clarifications. we need to know the earliest linguistic and martial history of India. are misrepresented from the inscriptions by the scholars of archaeology and others. This is a sensitive work which needs dedicated hard efforts. The Nadars have certain µunique¶ characteristics in them which are too less or absent in any other races of the world. means a Master. the real meaning of Brahmin (modern) and the ancient King-priest (Padakar. in Pali. Su ch misconceptions have to be changed to get the real root -history of Indian People. Pattaraka. Of course. This character has given them the title: ³Santors´ (Noble born. perhaps . Bhadaraka (Pattaraka) comes from the original Paadakar. South India is one of the oldest geophysical region occupied by the Dravidian speaking people in the world 2. . or Pataraka¶ can not be understood . In order to analyze it. about the real µConcept of Brahmins¶ in India.). etc. Here. even of the globe. If our historians focus the history of India with these view -points in mind. 5..etc. When that is done. its real meaning and the hidden µoverlapping¶ racial concept is not properly analyzed or understood by the historians. Nadars. etc. with their µkindred groups¶ have the remotest origin in the world. The word Pattar (Bhatta). All the first four points shown above need no elaborate clarifications. or Asan in ancient Tamil. 4. it is meant to differentiate between the modern ³Brahmin´ and the ancient ³King -Priest´ as was during the times of Dessaratha or Rama or the earlier times. This word has been wrongly interpreted to be a Brahmin in modern writings.

Bishop Caldwell has done some works on the Nadars. Malta. and artwork of the Phoenicians are found all over this website and upon close observation one can clearly see how closely they resemble the inhabitants of the shores of present day Medite rranean. No one can claim that the Phoenicians of North Africa were black or the Phoenicians of Spain. one famous linguist. And one Immanuel had done on the Dravidian Lineage -the Nadars through the Ages (a comprehensive work on the Nadars of South India linking them with their branches in North India.. It is to be noted here that his Research works go in parallel with the 'Genetic Analysis done by the modern Scientists). the modern DNA analysis reports: ³Before going into the origin of the Phoenicians. There are some who use the Bible for genealogical reference and actually believe Biblical characters such as Noah.000 BC or suggest that they migrated to Phoenicia from elsewhere. for the first time.etc. Earlier. however. These claims are categorically rejected and have no basis in purely scientific genealogical studies of ethnic origins of races (Extract from DNA analysis). The Phoenicians do not have their origin in Europe or in Africa... Gibraltar. in which he . they belong to the ancient Mediterranean sub -starum. Some trace them back to as far away as India about 10.etc. and genetics spoke the final word. Sicily. from the United States of would take the Kashmiri Priests to the roots of the Samgam Nadars spread to Kashmir and Baluchistan where the roots of Tamil is detected by linguists.. They were neither European nor were they black Africans. were European.. Ham. Statues. really existed and thereafter the Semites came from Shem and the Hamites from Ham. none of these stories are proven or provable through archaeology. has done research on the Nadars of Tamilnadu. The history of Nadars are a very valuable and interesting subject for study and to do proper research which is bound to shed b rilliant lights on many hidden areas of social as well as Indian history. Further.etc.. Sardinia. And one Dennis Templeman has done on the Northern Nadars (of only Tamil regi on). Shem. Their origin is in the eastern Mediterranean. the Phoenician colonies which spread all over the coastline of the Mediterranean and even the Atlantic coasts were inhabited by Phoenician Semitic speaking immigrants. About the origin of the Phoenicians. as recent DNA studies prove. Busts. two things musts be made clear. One Robert Hardgrave Jr.

but the µNadar Aspects¶ or the old ³King -Priest´ factor and the modern µBrahmanical pundits¶ were not properly analyzed and identified. a reputed Warrior) 9.could get only a superficial information about the Nadars. sponsored by the East India Company.K.70. Romila Thapar. It would be really be very interesting and enterprising to do proper µResearch¶ on these Nadars of India. Ayyan Thiruvadi Thiruppappu (From the early dynasty of Chera kings.Majumdar got the points. This book was questioned and he withdrew it in the end. Basham missed many details of Indus Valley and its real people. Kalankaaikanninaar Mudi Cheral (One of the many famous kings of Vrishni Kula Nadars) 4. Sundara Pandyan (one of the later Pandya kings who brought troubles on the Tamil country on dispute of crown) 6. Tolkappiyar (First Linguistic Grammarian of the World) 2.000 to 1. Alvar Naden (a Noble Nadan who fought for the Social Rights) 8. Kumara Viira Marthandan Naden (a Noble Nadan who fought for the Socia l Rights of later Nadars) . A.L. Cheraman Perumal Nayanar (One of the Emperors in the lines of Perumals. Cheral Athen (A great Chera King who made expedition to the north) 5. FEW NADAR PERSONALITES 1. an epithet to the Nadars) 3. There are more than 100 books on Nadars.000 years from the genetic analysis of the modern Age of Science.50. Kali Kaatha Perumal Naden ( A Noble Nadan who stood for Social Rights for the Nadans) 7. going much inclined to the half mind of the Asiatic Societies of Bengal. from a period when the Nadars were deprived of their power and wealth. one of the earli est 'Civilized branches of human tribes' whose antiquity goes from 1. and R.

The Tinnevelly Shanars (the first book to confuse Nadar history and finally. preached µEquality to all. 1850: Robert Caldwell . Viira Marthanda Varma Maharaja (An adopted Nadar from the Royal family. who helped to make modern Travancore. Copper Plates on Nadars. (many of the books are µRare¶ not easily available). brimstone. 1. Saint Ayya Vaikunda Swamigal (Noble born. but fought many Court Cases later) 11. Udaya Marthanda Kulasekhara Perumal (King of Travancore from 1798 -1810) 14. founder of modern Travancore. Chithambara Chiravai Thiruvadi (Noble Warrior of Nadan family who helped the Travancore kings in the later days) 12. put to jail. 1874: S. Warrior. Anandapadm anabhan Nadar 16. relative of Great Warrior. Thiruppapu Anandapadmanabhan (Relative of King Martanda Varma. a path-maker for all modern Revolutions) Books and Palm-Leaf Texts. but was punished by the Aryan Brahmanical propagators.Martin Winfred . but fought the case) 15. the book was withdrawn by him for his incomplete conclusions -on popular demand) 2.10. tore of the kings rule of µConditions¶ of subjugation.Shandrar Kula Marapu Kattalai .Shandrar Marapu 3. Dharma Raja (King of Travancore (1758-1798 who had issued many Copper Plates to the Nadar families) 13. Niila Marthandan Nadan Chirava (A Noble Nadan who had supplied army to the Travancore kings. Owner of Thachanvilai Copper -Plate) 17. Lion¶s Den. Mooka Naden (a Social Revolutionary who Entered into the Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple. in the age old principles of Asoka the great. 1871: H. was ill -treated as Channar Swamy. came out unharmed.Winfred .

T. 17. 1924. T. Superintendent of Census Operation.Arya Kshatriya Vilakkam 15. Chandra Paramparai 8.A Brief Account of Nadar Race 20.N. Esq. a Pettition of the Chantra (Nadar ) Community«about their caste misspelt ³shanar´ found in Ethnography« 18. 1889.C. 1911. T. 1918. 1902: K. Sathiyanatha Kavirayar .4.Shanmuga Gramani .Nayaka Nattar (P.A short Account of the Chantrars or Tamil Xatras 12.Shandrar Puranam 19.Dravida Kshatriya 5.The Chantro-Memorial .Kshatriya 22.T.Chandror Sangam 16.Viojayadoraisamy Gramani .Pandion . 1889: Shanmuga Gramani . T. Acirvatham Nadar and T.A Memorial from Nabbi P. 1911.Nadar Caruaru . S.Pallihal Vayappu 10.C. 1880: Samuel Sargunar .B.Pandion. Manicka Kavairayar -Sivakasi Prabandham 11.Sattampillai Aiya . 1883. 1910.Vijaya Doraisamy Gramani . Madras.Namathu Kula Thozhil Yaathu 21. 1926.Shanrar Ethnography 14. Samuel Sargunar . P. Y. A. Kulasekhara Raj . 1910.V.I. K.J.S.Shanar Kshatriya 23.Malony.Namathu Kula Thozhil .Pandion) .V. Bhupathi Chinna Lakshmana Raja . 1914.Shanars are Kshatriyas 9.Gnanamuthu Nadar .Vijayadoraimsamy Gramani .Shandraragiya Sooriya.Tamil Kshatriya Kula Vilakkam Vinavidai 13.Thomas Nadar .Pandya Kula Vilakkam 6. P. 1922. 1911. 1892. on Behalf of the Nadar Community to J.M.Pandion . 1923..A. 1911.V.C.. Kannayira Nadar .Bishop Caldwell and the Tinnevelly Shanars 7.1900.V. Dr. B.Vijayadoraisamy Gramani . 1883: Ponnusamy Nadar .

2009.Nadar Ennum Sol Araadchi.Kumariya Nada r . S. M. . M. 1927. M. Cornalius. The important Copper Plates now under Critical View is The Famous ³Thachachanvilai Copper Plate´ given to Thiruppapu -Anandapadmanabhan. Dennis Temple man .Pandiya Deya Aaditya Vamsa Sarithiram 27. 2006. The earlier Palm-Leaf Text is Vlamkaimaalai.Amarar Puranam) 35. 1996. 1969.The Dravidian Lineages. 1931. .Yar Intha Nadargal 30. 1998. 2005. ever since the question was raised by Bishop Caldwell. Kerala . a relative of King Martanda Varma.The Nadars of Tamilnad -the Political culture of acommunity in change 31.Immanuel .Immanuel . 2002.Nadar Charitram BC 2000 Mudal AD 1921 Vare. Robert L. T.G. 2003 Elamthottasm Sukumar -Santor Puranam (Based on famous book of C. Ramalinga Gurukkal and V. K.A Critical View There is a continuous flow of books on the History of Nadars.Saint Thomas in India .M. certifying the ownership of 12 other Grants. T. an archaeologist and some others. Hardgrave Jr. Massilamani Nadar .The Nadars Through The Ages 34.Raj. 1968. The other Plates are the Thanjavur plates. 1956 K. This has been re-edited and discussed and criticized by Dr.Veerasamy Naidu . Manavalakkuruchi Dass . .Nadar Mannarum Nayaka Mannarum 28.Kanniyakumari -Aspects and Architects 37.Kochukrishnan Nadar. Kerala.Anatomy of a Folklore -King Viira Martanda Varma & a Spy 36.A. They have the records from Madras archaeological dept.. M. 33.Nadar Kulathilaha Nattamil Kalanjiyam 26. Arasa Kulathai kurithu Ezhuthiya oru 25.Nadar Charitram 29. 1937.Ramachandran. 1927.Immanuel . There are several other texts and Books.24.Vijayadorasamy .Immanuel .The Northern Nadars of Tamilnad 32.A.

It is understood that Nayars came to Kerala around 800 AD.Dharmaraja¶s Copper plates given to the Puthupparakkal family. Chera means the people who came and joined. yet to be released . The Chera Kingdom was founded by the Bana people at about 300 BC . who perhaps came to kerala from Karnataka. There are about 100 books about the Nadars. through the Konkan coast along with their Sanskrit spea king Brahmin masters in 800 AD.Parthian and Aryan invaders in the early centuries after Christ). The names Nair and Kuruppu suggest that they are more related to the Kurubas than ancient Tamils of the Chera kingdom. radically transformed Northern Kerala. They suddenly disappeared from South Kanara around 800 AD. but most of them are out of print and non -available. 1)Southern Ay Nadu (the present day Travancore ) 2)Maranadu -area extending from Palaghat to Gudalur and Wayanad including Ezhimalai 3) Pulnadu Kasaragod and South Kanara The arrival of new warrior castes from the north who were more related to Kurubas( a dravidian people who were living at the central India who mixed with the Scythian. Sunday. 2009 A SMALL HISTORY.and residing at Thulunad u (South Kanara)around 800 AD. The king Cheraman Perumal was otherwise called Bana Perumal. which is in the Court Case.A UNKNOWN HISTORY Before 300 BC whole of the kerala area was under the Pandian Kingdom. The formation of chera kingdom at Northern Kerala divided the Pandiyan kingdom in the middle. The ancient Pana and Valluvan tribes were either exterminated or assimilated by the Nair warriors. We would invite persons to send us copies or help re-print such rare books. Thus in the early years of Christ Kerala had three Pandian Principalitie s. We are in the process of consolidating the books about Nadar history which are currently available for sale. The Nairs who perhaps married . The Thulu Nadu records mention that a tribe called Nayar who followed marumakkathayam and fiercely protective of Brahmins came from north along the konkan coast. October 25.

Brandan Chanan alias Ananda Padmanabhan Nadar who was a member of the Pagode Kalari Family that time helped the king in the civil war in which the Ettuveetupillaimar tried to kill Marthanda Varma. In latter periods(1725-1800) the Nadars were tortured by the Nair/ Vellala combine. Mavelikkara had been the Pandian minor capitals. Quilon and Kanyakumari Districts. The native yadava rulers of Venad(Travancore) were replaced by Chera rulers. a kind of country Robinhoods who hid in the hills and harassed the caravans. Ravivarma Kulasekhara of Kodungalloor (Trichur) converted himself to Islam and went for a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 12the century. Many of them got converted to Christianity. Before the British shot him he managed to throw his four year old daughter inside the compound of a British Misssionary who converted her and named her Dona. Nairs turned out to be quite aggressive to Nadars though much less severe degree than the Muslims and Naickers. Pandalam. The custom of Marumakkathayam a form of matrilineal lineage was brought inside Kerala by the Nairs. gradually the ancient chera kingdom was broken and shared by local Princes . They joined the second Chera Kingdom around 800 a. Duraiappa Nadars became robbers. Kollam. In a period when only Namboothiri women were allowed to cover the upper part of their body. Gradually all the traces of Pandiyan ancestory disappeared though some elements and Pandiya Sakhas existed as late as 18th century. Often they were sold as slaves. Kasi.d. Suyampulingam Nadar finally was killed by the British regiment at Maruthuvamalai. The Nadar Kalaries and learning persisted in the southern districts Trivandrum. The Nadars/Shanars though they assisted the Venad King Marhtanda Varma in 1725 to regain the throne. The Nairs of Valluvanad preserved many ancient traditions including the Chaver tradition exhibited at the mamangam festival. Nadar women started covering their chest at 1859 leading to fierce .among the indigenous Vellala.Valluvan and yadava tribes. They talked either Tamil or a dialect of Maniprav alam an ancient form of Malayalam. Some nairs especially Kurups were always friendly with Nadars and sided with them. The Nairs migrated to Venad around 1100-1200s and succeeded in colonising it. The Chera Kings were replaced by the Namboothiri brahmins aroun d 1400s when they intermarried among the Royal dynasty.The last Chera King. Many Nadars like Suyampulingam Nadar. after whom the village Donavur was named in the later periods.

Like Nadars they were also saivites. The British never understood Nadars history or their Pandiyan lineage. This lasted for more than five years. The Kerala¶s Ezhavas and Edigas (Ezhiyas) are not related to Nadars ethnically and all the apparent similarity could be due to inter -mixing in the recent times. The Puthalam kingdom perhaps collapsed around 1350s. perhaps were more related to the Pandiyan dynasty than others.Even now the single majority community at Trivandrum is Nadars. . The title Panikkan was given to people who were masters in martial arts by the Pandiyan kings.Sivanthi. The Pandiyan dynasty of Nadars who ruled in Sri Lanka in ancient times was also called Ezhavas and should not be confused with the modern Ezhavas. Ezha nadu in ancient Malayalam and Tamil means Srilanka. The people with family names Maran. The Thiyyas were fierce warriors and their Kalaries are said to resemble closely nadar Kalaries though technically superior than the Southern Kalaries. Very few of the Nadars still have memory about their Pandiyan past.Rayan. Like Nadars of Kerala and Tamil Nadu they have titles like maran and rayan.protesting by the other communities especially Nairs. They are believed to have intermingled with the Hoysal a dynasty of Karnataka who were Jains like early Pandiyas. A kannada speaking sub group among Bunts called Nadavas who reside at South Kanara District of Karnataka also regard themselves as descendents of Pandiyan kings including Bootha Pandia and Deva pandiya. Some Billavas might have acquired Pandiyan blood by marriage as they have the Pandian title Alw ar or Alwa.Pandiyakula etc. Like Nadars many Ezhava families have the Panikkan title indicating their link and perhaps the origins from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. At Karnataka the Pandiyan kingdom existed at the Mangalore and Kasaragod area.Leaders like Soundara Pandiyan nadar were actively involved in the establishment of Dravidian movement. The Puthalam Nadu described by Ibn Pathutha at the North western Srilanka was a Pandiyan kingdom and could be the place of origin for these communities. The Jain community as well as the Bunts of Karnataka could descend from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom.

[3] 2. [15] [16] The two incriptions at Kalladaikurichi suggest that in medieval times the Nadars served as administrators and accountants both in Chera and Pandya countries. was corrupted to Shanar. claim ed that the Nadars are the descendants of the ancient rulers of Cheran.The renowned Nadar historian. The title Nadar was exclusively used by the Nelamaikkarars. However Hardgrave states that the Teri palmrya forests of today¶s Tiruchendur district must have been the origin of the Nadars [11] .Cholan and Pandyan kingdoms and that when Nayak rulers captured the Pandya country. suggest they could very well be the heir of the Early Pandyas.They claim to have converted before four hundred years Etymology The community which was previously known as Shanars. [2] [3] [12] [13] [14] These claims are . The title Nadar is believed to be derived from the Nelamaikkarars. there is little evidence to suggest that the Nadars were indeed the descendants of the ancient . they divided the country into several Palayams(divisions) and appointed Palaiyakkars as rulers. Nadars claim that the original name of the community was Shantror or Shandrar (which means noble one) which. The Nayaks rulers of Tamil Nadu .as per the claims of Sargunar. the aristocrats and highest of the old Nadar community. 1)Nadars 2)Nadavas (Bunts) of Karnataka 3)Some Muslims from Karnataka still have Nadar as family name. came to be known as the Nadars. in course of time.however.In the Modern times the following communities have the ancient Pandiyan lineage. However. where the Nadar population is predominant.Samuel Sarugunar. History 2. However. not ensure that their rise wouldn't ever happen. there are very little evidences to support all these claims. Before 19th century The origin of Nadars as a social group is unknown. The traditions followed by the Nelamaikkarars and the existence of the ruins beneath the Teri palmrya forests of Tiruchendur and ancient Pandyan capital city of Korkai. till the 19th century. imposed Deshaprashtam (ostracism) on the ancient Pandyas (Nadars). 1. [13] [14] .

Chera,Cholaand Pandya kings. [14] This belief, that the Nadars had been the kings of Tamilnadu, became the dogma of the Nadar community in the 19thcentury. [17]

2. 2. Nadars of the 19th century See also: Nadan (Nadar subcaste) and Nadar climber

The Nadars were a community mostly engaged in the palmyra industry, including the production of toddy. Few subsects of the Nadar community were traditionally wealthy landlords and money lenders. [18] [19] Majority of the Nadars lived south of Thamiraparani river. Nadars living in south of Thamirabarani River till the tip of Cape Comorin constituted 80 to 90% of the population ,in the Teri palmrya forests of Tiruchendur, and had various living conditions. [20] While majority of the Nadar population consisted of landless,poor laborers(Nadar climbers), a small portion of the community called Nelamaikkarars or Nadans owned vast tracts of land. Historical records and accounts indicate they possibly worked as tax collectors under the Pandyas. These Nadans or lords of the land either held their position directly under Nayak ruler in the region of Tiruchendur or as petty lords under the poligars. They commanded high respect in these regions from the rest of the population. Nadar climbers, the minority Vellalars and Brahmins showed deference to these Nadans. Nadan men rode horses and their women rode in covered palanquins. [21] The position held by these Nadans was unchallenged by their dependent climbers. In these regions the Nadars were the most do minant caste and their interaction with other communities was minimal [22] . Nadar climbers also populated other regions of Tamil Nadu where a few palmyra trees grew. In areas of Tamil nadu where the Nadar climber population was not more than a few familie s in a village, they faced descrimination from the majority caste. [23] Due to their association with toddy, the Nadars were considered lower than other middle castes, but relatively higher than the low castes, and were also prohibited to enter temples bui lt by castes above them in the caste system. Even though associated with toddy, the Nadars abstinently avoided to consume it as the most punctilious Brahmins [24] . The Nadars were schismatic about their position in the caste hierarchy and firmly claimed t hat they

were wrongly placed in the caste system due to the Nayak invasion.The position of the Nadars in the caste hierarchy was actually never accepted by them and they were very caste conscious. [25]

2. 3. Nadars of Travancore See also: Upper cloth controversy

Presumably the Nadars of Southern Travancore migrated to Travancore from Tirunelveli in the 16th century after the invasion of Tirunelveli by the Raja of Travancore. Like their Tirunelveli counterparts, the Nadars of Travancore were mostly palmrya climbers. However a significant number of Nadars in Travancore were subtenants to Nair landlords or Vellalar landlords. These Nadar tenants called themselves Nadans and a score of these Nadans also directly had control over the lands. These Nadans enjoyed special privileges under the Raja and claimed that they were superior to the climbers. The climbers of Travancore fared a little better than their Tirunelveli counterparts, but, however, suffered severe social disabilities ,unlike their Tirunelveli counte rparts, under the rigid caste hierarchy of Travancore. As Swami Vivekananda stated, Kerala was like a mad asylum of castes. The Nadar climber women wear not allowed to cover their bosoms, as most of the non - Brahmin women of Kerala, to punctuate their low status. However the aristocratic Nadan women, their counterparts, had the rights to cover their bosom. Uneasy with their social status, a large number of Nadar climbers embraced Christianity and became upwardly mobile. Though they improved their status wit h the aid of Christian missionaries, the outcome of the conversion was not according to the point of view of the missionaries. The Christian Nadar climber women, along with the Hindu Nadar climber women, wore the upper jacket in the manner of upper class w omen and also their Tamil counterparts, inorder to improve their social status. In turn they were discriminated and even abused by upper class men. One of the Nadan families of Agastheeswaram, instead of supporting their depressed counterparts, supported t he upper class men and claimed that only their women had the right to wear a uppercloth. However after a brutal struggle(Upper cloth revolt) with the powerful

authorities of Travancore and also with the aid of the British Christian Missionaries, the depressed Nadar women won themselves the right to wear their upper cloth, as their Nadan counterparts. [26]

2. 4. Northern Nadars See also: Sivakasi riots of 1899

A few Nadar traders migrated to northern Tirunelveli and Virudhunagar to settle down in these regions. In course of time, these Nadars became commercially skilled and therefore became upwardly mobile in the late 19th century. Mercantilism played crucial roles in facilitating their upward mobility. Part of this change in the Nadar community resulted in some of them converting to Christianity , both Catholicism and Protestantism. However, a majority of almost 90% remained Hindus. [27]

The British rule then in the southern districts introduced new frontiers of trade and commerce .The Nadars took this opportunity and made it their greatest advantage. They established sophisticated pettais (fortified compounds) and Urvinmurais(Local Nadar association) to ensure safety for their goods. The member of Uravinmurai,the muraikkarar, would contribute a portion of his in income to the association as common good funds or mahimai(means to glorify oneself) to use the facilties of the pettas in order to improve the association and in turn aid the Nadar community [28] . As the wealth of the Northern Nadars increased, they gradually began to adopt the customs of the North Indian Kshtriyas inorder to improve their social status as well. This process is known as Sanskritisation. They also tried to disassociate themselves from their Nadar climber counterparts and many began t o adopt the title µNadan¶, a title which was before only used by the aristocratic Nelamaikkarars. To punctuate their wealthy and powerful position in the society, the Nadars of Sivakasi hired Maravars as their palanquin bearers [29] . The upward mobility and kshatriya pretensions of the Nadars of Six towns of Ramanad caused

A common custom among Nadars is that only the eldest son is told . Pratap Chander.Associative Head.Rattinasami Nadar. and also test how much other communities were willing to buy the claims of the Nadars' high status. castes above them.R. The Nadar History is scattered in bits of information in the Nadar households starting from Thanjavur to Kanyakumari to Trivandrum. This led to the formation of the Nadar Mahajana sagham in 1910. a series of conflicts. were still discriminated by the majority castes. ha ppened between the Nadars and the Maravars. with integrity. The Northern Nadar leaders then sought to unite their community by encouraging intermarriages with in the five major Nadar subcastes and also uplift the depressed palmrya Nadar climbers.resentment among. Rajesh Manoj Mohan History History of Pandiyan kingdom is the history of Nadars. politeness and more importantly his helping tendency for all kind of peoples. Members Sudhakar . Nadar oral tradition exists among few who were once ruling Pandiyan Kingdom. As a result. They also sought to maintain amiable relationships with other communities.wholived as minorities. the Vellalars and especially the Maravars.the caste just above the Nadars. However.P. self confidence. such as the Sivakasi riots of 1899. Rao Bahadur T. the Sankritisation movement was a failure and the Nadar climbers . the man with honesty. [30] However these confrontations aided the community to protes t for the required rights and privileges. founder of the Nadar Mahajana Sagham The Founder of Nadar Welfare Association was Mr. He was the Founder and President of Nadar Welfare Association. Many records in Palm leaves have decayed and lost in the recent times.

military training was given when a boy completed his 14th yr. (Pullu = spear or stake). The Nadu was ruled by Nadalvar (Nadu + Alvar ) who was a close relative of the King. near Madurai. called Pandiyakula Kshatriya nadar. Nadar Uravin Murai and Pettais (Fortified storehouses) further increased the prosperity of Business community of Nadars in the 19th century. the last capital of the Pandiyans. The Pandiyan country was divided into Nadu. Nadavaru Nadava. Gramony or Gramaniar was the village head. Kshatriya Nadar. Vaidyar (practitioners of indigenous medicine). etc Karukkupattayathar (Elite guards). Modern Nadar (caste) community descends from all the elements of Pandiyan kingdom . was another milestone. Shanar) Pullu Kai Chanar are hired soldiers who threw spears. Valanadu. The Royal house of Mara Nadars was at Tenkasippatinam with minor capital at Sivakasippatinam. The lords of Pandia dynasty were called Maran.those who carried iron implements when iron was rare)( Sanar.Majority of the Nadars from southern Travancore and Tamilnadu embraced Christianity between 1800 to 1830 period. The Capital was shifted to Madurai in the later times. Alwar. medicine. Each Nadalvar maintained their own temple. From Tenkasi they could control the affairs of southern Kerala too. ( Desam in later periods ).Kodi Marathar (who defend the flag). PKN in short. arts and history). Tamilnadu.from kings and soldiers. The Nadar Mahajana Sangham which was founded in 1910. Nadar community descends from the Nadalvar Kulam of ancient Pandian Kingdom. collected tax and maintained a contingent of army. Kottam and Kuttam. The . This acronym is quite well known in and around Madurai for its educational institutions. Nadar Kalaries and Kalarippayittu ( Kalam = Battle field + Ari = Cutting +Paittu = Training ) The Nadar Kalaries (martial schools) where compulsory training in martial arts. Pandiyan Kingdom of Mara Nadars evolved at the banks of Tamraparni river before millennia. Asan (Teachers of Martial arts. Nadar. Nadan. Maranadar/Mara Nadalwar.Nattar. A highly knit group of Nadars lived in the town of Thirumangalam. T he Dekshina Mara Nadar Sangham is another community organization founded around the same period.about the ancient history. Rayan.Sivanthi (Elite Suicidal army) Panicker (one who trained in Martial arts) are some other titles. The soldiers were called Chanar (chan=Iron.

Many Nadars always knew that they originally belonged to Pandiyan dynasty. Though Chembulingam was not converted he was quite impressed by the lady missionary. After they killed Kasinadan.teachers of Martial arts were called Asans or Panickens. On one account the Brigand. The town Donavaur was named after her. Like jews they had a group consciousness. a Sanskrit mixed language. After independence the Asan families are not teaching their children this language. He never killed females. when he was chased by the police. The gold and money thus acquired was distributed among the p oor and destitute of Travancore. Chempulinkam allegedly lost all his will to live. Some of the Nadars' ancient books of Kerala are written in Manipravalam.after the local feudal lords abused and killed his wife. Kanyakumari. Adimura is a type of Kalarippayatu was practiced by the Nadars of South Thiruvidankur. which may shed light on the ancient Pandiyan Kingdom. He and his fellow brigands. according to the old Pandiyan rules . He stood on the hill of Maruthuvamalai and gestured the police to shoot him. Maruthuvamalai near Kottaram. Durai yappa Nadar became bandits. Kasi Nadan. there is a risk of losing all the books of Nadars. So . Chembulingam was met by missionary Amy Carmichael an Irish national at jungle. The legend of Chembulingam became a folklore.a bandit. When he realized that escape was not possible Chembulingam went to the compound of the Irish missionary and left his four year old daughter in the compound. Chempulingam removed a tile from the roof of poor and dropped gold and money through the hole. Instead he used to lock together the long ears of the ladies with a mankapootu (lock in the shape of a mango). became their secret hideout.Nadars have been . Chembalingam's daughter was raised as a Christian named Dona. Sembulingam alias Swampulingam Nadar ( Chembulingam) a Kshatriya Nadar became a country Robin Hood. Nadars have been living in the familiar ancestral home land which they knew well for thousands of years. Unless efforts are made to preserve these books. many of these books are lost or not readable. He took his revenge and later periods used to rob the rich to help the poor. Some ancient Palm leaf scripts do exist among many families of southern Kerala and Southern Tamil Nadu. derived perhaps from the Jain Period of Pandiyan kingdom. They hid at the jungles of Western ghat at Travancore and robbed the Caravans passing that way. leaped and crossed a 30 foot wide well and escaped. Finally the British police killed all his friends one by one.

an ancient Dravidian warrior community which founded many Dravidian kingdoms as Cheran and Pandyan in the prehistor y. from the 17th century.The poor among the Nadars(Shanan s) during early times possessed no agricultural lands due to the Nayak invasion. Chandrasekera . It is believed that the Vishwanatha Nayak imposed Deshaprashtam (ostracism) on the Pandya king. the Nadars were almost wiped out and most of the Nadars lost their wealth due to the invasion. the aristocrats and the highest of the old Shanan community. Others followed at regular intervals. The Nadars The Nadars are the heirs of the fallen ancient pandyas. the Nadars were forced out of power and almost became extinct in the 18th century. they were all Hindus originally. After successive invasions from the north by the Kalabhras and other Vadugas(Nayaks) on the Pandiyan the forefront in business and education. The ancient capital city of Pandiya Nadu. Korkai. Nadars are believed to be closely related to the Villavars. Considered to be a proud. were known as Shanans. ancient warrior caste and the initial rulers of the ancient Pandiya Nadu (Pandyan Kingdom) the Nadars are well known for their bravery throughout the southern part of Tamil Nadu. The aristocrats among the Nadars in those days were known as Nadans and the poor among the caste. Nadars of Tamil Nadu and Kerala and Nadava of Karnataka descent from ancient Pandiyan kings.Some Karnataka Muslims with the surname Nadar who claim to have converted before four hundred years. who did toddy tapping for a living. The community which was known as 'Shanans' till the 19th century came to be known as Nadars. It is recorded that the first settlers arrived in Azhagappapuram 340 years ago. Religion -wise. Rise of the Nadars after the Nayak invasion After the Nayak invasion. it is established that the present -day Nadars of Azhagai are the descendants of ancient Pandiya Kings. and most of them embraced Christianity at different points of time. On the basis of the foregoing and the records available in many houses in Azhagappauram. is predominantly occupied by the Nadars. The title Nadar is believed to be derived from the N adans. They are forging ahead ± economically and socially.

To enhance their cohesiveness and consistent progress in business. Ever since the 19th century. most of the Nadars mainly focussed in trading farm products.pulses. But due to their perserverence. Mercantilism played crucial roles in facilitating their upward mobility. The British rule then in the southern districts intoduced new frontiers of trade and commerce. they have developed a keen interest in trade and commerce. The rise of the Nadars began in the early 19th century.primary farm products.The Nadars took this opportunity and made it their greatest advantage.edible oils. the first congregation of Nadars was started at Vaddakankulam with the conversion of a Nadar woman and church was built in 1685. As described by the renowned historian Hugald Grafe. They established sophisticated pettais (fortified compounds) to ensure safety for their goods. A permanent mission was established in 1701.sugar and other important. As technology and economy advanced. They began to excel rapidly in trade and commerce. The major products they dispensed were rice. Some times they even used their skills in fighting to chase away these ban dits.Pandyan and his family members. Some Nadars accepted Christianity out of will and some accepted it due to their aversion to Brahminism. They sold all their products at best prices. they fought a fine battle with poverty and casteism and regained their social and economic power within a span of two centuries. the Nadars rose from nothing and occupied places formerly reserved for Brahmins. By storing the agricultural products in a warehouse. The Nadar traders were frequently bothered by the bandits sent by their rival castes. they formed a strong link between the farmers and consumers. Christian Nadars In 1680. Gradually. Eventually the rise of the Nadars was an unstoppable movement. they distributed them for both wholesale and retail all over Tamil Nadu. the Nadars established saghams (oraganisation) such as the Nadar Mahajana Sagham and Dakshinamara Nadar Sagham in the early 20th century. the Nadars changed their business pattern accordingly. In the next stage. The Nadars are hard working people. In the field of economics The Nadars of Tamil Nadu are predominant in the southern most part of Tamil-Nadu. In the early stages. they concentrated in trading products . 40% of the Nadars in TamilNadu are Christians.

The Nadars or Nadalvars of the Pandyan kingdom is e ither a sub group of Villavars or a closely related group. Gold winner. such as cement. Aluvar or Alva are the titles shared by all the Villavar tribes. The Villavars of Kerala and Illavars of Sri Lanka after whom Eeelam or Heladipa is named were relatives. Most of these institutions were contrived to educate the poor and offer free education.relevantto building industries. etc in Sivakasi are some of the important firework companies in India . roofing materials etc. the Nadars continued with their advancement and erected a networ k of educational institutions. Standard. Nowadays. Another important field which is dominated by the Nadars is fireworks. Alvar. Selangor. especially politics and business Important industries and businesses run by the Nadar After upgrading their economic status. in India. They were even able to successively establish a bank (Tamilnadu Mercantile Bank) in that period.Idhayam are run by a Nadar. There are a number of prominent firework industries in Sivakasi. the town in Spain. Valencia.iron hard ware. see Chera. Alwar. the Nadars are almost prominent in every known field. They also gradually started their advancement in education. Notable edible oil companies such as V. Chera dynasty For district of Kuala Lumpur.The chemicals and other pyro-technical requirements are also products they manufacture . The Bhil tribals. The community realised the powerful future education can offer and utilised this foresight. Villavars wer e archers or Bowmen who once emerged from the hunting clans of India. Their progress in business is just one of their acheivements.D. sesame oil etc. The Billavas of Tulunadu of Karnataka. They are all operated and efficiently managed by the Nadars of Sivakasi.. The Nadars are major manufacturers of edible oil like coconut oil. Anil. Ayyan. for the town in Selangor. Villavar Villavars[1] were the primary rulers among the Dravidians who once ruled the whole of India[citation needed]. The Villavar Clans of Kerala who founded the Chera Kingdom all are Villavars. see Cheras. Cheras .V. groundnut oil. The Ezhavas or Illavas of Kerala also could be descendents of this Villavar tribe of Kerala. Kuala Lumpur. see Cheras.

These dynasties began ruling before the Sangam era (300 BCE . Arabia. their area included western and south area of Tamilnadu and also controlling areas closer to the region from Malai Nadu or hill country (modern Kerala). Kodungallur.Evidence for extensive foreign trade from ancient times is available throughout the Malabar coast. Phoenicia. arts and literature flourished. ivory. has been referenced by ancient writers. Rome. Hoysala. Vijayanagara The Chera dynasty (Tamil: ) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. Travancore. Greek and Arabic coins unearthed from Kollam. The Early Cheras ruled over the Coimbatore. from the R oman. Erode and Coimbatore region of modern Tamil Nadu (Kongu Nadu). Karur and Salem Districts in South India. modern Karur). Chera rulers warred frequently with their neighbouring kingdoms.Muziris.Chera territories Official language Capitals Tamil Karur (Vanchi Muthur) Government Monarchy Preceding state Unknown Zamorins. which now forms part of the modern day Tamil Nadu (Kongu Nadu). . with spices. Throughout the reign of the Cheras. They sometimes inter-married with the families of the rival kings as a means of political alliances. Mesopotamia and Persia. Sangam Cheran coins and inscriptions are found only in Karur.[1] . Kochi. The Sangam Chera capital was Vanchi Muthur (otherwise called Karuvur. pearls and gems being exported to Egypt. trade continued to bring prosperity to Tamil Country (part of which is modern north Kerala). timber. such as the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea to be an inland port probably near Kodungall ur. Succeeding states Gangas. The other two major Tamil dynasties were the Cholas in the eastern Coromandel Coast and Pandyas in the south central peninsula. Eyyal (near Trissur) in Northern Kerala . Greece.200 CE) during which the Tamil language.

the Roman historian of the first century. these are not worked into connected . Ashoka's edicts mention an independent dynast y known by the name Ceraputta. Irumporai.1 Sangam Cheras 1.[4] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled.While Cheras had their own religion (Hinduism). The nobility among the Cheras were called Cheraman in general. of possible Prakrit origins. does not appear in Sangam Literature. The unknown author of Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions Chera as Cerobothra whose capital is Karur. It is b elieved that religiously the Cheras were Shaivites. Contents 1 History 1. The word Kerala. Kollipurai and Athan.[2] The kings of the dynasty referred to themselves as Vanavar. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people. calls it Caelobothras. while Pliny. Chera rulers were also called Kothai or Makothai. and of the poets who extolled them . Jainism came to Kongu Nadu by the second century BCE.[3] Sangam Cheras The only source available for us regarding the early Chera Kings is the anthologies of the Sangam literature. other religious traditions came to this area during the period of the Chera ki ngs. who were outside Ashoka's empire. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries CE. Kuttuvan.2 Bhakti era Cheras 2 Notes 3 References History In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral.

This inscription refers to three generations of Chera rulers Adam Cheral Irrumporai. Perum Kadunko means that he was the Senior Ko (Senior ruler) of Kadunadu. . Attu Kottu Pattu Cheralathan. his son Perumkadungo. Kadal Pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan. located in the Tamilnadu side of the Sahya Mountains. Thakadur Erintha Perum Cheral Irumporai. The third. Kudako Ilam Cheral Irumporai. the fourth book in the Ettuthokai anthology mentions a number of Chera Kings of the Chera dynasty. Athan refers only to a crowned King of Chera dynasty who accepted this title at the time of coronation. Pathirruppaththu. and his son Ilamkadungo. Palyane Chel Kezhu Kuttuvan. Athan Cheral Irumporai was the son of Perum Cheral Irumporai.[5] The most important of these is the Pugalur (Aranattarmalai) inscription. Each King is praised in ten songs sung by the Court Poet and the Kings are in the following order: Nedum Cheralathan. Their capital is stated to be modern Karur in Tamilnadu and were also called Kongars. Perum Cheral Irumporai was the son of Vazhiyathan and Ilam Cheral Irumporai was the son of a Chera ruler Kuttuvan Irumporai (son of Mantharan Cheral Irumporai). The first two kings were the sons of Uthiyan Cheralathan and Veliyan Nallini. fourth and fifth kings were sons of Nedum Cheralathan. It therefore follows that Perumkadungo was the son of a crowned King of the Chera Dynasty.[citation needed] Archaeology has also found epigraphic evidence regarding these early Cheras. The charter was issued when Perum Kadungo was the ruler monarch and Ilam Kadungo was appointed prince. Chelva Kadunko Azhi Athan. Kalankai Kanni Narmudi Cheral.history so far. Chelva Kadunko Vazhiyathan was the son of Anthuvan Cheral Irumporai and Porayan Perumthevi. while the mother of fourth King (also known as Chenkuttuvan) was Chola Princess Manikilli.

however from the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera. driving the Pallava . Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan. the Kalabhras.[7] Trade flourished overseas and there was a considerable exchange of gold and coins. invaded the Tami l country. [2] Bhakti era Cheras Little is known about the Cheras between c. The name of the Chera king is not known. third century CE and the eight century CE. It is said that he fed the rival armies during the war of Mahabharata. The also ruled the kodunthamizh regions of Travancore (Venadu) and the Malabar (K uttanadu) west coast through vassals. as seen by archaeological evidence and literature. another Sangam age king claimed to have conquered up to the Himalayas and to have inscribed his emblem in the face of the mountains. Pallavas also mention in their inscriptions about their battles with the Cheras. in his Aihole inscription mentioned " Pulikesin II. displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries.'Purananuru' refers to Udiyan Cheral.[6] The early Cheras controlled a large territory of Kongu Nadu. Senguttuvan was an other famous Chera. They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century CE. Kulasekara Alwar who ruled in the 8th century became a devotional Vaishnavite poet. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera king. Pulakesin II. the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Malabar and Travancore (Kuttanadu and Venadu) and the southern Pandya country from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli the seat of the Cheras being in Karur Kongu Nadu. mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions.730 ± 765CE). A Pandya ruler. Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (c. The Romans brought vast amounts of gold in exchange of 'Kari' (Pepper) from Malainadu. who probably ruled in the first ± second centuries CE. The Chera kings took the title of Perumal during this peri od and patronised the Vaishnavite sect. An obscure dynasty. whose contemporary Gajabahu II of Lanka according to Mahavamsa visited the Chera country. was a prominent ruler during this period. They were in contact with the Satavahanas in the north and with the Romans and Greeks.

and there caused prosperity to the Chola. pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula. Pandyan Kingdom The Pandyan ) ancient Tamil state kingdom (Tamil: Pandyas Extent of the Pandya Territories c. and in later times moved to Madurai. 1250 C. The Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country until end of the 15th century. the Cheras were still in Karur and were a close ally of the Pallavas.E. Kongumandala Satakam also says that Cheraman Perumal went to Kayilai with Sundarar from Kongu Nadu. The Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras i n harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. Chera and Pandya". They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. were famous in the Hindu religious movements. Kulasekhara became one of the celebrated Alvars and his poems came to be called the Perumal Thirumozhi. They initially ruled from Korkai.behind the forts of Kanchi. Adi Shankara was his contemporary.Nayaks of Madurai. The early Pandyan dynasty of the Sangam literature went into obs curity during the invasion of the Kalabhras.[8] In the reign of Pandya Parantaka Nedumjadaiyan (765 ± 790).[9] The Saivite saint Cheraman Perumal and the oth er is the Vaishnavite saint Kulasekhara. reached as far south as the Kaveri river. Cheraman Perumal ruled around the eighth and the ninth centuries. Cultural contacts between the Pallava court and the Chera country were common. . Government Monarchy Preceding state Succeeding states Unknown Delhi Sultanate.Vijayanagar. Official language Capitals Tamil Korkai Madurai was in South an India of unknown antiquity. Pallavamalla Nadivarman defeated the Pandya Varaguna with the help of a Chera king. In this Kulasekhara calls himself Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) hailing from Kollinagar (Karur). The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century.

and that some of the Pandya kings were poets themselves. there are two major works . Sources Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom Sangam Literature Various Pandya kings find mention in a number of poems in the Sangam Literature. Besides several short poems found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru collections. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors.The Pandyas entered their golden age under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas. Unfortunately. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate in the 16th century. Tradition holds that the legendarySangams were held in Madurai under the ir patronage. Hoysalasand finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. Cholas. 'the victor of Talaiyalanganam'. the exact genealogy of these kings have not been authoritatively established yet. which produced one of the finest pearls known in the ancient world. During their history.1251) who expanded the empire into Telugu country and invaded and conquered the northern half of Sri Lanka. and Mudukudimi Peruvaludi 'of several sacrifices' deserve special mention. Among them Nedunjeliyan. Some scholars believe that it descended from the ³Pandavas´ of Mahabharata. .[1] Historians have used several sources to identify the origins of the early Pandyan dynasty with the pre-Christian Era and also to piece together the names of the Pandyan kings. between Sri Lanka and India. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south Indian coast. while others argue that the na me could be derived from the word ³Pandi´ the original name of the Tamil country.Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai (in the collection of Pattupattu) give a glimpse into the society and commercial activities in the Pandyan kingdom during the Sangam age. Origin The origin of the word ³Pandya´ has been a subject of much speculation.

Antigonos. although not part of the Mauryan Empire. on the borders. and even six hundred yojanas (5. were in friendly terms with Asoka: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here. Magas and Alexander rule.400 ±9.It is difficult to estimate the exact date of these Sangam age Pandyas. likewise in the south among the Cholas. Pandyas are also mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 . Cheras. where the Greek king Antiochos rules. beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy." [4] . and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). Any attempt at extracting a systematic chronology from these poems should take into consideration the casual nature of these poems and the wide differences between the purposes of the anthologist who collected these poems and the historian¶s attempts to arrive at a continuous histor y. to a Jain ascetic. Punch marked coins in the Pandya country dating from around the same time have also been found.600 km) away. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. is Nedunjeliyan figuring in the Minakshipuram record assigned from the second to the first centuries BCE. The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty.232 BCE). Asoka in his inscriptions refers to the peoples of south India as the Cholas. It is from these colophons and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves. To add to the confusions. some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents. Epigraphy The earliest Pandya to be found in epigraph.[2][3] These kingdoms. Pandyas and Satiyaputras as recipients of his Buddhist proselytism. the Pandyas. the poems have reached us in the fo rms of systematic anthologies. Each individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon on the authorship and subject matter of the poem. the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found. Except the longer epics Silapathikaram and Manimekalai. that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronized by them. which by common consent belong to the age later than the Sangam age.

This place also is situated on a rive r. with Rome by the first century.." . and is of another Kingdom.[5] Foreign Sources The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c.[7] The Pandyan kingdom is also mentioned in Megasthenes's Indika as "the portion of India which lies southwards and extends to the Sea". [6] The Chinese historian Yu Huan in his 3rd century text.Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and sea about five hundred stadia. The 1st century Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met. mentions The Kingdom of Panyue: . Pandyas also had trade contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt and.. the Weilüe.1-4. and Strabo XV. and with China by the 3rd century. through Egypt. and to have acquired a large quantity of Pearls from the Pandyas. Polo exclaimed that: "The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark. in his Hathigumpha inscription. according to others. Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow.. at Damascus. A Roman trading centre was located on the Pandyan coast (Alagankulam .The inhabitants are small.[8] The Roman emperor Julian received an embassy from a Pandya about 361. the the mouth of the Vaigai river. about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea.. they are the same height as the Chinese. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India)...100 CE) describes the riches of a 'Pandian Kingdom': . 60 .The kingdom of Panyue is also called Hanyuewang.1-73). southeast of Madurai). For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are a ll white.. That is why they portray them as I have described. Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE (Strabo XV....Kharavela.. claims to have destroyed a confederacy of Tamil states (µ¶Tamiradesasanghatam¶¶) which had lasted 132 years. the Kalinga king who ruled during the second century BCE.[9][10] In 1288 and again in 1293 the Venetian traveler Marco Polo visited the Pandyan kingdom and left a vivid description of the land and its people. the ambassador sent by an Indian King "named Pandion or.

674 Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran 675 . the names of these early Pandya Kings have been omitted. We have a connected history of the Pandyas from the fall of Kalabhras during the middle of the 6th century.620 Cezhiyan Cendan 620 .730 Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga 730 .765 Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan 765 . Sastri. Kadungon 560 . OUP.History Although there are many instances of the Pandya kingdom being referred in ancient literature and texts. The following is a chronological list of the Pandya emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai riverbeds. the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century defeating the Kalabhras.790 .590 Maravarman Avani Culamani 590 . The following lists of the Pandya kin gs are based on the authoritative A History of South India from the Early Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar by K. Early Pandyas Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom The following is a partial list of Pandyan emperors who ruled during the Sangam age:[11][12][13] Nedunj Cheliyan I ( Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan ) Pudappandiyan Nedunj Cheliyan II ( Pasumpun Pandiyan) Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi Nedunj Cheliyan III ( Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheli yan ) Nan Maran Maran Valudi Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan Ukkirap Peruvaludi First Empire After the close of the Sangam age.A.N. New Delhi (Reprinted 1998). we currently have no way of determining a cogent genealogy of these ancient kings. In order to maintain verifiability of this article.640 Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran 640 .

Under the Cholas The Chola domination of the Tamil country began i n earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II. 1020. Nevertheless their presence in the southern country require recognition. With the Cholas in obscurity. the Pandya kingdom grew steadily in power and territory.830 Sirmara Srivallabha 830 .862 Varaguna II 862 . Sundara Pandya I Vira Pandya I Vira Pandya II Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandya Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandya Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandya Jatavarman Chola Pandya . Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala.905 Rajasimha III 905 .800 Varagunan I 800 .Rasasingan II 790 . the river Kaveri being the frontier between them. It is difficult to give their date of accession and duration of their rule. However Pandyas reversed this defeat to gain back most of their lost territories. Parantaka Chola I invaded the Pandya territories and defeated Rajasinha III.920 After the defeat of the Kalabhras. They were constantly harassing their Chola overlord s occupying their territories. The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IVPandyas were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge in the island of Sri Lanka. the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas and the Pandyas. After Vijayalaya Chola conquered Thanjavur defeating the Muttarayar chieftains around 850. The following list gives the names of th e Pandya kings who were active during the 10th and the first half of 11th century. They were replaced by a series of Chola viceroys with the title Chola Pandyas who ruled from Madurai from c. son of Parantaka Chola II defeated Vira Pandya in battle. the Pandyas went into a period of decline.880 Parantaka Viranarayana 862 . This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas.

After being overshadowed by the Pallavas and Cholas for centuries. The revival of the Pandyan dynasty was to coincide with the gradual but steady decline of the Chola empire.1268) Maaravaramban Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268 . The foundation for such a great empire was laid by Maravarman Sundara Pandya early in the 13th century.1345) Zenith followed by the end of Pand yas The Pandyan kingdom was replaced by the Chola princes who assumed the title as Chola Pandyas in the 11th century.1238) Sundaravaramban Kulaseka ran II (1238 .1124) Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132 .1251) Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251 .1162) Kulasekara Pandyan III Vira Pandyan III Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175 .1161) Parakrama Pandiyan (1161 . the revival of the Kadava Pallavas at Kanchi under Kopperinchunga I and indeed the growing in power and status of the Telugu Cholas.1240) Maaravaramban Sundara Pandiyan II (1241 .1327) Vira Pandyan IV (1309 . Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216 .1216) Pandya Revival The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandyan Empire. the Renanti and the Irungola Cholas of the Telugu country for the last three-named had been very trusted allies of the Cholas up to .Srivallabha Manakulachala (1101 .1180) Jatavarman Kulasekara Devan (1180 . with the last two or three Chola kings who followed Kulothunga III were either very weak or incompetent.1308) Sundara Pandyan IV (1309 . Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century. The Cholas of course did not lack valour but had been unable to stop the revival of t he Pandiyan empire from the times of Maravaramban Sundara Pandyan. Pandyan glory was briefly revived by Maravaramban Sundara Pandyan and ( probably his younger brother or son) the much celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in 1251 and the Pandya power extended from the Telugu countries on banks of the Godavari river to the northern half of Sri Lanka.

Veera Ballala II himself had lost quite a bit of his territories between 1208 -1212 to his local adversaries in Kannada country. Raja Raja III . Ilam and Kalinga. there was renewed control of the Cholas. However. who challenged Rajendra III in 1276 -79. Srir angam and Thanjavur victorious in war. However. The challenged Hoysalas did have foothold in and around Tiruchy and Srirangam for a few years and seemed to have indulged in some temple building activity at Srirangam also. Seunas etc. This alliance of the Hoysalas and the Pandiyans seems to have antagonized Rajendra Chola III who veered away from the Hoysalas. For a while the Kadava Pallavas and the Cholas came together. In fact the marital alliance of Kulothunga III and one of his successors Raja Raja III with the Hoysalas did not prove to be of any advantage. despite an earlier Chola. But Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan was a very brave. Besides. it ultimately proved that his strength was because of the support from Hoysalas whose king Veera Ballala II was his son-in-law. though initially at least Kulothunga III took the help of the Hoysalas in countering the Pandiyan resurgence.Kulothunga III. ambitious warrior king. Kulothunga III had even conquered Karur. who had challenged the Hoysala army stationed in and around Kanchi and killed a few of their commanders. having helped him in conquering Kalinga. presumably with the help of the Hoysalas under Vira Someswara with the Hoysalas later shifting their allegience to the P andyans either during the last years of Maravarman Sundara Pandyan or the early years of his successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan. the Pandiyans routed the Chola army and entered Tiruchy. Cheranadu in addition to Madurai. who it appears wanted to completely subjugate the Chola s. The resurgent Pandiyans under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan went to war against Kulothunga and first at Kandai and then near Manaparai on the outskirts of modern Tiruchirappalli. like the Kalachuris. It appears while he initially tolerated the presence of the Hoysalas under Vira Someshwara with his son Visvanatha or Ramanatha ruling from Kuppam near Samayapuram on the outskirts of Srirangam. He first vanquished the Kadava Pallava s under Kopperinchungan -II. the Muslim invasion of the Deccan had started under Malik Kafur. But it appears that in the Tiruchy and Srirangam areas. This was because other feudatories of the Hoysalas were al so growing in power and threatening the Hoysala kingdom itself. seems to have first concentrated on strengthening himself with the help of the Hoysalas.

Unfortunately for Rajendra III. This ended the presence of the Hoysalas in Tamil country. Vira Someshwara Hoysala who had given the control of the empire to his sons had to come out of his slumber and tried to challenge Jatavarman and between Samayapuram and Tiruchy. Tiruchy and Srirangam had been lost to the Cholas for ever at least from 1254 AD.having been held in captivity by Kopperinchunga II and his release being secured by the Hoysalas. This was his opportunity. Temporarily at least the Hoysalas were in disarray in Kannada country itself. he went inside Kannada country after conquering Tiruchy and occupied parts of Hoysala territory up to the Konkana coast and established his son Vira Pandiyan as ruler of those territories. Initially. In 1254 (or 1260) Jatavarman first dragged the Hoysalas into war b y routing his son Ramanatha out of Tiruchy. During the years 1270 -1276 it appeared that Rajendra III ruled mainly in and around Gangaikondacholapuram and Tanjore. Rajendra III had hoped for renewed friendship and military alliance with the Hoysalas. When challenged by Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. Next the Pandiyan prince Jatavarman concentrated on completely wiping out the Chola empire. The Chola capital of Gangaikondacholapuram too was not far from reach. Though Rajendra III had been opposed to the Hoysalas due to their alliance with the Pandiyans. Jatavarman consodlidated the Pandiyan hold on Tiruchy and Srirangam and marched towards Tanjore and Kumbakonam. the Hoysalas had lost all pretension s of trying to pose as a major regional power in Kannada and Tamil countries as they had been wiped out of Tamizhagam and indeed lost territories inside Kannada country itself to Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan seized the opportunity with the Hoysalas being in Tiruchy and not having any ally. the brave but . the rapidly weakening Cholas seeking alliance with the Kadava Pallavas who were themselves being threatened by the Telugu Cholas. with new hostilities emerging between Hoysalas and the Pandiyans. Jatavarman did not stop here. Raja dhiraja III had interfered in an earlier Pandiyan war of succession and defeated a confederation of Pandiyan princes. Rajendra III had been counting on Hoysala assistance in case he was challenged by the Pandiyans keeping in mind the earlier marital alliance of the Cholas with the Hoysalas. The predecessors of Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan had suffered at the time of the Chola invasion and he wanted to take revenge. the armies of Vira Someshwara were routed with Vira Someshwara losing his life in this battle.

However. The later day Pandyas after 600 AD were Hindus who claimed to descend from Lord Shiva and Goddess P arvati. (to continue) On the death of Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I in 1308. we hear no more of them. By 1280 AD. The known rule of Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan is of course. hoping for assistance and participation in war from the Hoysalas. . Pandyan Nedumchadayan became a staunch Vaishnavite.tactically naive Rajendra III marched against the Pandiyans between Tanjore and Tiruchy. The Vij ayanagar Empire replaced the Delhi Sultanate in Madurai and appointed Nayak governors to rule from Madurai. Victoria. the Pandyas sought the help of Vijayanagar Empire. and indicated that the Pandyas derived great wealth from its trade. Soon Madurai fell into the hands of the invading armies of the Delhi Sultanate who were making the most of corruption and anarchy in the subcontinent. Government and Society Trade Megasthenes reported about the pearl fisheries of the Pandyas. which is variously dated as between 1268 -1270. Rajendra III was hopelessly isolated and was thoroughly routed and humiliated in this war. Probably Rajendra III fled the battlefield and had continued in obsc urity up to 1279 but without any of the erstwhile Chola territories. a conflict stemming from succession disputes arose amongst his sons. risk another defeat by the resurgent Pandiyans.E. the Pandiya empire was no more. Australia. see Travancore. [14][15] Religion Religiously the ancient Pandyas were Jains with a strong influence of the Dravidian religion. up to 1268 only. Sundara Pandya and Vira Pandya fought each other for the throne. the already vanquished Hoysalas were more keen on preserving their own skin and did not prefer going to war and in the process. Pandyas and their descendants were confined to a small region around Thirunelveli for a few more years and after the 17th century C. After Madurai fell into the hands of the invading armies of the Delhi Sultanate.[16] Travancore For the suburb of Travancore in Melbourne. Aruhakkadavul was the major God.

)[Tiruvit k r]. a midland in the centre and mountain peaks as high as 9. and later with the Malabar district of Madras State on 1 November 1956 to form the south Indian state of Kerala.000 feet on the east HistoryEarly history of the region Kingdom of Travancore Part of History of Kerala Rajah Rama Varma Marthanda Varma Dharma Raja Balarama Varma Gowri Lakshmi BayiÁ Gowri Parvati Bayi Á Swathi Thirunal Uthram Thirunal Ayilyam Thirunal Visakham Thirunal Moolam Thirunal Sethu Lakshmi BayiÁ Chithira Thirunal Á Regent Queens Capitals Padmanabhapuram 1721-1729 1729-1758 1758-1798 1798-1810 1810-1815 1815-1829 1829-1846 1846-1860 1860-1880 1880-1885 1885-1924 1924-1931 1931-1949 1721-1795 .Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: ("Thiru (respectful prefix which suggests either royal or divine) + idham (wish) koor (loyalty) in malayalam. Geography Travancore was located in Southern Kerala. [Tiruvit k r].a coastal area to the west. The rulers of this state were named Sree Padmanabhadasan. The state comprised most o f south Kerala and the modern Nagercoil and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu and it had a 19 -gun salute in the British Empire.servant of the deityPadmanabha Swamy an aspect of Vishnu. Its flag was red with a silver dextrally coiled sacred conch shell (Turbinella pyrum Linnaeus). The former kingdom's geography is defined by three natural terrains . The Last Maharajah was Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma and the last Dewan was PGN Unnithan. Travancore was merged with the other Malayalam-speaking state of Cochin on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore -Cochin. [Tiruvit ko ]) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram).

Nayak dynasty or facing internal rebellions from the powerful feudal land lords ( Ettuveetil Pillamar and the Yogakaar). when Vizhinjam. Kottarakara. He succeeded in defeating the Dutch East India Company during the Travancore±Dutch war. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu) of Trivandrum (the Trippadidaanam) and from then on the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. With the battle of Ambalapuzha (3 January 1754) in which he defeated the union . (Makaram inheritance are going through the sister's children. the capital. 725 M. 1750 AD. In 1753. he dedicated his kingdom to his tutelary deity Sri. the most decisive engagement of which was the Battle of Colachel (10 August 1741) in which the Dutch Admiral Eustachius De Lannoywas captured.Thiruvananthapuram 1795-1949 Palaces Padmanabhapuram Palace Kilimanoor palace Kuthira Malika Kowdiar Palace edit The region was ruled by the Ay Dynasty during the Sangham age (circa 300 BC ± 600 AD) and was the scene of many battles between the Kulashekaras and the Cholas during the second Sangham age (circa 850 ±1400 AD). and expanded it into Travancore during his reign 1729± 1758. and the rulers were weak. Eighteenth century Marthanda Varma The history of modern Travancore begins with Marthanda Varma who inherited the kingdom of Venad. Changanassery. Travancore Royal family follows the Nair "Marumakkathayam" system. Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In successive battles. Later the area was termed Venad. On January 3. the Dutch signed a peace treaty with the Maharajah. Kottayam. Meenachil. Kayamkulam. was sacked by the Cholas. Kollam. he defeated and absorbed the kingdoms right up to Cochin including Attingal. facing external threats from Nayaks of Madurai. He signed a treaty with the British East India company and with their help destroyed the power of the eight feudal land lords ( Ettuveetil Pillamar) and the Ettara Yogam who supported the Thampi sons of the previous king Rajah Rama Varma. Padmanabha (Padmnabhadasan).).

Dharma Raja His successor Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma who was popularly known as Dharma Raja. During his reign ho wever the districts of Kalakkad and parts of Shencottah were annexed to Arcot. During his reign. who was captured as a Prisoner of war in the famous Battle of Colachel was appointed as the Senior Admiral (Valiya kappithan)and he modernised the Travancore army by introducing firearms and artillery. a treaty was concluded between Travancore and Cochin. In 1757 AD. He not only retained the territorial gains of his predecessor Marthanda Varma. Marthanda Varma introduced titles such as Chempaka Raman and honours such as Ettarayum Koppum to honour the Lords and his relatives who had remained faithful to him during his problems with the Ettuveetil Pillamar. but also improved and encouraged social developments. Rama Varma's period is considered as a golden age in the history o f Travancore. Admiral Eustachius De Lannoy. The Travancore forces withstood the Sultan for 6 months. . Marthanda Varma crushed all opposition to his rule. shifted the capital in 1795 fromPadmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. Raja Kesavadas Pillai.D. starting a precedent which led to the installation of a British resident in the country. The Dharma Raja improved trade in the country. Colonel Macaulay. Tipu Sultan.of the deposed kings and the Raja of Cochin. defeating him twice. managed to engage the ruler in treaties which effectively made the state a protectorate of the East India Company and ended its autonomy resulting finally in the revolt of Velu Thampi Dalawa.1791. He was greatly assisted by a very efficient administrator. ensuring peace and stability on the Northern border. who was the Diwan of Travancore. His able minister during his en tire military career was Ramayyan Dalawa. He organised the tax system and constructed many irrigation works. the ruler of Mysore attacked Travancore in A. The British resident. Tipu Sultan was defeated and he did not trouble Travancore anymore till his death in 1799 during the Fourth Mysore War. Ayyappan Marthanda Pillai served as the "Sarvadi Karykar" ( Head of the Army( Nair pattalam). and then the Maharajah appealed to the British East India Company for aid.

the root cause of the revolt. Maharani Gowri Parvati Bayi continued as regent. Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma assumed the throne in 1829. . He abolished many unnecessary taxes. Col.1809. the Dalawa and the English East India Company got along well. Initially. Initially. When a boy was born to her in 1813. the rebellion was successful.D. Paliath Achan. organised an ill-fated revolt against the British in A. namely the compensation demanded by the Company for their involvement in the 1791 Travancore -Mysore war. turned against Velu Thampi. but committed suicide to avoid capture by the Company's soldiers. and after Velu Thampi's revolt. with the Company underta king to serve the Raja in cases of external and internal aggression. 19th and early 20th century Balarama Varma was succeeded by Rani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi in AD 1810±1815 with the blessings of the British. After the mutiny of AD 1805 against Velu Thamp i. Paliath Achan surrendered to the British and was exiled to Madras and later to Benaras. But the demands by the Company for the payment of compensation for their involvement in the 1791 Travancore -Mysore war led to enmity between the Diwan and the Resident. Following these two defeats. who till then had refused to take any active open part in the fight. and started an English school and a charity hospital in Trivandrum in 1834. However. On her death in 1815. Velu Thampi organised a guerilla struggle against the Company. and the Maharajah. almost all of the remaining Travancore forces were also disbanded. was finally never ever paid by Travancore. He was a famous exponent ofCarnatic and Hindustani music. During his reign Velu Thampi emerged as an able divanor minister. Munro served as her Diwan. Both of the regencies saw great progresses in social issues and in education. Interestingly.Balarama Varma On his death in 1798. the Company defeated Velu Thampi at battles near Nagercoil and Kollam in AD 1810. but the Rani continued to rule as the regent. the infant was declared the King. at his own request. A mutiny of a section of the army in 1805 against Velu Thampi was put down by British troops. most of the Nair battalions of Travancore had been disbanded. Balarama Varma took over at the age of sixteen. Velu Thampi and the diwan of Cochin.

His acts on these social issues won him praise and was copied by the neighbouring State of Cochin. The maharajah started the postal system in 1857 and a school for girls in 1859.During the Sangam age. and L. [4]In fact.S. The rule of discriminative hierarchical caste order was deeply entrenched in the social system and was supported by the government which had transformed this caste-based social system into a religious institution. He was succeeded by Ayilyam ThirunalAD 1860±1880. However. the social structure of the region changed and remained so up to the mid-nineteenth century. In Travancore. following the recommendations of the protestant clergy of C. abolished slavery in the kingdom in 1855. The next ruler Maharajah Utharadam Tirunal Marthanda Varma AD 1847 ±1860 . irrigation works and road ways were promoted. He became the first Indian Prince to be offered a seat in the Viceroy's Executive Council and also authored a number of books and essays. the caste restrictions were not strict. cope with and resist the relation of authority. 1875. Humane codes of law were enforced in 1861 and a college was established in 1866. and restrictions on the dress codes of certain castes in 1859.M.M. He reorganised the police force. it is notable that after the release of Vaikundar. The first systematic Census of Travancore was taken on May 18. The ritual corpus of Ayyavazhi conducted a social discourse. He also built many charity hospitals including a lunatic asylum. and abolished many oppressive taxes. he also introduced vaccination in the country.[3] So the king Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma imprisoned Vaikundar but later released him.S. Its beliefs. both socially and as well as religiously. following the Chera-Chola wars of the 11th century. the caste-based administration of the kingdom underwent a considerable change. [2] The hard tone of Vaikundar towards this was perceived as a revolution aga inst the government. the belief of Ayyavazhi apart from just being a religion. Rama VarmaVisakham Thirunal ruled from AD 1880±1885. associations. served also as a reform movement in uplifting the downtrodden section of the society. [1] In such a context. the caste system was more rigiourously enforced than in many other parts of India. during whose rule. mode of worship and religious organis ation seem to have enabled the group to negotiate. agriculture. .

The minister issued a statement in June 1947 that Travancore would never join India. She abolished animal sacrifice and replaced the matrilineal syst em of inheritance with the patrilineal one. The medical system was reorganised and Legislative Council. Ramaswami Iyer was unpopular among the general public of Travancore. to be succeeded by Sri PGN Unnithan. When Jawaharlal Nehru visited the area in the 1920s. he remarked that the education was superi or to British India. was established in 1888. When the British decided to grant independence to India. He also started the industrialisation of the state. After these events.The reign of Sri Moolam Thirunal Sir Rama Varma AD 1885±1924 saw the establishment of many colleges and schools. based on an "American model". a privilege reserved to only upper caste Hindus till then. In one such revolt in Punnapara-Vayalar in AD 1946. He made the temple entry proclamation on 12 November 1936. Postcolonial Travancore . an attempt was made on the life of Sir C. the first of its kind in an Indian state.P. This was brutally crushed by the Travancore army and navy leading to hundreds of deaths. the Maharajah agreed to join India and Travancore was absorbed into th e Indian union. Sethu Lakshmi Bayi ruled as the regent from AD 1924 ±1931. The tension between the local people. his minister Sir C. and subsequently. led by the Indian National Congress and the Communists. and Sir.P. leading to more killings. The principle of election was established and women too were allowed to vote. P. C. She ended the Devdasi system in Temples and was commended by Mahatma Gandhi for spending almost 40% of state revenue on education. most notably from Mahatma Gandhi. This act won him praise from across India. This led to further disturbances in the State. which opened all the Kshetrams (Hindu temples in Kerala) in Travancore to all Hindus. the minister declared that Travancore would remain as an independent country. Ramaswamy Iyer followin g which he resigned and fled to Madras. the Communists established their own government in the area. Ramaswamy Iyer led to revolts in various places of the country. However. The last ruler of Travancore was Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma AD 1931± 1949.

with the Maharajah of Travancore as the Rajapramukh of the new State. and that too brought here by one of the disciples of Jesus Christ .[1] He died on July 19. the Travancore Tamilnadu Congress launched a campaign for the merger of the Tamil speaking regions of Southern Travancore with the neighbouring area of Madras.D. and that of the geographical territory that comprised it before that. They are the KodungallurSynagogue[2]. 1949 A.D.. TheJewish community considers this to be the only place on earth where they were not persecuted in some way or other.Christianity reached here before it reached many of the leading europ ean 'Christian' territories. as the head of the State instead of the Maharajah. namely Tovala. appointed by the President of India. and a resolution was passed therein calling for Aikya Kerala("United Kerala").D.D. Muslims consider this land to be one of the very few places where their . Agasteeswaram. Under the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. A number of popular ministries were elected and fell and in A. Unique features When one looks at the history of Travancore since its formation. The Maharajah was stripped of all his ranks and privileges accor ding to the twenty-sixth amendment of the Indian constitution act of July 31. the four southern taluks of Travancore. On July 1. with a Governor. one is struck by some of its unique features. Thomas who is believed to have reached here in 52 AD. the St. The agitation took a violent turn and some police and many local people were killed at Marthandam and Puthukkada. 1956 A. the State of TravancoreCochin was established. the first church and the first mosque of the Indian sub-continent were set up here. The religious and social tolerance was one of the notable features. 1971 A. The firstsynagogue. 1954. Kodungallur [3] and the Cheraman Juma Masjid. The State of Kerala came into existence onNovember 1.St. 1991 A. Kalkulam and Vilavancode and a part of the Chencotta Taluk was merged with Madras state.The movement for the unification of the lands where Malayalam was spoken as the mother tongue took concrete shape at the State People's Conference held in Ernakulam in April 1928. irrepairably alienating the entire Tamil speaking population from merger into Kerala.Thomas Church.D. Kodungallur [4] respectively.

Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma 1829-1846 8. Sree Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma 1885±1924 12. the simplicity and frugality of the Rajas of Travancore are highlighted. Balarama Varma 1798-1810 5. the reigning king is said to have adopted the faith. Travancore was also characterized by the popularity of its rulers. When the kings of Travancore 'declared themselves as servants of Lord Vishnu and ruled His State according to His wishes' it was not a mere lip service. Uthram Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1846±1860 9.met with no resistance. This was so even in the context of the high handedness of some of their Dewans. Since they spent most of the State's revenue for the benefit of the public.rulers and reigns y y y y y 1. Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma 1931±1949 . Not only that. When one hears of a Raja in the north-west who consumed more than half of his State's revenues. The universality of education and the now historic temple entry permission for those considered as 'untouchable' throughout India. This was in sharp contrast with some of the North Indian Rajas. This tolerance of different faiths was equally applicable when it came to social and ideological matte rs too.messenger . The kings of Travancore. Sethu Lakshmi Bayi (Regent) 1924±1931 13. were unique to this part of the sub -continent. Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (Dharma Raja) 1758-1798 4. Kulasekhara Dynasty . Every political ideology and social reform was welcomed here. utilized only a small portion of their State's resources for their personal use. they were naturally much loved by their subjects. Gowri Parvati Bayi (Regent) 1815-1829 7. Anizham Tirunal Marthanda Varma 1729±1758 3.Malik Dinar . unlike their counter-parts in the other Native States of India. Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma 1880±1885 11. Rajah Rama Varma 1721-1729 2. Gowri Lakshmi Bayi 1810-1815 (Queen from 1810-1813 and Regent Queen from 1813-1815) y y y y y y y y 6. Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma 1860±1880 10.

see History of Travancore. Madava Row Seshayya Sastri Nanoo Pillai Ramiengar 1881-1887 T. Krishnaswamy Rao 1898-1904 V. Watts 1925-1928 C. Madhava Rao 1904-1906 P. Rajagopalachari 1906 -1914 Krishnan Nair 1914-1920 M.Dewans (Prime Ministers) of Travancore y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Ramayyan Dalawa Martanda Pillai Raja Kesavadas 1789-1798 Odiery Jayanthan Sankaran Nampoothiri 1798-1799 Velu Thampi Dalawa 1799-1809 Oommini Thampi 1809-1811 Col. Rama Rao 1887-1891 S. P.P. E. John Munroe 1811-1814 Devan Padmanabhan Menon 1814 -1814 Bappu Rao (Acting) 1814 -1815 Sanku Annavi Pillai 1815 -1815 Raman Menon 1815-1817 Reddy Rao 1817-1821 Vencatta Rao 1821-1830 Subbarao 1830Krishna Row T. Shungrasoobyer 1892-1898 K. Ramaswami Iyer 1936-1947 PGN Unnithan 1947-1947 Venad For general context. .

This kingdom was the forerunner to the modern Kingdom of Travancore established b y King Marthanda Varma who annexed many erstwhile kingdoms of Southern Kerala like Ilayidathu Swarupam (Kottarakkara). The ancient rulers of were believed to be Ay veLs (Ay =Shepherd Vel=King).( ) was one of the eighteen kingdoms of the ancient Cheran empire periodically though it was under the suzernity of Madurai Pandiyan kingdom before 880 AD when the Pandiyan power declined. Trivandrum which was established by Nedumchadaya Pandyan when he converted a Jain Temple as a Vaishnavaite temple and Consecrated Sri Padmanabha Swami Idol at 785 ad. Chempakasseri (Ambalappuzha). Paris friend the poet Kapila married the slain Ays daughters off to Thirukovilur (Kollam)prince and also built a temple for Pari at Parippalli. Vadakkumkur (Vaikkam). It is also said that Vezham in ancient Tamil was elephant so Vezha Nadu meant Elephant country . and some parts of Kochi to Venad. Kayamkulam. Philanthrophists. Desinga Nadu (Kollam). and the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu State India. Pliny in 1st century AD recorded that the Pandiyan kings representative invited him to places south of Thrissur (Kodungalloor) which was under the suzerainity of the Pandiyan king offering spices.The places Ayur (Ay). . Oyur (Oy) and Kariavattam (Kari) were named after Ay vels too.The Pandyan kings had their capital at Nelkinda (Nelcynda)(Niranam) while Thiruvattuvai Nadu(Thiruvalla)Quilon and Pandalam were minor capitals. Pandalam. Out of the last set of seven Vallals (Kadaiyezhu Vallals)three of them lived in the present day Kollam and one at Trivandrum area (100 ad). The Ay Vel rulers were Vassals under Pandyan kings. The term Venad is found earliest in the [[Tharisapalli plates]] of 892 AD which gifted lands to the Nestorian Metropolitan Mar Sapir Easo by Venad king Iyenadikal Thiruvadikal.Venad (véNAd). Origin The name veNad originates from land of Ay vel or vEL nAd . Venad included most of modern day Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram districts of Kerala State. There has been lot of manuscripts which lead to the conclusion of a land ruled by VeLs. The Sangha literature mentions about three sets of seven Vallals. Thekkumkur (Kottayam). The Sangham literature talks about the murder of Pari the ruler of Quilon.

Sangramadheeran alias Kulasekhara Ravi Varma crowned himself Tribhuvanachakravarthi ruler of Chera.The original Ayar or Yadava Clan itself believed to have mixed with the Quilo n Nairs. but destroyed other kings of Southern Kerala and expanded it to the north to include half of modern -day Kerala.a hundred years of war and loss of the imperial capital took its toll. He named it Thiruvithamkur (Travancore) after the Thiruvithamkode branch of Venad royal family from which he hailed. He defeated the Dutch in the Colachel War . Though the Cholas supported the early Later Chera kings by making the Venad kings accept the suzernity of the Imperial Mahodaya Cheras and thus started the Kerala Perumal Vazcha (900 AD to 1100 AD) after 1100s the Cholas became increasingly hostile to the Cheras.D. In the ensuing battles Cheran armies defeated the Chola using chaver (suicide squad of nair warriors) tactics. Venad beacame one of the more powerful of these successor kingdoms. Marthanda Varma rebuilt the Anandha Padmanabha Swami Temple in 1730 ad. who was in his twenties. the kings of Venad conquered most of South India. After the fall of Mahodayapuram in 1122. the founder of the royal dynasty of the Kulasekhara Empire. After 1300s the Venad rulers gradually mixed with Namboothiris and sometimes with Nairs and adopted Marumakkathayam . eclipsing the Cholan power in South India for good. At the height of its glory. defeated the Thampi sons of the King Rajah Rama Varma and Eight Nair Lords popularly called Ettuveetil Pillamar (Pillai's of the Eight Noble H ouses). the capital of the emperor was relocated to Kollam to regroup.Chola and Pandi ya kingdoms at 1312 at Kancheepuram. Though Venads Yadava (Ay Vel) kings absorbed some elements of Chera blood they succeeded in defeating Cheras when they occcupied Purak kad and Kodungaloor(1180 AD)the strongholds of Imperial Cheras. Unfortunately for Cherans -and Keralam. In the 18th century the newly crowned young prince Marthanda Varma (1706 -1758).Matrilineal descendency. Marthanda Varma not only united the kingdom.also called Kulasekhara Azhvar (the vaishnavaite saint) revived or second Cheran empire. The imperial power broke down soon after the war and all thirteen kingdoms became independent.History The Chera power was re-established in Kerala by Kulasekhara Varman about 800 A.

Thiruvithamkur or Travancore became a subsidiary of the British at the end of 18th Century. Naga hordes moved southwards and infiltrated Southern India. During the Madurai Naicker period (1550 to 1801)yearly tribute was paid by the Travancore kings which was collected by a General of the Madurai Naicker who annually visited. Some Nagas founded kingdoms in Sri Lanka which was in turn . after they became Buddhists and were pushed to the lower echelons of the society. Travancore joined the Indian Union in 1947 and later became a part of the State of Travancore -Cochin in 1949 which in turn became part of the state of Kerala when it was formed in 1956. Eyinar. an ancient Tamil work. Aru -Valur and Parathavar Maravar. During the Mabar sulthans of Madurai Travancore paid annual tribute. In the later days. the king of Devas or Aryans was a Naga. Nahusha who became Indra. But he maintained good relations with the English East India Company for tactical reasons. Villavars and Meenavars (minavar) The Kalitokai. However the Nagas. [2] The Nagas Main article: Naga people Nagas are Non Dravidians and non-Aryans and among the early inhabitants of India. the Present day Maharashtra. The Nagas though Non Aryan lived in the North India and had heavy Aryan mixture. Maravar. Chatthisgarh and Madyapradesh area was lost to the Villavars and Nagas occupied it. Oviyar. Eyinar. Nagas f ounded numerous kingdoms in the North India who were friendly with the Aryans in the ancient times. the capital Padmanabhapuram. mentions the association of the Villavars and their allies Meenavars (fishermen) who fought a fierce battle (around 500BC to 1000 BC) against 1741. Oviyar. Oliyar. Oliyar. After the defeat of Villavars and Minavars at the Central India by Nagas some clans of Nagas moved into south India and got assimilated by the Dravidians. They differed culturally from the Classical Dravidians though they might have looked dark. the proud rulers of ancient North India lost their position in the Arya n dominated areas. When the Villavars and Minavars were defeated by the Nagas in the Central India. They could be people from the Nairi or Naharin kingdom who migrated to India before thousand year BC.On India becoming independent. and remained a princely state with its own government under the Maharaja. Aru-Valur and Parathavar are believed to have Naga origins.

Until recently during the coronation of Rajput princes their foreheads had to be smeared by the blood drawn from the thumb of a Dravidian Bhil tribal to authenticate their authority. Most of the Bhil Meenavas were aryanised even during the Vedic Period (1500 BC) and were . the Nairs or Nayars found firm roots in Kerala. Soon around the 12th century the Chera dynasty came to an end when the last Chera King along with his relatives became a Muslim. The meena kingdom (Fish kingdom) was call ed Matsya Kingdom in Sanskrit was mentioned in the Rig Veda. Keralolpathi. Indo China and South Asian countries and moved as fare as Philippines while establishing numerous kingdoms. Scythian Connection of the Nagas After theSaka or Indo-Scythian people who invaded India in the second century BC some Nagas mixed with the Scythians especially at North India. Nagas seem to be more related to the Kalabhras or Kalapirars or Kalavar who invaded the Pandyan kingdom around 350 AD. Naga -Scythian tribe of Ahichatra.renamed Nagadipa. They adopted the Matriarchy. in Uttarpradesh near Nainital was invited by King Mayuravarma of the Kadamba dynasty in 345 AD along with their Brahmin overlords to settle down at Shimoga in the North Karnataka. The North Indian Villavar clans might have been assimilated by th e Rajputs. The Villavars of Kerala After the arrival of Nagas the Villavar culture who cherished Patriarchy and Monogamy was replaced by Matriarchy with Polyandry as the norm. The Meena kingdom ruled the east of the river Jamuna roughly corresponding to the modern Jaipur and Alwar (ruler) areas. They colonised Greater India . Bhil Meenas of Rajastan In the ancient times Rajasthan was ruled by a dynasty of Meenas which had the emblem of Fish like the Pandyan kingdom of the south. In the lat er periods the Nagas dominated Kerala while the Villavar tribes were pushed down to occupy a lower stratum. During the Rashtrakuta invasions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the eighth and ninth centuries the same Naga tribe. Keralamahatmiyam and Kerala Purana state the story of Naga migration from north to south in the first millennium. The North Indian Villavars Rajputs regard the Bhils though tribals one among them. The Bhil Meenas could correspond to the Dravidian Villavar (Chera) and Meenavar (Pandya Kingdom)respectively and may descend from indigenous Dravidian rulers (Alwars) originally. Polyandry and other Scythian customs.

considered as Vedic Tribes and had adopted Indo Aryan languages but a minority of the Bhil (tribal) Meenas still talk Dravidian as their mother tongue. my name is S. Meenavar caste has been spread up to eight divisions. The root of Nadar community is at Tamil Nadu. The Community:We are belongs to so called ³Other Backward Community (OBC)´. Parataraja Respected Sir Permit me to introduce myself. In the later days the Bhils and Meenas mixed with the Pardeshis or Rajputs who were Scythian. LMS of South Indian United Church is our Christian Brother hood. Chola and Pandyan kingdoms as Muvendars regard Paratas as one of their own clan.L. Mudirajus or Mutharaiyar a Kalabhra aristocracy who once ru led Chera. processing it to sweet cake and selling the stuff´.Shibu Perumal. President of OHIROS. Fate of the Meenavars Meenavars might have mixed with Parada or Paratarajas or Parvata Raja Kulam. who were ancient rulers of land and seas of Pandya kingdom. Now at the present day. Due to the influence of Christianity vast majority of Nadar community members are converted to Christian. Do you know the Nadar Community is seen only at Trivandrum District of Kerala. Bhil meenas are also found in parts of North eastern India and Sind area of Pakistan. Our traditional profession is ³toddy collection from Palmyra tree. the major tribes are Maravar and paravar(parathavar). Bhils and Meenas are included in theKshatriya Varna. an Indo-Scythian clan and got alienated from the Villavar and Nadalvar (Nadar) clans. There also we can see the most of the members are converted to Christianity. The Scythian mixed Meenas and Bhils remain as Rajput subclans while the Meenas and Bhils who were displaced by the Scythian invaders and Muslims have mixed with the tribal Bhils and form the Bhil (tribal) meenas who still talk a Dravidian tongue and still considered as Rajputs. Hepthalite or other Central Asian clans. At Kanya kumari district there are five or more MLA¶s are belongs to Nadar. Influence of ANA:- . We are the representative of HINDU NADAR Community.

once with the help of Christianity Nadar brothers can awake from ignorance and isolation. Influence of Christianity: The Christianity have a vital role at Nadar community. known as Somarval Medical College at Karakonam. Many Charismatic groups. The Nadar community is ³psychologically suppressed royal class´ they have the long tradition of administration from 2000 BC onwards at Tamilnadu and ancient Kerala I am ready to show so many records to prove it. Marthoma Church. Syrian Catholics. KNMS. There are so many educational institutions and training centers are under SIUC church group. so the influence of Christianity is remarkable.Trivandrum (Dist). At the glorious period the royal people also resort to climb Palmyra tree for collecting toddy in order to g ive ³Pooja´ to Sakthi or Deity Durga. The well known Chola Royal Dynasty of Sangham period at Tamilnadu was really ³Nadar Community´. . Kerala Hindu Nadar Samajam. Then that practice becomes a lively hood for latter period. they have even a Medical college. There are more than 20 foreign missionaries are working among Nadar community. are some of the missionaries. Church of South India etc. Hindu Nadar Corporation is the other associations at our community. Totally in South India the total community members are more t han one Million including the members of Tamil nadu by Tamil nadu census report. Ceylon Penthacostal Mission. Of which church groups CSI or SIUC is the important group. Hindu Nadar Samajam. In ³Kamba Ramayana´ there is the story of ³Chantor´ community this is the ³Channar´ community another name of Nadar Community. Traditional Job of Nadar community: Climbing Palmyra tree and collecting toddy. Latin Catholics. Roman Catholics. Penthacostal Mission.ANA (Akhilendia Nadar Association) is the one of t he important associations stands for Hindu Nadar wing of the community. But when we trace the history of Nadar community we can understand that this community is not at all so called ³backward class´ and the real traditional job of the community is not at all toddy collection. Most of the Hindu brothers are forced to converting to Christianity due to the influence of these facilities and job chances. selling it and making sweet cake from toddy are the traditional communal job of Nadar community.

2 They are known by the surname ³Perumal´ that means ³King ´ at Tamilnadu most of the Nadar members are known by the surname ³Perumal´ Meaning of the word ³Nadar´ is really ³Nade Andavar´ the meaning is ³God of the Land´. All the available Kerala History data deliberately dist orted so as not to trace the incoming Nadar generations mind to the reality that they are Royal People. From that period which is approximately 1000 yrs ago the psychological suppression of Nadar community begins. According to Manusmrithy Sudras are born from the leg finger of Brahma. Psychological Suppression of Nadar Community: The suppress of Nadar Community begin by Eight h century that means during the period of Sri Sankaracharya the Brahmin domination begins. There are so many scanned copies of evidences available in my hand which is written in old Malayalam which can not send due to unavailability of space and we will plan to upload in our web site we are going to create soon. About 150 yrs ago that means about one generation ago the suppressed Nadar do not have the right to proper dressing. The reality of collecting toddy from Palmyra is now projecting as the ³Tradition Job´ of the Nadar Community. But by the course of time with the help of Brahmin they elevated to the position of ³Savarna´ and clever fully wipe out from all the records of Kerala History their real individuality. At Sucheendram Temple. The present position of Nadar Community is among OBC (Other Backward Community). And most of the evidences are dislocated or hided by so called ³Savarna Communities´. We can not trace the reality that Nairs are the ³most backward community´ according to Hindu Mythology from any records of Kerala History. Thiruvatar Temple. At Travancore they even conduct mutony for use ³blouse´ the famous ³marumarakkal samaram´ is really the after effect of this suppression. Trivandrum there are strong evidence of link with Nadar Community and Tem ple daities. And most of the . Padmanabha Swami Temple at East Fort. Present Caste Sytem and Nadar Community:At present Caste System of Kerala designed so as to retain the Brahmin and Nair domination for ever. They are ³forward communities´ and all other co mmunities are ³backward´ According to Hindu Mythology ³Nair´ community and sub castes are really belongs to ³Sudras´ that means servants.

that is my own opinion to wipe out caste barriers. We are ready to help you. and Scheduled Caste with Nadar community we can gradually exterminate Caste System to a great extend. That means if we arrange marriages between All Backward members are unaware of the reality that they are Royal People and they familiar with the job of toddy collection. I also like to say that most of the Nadar Community members are now live in poverty and unemployment. The real motive of this Society is to liquidate all the Scheduled Caste Community members to Nadar Community by inter caste marriage with Nadar Community. It will take even generations of time to complete liquidation of all communities. Now if we can utilize the ignorance about the individuality of Nadar Community we can easily wipe out the social evil of Kerala Society. OHIROS and Nadar Community:On the light of possible chance to remove Caste System with Nadar Community we are organize a Charitable Society. That is Overseas Hindu Royal Society. Then step by step all other Backward Communities and finally so called ³Savarna Communities´. Chance of Wipe out Caste Sytem with Nadar Community: At any how this is not at all the time to say and bother about past losses and gains. . Help Desk to Inter Community Marriages: Any lower community members like intercommunity marriage with Nadar please contact at the above address or E -mail ID.

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